WorldWideScience

Sample records for purposes background information

  1. The Institute of American Indian Arts Background Information (Task One of the Transition Evaluation). Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippeconnic, John W., Jr.

    The paper, prepared as Task One of the Institute of American Indian Arts Transition Evaluation, provides pertinent background information about the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. A brief history of the Institute is given, with information about its philosophy and purpose; objectives; organization and administration; the…

  2. 15 CFR 310.1 - Background and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background and purpose. 310.1 Section 310.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT...

  3. Background information document to support NESHAPS rulemaking on nuclear power reactors. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colli, A.; Conklin, C.; Hoffmeyer, D.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this Background Information Document (BID) is to present information relevant to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) reconsideration of the need for a NESHAP to control radionuclides emitted to the air from commercial nuclear power reactors. The BID presents information on the relevant portions of the regulatory framework that NRC has implemented for nuclear power plant licensees, under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, to protect the public's health and safety. To provide context, it summarizes the rulemaking history for Subpart I. It then describes NRC's regulatory program for routine atmospheric emissions of radionuclides and evaluates the doses caused by actual airborne emissions from nuclear power plants, including releases resulting from anticipated operational occurrences

  4. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  5. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  6. Chemical Source Localization Fusing Concentration Information in the Presence of Chemical Background Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomareda, Víctor; Magrans, Rudys; Jiménez-Soto, Juan M; Martínez, Dani; Tresánchez, Marcel; Burgués, Javier; Palacín, Jordi; Marco, Santiago

    2017-04-20

    We present the estimation of a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume dispersed under atmospheric turbulence under uniform wind conditions. The main contribution of this work is to extend previous proposals based on Bayesian inference with binary detections to the use of concentration information while at the same time being robust against the presence of background chemical noise. For that, the algorithm builds a background model with robust statistics measurements to assess the posterior probability that a given chemical concentration reading comes from the background or from a source emitting at a distance with a specific release rate. In addition, our algorithm allows multiple mobile gas sensors to be used. Ten realistic simulations and ten real data experiments are used for evaluation purposes. For the simulations, we have supposed that sensors are mounted on cars which do not have among its main tasks navigating toward the source. To collect the real dataset, a special arena with induced wind is built, and an autonomous vehicle equipped with several sensors, including a photo ionization detector (PID) for sensing chemical concentration, is used. Simulation results show that our algorithm, provides a better estimation of the source location even for a low background level that benefits the performance of binary version. The improvement is clear for the synthetic data while for real data the estimation is only slightly better, probably because our exploration arena is not able to provide uniform wind conditions. Finally, an estimation of the computational cost of the algorithmic proposal is presented.

  7. Experiences with nutrition-related information during antenatal care of pregnant women of different ethnic backgrounds residing in the area of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner, Lisa M; Sverre Pettersen, Kjell; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-12-01

    to explore experiences with nutrition-related information during routine antenatal care among women of different ethnical backgrounds. individual interviews with seventeen participants were conducted twice during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis were inspired by an interpretative phenomenological approach. participants were purposively recruited at eight Mother and Child Health Centres in the area of Oslo, Norway, where they received antenatal care. participants had either immigrant backgrounds from African and Asian countries (n=12) or were ethnic Norwegian (n=5). Participants were pregnant with their first child and had a pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index above 25 kg/m(2). participants experienced that they were provided with little nutrition-related information in antenatal care. The information was perceived as presented in very general terms and focused on food safety. Weight management and the long-term prevention of diet-related chronic diseases had hardly been discussed. Participants with immigrant backgrounds appeared to be confused about information given by the midwife which was incongruent with their original food culture. The participants were actively seeking for nutrition-related information and had to navigate between various sources of information. the midwife is considered a trustworthy source of nutrition-related information. Therefore, antenatal care may have considerable potential to promote a healthy diet to pregnant women. Findings suggest that nutrition communication in antenatal care should be more tailored towards women's dietary habits and cultural background, nutritional knowledge as well as level of nutrition literacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 82.0 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Introduction § 82.0 Background information on this part. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA), 42 U.S.C...

  9. 77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... customers. By including employees of all backgrounds, all DOI employees gain a measure of knowledge... barriers in our recruitment and selection processes, DOI must track the demographic groups that apply for... need and use of the information: This information is required to obtain the source of recruitment...

  10. 21 CFR 20.64 - Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes. 20.64 Section 20.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.64 Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes. (a) Records or...

  11. Presenting and processing information in background noise: A combined speaker-listener perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstael, Annelies; Samyn, Laurie; Corthals, Paul; Botteldooren, Dick

    2018-01-01

    Transferring information orally in background noise is challenging, for both speaker and listener. Successful transfer depends on complex interaction between characteristics related to listener, speaker, task, background noise, and context. To fully assess the underlying real-life mechanisms, experimental design has to mimic this complex reality. In the current study, the effects of different types of background noise have been studied in an ecologically valid test design. Documentary-style information had to be presented by the speaker and simultaneously acquired by the listener in four conditions: quiet, unintelligible multitalker babble, fluctuating city street noise, and little varying highway noise. For both speaker and listener, the primary task was to focus on the content that had to be transferred. In addition, for the speakers, the occurrence of hesitation phenomena was assessed. The listener had to perform an additional secondary task to address listening effort. For the listener the condition with the most eventful background noise, i.e., fluctuating city street noise, appeared to be the most difficult with markedly longer duration of the secondary task. In the same fluctuating background noise, speech appeared to be less disfluent, suggesting a higher level of concentration from the speaker's side.

  12. The information content of cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Douglas; Contreras, Dagoberto; Narimani, Ali; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-06-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) contains perturbations that are close to Gaussian and isotropic. This means that its information content, in the sense of the ability to constrain cosmological models, is closely related to the number of modes probed in CMB power spectra. Rather than making forecasts for specific experimental setups, here we take a more pedagogical approach and ask how much information we can extract from the CMB if we are only limited by sample variance. We show that, compared with temperature measurements, the addition of E-mode polarization doubles the number of modes available out to a fixed maximum multipole, provided that all of the TT, TE, and EE power spectra are measured. However, the situation in terms of constraints on particular parameters is more complicated, as we explain and illustrate graphically. We also discuss the enhancements in information that can come from adding B-mode polarization and gravitational lensing. We show how well one could ever determine the basic cosmological parameters from CMB data compared with what has been achieved with Planck, which has already probed a substantial fraction of the TT information. Lastly, we look at constraints on neutrino mass as a specific example of how lensing information improves future prospects beyond the current 6-parameter model.

  13. The information content of cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Douglas; Contreras, Dagoberto; Narimani, Ali; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) contains perturbations that are close to Gaussian and isotropic. This means that its information content, in the sense of the ability to constrain cosmological models, is closely related to the number of modes probed in CMB power spectra. Rather than making forecasts for specific experimental setups, here we take a more pedagogical approach and ask how much information we can extract from the CMB if we are only limited by sample variance. We show that, compared with temperature measurements, the addition of E -mode polarization doubles the number of modes available out to a fixed maximum multipole, provided that all of the TT , TE , and EE power spectra are measured. However, the situation in terms of constraints on particular parameters is more complicated, as we explain and illustrate graphically. We also discuss the enhancements in information that can come from adding B -mode polarization and gravitational lensing. We show how well one could ever determine the basic cosmological parameters from CMB data compared with what has been achieved with Planck , which has already probed a substantial fraction of the TT information. Lastly, we look at constraints on neutrino mass as a specific example of how lensing information improves future prospects beyond the current 6-parameter model.

  14. E-mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad NAZARI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners’ writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of Oxford English Language Placement Test (OELPT the students' proficiency level seems to be nearly the same. Participants were randomly assign into two groups of experimental and control, each consisting of 25 students. After the administration of the proficiency test, all groups were assigned to write topic 1 as the pre-test. Next, the teacher involved the learners in the new instruction (treatment. During writing topics 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 experimental group’s background knowledge was activated through e-mail before writing and e-mailing topics while the control group received no background knowledge activation through e-mail. After the treatment was given to the experimental group, the students in both groups were required to write another composition about the last topic, topic 8. Again, in this phase, none of the groups received any background information. The results indicated that providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students significantly improved learners’ writing ability.

  15. 34 CFR 668.44 - Availability of employees for information dissemination purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of employees for information dissemination... information dissemination purposes. (a) Availability. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... insufficient demand for information dissemination services among its enrolled or prospective students to...

  16. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2000-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  17. Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled 'Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification' that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included

  18. 17 CFR 248.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of account... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. 248.12 Section 248.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  19. 17 CFR 160.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. 160.12 Section 160.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  20. Information sharing for consumption tax purposes : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Jenny E.

    The paper studies the determinants of information sharing between Swedish tax authorities and 14 EU tax authorities for value-added tax (VAT) purposes. It is shown that trade-related variables (such as the partner country's net trade position and population size), reciprocity, and legal arrangements

  1. 78 FR 65300 - Notice of Availability (NOA) for General Purpose Warehouse and Information Technology Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... (NOA) for General Purpose Warehouse and Information Technology Center Construction (GPW/IT)--Tracy Site... proposed action to construct a General Purpose Warehouse and Information Technology Center at Defense..., Suite 02G09, Alexandria, VA 22350- 3100. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ann Engelberger at (703) 767...

  2. [Effects of exposure frequency and background information on preferences for photographs of cars in different locations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ken; Kusumi, Takashi; Hosomi, Naohiro; Osa, Atsushi; Miike, Hidetoshi

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the influence of familiarity and novelty on the mere exposure effect while manipulating the presentation of background information. We selected presentation stimuli that integrated cars and backgrounds based on the results of pilot studies. During the exposure phase, we displayed the stimuli successively for 3 seconds, manipulating the background information (same or different backgrounds with each presentation) and exposure frequency (3, 6, and 9 times). In the judgment phase, 18 participants judged the cars in terms of preference, familiarity, and novelty on a 7-point scale. As the number of stimulus presentations increased, the preference for the cars increased during the different background condition and decreased during the same background condition. This increased preference may be due to the increase in familiarity caused by the higher exposure frequency and novelty resulting from the background changes per exposure session. The rise in preference judgments was not seen when cars and backgrounds were presented independently. Therefore, the addition of novel features to each exposure session facilitated the mere exposure effect.

  3. An analysis of the Bonn agreement. Background information for evaluating business implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    This report has been commissioned by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and written in August 2001. The aim of the report is to present and analyze the newest developments in the climate negotiations, particularly from part two of the sixth Conference of the Parties to the Climate Convention in Bonn in July 2001, and to provide background information to evaluate what the ''Bonn agreement'' means for business. The report is organized as a collection of slides with supporting text explaining the background and contents of each slide. (author)

  4. Informed consent: attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; hvidman, lone

    2006-01-01

    Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as w...

  5. Judicial decision making: order of evidence presentation and availability of background information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, J.H.; Jackson, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate both the effect of the order of presentation of defence and prosecution evidence and the prior availability of background information on assessment of guilt. Subjects were required to judge the defendant's probability of guilt either after each witness

  6. Informed Consent to Study Purpose in Randomized Clinical Trials of Antibiotics, 1991 Through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Peter; Hur, Peter; Jones, Mark; Albarmawi, Husam; Jefferson, Tom; Morgan, Daniel J; Spears, Patricia A; Powers, John H

    2017-10-01

    Potential research participants may assume that randomized trials comparing new interventions with older interventions always hypothesize greater efficacy for the new intervention, as in superiority trials. However, antibiotic trials frequently use "noninferiority" hypotheses allowing a degree of inferior efficacy deemed "clinically acceptable" compared with an older effective drug, in exchange for nonefficacy benefits (eg, decreased adverse effects). Considering these different benefit-harm trade-offs, proper informed consent necessitates supplying different information on the purposes of superiority and noninferiority trials. To determine the degree to which the study purpose is explained to potential participants in randomized clinical trials of antibiotics and the degree to which study protocols justify their selection of noninferiority hypotheses and amount of "clinically acceptable" inferiority. Cross-sectional analysis of study protocols, statistical analysis plans (SAPs), and informed consent forms (ICFs) from clinical study reports submitted to the European Medicines Agency. The ICFs were read by both methodologists and patient investigators. Protocols and SAPs were used as the reference standard to determine prespecified primary hypothesis and record rationale for selection of noninferiority hypotheses and noninferiority margins. This information was cross-referenced against ICFs to determine whether ICFs explained the study purpose. We obtained trial documents from 78 randomized trials with prespecified efficacy hypotheses (6 superiority, 72 noninferiority) for 17 antibiotics conducted between 1991 and 2011 that enrolled 39 407 patients. Fifty were included in the ICF analysis. All ICFs contained sections describing study purpose; however, none consistently conveyed study hypothesis to both methodologists and patient investigators. Methodologists found that 1 of 50 conveyed a study purpose. Patient investigators found that 11 of 50 conveyed a study

  7. 16 CFR 313.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 313.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on...

  8. 12 CFR 40.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 40.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of...

  9. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    1999-11-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published the first R and D progress report in 1992. In which the fruits of the R and D works were compiled. Since then the next step of R and D has been developing progressively in Japan. Now JNC has a plan to make the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste(HLW) will be presented to show the technical reliability and technical basis to contribute for the site selection or the safety-standard developments. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal of international discussions in 1990's, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. For getting social understanding and consensus, it is quite important to present the broad basis background information on the geological disposal of HLW, together with the technical basis and also the international discussion of the issues. In this report, the following studies have been done to help to prepare the background information for the 2nd R and D progress report, based on the recent informations and research and assessment works of last 2 years. These are, (1) As the part of general discussion, characteristics of HLW disposal and several issues to be considered for establishing the measures of the disposal of HLW were identified and analyzed from both practical and logical points of view. Those issues were the concept and image of the long term safety measures, the concept and criteria of geological disposal, and, safety assessment and performance assessment. (2) As the part of specific discussion, questions and concerns frequently raised by the non-specialists were taken up and 10 topics in relation to the geological disposal have been identified based on the discussion. Scientific and technical facts, consensus by the specialists on the issues, and international

  10. 12 CFR 216.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) Limits on Disclosures § 216.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General...

  11. 12 CFR 573.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 573.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of...

  12. 12 CFR 332.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 332.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on...

  13. [Being online without a purpose -- study of background variables of problematic internet use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prievara, Dóra Katalin; Pikó, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    These days, use of the Internet is unavoidable for the younger generations. The online world is the primary source of infomation and quick communication, and these activities can take many hours per day. The main goal of the present study was to examine the correlations among problematic internet use, social factors, stress and life satisfaction. Data collection was going online during the first semester of the year 2014 (N= 386 girls). The anonymous questionnaire contained items on perceived social support and the amount of online activites beyond sociodemographics. After descriptive statistics, factor, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were applied to detect interrelationships. According to our data, 78% of the participants spent daily at least 2 hours, 40% more than 4 hours online. Using factor analysis, four factors of online activities were identified: Social networking-surfing, News-information, Risky and Lonely game factors. Only the News-information factor was not related to the problematic internet use. Based on multiple regression analyses, we may conclude that shyness, stress, loneliness and two factors, the Social networking-surfing and the Risky factors acted as background variables for problematic internet use. As a summary we may conclude that the internet has an important role in the everyday life of the participants. In case of the direct aim of the online activities the problematic use did not appear. These activities were mostly searching for information and news. In introduction of prevention, education about the correct use of the internet may be reasonable as early as possible.

  14. Background to the workshop: purpose and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    In its report on future regulatory challenges, CNRA identified the human element as one of the most critical aspects of maintaining regulatory effectiveness, efficiency and quality of work. There is a need to preserve among the staff a collective knowledge in all relevant technical disciplines with sufficient depth to permit adequate independent assessment of safety issues. Quality organisations require well educated well trained and well motivated staff. In some countries national R and D programmes are being replaced to such a point that forming an independent regulatory position might be in jeopardy. If a significant problem occurred over the next ten years there might not be sufficient knowledge and capability to deal with it in a timely manner if the current trend continues. It is against this background that CNRA recommended this workshop should be organised to consider these human issues in relation to maintaining corporate knowledge, both within the industry and regulatory bodies. This is a complex issue as there are different circumstances in each country arising from the status of the industry and its economic and political interactions. A simple model for considering these interactions is set out in Figure 1. (author)

  15. Selective Exposure to and Acquisition of Information from Educational Television Programs as a Function of Appeal and Tempo of Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlag, Jacob J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The effect of educational television background music on selective exposure and information acquisition was studied. Background music of slow tempo, regardless of its appeal, had negligible effects on attention and information acquisition. Rhythmic, fast-tempo background music, especially when appealing, significantly reduced visual attention to…

  16. 12 CFR 716.12 - Limits on sharing of account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing of account number information... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 716.12 Limits on sharing of account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on...

  17. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  18. General Aviation in Nebraska: Nebraska SATS Project Background Paper No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell; Wachal, Jocelyn

    2000-01-01

    The Nebraska SATS project is a state-level component of NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). During the next several years the project will examine several different factors affecting SATS implementation in Nebraska. These include economic and taxation issues, public policy issues, airport planning processes, information dissemination strategies, and systemic change factors. This background paper profiles the general aviation system in Nebraska. It is written to provide information about the "context" within which SATS will be pursued. The primary focus is thus on describing and providing background information about the current situation. A secondary focus is on drawing general conclusions about the ability of the current system to incorporate the types of changes implied by SATS. First, some brief information on the U.S. aviation system is provided. The next two sections profile the current general aviation aircraft and pilot base. Nebraska's system of general aviation airports is then described. Within this section of the paper, information is provided on the different types of general aviation airports in Nebraska, airport activity levels and current infrastructure. The fourth major section of the background paper looks at Nebraska's local airport authorities. These special purpose local governments oversee the majority of the general aviation airports in the state. Among the items examined are total expenditures, capital expenditures and planning activities. Next, the paper provides background information on the Nebraska Department of Aeronautics (NDA) and recent Federal funding for general aviation in Nebraska. The final section presents summary conclusions.

  19. Information Resources; A Searcher's Manual. MOREL Regional Information System for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, George; Doyle, James

    This document is one of a series describing the background, functions, and utilization of the Regional Information System (RIS) developed by the Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Laboratory (MOREL). The purpose of this manual is to detail a procedure for performing a productive search of information resources which can satisfy the informational…

  20. Natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface -- essential information for environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchid, M.; Grasty, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental impact study is basically a study of change. This change is compared to the preexisting conditions that are usually perceived to be the original one or the 'pristine' stage. Unfortunately reliable information on the 'so called' pristine stage is far from adequate. One of the essential parts of this information is a good knowledge of the earth's chemical make up, or its geochemistry. Presently available data on the geochemistry of the earth's surface, including those related to radioactive elements, are incomplete and inconsistent. The main reason why a number of regulations are judged to be too strict and disproportional to the risks that might be caused by some human activities, is the lack of reliable information on the natural global geochemical background on which environmental regulations should be based. The main objective of this paper is to present a view on the need for complete baseline information on the earth's surface environment and in particular its geochemical character. It is only through the availability of complete information, including reliable baseline information on the natural radioactivity, that an appropriate study on the potential effect of the various naturally occurring elements on human health be carried out. Presented here are a number of examples where the natural radioactivity of an entire country has been mapped, or is in progress. Also described are the ways these undertakings were accomplished. There is a general misconception that elevated radioactivity can be found only around uranium mines, nuclear power reactors and similar nuclear installations. As can be seen from some of these maps, the natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface closely reflects the underlying geological formations and their alteration products. In reality, properly regulated and managed facilities, the levels of radioactivity associated with many of these facilities are generally quite low relative to those associated with

  1. E-Mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…

  2. Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

    1992-10-01

    The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information

  3. 77 FR 38582 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms AGENCY: International Trade Administration. ACTION..., 0625-0237, and 0625-0238. These collections include all client intake, events/activities and export... Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms, previously titled Export Information Services Order Forms, are...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix II to Part 27 - Information for Government Monitoring Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... II Appendix II to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Monitoring Purposes The following language is approved by the Comptroller of the Currency and will satisfy... used separately. This information may also be provided orally by the applicant. The following...

  5. The basics of IT audit purposes, processes, and practical information

    CERN Document Server

    Gantz, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    The Basics of IT Audit: Purposes, Processes, and Practical Information provides you with a thorough, yet concise overview of IT auditing. Packed with specific examples, this book gives insight into the auditing process and explains regulations and standards such as the ISO-27000, series program, CoBIT, ITIL, Sarbanes-Oxley, and HIPPA. IT auditing occurs in some form in virtually every organization, private or public, large or small. The large number and wide variety of laws, regulations, policies, and industry standards that call for IT auditing make it hard for organizations to consistent

  6. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to establish policies and procedures implementing the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Brady Act), Public... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer, licensed...

  7. Italian: Area Background Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  8. Assessment of efficiency of functioning the infocommunication systems a special purpose in the conditions of violation quality of relevance information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinov, A. V.; Korotkikh, L. P.; Desyatov, D. B.; Stepanov, L. V.

    2018-03-01

    The uniqueness of information processing mechanisms in special-purpose infocommunication systems and the increased interest of intruders lead to an increase in the relevance of the problems associated with their protection. The paper considers the issues of building risk-models for the violation of the relevance and value of information in infocommunication systems for special purposes. Also, special attention is paid to the connection between the qualities of relevance and the value of information obtained as a result of the operation of infocommunication systems for special purposes. Analytical expressions for the risk and damage function in the time range in special-purpose infocommunication systems are obtained, which can serve as a mathematical basis for risk assessment. Further, an analytical expression is obtained to assess the chance of obtaining up-to-date information in the operation of infocommunication systems up to the time the information quality is violated. An analytical expression for estimating the chance can be used to calculate the effectiveness of a special-purpose infocommunication system.

  9. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-01-01

    of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies......The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers...... in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount...

  10. A monitored retrievable storage facility: Technical background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The US government is seeking a site for a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). Employing proven technologies used in this country and abroad, the MRS will be an integral part of the federal system for safe and permanent disposal of the nation's high-level radioactive wastes. The MRS will accept shipments of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants, temporarily store the spent fuel above ground, and stage shipments of it to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. The law authorizing the MRS provides an opportunity for a state or an Indian tribe to volunteer to host the MRS. The law establishes the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator, who is to seek a state or an Indian tribe willing to host an MRS at a technically-qualified site on reasonable terms, and is to negotiate a proposed agreement specifying the terms and conditions under which the MRS would be developed and operated at that site. This agreement can ensure that the MRS is acceptable to -- and benefits -- the host community. The proposed agreement must be submitted to Congress and enacted into law to become effective. This technical background information presents an overview of various aspects of a monitored retrievable storage facility, including the process by which it will be developed

  11. Use of Web Search Engines and Personalisation in Information Searching for Educational Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Sara; Du, Jia Tina; Ashman, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Students increasingly depend on Web search for educational purposes. This causes concerns among education providers as some evidence indicates that in higher education, the disadvantages of Web search and personalised information are not justified by the benefits. Method: One hundred and twenty university students were surveyed about…

  12. Background radiation map of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsuwathana, P.; Chotikanatis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The radioelement concentration in the natural environment as well as the radiation exposure to man in day-to-day life is now the most interesting topic. The natural radiation is frequently referred as a standard for comparing additional sources of man-made radiation such as atomic weapon fallout, nuclear power generation, radioactive waste disposal, etc. The Department of Mineral Resources commenced a five-year project of nationwide airborne geophysical survey by awarding to Kenting Earth Sciences International Limited in 1984. The original purpose of survey was to support mineral exploration and geological mapping. Subsequently, the data quantity has been proved to be suitable for natural radiation information. In 1993 the Department of Mineral Resources, with the assistance of IAEA, published a Background Radiation Map of Thailand at the scale of 1:1,000,000 from the existing airborne radiometric digital data. The production of Background Radiation Map of Thailand is the result of data compilation and correction procedure developed over the Canadian Shield. This end product will be used as a base map in environmental application not only for Thailand but also Southeast Asia region. (author)

  13. Background information to the installers guide for small scale mains connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report contains background information used by BRE, EA Technology, Halcrows and Sundog when compiling guidance for the UK's New and Renewable Energy Programme on the installation of small-scale photovoltaics (PV) in buildings. The report considers: relevant standards; general safety issues; fire and safety issues, including the fire resistance of PV modules; PV module ratings such as maximum voltage and maximum current; DC cabling; the DC disconnect; the DC junction box; fault analysis; general and AC side earthing; DC earthing; lightning and surge suppression; inverters; AC modules; AC systems; getting connection; mounting options; and installation issues.

  14. The background and theory of integrated risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, John L.

    1995-01-01

    While all good managers have always considered risk in their decision making, only recently have formal programs to do so been introduced. This report covers the logical structure behind the formulation of an integrated risk management plan (IRM). Included in the report are factors forcing the development of a formal plan to consider risk, the basic objective or purpose of an IRM, and desirable traits of such a plan. The report moves on to a discussion of background issues, seeks to formalize some definitions, and then discusses required information on threats. The report concludes with the steps for an IRM.

  15. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  16. BWR water chemistry guidelines and PWR primary water chemistry guidelines in Japan – Purpose and technical background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hirotaka, E-mail: kawamuh@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Hirano, Hideo [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Katsumura, Yousuke [University of Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, Shunsuke [Tohoku University (Japan); Mizuno, Takayuki [Mie University (Japan); Kitajima, Hideaki; Tsuzuki, Yasuo [Japan Nuclear Safety Institute (Japan); Terachi, Takumi [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc. (Japan); Nagase, Makoto; Usui, Naoshi [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. (Japan); Takagi, Junichi; Urata, Hidehiro [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Shoda, Yasuhiko; Nishimura, Takao [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Ltd. (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Framework of BWR/PWR water chemistry Guidelines in Japan are presented. • Guideline necessity, definitions, philosophy and technical background are mentioned. • Some guideline settings for control parameters and recommendations are explaines. • Chemistry strategy is also mentioned. - Abstract: After 40 years of light water reactor (LWR) operations in Japan, the sustainable development of water chemistry technologies has aimed to ensure the highest coolant system component integrity and fuel reliability performance for maintaining LWRs in the world; additionally, it aimed to achieve an excellent dose rate reduction. Although reasonable control and diagnostic parameters are utilized by each boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) owner, it is recognized that specific values are not shared among everyone involved. To ensure the reliability of BWR and PWR operation and maintenance, relevant members of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) decided to establish guidelines for water chemistry. The Japanese BWR and PWR water chemistry guidelines provide strategies to improve material and fuel reliability performance as well as to reduce dosing rates. The guidelines also provide reasonable “control values”, “diagnostic values” and “action levels” for multiple parameters, and they stipulate responses when these levels are exceeded. Specifically, “conditioning parameters” are adopted in the Japanese PWR primary water chemistry guidelines. Good practices for operational conditions are also discussed with reference to long-term experience. This paper presents the purpose, technical background and framework of the preliminary water chemistry guidelines for Japanese BWRs and PWRs. It is expected that the guidelines will be helpful as an introduction to achieve safety and reliability during operations.

  17. Background Information on Crimes against Children Study. Information Memorandum 86-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Shaun

    This document was prepared to assist the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Crimes Against Children in its study of current laws relating to crimes against children. It provides the background of the origin of the study and describes the characteristics of the Criminal Code, upon which much of the committee review will center.…

  18. Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.

    1983-08-01

    This report contains background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations. It was developed as part of an environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakeven conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. This report is the principal reference upon which an environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based

  19. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies that provide traceability.

  20. How College Students Search the Internet for Weight Control and Weight Management Information: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkowski, Valerie; Branscum, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have attempted to examine how young adults search for health information on the Internet, especially information related to weight control and weight management. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine search strategies that college students used for finding information related to weight control and weight…

  1. Gamma-Ray Background Variability in Mobile Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, Timothy John

    Gamma-ray background radiation significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, such as in wide-area searches for homeland security applications. Mobile detector systems in particular must contend with a variable background that is not necessarily known or even measurable a priori. This work will present measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of the background, with the goal of merging gamma-ray detection, spectroscopy, and imaging with contextual information--a "nuclear street view" of the ubiquitous background radiation. The gamma-ray background originates from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. The dominant sources in the field are the primordial isotopes potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232, as well as their decay daughters. In addition to the natural background, many artificially-created isotopes are used for industrial or medical purposes, and contamination from fission products can be found in many environments. Regardless of origin, these backgrounds will reduce detection sensitivity by adding both statistical as well as systematic uncertainty. In particular, large detector arrays will be limited by the systematic uncertainty in the background and will suffer from a high rate of false alarms. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the gamma-ray background and its variability in order to improve detection sensitivity and evaluate the performance of mobile detectors in the field. Large quantities of data are measured in order to study their performance at very low false alarm rates. Two different approaches, spectroscopy and imaging, are compared in a controlled study in the presence of this measured background. Furthermore, there is additional information that can be gained by correlating the gamma-ray data with contextual data streams (such as cameras and global positioning systems) in order to reduce the variability in the background

  2. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail

  3. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  4. Background information on a multimedia nitrogen emission reduction strategy; Hintergrundpapier zu einer multimedialen Stickstoffemissionsminderungsstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geupel; Jering; Frey (and others)

    2009-04-15

    The background information report on a multimedia nitrogen reduction strategy covers the following chapters: 1. Introduction: the nitrogen cascade and the anthropogenic influence, environmental impact of increased nitrogen emissions and effects on human health. 2. Sources and balancing of anthropogenic nitrogen emissions in Germany. 3. Environmental quality targets, activity goals of environmental measures and instruments of an integrated nitrogen reduction strategy. 4. Conclusions and perspectives. The attachments include emission sources, nitrogen release and nitrogen transport in Germany; catalogue of measures and instruments according the criteria efficiency and cost-efficacy.

  5. Monitor Clean and Efficient. Background information. Methods and references as applied in the Monitor in April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, J.; De Ligt, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains background information about the Monitor Clean and Efficient that was published in April 2009. The goal and approach of the Monitor are clarified, as well as the methods and data that are used. The structure of this report resembles the structure of the Monitor. Sources and dates of availability are mentioned along with the data, as are the parties collecting and processing the information. The results that were found using this methodology have been published in the Monitor Clean and Efficient. [nl

  6. Purpose and Meaning, Ethnic Identity, and

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and meaning are primary facets of eudaimonic well-being, yet are understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in purpose and meaning, links with psychological and academic adjustment, links with ethnic identity, and the mediating role of purpose and meaning in associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences in purpos...

  7. 16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1404.2 Section 1404.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. Based on available fire incident information, engineering analysis of the probable...

  8. Ecological audits under EC regulations: background and impact in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, T.

    1995-01-01

    There are publications discussing the practical aspects of the implementation of the EC Directive on ecological audits, but little has been published yet on the theoretical background of the directive. The contribution in hand is intended to elucidate the theoretical basis of this instrument in the context of the system of law, explains the term of ''sustainable development'' as a key term, and reveals problems encountered in the evaluation of environmental performance. This information will contribute to a better understanding of the meaning and purposes of the EC Directive, and will thus point out ways and means for direct implementation. (orig.) [de

  9. 20 CFR 402.175 - Fees for providing information and related services for non-program purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rendered. (d) Fee for copies of printed materials. When extra copies of printed material are available, the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees for providing information and related services for non-program purposes. 402.175 Section 402.175 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY...

  10. Influence of User Ratings, Expert Ratings and Purposes of Information Use on the Credibility Judgments of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sook; Steffel, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined whether user ratings, expert ratings and the purpose of the use of a book on a user-generated site influenced the credibility of the book. It also examined whether the effects of user ratings and expert ratings on credibility judgments of the book varied according to the purpose of information use. In addition,…

  11. The Usage of Social Networking Sites by Medical Students for Educational Purposes: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Guraya, Salman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Online social networking sites (SNSs) (e.g., Facebook, MySpace, Flickr, Twitter and YouTube) have emerged as rapidly growing mechanisms to exchange personal and professional information among university students. This research aims to determine the medical students′ extent of usage of SNSs for educational purposes. Materials and Methods: Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane library, and Exc...

