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Sample records for purple wild sicilian

  1. Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits

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    Aldo Di Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm2 and a high IPCE value (65% at λ = 470 nm. Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm2, corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%.

  2. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Marco, Gaetano Di [CNR, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Sede di Messina) Salita Sperone, C. da Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore Messina (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO{sub 2} films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J{sub sc}=3.84 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.340 V and fill factor=0.50. In the case of the extract of eggplant peels, the values determined were up to J{sub sc}=3.40 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.350 V and fill factor=0.40. Cyanidine-3-glucoside (cyanine) and delphinidin 3-[4-(p-coumaroyl)-L-rhamnosyl(1-6)-glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (nasunin) are the main pigments of cocktail dyes for red orange and eggplant, respectively. Actually, their application is far below the industrial requirements. Nevertheless, their study is an interesting multidisciplinary exercise useful for dissemination of knowledge and to educate people on renewable energy sources. Here, we report and discuss the role of the structure, the absorption spectra and the sensitization activity of the mentioned compounds. (author)

  3. Wild Sicilian rosemary: phytochemical and morphological screening and antioxidant activity evaluation of extracts and essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Saija, Antonella; Speciale, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico; Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Leto, Claudio; Rubino, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    To identify the best biotypes, an extensive survey of Sicilian wild rosemary was carried out by collecting 57 samples from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. All the biotypes collected were classified as Rosmarinus officinalis L. A cluster analysis based on the morphological characteristics of the plants allowed the division of the biotypes into seven main groups, although the characteristics examined were found to be highly similar and not area-dependent. Moreover, all samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying an extraction protocol to obtain the nonvolatile components and hydrodistillation to collect the essential oils for the volatile components. The extracts were characterized by LC-UV-DAD/ESI-MS, and the essential oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the nonvolatile fractions, 18 components were identified, namely, 13 flavones, two organic acids, and three diterpenes. In the volatile fractions, a total of 82 components were found, with as predominant components α-pinene and camphene among the monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone among the oxygenated monoterpenes. Cluster analyses were carried out on both phytochemical profiles, allowing the separation of the rosemary samples into different chemical groups. Finally, the total phenol content and the antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) colorimetric assay, the UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and the scavenging activity of the superoxide radical (O$\\rm{{_{2}^{{^\\cdot} -}}}$). The present study confirmed that the essential oils and organic extracts of the Sicilian rosemary samples analyzed showed a considerable antioxidant/free radical-scavenging activity.

  4. Biomolecular characterization of wild sicilian oregano: phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts, and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio; Speciale, Antonio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Pasquale, Andrea; Curcuruto, Giusy; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    An extensive survey of wild Sicilian oregano was made. A total of 57 samples were collected from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. Based on morphological and production characteristics obtained from the 57 samples, cluster analysis was used to divide the samples into homogeneous groups, to identify the best biotypes. All samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying a cascade-extraction protocol and hydrodistillation, to obtain the non volatile components and the essential oils, respectively. The extracts contained thirteen polyphenol derivatives, i.e., four flavanones, seven flavones, and two organic acids. Their qualitative and quantitative characterization was carried out by LC/MS analyses. The essential oils were characterized using a combination of GC-FID and GC/MS analyses; a total of 81 components were identified. The major components of the oils were thymol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene. Cluster analysis was carried out on both phytochemical profiles and resulted in the division of the oregano samples into different chemical groups. The antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts was investigated by the Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) colorimetric assay, by UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and by determining the O(2)(∙-)-scavenging activity.

  5. Plasma biochemistry values of recently wild-caught purple mouth moray eels (Gymnothorax vicinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Hoffman, Walter E; Priede, Megan; Pulver, Robert; Tuttle, Allison D

    2011-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish plasma biochemistry parameters for healthy recently wild-caught purple mouth moray eels (Gymnothorax vicinus) to provide a baseline of data for improved medical care in an aquarium or zoologic setting and for wild health assessments. Thirty-one clinically healthy purple mouth moray eels of unknown age and sex were caught from the wild, and were anesthetized 50 days following capture for blood collection from the ventral coccygeal vein. The median plasma biochemistry values were as follows: hematocrit = 21%, creatinine kinase = 2,100 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase = 97 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase = 88 U/L, alanine aminotransferase = 51 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 3,939 U/L, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase = 1 U/L, amylase = 40 U/L, blood urea nitrogen = moray eels to aid in monitoring elevations to these values in an aquarium setting over time so adjustments to the dietary regime may be utilized to prevent or improve conditions such as lipid keratopathy.