  12. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI): Assessing index patients' knowledge, motivation and self-efficacy regarding the disclosure of hereditary cancer risk information to relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.; Aalfs, C.M.; Menko, F.H.; Sijmons, R.H.; Verdam, M.G.E.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. Purpose: This study aims to develop and test the

  13. Modeling the Thermal Signature of Natural Backgrounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gamborg, Marius

    2002-01-01

    Two measuring stations have been established the purpose being to collect comprehensive databases of thermal signatures of background elements in addition to the prevailing meteorological conditions...

  14. Computational experiment for the purpose of determining the probabilistic and temporal characteristics of information security systems against unauthorized access in automated information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the method of experimental estimation of parameters of functioning of standard information protection systems from unauthorized access, certified, widely used in organizations operating automated information systems. In the course of the experiment, statistical data were evaluated in the dynamics of the functioning of information security systems against unauthorized access in automated information systems. Registration of the parameters for the execution time of protective protection functions was carried out using a special utility called ProcessMonitor from the Sysinternals suite of utilities used to filter processes and threads. The loading of the processor and main memory of the computer with the use of special software, specially designed for performing experimental research, simulates the operation of GIS in real-world work for its intended purpose. A special software for simulating the work of a system with high load is developed in "VisualStudio 2015" within the framework of "ConsoleApplication". At the same time, the processor is loaded at a level of 50-70% and 60-80% of the operative memory. The obtained values of the time of implementation of protective functions in conditions of high utilization of resources of computer facilities for their intended purpose will allow us to assess the conflict and dynamic properties of the GIS. In the future, the obtained experimental estimates can be used to develop a model of information security in automated information systems, as well as in the formation of quality requirements (resource intensity, response time to the user's request, availability, etc.. Also, the results of the computational experiment in the future can be used to develop a software package for assessing the dynamic performance of information security systems against unauthorized access in automated information systems

  15. Internal background build-up measurements in CaF2:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasybrahmanyam, V.; Measures, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some problems associated with the internal background build-up (IBB) of CaF 2 :Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters are reported. As a result of an investigation of batches of the EG and G model 15 dosimeter it is considered that measurements using this type of dosimeter are accurate and reproducible once the IBB has been determined. However, the use of the Manufacturer's claimed average of 0.064 mR/day can lead to erroneous results when determining environmental background dose rates. The authors therefore urge a rigid quality control program by the manufacturer and suggest that purchasers should be supplied with IBB information of each batch of dosimeters. Meanwhile each user should be aware of the IBB problem and be extremely cautious when using these dosimeters for environmental monitoring purposes. (U.K.)

  16. 20 CFR 401.155 - Law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement purposes. 401.155 Section 401... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.155 Law enforcement purposes. (a) General. The Privacy Act allows us to disclose information for law enforcement purposes under certain...

  17. Moving object detection using background subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Soharab Hossain; Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents a comprehensive survey of the existing methodologies of background subtraction methods. It presents a framework for quantitative performance evaluation of different approaches and summarizes the public databases available for research purposes. This well-known methodology has applications in moving object detection from video captured with a stationery camera, separating foreground and background objects and object classification and recognition. The authors identify common challenges faced by researchers including gradual or sudden illumination change, dynamic bac

  18. Background information on the SSC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning

  19. Environmental Information Document: L-reactor reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. The purpose of the restart of L Reactor is to increase the production of nuclear weapons materials, such as plutonium and tritium, to meet projected needs in the nuclear weapons program

  20. Environmental Information Document: L-reactor reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. (comp.)

    1982-04-01

    Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. The purpose of the restart of L Reactor is to increase the production of nuclear weapons materials, such as plutonium and tritium, to meet projected needs in the nuclear weapons program.

  1. LEARNING MATERIALS SELECTION FOR DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION OF ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES OF FUTURE PROFESSIONALS IN THE FIELD OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Synekop

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of differentiation the learning materials selection will optimize the training English for Specific Purposes of the future professionals in the field of information technology at university level. The purpose of the article is to define the basic unit of learning material, the factors of influence on the learning material selection, principles, criteria and the procedure of learning material selection in this paper. Reviewing the scientific achievements in the learning material selection in teaching English has become a basis for defining the factors of influence, principles and criteria in the research. The basic unit of learning material (learning English text for professional purposes is outlined. The factors of influence and principles (correspondence of learning materials to professional interests and needs of information technology students; necessary ability and accessibility; regarding the linguistic and stylistic necessity and sufficiency; availability of Internet sources information of the learning material selection are defined. Also, the qualitative criteria (authenticity; professional significance, relevance and informativeness; conformity of foreign language level and intellectual development of students; variety of genres and forms of speech, their sufficient filling by linguistic material; coherence, integrity, consistency, semantic completeness; topic conformity; situation conformity; unlimited access, reliability and exemplarity of Internet sources and the quantitative criteria (the amount of material of the learning material selection are highlighted. The process of English for Specific Purposes material selection (defining the disciplines of different cycles; defining spheres and related topics; outlining situations, communicative roles and intentions of professional communication; specifying the sources of selection; evaluating the texts; analysis of the knowledge, skills and sub-skills required for the

  2. Resonances and background: A decomposition of scattering information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, E.; Braendas, E.; Rittby, M.; Elander, N.

    1988-01-01

    An analytic representation of the full Green's function including bound states, resonances, and remaining contributions has been obtained for a class of dilatation analytic potentials, including the superimposed Coulomb potential. It is demonstrated how to obtain the locations and residues of the poles of the Green's function as well as the associated generalized spectral density. For a model potential which has a barrier and decreases exponentially at infinity we have found a certain deflation property of the generalized spectral density. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is suggested. This constitutes the motivation for an approximation that explicitly shows a decomposition of the (real) continuum, corresponding to scattering data, into resonances and background contributions. The present representation is also shown to incorporate the appropriate pole-background interferences. Numerical residue strings are computed and analyzed. Results for the Coulomb potential plus the above-mentioned model potential are reported and compared with the previous non-Coulomb case. A similar deflation effect is seen to occur, as well as basically the same pole- and residue-string behavior. The relevance of the present analysis in relation to recently planned experiments with electron-cooled beams of highly charged ions is briefly discussed

  3. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 238 U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 μR/h, with an US average of 8.5 μR/h. The nationwide average concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 238 U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively

  4. Energy futures project : backgrounder for consultation sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.

    2006-05-01

    The National Energy Board periodically publishes a long-term energy and demand report as part of an ongoing monitoring program. The next report is planned for release in 2007. This background document provided background information to ensure that consultation participants have a common understanding of key issues to be addressed during the cross-country consultations that have been planned before the release of the final version of the report. An outline of the proposed analytical approach was presented, as well as details of major assumptions and scenario storylines. Scenario themes included: economic, energy and environmental sustainability; a security-focused world shaped by war and civil strife; and strong global economic growth fueled by the rapid growth of the Chinese and Indian economies. A methodology overview was provided as well as a reference case. Issues related to energy supply included oil; natural gas liquids; natural gas; and electricity. Issues related to energy demand included the residential sector; the commercial sector; the industrial sector; and the transportation sector. Historical trends and forecasts were outlined using the macroeconomic variable of interest. Supply, demand, and supporting infrastructure across all energy forms within a North American and global context were considered. The impact of environmental management strategies were reviewed, as well as the role of the government in shaping policies. It was concluded that the purpose of the final report is to serve as a standard of references for parties interested in Canadian energy issues and trends as well as to inform decision makers of key risks and uncertainties facing the energy future.9 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Increasing Power by Sharing Information from Genetic Background and Treatment in Clustering of Gene Expression Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Zaki Alrashid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of gene expression time series gives insight into which genes may be co-regulated, allowing us to discern the activity of pathways in a given microarray experiment. Of particular interest is how a given group of genes varies with different conditions or genetic background. This paper develops
a new clustering method that allows each cluster to be parameterised according to whether the behaviour of the genes across conditions is correlated or anti-correlated. By specifying correlation between such genes,more information is gain within the cluster about how the genes interrelate. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that kills the motor neurons and results in death within 2 to 3 years from the symptom onset. Speed of progression for different patients are heterogeneous with significant variability. The SOD1G93A transgenic mice from different backgrounds (129Sv and C57 showed consistent phenotypic differences for disease progression. A hierarchy of Gaussian isused processes to model condition-specific and gene-specific temporal co-variances. This study demonstrated about finding some significant gene expression profiles and clusters of associated or co-regulated gene expressions together from four groups of data (SOD1G93A and Ntg from 129Sv and C57 backgrounds. Our study shows the effectiveness of sharing information between replicates and different model conditions when modelling gene expression time series. Further gene enrichment score analysis and ontology pathway analysis of some specified clusters for a particular group may lead toward identifying features underlying the differential speed of disease progression.

  6. Pricing Power of Agricultural Products under the Background of Small Peasant Management and Information Asymmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexuan LI

    2016-01-01

    From the background of small peasant management and information asymmetry,this paper introduced the middle profit sharing model and discussed influence factors and ownership of pricing power of agricultural products. It obtained following results:( i) the transaction scale has positive effect on farmer’s pricing power of agricultural products,while the competitor’s transaction scale has negative effect on it,so does the cost for information search;( ii) under the condition of small peasant management system,farmer is in a relatively weak position in the distribution of pricing power of agricultural products,due to factors such as small transaction scale,information asymmetry and farmer’s weak negotiation ability;( iii) through cooperative game,farmer and buyers can share cooperative surplus at the agreed ratio;( iv) the introduction of self-organizing specialized farmers cooperatives is favorable for solving the problem of pricing power of agricultural products,and possible problems,such as " collective action dilemma" and " fake cooperatives" in the cooperative development process can be solved by internal and external division of labor and specialization of cooperatives.

  7. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  8. Purpose Restrictions on Information Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    outcomes can be probabilistic since the network does not know what ad will be best for each visitor but does have statistical information about various...beliefs as such beliefs are a sufficient statistic . Thus, the agent need only consider for each possible belief β it can have, what action it would...access control. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Australasian Database Conference (2007), Australian Computer Society, Inc., pp. 23–32. [3] Baker, C. L

  9. 12 CFR 41.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING General Provisions § 41.1 Purpose. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this part is to establish standards for national banks regarding consumer report information. In addition, the purpose of this part is to specify the extent to which...

  10. Opportunities for renewable biomass in the Dutch province of Zeeland. Background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Buck, A.; Croezen, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Dutch province of Zeeland is organizing three bio-debates to map economically attractive and renewable biomass opportunities. Participants included industrial businesses, ZLTO, ZMF, Zeeland Seaports, Impuls Zeeland, Hogeschool Zeeland and the University of Ghent. CE Delft is organizing the debates and provides the expertise in this field. In the first debate (Goes, 22 January 2009) the main lines for deployment of biomass in Zeeland were established. One of the conclusions was that there are opportunities for existing industry to implement new technology for large-scale use of (imported) biomass. As for agriculture, there may be opportunities for high-quality chemicals from agricultural crops. Agriculture and industry have opportunities in the short term for better and more high-quality utilization of existing residual flows of biomass. The second and third debate should address concrete opportunities for the industry and agriculture in Zeeland. This report is background information to support the debates. [nl

  11. General Music Teachers' Backgrounds and Multicultural Repertoire Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how teachers' backgrounds could contribute to their decisions to include music from diverse cultures. Analysis of interviews with three general music teachers indicated that their music training and experiences, ethnic backgrounds, and years of teaching experience may have influenced their…

  12. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed

  13. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gensheng [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  14. Background Characteristics as Predictors of Greek Teachers' Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkolia, Aikaterini; Dimitrios, Belias A.; Koustelios, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between elementary and secondary teachers' background characteristics and constructs of self-efficacy, using the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale--TSES, during a difficult economic period for Greece and other European countries. Design/methodology/approach Equation modeling…

  15. Adolescent Health Literacy: The Importance of Credible Sources for Online Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…

  16. Real-Time Adaptive Foreground/Background Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridha Sridharan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The automatic analysis of digital video scenes often requires the segmentation of moving objects from a static background. Historically, algorithms developed for this purpose have been restricted to small frame sizes, low frame rates, or offline processing. The simplest approach involves subtracting the current frame from the known background. However, as the background is rarely known beforehand, the key is how to learn and model it. This paper proposes a new algorithm that represents each pixel in the frame by a group of clusters. The clusters are sorted in order of the likelihood that they model the background and are adapted to deal with background and lighting variations. Incoming pixels are matched against the corresponding cluster group and are classified according to whether the matching cluster is considered part of the background. The algorithm has been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated against three other well-known techniques. It demonstrated equal or better segmentation and proved capable of processing 320×240 PAL video at full frame rate using only 35%–40% of a 1.8 GHz Pentium 4 computer.

  17. Information Technology in Facilities Management - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art of research in Information Technology (IT) in Facilities Management (FM). Background : Initial studies indicate that investments into IT in FM often do not add the expected value, neither to the FM department itself nor...

  18. 16 CFR 314.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relationship, or pertains to the customers of other financial institutions that have provided such information... SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.1 Purpose and scope. (a) Purpose. This part, which implements sections..., confidentiality, and integrity of customer information. (b) Scope. This part applies to the handling of customer...

  19. Knowledge management, health information technology and nurses' work engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Ligthart, P.E.M.; Schouteten, R.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge management (KM) extends the health information technology (HIT) literature by addressing its impact on creating knowledge by sharing and using the knowledge of health care professionals in hospitals. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to provide insight into how HIT affects

  20. 14 CFR 1201.101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Introduction § 1201.101 Purpose. It is the purpose of the National Aeronautics and Space... activities peculiar to or primarily associated with the development of weapons systems, military operations...

  1. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient...

  2. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Misao [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics,Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tomsk State Pedagogical University,634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yeom, Dong-han [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics,Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-24

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  3. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  4. Description of background data in the SKB database GEOTAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, E.; Sehlstedt, S.

    1989-02-01

    During the research and development program performed by SKB for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, a large quantity of geoscientific data was collected. Most of this data was stored in a database called GEOTAB. This report describes data within the background data group. This data provides information on the location of areas studied, borehole positions and also some drilling information. The background data group (subject), called BGR, is divided into several subgroups (methods): BGAREA area background data; BGDRILL drilling information; BGDRILLP drill penetration data; BGHOLE borehole information; BGTABLES number of rows in a table, and BGTOLR data table tolerance. A method consists of one or several data tables. In each chapter a method and its data tables are described. (orig./HP)

  5. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  6. 29 CFR 215.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 215.1 Section 215.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.1 Purpose. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide information concerning the...

  7. 30 CFR 210.154 - What documents or other information must I submit for Federal oil valuation purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... express mail addressed to Minerals Management Service, P.O. Box 25165, MS 392B2, Denver, Colorado 80217... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What documents or other information must I submit for Federal oil valuation purposes? 210.154 Section 210.154 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT...

  8. A probabilistic cell model in background corrected image sequences for single cell analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fieguth Paul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods of manual cell localization and outlining are so onerous that automated tracking methods would seem mandatory for handling huge image sequences, nevertheless manual tracking is, astonishingly, still widely practiced in areas such as cell biology which are outside the influence of most image processing research. The goal of our research is to address this gap by developing automated methods of cell tracking, localization, and segmentation. Since even an optimal frame-to-frame association method cannot compensate and recover from poor detection, it is clear that the quality of cell tracking depends on the quality of cell detection within each frame. Methods Cell detection performs poorly where the background is not uniform and includes temporal illumination variations, spatial non-uniformities, and stationary objects such as well boundaries (which confine the cells under study. To improve cell detection, the signal to noise ratio of the input image can be increased via accurate background estimation. In this paper we investigate background estimation, for the purpose of cell detection. We propose a cell model and a method for background estimation, driven by the proposed cell model, such that well structure can be identified, and explicitly rejected, when estimating the background. Results The resulting background-removed images have fewer artifacts and allow cells to be localized and detected more reliably. The experimental results generated by applying the proposed method to different Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC image sequences are quite promising. Conclusion The understanding of cell behavior relies on precise information about the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of cells. Such information may play a key role in disease research and regenerative medicine, so automated methods for observation and measurement of cells from microscopic images are in high demand. The proposed method in this paper is capable

  9. Current Perspectives in Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Litzler, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    Interest in Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP)courses has grown in recent years (Harding, 2007). For this reason a paper on the current situation in the field is of relevance. The present article provides a discussion of English for Specific Purposes and it does so by reviewing the history and background of this area of teaching, proposing a…

  10. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  11. Thermalization of mutual information in hyperscaling violating backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhayi, M. Reza [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science,Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB),P.O. Box 14676-86831, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2015)165 to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description of entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We show that during the thermalization process, the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior of mutual information (e.g., at the pre-local-equilibration regime). It is shown that the scaling violating parameter can be employed to define an effective dimension.

  12. INTEGRATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING RUSSIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey S. Chromov; Nadezda A. Gulayeva; Irina S. Zelenetskaya

    2015-01-01

    The paper is untended to draw attention to information communication technologiesin teaching Russian as a foreign language for special purposes at level B 2. In thisregard the educational process of teaching Russian as a foreign language is examinedfor promoting quality improvement in the process of ELT.Technology-enhances language learning(TELL) is described through computer-assisted language learning(CALL)-presentations, webinars, videolectures. The authors share their experience obtained d...

  13. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2004-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  14. 16 CFR 680.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.1...) regulates the use, for marketing solicitation purposes, of consumer information provided by persons... Federal Trade Commission has jurisdiction that uses information from its affiliates for the purpose of...

  15. 15 CFR 990.50 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.50 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide... that information to determine the need for and scale of restoration actions (restoration selection). ...

  16. 47 CFR 400.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 400.1 Section 400.1 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, AND NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION E-911 GRANT PROGRAM § 400.1 Purpose. This part...

  17. 12 CFR 1730.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND SOUNDNESS DISCLOSURE OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION § 1730.1 Purpose. (a) The purpose of this part is to require the Enterprises to prepare and submit financial and other disclosures as specified... soundness mandate to regulate the Enterprises, including conducting examinations, requiring reports and...

  18. General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday 27 August, the IT Department’s Communication Systems group will perform a major reorganisation of CERN’s General Purpose Network.   This reorganisation will cause network interruptions on Saturday 27 August (and possibly Sunday 28 August) and will be followed by a change to the IP addresses of connected systems that will come into effect on Monday 3 October. For further details and information about the actions you may need to take, please see: https://information-technology.web.cern.ch/news/general-purpose-office-network-reorganisation.

  19. Information in medical treatment courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marianne; Hollnagel, Erik; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    Background Unintended events and suboptimal treatment with medicines are major burdens for patients and health systems all over the world. Information processes have important roles for establishing safe and effective treatment courses. The platform for this Ph.d. study is learning from situations...... to the quality of medical treatment courses. Methods Systems theory, cybernetics (steering, timing and feedback) and a classic communication model are applied as theoretical frames. Two groups of patients and their information providers are studied using qualitative methods. The data analysis focuses...... that goes well (Safety-II) while having a broad understanding of quality. Objectives The overall purpose is to investigate how information is used as a steering tool for quality in medical treatment courses. In this first part of the study, the role of information on medicine is analyzed in relation...

  20. The importance of purpose: moving beyond consent in the societal use of personal health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, David; Mitra, Nandita; Shah, Anand; Wan, Fei; Asch, David A

    2014-12-16

    Adoption of electronic health record systems has increased the availability of patient-level electronic health information. To examine public support for secondary uses of electronic health information under different consent arrangements. National experimental survey to examine perceptions of uses of electronic health information according to patient consent (obtained vs. not obtained), use (research vs. marketing), and framing of the findings (abstract description without results vs. specific results). Nationally representative survey. 3064 African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white persons (response rate, 65%). Appropriateness of health information use described in vignettes on a scale of 1 (not at all appropriate) to 10 (very appropriate). Mean ratings ranged from a low of 3.81 for a marketing use when consent was not obtained and specific results were presented to a high of 7.06 for a research use when consent was obtained and specific results were presented. Participants rated scenarios in which consent was obtained as more appropriate than when consent was not obtained (difference, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.69 to 1.34]; Pmarketing as less appropriate than when the use was research (difference, -2.03 [CI, -2.27 to -1.78]; Pmarketing uses (5.65 vs. 4.52; difference, 1.13 [CI, 0.87 to 1.39]). Participants rated hypothetical scenarios. Results could be vulnerable to nonresponse bias despite the high response rate. Although approaches to health information sharing emphasize consent, public opinion also emphasizes purpose, which suggests a need to focus more attention on the social value of information use. National Human Genome Research Institute.

  1. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... 3090-0287, Background Investigations for Child Care Workers. Instructions: Please submit comments only... request for review and approval for background check investigations of child care workers, form GSA 176C... Child Care Workers AGENCY: Office of Facilities Management and Program Services, Public Building Service...

  2. 12 CFR 571.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Purpose. The purpose of this part is to establish standards regarding consumer report information. In... information. This part also contains a number of measures you must take to combat consumer fraud and related..., 2009, § 571.1 was amended by adding a new paragraph (b)(5), effective July 1, 2010. For the convenience...

  3. A Configuration System for Supportive Purposes in the Middle of a Product Lifecycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tim Teglgaard; Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    for supportive purposes in the middle of a product lifecycle. By doing so a product in operation (including maintenance) could be administrated more effectively. At the same time it is a good opportunity to hand over important runtime information and thereby create a basis for general improvements......This paper presents a new way of using configuration systems. Traditionally, these systems have been use for decision support for sales. The aim is now to support "Middle-Of-Lifecycle" (MOL) processes, which means that the decision support system is targeted for the customers and the manufacturer...... (field services, technical support and after sales). This is especially interesting, as manufacturing companies are increasingly focusing their operations on service operations. The background for this idea is that companies often experience a lack of information between the initial sale...

  4. George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Resources with Additional Information * Videos 'George Smoot anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation." '1 Smoot previously won the Ernest Orlando . Smoot, blackbody, and anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is available in full

  5. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  6. Description of background data in the SKB database GEOTAB. Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, E.; Sehlstedt, S.

    1991-03-01

    During the research and development program performed by SKB for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, a large quantity of geoscientific data was collected. Most of this data was stored in a database called Geotab. The data is organized into eight groups as follows: Background information; Geological data; Borehole geophysical measurements; Ground surface geophysical measurements; Hydrogeological and meteorological data; Hydrochemical data; Petrophysical measurements and Tracer tests. Except for the case of borehole geophysical data, ground surface geophysical data and petrophysical data, described in the same report, the data in each group is described in a separate SKB report. The present report describes data within the Background data group. This data provides information on the location of areas studied, borehole positions and also some drilling information. Data is normally collected on forms or as notes and this is then stored into the database. The background data group, called BACKGROUND, is divided into several subgroups: BGAREA area background data; BGDRILL drilling information; BGDRILLP drill penetration data; BGHOLE borehole information; BGTABLES number of rows in a table and BGTOLR data table tolerance. A method consist of one or several data tables. In each chapter a method and its data tables are described. (authors)

  7. Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

  8. The Impact of Listening Condition on Background Noise Acceptance for Young Adults with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Moore, Robert E.; Estis, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different speech conditions on background noise acceptance. A total of 23 stimulus pairings, differing in primary talker gender (female, male, conventional), number of background talkers (1, 4, 12), and gender composition of the background noise (female, male, mixed) were used to evaluate background noise…

  9. The Armys Armored Multi Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    but many non-infantry carrier versions of the M-113 were retained in service. According to reports , about 3,000 M-113 variants are currently still in...1 Information in this section is taken from Christopher F. Foss, Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012, 32nd Edition...for EAB AMPVs. AMPV Completes Critical Design Review According to reports , the AMPV successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) 16 on

  10. The Armys Armored Multi Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    1 Information in this section is taken from Christopher F. Foss, Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012...for the ABCT AMPV is 2,907 vehicles—a 10 vehicle increase over 2013 quantities. Discussions with the AMPV Program Manager revealed the 10 extra...Selected Weapon Programs, GAO-14-340SP, March 2014, p. 129. 14 CRS Meeting with AMPV Program Manager May 20, 2014. 15 Ibid. The Army’s Armored Multi

  11. 46 CFR 232.1 - Purpose and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 232.1 Purpose and applicability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this regulation is to establish uniform reporting requirements for the preparation of financial reports and submissions of information to the Maritime Administration. The Maritime Administration will...

  12. Direction Dependent Background Fitting for the Fermi GBM Data

    OpenAIRE

    Szécsi, Dorottya; Bagoly, Zsolt; Kóbori, József; Horváth, István; Balázs, Lajos G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for determining the background of Fermi GBM GRBs using the satellite positional information and a physical model. Since the polynomial fitting method typically used for GRBs is generally only indicative of the background over relatively short timescales, this method is particularly useful in the cases of long GRBs or those which have Autonomous Repoint Request (ARR) and a background with much variability on short timescales. We give a Direction Dependent Background Fitting...

  13. 32 CFR 96.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CRIMINAL HISTORY RECORD INFORMATION BY THE MILITARY SERVICES § 96.1 Purpose. Under title 10 U.S. Code, sections 503, 504, 505 and 520a, this part establishes policy guidance concerning the acquisition of criminal history record information for use in determining an enlistment applicant's suitability...

  14. The effect of background music in auditory health persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In auditory health persuasion, threatening information regarding health is communicated by voice only. One relevant context of auditory persuasion is the addition of background music. There are different mechanisms through which background music might influence persuasion, for example through mood

  15. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Fees § 701.40 Background. (a) The DON follows the uniform fee schedule... Freedom of Information Act Fee Schedule and Guidelines. (b) Fees reflect direct costs for search; review...

  16. Monte Carlo simulations of low background detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, H.S.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    An implementation of the Electron Gamma Shower 4 code (EGS4) has been developed to allow convenient simulation of typical gamma ray measurement systems. Coincidence gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra for the purpose of extremely low-level assay. Monte Carlo calculations of this sort can be extremely successful since low background detectors are usually free of significant contributions from poorly localized radiation sources, such as cosmic muons, secondary cosmic neutrons, and radioactive construction or shielding materials. Previously, validation of this code has been obtained from a series of comparisons between measurements and blind calculations. An example of the application of this code to an exceedingly low background spectrum stripping will be presented. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  17. 48 CFR 3.701 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Voiding and Rescinding Contracts 3.701 Purpose. This subpart... final conviction for bribery, conflict of interest, disclosure or receipt of contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information in exchange for a thing of value or to give anyone a competitive...

  18. Literacies for Surveillance: Social Network Sites and Background Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jackson Young

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, civilian contractor Aaron Alexis entered the Washington Navy Yard and murdered twelve people before being fatally shot by police. This incident, together with an incident three months earlier involving Edward Snowden, caused the U.S. government to critically examine their background investigation (BI process; because both Snowden and Alexis had supposedly slipped through the cracks of their investigations, there must be some flaw in the BI procedure. The U.S. Committee on Oversight and Reform concluded that rules forbidding “background checkers from looking at the Internet or social media when performing checks” was one of the main factors contributing to defective BIs (Report, 2014. Since the report’s release, the Director of National Intelligence has been debating and trialing whether information from the Internet should be used to form a data double for BIs (Kopp, 2014; Rockwell, 2014. Using this conversation as a discussion catalyst, I argue that due to the nature of the data double, if the United States were to adopt the use of social networking sites (SNSs for security clearance purposes, neglecting to take into account basic principles of SNSs into the process of BIs may lead to misinformation and unfavorable adjudication. Ultimately, being literate about the social practices involved in SNSs and surveillance would benefit not only investigators, but anyone, including academics, looking at individuals in online spaces.

  19. Background subtraction system for pulsed neutron logging of earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a method for determining the characteristics of earth formations surrounding a well borehole comprising the steps of: repetitively irradiating the earth formations surrounding the well bore with relatively short duration pulses of high energy neutrons; detecting during each pulse of high energy neutrons, gamma radiation due to the inelastic scattering of neutrons by materials comprising the earth formations surrounding the borehole and providing information representative thereof; detecting immediately following each such pulse of high energy neutrons, background gamma radiation due to thermal neutron capture and providing information representative thereof; and correcting the inelastic gamma representative information to compensate for said background representative information

  20. 47 CFR 215.0 - Purpose and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.0 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this part is to designate a focal point within the Federal Government for electromagnetic pulse (EMP...

  1. Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices and Background Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra

    2018-04-15

    We primarily study a special a weighted low-rank approximation of matrices and then apply it to solve the background modeling problem. We propose two algorithms for this purpose: one operates in the batch mode on the entire data and the other one operates in the batch-incremental mode on the data and naturally captures more background variations and computationally more effective. Moreover, we propose a robust technique that learns the background frame indices from the data and does not require any training frames. We demonstrate through extensive experiments that by inserting a simple weight in the Frobenius norm, it can be made robust to the outliers similar to the $\\\\ell_1$ norm. Our methods match or outperform several state-of-the-art online and batch background modeling methods in virtually all quantitative and qualitative measures.

  2. Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices and Background Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra; Li, Xin; Richtarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We primarily study a special a weighted low-rank approximation of matrices and then apply it to solve the background modeling problem. We propose two algorithms for this purpose: one operates in the batch mode on the entire data and the other one operates in the batch-incremental mode on the data and naturally captures more background variations and computationally more effective. Moreover, we propose a robust technique that learns the background frame indices from the data and does not require any training frames. We demonstrate through extensive experiments that by inserting a simple weight in the Frobenius norm, it can be made robust to the outliers similar to the $\\ell_1$ norm. Our methods match or outperform several state-of-the-art online and batch background modeling methods in virtually all quantitative and qualitative measures.

  3. College Students' Intentions to Use Calorie Information on a Restaurant Menu: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A.; Knol, Linda L.; Severt, Kimberly; Lawrence, Jeannine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in the United States and is associated with multiple chronic diseases. Greater numbers of people eat in restaurants and select high calorie foods. Labeling laws require calorie information on menus in some restaurants. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of intention to…

  4. Portuguese Coaches' Perceptions of and Preferences for Knowledge Sources Related to their Professional Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Isidro, Sofia; Rosado, António

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches' perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study's participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches' demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey's HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical) and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means. Key pointsCoaches recognized that learning is obtained from a broad range of sources of coaching knowledge and each source has a particular role in the development of a coach.Experiential guided sources reached more importance to coaches as working with experts, learning by doing, attending seminars/clinics outside of the formal system and interaction with peers were the most acknowledged.The only source that is related to formal learning, national certification programs, was

  5. Portuguese Coaches’ Perceptions of and Preferences for Knowledge Sources Related to their Professional Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Isidro, Sofia; Rosado, António

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches’ perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study’s participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches’ demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey’s HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical) and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means. Key points Coaches recognized that learning is obtained from a broad range of sources of coaching knowledge and each source has a particular role in the development of a coach. Experiential guided sources reached more importance to coaches as working with experts, learning by doing, attending seminars/clinics outside of the formal system and interaction with peers were the most acknowledged. The only source that is related to formal learning, national certification programs

  6. Making Sense of the Information Seeking Process of Undergraduates in a Specialised University: Revelations from Dialogue Journaling on WhatsApp Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krubu, Dorcas Ejemeh; Zinn, Sandy; Hart, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: The research work investigated the information seeking process of undergraduates in a specialised university in Nigeria, in the course of a group assignment. Background: Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model is used as lens to reveal how students interact with information in the affective, cognitive and physical realms.…

  7. Impact of information technology on the role of medical libraries in information managment: normative background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Rožić-Hristovski

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Exponential growth of biomedical knowledge and information technology development is changing the infrastructure of health care systems, education and research. So medical libraries roles have shifted from managing containers of information toward influencing biomedical information resource content and education. These new tasks are formalised in modem American standards for medical libraries, stressing information management role in evolving environment.In Slovenia medical libraries also are aware of development imperative of information activities for advances in medicine. At one side they are faced with lack of specific guidelines for proactive action and on the other with inadequate assessment in legal documents and insufficient funding.

  8. Literature Review: Weldability of Iridium DOP-26 Alloy for General Purpose Heat Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    The basic purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review relative to fabrication of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) that is used to provide electrical power for deep space missions of NASA. The particular fabrication operation to be addressed here is arc welding of the GPHS encapsulation. A considerable effort was made to optimize the fabrication of the fuel pellets and of other elements of the encapsulation; that work will not be directly addressed in this paper. This report consists of three basic sections: 1) a brief description of the GPHS will be provided as background information for the reader; 2) mechanical properties and the optimization thereof as relevant to welding will be discussed; 3) a review of the arc welding process development and optimization will be presented. Since the welding equipment must be upgraded for future production, some discussion of the historical establishment of relevant welding variables and possible changes thereto will also be discussed.

  9. Agricultural practice and water quality in the Netherlands in the 1992-2002 period. Background information for the third EU Nitrate Directive Member States report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; Hotsma PH; Langenberg VT; Leeuwen TC van; Mol APA; Olsthoorn CSM; Schotten CGJ; Willems WJ; EC-LNV; RIKZ; LEI; RIZA; CBS; LDL

    2004-01-01

    This overview provides the background information for the Netherlands Member State report, 'Nitrate Directive, status and trends of aquatic environment and agricultural practice' to be submitted to the European Commission mid-2004. It documents current agricultural practice, and groundwater and

  10. Background suppression in Gerda Phase II and its study in the LArGe low background set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In Phase II of the Gerda experiment additional ∝20 kg of BEGe-type germanium detectors, enriched in {sup 76}Ge, will be deployed in liquid argon (LAr) to further increase the sensitivity for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge to > 2 . 10{sup 26} yr. To reduce background by a factor of 10 to the required level of < 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr), it is necessary to employ active background-suppression techniques, including anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from LAr and pulse shape discrimination exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for 0νββ) and efficiently reject multi-site events (mainly from γ-rays), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. The combined power of these techniques was studied for {sup 42}K and other background sources at the low background facility LArGe. Together with extensive simulations, the information from tracking of the Phase II detector material exposure to cosmic rays and based on the background contributions observed in Phase I, the expected background level in Phase II in the region of interest at 2039 keV, the Q{sub ββ} energy of {sup 76}Ge, is estimated. The preliminary analysis shows that contributions from all expected background components after all cuts are in line with the goal of Gerda Phase II.

  11. Modeling Lost-Particle Accelerator Backgrounds in PEP-II Using LPTURTLE

    CERN Document Server

    Fieguth, Theodore; Kozanecki, Witold

    2005-01-01

    Background studies during the design, construction, commissioning, operation and improvement of BaBar and PEP-II have been greatly influenced by results from a program referred to as LPTURTLE (Lost Particle TURTLE a modified version of Decay TURTLE) which was originally conceived for the purpose of studying gas background for SLC. This venerable program is still in use today. We describe its use, capabilities and improvements and refer to current results now being applied to BaBar.

  12. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  13. Multimodal cues provide redundant information for bumblebees when the stimulus is visually salient, but facilitate red target detection in a naturalistic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcobado, Guadalupe; Trillo, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of how floral visitors integrate visual and olfactory cues when seeking food, and how background complexity affects flower detection is limited. Here, we aimed to understand the use of visual and olfactory information for bumblebees (Bombus terrestris terrestris L.) when seeking flowers in a visually complex background. To explore this issue, we first evaluated the effect of flower colour (red and blue), size (8, 16 and 32 mm), scent (presence or absence) and the amount of training on the foraging strategy of bumblebees (accuracy, search time and flight behaviour), considering the visual complexity of our background, to later explore whether experienced bumblebees, previously trained in the presence of scent, can recall and make use of odour information when foraging in the presence of novel visual stimuli carrying a familiar scent. Of all the variables analysed, flower colour had the strongest effect on the foraging strategy. Bumblebees searching for blue flowers were more accurate, flew faster, followed more direct paths between flowers and needed less time to find them, than bumblebees searching for red flowers. In turn, training and the presence of odour helped bees to find inconspicuous (red) flowers. When bees foraged on red flowers, search time increased with flower size; but search time was independent of flower size when bees foraged on blue flowers. Previous experience with floral scent enhances the capacity of detection of a novel colour carrying a familiar scent, probably by elemental association influencing attention. PMID:28898287

  14. Limits of Astrophysics with Gravitational-Wave Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Callister

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent Advanced LIGO detection of gravitational waves from the binary black hole GW150914 suggests there exists a large population of merging binary black holes in the Universe. Although most are too distant to be individually resolved by advanced detectors, the superposition of gravitational waves from many unresolvable binaries is expected to create an astrophysical stochastic background. Recent results from the LIGO and Virgo Collaborations show that this astrophysical background is within reach of Advanced LIGO. In principle, the binary black hole background encodes interesting astrophysical properties, such as the mass distribution and redshift distribution of distant binaries. However, we show that this information will be difficult to extract with the current configuration of advanced detectors (and using current data analysis tools. Additionally, the binary black hole background also constitutes a foreground that limits the ability of advanced detectors to observe other interesting stochastic background signals, for example, from cosmic strings or phase transitions in the early Universe. We quantify this effect.

  15. On the microwave background spectrum and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.

    1982-01-01

    We show that the combined measurement of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) intensity and noise can provide direct information on the temperature and the emissivity of the source responsible for the CBR. (orig.)

  16. Durability 2007. Injection grout investigations. Background description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orantie, K.; Kuosa, H.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the durability risks of injection grouts. The investigations were done with respect to the application conditions, materials and service life requirements at the ONKALO underground research facility. The study encompassed injection grout mixtures made of ultrafine cement with and without silica fume. Some of the mixtures hade a low pH and thus a high silica fume content. The project includes a background description on durability literature, laboratory testing programme, detailed analysis of results and recommendations for selecting of ideal grout mixtures. The background description was made for the experimental study of low-pH and reference rock injection grouts as regards pore- and microstructure, strength, shrinkage/swelling and thus versatile durability properties. A summary of test methods is presented as well as examples, i.e. literature information or former test results, of expected range of results from the tests. Also background information about how the test results correlate to other material properties and mix designs is presented. Besides the report provides basic information on the pore structure of cement based materials. Also the correlation between the pore structure of cement based materials and permeability is shortly discussed. The test methods included in the background description are compressive strength, measurement of bulk drying, autogenous and chemical shrinkage and swelling, hydraulic conductivity / permeability, capillary water uptake test, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and thin section analysis. Three main mixtures with water-binder ratio of 0.8, 1.0 and 1.4 and silica fume content of 0, 15 and 40% were studied in the laboratory. Besides two extra mixtures were studied to provide additional information about the effect of varying water-dry-material ratio and silica fume content on durability. The evaluation of water tightness based on water permeability coefficient and micro cracking was

  17. Sharing information books with kindergartners: The role of parents’ extra-textual talk and socioeconomic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, S.E.; Neuman, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore how features of parent-child extra-textual talk during information book-sharing might vary across different socioeconomic backgrounds, and to determine if certain interactional patterns might mediate their effects on children's receptive and expressive

  18. The Impact of Caloric Information on College Students' Fast Food Purchasing Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmont, Victoria; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fast food establishments are available on many college campuses and, as a result, many students consume foods that are high in calories and contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Purpose: This study measured college students' knowledge of the calorie content for fast food items and whether the provision of calorie information for those…

  19. Learning by Doing: Twenty Successful Active Learning Exercises for Information Systems Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alanah; Petter, Stacie; Harris, Albert L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: This paper provides a review of previously published work related to active learning in information systems (IS) courses. Background: There are a rising number of strategies in higher education that offer promise in regards to getting students' attention and helping them learn, such as flipped classrooms and offering courses online.…

  20. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segui, L. [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX1 Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  1. Conserved quantities in background independent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markopoulou, Fotini [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 35 King Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    We discuss the difficulties that background independent theories based on quantum geometry encounter in deriving general relativity as the low energy limit. We follow a geometrogenesis scenario of a phase transition from a pre-geometric theory to a geometric phase which suggests that a first step towards the low energy limit is searching for the effective collective excitations that will characterize it. Using the correspondence between the pre-geometric background independent theory and a quantum information processor, we are able to use the method of noiseless subsystems to extract such coherent collective excitations. We illustrate this in the case of locally evolving graphs.

  2. Machine Induced Background with BCM1F 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    BCM1F provides information on the condition of the beam and ensures that the inner detector occupancy is sufficiently low for data-taking. Measurements of the machine induced background for beam 1 (BKGD1) and beam 2 (BKGD2) are displayed in the CMS and LHC control room. The background data correlates the with collimator settings as well as with the vacuum pressure.

  3. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996

  4. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  5. 48 CFR 904.7200 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Affairs 904.7200 Purpose. It is the policy of the Department of Energy to provide to the public... information with the cognizant contracting officer and appropriate DOE Public Affairs personnel. ...

  6. Orientations in adolescent use of information and communication technology: a digital divide by sociodemographic background, educational career, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusilta, Leena K; Lintonen, Tomi P; Rimpelä, Arja H

    2007-01-01

    The role of information and communication technology (ICT) in adolescents' lives was studied, with emphasis on whether there exists a digital divide based on sociodemographic background, educational career, and health. The assumption was that some groups of adolescents use ICT more so that their information utilization skills improve (computer use), while others use it primarily for entertainment (digital gaming, contacting friends by mobile phone). Data were collected by mailed survey from a nationally representative sample of 12- to 18-year-olds (n=7,292; response 70%) in 2001 and analysed using ANOVA. Computer use was most frequent among adolescents whose fathers had higher education or socioeconomic status, who came from nuclear families, and who continued studies after compulsory education. Digital gaming was associated with poor school achievement and attending vocational rather than upper secondary school. Mobile phone use was frequent among adolescents whose fathers had lower education or socioeconomic status, who came from non-nuclear families, and whose educational prospects were poor. Intensive use of each ICT form, especially of mobile phones, was associated with health problems. High social position, nuclear family, and a successful educational career signified good health in general, independently of the diverse usage of ICT. There exists a digital divide among adolescents: orientation to computer use is more common in educated well-off families while digital gaming and mobile phone use accumulate at the opposite end of the spectrum. Poorest health was reported by mobile phone users. High social background and success at school signify better health, independently of the ways of using ICT.

  7. A model independent safeguard against background mismodeling for statistical inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priel, Nadav; Landsman, Hagar; Manfredini, Alessandro; Budnik, Ranny [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Herzl St. 234, Rehovot (Israel); Rauch, Ludwig, E-mail: nadav.priel@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: rauch@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: hagar.landsman@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: alessandro.manfredini@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: ran.budnik@weizmann.ac.il [Teilchen- und Astroteilchenphysik, Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    We propose a safeguard procedure for statistical inference that provides universal protection against mismodeling of the background. The method quantifies and incorporates the signal-like residuals of the background model into the likelihood function, using information available in a calibration dataset. This prevents possible false discovery claims that may arise through unknown mismodeling, and corrects the bias in limit setting created by overestimated or underestimated background. We demonstrate how the method removes the bias created by an incomplete background model using three realistic case studies.

  8. Selected Special-Purpose Telecommunications Circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We are providing this memorandum report for your information and use. This report is the first of three reports resulting from the review of requirements for special-purpose voice circuits as part of Project...

  9. Planck 2013 results. XVIII. The gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of ...

  10. How to COAAD Images. II. A Coaddition Image that is Optimal for Any Purpose in the Background-dominated Noise Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zackay, Barak; Ofek, Eran O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-02-20

    Image coaddition is one of the most basic operations that astronomers perform. In Paper I, we presented the optimal ways to coadd images in order to detect faint sources and to perform flux measurements under the assumption that the noise is approximately Gaussian. Here, we build on these results and derive from first principles a coaddition technique that is optimal for any hypothesis testing and measurement (e.g., source detection, flux or shape measurements, and star/galaxy separation), in the background-noise-dominated case. This method has several important properties. The pixels of the resulting coadded image are uncorrelated. This image preserves all the information (from the original individual images) on all spatial frequencies. Any hypothesis testing or measurement that can be done on all the individual images simultaneously, can be done on the coadded image without any loss of information. The PSF of this image is typically as narrow, or narrower than the PSF of the best image in the ensemble. Moreover, this image is practically indistinguishable from a regular single image, meaning that any code that measures any property on a regular astronomical image can be applied to it unchanged. In particular, the optimal source detection statistic derived in Paper I is reproduced by matched filtering this image with its own PSF. This coaddition process, which we call proper coaddition, can be understood as the maximum signal-to-noise ratio measurement of the Fourier transform of the image, weighted in such a way that the noise in the entire Fourier domain is of equal variance. This method has important implications for multi-epoch seeing-limited deep surveys, weak lensing galaxy shape measurements, and diffraction-limited imaging via speckle observations. The last topic will be covered in depth in future papers. We provide an implementation of this algorithm in MATLAB.

  11. 32 CFR 651.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Major Automated Information Systems). (e) This part applies to actions of the Active Army and Army... ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.1 Purpose. (a) This part implements the National...

  12. Background simulation for the COBRA-experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quante, Thomas [TU Dortmund, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Collaboration: COBRA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    COBRA is a next-generation experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The main focus is on {sup 116}Cd, with a Q-value of 2813.5 keV well above the highest dominant naturally occurring gamma lines. By measuring the half-life of the 0νββ decay, it is possible to clarify the nature of the neutrino as either Dirac or Majorana particle and furthermore to determine the effective Majorana mass. COBRA is currently in the demonstrator phase to study possible background contributions and gain information about the longterm stability of the used detectors. For this purpose a demonstrator array made up of 64 Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductor detectors in coplanar grid configuration was designed and realised at the Gran Sasso Underground laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. Simulations of the whole demonstrator setup are ongoing to reproduce the measured spectra for each detector. This is done in two steps. The first uses the Geant4 based framework VENOM for tracking and energy deposition inside each detector. Detector effects like the energy resolution and electron trapping have to be applied in the second step. The used detector geometry has to be verified against calibration measurements. This talk gives an overview of the current simulation status.

  13. 29 CFR 4010.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 4010.1 Section 4010.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION CERTAIN REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.1 Purpose and scope. This part...

  14. CLASP Middle School/High School Boys of Color Policy Scan and Information Gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldson, Ivory A.; Crowell, Candice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide an analysis of policy issues affecting middle school and high school-aged boys and young men of color in the areas of education, health, and pathways to employment. This policy scan and subsequent recommendations will provide valuable background knowledge to inform the future direction of policy efforts…

  15. Foreign language teaching for specific purposes: basic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Grynyuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an attempt to understand, analyse and provide an overall picture on basic aspects of English for Specific Purposes: its definition, scope, historical background, characteristics, types and aims. It also discusses the ESP teaching objectives, the role of ESP teacher and the training process to become an ESP teacher, the purpose of an ESP course and an ESP program.We see a clear rationale, amongst the variety of contradicting views on ESP policy, in coming to an agreement finally that ESP is the teaching of English to the learners who have specific goals and purposes: professional, academic or scientific.The article analyses the main roles and functions of teachers of foreign languages for specific purposes. It outlines the general tasks and responsibilities of higher education teachers whose professional activity is multispectral and multifunctiona; it also analyses the ESP courses and their specific features

  16. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  17. Benchmarking the Particle Background in the LHC Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E

    2000-01-01

    The experiments for the Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN have to work for 15 years in the presence of a very high particle background of photons in the energy range from 100\\,keV to 10\\,MeV and neutrons in the range from thermal energies ($\\approx 0.025\\,$eV) to 20\\,MeV. \\\\ The background is so high that it becomes a major design criterion for the ATLAS ex\\-peri\\-ment, a general purpose experiment at LHC that will be operational in the year 2005. The exact level of this background is poorly known. At present an uncertainty factor of five has to be assumed to which the limited knowledge of the shower processes in the absorber material and the ensueing neutron and photon production is estimated to contribute with a factor 2.5. \\\\ So far, the background has been assessed only through extensive Monte Carlo evaluation with the particle transport code FLUKA. The lack of relevant measurements, which were not done up to now, are to a large extent responsible for this uncertainty. Hence it is essential to benchmark t...

  18. [Informed consent and neuromodulation techniques for psychiatric purposes: an introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarelli, Gabriele; Moscati, Filippo Maria; Venturini, Paola; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate informed consent-related issues concerning vagus nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. We searched the principal medical databases for studies concerning informed consent, as well as ethical and deontological issues in psychosurgery. Data were critically analysed. We also provided guidelines for the evaluation of accuracy of the informed consent in such treatments. Despite major deontological and ethical implications, there is substantial lack of information pertaining informed consent decision-making in psychiatric patients with an indication for psychosurgery. In clinical research studies, deep brain stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation have been mainly used in drug-resistant major depressive disorder, Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Existing data on efficacy and tolerability, as well as those studies indicating the risk for incapacity in drug-resistant severe mental disorders, suggest the need to achieve a better understanding of the capacity to consent to psychosurgery in patients affected by mental disorders. Informed consent decision-making in clinical trials of deep brain stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation in psychiatric patients is largely unknown and deserves further investigation.

  19. 19 CFR 201.42 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION National Security Information § 201.42 Purpose and scope. The following regulation supplements Executive Order 12356, National Security Information, April 2, 1982, as it applies to the Commission. ...

  20. Preparing for the data revolution: identifying minimum health information competencies among the health workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, Maxine; Hodge, Nicola; Mares, Renata E; Rodney, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Health information is required for a variety of purposes at all levels of a health system, and a workforce skilled in collecting, analysing, presenting, and disseminating such information is essential to fulfil these demands. While it is established that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are facing shortages in human resources for health (HRH), there has been little systematic attention focussed on non-clinical competencies. In response, we developed a framework that defines...

  1. 28 CFR 16.21 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 16.21 Section 16.21 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production or Disclosure in Federal and State Proceedings § 16.21 Purpose and scope. (a) This subpart sets...

  2. 28 CFR 513.10 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 513.10 Section 513.10 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Production or Disclosure of FBI/NCIC Information § 513.10 Purpose and scope. This...

  3. 28 CFR 16.30 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 16.30 Section 16.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production of FBI Identification Records in Response to Written Requests by Subjects Thereof § 16.30 Purpose...

  4. Neutron Spectrometry for Radiation Protection Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Joseph C.

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the dose equivalent is required for radiation protection purposes, however such a determination is quite difficult for neutron radiation. In order to perform accurate dosimetric determinations, it is necessary to acquire information about the neutron fluence spectrum in the workplace as well as the reference radiations used to calibrate dosimetric instruments. This information can then be used to select the appropriate dosimetric instrument, the optimum calibration condition or to establish correction factors that account for the differences in calibration and workplace conditions. For quite some time, neutron spectrometry has been used for these purposes. A brief review of the applications of spectrometers in radiation protection and some recommendations for further development are given here

  5. Neutron spectrometry for radiation protection purposes

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, J C; Alberts, W G

    2002-01-01

    Determination of the dose equivalent is required for radiation protection purposes, however such a determination is quite difficult for neutron radiation. In order to perform accurate dosimetric determinations, it is advantageous to acquire information about the neutron fluence spectrum in the workplace as well as the reference radiations used to calibrate dosimetric instruments. This information can then be used to select the appropriate dosimetric instrument, the optimum calibration condition or to establish correction factors that account for the differences in calibration and workplace conditions. For quite some time, neutron spectrometry has been used for these purposes. A brief review of the applications of spectrometers in radiation protection and some recommendations for further development are given here.

  6. TeV Blazars and Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Aharonian, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The recent developments in studies of TeV radiation from blazars are highlighted and the implications of these results for derivation of cosmologically important information about the cosmic infrared background radiation are discussed.

  7. A randomised comparison between an inexpensive, general-purpose headlight and a purpose-built surgical headlight on users' visual acuity and colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, I; Sayles, M; Nistor, M; McRae, A R

    2014-02-01

    To determine if there are any differences in near visual acuity and colour vision between an inexpensive general-purpose light emitting diode (LED) headlight and a purpose-built surgical LED headlight. A prospective study was conducted sequentially comparing near visual acuity and colour vision, the headlights being tested in random order, in a testing room with a constant minimal amount of background light. The participants were NHS employee volunteers, with self-declared normal (or corrected) vision, working in occupations requiring full literacy. For visual acuity, outcome was measured by recording the smallest font legible when using each headlight when the subject read a near visual acuity test card. For colour vision, the outcome was passing or failing the Ishihara test. There was no statistically significant difference between the general-purpose and the purpose-built headlights in users' near visual acuity or colour vision.

  8. Beyond scene gist: Objects guide search more than scene background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Kathryn; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2017-06-01

    Although the facilitation of visual search by contextual information is well established, there is little understanding of the independent contributions of different types of contextual cues in scenes. Here we manipulated 3 types of contextual information: object co-occurrence, multiple object configurations, and background category. We isolated the benefits of each contextual cue to target detectability, its impact on decision bias, confidence, and the guidance of eye movements. We find that object-based information guides eye movements and facilitates perceptual judgments more than scene background. The degree of guidance and facilitation of each contextual cue can be related to its inherent informativeness about the target spatial location as measured by human explicit judgments about likely target locations. Our results improve the understanding of the contributions of distinct contextual scene components to search and suggest that the brain's utilization of cues to guide eye movements is linked to the cue's informativeness about the target's location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Background elimination methods for multidimensional coincidence γ-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the paper new methods to separate useful information from background in one, two, three and multidimensional spectra (histograms) measured in large multidetector γ-ray arrays are derived. The sensitive nonlinear peak clipping algorithm is the basis of the methods for estimation of the background in multidimensional spectra. The derived procedures are simple and therefore have a very low cost in terms of computing time. (orig.)

  10. Project ARINUS. Pt. 1. Purpose and background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoettl, H.W.; Feger, K.H.; Brahmer, G.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A. (comps.)

    1987-04-01

    In the research project ARINUS the effects of restabilization measures and atmospheric deposition on N- and S-cycling of the eco- and hydrosphere of Black Forest sites are studied. The aim is to quantify the natural and anthropogenic components. This provides a better estimation of the effects of additional inputs by deposition or fertilizers. The mobility of the anions NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ highly determines an additional acidification of soil and water. The extent of nitrification in acid forest soils and N-uptake by vegetation is decisive for the acidifying effect of NH/sub 4//sup +/. Besides acidification an increased N-export can also lead to inadmissible nitrate concentrations in drinking water. The investigation combines flux measurements in ecosystems with watershed balances. Pre-examinations resulted in the selection of three comparable subcatchments near Villingen and Schluchsee, respectively. At Villingen also groundwater can be studied in accessible wells. First analyses of ground- and surface water demonstrate a distinct alteration of precipitation during its passage through the bio-, pedo- and lithosphere. The low NO/sub 3//sup -/- and SO/sub 4//sup 2-/-concentrations in the groundwater refer to a high retention. Needle analyses to characterize the nutritional status of the spruce stands revealed poor potassium supply at Villingen. In contrast to that, at Schluchsee, where gold-yellow-chlorosis of older needles is widespread, Mg-deficiency occurs. Thus, the fertilization measures planned in the 2. year of investigation are outlined. Since there is no evidence for an over-saturation with nitrogen, both sites are also suitable for the planned N-fertilization.

  11. 42 CFR 75.1 - Background and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... also authorized to prepare standards for other occupational groups utilizing ionizing and non-ionizing... occupational groups listed above, utilizing ionizing radiation. Nothing in these accreditation standards is... section 979 of the Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act of 1981, 42 U.S.C. 10004, which...

  12. Effects of placement point of background music on shopping website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Jung; Chiang, Chia-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Consumer on-line behaviors are more important than ever due to highly growth of on-line shopping. The purposes of this study were to design placement methods of background music for shopping website and examine the effect on browsers' emotional and cognitive response. Three placement points of background music during the browsing, i.e. 2 min., 4 min., and 6 min. from the start of browsing were considered for entry points. Both browsing without music (no music) and browsing with constant music volume (full music) were treated as control groups. Participants' emotional state, approach-avoidance behavior intention, and action to adjust music volume were collected. Results showed that participants had a higher level of pleasure, arousal and approach behavior intention for the three placement points than for no music and full music. Most of the participants for full music (5/6) adjusted the background music. Only 16.7% (3/18) participants for other levels turn off the background music. The results indicate that playing background music after the start of browsing is benefit for on-line shopping atmosphere. It is inappropriate to place background music at the start of browsing shopping website. The marketer must manipulated placement methods of background music for a web store carefully.

  13. 28 CFR 550.10 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 550.10 Section 550.10... Alcohol Testing § 550.10 Purpose and scope. The Bureau of Prisons maintains a surveillance program in..., or who are considered high risks based on behavior observed or on information received by staff. (a...

  14. Use of fitness-for-purpose criteria for transport infrastructure products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available certification of non-standard products to assess their fitness for- purpose. Therefore, this paper provides background to the Agrément concept, discusses the current evaluation systems being available through Agrément for road infrastructure and reflects...

  15. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  16. A population-based approach to background discrimination in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colecchia, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Background properties in experimental particle physics are typically estimated from control samples corresponding to large numbers of events. This can provide precise knowledge of average background distributions, but typically does not take into account statistical fluctuations in a data set of interest. A novel approach based on mixture model decomposition is presented, as a way to extract additional information about statistical fluctuations from a given data set with a view to improving on knowledge of background distributions obtained from control samples. Events are treated as heterogeneous populations comprising particles originating from different processes, and individual particles are mapped to a process of interest on a probabilistic basis. The proposed approach makes it possible to estimate features of the background distributions from the data, and to extract information about statistical fluctuations that would otherwise be lost using traditional supervised classifiers trained on high-statistics control samples. A feasibility study on Monte Carlo is presented, together with a comparison with existing techniques. Finally, the prospects for the development of tools for intensive offline analysis of individual interesting events at the Large Hadron Collider are discussed.

  17. INFORMATIVE SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE FROM MATHEMATICS AS A WAY OF PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION OF TEACHING STUDENTS IT SPECIALTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmyla Shishko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of formation of mathematical knowledge in universities insufficiently focused on their further use in professional activities. Students not formed the ability to apply mathematical knowledge to study general professional and special disciplines. In this article: –\tconsidered features of formation of a professional orientation of teaching mathematics using structured content multimedia information system for educational purposes (MISEP; –\tfound psychologo-pedagogical features of teaching mathematics of students IT specialties; –\tconsidered methodical aspects of MISEP in teaching the course "Discrete Mathematics" for students of IT specialties

  18. Improvement in luminosity, background and chamber protection with beam scrapers in the ISR

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P; Johnsen, Kjell; Laeger, H; Montague, Brian William St. Leger; Neet, D; Schneider, F W; Turner, S

    1973-01-01

    The Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) are equipped with beam scrapers used for various purposes such as improving luminosity, reducing background, beam diagnostics and for protection of machine components. A description is given of the different types of scrapers and of the results in the various applications obtained during the last year. In particular, the substantial improvements in luminosity and background by scraping are described. (3 refs).

  19. Accuracy of Repetition of Digitized and Synthesized Speech for Young Children in Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drager, Kathryn D. R.; Clark-Serpentine, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Kate E.; Roeser, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the intelligibility of digitized and synthesized speech output in background noise for children 3-5 years old. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there was a difference in the intelligibility (ability to repeat) of 3 types of speech output (digitized, DECTalk synthesized, and MacinTalk…

  20. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouvig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...... of information would reveal that information had specific purposes in specific settings....

  1. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control

  2. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  3. Interactive QR code beautification with full background image embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijian; Wu, Song; Liu, Sijiang; Jiang, Bo

    2017-06-01

    QR (Quick Response) code is a kind of two dimensional barcode that was first developed in automotive industry. Nowadays, QR code has been widely used in commercial applications like product promotion, mobile payment, product information management, etc. Traditional QR codes in accordance with the international standard are reliable and fast to decode, but are lack of aesthetic appearance to demonstrate visual information to customers. In this work, we present a novel interactive method to generate aesthetic QR code. By given information to be encoded and an image to be decorated as full QR code background, our method accepts interactive user's strokes as hints to remove undesired parts of QR code modules based on the support of QR code error correction mechanism and background color thresholds. Compared to previous approaches, our method follows the intention of the QR code designer, thus can achieve more user pleasant result, while keeping high machine readability.

  4. Fit-for-Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    ; completeness to cover the total jurisdiction; and credibility in terms of reliable data being trusted by the users. Accuracy can then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental...... systems act within adopted land policies that define the legal regulatory pattern for dealing with land issues. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a spatial framework to operate. This framework provides the fundamental information for dealing with land issues...... concepts may well be seen as the end target but not as the point of entry. When assessing the technology and investment choices the focus should be on building a fit-for-purpose framework that will meet the needs of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time....

  5. 38 CFR 75.111 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) INFORMATION SECURITY MATTERS Data Breaches § 75.111 Purpose and scope. This subpart implements provisions of... Information Technology Act of 2006. It only concerns actions to address a data breach regarding sensitive... requirements imposed by other laws, such as the Privacy Act of 1974, the Administrative Simplification...

  6. 42 CFR 431.300 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Safeguarding Information on... specifies State plan requirements, the types of information to be safeguarded, the conditions for release of... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 431.300 Section 431.300 Public...

  7. 32 CFR 1285.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 1285.1 Purpose and scope. This rule provides... appendix A to this part. 1 Copies may be obtained, at cost, from the National Technical Information Service...

  8. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  9. Background suppression of infrared small target image based on inter-frame registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiubo; Xue, Bindang

    2018-04-01

    We propose a multi-frame background suppression method for remote infrared small target detection. Inter-frame information is necessary when the heavy background clutters make it difficult to distinguish real targets and false alarms. A registration procedure based on points matching in image patches is used to compensate the local deformation of background. Then the target can be separated by background subtraction. Experiments show our method serves as an effective preliminary of target detection.

  10. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  11. 40 CFR 58.2 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE General Provisions § 58.2 Purpose. (a) This part contains requirements for measuring ambient air quality and for reporting ambient air quality data and related information. The monitoring... instruments or instrument probes. (5) Minimum ambient air quality monitoring network requirements used to...

  12. 17 CFR 200.550 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 200.550 Section 200.550 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Regulations Pertaining to the Protection of the Environment § 200...

  13. Florida's ground water quality monitoring program: background hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Gary; Upchurch, Sam; Lloyd, Jacqueline; Scott, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the initial quantification of background water quality in each of the state's major potable aquifer systems. Results are presented and interpreted in light of the influencing factors which locally and regionally affect ambient ground-water quality. This initial data will serve as a baseline from which future sampling results can be compared. Future sampling of the Network will indicate the extent to which Flori...

  14. Knowledge Translation Capacity of Arts-informed Dissemination: A Narrative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L Lapum; Linda Liu; Kathryn Church; Sarah Hume; Bailey Harding; Siyuan Wang; Megan Nguyen; Gideon Cohen; Terrence M Yau

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arts-informed dissemination is an expanding approach to enhancing knowledge translation in the health sciences. Problematic is the minimal evaluation studies and the rare reporting of the influencing factors of knowledge translation. “The 7,024th Patient” is a research-derived art installation created to disseminate findings about patients’ experiences of heart surgery and the importance of humanistic patient-centred care approaches. The current study’s purpose was to explor...

  15. A statistical background noise correction sensitive to the steadiness of background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Charles H

    2016-10-01

    A statistical background noise correction is developed for removing background noise contributions from measured source levels, producing a background noise-corrected source level. Like the standard background noise corrections of ISO 3741, ISO 3744, ISO 3745, and ISO 11201, the statistical background correction increases as the background level approaches the measured source level, decreasing the background noise-corrected source level. Unlike the standard corrections, the statistical background correction increases with steadiness of the background and is excluded from use when background fluctuation could be responsible for measured differences between the source and background noise levels. The statistical background noise correction has several advantages over the standard correction: (1) enveloping the true source with known confidence, (2) assuring physical source descriptions when measuring sources in fluctuating backgrounds, (3) reducing background corrected source descriptions by 1 to 8 dB for sources in steady backgrounds, and (4) providing a means to replace standardized background correction caps that incentivize against high precision grade methods.

  16. Environmental literacy based on educational background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agfar, A.; Munandar, A.; Surakusumah, W.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to examine attitude, knowledge and cognitive skill. To collect data we used survey method, was conducted in Pahawang, Lampung. Respondents of this research are coastal society of Pahawang, 114 participants determined using purposive sampling, from two areas in the village, Pahawang and Penggetahan. Data were analyzed using both quantitative and descriptive. Environmental literacy of the society which is primary school graduate is moderate category (85.61), consist of 38.90% in low category and 61.10% in moderate category. Environmental literacy of junior high school graduate is moderate (99.36), consist of 12% in low category, 76% in moderate category and 12% in high category. Environmental literacy of senior high school graduate is moderate (108.85), consist of 84.90% moderate category and 15.10% in high category. But, undergraduate society is high category (118.53). Details 0% low category 52.94% moderate category and 47.06% in high category. This finding research has revelaed that the educational background affects the level of environmental literacy. This finding research has revealed that the educational background affects the level of environmental literacy.

  17. Albania; Background Information

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a evolution of the financial system in Albania. The paper highlights that a two-tier banking system was created following passage of a new Central Bank Law and Commercial Banking Law in April 1992. The State Bank of Albania became the Bank of Albania and retained only the functions of a central bank. Its commercial operations were hived off to become the National Bank of Albania in July 1992, which was subsequently merged with the Albanian Commercial Bank to form the Nati...

  18. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  19. Learning to Lead in Higher Education: Insights into the Family Backgrounds of Women University Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the lived experiences of women university presidents related to becoming leaders or learning to lead. This manuscript highlights the research focused on the immediate family backgrounds and influences on these presidents. The research question was as follows: With regard to their family backgrounds and…

  20. 15 CFR 911.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.1 Purpose. These regulations set forth the procedural, informational and technical requirements for use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems (DCS). In... agreement to operate data collection platforms pursuant to these regulations does not affect related...

  1. The Effect of Background Noise on Intelligibility of Dysphonic Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Keiko; Boyce, Suzanne; Kelchner, Lisa; Powell, Maria Golla; Schieve, Heidi; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Khosla, Sid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of background noise on the intelligibility of dysphonic speech and to examine the relationship between intelligibility in noise and an acoustic measure of dysphonia--cepstral peak prominence (CPP). Method: A study of speech perception was conducted using speech samples from 6 adult speakers…

  2. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    contributions from Germany , Japan, and Switzerland. For more information on the MFO, see http://www.mfo.org/Default.asp?bhcp=1. Egypt: Background and...2008 Report, Egypt’s pace of business reforms and deregulation between 2006 and 2007 ranked first worldwide. In recent years, the state has...reinvigorated its privatization program by divesting shares in the state-dominated banking and insurance sectors. Additionally, the government removed import

  3. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, P.I.

    1982-01-01

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  4. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  5. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and music intervention for therapeutic purposes and to describe the perspective of gamelan music used in nursing interventionMethods: Using five bibliography databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Science Direct, Interscience, and Proquest were searched from 1999-2010 for original clinical reports or reviews that evaluated the use of complementary therapy for therapeutic intervention in patients with ventilator support. The term of complementary therapy, anxiety, and pain were used in a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Articles were screened and excluded based on the title and abstract information.Results: Music brings about helpful changes in the emotional and physical health of patients, and has the ability to provide an altered state of physical arousal and subsequent mood improvement by processing a progression of musical notes of varying tone, rhythm, and instrumentation for a pleasing effect.Conclusion: Music can be used for therapeutic purposes, for instance to reduce anxiety, to decrease pain sensation, and some effects of psychological impact. Include, the gamelan music can be offer for patients for Javanese people in Indonesia.Key words: Music, music intervention, therapeutic purposes

  6. Retrieval of reflections from seismic background?noise measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganov, D.S.; Wapenaar, K.; Mulder, W.; Singer, J.; Verdel, A.

    2007-01-01

    The retrieval of the earth's reflection response from cross?correlations of seismic noise recordings can provide valuable information, which may otherwise not be available due to limited spatial distribution of seismic sources. We cross?correlated ten hours of seismic background?noise data acquired

  7. The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    but many non-infantry carrier versions of the M-113 were retained in service. According to reports , about 3,000 M-113 variants are currently still in...1 Information in this section is taken from Christopher F. Foss, Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012, 32nd Edition...for EAB AMPVs. AMPV Completes Critical Design Review According to reports , the AMPV successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) 16 on

  8. Background factors related to and/or influencing occupation in mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Helena; Ivarsson, Ann-Britt; Söderlund, Anne

    2006-09-01

    Knowledge of background and occupational related factors of mentally disordered offenders are missing. It is essential to understand these issues when planning discharge from forensic psychiatric hospital care to enable community dwelling. One aim was to investigate mentally disordered offenders' background factors, confidence in and how they value occupations. Another aim was to investigate MDOs background factors' in relation to and the influences on Occupational Performance and Social Participation. Data was collected with an explorative, correlative design after informed consent, from 74 mentally disordered offenders (mean age 34,2) cared for in forensic psychiatric hospitals. Assessments were Allen Cognitive Level Screen, Capability to Perform Daily Occupations, Interview Schedule of Social Interaction, Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, Self-efficacy Scale and Importance scale. Eight background factors were assembled from the individual forensic psychiatric investigation. Most of the investigated background factors relate to and half of them influence occupational performance, particular the cognitive aspect of occupational performance. The influences on occupation originate from adulthood, such as suffering from schizophrenia, psycho/social problems, and having performed violent crimes. These findings indicate that staff in forensic hospital care should initiate rehabilitation with knowledge about MDOs' complex daily occupations. For avoiding information bias, information gathering preceding treatment planning should be performed in collaboration between caring staff and mentally disordered offenders.

  9. Risk-informed Analytical Approaches to Concentration Averaging for the Purpose of Waste Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esh, D.W.; Pinkston, K.E.; Barr, C.S.; Bradford, A.H.; Ridge, A.Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has developed a concentration averaging approach and guidance for the review of Department of Energy (DOE) non-HLW determinations. Although the approach was focused on this specific application, concentration averaging is generally applicable to waste classification and thus has implications for waste management decisions as discussed in more detail in this paper. In the United States, radioactive waste has historically been classified into various categories for the purpose of ensuring that the disposal system selected is commensurate with the hazard of the waste such that public health and safety will be protected. However, the risk from the near-surface disposal of radioactive waste is not solely a function of waste concentration but is also a function of the volume (quantity) of waste and its accessibility. A risk-informed approach to waste classification for near-surface disposal of low-level waste would consider the specific characteristics of the waste, the quantity of material, and the disposal system features that limit accessibility to the waste. NRC staff has developed example analytical approaches to estimate waste concentration, and therefore waste classification, for waste disposed in facilities or with configurations that were not anticipated when the regulation for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (i.e. 10 CFR Part 61) was developed. (authors)

  10. Racial background and possible relationships between physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to investigate possible relationships between physical activity and physical fitness of girls between the ages of 13 and 15 years and the role of different racial backgrounds in this relationship. A cross-sectional research design was used to obtain information from 290 girls between the ages of 13 ...

  11. A novel method to remove the background from x-ray diffraction signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yi; Speller, Robert; Griffiths, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The first step that is required to extract the correct information from a two-dimensional (2D) diffraction signature is to remove the background accurately. However, direct background subtraction inevitably overcorrects the signal as it does not take into account the attenuation by the sample. Ot...... proposes a novel method that combines peak fitting and experimental results to estimate the background for 2D XRD signals....

  12. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Sheila

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.

  13. Background intercomparison with escape-suppressed germanium detectors in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuecs, Tamas; Bemmerer, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A key requirement for underground nuclear astrophysics experiments is the very low background level in germanium detectors underground. The reference for these purposes is the world's so far only underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics, LUNA. LUNA is located deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, shielded from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. The background at LUNA was studied in detail using an escape-suppressed Clover-type HPGe detector. Exactly the same detector was subsequently transported to the Felsenkeller underground laboratory in Dresden, shielded by 45 m of rock, and the background was shown to be only a factor of three higher than at LUNA when comparing the escape-suppressed spectra, with interesting consequences for underground nuclear astrophysics. As the next step of a systematic study of the effects of a combination of active and passive shielding on the cosmic ray induced background, this detector is now being brought to the ''Reiche Zeche'' mine in Freiberg/Sachsen, shielded by 150 m of rock. The data from the Freiberg measurement are shown and discussed.

  14. 22 CFR 1102.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Purpose. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION FREEDOM OF... implement the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552, as amended on November 21, 1974, by Public...

  15. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  16. Information service system in the power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Yukio; Mizuno, Hiromi; Shoda, Kohei; Sekine, Yasuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    For the purpose of improving the intelligent productivity in offices, the introduction of PC-LAN system by the initiative of users has been advanced. In this example, by connecting many personal computers, the information service system that possesses the information on the business of power stations in common was constructed, and intelligent productivity was improved. This information service system is that in which all users are the sponsor as the users and the offerer of information are united, therefore, high conscience level is required for individual users, and the attentive device for the easiness of use was exercised so as to always maintain newest information. The background of introducing this system is explained. The information systems in power stations are the system related to operation control, preventive maintenance and so on and the system for helping the routine works of personnel. The main functions are the offer of the operational data of power stations, the offer of the information on the expected visitors to the PR hall of nuclear power stations, electronic information exchange and so on. The constitution and the features of the system are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  18. Detecting the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacino, Carlo Nicola

    2017-12-01

    The stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) is by far the most difficult source of gravitational radiation detect. At the same time, it is the most interesting and intriguing one. This book describes the initial detection of the SGWB and describes the underlying mathematics behind one of the most amazing discoveries of the 21st century. On the experimental side it would mean that interferometric gravitational wave detectors work even better than expected. On the observational side, such a detection could give us information about the very early Universe, information that could not be obtained otherwise. Even negative results and improved upper bounds could put constraints on many cosmological and particle physics models.

  19. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses.

  20. Using dynamic mode decomposition for real-time background/foreground separation in video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Jose Nathan; Grosek, Jacob; Brunton, Steven; Fu, Xing; Pendergrass, Seth

    2017-06-06

    The technique of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is disclosed herein for the purpose of robustly separating video frames into background (low-rank) and foreground (sparse) components in real-time. Foreground/background separation is achieved at the computational cost of just one singular value decomposition (SVD) and one linear equation solve, thus producing results orders of magnitude faster than robust principal component analysis (RPCA). Additional techniques, including techniques for analyzing the video for multi-resolution time-scale components, and techniques for reusing computations to allow processing of streaming video in real time, are also described herein.

  1. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  2. The Influence of the Background Color “Red” on the Appraisal of Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Okamura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that color has an influence on human cognition and behavior. The red effect has been taken up by a large body of research and the purpose of the study was to test the influence of red as a background color on the appraisal of pictures. Participants were randomly divided into two conditions: red or white. They appraised the levels of valence and arousal of four pictures with background colors of red or white. Results demonstrated that the levels of arousal were significantly higher when negative pictures with background color red were presented than when they were presented with background color white. This study’s results are consistent with previous studies that have demonstrated a context-dependent manner of color effects on human cognition and behavior.

  3. 77 FR 38766 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms AGENCY: International Trade Administration...-0151, 0625-0215, 0625-0220, 0625-0228, and 0625- 0238. These collections include all client intake... trade events to U.S. organizations. The International Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms, previously...

  4. On the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Filardo Bassalo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will try to give a pale idea to the reader of what could be the Cosmic Microwave Background (RCFM that, according to the traditional Big Bang model, was generated by a primordial explosion. With this purpose we find it very important to present a brief historical summary of how the Microcosm, based on the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics (MPPE, and the Macrocosm, based on the Standard Big Bang Model (MPBB, have evolved over time. In addition, in the final part of the article we will analyze the two physical processes presented in the literature that seek to explain the RCFM: Bariogenesis and Plasma Quark-Gluon.

  5. Latent variable method for automatic adaptation to background states in motor imagery BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagaev, Nikolay; Volkova, Ksenia; Ossadtchi, Alexei

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are known to be vulnerable to variabilities in background states of a user. Usually, no detailed information on these states is available even during the training stage. Thus there is a need in a method which is capable of taking background states into account in an unsupervised way. Approach. We propose a latent variable method that is based on a probabilistic model with a discrete latent variable. In order to estimate the model’s parameters, we suggest to use the expectation maximization algorithm. The proposed method is aimed at assessing characteristics of background states without any corresponding data labeling. In the context of asynchronous motor imagery paradigm, we applied this method to the real data from twelve able-bodied subjects with open/closed eyes serving as background states. Main results. We found that the latent variable method improved classification of target states compared to the baseline method (in seven of twelve subjects). In addition, we found that our method was also capable of background states recognition (in six of twelve subjects). Significance. Without any supervised information on background states, the latent variable method provides a way to improve classification in BCI by taking background states into account at the training stage and then by making decisions on target states weighted by posterior probabilities of background states at the prediction stage.

  6. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rennie, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toevs, James Waldo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Darrin J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abhold, Mark Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  7. Planck intermediate results: XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Planck 2015 data release (PR2) temperature maps, we separate Galactic thermal dust emission from cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies. For this purpose, we implement a specifically tailored component-separation method, the so-called generalized needlet internal linear combinati...

  8. Validation procedures used in the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is (1) to document the data validation process developed for the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP); (2) to offer members of other project teams and potential data users the benefit of the experience gained in the BSCP in the area of developing project-specific data validation criteria and procedures based on best available guidance and technical information; and (3) to provide input and guidance to the efforts under way within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to develop standard operating procedures to streamline and optimize the analytical laboratory data validation process for general use by making it more technically rigorous, consistent, and cost effective. Lessons learned from the BSCP are also provided to meet this end (Sect. 1.3)

  9. Information and Communication Technology: Students' Health Education in 1st- to 6th-Grade South Korea Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Whyte, James; Jeong, Eunhoe

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purposes of this study were to (1) identify school nurses' awareness of information and communication technology (ICT) use in students' health education and (2) explore the barriers or reasons for the adoption of ICT in school nursing practice, while (3) presenting strategies to speed ICT diffusion and dissemination into practice.…

  10. Quantum noise properties of CT images with anatomical textured backgrounds across reconstruction algorithms: FBP and SAFIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Justin, E-mail: justin.solomon@duke.edu [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was

  11. Quantum noise properties of CT images with anatomical textured backgrounds across reconstruction algorithms: FBP and SAFIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was

  12. An automated background estimation procedure for gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervo, R.J.; Kennett, T.J.; Prestwich, W.V.

    1983-01-01

    An objective and simple method has been developed to estimate the background continuum in Ge gamma ray spectra. Requiring no special procedures, the method is readily automated. Based upon the inherent statistical properties of the experimental data itself, nodes, which reflect background samples are located and used to produce an estimate of the continuum. A simple procedure to interpolate between nodes is reported and a range of rather typical experimental data is presented. All information necessary to implemented this technique is given including the relevant properties of various factors involved in its development. (orig.)

  13. Background velocity inversion by phase along reflection wave paths

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Guo, Bowen; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    A background velocity model containing the correct lowwavenumber information is desired for both the quality of the migration image and the success of waveform inversion. We propose to invert for the low-wavenumber part of the velocity model by minimizing the phase difference between predicted and observed reflections. The velocity update is exclusively along the reflection wavepaths and, unlike conventional FWI, not along the reflection ellipses. This allows for reconstructing the smoothly varying parts of the background velocity model. Tests with synthetic data show both the benefits and limitations of this method.

  14. Background velocity inversion by phase along reflection wave paths

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-08-05

    A background velocity model containing the correct lowwavenumber information is desired for both the quality of the migration image and the success of waveform inversion. We propose to invert for the low-wavenumber part of the velocity model by minimizing the phase difference between predicted and observed reflections. The velocity update is exclusively along the reflection wavepaths and, unlike conventional FWI, not along the reflection ellipses. This allows for reconstructing the smoothly varying parts of the background velocity model. Tests with synthetic data show both the benefits and limitations of this method.

  15. Optical polarization: background and camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Hallberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Kariis, Hans; Bergström, David

    2017-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging sensors in the electro-optical region, already military and commercially available in both the visual and infrared, show enhanced capabilities for advanced target detection and recognition. The capabilities arise due to the ability to discriminate between man-made and natural background surfaces using the polarization information of light. In the development of materials for signature management in the visible and infrared wavelength regions, different criteria need to be met to fulfil the requirements for a good camouflage against modern sensors. In conventional camouflage design, the aimed design of the surface properties of an object is to spectrally match or adapt it to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast given by a specific threat sensor. Examples will be shown from measurements of some relevant materials and how they in different ways affect the polarimetric signature. Dimensioning properties relevant in an optical camouflage from a polarimetric perspective, such as degree of polarization, the viewing or incident angle, and amount of diffuse reflection, mainly in the infrared region, will be discussed.

  16. Spontaneous Radiation Background Calculation for LCLS

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, Sven

    2004-01-01

    The intensity of undulator radiation, not amplified by the FEL interaction, can be larger than the maximum FEL signal in the case of an X-ray FEL. In the commissioning of a SASE FEL it is essential to extract an amplified signal early to diagnose eventual misalignment of undulator modules or errors in the undulator field strength. We developed a numerical code to calculate the radiation pattern at any position behind a multi-segmented undulator with arbitrary spacing and field profiles. The output can be run through numerical spatial and frequency filters to model the radiation beam transport and diagnostic. In this presentation we estimate the expected background signal for the FEL diagnostic and at what point along the undulator the FEL signal can be separated from the background. We also discusses how much information on the undulator field and alignment can be obtained from the incoherent radiation signal itself.

  17. Study on the background information for the R and D of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2001-02-01

    It is quite important for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to analyze the R and D items after 'H12 report' and also provide their results of R and D activities to general public effectively. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, relating background informations were to be picked up. In this fiscal year, following two main topics were selected and studied. 1. Research and analysis on the options for the geological disposal concept. The major nuclear power-generating countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method for HLW disposal. Since 1990's, to make the geological disposal flexible, the alternative concepts for the disposal of HLW have been discussed promoting the social acceptance. In this context, recent optional discussions and international evaluations on the following topics were studied and summarized. (1) Reversibility of waste disposal/Retrievability of waste/Waste monitoring, (2) Long-term storage concept and its effectiveness, (3) Present position and role of international disposal. 2. Research and analysis on some educational materials collected from foreign countries. Although geological disposals is scheduled to start still in future, it is quite important to study the procedures to attract younger generation and get their proper perceptions on the nuclear energy and waste problems. As the supporting analysis to implement strategically the public relational activities for JNC's geological disposal R and D, particular attention was focused on the educational materials obtained in the last year's survey. Representative educational materials were selected and following items were studied and summarized. (1) Basic approach, positioning and characteristics of the educational materials, (2) Detailed analysis of the representatively selected educational materials, (3) Comparison of the analyzed characteristics and study on its feedback to Japanese materials. (author)

  18. The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, June

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of background music and song texts to teach emotional understanding to children with autism. Participants were 12 students (mean age 11.5 years) with a primary diagnosis of autism who were attending schools in Japan. Each participant was taught four emotions to decode and encode: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear by the counterbalanced treatment-order. The treatment consisted of the four conditions: (a) no contact control (NCC)--no purposeful teaching of the selected emotion, (b) contact control (CC)--teaching the selected emotion using verbal instructions alone, (c) background music (BM)--teaching the selected emotion by verbal instructions with background music representing the emotion, and singing songs (SS)--teaching the selected emotion by singing specially composed songs about the emotion. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest and received 8 individual sessions between these tests. The results indicated that all participants improved significantly in their understanding of the four selected emotions. Background music was significantly more effective than the other three conditions in improving participants' emotional understanding. The findings suggest that background music can be an effective tool to increase emotional understanding in children with autism, which is crucial to their social interactions.

  19. Characterization of the InSTEC's low-background gamma spectrometer for environmental radioactivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Lopez Pino, N.; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, K.; Reyes, H.; Padilla Cabal, F.; Arado Lopez, J.O.; Casanova Diaz, A.O.; Gelen Rudnikas, A.; Rodenas Palomino, C.; Gomez Arozamena, J.

    2010-01-01

    The capabilities of the Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC were studied for environmental purposes. Fifty three γ-lines were identified in the LBGS background spectrum. The Minimum Detectable Activity for 2 10 Pb, 2 38 U, 2 26 Ra, 1 37 Cs, 2 32 Th and 4 0K were calculated using the detector's volumetric efficiency simulated by the Monte Carlo method. Validation was performed by absolute and relative analysis of radionuclide activities present in a marine sediment certified material. (author)

  20. Considerations regarding the collection of pesticide use information for regulatory purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Proper use information is necessary to do exposure modelling in the scope of regulatory risk assessments. The legal regime under which the regulatory risk assessment is done influences the need for use information. Different legal regimes lead to more or less possibilities for authorities to define

  1. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and...

  2. How information systems should support the information needs of general dentists in clinical settings: suggestions from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wali Teena

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in designing useful clinical information systems in dentistry is to incorporate clinical evidence based on dentists' information needs and then integrate the system seamlessly into the complex clinical workflow. However, little is known about the actual information needs of dentists during treatment sessions. The purpose of this study is to identify general dentists' information needs and the information sources they use to meet those needs in clinical settings so as to inform the design of dental information systems. Methods A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 general dentists in the Pittsburgh area during clinical hours. One hundred and five patient cases were reported by these dentists. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis with a constant comparative method to identify categories and themes regarding information needs and information source use patterns. Results Two top-level categories of information needs were identified: foreground and background information needs. To meet these needs, dentists used four types of information sources: clinical information/tasks, administrative tasks, patient education and professional development. Major themes of dentists' unmet information needs include: (1 timely access to information on various subjects; (2 better visual representations of dental problems; (3 access to patient-specific evidence-based information; and (4 accurate, complete and consistent documentation of patient records. Resource use patterns include: (1 dentists' information needs matched information source use; (2 little use of electronic sources took place during treatment; (3 source use depended on the nature and complexity of the dental problems; and (4 dentists routinely practiced cross-referencing to verify patient information. Conclusions Dentists have various information needs at the point of care. Among them, the needs

  3. Intense ion beam neutralization using underdense background plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdanier, William [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Roy, Prabir K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kaganovich, Igor [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Producing an overdense background plasma for neutralization purposes with a density that is high compared to the beam density is not always experimentally possible. We show that even an underdense background plasma with a small relative density can achieve high neutralization of intense ion beam pulses. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we show that if the total plasma electron charge is not sufficient to neutralize the beam charge, electron emitters are necessary for effective neutralization but are not needed if the plasma volume is so large that the total available charge in the electrons exceeds that of the ion beam. Several regimes of possible underdense/tenuous neutralization plasma densities are investigated with and without electron emitters or dense plasma at periphery regions, including the case of electron emitters without plasma, which does not effectively neutralize the beam. Over 95% neutralization is achieved for even very underdense background plasma with plasma density 1/15th the beam density. We compare results of particle-in-cell simulations with an analytic model of neutralization and find close agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations. Further, we show experimental data from the National Drift Compression experiment-II group that verifies the result that underdense plasma can neutralize intense heavy ion beams effectively.

  4. Measurement of natural background radiation intensity on a train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y. F.; Lin, J. W.; Sheu, R. J.; Lin, U. T.; Jiang, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to measure different components of natural background radiation on a train. A radiation measurement system consisting of four types of radiation detectors, namely, a Berkeley Lab cosmic-ray detector, moderated 3He detector, high pressure ionisation chamber and NaI(Tl) spectrometer, associated with a global positioning system unit was established for this purpose. For the commissioning of the system, a test measurement on a train along the railway around the northern Taiwan coast from Hsinchu to Hualien with a distance of ∼275 km was carried out. No significant variation of the intensities of the different components of natural background radiation was observed, except when the train went underground or in the tunnels. The average external dose rate received by the crew of the train was estimated to be 62 nSv h -1 . (authors)

  5. Socio-economic background and prevalence of visual defects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of this study is to examine the socio-economic background and prevalence of visual defects among students in public and private secondary schools in Calabar municipality in Cross River State. The main objective of the study is to screen for and present information on the prevalence of visual defects amongst the ...

  6. 45 CFR 73.735-101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT General Provisions § 73.735-101 Purpose. To assure that the business of the Department of Health and Human Services... responsibilities. In accord with these principles, the regulations in this part are issued to inform HHS employees...

  7. Hanford Site background: Evaluation of existing soil radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report is an evaluation of the existing data on radiological background for soils in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The primary purpose of this report is to assess the adequacy of the existing data to serve as a radiological background baseline for use in environmental restoration and remediation activities at the Hanford Site. The soil background data compiled and evaluated in this report were collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Washington State Department of Health (DOH) radiation surveillance programs in southeastern Washington. These two programs provide the largest well-documented, quantitative data sets available to evaluate background conditions at the Hanford Site. The data quality objectives (DQOs) considered in this evaluation include the amount of data, number of sampling localities, spatial coverage, number and types of radionuclides reported, frequency of reporting, documentation and traceability of sampling and laboratory methods used, and comparability between sets of data. Although other data on soil radionuclide abundances around the Hanford Site exist, they are generally limited in scope and lack the DQOs necessary for consideration with the PNL and DOH data sets. Collectively, these two sources provide data on the activities of 25 radionuclides and four other parameters (gross alpha, gross beta, total uranium, and total thorium). These measurements were made on samples from the upper 2.5 cm of soil at over 70 localities within the region

  8. Health Information Technology Continues to Show Positive Effect on Medical Outcomes: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Beane, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Background Health information technology (HIT) has been introduced into the health care industry since the 1960s when mainframes assisted with financial transactions, but questions remained about HIT’s contribution to medical outcomes. Several systematic reviews since the 1990s have focused on this relationship. This review updates the literature. Objective The purpose of this review was to analyze the current literature for the impact of HIT on medical outcomes. We hypothesized that there is...

  9. 78 FR 56771 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Information Collection Renewal; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Activities: Information Collection Renewal; Comment Request; Affiliate Marketing AGENCIES: Office of the... information received from an affiliate to make a solicitation for marketing purposes to the consumer, unless... solicitation for marketing purposes to consumers. If a person receives certain consumer eligibility information...

  10. Characterization of the InSTEC's low-background gamma spectrometer for environmental radioactivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Lopez Pino, N.; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, K.; Reyes, H.; Padilla Cabal, F.; Arado Lopez, J.O.; Casanova Diaz, A.O.; Gelen Rudnikas, A.; Rodenas Palomino, C.; Gomez Arozamena, J.

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of the Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC were studied for environmental purposes. Fifty three ?-lines were fixed/identified? in the LBGS background spectrum. The Minimum Detectable Activity for 2 10 Pb, 2 38 U, 2 26 Ra, 1 37 Cs, 2 32 Th and 4 0K were calculated using the detector's volumetric efficiency simulated by the Monte Carlo method. The radionuclide activities in a marine sediment standard reference material? were determined by absolute and relative methods for validation./¿absolute and relative validation? (author)

  11. Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    States has signed such agreements with Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Belize, Croatia, Cyprus, Liberia, Malta, the Marshall Islands , Mongolia...Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC), and the Australia Group. The informal Australia Group...biological agents or toxins “of types and in quantities that have no justification for peaceful purposes.” The missile nonproliferation regime is founded not

  12. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majorovits, B., E-mail: bela@mppmu.mpg.de [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, S.S.17/bis, km 18 plus 910, I-67100 Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2011-08-11

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10{sup -5} counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  13. Biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe. General information, favorable concepts and financing possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellenbroek, R.; Ballard-Tremeer, G.; Koeks, R.; Venendaal, R.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide information on the possibilities to invest and carry out biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe. In the first part of the guide background information is given on countries in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on bio-energy. A few cases are presented to illustrate different biomass energy concepts. Based on economic calculations an indication is given of the feasibility of those concepts. Also the most relevant sources of information are listed. In the second part an overview is given of Dutch, European and international financial tools that can be used in biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe

  14. Effect of the Interaction of Text Structure, Background Knowledge and Purpose on Attention to Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    in4 the sense proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972). All levels of representation would entail such preliminary processing operations as perceptual...109. Craik , F. I., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11... processes this information to a deeper level than those text elements that are less important or irrelevant. The terminology "deeper" level is used here

  15. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations…

  16. Detecting impact signal in mechanical fault diagnosis under chaotic and Gaussian background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinfeng; Duan, Jie; Chen, Zhuo; Li, Huiyong; Xie, Julan; Chen, Hanwen

    2018-01-01

    In actual fault diagnosis, useful information is often submerged in heavy noise, and the feature information is difficult to extract. Traditional methods, such like stochastic resonance (SR), which using noise to enhance weak signals instead of suppressing noise, failed in chaotic background. Neural network, which use reference sequence to estimate and reconstruct the background noise, failed in white Gaussian noise. To solve these problems, a novel weak signal detection method aimed at the problem of detecting impact signal buried under heavy chaotic and Gaussian background noise is proposed. First, the proposed method obtains the virtual reference sequence by constructing the Hankel data matrix. Then an M-order optimal FIR filter is designed, which can minimize the output power of background noise and pass the weak periodic signal undistorted. Finally, detection and reconstruction of the weak periodic signal are achieved from the output SBNR (signal to background noise ratio). The simulation shows, compared with the stochastic resonance (SR) method, the proposed method can detect the weak periodic signal in chaotic noise background while stochastic resonance (SR) method cannot. Compared with the neural network method, (a) the proposed method does not need a reference sequence while neural network method needs one; (b) the proposed method can detect the weak periodic signal in white Gaussian noise background while the neural network method fails, in chaotic noise background, the proposed method can detect the weak periodic signal under a lower SBNR (about 8-17 dB lower) than the neural network method; (c) the proposed method can reconstruct the weak periodic signal precisely.

  17. The Impacts of Language Background and Language-Related Disorders in Auditory Processing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of language background and language-related disorders (LRDs--dyslexia and/or language impairment) on performance in English speech and nonspeech tests of auditory processing (AP) commonly used in the clinic. Method: A clinical database concerning 133 multilingual children (mostly with English as an additional…

  18. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    23, 2013. 6 Background information on Saudi cabinet members is available at http://www.saudiembassy.net/about/ Biographies - of-Ministers.aspx. Saudi...territories it occupied in 1967, (2) agree to the establishment of a Palestinian state with a capital in East Jerusalem , and provide for the (3) “[a...compromise on Palestinian sovereignty in Jerusalem .” Elhanan Miller, “Arab ministers back Abbas in rejecting ‘Jewish’ Israel,” Times of Israel, January

  19. arXiv Probing non-Gaussian Stochastic Gravitational Wave Backgrounds with LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Nicola; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Peloso, Marco; Pieroni, Mauro; Ricciardone, Angelo; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Sorbo, Lorenzo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    The stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) contains a wealth of information on astrophysical and cosmological processes. A major challenge of upcoming years will be to extract the information contained in this background and to disentangle the contributions of different sources. In this paper we provide the formalism to extract, from the correlation of three signals in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), information about the tensor three-point function, which characterizes the non-Gaussian properties of the SGWB. Compared to the two-point function, the SGWB three-point function has a richer dependence on the gravitational wave momenta and chiralities, and a larger number of signal channels. It can be used therefore as a powerful discriminator between different models. We provide LISA's response functions to a general SGWB three-point function. As examples, we study in full detail the cases of an equilateral and squeezed SGWB bispectra, and provide the explicit form of the response functio...

  20. Investigating patient narratives posted on Internet and their informativeness level for pharmacovigilance purpose: The example of comments about statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheloufi, Farid; Default, Anne; Blin, Olivier; Micallef, Joelle

    2017-09-01

    Health-related networks like patient health forums may be considered as potential sources of information to early detect pharmacovigilance issues or complete data on drug safety. However, the clinical and pharmacological relevancy of such a source has not been clearly explored. We aimed to describe the characteristics and the informativeness level of Internet narratives posted by patients and mentioning adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to statins. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on an Internet website dedicated to share experience on medicines. One day of December 2012, postings about simvastatin, rosuvastatin and atorvastatin publicly available on the website were collected. Their informativeness according to 16 key elements of information (including drug start and stop date, duration of treatment, time to onset and duration of the ADR, outcome, medical history, concomitant medication) was assessed. General information about reported ADRs was also investigated. Among the 96 postings related to statins, 72 (40 women, 32 men; mean age: 59 [40-78]) mentioned at least one ADR accounting for a total of 176 ADRs. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders (42.6%) and nervous system disorders (15.3%) were the main represented ADRs. Only 2 patients mentioned ADRs that could be considered as serious but 24 patients mentioned they stopped or switched their treatment toward another lipid modifying agent because of the ADR. Mean number of available key elements of information per narrative was 6/16. Time to onset and duration of the ADR were respectively available in only 31% and 3% of the narratives. Medical history and concomitant medication were respectively lacking in 87% and 86% of the narratives. Outcome was found only in 39% of the narratives. Patient narratives posted on Internet include mainly non-serious expected ADR. However, their informativeness level is very incomplete and makes difficult their assessment and use for

  1. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode

  2. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  3. Attention Drainage Effect: How Background Music Effects Concentration in Taiwanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Peter Tze-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether different types of background music affect the performance of a reading comprehension task in Taiwanese college students. There are two major research questions in this study. First, this study tries to find out whether listening to music affect the learner's concentration when they are doing a task…

  4. Talker and background noise specificity in spoken word recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cooper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has demonstrated that listeners are sensitive to changes in the indexical (talker-specific characteristics of speech input, suggesting that these signal-intrinsic features are integrally encoded in memory for spoken words. Given that listeners frequently must contend with concurrent environmental noise, to what extent do they also encode signal-extrinsic details? Native English listeners’ explicit memory for spoken English monosyllabic and disyllabic words was assessed as a function of consistency versus variation in the talker’s voice (talker condition and background noise (noise condition using a delayed recognition memory paradigm. The speech and noise signals were spectrally-separated, such that changes in a simultaneously presented non-speech signal (background noise from exposure to test would not be accompanied by concomitant changes in the target speech signal. The results revealed that listeners can encode both signal-intrinsic talker and signal-extrinsic noise information into integrated cognitive representations, critically even when the two auditory streams are spectrally non-overlapping. However, the extent to which extra-linguistic episodic information is encoded alongside linguistic information appears to be modulated by syllabic characteristics, with specificity effects found only for monosyllabic items. These findings suggest that encoding and retrieval of episodic information during spoken word processing may be modulated by lexical characteristics.

  5. Human Information Behaviour and Design, Development and Evaluation of Information Retrieval Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of human information behaviour and to explore the relationship between information behaviour of users and the existing approaches dominating design and evaluation of information retrieval (IR) systems and also to describe briefly new design and evaluation methods in which extensive…

  6. Infrared image background modeling based on improved Susan filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuehua, Xia

    2018-02-01

    When SUSAN filter is used to model the infrared image, the Gaussian filter lacks the ability of direction filtering. After filtering, the edge information of the image cannot be preserved well, so that there are a lot of edge singular points in the difference graph, increase the difficulties of target detection. To solve the above problems, the anisotropy algorithm is introduced in this paper, and the anisotropic Gauss filter is used instead of the Gauss filter in the SUSAN filter operator. Firstly, using anisotropic gradient operator to calculate a point of image's horizontal and vertical gradient, to determine the long axis direction of the filter; Secondly, use the local area of the point and the neighborhood smoothness to calculate the filter length and short axis variance; And then calculate the first-order norm of the difference between the local area of the point's gray-scale and mean, to determine the threshold of the SUSAN filter; Finally, the built SUSAN filter is used to convolution the image to obtain the background image, at the same time, the difference between the background image and the original image is obtained. The experimental results show that the background modeling effect of infrared image is evaluated by Mean Squared Error (MSE), Structural Similarity (SSIM) and local Signal-to-noise Ratio Gain (GSNR). Compared with the traditional filtering algorithm, the improved SUSAN filter has achieved better background modeling effect, which can effectively preserve the edge information in the image, and the dim small target is effectively enhanced in the difference graph, which greatly reduces the false alarm rate of the image.

  7. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  8. Big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background anisotropies and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signore, Monique; Puy, Denis

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade, cosmological observations have attained a level of precision which allows for very detailed comparison with theoretical predictions. We are beginning to learn the answers to some fundamental questions, using information contained in Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy (CMBA) data. In this talk, we briefly review some studies of the current and prospected constraints imposed by CMBA measurements on the neutrino physics and on the dark energy. As it was already announced by Scott, we present some possible new physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

  9. Retinal Image Preprocessing: Background and Noise Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Akram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal images are used for the automated screening and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. The retinal image quality must be improved for the detection of features and abnormalities and for this purpose preprocessing of retinal images is vital. In this paper, we present a novel automated approach for preprocessing of colored retinal images. The proposed technique improves the quality of input retinal image by separating the background and noisy area from the overall image. It contains coarse segmentation and fine segmentation. Standard retinal images databases Diaretdb0, Diaretdb1, DRIVE and STARE are used to test the validation of our preprocessing technique. The experimental results show the validity of proposed preprocessing technique.

  10. Epidemiological investigation of radiological effects in high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Luxin; Zha, Yongru; Tao, Zufan; He, Weihui; Chen, Deqing; Yuan, Yongling

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to provide some information for providing whether any detrimental effects exist in a large population whose families have been continuously exposed to a low dose rate radiation. Two areas in Yangjiang Country, characterized by high background radiation (HBR) with environmental gamma exposure, large population size and long-term inhabitants, were selected for evaluation of late effects of HBR. The areas with normal radiation background close to the Yangjiang Country were selected as control areas. Up to 1986 approximately one million person-years in each area in both HBR and control areas have been observed. No increase of cancer mortality was found in the HBR areas; on the contrary, cancer mortality tended to be lower in the HBR areas than the control areas. The prevalence of hereditary diseases and congenital defects was similar in both HBR and control areas, but the frequency of Down's syndrome was higher in the HBR areas (through within the normal range) than the control areas. A possible explanation is the difference of age of maternity between the HBR and control areas, and the extremely low frequency in the control areas. Possible factors influencing the incidence of mutationbased diseases were comparable in the HBR and control groups. However, the cultural and educational levels were somewhat different, probably affecting health status and family planning. It is likely that there may be a dose threshold for cancer incidence, but this remains to be determined by further research. (N.K.)

  11. Maximizing and Personalizing E-Learning Support for Students with Different Backgrounds and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, Olga; Amitan, Irina; Vendelin, Jelena; Vilipõld, Jüri; Saar, Merike

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a teaching approach to achieve the most personal support for students with different backgrounds and preferences in studying an Informatics course. Design/Methodology/Approach: The presented methodology is based on the main principles of flexible and blended learning. The authors considered three main aspects:…

  12. Planck 2013 results. XVIII. Gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of these two unique probes allows us to measure directly the connection between dark and luminous matter in the high redshift (1 1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2 sigma significance for three redshift bins between z=1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.

  13. ADAPTIVE BACKGROUND DENGAN METODE GAUSSIAN MIXTURE MODELS UNTUK REAL-TIME TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rostianingsih

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, motion tracking application is widely used for many purposes, such as detecting traffic jam and counting how many people enter a supermarket or a mall. A method to separate background and the tracked object is required for motion tracking. It will not be hard to develop the application if the tracking is performed on a static background, but it will be difficult if the tracked object is at a place with a non-static background, because the changing part of the background can be recognized as a tracking area. In order to handle the problem an application can be made to separate background where that separation can adapt to change that occur. This application is made to produce adaptive background using Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM as its method. GMM method clustered the input pixel data with pixel color value as it’s basic. After the cluster formed, dominant distributions are choosen as background distributions. This application is made by using Microsoft Visual C 6.0. The result of this research shows that GMM algorithm could made adaptive background satisfactory. This proofed by the result of the tests that succeed at all condition given. This application can be developed so the tracking process integrated in adaptive background maker process. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Saat ini, aplikasi motion tracking digunakan secara luas untuk banyak tujuan, seperti mendeteksi kemacetan dan menghitung berapa banyak orang yang masuk ke sebuah supermarket atau sebuah mall. Sebuah metode untuk memisahkan antara background dan obyek yang di-track dibutuhkan untuk melakukan motion tracking. Membuat aplikasi tracking pada background yang statis bukanlah hal yang sulit, namun apabila tracking dilakukan pada background yang tidak statis akan lebih sulit, dikarenakan perubahan background dapat dikenali sebagai area tracking. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut, dapat dibuat suatu aplikasi untuk memisahkan background dimana aplikasi tersebut dapat

  14. A systematic analysis of the XMM-Newton background: IV. Origin of the unfocused and focused components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldello, F.; Ghizzardi, S.; Marelli, M.; Salvetti, D.; Molendi, S.; De Luca, A.; Moretti, A.; Rossetti, M.; Tiengo, A.

    2017-12-01

    We show the results obtained in the FP7 European program EXTraS and in the ESA R&D ATHENA activity AREMBES aimed at a deeper understanding of the XMM-Newton background to better design the ATHENA mission. Thanks to an analysis of the full EPIC archive coupled to the information obtained by the Radiation Monitor we show the cosmic ray origin of the unfocused particle background and its anti-correlation with the solar activity. We show the first results of the effort to obtain informations about the particle component of the soft proton focused background.

  15. Use of the internet for health purposes: trends in Norway 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangberg, Silje; Andreassen, Hege; Kummervold, Per; Wynn, Rolf; Sørensen, Tove

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the 10 year trends in the use and projected use of internet for health purposes in Norway. This includes more detailed analyses of changes in latter years, current uses, valuation as source of health information, reported effects and projected developments. Surveys on the use of the internet for health purposes have been conducted in Norway in the years 2000, 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. Representative samples were drawn from the population, and interviews were conducted by poll agencies using telephone (CATI). Internet use for health purposes in the Norwegian population has increased dramatically over the last 7 years from 19% in 2000 to 67% in 2007. If this trend continues, we estimate that 84% of the Norwegian population will be using internet for health purposes by the year 2010. Reading about health or illness is the most common activity, and the rated importance of the internet as a source of health information is increasing. The internet is also used more for ordering medicines and other health-related products. Forty-four per cent of those having used the internet for health purposes reported having searched for lifestyle-related information, and 40% reported having felt inspired to change health behaviour. The internet is an important source of health information, which is likely to increase in importance in the years to come. This study further underlines the potential of internet use for health promoting purposes, as well as the potential for exacerbating social disparities in health.

  16. How Informed Are Informal Educators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Niess, Margaret L.

    1998-01-01

    Explores current reforms in both mathematics and science education that emphasize the importance of learning in informal settings. Suggests that informal education must include planned and purposeful attempts to facilitate students' understanding of mathematics and science in community settings other than the local school. (Author/CCM)

  17. Report: Management Alert - EPA Has Not Initiated Required Background Investigations for Information Systems Contractor Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0409, September 27, 2017. Not vetting contractor personnel before granting them network access exposes the EPA to risks. Contractor personnel with potentially questionable backgrounds who access sensitive agency data could cause harm.

  18. The morphological /settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sogoni, Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery Zukisa Sogoni Planning Africa Conference 2016 4 July 2Project Focus and Background • CSIR... services. • Purpose is to support application & planning for new investment & prevent “unsustainable” investments / White elephants. 3Outputs • National set of service delivery catchments • Profile information per individual catchment • Ranking...

  19. The Development of Strategies for the Assignment of Semantic Information to Unknown Lexemes in Text. Lenguas para Objetivos Especificas (Languages for Special Purposes), No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Charles; Alvarez, Guadalupe

    An English for Special Purposes (ESP) course being developed aims to give the students a series of techniques to help them handle vocabulary in a text, and teach them strategies for identifying meaning in context. Traditional strategies, such as the study of morphology, use of grammatical information, and exercises in dictionary usage, are…

  20. Patient information about radiation therapy: a survey in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Annie; Kantor, Guy; Dilhuydy, Jean-Marie; Toulouse, Claude; Germain, Colette; Le Polles, Gisele; Salamon, Roger; Scalliet, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: We performed a survey to evaluate the present status and means of information given to patients treated by radiotherapy. A short questionnaire was sent, with the help of ESTRO, to 746 European heads of department with a request to send specific documents used for informing the patient. Within 2 months (March and April 1996) we received 290 answers (39%) and 97 centres sent documents. Materials and methods: Analysis of the questionnaire and the documents was performed quantitatively with usual statistical methods and qualitatively with a socio-anthropological method of content analysis. Results: Analysis of the questionnaire shows the major role of the radiation oncologist in giving information and writing documents. The 298 different samples sent from 97 centres represent a wide panel with a booklet of general information (59 booklets/57 centres), practical advice and specific explanations (177 documents/49 centres) and informed consent (36 documents/28 centres). The anthropological study was centred on the way information was given, evaluation of the patient's understanding and analysis of documents sent. Conclusion: This preliminary survey needs to be completed by a study, including the patient's point of view and needs, about the information given

  1. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...... on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors...

  2. Benchmarking the Particle Background in the Large Hadron Collider Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, Edda; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Hessey, N P; Otto, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Background benchmarking measurements have been made to check the low-energy processes which will contribute via nuclear reactions to the radiation background in the LHC experiments at CERN. Previously these processes were only evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations, estimated to be reliable within an uncertainty factor of 2.5. Measurements were carried out in an experimental set-up comparable to the shielding of ATLAS, one of the general-purpose experiments at LHC. The absolute yield and spectral measurements of photons and neutrons emanating from the final stages of the hadronic showers were made with a Bi_4Ge_3O_{12} (BGO) detector. The particle transport code FLUKA was used for detailed simulations. Comparison between measurements and simulations show that they agree within 20% and hence the uncertainty factor resulting from the shower processes can be reduced to a factor of 1.2.

  3. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  4. 12 CFR 912.2 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Directors shall not jointly conduct or dispose of official Finance Board business other than in accordance... and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS INFORMATION REGARDING MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD § 912.2 Purpose...

  5. 19 CFR 103.21 - Purpose and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... International Trade. Nothing in this subpart is intended to restrict the disclosure of Customs information requested by the Court of International Trade, U.S. Attorneys, or attorneys of the Department of Justice... internal Customs policies and procedures. (b) Customs employee. For purposes of this subpart, the term...

  6. Background Noise Contributes to Organic Solvent Induced Brain Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’neil W. Guthrie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to complex blends of organic solvents is believed to alter brain functions among workers. However, work environments that contain organic solvents are also polluted with background noise which raises the issue of whether or not the noise contributed to brain alterations. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not repeated exposure to low intensity noise with and without exposure to a complex blend of organic solvents would alter brain activity. Female Fischer344 rats served as subjects in these experiments. Asynchronous volume conductance between the midbrain and cortex was evaluated with a slow vertex recording technique. Subtoxic solvent exposure, by itself, had no statistically significant effects. However, background noise significantly suppressed brain activity and this suppression was exacerbated with solvent exposure. Furthermore, combined exposure produced significantly slow neurotransmission. These abnormal neurophysiologic findings occurred in the absence of hearing loss and detectable damage to sensory cells. The observations from the current experiment raise concern for all occupations where workers are repeatedly exposed to background noise or noise combined with organic solvents. Noise levels and solvent concentrations that are currently considered safe may not actually be safe and existing safety regulations have failed to recognize the neurotoxic potential of combined exposures.

  7. Background Noise Contributes to Organic Solvent Induced Brain Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W.; Wong, Brian A.; McInturf, Shawn M.; Reboulet, James E.; Ortiz, Pedro A.; Mattie, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex blends of organic solvents is believed to alter brain functions among workers. However, work environments that contain organic solvents are also polluted with background noise which raises the issue of whether or not the noise contributed to brain alterations. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not repeated exposure to low intensity noise with and without exposure to a complex blend of organic solvents would alter brain activity. Female Fischer344 rats served as subjects in these experiments. Asynchronous volume conductance between the midbrain and cortex was evaluated with a slow vertex recording technique. Subtoxic solvent exposure, by itself, had no statistically significant effects. However, background noise significantly suppressed brain activity and this suppression was exacerbated with solvent exposure. Furthermore, combined exposure produced significantly slow neurotransmission. These abnormal neurophysiologic findings occurred in the absence of hearing loss and detectable damage to sensory cells. The observations from the current experiment raise concern for all occupations where workers are repeatedly exposed to background noise or noise combined with organic solvents. Noise levels and solvent concentrations that are currently considered safe may not actually be safe and existing safety regulations have failed to recognize the neurotoxic potential of combined exposures. PMID:26885406

  8. Background Noise Contributes to Organic Solvent Induced Brain Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex blends of organic solvents is believed to alter brain functions among workers. However, work environments that contain organic solvents are also polluted with background noise which raises the issue of whether or not the noise contributed to brain alterations. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not repeated exposure to low intensity noise with and without exposure to a complex blend of organic solvents would alter brain activity. Female Fischer344 rats served as subjects in these experiments. Asynchronous volume conductance between the midbrain and cortex was evaluated with a slow vertex recording technique. Subtoxic solvent exposure, by itself, had no statistically significant effects. However, background noise significantly suppressed brain activity and this suppression was exacerbated with solvent exposure. Furthermore, combined exposure produced significantly slow neurotransmission. These abnormal neurophysiologic findings occurred in the absence of hearing loss and detectable damage to sensory cells. The observations from the current experiment raise concern for all occupations where workers are repeatedly exposed to background noise or noise combined with organic solvents. Noise levels and solvent concentrations that are currently considered safe may not actually be safe and existing safety regulations have failed to recognize the neurotoxic potential of combined exposures.

  9. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  10. Background and planning requirements for spent fuel shipments to DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenscroft, Norman [Edlow International Company, 1666 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 201, Washington, DC 20009 (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Information is provided on the planning required and the factors that must be included in the planning process for spent fuel shipments to DOE. A summary is also provided on the background concerning renewal of the DOE spent fuel acceptance policy in May 1996. (author)

  11. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sector Built Environment; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening SER Energieakkoord. Sector Gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Tigchelaar, C. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    This publication is part of the support given by ECN and PBL in the development of a national energy agreement between March and September 2013 as initiated by the SER (Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands). The report gives background information on the evaluation of measures in the agreement aimed at the built environment. It is an annex of the general evaluation of PBL/ECN [Dutch] Dit rapport is geschreven als onderdeel van de ondersteuning door ECN en PBL bij het tot stand komen van het energieakkoord in de periode maart tot september 2013. Dit rapport dient als achtergrond bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving.

  12. 47 CFR 17.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... antenna structure owners. The standards are referenced from two Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... STRUCTURES General Information § 17.1 Basis and purpose. (a) The rules in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in Title III of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, which vest...

  13. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. 31 CFR 594.305 - Information or informational materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.305 Information or informational materials. (a) For purposes of this...

  15. A background risk analysis. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques, described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 1 contains a short history of risk analysis, and chapters on risk, failures, errors and accidents, and general procedures for risk analysis. (BP)

  16. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  17. Developing an Interpretive Structural Modeling(ISM in order to Achieve Agility via Information Technology in Manufacturing Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agility is considered the ability to respond quickly to changes and a major factor for success and survival in today's business. The purpose of this research is to offer a conceptual model using Interpretive Structural Modeling(ISM. To this end after reviewing literature and theoretical background, the indices related to achieving agility via information technology (IT have been identified and then the Interpretive Structural Model in four levels has been represented. Findings show that tendency and commitment of top managers, organizational climate and strategic planning alignment with information technology planning is the major factors affecting agility achievement via information technology (IT.

  18. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 4 treats human error in plant operation. (BP)

  19. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 2 treats generic methods of qualitative failure analysis. (BP)

  20. 31 CFR 595.306 - Information and informational materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.306 Information and informational materials. (a)(1) For purposes of this part...

  1. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  2. The use of information and communication technologies for the purposes of surveilance in working organizations: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of information and communication technologies for the purposes of surveillance in working organizations in general and in Serbia as well. Until now, explosive development of information and communication technologies provided unprecedented possibilities for employee's surveillance. In line with that, fundamental questions that lie in the core of this paper are, firstly, in which way and extent new surveillance technologies empower employers as owners of the complete production process, and secondly, whether usage of new surveillance technologies will fulfill the long-lasting capitalists desire to make workforce a predictable component of the working process. Beside defining theoretical framework and analyzing different aspects of work surveillance, we have conducted an empirical research in the form of 15 in-depth interviews with people employed in different types of Serbian working organizations. The results of our research showed that surveillance practice is widespread in both international and domestic working organizations. What is even more surprising, the employees, with the exception of rare and sporadic resistant strategies, quite readily accept surveillance as a natural fact without any idea that their working and human rights have been violated.

  3. Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity. PMID:25426029

  4. Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W; Zhang, Li I; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity.

  5. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  6. Digital privacy in the marketplace perspectives on the information exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Milne, George

    2015-01-01

    Digital Privacy in the Marketplace focuses on the data ex-changes between marketers and consumers, with special ttention to the privacy challenges that are brought about by new information technologies. The purpose of this book is to provide a background source to help the reader think more deeply about the impact of privacy issues on both consumers and marketers. It covers topics such as: why privacy is needed, the technological, historical and academic theories of privacy, how market exchange af-fects privacy, what are the privacy harms and protections available, and what is the likely future of privacy.

  7. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  8. 75 FR 42824 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... certain information received from an affiliate to make a solicitation for marketing purposes to a consumer... marketing purposes or opt out. Financial institutions will use the consumers' opt out responses to determine... number. The OCC is soliciting comment concerning an information collection titled, ``Affiliate Marketing...

  9. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  10. 40 CFR 260.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....1 Section 260.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL General § 260.1 Purpose, scope, and applicability. (a) This part provides definitions of terms, general standards, and overview information applicable to...

  11. Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wais, E. A.; Rodabaugh, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices

  12. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  13. Cognitive Investigation Study of Patients Admitted for Cosmetic Surgery: Information, Expectations, and Consent for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Barone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn all branches of medicine, it is the surgeon's responsibility to provide the patient with accurate information before surgery. This is especially important in cosmetic surgery because the surgeon must focus on the aesthetic results desired by the patient.MethodsAn experimental protocol was developed based on an original questionnaire given to 72 patients. The nature of the responses, the patients' motivation and expectations, the degree of patient awareness regarding the planned operation, and the patients' perceptions of the purpose of the required consent for cosmetic surgery were all analyzed using Fisher's exact test.ResultsCandidates for abdominal wall surgery had significantly more preoperative psychological problems than their counterparts did (P=0.035. A significantly different percentage of patients under 40 years of age compared to those over 40 years of age searched for additional sources of information prior to the operation (P=0.046. Only 30% of patients with a lower educational background stated that the preoperative information had been adequate, whereas 92% of subjects with secondary schooling or a postsecondary degree felt that the information was sufficient (P=0.001. A statistically significant difference was also present between patients according to their educational background regarding expected improvements in their quality of life postoperatively (P=0.008.ConclusionsThis study suggests that patients require more attention in presurgical consultations and that clear communication should be prioritized to ensure that the surgeon understands the patient's expectations.

  14. Community Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew

    Information is provided on technological and social trends as background for a workshop designed to heighten the consciousness of workers in community information systems. Initially, the basic terminology is considered in its implications for an integrated perspective of community information systems, with particular attention given to the meaning…

  15. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  16. Observations and modeling of seismic background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon R.

    1993-01-01

    The preparation of this report had two purposes. One was to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra obtained from a worldwide network of seismograph stations. The other purpose was to refine and document models of seismic background noise that have been in use for several years. The second objective was, in fact, the principal reason that this study was initiated and influenced the procedures used in collecting and processing the data.With a single exception, all of the data used in this study were extracted from the digital data archive at the U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). This archive dates from 1972 when ASL first began deploying digital seismograph systems and collecting and distributing digital data under the sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). There have been many changes and additions to the global seismograph networks during the past twenty years, but perhaps none as significant as the current deployment of very broadband seismographs by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California San Diego (UCSD) under the scientific direction of the IRIS consortium. The new data acquisition systems have extended the bandwidth and resolution of seismic recording, and they utilize high-density recording media that permit the continuous recording of broadband data. The data improvements and continuous recording greatly benefit and simplify surveys of seismic background noise.Although there are many other sources of digital data, the ASL archive data were used almost exclusively because of accessibility and because the data systems and their calibration are well documented for the most part. Fortunately, the ASL archive contains high-quality data from other stations in addition to those deployed by the USGS. Included are data from UCSD IRIS/IDA stations, the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) deployed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the TERRAscope network

  17. The use of Social Networks for Educational Purposes - Case Study: Polytechnic Nikola Tesla in Gospic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Skendžić

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are a way of mass communication between users, but they are also applied for educational purposes. The aim of this paper is to analyze the way that students use social networks for educational purposes, to find out how students come to information, do they use social networks for access to information related to teaching and exams, and what they think about the quality of information obtained from social networks. The relationship between the use of social networks for educational purposes and demographic indicators is examined. χ2 test for testing independence of the two characteristics was conducted.

  18. 17 CFR 248.101 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.101 Purpose and scope. (a...”), regulates the use of consumer information received from an affiliate to make marketing solicitations. (b) Scope. This subpart applies to any broker or dealer other than a notice-registered broker or dealer, to...

  19. Crucial aspects promoting meaning and purpose in life: perceptions of nursing home residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn Drageset

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meaning and purpose in life are fundamental to human beings. In changing times, with an aging population and increased life expectancy, the need for health care services and long-term care is likely to grow. More deeply understanding how older long-term care residents perceive meaning and purpose in life is critical for improving the quality of care and the residents’ quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore crucial aspects promoting nursing home residents’ experience of meaning and purpose in everyday life. Method An exploratory hermeneutical design with qualitative interviews for collecting data. Results Four key experiences were found to promote meaning and purpose in life: 1 physical and mental well-being, 2 belonging and recognition, 3 personally treasured activities and 4 spiritual closeness and connectedness. Conclusion In supporting meaning and purpose in life of nursing home residents, the residents’ everyday well-being should be a central focus of care and facilitate personally treasured activities. Focused attention should also be given to the meaning-making power of experiencing belonging, recognition and spiritual connectedness.

  20. Signal and background in the underwater neutrino telescope ANTARES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries-Uiterweerd, G. de

    2007-01-01

    At the bottom of the Mediterranean, the neutrino telescope ANTARES is being constructed. Its purpose is to detect cosmic neutrinos, which can yield information on distant and energetic processes that cannot be obtained from the more traditional study of light or charged particles. ANTARES searches

  1. Inflationary gravity waves in light of recent cosmic microwave background anisotropies data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiorri, Alessandro; Oedman, Carolina J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major predictions of inflation is the existence of a stochastic background of cosmological gravitational waves (GW). These gravitational waves can induce significant temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the angular scales recently probed by the Archeops experiment. Here, we perform a combined analysis of Archeops together with information from other CMB experiments and/or cosmological data sets, in order to constrain the amplitude of the GW background. We find that, for a scale-invariant GW background, the ratio of tensor-scalar perturbations at the CMB quadrupole is now constrained to be r≤0.43 at 95% C.L., while the bound on the spectral index of primordial density fluctuations is n S =0.97 -0.12 +0.10 . We discuss the implications for future GW detections through CMB polarization measurements

  2. The background is remapped across saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Oakyoon; Chong, Sang Chul

    2014-02-01

    Physiological studies have found that neurons prepare for impending eye movements, showing anticipatory responses to stimuli presented at the location of the post-saccadic receptive fields (RFs) (Wurtz in Vis Res 48:2070-2089, 2008). These studies proposed that visual neurons with shifting RFs prepared for the stimuli they would process after an impending saccade. Additionally, psychophysical studies have shown behavioral consequences of those anticipatory responses, including the transfer of aftereffects (Melcher in Nat Neurosci 10:903-907, 2007) and the remapping of attention (Rolfs et al. in Nat Neurosci 14:252-258, 2011). As the physiological studies proposed, the shifting RF mechanism explains the transfer of aftereffects. Recently, a new mechanism based on activation transfer via a saliency map was proposed, which accounted for the remapping of attention (Cavanagh et al. in Trends Cogn Sci 14:147-153, 2010). We hypothesized that there would be different aspects of the remapping corresponding to these different neural mechanisms. This study found that the information in the background was remapped to a similar extent as the figure, provided that the visual context remained stable. We manipulated the status of the figure and the ground in the saliency map and showed that the manipulation modulated the remapping of the figure and the ground in different ways. These results suggest that the visual system has an ability to remap the background as well as the figure, but lacks the ability to modulate the remapping of the background based on the visual context, and that different neural mechanisms might work together to maintain visual stability across saccades.

  3. Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Agathos, M.; Beker, M.G.; Blom, M.R.; Bulten, H.J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Jonker, R.; Meidam, J.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; LIGO-Virgo Sci, Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of

  4. A statistical, task-based evaluation method for three-dimensional x-ray breast imaging systems using variable-background phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Subok; Jennings, Robert; Liu Haimo; Badano, Aldo; Myers, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: For the last few years, development and optimization of three-dimensional (3D) x-ray breast imaging systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and computed tomography, have drawn much attention from the medical imaging community, either academia or industry. However, there is still much room for understanding how to best optimize and evaluate the devices over a large space of many different system parameters and geometries. Current evaluation methods, which work well for 2D systems, do not incorporate the depth information from the 3D imaging systems. Therefore, it is critical to develop a statistically sound evaluation method to investigate the usefulness of inclusion of depth and background-variability information into the assessment and optimization of the 3D systems. Methods: In this paper, we present a mathematical framework for a statistical assessment of planar and 3D x-ray breast imaging systems. Our method is based on statistical decision theory, in particular, making use of the ideal linear observer called the Hotelling observer. We also present a physical phantom that consists of spheres of different sizes and materials for producing an ensemble of randomly varying backgrounds to be imaged for a given patient class. Lastly, we demonstrate our evaluation method in comparing laboratory mammography and three-angle DBT systems for signal detection tasks using the phantom's projection data. We compare the variable phantom case to that of a phantom of the same dimensions filled with water, which we call the uniform phantom, based on the performance of the Hotelling observer as a function of signal size and intensity. Results: Detectability trends calculated using the variable and uniform phantom methods are different from each other for both mammography and DBT systems. Conclusions: Our results indicate that measuring the system's detection performance with consideration of background variability may lead to differences in system performance

  5. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. Methods This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach’s alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. Results GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Conclusion Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information. PMID:28848627

  6. Beamstop-based low-background ptychography to image weakly scattering objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Juliane, E-mail: juliane.reinhardt@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hoppe, Robert [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Hofmann, Georg [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Damsgaard, Christian D. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Patommel, Jens; Baumbach, Christoph [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Baier, Sina; Rochet, Amélie; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Falkenberg, Gerald [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schroer, Christian G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    In recent years, X-ray ptychography has been established as a valuable tool for high-resolution imaging. Nevertheless, the spatial resolution and sensitivity in coherent diffraction imaging are limited by the signal that is detected over noise and over background scattering. Especially, coherent imaging of weakly scattering specimens suffers from incoherent background that is generated by the interaction of the central beam with matter along its propagation path in particular close to and inside of the detector. Common countermeasures entail evacuated flight tubes or detector-side beamstops, which improve the experimental setup in terms of background reduction or better coverage of high dynamic range in the diffraction patterns. Here, we discuss an alternative approach: we combine two ptychographic scans with and without beamstop and reconstruct them simultaneously taking advantage of the complementary information contained in the two scans. We experimentally demonstrate the potential of this scheme for hard X-ray ptychography by imaging a weakly scattering object composed of catalytic nanoparticles and provide the analysis of the signal-to-background ratio in the diffraction patterns. - Highlights: • An opaque beamstop far-upstream of the detector reduces background scattering. • Increased signal-to-background ratio in the diffraction patterns. • Simultaneous ptychographic reconstruction of two data sets with and without beamstop. • Result shows high spatial resolution of 13 nm of a weakly scattering catalyst sample. • High sensitivity to less than 10{sup 5} atoms.

  7. Impact of Sociocultural Background and Assessment Data Upon School Psychologists' Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, E. Scott; Cummings, Jack A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychologists (N=56) participated in an adapted version of Algozzine and Ysseldyke's (1981) diagnostic simulation to investigate the effects of sociocultural background (rural vs. suburban) and assessment data (normal vs. learning disabled) on educational decisions. Findings suggest school psychologists utilize multiple sources of information but…

  8. The Information Needs of New Radiotherapy Patients: How to Measure? Do They Want to Know Everything? And if Not, Why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeguers, Maaike; Haes, Hanneke C.J.M. de; Zandbelt, Linda C.; Hoeven, Claartje L. ter; Franssen, Sanne J.; Geijsen, Debbie D.; Koning, Caro C.E.; Smets, Ellen M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish 1) further psychometric properties of the information preference for radiotherapy patients scale (IPRP); 2) what information new radiotherapy patients want to receive; 3) which patients have a lower information need. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients (n = 159; response rate 54%) of 15 radiation oncologists completed the IPRP and provided background characteristics before their first radiotherapy consultation. Exclusion criteria were: age <18 years, having undergone radiotherapy before, unable to read and write Dutch, cognitive problems or a brain tumor. Results: Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha 0.84–0.97) and concurrent validity (r from .39 to .57, p < 0.001) of the subscales of the IPRP were good. New radiotherapy patients want extensive information about their disease, treatment, procedures, side effects, and prognosis (mean scores between 4.1 and 4.4 on a scale from 1 to 5) but less information about psychosocial issues (mean = 3.4). Patients who are older and male, have lung or rectal cancer, more difficulty understanding and a higher trait anxiety level, need less information. Conclusions: The IPRP can reliably and validly address information needs of patients undergoing radiation treatment. Most new radiotherapy patients want much information. Yet, information giving should be tailored according to their background, understanding and anxiety.

  9. The Information Needs of New Radiotherapy Patients: How to Measure? Do They Want to Know Everything? And if Not, Why?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeguers, Maaike; Haes, Hanneke C.J.M. de [Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zandbelt, Linda C. [Department of Quality and Process Innovation, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoeven, Claartje L. ter; Franssen, Sanne J. [Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geijsen, Debbie D.; Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smets, Ellen M.A., E-mail: e.m.smets@amc.uva.nl [Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish 1) further psychometric properties of the information preference for radiotherapy patients scale (IPRP); 2) what information new radiotherapy patients want to receive; 3) which patients have a lower information need. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients (n = 159; response rate 54%) of 15 radiation oncologists completed the IPRP and provided background characteristics before their first radiotherapy consultation. Exclusion criteria were: age <18 years, having undergone radiotherapy before, unable to read and write Dutch, cognitive problems or a brain tumor. Results: Reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.84-0.97) and concurrent validity (r from .39 to .57, p < 0.001) of the subscales of the IPRP were good. New radiotherapy patients want extensive information about their disease, treatment, procedures, side effects, and prognosis (mean scores between 4.1 and 4.4 on a scale from 1 to 5) but less information about psychosocial issues (mean = 3.4). Patients who are older and male, have lung or rectal cancer, more difficulty understanding and a higher trait anxiety level, need less information. Conclusions: The IPRP can reliably and validly address information needs of patients undergoing radiation treatment. Most new radiotherapy patients want much information. Yet, information giving should be tailored according to their background, understanding and anxiety.

  10. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared

  11. Dissemination of statistical information for purposes of efficiency management of socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimenko S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions connected with the facilitation of the access of the people to the information about the living standard are considered. In particular it is suggested to use the information of the System of National Accounts and statistic methods. It is stressed that the information about living standard should be amplified with the characteristics of the effectiveness of the management of the social-economic development.

  12. High vacuum general purpose scattering chamber for nuclear reaction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar; Ojha, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    To study the nuclear reactions induced by beam from medium energy accelerators, one of the most common facility required is a scattering chamber. In the scattering chamber, projectile collides with the target nucleus and the scattered reaction products are detected with various type of nuclear detector at different angles with respect to the beam. The experiments are performed under high vacuum to minimize the background reaction and the energy losses of the charged particles. To make the chamber general purpose various requirement of the experiments are incorporated into it. Changing of targets, changing angle of various detectors while in vacuum are the most desired features. The other features like ascertaining the beam spot size and position on the target, minimizing the background counts by proper beam dump, accurate positioning of the detector as per plan etc. are some of the important requirements

  13. Characterization of the γ background in epithermal neutron scattering measurements at pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Tardocchi, M.; Schooneveld, E.M.; Senesi, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the characterization of the different components of the γ background in epithermal neutron scattering experiments at pulsed neutron sources. The measurements were performed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS spallation neutron source. These measurements, carried out with a high purity germanium detector, aim to provide detailed information for the investigation of the effect of the γ energy discrimination on the signal-to-background ratio. It is shown that the γ background is produced by different sources that can be identified with their relative time structure and relative weight

  14. Investigation and development of the suppression methods of the {sup 42}K background in LArGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubashevskiy, Alexey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    GERDA is an ultra-low background experiment aimed for the neutrinoless double beta decay search. The search is performed using HPGe detectors operated in liquid argon (LAr). One of the most dangerous backgrounds in GERDA is the background from {sup 42}K which is a daughter isotope of cosmogenically produced {sup 42}Ar. {sup 42}K ions are collected towards to the detector by the electric field of the detector. Estimation of the background contribution and development of the suppression methods were performed in the low background test facility LArGe. For this purpose encapsulated HPGe and bare BEGe detectors were operated in 1m{sup 3} of LAr in the LArGe setup. It is equipped with scintillation veto, so particles which deposit part of their energy in LAr can be detected by 9 PMTs. In order to better understand background and to increase statistics the LAr of LArGe was spiked with specially produced {sup 42}Ar. All these investigations allowed us to estimate background contribution from {sup 42}K and demonstrate the possibility to suppress it in future measurements in GERDA Phase II.

  15. Modeling Speech Level as a Function of Background Noise Level and Talker-to-Listener Distance for Talkers Wearing Hearing Protection Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; Bockstael, Annelies; MacDonald, Ewen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the variations in speech levels with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance for talkers wearing hearing protection devices (HPDs) can aid in understanding communication in background noise. Method: Speech was recorded using an intra-aural HPD from 12...... complements the existing model presented by Pelegrín-García, Smits, Brunskog, and Jeong (2011) and expands on it by taking into account the effects of occlusion and background noise level on changes in speech sound level. Conclusions: Three models of the relationship between vocal effort, background noise...

  16. 43 CFR 44.10 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of this subpart? 44.10 Section 44.10 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General Information § 44.10 What is the purpose of this subpart? This subpart sets forth...

  17. Modeling Speech Level as a Function of Background Noise Level and Talker-to-Listener Distance for Talkers Wearing Hearing Protection Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; Bockstael, Annelies; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.; Voix, Jérémie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the variations in speech levels with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance for talkers wearing hearing protection devices (HPDs) can aid in understanding communication in background noise. Method: Speech was recorded using an intra-aural HPD from 12 different talkers at 5 different distances in 3…

  18. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    .e. the schema enters into apparently contradictory constructions of the informants’ local home-base and, possibly, of their identity (cf. Hovmark, 2010). Second, I discuss the status and role of the specific linguistic category in question, i.e. the directional adverbs. On the one hand we claim that the DDAs......In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  19. Background compensated GM counter for the measurement of low level #betta#-activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Kumanomido, H.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    When low level activity of a #betta#-ray source or surface contamination is to be measured with a GM counter, it is desirable to obtain a net count without background count through a single measurement. An end-window GM counter for such a purpose was constructed. The counter has a diaphragm to divide it into two parts. The front part, the window side, can detect #betta#-rays and background radiations, while the rear part only detects background, since #betta#-rays coming through the front are absorbed by the diaphragm. In the counter type I, the sensitive volumes of the two parts are the same and the anode wire of the front is connected to that of the rear through an electric resistor which leads to yielding different pulse heights and rise times. The net count of #betta#-rays can be obtained through a single measurement by subtracting the count in the rear part from that in the front part. In the counter type II, the lengths of the anode wires of the two parts are different, which gives rise to different pulse heights. With a background compensated GM counter, it is possible to shorten the measuring time, keeping nearly the same accuracy compared with a conventional GM counter. (orig.)

  20. Controlling the gain contribution of background emitters in few-quantum-dot microlasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, F.; Segnon, M.; von Helversen, M.; Hopfmann, C.; Heindel, T.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Musiał, A.; Porte, X.; Gies, C.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2018-02-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical insight into single-emitter lasing effects in a quantum dot (QD)-microlaser under controlled variation of background gain provided by off-resonant discrete gain centers. For that purpose, we apply an advanced two-color excitation concept where the background gain contribution of off-resonant QDs can be continuously tuned by precisely balancing the relative excitation power of two lasers emitting at different wavelengths. In this way, by selectively exciting a single resonant QD and off-resonant QDs, we identify distinct single-QD signatures in the lasing characteristics and distinguish between gain contributions of a single resonant emitter and a countable number of off-resonant background emitters to the optical output of the microlaser. Our work addresses the important question whether single-QD lasing is feasible in experimentally accessible systems and shows that, for the investigated microlaser, the single-QD gain needs to be supported by the background gain contribution of off-resonant QDs to reach the transition to lasing. Interestingly, while a single QD cannot drive the investigated micropillar into lasing, its relative contribution to the emission can be as high as 70% and it dominates the statistics of emitted photons in the intermediate excitation regime below threshold.

  1. A nonlinear inversion for the velocity background and perturbation models

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2015-08-19

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the single scattered wavefield obtained using an image. However, current RWI methods usually neglect diving waves, which is an important source of information for extracting the long wavelength components of the velocity model. Thus, we propose a new optimization problem through breaking the velocity model into the background and the perturbation in the wave equation directly. In this case, the perturbed model is no longer the single scattering model, but includes all scattering. We optimize both components simultaneously, and thus, the objective function is nonlinear with respect to both the background and perturbation. The new introduced w can absorb the non-smooth update of background naturally. Application to the Marmousi model with frequencies that start at 5 Hz shows that this method can converge to the accurate velocity starting from a linearly increasing initial velocity. Application to the SEG2014 demonstrates the versatility of the approach.

  2. The role of recorded and verbal information in health information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is ongoing interest in strengthening the informational component of the EPI as a mean to enhance the efficacy of service delivery. As developing country governments make significant investments in strengthening health information systems, benefits obtained from these initiatives tend to be below their ...

  3. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  4. Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background! Experiments designed to map the microwave sky are returning a flood of data (time streams of instrument response as a beam is swept over the sky) at several different frequencies (from 30 to 900 GHz), all with different resolutions and noise properties. The resulting analysis challenge is to estimate, and quantify our uncertainty in, the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background given the complexities of "missing data", foreground emission, and complicated instrumental noise. Bayesian formulation of this problem allows consistent treatment of many complexities including complicated instrumental noise and foregrounds, and can be numerically implemented with Gibbs sampling. Gibbs sampling has now been validated as an efficient, statistically exact, and practically useful method for low-resolution (as demonstrated on WMAP 1 and 3 year temperature and polarization data). Continuing development for Planck - the goal is to exploit the unique capabilities of Gibbs sampling to directly propagate uncertainties in both foreground and instrument models to total uncertainty in cosmological parameters.

  5. OCRWM Bulletin: Westinghouse begins designing multi-purpose canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication consists of two parts: OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) Bulletin; and Of Mountains ampersand Science which has articles on the Yucca Mountain project. The OCRWM provides information about OCRWM activities and in this issue has articles on multi-purpose canister design, and transportation cask trailer

  6. OCRWM Bulletin: Westinghouse begins designing multi-purpose canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This publication consists of two parts: OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) Bulletin; and Of Mountains & Science which has articles on the Yucca Mountain project. The OCRWM provides information about OCRWM activities and in this issue has articles on multi-purpose canister design, and transportation cask trailer.

  7. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    that informed the design of the DarkSide-50 boron-loaded liquid scintillator neutron veto. We describe the specific implementation of this veto system in DarkSide-50, including a description of its performance, and show that it can reject neutrons with a high enough efficiency to allow DarkSide-50 to run background-free for three years.

  8. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, Shawn S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-01-01

    development that informed the design of the DarkSide-50 boron-loaded liquid scintillator neutron veto. We describe the specific implementation of this veto system in DarkSide-50, including a description of its performance, and show that it can reject neutrons with a high enough e_ciency to allow DarkSide-50 to run background-free for three years.

  9. Background based Gaussian mixture model lesion segmentation in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffientini, Chiara Dolores, E-mail: chiaradolores.soffientini@polimi.it; Baselli, Giuseppe [DEIB, Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20133 (Italy); De Bernardi, Elisabetta [Department of Medicine and Surgery, Tecnomed Foundation, University of Milano—Bicocca, Monza 20900 (Italy); Zito, Felicia; Castellani, Massimo [Nuclear Medicine Department, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, via Francesco Sforza 35, Milan 20122 (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Quantitative {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is limited by the uncertainty in lesion delineation due to poor SNR, low resolution, and partial volume effects, subsequently impacting oncological assessment, treatment planning, and follow-up. The present work develops and validates a segmentation algorithm based on statistical clustering. The introduction of constraints based on background features and contiguity priors is expected to improve robustness vs clinical image characteristics such as lesion dimension, noise, and contrast level. Methods: An eight-class Gaussian mixture model (GMM) clustering algorithm was modified by constraining the mean and variance parameters of four background classes according to the previous analysis of a lesion-free background volume of interest (background modeling). Hence, expectation maximization operated only on the four classes dedicated to lesion detection. To favor the segmentation of connected objects, a further variant was introduced by inserting priors relevant to the classification of neighbors. The algorithm was applied to simulated datasets and acquired phantom data. Feasibility and robustness toward initialization were assessed on a clinical dataset manually contoured by two expert clinicians. Comparisons were performed with respect to a standard eight-class GMM algorithm and to four different state-of-the-art methods in terms of volume error (VE), Dice index, classification error (CE), and Hausdorff distance (HD). Results: The proposed GMM segmentation with background modeling outperformed standard GMM and all the other tested methods. Medians of accuracy indexes were VE <3%, Dice >0.88, CE <0.25, and HD <1.2 in simulations; VE <23%, Dice >0.74, CE <0.43, and HD <1.77 in phantom data. Robustness toward image statistic changes (±15%) was shown by the low index changes: <26% for VE, <17% for Dice, and <15% for CE. Finally, robustness toward the user-dependent volume initialization was

  10. Self-reported physical activity behaviour; exercise motivation and information among Danish adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, J.; Baadsgaard, M.T.; Moller, T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is considered an important and determining factor for the cancer patient's physical well-being and quality of life. However, cancer treatment may disrupt the practice of physical activity, and the prevention of sedentary lifestyles in cancer survivors is imperative....... PURPOSE: The current study aimed at investigating self-reported physical activity behaviour, exercise motivation and information in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS AND SAMPLE: Using a cross-sectional design, 451 patients (18-65 years) completed a questionnaire assessing pre......-illness and present physical activity; motivation and information received. RESULTS: Patients reported a significant decline in physical activity from pre-illness to the time in active treatment (p

  11. Optimizing the top quark signal to background ratio at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Kanev, Y.; Tayebnejad, M.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the event signature of the ell νb bar bq bar q decay mode of top-pair production in proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV. Neural networks and Fisher discriminates are used in conjunction with modified Fox-Wolfram open-quotes shapeclose quotes variables to help distinguish the top-pair signal from the W + jets and b bar b+jets background. Instead of requiring at least four jets in the event, we find that it is faster and better to simply cut on the number of calorimeter cells with transverse energy greater than some minimum. By combining these cell cuts with the event shape information, we are able to obtain a signal to background ratio of around 9 while keeping 30% of the signal. This corresponds to a signal to background enhancement of around 370

  12. The Combined Effect of Signal Strength and Background Traffic Load on Speech Quality in IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pocta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with measurements of the combined effect of signal strength and background traffic load on speech quality in IEEE 802.11 WLAN. The ITU-T G.729AB encoding scheme is deployed in this study and the Distributed Internet Traffic Generator (D-ITG is used for the purpose of background traffic generation. The speech quality and background traffic load are assessed by means of the accomplished PESQ algorithm and Wireshark network analyzer, respectively. The results show that background traffic load has a bit higher impact on speech quality than signal strength when both effects are available together. Moreover, background traffic load also partially masks the impact of signal strength. The reasons for those findings are particularly discussed. The results also suggest some implications for designers of wireless networks providing VoIP service.

  13. A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernardis P; Ade; Bock; Bond; Borrill; Boscaleri; Coble; Crill; De Gasperis G; Farese; Ferreira; Ganga; Giacometti; Hivon; Hristov; Iacoangeli; Jaffe; Lange; Martinis; Masi; Mason; Mauskopf; Melchiorri; Miglio; Montroy; Netterfield

    2000-04-27

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the Universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole Ipeak = (197 +/- 6), with an amplitude delta T200 = (69 +/- 8) microK. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary models.

  14. Combined factors effect of menstrual cycle and background noise on visual inspection task performance: a simulation-based task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanto, Titis; Tochihara, Yutaka; Wijaya, Andi R; Hermawati, Setia

    2009-11-01

    It is well known that women are physiologically and psychologically influenced by the menstrual cycle. In addition, the presence of background noise may affect task performance. So far, it has proven difficult to describe how the menstrual cycle and background noise affect task performance; some researchers have found an increment of performance during menstruation or during the presence of noise, others found performance deterioration, while other still have reported no dominant effect either of the menstrual cycle in performance or of the presence of noise. However, no study to date has investigated the combinational effect between the menstrual cycle and the presence of background noise in task performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the combined factor effect of menstrual cycle and background noise on visual inspection task performance indices by Signal Detection Theory (SDT) metrics: sensitivity index (d') and response criteria index (beta). For this purpose, ten healthy female students (21.5+/-1.08 years) with a regular menstrual cycle participated in this study. A VDT-based visual inspection task was used for the experiment in 3x2 factorial designs. Two factors, menstrual phase, pre-menstruation (PMS), menstruation (M), and post-menstruation (PM) and background noise, with 80 dB(A) background noise and without noise, were analyzed as the main factors in this study. The results concluded that the sensitivity index (d') of SDT was affected in all the menstrual cycle conditions (pbackground noise (pbackground noise was found in this study. On the other hand, no significant effect was observed in the subject's tendency in visual inspection, shown by beta along the menstrual cycle and the presence of background noise. According to the response criteria for each individual subject, the presence of noise affected the tendency of some subjects in detecting the object and making decision during the visual inspection task.

  15. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justifi- cation or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appenix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 3 contains chapters on quantification of risk, failure and accident probability, risk analysis and design, and examles of risk analysis for process plant. (BP)

  16. Background enhancement in breast MR: Correlation with breast density in mammography and background echotexture in ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Sook; Lee, Byung Hee; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Rock Bum; Noh, Woo-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether background enhancement on MR was related to mammographic breast density or ultrasonographic background echotexture in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: We studied 142 patients (79 premenopausal, 63 postmenopausal) who underwent mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MR. We reviewed the mammography for overall breast density of the contralateral normal breast according to the four-point scale of the BI-RADS classification. Ultrasound findings were classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous background echotexture according to the BI-RADS lexicon. We rated background enhancement on a contralateral breast MR into four categories based on subtraction images: absent, mild, moderate, and marked. All imaging findings were interpreted independently by two readers without knowledge of menstrual status, imaging findings of other modalities. Results: There were significant differences between the premenopausal and postmenopausal group in distribution of mammographic breast density, ultrasonographic background echotexture, and degree of background enhancement. Regarding the relationship between mammographic density and background enhancement, there was no significant correlation. There was significant relationship between ultrasonographic background echotexture and background enhancement in both premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between ultrasonographic background echotexture and background enhancement in MR regardless of menopausal status. Interpreting breast MR, or scheduling for breast MR of women showing heterogeneous background echotexture needs more caution.

  17. Clustering document fragments using background color and texture information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sukalpa; Franke, Katrin; Pal, Umapada

    2012-01-01

    Forensic analysis of questioned documents sometimes can be extensively data intensive. A forensic expert might need to analyze a heap of document fragments and in such cases to ensure reliability he/she should focus only on relevant evidences hidden in those document fragments. Relevant document retrieval needs finding of similar document fragments. One notion of obtaining such similar documents could be by using document fragment's physical characteristics like color, texture, etc. In this article we propose an automatic scheme to retrieve similar document fragments based on visual appearance of document paper and texture. Multispectral color characteristics using biologically inspired color differentiation techniques are implemented here. This is done by projecting document color characteristics to Lab color space. Gabor filter-based texture analysis is used to identify document texture. It is desired that document fragments from same source will have similar color and texture. For clustering similar document fragments of our test dataset we use a Self Organizing Map (SOM) of dimension 5×5, where the document color and texture information are used as features. We obtained an encouraging accuracy of 97.17% from 1063 test images.

  18. Science with Future Cosmic Microwave Background Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardis, P. de; Calvo, M.; Giordano, C.; Masi, S.; Nati, F.; Piacentini, F.; Schillaci, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    After the successful measurements of many ground based, balloon-borne and satellite experiments, which started the era of 'Precision Cosmology', Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations are now focusing on two targets: the precision measurement of B-modes in the polarization field, and the measurement of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in distant clusters of galaxies. Polarization measurements represent the best way to probe the very early universe, and the energy scale of inflation. Fine-scale anisotropy measurements, possibly with spectral capabilities, can provide important information on dark matter and dark energy. Here we describe original approaches to these measurements.

  19. Science with Future Cosmic Microwave Background Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardis, P. de; Calvo, M.; Giordano, C.; Masi, S.; Nati, F.; Piacentini, F.; Schillaci, A.

    2009-01-01

    After the successful measurements of many ground based, balloon-borne and satellite experiments, which started the era of 'Precision Cosmology', Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations are now focusing on two targets: the precision measurement of B-modes in the polarization field, and the measurement of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in distant clusters of galaxies. Polarization measurements represent the best way to probe the very early universe, and the energy scale of inflation. Fine-scale anisotropy measurements, possibly with spectral capabilities, can provide important information on dark matter and dark energy. Here we describe original approaches to these measurements.

  20. Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, M. P.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of visual detection of a signal superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds show performance degradation when the background has high contrast and is similar in spatial frequency and/or orientation to the signal. To account for this finding, models include a contrast gain control mechanism that pools activity across spatial frequency, orientation and space to inhibit (divisively) the response of the receptor sensitive to the signal. In tasks in which the observer has to detect a known signal added to one of M different backgrounds grounds due to added visual noise, the main sources of degradation are the stochastic noise in the image and the suboptimal visual processing. We investigate how these two sources of degradation (contrast gain control and variations in the background) interact in a task in which the signal is embedded in one of M locations in a complex spatially varying background (structured background). We use backgrounds extracted from patient digital medical images. To isolate effects of the fixed deterministic background (the contrast gain control) from the effects of the background variations, we conduct detection experiments with three different background conditions: (1) uniform background, (2) a repeated sample of structured background, and (3) different samples of structured background. Results show that human visual detection degrades from the uniform background condition to the repeated background condition and degrades even further in the different backgrounds condition. These results suggest that both the contrast gain control mechanism and the background random variations degrade human performance in detection of a signal in a complex, spatially varying background. A filter model and added white noise are used to generate estimates of sampling efficiencies, an equivalent internal noise, an equivalent contrast-gain-control-induced noise, and an equivalent noise due to the variations in the structured background.

  1. Factors affecting implementation of perinatal mental health screening in women of refugee background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishani Nithianandan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For women of refugee background, the increased risk of mental illness associated with pregnancy is compounded by pre- and post-settlement stressors. In Australia, antenatal screening for depression and anxiety symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is recommended for all women. Despite this, screening is not routinely implemented and little is known about barriers and enablers to implementation for women of refugee background. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of health professionals (n = 28: midwives, obstetricians, perinatal mental health and refugee health experts, interpreters and women of refugee background (n = 9. Themes generated from thematic analysis were examined in relation to the Theoretical Domains Framework and Cultural Competence Conceptual Framework, followed by identification of effective behaviour change techniques to address the barriers and enablers identified by participants. These techniques formed the basis of recommendations to inform sustainable implementation of screening and referral. Results Almost all participants perceived perinatal mental health screening to be necessary and most recognised the importance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD screening. Barriers and enablers were identified and related to eight domains: knowledge, skills, professional roles, beliefs about capabilities and consequences, environmental context, social influences and behavioural regulation. Conclusions This research clarifies how mental health screening may be integrated into routine antenatal care for women of refugee background, in order to improve provision of recommended care. These theory-informed recommendations include an inter-disciplinary approach, coordinating care within and across services, addition of PTSD screening, and effective communication with women.

  2. Academic Training: The cosmic microwave background - Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE REGULAR PROGRAMME 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 June From 11:00 hrs to 12:00 hrs - Main Auditorium bldg. 500 The cosmic microwave background M. Zaldarriaga / Harvard University, USA The Cosmic Microwave Background has become an indispensable tool for cosmology. The measurement of its frequency spectrum firmly established the Hot Big Bang model of the Universe. Measurements of anisotropies in its temperature and its degree of polarization provide the earliest snapshot we have of the universe, giving us information about its state at the epoch of hydrogen recombination approximately 300,000 after the Big Bang. The anisotropies can be used to constrain many of the parameters in the cosmological model, such as the mean density of baryons and dark matter as well as the curvature of the Universe. In this lectures I will review the physics of the temperature and polarization anisotropies. I will discuss the mechanisms that lead to the anisotropies and how cosmological parameters can be inferr...

  3. Some Aspects of Developing Background Knowledge in Second Language Acquisition Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zashchitina, Galina; Moysyak, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on defining how background knowledge impacts on second-language acquisition by giving a brief overview of schema theory, the interaction of the basic modes of information processing. A challenge of dealing with culturally specific texts in second language acquisition is also touched upon. Different research-supported views on…

  4. Quantum gravitational contributions to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Claus; Krämer, Manuel

    2012-01-13

    We derive the primordial power spectrum of density fluctuations in the framework of quantum cosmology. For this purpose we perform a Born-Oppenheimer approximation to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for an inflationary universe with a scalar field. In this way, we first recover the scale-invariant power spectrum that is found as an approximation in the simplest inflationary models. We then obtain quantum gravitational corrections to this spectrum and discuss whether they lead to measurable signatures in the cosmic microwave background anisotropy spectrum. The nonobservation so far of such corrections translates into an upper bound on the energy scale of inflation.

  5. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL NUMBER DENSITIES FOR MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER CRITICALITY CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the number densities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in criticality evaluations of the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) waste packages. The objective of this analysis is to provide material number density information which will be referenced by future MPC criticality design analyses, such as for those supporting the Conceptual Design Report

  6. Effects of a shade-matching light and background color on reliability in tooth shade selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Vahidi, Farhad; Janal, Malvin N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a shade-matching light (Rite-Lite-2, AdDent) and different viewing backgrounds on reliability in a test of shade tab matching. Four members of the Prosthodontic faculty matched 10 shade tabs selected for a range of shades against the shade guide. All raters were tested for color blindness and were calibrated prior to the study. Matching took place under four combinations of conditions: with operatory light or the shade-matching light, and using either a pink or a blue background. Reliability was quantified with the kappa statistic, separately for agreement of value, hue, and chroma for each shade tab. In general, raters showed fair to moderate levels of agreement when judging the value of the shade tabs, but could not agree on the hue and chroma of the stimuli. The pink background led to higher levels of agreement than the blue background, and the shade-matching light improved agreement when used in conjunction with the pink but not the blue background. Moderate levels of agreement were found in matching shade tab value. Agreement was generally better when using the pink rather than the blue background, regardless of light source. The use of the shade-matching light tended to amplify the advantage of the pink background.

  7. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  8. Personal, Anticipated Information Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in "Bookmarks" and "Favourites". Argument: It is suggested that personal information collections are…

  9. Personal anticipated information need

    OpenAIRE

    H. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. ...

  10. 12 CFR 202.8 - Special purpose credit programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, a creditor may request and consider information regarding the... the case of financial need. If financial need is one of the criteria under a special purpose credit.... Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the Act and this regulation permit a creditor...

  11. Integrated Reporting and Assurance of Sustainability Information: An Experimental Study on Professional Investors’ Information Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimsbach, D.; Hahn, R.; Gürtürk, A.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainability-related non-financial information is increasingly deemed value relevant. Against this background, two recent trends in non-financial reporting are frequently discussed: integrated reporting and assurance of sustainability information. Using an established framework of information

  12. A Series of Case Studies of Tinnitus Suppression With Mixed Background Stimuli in a Cochlear Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, A. J.; Walker, Kurt; Deshpande, Aniruddha K.; Witt, Shelley; Killian, Matthijs; Ji, Helena; Patrick, Jim; Dillier, Norbert; van Dijk, Pim; Lai, Wai Kong; Hansen, Marlan R.; Gantz, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Background sounds provided by a wearable sound playback device were mixed with the acoustical input picked up by a cochlear implant speech processor in an attempt to suppress tinnitus. Method First, patients were allowed to listen to several sounds and to select up to 4 sounds that they thought might be effective. These stimuli were programmed to loop continuously in the wearable playback device. Second, subjects were instructed to use 1 background sound each day on the wearable device, and they sequenced the selected background sounds during a 28-day trial. Patients were instructed to go to a website at the end of each day and rate the loudness and annoyance of the tinnitus as well as the acceptability of the background sound. Patients completed the Tinnitus Primary Function Questionnaire (Tyler, Stocking, Secor, & Slattery, 2014) at the beginning of the trial. Results Results indicated that background sounds were very effective at suppressing tinnitus. There was considerable variability in sounds preferred by the subjects. Conclusion The study shows that a background sound mixed with the microphone input can be effective for suppressing tinnitus during daily use of the sound processor in selected cochlear implant users. PMID:26001407

  13. PCA-based approach for subtracting thermal background emission in high-contrast imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, S.; Quanz, S. P.; Amara, A.; Meyer, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    Aims.Ground-based observations at thermal infrared wavelengths suffer from large background radiation due to the sky, telescope and warm surfaces in the instrument. This significantly limits the sensitivity of ground-based observations at wavelengths longer than 3 μm. The main purpose of this work is to analyse this background emission in infrared high-contrast imaging data as illustrative of the problem, show how it can be modelled and subtracted and demonstrate that it can improve the detection of faint sources, such as exoplanets. Methods: We used principal component analysis (PCA) to model and subtract the thermal background emission in three archival high-contrast angular differential imaging datasets in the M' and L' filter. We used an M' dataset of β Pic to describe in detail how the algorithm works and explain how it can be applied. The results of the background subtraction are compared to the results from a conventional mean background subtraction scheme applied to the same dataset. Finally, both methods for background subtraction are compared by performing complete data reductions. We analysed the results from the M' dataset of HD 100546 only qualitatively. For the M' band dataset of β Pic and the L' band dataset of HD 169142, which was obtained with an angular groove phase mask vortex vector coronagraph, we also calculated and analysed the achieved signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Results: We show that applying PCA is an effective way to remove spatially and temporarily varying thermal background emission down to close to the background limit. The procedure also proves to be very successful at reconstructing the background that is hidden behind the point spread function. In the complete data reductions, we find at least qualitative improvements for HD 100546 and HD 169142, however, we fail to find a significant increase in S/N of β Pic b. We discuss these findings and argue that in particular datasets with strongly varying observing conditions or

  14. Background noise levels in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gjestland, Truls

    2008-01-01

    - This report gives a brief overview of typical background noise levels in Europe, and suggests a procedure for the prediction of background noise levels based on population density. A proposal for the production of background noise maps for Europe is included.

  15. Information strategy and information products in radiation protection. A Norwegian RISKPERCOM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J B; Toennesen, A [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Waldahl, R [Avdeling for media og kommunikasjon, Oslo Univ., Oslo (Norway)

    1998-02-01

    A short description of the national background for the radiation issue is presented together with a presentation of information strategy and analysis of the information products of the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. This is part of an international study. 35 refs.

  16. Information strategy and information products in radiation protection. A Norwegian RISKPERCOM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1998-02-01

    A short description of the national background for the radiation issue is presented together with a presentation of information strategy and analysis of the information products of the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. This is part of an international study. 35 refs

  17. An empirical study on different factors influencing information technology adoption for auditing purposes: A case study of a banking organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Taghavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, we have investigated whether an easy and comprehensive information technology (IT infrastructure could contribute on auditing system in Iranian business society. The survey designs and distributes a questionnaire based on technology adoption method (TAM among employees of bank Melli Iran who participated in our survey in Likert scale and using t-student and Kruskal-Wallis test examined different hypotheses. The results of our survey have indicated that there was a relationship between a good perception in usefulness of IT implementation and accepting recent advances of IT and auditors with good perception on IT are able to take advantage of recent advances of IT in their auditing skills. In addition, our survey has concluded that ease of IT implementation could create motivation among auditors to automate their traditional skills. While educational background played an important role on our survey, age and job experience did not have any impact on our survey.

  18. Does the degree of background enhancement in breast MRI affect the detection and staging of breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako; Watanabe, Junichiro

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of background enhancement on the detection and staging of breast cancer using MRI as an adjunct to mammography or ultrasound. One hundred forty-six bilateral breast MRI examinations were evaluated to assess the extent of a known primary tumour and to problem solve after mammography or ultrasound without adjusting for the phase in the patients' menstrual cycle. The background enhancement was classified into four categories by visual evaluation: minimal, mild, moderate and marked. In total, 131 histologically confirmed abnormal cases (104 malignant and 27 benign) and 15 normal cases were included in the analysis. There was no tumour size-related bias between the groups (p = 0.522). For the primary index tumour, the sensitivities of MRI with minimal/mild and moderate/marked background enhancement were 100% and 76% (p = 0.001), respectively. Thus, the degree of background enhancement did not affect the specificity. For evaluating tumour extent (n = 104), the accuracy of MRI with moderate/marked background enhancement (52%) was significantly lower than that with minimal/mild background enhancement (84%; p = 0.002). The degree of background enhancement affected the detection and staging of breast cancer using MRI. (orig.)

  19. FINANCIAL INFORMATION, EFFECTS OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION ON ECONOMIC DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAK ISA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial information has, indisputably, an important effect in economics. To form an effective capital market, financial information must be reliable and accurate. Misleading financial information always has a negative impact on economic decision taken by users. It is known that financial information as the cornerstone of financial markets, can improve economic performance in several ways. Nowadays we are facing economic crisis due to irregularities of presentation of financial statements to users. Misunderstandings cause economic recession. Detection of fraudulent financial information, is an important issue facing the auditing profession. Currently, bankruptcy of companies around the world, leaves millions of people without jobs, this is caused by financial information which is manipulated by companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of errors and manipulation committed in the financial information sector on the real economy. Also one of the purposes of this paper is to analyze error and fraud in financial statements how it effects the real economy and the reasons for committing fraud in financial statements. Also, several suggestions are included in this study about actions that can be taken to prevent errors and manipulation in financial information.

  20. Inform: Efficient Information-Theoretic Analysis of Collective Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Moore

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of collective behavior has traditionally relied on a variety of different methodological tools ranging from more theoretical methods such as population or game-theoretic models to empirical ones like Monte Carlo or multi-agent simulations. An approach that is increasingly being explored is the use of information theory as a methodological framework to study the flow of information and the statistical properties of collectives of interacting agents. While a few general purpose toolkits exist, most of the existing software for information theoretic analysis of collective systems is limited in scope. We introduce Inform, an open-source framework for efficient information theoretic analysis that exploits the computational power of a C library while simplifying its use through a variety of wrappers for common higher-level scripting languages. We focus on two such wrappers here: PyInform (Python and rinform (R. Inform and its wrappers are cross-platform and general-purpose. They include classical information-theoretic measures, measures of information dynamics and information-based methods to study the statistical behavior of collective systems, and expose a lower-level API that allow users to construct measures of their own. We describe the architecture of the Inform framework, study its computational efficiency and use it to analyze three different case studies of collective behavior: biochemical information storage in regenerating planaria, nest-site selection in the ant Temnothorax rugatulus, and collective decision making in multi-agent simulations.

  1. Robustness of cosmic neutrino background detection in the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audren, Benjamin [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Verde, Licia [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi [Dept. d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lesgourgues, Julien [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Niro, Viviana [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Tramonte, Denis [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Poulin, Vivian [LAPTh, Université de Savoie, CNRS, B.P.110, Annecy-le-Vieux F-74941 (France); Tram, Thomas, E-mail: emilio.bellini@icc.ub.edu [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background can be probed indirectly by CMB experiments, not only by measuring the background density of radiation in the universe, but also by searching for the typical signatures of the fluctuations of free-streaming species in the temperature and polarisation power spectrum. Previous studies have already proposed a rather generic parametrisation of these fluctuations, that could help to discriminate between the signature of ordinary free-streaming neutrinos, or of more exotic dark radiation models. Current data are compatible with standard values of these parameters, which seems to bring further evidence for the existence of a cosmic neutrino background. In this work, we investigate the robustness of this conclusion under various assumptions. We generalise the definition of an effective sound speed and viscosity speed to the case of massive neutrinos or other dark radiation components experiencing a non-relativistic transition. We show that current bounds on these effective parameters do not vary significantly when considering an arbitrary value of the particle mass, or extended cosmological models with a free effective neutrino number, dynamical dark energy or a running of the primordial spectrum tilt. We conclude that it is possible to make a robust statement about the detection of the cosmic neutrino background by CMB experiments.

  2. The Effect of the Reader's Background on Reading Comprehension Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Saadoon Mohammed Al-Noori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at measuring the amount of the effect of the reader's background knowledge on performance in reading comprehension tests through the assessment of information gained in reading comprehension (RC tests across-four testing techniques, short answer questions ,true-false items , multiple - choice items , and cloze test and re-test. This technique involves the examinees in two types of tasks, i.e. pre-reading and post -reading task. Two hypotheses have been proposed to achieve the aims of this study. They are  1-There are no significant differences between the pre-reading and post-reading performances of examinees on reading comprehension(RC. 2-There are no significant differences in information gain scores across the different techniques of testing reading comprehension (RC in EFL. To verify the validity of these two hypotheses, a number of statistical procedures have been used such as arithmetical mean, t-test for correlated and independent samples to analyze the performance of third and fourth year College students studying at the Department of English at University of Baghdad /Ibn Rushd College of Education for Humanities on two reading passages taken from TOEFL practice tests (2011. The analysis of the data has shown the following results: 1-The background knowledge has an effect on the performance on reading comprehension (RC. 2-There is a significant difference in students' performance on reading comprehension (RC. 3-The effect of background knowledge is investable on reading comprehension (RC tests, but it can be identified or neutralized. Based on these conclusions, the researcher presented a number of recommendations.

  3. Study of robot landmark recognition with complex background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Yang, Jia

    2007-12-01

    It's of great importance for assisting robot in path planning, position navigating and task performing by perceiving and recognising environment characteristic. To solve the problem of monocular-vision-oriented landmark recognition for mobile intelligent robot marching with complex background, a kind of nested region growing algorithm which fused with transcendental color information and based on current maximum convergence center is proposed, allowing invariance localization to changes in position, scale, rotation, jitters and weather conditions. Firstly, a novel experiment threshold based on RGB vision model is used for the first image segmentation, which allowing some objects and partial scenes with similar color to landmarks also are detected with landmarks together. Secondly, with current maximum convergence center on segmented image as each growing seed point, the above region growing algorithm accordingly starts to establish several Regions of Interest (ROI) orderly. According to shape characteristics, a quick and effectual contour analysis based on primitive element is applied in deciding whether current ROI could be reserved or deleted after each region growing, then each ROI is judged initially and positioned. When the position information as feedback is conveyed to the gray image, the whole landmarks are extracted accurately with the second segmentation on the local image that exclusive to landmark area. Finally, landmarks are recognised by Hopfield neural network. Results issued from experiments on a great number of images with both campus and urban district as background show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  4. The Relationship between Background Classical Music and Reading Comprehension on Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if there is any relationship on reading comprehension when background classical music is played in the setting of a 7th and 8th grade classroom. This study also examined if there was a statistically significant difference in test anxiety when listening to classical music while completing a test. Reading…

  5. Adaptive removal of background and white space from document images using seam categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Claude; Fan, Zhigang; Monga, Vishal

    2011-03-01

    Document images are obtained regularly by rasterization of document content and as scans of printed documents. Resizing via background and white space removal is often desired for better consumption of these images, whether on displays or in print. While white space and background are easy to identify in images, existing methods such as naïve removal and content aware resizing (seam carving) each have limitations that can lead to undesirable artifacts, such as uneven spacing between lines of text or poor arrangement of content. An adaptive method based on image content is hence needed. In this paper we propose an adaptive method to intelligently remove white space and background content from document images. Document images are different from pictorial images in structure. They typically contain objects (text letters, pictures and graphics) separated by uniform background, which include both white paper space and other uniform color background. Pixels in uniform background regions are excellent candidates for deletion if resizing is required, as they introduce less change in document content and style, compared with deletion of object pixels. We propose a background deletion method that exploits both local and global context. The method aims to retain the document structural information and image quality.

  6. Non-collision backgrounds in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, S M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The proton-proton collision events recorded by the ATLAS experiment are on top of a background that is due to both collision debris and non-collision components. The latter comprises of three types: beam-induced backgrounds, cosmic particles and detector noise. We present studies that focus on the first two of these. We give a detailed description of beam-related and cosmic backgrounds based on the full 2011 ATLAS data set, and present their rates throughout the whole data-taking period. Studies of correlations between tertiary proton halo and muon backgrounds, as well as, residual pressure and resulting beam-gas events seen in beam-condition monitors will be presented. Results of simulations based on the LHC geometry and its parameters will be presented. They help to better understand the features of beam-induced backgrounds in each ATLAS sub-detector. The studies of beam-induced backgrounds in ATLAS reveal their characteristics and serve as a basis for designing rejection tools that can be applied in physic...

  7. Sense and purpose of bilateral agreements - a general survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, O.

    1999-01-01

    Switzerland has concluded with its neighbouring States several bilateral agreements on nuclear information and on mutual help in case of catastrophes. The following general survey explains the sense and purpose of these agreements which complement the IAEA-Conventions referring to the same matters. (orig.) [de

  8. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle

  9. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle.

  10. A novel background reduction strategy for high level triggers and processing in gamma-ray Cherenkov detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cabras, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M. M.; De Sabata, F.; Mansutti, O.; Frailis, M.; Persic, M.; Bigongiari, C.; Doro, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.; Scalzotto, V.; Paoletti, R.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is now at the leading edge for studies related both to fundamental physics and astrophysics. The sensitivity of gamma detectors is limited by the huge amount of background, constituted by hadronic cosmic rays (typically two to three orders of magnitude more than the signal) and by the accidental background in the detectors. By using the information on the temporal evolution of the Cherenkov light, the background can be reduced. We will present here the results obtained wit...

  11. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M; Narahari, M G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. This was a prospective observational study. The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-Square test (χ(2)). A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning

  12. Improved radiological/nuclear source localization in variable NORM background: An MLEM approach with segmentation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penny, Robert D., E-mail: robert.d.penny@leidos.com [Leidos Inc., 10260 Campus Point Road, San Diego, CA (United States); Crowley, Tanya M.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Mandell, Myron J.; Guo, Yanlin; Haas, Eric B.; Knize, Duane J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Ranta, Dale; Shyffer, Ryan [Leidos Inc., 10260 Campus Point Road, San Diego, CA (United States); Labov, Simon; Nelson, Karl; Seilhan, Brandon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Valentine, John D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A novel approach and algorithm have been developed to rapidly detect and localize both moving and static radiological/nuclear (R/N) sources from an airborne platform. Current aerial systems with radiological sensors are limited in their ability to compensate for variable naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) background. The proposed approach suppresses the effects of NORM background by incorporating additional information to segment the survey area into regions over which the background is likely to be uniform. The method produces pixelated Source Activity Maps (SAMs) of both target and background radionuclide activity over the survey area. The task of producing the SAMs requires (1) the development of a forward model which describes the transformation of radionuclide activity to detector measurements and (2) the solution of the associated inverse problem. The inverse problem is ill-posed as there are typically fewer measurements than unknowns. In addition the measurements are subject to Poisson statistical noise. The Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization (MLEM) algorithm is used to solve the inverse problem as it is well suited for under-determined problems corrupted by Poisson noise. A priori terrain information is incorporated to segment the reconstruction space into regions within which we constrain NORM background activity to be uniform. Descriptions of the algorithm and examples of performance with and without segmentation on simulated data are presented.

  13. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Tamaki, Takashi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tavakol, Reza, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp, E-mail: r.tavakol@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}

  14. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza

    2009-01-01

    We study the field profile of a scalar field φ that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential Φ c at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V(φ) = M 4+n φ −n by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential Φ c is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for Φ c ∼< O(0.1)

  15. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  16. 2013 information manager.2013 finalx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    background that the Nigerian Government has formulated Information and Communication Technology policy that will ... Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA). As stated in ..... NITDA and two private companies to provide IT.

  17. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  18. 102: PROMOTING INFORMATION LITERACY BY PROMOTING HEALTH LITERACY IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Dastani, Meisam; Sattari, Masoume

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims In the information society the production, distribution and use of information is freely and widely available for all issues of life. Correct and appropriate use of appropriate and reliable information is especially important in health care. The present study introduces the concepts and benefits of health literacy and information literacy and its role in improving health literacy. Methods This study is a review based on a review of the concepts of the information society, ...

  19. Financial Information Source, Knowledge, and Practices of College Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…

  20. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delnoij Diana MJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20 were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes from consumers' thoughts and evaluations. These themes were categorized under four important areas of interest: (1 a response to the design; (2 a response to the information content; (3 the use of the information, and (4 the purpose of the information. Conclusion Several barriers to an effective use of comparative healthcare information were identified, such as too much information and the ambiguity of terms presented on websites. Particularly important for future research is the question of how comparative healthcare information can be integrated with alternative information, such as patient reviews on the Internet. Furthermore, the readability of quality of care concepts is an issue that needs further attention, both from websites and communication experts.

  1. Factors affecting implementation of perinatal mental health screening in women of refugee background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithianandan, Nishani; Gibson-Helm, Melanie; McBride, Jacquie; Binny, Amanda; Gray, Kylie M; East, Christine; Boyle, Jacqueline A

    2016-11-18

    For women of refugee background, the increased risk of mental illness associated with pregnancy is compounded by pre- and post-settlement stressors. In Australia, antenatal screening for depression and anxiety symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is recommended for all women. Despite this, screening is not routinely implemented and little is known about barriers and enablers to implementation for women of refugee background. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of health professionals (n = 28: midwives, obstetricians, perinatal mental health and refugee health experts, interpreters) and women of refugee background (n = 9). Themes generated from thematic analysis were examined in relation to the Theoretical Domains Framework and Cultural Competence Conceptual Framework, followed by identification of effective behaviour change techniques to address the barriers and enablers identified by participants. These techniques formed the basis of recommendations to inform sustainable implementation of screening and referral. Almost all participants perceived perinatal mental health screening to be necessary and most recognised the importance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening. Barriers and enablers were identified and related to eight domains: knowledge, skills, professional roles, beliefs about capabilities and consequences, environmental context, social influences and behavioural regulation. This research clarifies how mental health screening may be integrated into routine antenatal care for women of refugee background, in order to improve provision of recommended care. These theory-informed recommendations include an inter-disciplinary approach, coordinating care within and across services, addition of PTSD screening, and effective communication with women.

  2. Gamma-ray Background Spectrum and Annihilation Rate in the Baryon-symmetric Big-bang Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puget, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt was made to acquire experimental information on the problem of baryon symmetry on a large cosmological scale by observing the annihilation products. Data cover absorption cross sections and background radiation due to other sources for the two main products of annihilation, gamma rays and neutrinos. Test results show that the best direct experimental test for the presence of large scale antimatter lies in the gamma ray background spectrum between 1 and 70 MeV.

  3. Study of the background in the measuring station at the n_TOF facility at CERN: sources and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Aerts, G; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Angelopoulous, A; Assimakopoulos, Panayiotis; Bacri, C-O; Badurek, G; Berthoumieux, E; Baumann, P; Beer, H; Benlliure, J; Berthier, B; Bondarenko, I; Borcea, C; Bos, A J J; Boscolo-Marchi, E; Bustreo, N; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carlson, P; Charpak, Georges; Chauvin, N; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortina-Gil, D; Corvi, F; Cusmano, A; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; Damianoglou, D; David, S; Dimovasili, E; Domingo, C; Doroshenko, A; Duran-Escribano, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Kölbl, H; Furman, W; Fursov, B; Garzón, J A; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gledenov, Y; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haefner, P; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-martinez, A; Hollander, P; Ioannou, P; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kayukova, A; Kazakov, L; Kelic, A; Ketlerov, V; Kitis, G; Köhler, P E; Kopach, Y; Kossionides, E; Kroshkina, I; Lacoste, V; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Leprêtre, A; Lopes, M; Lozano, M; Marrone, S; Martínez-Val, J M; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Meunier, R; Mezentsev, A J; Milazzo, P; Minguez, E; Mitrofanov, V; Moreau, C; Müller, A; Nicolis, N; Nikolenkov, V; Oberhummer, Heinz; Pakou, A; Pancin, J; Papadopoulous, K; Papaevangelou, T; Paradela, C; Paradelis, T; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrez-Parra, A; Perriale, L; Perlado, J M; Peskov, Vladimir; Piksaikin, V; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, Armando; Popov, A; Popov, Y P; Pretel, C; Quesada, J M; Radermacher, E; Rapp, W; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rejmund, F; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Samylin, B; Savvidis, I; Savvidis, S; Sedyshev, P; Stéphan, C; Szalanski, P; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tapia, C; Tassan-Got, L; Terchychnyi, R; Tsabaris, C; Tsangas, N; van Eijk, C W E; Vannini, G; Ventura, A; Villamarin, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voinov, A; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K; Zanini, L; Zeinalov, S; Zhuravlev, B; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    A background roughly two orders of magnitude higher than tolerable was found in the n_TOF facility at CERN during the first measurements [1]. This note describes a series of additional measurements performed in the n_TOF experimental area to study the origin and the characteristics of the background. The program of these measurements was determined taking into account the results from the simulations carried out by the EET group [2]. A first phase of measurements confirmed what was expected from the simulations, namely that the dominant source of background was due to neutrons generated by negative muon capture. Actions to reduce the background were taken according to the results from both measurements and simulations. An iron shielding wall 3.2 m thick was then placed in between the sweeping magnet and the second collimator, with the purpose of stopping most of the muons. In a second phase of measurements, results showed that the additional shielding reduced the main component of the background by about a fa...

  4. Regulating the new information intermediaries as gatekeepers of information diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Kleinen-von Königslöw, K.; van der Noll, R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purposes of this paper are to deal with the questions: because search engines, social networks and app-stores are often referred to as gatekeepers to diverse information access, what is the evidence to substantiate these gatekeeper concerns, and to what extent are existing regulatory

  5. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  6. Preparation of 'dead water' for low background liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Niwa, Takeo; Kawai, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    'Dead water', low level tritiated water is indispensable to measure tritium concentration in environmental waters using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Water produced by combustion of natural gas, or deep sea water etc. are usually used for the above purpose. A new method of reducing tritium concentration in natural water has been introduced for preparation of 'dead water'. This method is to combine hydrogen-oxygen mixture produced by water electrolysis with hopcalite catalyzer at 700 deg C. Deep well water was electrolized up to 2/3 volume, and tritium concentration of recombined water was reduced to be about one third of that of the original one. (author)

  7. Cognition to Collaboration: User-Centric Approach and Information Behaviour Theories/Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alperen M Aydin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The objective of this paper is to review the vast literature of user-centric in-formation science and inform about the emerging themes in information behaviour science. Background:\tThe paradigmatic shift from system-centric to user-centric approach facilitates research on the cognitive and individual information processing. Various information behaviour theories/models emerged. Methodology: Recent information behaviour theories and models are presented. Features, strengths and weaknesses of the models are discussed through the analysis of the information behaviour literature. Contribution: This paper sheds light onto the weaknesses in earlier information behaviour models and stresses (and advocates the need for research on social information behaviour. Findings: Prominent information behaviour models deal with individual information behaviour. People live in a social world and sort out most of their daily or work problems in groups. However, only seven papers discuss social information behaviour (Scopus search. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: ICT tools used for inter-organisational sharing should be redesigned for effective information-sharing during disaster/emergency times. Recommendation for Researchers: There are scarce sources on social side of the information behaviour, however, most of the work tasks are carried out in groups/teams. Impact on Society: In dynamic work contexts like disaster management and health care settings, collaborative information-sharing may result in decreasing the losses. Future Research: A fieldwork will be conducted in disaster management context investigating the inter-organisational information-sharing.

  8. Creativity, information, and consciousness: The information dynamics of thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Geraint A

    2018-05-07

    This paper presents a theory of the basic operation of mind, Information Dynamics of Thinking, which is intended for computational implementation and thence empirical testing. It is based on the information theory of Shannon, and treats the mind/brain as an information processing organ that aims to be information-efficient, in that it predicts its world, so as to use information efficiently, and regularly re-represents it, so as to store information efficiently. The theory is presented in context of a background review of various research areas that impinge upon its development. Consequences of the theory and testable hypotheses arising from it are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Robustness of cosmic neutrino background detection in the cosmic microwave background

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Cuesta, Antonio J; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A; Lesgourgues, Julien; Niro, Viviana; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Poulin, Vivian; Tram, Thomas; Tramonte, Denis; Verde, Licia

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background can be probed indirectly by CMB experiments, not only by measuring the background density of radiation in the universe, but also by searching for the typical signatures of the fluctuations of free-streaming species in the temperature and polarisation power spectrum. Previous studies have already proposed a rather generic parametrisation of these fluctuations, that could help to discriminate between the signature of ordinary free-streaming neutrinos, or of more exotic dark radiation models. Current data are compatible with standard values of these parameters, which seems to bring further evidence for the existence of a cosmic neutrino background. In this work, we investigate the robustness of this conclusion under various assumptions. We generalise the definition of an effective sound speed and viscosity speed to the case of massive neutrinos or other dark radiation components experiencing a non-relativistic transition. We show that current bounds on these effectiv...

  10. Ethical implications of digital images for teaching and learning purposes: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornhaber R

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Kornhaber,1–3 Vasiliki Betihavas,4 Rodney J Baber,5 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Rozelle, NSW, 2School of Nursing, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 3Severe Burns Injury Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW, 4School of Nursing, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 5Discipline of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Neonatology, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Digital photography has simplified the process of capturing and utilizing medical images. The process of taking high-quality digital photographs has been recognized as efficient, timely, and cost-effective. In particular, the evolution of smartphone and comparable technologies has become a vital component in teaching and learning of health care professionals. However, ethical standards in relation to digital photography for teaching and learning have not always been of the highest standard. The inappropriate utilization of digital images within the health care setting has the capacity to compromise patient confidentiality and increase the risk of litigation. Therefore, the aim of this review was to investigate the literature concerning the ethical implications for health professionals utilizing digital photography for teaching and learning. Methods: A literature search was conducted utilizing five electronic databases, PubMed, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, and Scopus, limited to English language. Studies that endeavored to evaluate the ethical implications of digital photography for teaching and learning purposes in the health care setting were included. Results: The search strategy identified 514 papers of which nine were retrieved for full review. Four papers were excluded based on the inclusion criteria, leaving five papers for final analysis. Three key themes were developed

  11. Attitudes of the Japanese public and doctors towards use of archived information and samples without informed consent: Preliminary findings based on focus group interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuhara Shunichi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to explore laypersons' attitudes toward the use of archived (existing materials such as medical records and biological samples and to compare them with the attitudes of physicians who are involved in medical research. Methods Three focus group interviews were conducted, in which seven Japanese male members of the general public, seven female members of the general public and seven physicians participated. Results It was revealed that the lay public expressed diverse attitudes towards the use of archived information and samples without informed consent. Protecting a subject's privacy, maintaining confidentiality, and communicating the outcomes of studies to research subjects were regarded as essential preconditions if researchers were to have access to archived information and samples used for research without the specific informed consent of the subjects who provided the material. Although participating physicians thought that some kind of prior permission from subjects was desirable, they pointed out the difficulties involved in obtaining individual informed consent in each case. Conclusions The present preliminary study indicates that the lay public and medical professionals may have different attitudes towards the use of archived information and samples without specific informed consent. This hypothesis, however, is derived from our focus groups interviews, and requires validation through research using a larger sample.

  12. Using Large Scale Test Results for Pedagogical Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The use and influence of large scale tests (LST), both national and international, has increased dramatically within the last decade. This process has revealed a tension between the legitimate need for information about the performance of the educational system and teachers to inform policy......, and the teachers’ and students’ use of this information for pedagogical purposes in the classroom. We know well how the policy makers interpret and use the outcomes of such tests, but we know less about how teachers make use of LSTs to inform their pedagogical practice. An important question is whether...... there is a contradiction between the political system’s use of LST and teachers’ (possible) pedagogical use of LST. And if yes: What is a contradiction based on? This presentation will give some results from a systematic review on how tests have influenced the pedagogical practice. The research revealed many of the fatal...

  13. [A comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Lee-Jen Wu; Huang, Hui-Man; Lee, Hao-Hsien

    2014-06-01

    Convenience sampling and purposive sampling are two different sampling methods. This article first explains sampling terms such as target population, accessible population, simple random sampling, intended sample, actual sample, and statistical power analysis. These terms are then used to explain the difference between "convenience sampling" and purposive sampling." Convenience sampling is a non-probabilistic sampling technique applicable to qualitative or quantitative studies, although it is most frequently used in quantitative studies. In convenience samples, subjects more readily accessible to the researcher are more likely to be included. Thus, in quantitative studies, opportunity to participate is not equal for all qualified individuals in the target population and study results are not necessarily generalizable to this population. As in all quantitative studies, increasing the sample size increases the statistical power of the convenience sample. In contrast, purposive sampling is typically used in qualitative studies. Researchers who use this technique carefully select subjects based on study purpose with the expectation that each participant will provide unique and rich information of value to the study. As a result, members of the accessible population are not interchangeable and sample size is determined by data saturation not by statistical power analysis.

  14. The Impact of Age, Background Noise, Semantic Ambiguity, and Hearing Loss on Recognition Memory for Spoken Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeritzer, Margaret A.; Rogers, Chad S.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine how background noise, linguistic properties of spoken sentences, and listener abilities (hearing sensitivity and verbal working memory) affect cognitive demand during auditory sentence comprehension. Method: We tested 30 young adults and 30 older adults. Participants heard lists of sentences in…

  15. Musical Home Environment, Family Background, and Parenting Style on Success in School Music and in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdzinski, Stephen; Dell, Charlene; Gumm, Alan; Rinnert, Nathan; Orzolek, Douglas; Yap, Ching Ching; Cooper, Shelly; Keith, Timothy; Russell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine influences of parental involvement-home music environment, family background, and parenting style factors on success in school music and in school. Participants (N = 1114) were music students in grades 4-12 from six regions of the United States. Data were gathered about parental involvement-home environment…

  16. Does the degree of background enhancement in breast MRI affect the detection and staging of breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Breast Imaging and Breast Intervention Section, Shizuoka (Japan); Kasami, Masako [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Pathology, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan); Watanabe, Junichiro [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Division of Medical Oncology, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of background enhancement on the detection and staging of breast cancer using MRI as an adjunct to mammography or ultrasound. One hundred forty-six bilateral breast MRI examinations were evaluated to assess the extent of a known primary tumour and to problem solve after mammography or ultrasound without adjusting for the phase in the patients' menstrual cycle. The background enhancement was classified into four categories by visual evaluation: minimal, mild, moderate and marked. In total, 131 histologically confirmed abnormal cases (104 malignant and 27 benign) and 15 normal cases were included in the analysis. There was no tumour size-related bias between the groups (p = 0.522). For the primary index tumour, the sensitivities of MRI with minimal/mild and moderate/marked background enhancement were 100% and 76% (p = 0.001), respectively. Thus, the degree of background enhancement did not affect the specificity. For evaluating tumour extent (n = 104), the accuracy of MRI with moderate/marked background enhancement (52%) was significantly lower than that with minimal/mild background enhancement (84%; p = 0.002). The degree of background enhancement affected the detection and staging of breast cancer using MRI. (orig.)

  17. AXION DECAY AND ANISOTROPY OF NEAR-IR EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yan; Chen, Xuelei [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Cooray, Asantha; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Zemcov, Michael [Center for Detectors, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Smidt, Joseph [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is composed of the cumulative radiation from all galaxies and active galactic nuclei over cosmic history. In addition to point sources, the EBL also contains information from diffuse sources of radiation. The angular power spectra of the near-infrared intensities could contain additional signals, and a complete understanding of the nature of the infrared (IR) background is still lacking in the literature. Here we explore the constraints that can be placed on particle decays, especially candidate dark matter (DM) models involving axions that trace DM halos of galaxies. Axions with a mass around a few electronvolts will decay via two photons with wavelengths in the near-IR band and will leave a signature in the IR background intensity power spectrum. Using recent power spectra measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, we find that the 0.6–1.6 μ m power spectra can be explained by axions with masses around 4 eV. The total axion abundance Ω{sub a} ≃ 0.05, and it is comparable to the baryon density of the universe. The suggested mean axion mass and abundance are not ruled out by existing cosmological observations. Interestingly, the axion model with a mass distribution is preferred by the data, which cannot be explained by the standard quantum chromodynamics theory and needs further discussion.

  18. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Matloubi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female with normal hearing, aged between 18 and 26, participated in this comparative-analysis study. An auditory and speech evaluation was conducted in order to investigate the effects of background music on working memory. Subsequently, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test was performed for three conditions: silence, positive, and null music.Results: The mean score of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in silence condition was higher than the positive music condition (p=0.003 and the null music condition (p=0.01. The tests results did not reveal any gender differences.Conclusion: It seems that the presence of competitive music (positive and null music and the orientation of auditory attention have negative effects on the performance of verbal working memory. It is possibly owing to the intervention of music with verbal information processing in the brain.

  19. Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. Practitioner Summary We investigated the influence of task complexity and background physical exertion on the motor performance of tongue and hand. Results indicate the task performance degrades with an additional concurrent task or physical exertion due to the limited attentional resources available for handling both the motor task and background exertion. PMID:24003900

  20. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use a Latin name made up of the genus and species of the plant. Under this system ... form of a botanical preparation also play important roles in its safety. Teas, tinctures, and extracts have ...

  1. A Mine of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa B.

    1986-01-01

    Business researchers and marketers find certain databases useful for finding information on investments, competitors, products, and markets. Colleges can use these same databases to get background on corporate prospects. The largest data source available, DIALOG Information Services and some other databases are described. (MLW)

  2. 42 CFR 480.138 - Disclosure for other specified purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) General requirements for disclosure. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the following... information is necessary to protect against a substantial risk to the public health. (3) Disclosure to the... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure for other specified purposes. 480.138...

  3. Study of the background noise in microwave GaAsFET devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano S, A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the most important properties of the gallium arsenide field effect transistor is its low noise figure in the microwave frequency range (approx. 1 dB, 4 GHz). The applications of this device in components and systems in the high frequency range require analysis of background noise in terms of basic static and dynamic properties of the device. The purpose of this paper is to review GaAsFET noise properties; from this review, a description of precise noise measurement techniques is made. Some experimental and theoretical results on the minimum noise figure are shown for several GaAsFET devices. (author)

  4. The Informing Needs of Procurement Officers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahel Giat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To develop and introduce a questionnaire that investigates the informing needs, information-seeking behavior, and supplier selection of procurement officers in Israel. The questionnaire’s internal consistency reliability is given. Additionally, we describe the demographic description of the procurement officers in Israel. Background: Procurement science is an important field that affects firms’ profits in the private sector and is significant to growth, innovation, sustainability, and welfare in the public sector. There is little research about the informing needs of procurement officers in general and particularly in Israel. Methodology: A quantitative questionnaire that is sent to all the procurement officers in Israel’s procuring association. Contribution: The questionnaire that is developed in this paper may be used by other researchers and practitioners to evaluate the information needs of procurement officers. Findings: The typical procurement officer is male, with a bachelor degree and is digitally proficient. Recommendations for Practitioners: The procuring side can use the questionnaire to develop better tools for obtaining information efficiently. The supplying side can use this knowledge to improve its exposure to potential customers and address its customer’s needs better. Recommendation for Researchers: The questionnaire can address theoretical questions such as how digital literacy affects the procuring process and provide empirical findings about active research areas such as supplier selection and information-seeking behavior. Future Research: Future research will examine the relationship between the various variables and demographic features to understand why specific information needs and information-seeking behaviors arise.

  5. Developing written information for cancer survivors from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: Lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Wiley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a multicultural nation with a large migrant population. Migrants with cancer report inferior quality of life and the need for more information in their own language. This paper describes lessons learnt from developing culturally appropriate written information resources with and for Arabic, Italian, and Vietnamese cancer survivors and carers. The information needs of survivors from these language groups as well as guidelines for the development of written resources for culturally diverse populations were identified through literature review. Community consultation was undertaken with focus groups. The content was developed and tested with health professionals who spoke the appropriate language and focus group participants, ensuring relevance and appropriateness. Resource design and dissemination were informed through community consultation. A number of key tasks for developing resources were identified as follows: (1 community engagement and consultation; (2 culturally sensitive data collection; (3 focus group facilitators (recruitment and training; (4 content development; (5 translation and review process; (6 design; and (7 sustainability. This project reinforced literature review findings on the importance of cultural sensitivity in the development of resources. Engaging with community groups and incorporating culturally appropriate recruitment strategies optimises recruitment to focus groups and facilitates content development. Stakeholders and lay persons from the intended ethnic-minority communities should be involved in the development and formative evaluation of resources to ensure appropriateness and relevance and in the dissemination strategy to optimize penetration. We believe the lessons we have learnt will be relevant to any group intending to develop health information for culturally and linguistic diverse groups.

  6. A novel background reduction strategy for high level triggers and processing in gamma-ray Cherenkov detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabras, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M. M.; De Sabata, F.; Mansutti, O.; Frailis, M.; Persic, M.; Bigongiari, C.; Doro, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.; Scalzotto, V.; Paoletti, R.; Scribano, A.; Turini, N.; Moralejo, A.; Tescaro, D.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is now at the leading edge for studies related both to fundamental physics and astrophysics. The sensitivity of gamma detectors is limited by the huge amount of background, constituted by hadronic cosmic rays (typically two to three orders of magnitude more than the signal) and by the accidental background in the detectors. By using the information on the temporal evolution of the Cherenkov light, the background can be reduced. We will present here the results obtained within the MAGIC experiment using a new technique for the reduction of the background. Particle showers produced by gamma rays show a different temporal distribution with respect to showers produced by hadrons; the background due to accidental counts shows no dependence on time. Such novel strategy can increase the sensitivity of present instruments

  7. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sectors Industry, Agriculture and Horticulture; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening Energieakkoord. Sectoren industrie en land- en tuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    On September 4, 2013, representatives of employers' associations, trade union federations, environmental organizations, the Dutch government and civil society have signed an Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. ECN and PBL have been asked to evaluate this agreement. This report gives background information on the evaluation of the measures aimed at improving energy efficiency in industry and agriculture [Dutch] Op 4 september 2013 is het 'Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei' getekend. ECN en PBL zijn gevraagd het akkoord te beoordelen en door te rekenen. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de industrie en land- en tuinbouw.

  8. Background and future activities of PBNCC's nuclear training working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieh, C.H.; Chung, K.; Hamlin, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the background and activities of the nuclear training working group of the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee. The working group has examined various mechanisms for regional cooperation including the development of a regional catalog of training programs and the conceptualization of sharing training facilities among nuclear operators in the region. The working group has focused its attention on the exchange of information on the on-going training programs, operator training facilities, available resources for training assistance and proposed cooperative schemes. These activities are expected to continue and will provide invaluable information for nuclear power programs in the Pacific Basin region. The group also reviewed problems and issues associated with developing regional cooperation

  9. Background and future activities of PBNCC's nuclear training working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Hun Rieh; Kunmo Chung; Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the background and activities of the nuclear training working group of the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee. The working group has examined various mechanisms for regional cooperation including the development of aregional catalog of training programs and the conceptualization of sharing training facilities among nuclear operators in the region. The working group has focused its attention on the exchange of information on the on-going training programs, operator training facilities, available resources for training assistance and proposed cooperative schemes. These activities are expected to continue and will provide invaluable information for nuclear power programs in the Pacific Basin region. The group also reviewed problems and issues associated with developing regional cooperation. (author)

  10. Propagators in magnetic string background and the problem of self-adjoint extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Ghost and gluon propagators of a non-Abelian gauge theory in the background of a magnetic string are calculated. A simple technique to derive the ghost propagator is presented which makes use of the fact that the presence of a magnetic string of strength β shifts the differential operators ∂/∂φ to ∂/∂φ - iβ. In the case of a gluon propagator in the magnetic string background a difficulty arises from the presence of the magnetic field strength term involving a δ function. Here the ambiguities of a self-adjoint extension of the differential operator must be met. A proper treatment demands the specification of a limiting process starting from a string of finite thickness and well-defined structure and leading to the δ function string. Without this additional structure information about the background string the gauge field propagator is undetermined. (orig.)

  11. QCD jet simulation with CMS at LHC and background studies to H to gamma gamma process

    CERN Document Server

    Litvin, V; Shevchenko, S; Wisniewski, N

    2002-01-01

    We have simulated and reconstructed one million of QCD jet events. This study was done with CMS full detector simulation, based on GEANT3 package, and object-oriented CMS C++ reconstruction program. The understanding of QCD jet background is important for the Higgs search in two-photon decay mode. The comparison with other types of backgrounds was also done. It was shown that the isolation tools were important ones to isolate the signal process from the huge background one. Using the isolation criteria based on the information from PbWO /sub 4/ electromagnetic calorimeter and the tracker we were able to reduce the QCD jet background to 15% of the total one. (9 refs).

  12. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  13. 39 CFR 267.5 - National Security Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Security Information. 267.5 Section 267.5... § 267.5 National Security Information. (a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section is to provide regulations implementing Executive Order 12356 National Security Information (hereinafter referred to as the...

  14. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF TX-TY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE: RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYERS DA; CUBBAGE R; BRAUCHLA R; O'BRIEN G

    2008-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity(trademark) surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects

  15. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  16. Pigs in Toxicology: Breed Differences in Metabolism and Background Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helke, Kristi L; Nelson, Keith N; Sargeant, Aaron M; Jacob, Binod; McKeag, Sean; Haruna, Julius; Vemireddi, Vimala; Greeley, Melanie; Brocksmith, Derek; Navratil, Nicole; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Hollinger, Charlotte

    2016-06-01

    Both a rodent and a nonrodent species are required for evaluation in nonclinical safety studies conducted to support human clinical trials. Historically, dogs and nonhuman primates have been the nonrodent species of choice. Swine, especially the miniature swine or minipigs, are increasingly being used in preclinical safety as an alternate nonrodent species. The pig is an appropriate option for these toxicology studies based on metabolic pathways utilized in xenobiotic biotransformation. Both similarities and differences exist in phase I and phase II biotransformation pathways between humans and pigs. There are numerous breeds of pigs, yet only a few of these breeds are characterized with regard to both xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and background pathology findings. Some specific differences in these enzymes based on breed and sex are known. Although swine have been used extensively in biomedical research, there is also a paucity of information in the current literature detailing the incidence of background lesions and differences between commonly used breeds. Here, the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes are compared between humans and pigs, and minipig background pathology changes are reviewed with emphasis on breed differences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Informational Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang G. Stock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary and future cities are often labeled as "smart cities," "ubiquitous cities," "knowledge cities" and "creative cities." Informational urbanism includes all aspects of information and knowledge with regard to urban regions. "Informational city" is an umbrella term uniting the divergent trends of information-related city research. Informational urbanism is an interdisciplinary endeavor incorporating on the one side computer science and information science and on the other side urbanism, architecture, (city economics, and (city sociology. In our research project on informational cities, we visited more than 40 metropolises and smaller towns all over the world. In this paper, we sketch the theoretical background on a journey from Max Weber to the Internet of Things, introduce our research methods, and describe main results on characteristics of informational cities as prototypical cities of the emerging knowledge society.

  18. Slavnov-Taylor constraints for nontrivial backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binosi, D.; Quadri, A.

    2011-01-01

    We devise an algebraic procedure for the evaluation of Green's functions in SU(N) Yang-Mills theory in the presence of a nontrivial background field. In the ghost-free sector the dependence of the vertex functional on the background is shown to be uniquely determined by the Slavnov-Taylor identities in terms of a certain 1-PI correlator of the covariant derivatives of the ghost and the antighost fields. At nonvanishing background this amplitude is shown to encode the quantum deformations to the tree-level background-quantum splitting. The approach only relies on the functional identities of the model (Slavnov-Taylor identities, b-equation, antighost equation) and thus it is valid beyond perturbation theory, and, in particular, in a lattice implementation of the background field method. As an example of the formalism we analyze the ghost two-point function and the Kugo-Ojima function in an instanton background in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, quantized in the background Landau gauge.

  19. A novel background field removal method for MRI using projection onto dipole fields (PDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Khalidov, Ildar; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Spincemaille, Pascal; Liu, Jing; Tsiouris, A John; Wang, Yi

    2011-11-01

    For optimal image quality in susceptibility-weighted imaging and accurate quantification of susceptibility, it is necessary to isolate the local field generated by local magnetic sources (such as iron) from the background field that arises from imperfect shimming and variations in magnetic susceptibility of surrounding tissues (including air). Previous background removal techniques have limited effectiveness depending on the accuracy of model assumptions or information input. In this article, we report an observation that the magnetic field for a dipole outside a given region of interest (ROI) is approximately orthogonal to the magnetic field of a dipole inside the ROI. Accordingly, we propose a nonparametric background field removal technique based on projection onto dipole fields (PDF). In this PDF technique, the background field inside an ROI is decomposed into a field originating from dipoles outside the ROI using the projection theorem in Hilbert space. This novel PDF background removal technique was validated on a numerical simulation and a phantom experiment and was applied in human brain imaging, demonstrating substantial improvement in background field removal compared with the commonly used high-pass filtering method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-25

    purposes of convenience. 2 For more on these three funding approaches, see CRS Report RL31404, Defense Procurement : Full Funding Policy— Background... procurement authorities. Section 1023 of H.R. 4909 as reported states (see part in bold): SEC. 1023. National Sea- Based Deterrence Fund. (a... procurement of critical contractor-furnished and Government-furnished components for national sea- based deterrence vessels. The authority under this

  1. Foundational sources and purposes of authority in Madayin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Kelly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Madayin system that continues to be maintained by the Aboriginal Yolngu people of Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory is a holistic system of legal, religious and political authority. A recent increase in publically available information has enabled a broader audience to learn about the Madayin system. This article analyses the foundational sources of authority and purpose in the Madayin system.

  2. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  3. Centrally extended residual symmetries in the presence of a constant EM background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, F.

    2001-12-01

    In this talk I discuss the properties of the symmetry algebra (denominated 'residual symmetry') of a QFT in the presence of a non-vanishing, constant, electro-magnetic background. It is shown that this problem can be formulated and solved on a purely Lie-algebra ground (it is model-independent). One of its simplest consequences consists in recovering the central extension in the commutator of the translations, associated with the abelian U(1) charge. For illustrative purposes the case of the (2+1)-dimensional Poincare invariant QFTs coupled with a constant external EM background is discussed in detail. The deformed (and gauge-fixing dependent) surviving Poincare generators are explicitly computed. In the generic case the residual symmetry algebra is isomorphic to u(1)+P c (2), where P c (2) is the centrally extended 2-dimensional Poincare algebra. The connection with the Noncommutative Field Theories is briefly mentioned. A short discussion concerning the possible physical implications and the outline of the forthcoming research is given. (author)

  4. PENGARUH BACKGROUND MAHASISWA TERHADAP KINERJA AKADEMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trianasari Angkawijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effect of Students’ Background on Academic Performance. This study examines the effect of background variables on the academic performance of accounting students in a private university in Surabaya. The background variables under study included previous academic performance, prior knowledge on accounting, sex, motivation, preparedness, and expectations. The results show that previous academic performance, motivation, and expectations have positive and significant effects on the students’ overall academic performance in accounting, while preparedness affects only the students’ performance in management accounting. In contrast, prior knowledge on accounting and sex do not give significant impacts to the students’ overall academic performance.These findings indicate the importance of previous aca­demic performance as well as motivation and expectations as background variables in current academic performance. Keywords: students’ background, academic performance, accounting Abstrak: Pengaruh Background Mahasiswa terhadap Kinerja Akademik. Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh variabel background terhadap kinerja akademik mahasiswa akuntansi di Universitas Surabaya. Lima variabel background utama dipergunakan, yaitu kinerja akademik sebelumnya, pengetahuan akun­tansi sebelumnya, jenis kelamin, motivasi, kesiapan, dan ekspektasi. Hipotesis diuji menggunakan model regresi linier berganda OLS dan Robust Standar Error. Hasil penelitian memerlihatkan bahwa kinerja akademik sebelumnya, motivasi, dan ekspektasi memiliki pengaruh positif signifikan terhadap kinerja akademik keseluruhan, sementara kesiapan memberikan pengaruh positif hanya pada kinerja akademik akuntansi manajemen. Sebaliknya, pengetahuan akuntansi sebelumnya dan jenis kelamin tidak memberi­kan pengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja akademik keseluruhan. Temuan ini mengindikasikan bahwa kinerja akademik sebelumnya beserta motivasi dan ekspektasi adalah variabel background

  5. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1992. A complete numerical lift of Information Circulars with their titles is reproduced in an Annex

  6. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Paul

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone and anonymous questionnaires were mailed, to be returned by postage paid envelope. Results Data were available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical cannabis use was frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain (57%, depression (56%, arthritis (35%, persistent nausea (27% and weight loss (26%. Cannabis was perceived to provide "great relief" overall (86%, and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia. It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided. However, nearly one half (41% experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest (89% in participating in a clinical trial of medical cannabis, and strong support (79% for investigating alternative delivery methods. Conclusion Australian medical cannabis users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical cannabis users show strong interest in clinical cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods.

  7. A Low-Complexity Algorithm for Static Background Estimation from Cluttered Image Sequences in Surveillance Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the purposes of foreground estimation, the true background model is unavailable in many practical circumstances and needs to be estimated from cluttered image sequences. We propose a sequential technique for static background estimation in such conditions, with low computational and memory requirements. Image sequences are analysed on a block-by-block basis. For each block location a representative set is maintained which contains distinct blocks obtained along its temporal line. The background estimation is carried out in a Markov Random Field framework, where the optimal labelling solution is computed using iterated conditional modes. The clique potentials are computed based on the combined frequency response of the candidate block and its neighbourhood. It is assumed that the most appropriate block results in the smoothest response, indirectly enforcing the spatial continuity of structures within a scene. Experiments on real-life surveillance videos demonstrate that the proposed method obtains considerably better background estimates (both qualitatively and quantitatively than median filtering and the recently proposed "intervals of stable intensity" method. Further experiments on the Wallflower dataset suggest that the combination of the proposed method with a foreground segmentation algorithm results in improved foreground segmentation.

  8. Public informations guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities

  9. Public informations guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities.

  10. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  11. Background noise exerts diverse effects on the cortical encoding of foreground sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, B J; Heiser, Marc A; Beitel, Ralph E; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2017-08-01

    In natural listening conditions, many sounds must be detected and identified in the context of competing sound sources, which function as background noise. Traditionally, noise is thought to degrade the cortical representation of sounds by suppressing responses and increasing response variability. However, recent studies of neural network models and brain slices have shown that background synaptic noise can improve the detection of signals. Because acoustic noise affects the synaptic background activity of cortical networks, it may improve the cortical responses to signals. We used spike train decoding techniques to determine the functional effects of a continuous white noise background on the responses of clusters of neurons in auditory cortex to foreground signals, specifically frequency-modulated sweeps (FMs) of different velocities, directions, and amplitudes. Whereas the addition of noise progressively suppressed the FM responses of some cortical sites in the core fields with decreasing signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), the stimulus representation remained robust or was even significantly enhanced at specific SNRs in many others. Even though the background noise level was typically not explicitly encoded in cortical responses, significant information about noise context could be decoded from cortical responses on the basis of how the neural representation of the foreground sweeps was affected. These findings demonstrate significant diversity in signal in noise processing even within the core auditory fields that could support noise-robust hearing across a wide range of listening conditions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The ability to detect and discriminate sounds in background noise is critical for our ability to communicate. The neural basis of robust perceptual performance in noise is not well understood. We identified neuronal populations in core auditory cortex of squirrel monkeys that differ in how they process foreground signals in background noise and that may

  12. Application of Monte Carlo algorithms to the Bayesian analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, J.; Levin, S.; Anderson, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    Power spectrum estimation and evaluation of associated errors in the presence of incomplete sky coverage; nonhomogeneous, correlated instrumental noise; and foreground emission are problems of central importance for the extraction of cosmological information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

  13. Association of Radon Background and Total Background Ionizing Radiation with Alzheimer's Disease Deaths in U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Rheinstein, Peter H; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of the brain to ionizing radiation might promote the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analysis of AD death rates versus radon background radiation and total background radiation in U.S. states. Total background, radon background, cosmic and terrestrial background radiation measurements are from Assessment of Variations in Radiation Exposure in the United States and Report No. 160 - Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States. 2013 AD death rates by U.S. state are from the Alzheimer's Association. Radon background ionizing radiation was significantly correlated with AD death rate in 50 states and the District of Columbia (r = 0.467, p = 0.001). Total background ionizing radiation was also significantly correlated with AD death rate in 50 states and the District of Columbia (r = 0.452, p = 0.001). Multivariate linear regression weighted by state population demonstrated that AD death rate was significantly correlated with radon background (β= 0.169, p ionizing radiation is a risk factor for AD. Intranasal inhalation of radon gas could subject the rhinencephalon and hippocampus to damaging radiation that initiates AD. The damage would accumulate over time, causing age to be a powerful risk factor.

  14. PhyDesign: an online application for profiling phylogenetic informativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Townsend Jeffrey P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid increase in number of sequenced genomes for species across of the tree of life is revealing a diverse suite of orthologous genes that could potentially be employed to inform molecular phylogenetic studies that encompass broader taxonomic sampling. Optimal usage of this diversity of loci requires user-friendly tools to facilitate widespread cost-effective locus prioritization for phylogenetic sampling. The Townsend (2007 phylogenetic informativeness provides a unique empirical metric for guiding marker selection. However, no software or automated methodology to evaluate sequence alignments and estimate the phylogenetic informativeness metric has been available. Results Here, we present PhyDesign, a platform-independent online application that implements the Townsend (2007 phylogenetic informativeness analysis, providing a quantitative prediction of the utility of loci to solve specific phylogenetic questions. An easy-to-use interface facilitates uploading of alignments and ultrametric trees to calculate and depict profiles of informativeness over specified time ranges, and provides rankings of locus prioritization for epochs of interest. Conclusions By providing these profiles, PhyDesign facilitates locus prioritization increasing the efficiency of sequencing for phylogenetic purposes compared to traditional studies with more laborious and low capacity screening methods, as well as increasing the accuracy of phylogenetic studies. Together with a manual and sample files, the application is freely accessible at http://phydesign.townsend.yale.edu.

  15. Improved upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C-H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Le Roux, A; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; Ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J

    2014-12-05

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the Universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitational-wave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. Assuming a gravitational-wave spectrum of Ω_{GW}(f)=Ω_{α}(f/f_{ref})^{α}, we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.5-1726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5-169.25 Hz for a spectral index of α=0, we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be Ω_{GW}(f)waves.

  16. Homeland Security and Information Control: A Model of Asymmetric Information Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Terrence A.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes some of the activities the United States government has undertaken to control the dissemination of information since 2001. It also explores, through a conceptual model of information flows, potential impacts and discontinuities between policy purposes and outcomes. (AEF)

  17. eHealth literacy: extending the digital divide to the realm of health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neter, Efrat; Brainin, Esther

    2012-01-27

    eHealth literacy is defined as the ability of people to use emerging information and communications technologies to improve or enable health and health care. The goal of this study was to explore whether literacy disparities are diminished or enhanced in the search for health information on the Internet. The study focused on (1) traditional digital divide variables, such as sociodemographic characteristics, digital access, and digital literacy, (2) information search processes, and (3) the outcomes of Internet use for health information purposes. We used a countrywide representative random-digital-dial telephone household survey of the Israeli adult population (18 years and older, N = 4286). We measured eHealth literacy; Internet access; digital literacy; sociodemographic factors; perceived health; presence of chronic diseases; as well as health information sources, content, search strategies, and evaluation criteria used by consumers. Respondents who were highly eHealth literate tended to be younger and more educated than their less eHealth-literate counterparts. They were also more active consumers of all types of information on the Internet, used more search strategies, and scrutinized information more carefully than did the less eHealth-literate respondents. Finally, respondents who were highly eHealth literate gained more positive outcomes from the information search in terms of cognitive, instrumental (self-management of health care needs, health behaviors, and better use of health insurance), and interpersonal (interacting with their physician) gains. The present study documented differences between respondents high and low in eHealth literacy in terms of background attributes, information consumption, and outcomes of the information search. The association of eHealth literacy with background attributes indicates that the Internet reinforces existing social differences. The more comprehensive and sophisticated use of the Internet and the subsequent increased

  18. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to February 1997, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex

  19. Establishing the Information System: An Operational Handbook. MOREL Regional Information System for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Charles; Doyle, James

    This document is one of a series describing the background, functions, and utilization of the Regional Information System (RIS), developed by the Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Laboratory (MOREL). RIS, which was developed to improve the accessibility of information for the educational practitioner, is described in this handbook. The handbook…

  20. Surfing for health: user evaluation of a health information website. Part one: Background and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; McLean, Fiona

    2002-06-01

    The Government in Britain is set on using the Internet to expand the provision of health information to the general public. Concerns over the quality of the health information have preoccupied commentators and organizations rather than the way users interact with health information systems. This report examines the issues surrounding the provision of electronic health information, and describes an evaluation undertaken of a commercial health website-that of Surgerydoor (http://www.surgerydoor.co.uk/), and comprises two parts. Part one outlines the literature on electronic health information evaluation. It discusses quality issues, but also redresses the imbalance by exploring other evaluative perspectives. Part two describes an evaluation of a health information Internet site in terms of its usability and appeal, undertaken as part of a Department of Health funded study on the impact of such systems.

  1. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  2. Use of product databases for risk assessment purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Hahn, Axel

    2005-01-01

    Product information databases are important prerequisites for providing data to poison centers (PC) to give adequate advice in cases of poisonings and for preparation of statistics as annual reports. For risk assessment measures, they can help for exposure assessments and for priority setting. A product database is a set of information of product and substance names, compositions, and uses of products. Data are provided due to national regulations as well as to national and international agreements between industry, international associations, e.g. the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT), and clinical toxicology institutions. They have different contents, i.e. complete formulations, frame formulations, and material safety data sheets. For definite identification of products, the product name should be readily taken from the labels and must be similar to the names provided by electronic media as databases. Products should be classified according to their use. The first system that has been prepared for that purpose is the ATC classification for pharmaceuticals. For chemicals, several systems e.g. the WHO-IPCS classification code, exist; the EU technical guidance document for risk assessment of chemicals is mentioning use categories, and they are used on national levels as well. For risk assessment purposes, statistics of poisonings and other health hazards are important as well as information about exposure. Linking cases of poisonings with product data enables risk assessors to perform statistical evaluations about health effects due to product use categories which can be compared to product compositions. If products are categorized by their use, information about use characteristics, such as frequencies and durations, can be derived. Hence, product categories can be taken to characterize scenarios and thus help for model estimations of exposure and respective doses

  3. Digital dental photography. Part 2: Purposes and uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I

    2009-05-09

    Although the primary purpose of using digital photography in dentistry is for recording various aspects of clinical information in the oral cavity, other benefits also accrue. Detailed here are the uses of digital images for dento-legal documentation, education, communication with patients, dental team members and colleagues and for portfolios, and marketing. These uses enhance the status of a dental practice and improve delivery of care to patients.

  4. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1994. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  5. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of April 2002. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  6. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of May 1999, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex

  7. OligoPVP: Phenotype-driven analysis of individual genomic information to prioritize oligogenic disease variants

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2018-05-02

    Purpose: An increasing number of Mendelian disorders have been identified for which two or more variants in one or more genes are required to cause the disease, or significantly modify its severity or phenotype. It is difficult to discover such interactions using existing approaches. The purpose of our work is to develop and evaluate a system that can identify combinations of variants underlying oligogenic diseases in individual whole exome or whole genome sequences. Methods: Information that links patient phenotypes to databases of gene-phenotype associations observed in clinical research can provide useful information and improve variant prioritization for Mendelian diseases. Additionally, background knowledge about interactions between genes can be utilized to guide and restrict the selection of candidate disease modules. Results: We developed OligoPVP, an algorithm that can be used to identify variants in oligogenic diseases and their interactions, using whole exome or whole genome sequences together with patient phenotypes as input. We demonstrate that OligoPVP has significantly improved performance when compared to state of the art pathogenicity detection methods. Conclusions: Our results show that OligoPVP can efficiently detect oligogenic interactions using a phenotype-driven approach and identify etiologically important variants in whole genomes.

  8. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 3: Volume VII. General purpose display components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    A catalog of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared under MITRE contract AT(49-24)-0376 for use by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Included is information on barrier structures and equipment, interior and exterior intrusion detection sensors, entry (access) control devices, surveillance and alarm assessment equipment, contraband detection sensors, automated response equipment, general purpose displays and general purpose communications, with one volume devoted to each of these eight areas. For each item of equipment the information included consists of performance, physical, cost and supply/logistics data. The entire catalog is contained in three notebooks for ease in its use by licensing and inspection staff at NRC

  9. Characterization of the radiation background at the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiJulio, Douglas D.; Cherkashyna, Nataliia; Scherzinger, Julius; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kirstein, Oliver; Hall-Wilton, Richard J.; Bentley, Phillip M.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Hornbach, Donald E.; Iverson, Erik B.; Newby, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a survey of the radiation background at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, USA during routine daily operation. A broad range of detectors was used to characterize primarily the neutron and photon fields throughout the facility. These include a WENDI-2 extended range dosimeter, a thermoscientific NRD, an Arktis 4 He detector, and a standard NaI photon detector. The information gathered from the detectors was used to map out the neutron dose rates throughout the facility and also the neutron dose rate and flux profiles of several different beamlines. The survey provides detailed information useful for developing future shielding concepts at spallation neutron sources, such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Lund, Sweden. (paper)

  10. Beam-gas Background Observations at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00214737; The ATLAS collaboration; Alici, Andrea; Lazic, Dragoslav-Laza; Alemany Fernandez, Reyes; Alessio, Federico; Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Burkhardt, Helmut; Corti, Gloria; Guthoff, Moritz; Manousos, Athanasios; Sjoebaek, Kyrre; D'Auria, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    Observations of beam-induced background at LHC during 2015 and 2016 are presented in this paper. The four LHC experiments use the non-colliding bunches present in the physics-filling pattern of the accelerator to trigger on beam-gas interactions. During luminosity production the LHC experiments record the beam-gas interactions using dedicated background monitors. These data are sent to the LHC control system and are used to monitor the background levels at the experiments during accelerator operation. This is a very important measurement, since poor beam-induced background conditions can seriously affect the performance of the detectors. A summary of the evolution of the background levels during 2015 and 2016 is given in these proceedings.

  11. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  12. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.

    1998-02-01

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions

  13. Information as signs: A semiotic analysis of the information concept, determining it's ontological and epistemological commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to formulate an analytical framework for the information concept based on the semiotic theory. Design/methodology/approach The paper is motivated by the apparent controversy that still surrounds the information concept. Information, being a key concept within...... LIS, suffers from being anchored in various incompatible theories. The paper suggests that information is signs, and it demonstrates how the concept of information can be understood within C.S. Peirce’s phenomenologically rooted semiotic. Hence, from there, certain ontological conditions as well...... epistemological consequences of the information concept can be deduced. Findings The paper argues that an understanding of information, as either objective or subjective/discursive, leads to either objective reductionism and signal processing, that fails to explain how information becomes meaningful at all...

  14. Simulating cosmic microwave background maps in multiconnected spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riazuelo, Alain; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Lehoucq, Roland; Weeks, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the computation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in a universe with multiconnected spatial sections and focuses on the implementation of the topology in standard CMB computer codes. The key ingredient is the computation of the eigenmodes of the Laplacian with boundary conditions compatible with multiconnected space topology. The correlators of the coefficients of the decomposition of the temperature fluctuation in spherical harmonics are computed and examples are given for spatially flat spaces and one family of spherical spaces, namely, the lens spaces. Under the hypothesis of Gaussian initial conditions, these correlators encode all the topological information of the CMB and suffice to simulate CMB maps

  15. Competing Purposes: Mother Tongue Education Benefits Versus Economic Interests in Rural Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamuchirai Tsitsi Ndamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of educators on the barriers to the implementation of the Zimbabwean language-in-education policy, which recommends use of Indigenous languages up to the end of the primary school level. Postcolonial theory informed this case study. Individual interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 rural primary school teachers, 3 school heads, and 2 school's inspectors who were purposefully selected from Masvingo district. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method for thematic coding. The findings revealed that participants strongly believed that the English language offers socio-economic opportunities, a factor which may negatively influence teachers in the implementation of the mother tongue-based policy. Recommendations that inform policy-makers are made.

  16. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research.

  17. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Green, Carla A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research. PMID:24193818

  18. A randomized controlled trial to increase information, motivation, and behavioral skills in Ugandan adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Prescott, Tonya L.; Birungi, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background One in twenty-five Ugandan adolescents is HIV positive. Purpose Examine the impact of an Internet-based HIV prevention program on Information-Motivation-Behavior Skills Model-related constructs. Methods Three hundred and sixty-six sexually experienced and inexperienced students 12-18+ years-old in Mbarara, Uganda were randomly assigned to: the five-lesson CyberSenga program or treatment-as-usual. Half of the intervention participants were further randomized to a booster session. Assessments were collected at three and six months post-baseline. Results Participants’ HIV-related information improved over time at a greater rate for the intervention groups compared to the control group. Motivation for condom use changed to a greater degree over time for the intervention group – especially those in the intervention+booster group - compared to the control group. Behavioral skills for condom use, and motivation and behavioral skills for abstinence were statistically similar over time for both groups. Conclusions CyberSenga improves HIV preventive information and motivation to use condoms. PMID:25633626

  19. Identification and age estimation of blood stains on colored backgrounds by near infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Gerda; Manti, Vicky; van Ruth, Saskia M.; van Leeuwen, Ton; Aalders, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive identification and subsequent age estimation of blood stains are significant steps in forensic casework. The latter can provide important information on the temporal aspects of a crime. As previously shown, visible spectroscopy of blood stains on white backgrounds can successfully be

  20. Review of epidemiological and cytogenetic studies on high background radiation area residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2008-01-01

    Emerging scientific knowledge in the field of radiation biology has put into question the generic use of a simple linear extrapolation of radiation effects from high to low dose or dose rate. Though the direct information of biological effects at low dose or low dose rate has been accumulated, it is still immature to mention health effects as the consequence of biological effects. As epidemiological data have been the main sources of direct information on human health effects, studies of the health of population exposed by low dose or low dose rate ionizing radiation will help to improve our understanding. In this meaning, the epidemiological studies of residents in high background radiation areas (HBRA), which are supported by us, will provide important direct information on the biological and health effects of chronic low dose rate ionizing radiation. The epidemiological results in HBRA in China showed there are no significant increases of cancer risks caused by the high background levels of ionizing radiation. From the results which come from cytogeneticl studies, the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations have shown good correlation with cumulative doses in their lifetimes, which indicated it is a sensitive and informative biomarker. On the other hand, the frequencies of stable chromosomal aberrations have shown no significant difference and the frequency was much higher than that of unstable type aberrations. It suggests that mutagenic factors other than radiation contribute more than the elevated level of radiation to the induction of DNA rearrangements which could lead to the increase of cancer risk in HBRA in China. (author)