  6. Sicilian potential biogas production

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    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  7. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja

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    Dubouzet Joseph G

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. Results B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H. The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. Conclusions B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean

  8. Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria

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    Izri, Arezki; Temmam, Sarah; Moureau, Grégory; Hamrioui, Boussad; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is present in Algeria, we tested sandflies for phlebovirus RNA. A sequence closely related to that of SFSV was detected in a Phlebotomus ariasi sandfly. Of 60 human serum samples, 3 contained immunoglobulin G against SFSV. These data suggest SFSV is present in Algeria. PMID:18439364

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of Sicilian goats reveals a new mtDNA lineage.

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    Sardina, M T; Ballester, M; Marmi, J; Finocchiaro, R; van Kaam, J B C H M; Portolano, B; Folch, J M

    2006-08-01

    The mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequence of 67 goats belonging to the Girgentana, Maltese and Derivata di Siria breeds was partially sequenced in order to present the first phylogenetic characterization of Sicilian goat breeds. These sequences were compared with published sequences of Indian and Pakistani domestic goats and wild goats. Mitochondrial lineage A was observed in most of the Sicilian goats. However, three Girgentana haplotypes were highly divergent from the Capra hircus clade, indicating that a new mtDNA lineage in domestic goats was found.

  10. Rafinesque's Sicilian whale, Balena gastrytis

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    Woodman, Neal; Mead, James G.

    2017-01-01

    In 1815, the naturalist Constantine S. Rafinesque described a new species of cetacean, Balena gastrytis, from Sicily, based on a whale that stranded on Carini beach near Palermo. In comparing the characteristics of his new whale with known species, Rafinesque also took the opportunity to name a new genus, Cetoptera, to replace Balaenoptera Lacépède, 1804. Unfortunately, few of Rafinesque's contemporaries saw his article, which appeared in Il Portafoglio, a local journal that he published and distributed. The journal remains rare, and awareness of the whale remains minimal, despite its relevance to cetacean taxonomy and understanding of whale diversity and distribution in the Mediterranean. We describe the circumstances of the stranding of the Sicilian whale and provide Rafinesque's original description of the whale, as well as an evaluation of its reported characteristics and its current identity.

  11. Sicilian dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus fishery

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    A. Potoschi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, a census was taken of the Sicilian fisheries that engage in dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus L. 1758 fishing. Two different surveys were conducted; data on fishing boats were obtained from the Naval Registers and frominterviewing boat owners on the wharf. The area sampled was divided into 3 zones and 6 strata. 205 boats were recorded in the eastern zone (Tyrrhenian and Ionian seas, 57 boats located in 4 different strata were recorded in the western zone. Fishing activities in the Ionian area begin in early August and end in December. In all other areas of Sicily, dolphinfish fishing begins in early September and continues until December. A census was also taken of the equipment used by the various boats for this activity in the different areas. The surveys showed that FADs are the most commonly employed method for dolphinfish fishing. The geographical distribution, number and characteristics were recorded for each area surveyed. The catches for the 1996 fishing season distributed for strata and zone are reported.

  12. QUALITY OF AUTOCHTHONOUS SICILIAN PLUMS

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    F. Sottile

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty four plum local varieties and accessions obtained from different growing area of the Sicilian island were analyzed for their qualitative and nutraceutical properties and three commercialcultivar were used as references. These properties included the fruit fresh weight (g, the pulp firmness (FFF, the total soluble solids (TSS, the titratable acidity (TA, the total anthocyanins,the phenolics content and the antioxidant activity.This preliminary study showed significantly differeces among the plums; Zuccarato giallo and Prunu Niuru presented TSS higher than the commercial cultivars (24.9 and 21.6 °Brix respectivelyand interesting data obtained on the nutraceutical compounds values suggested these local cultivars as sources of polyphenols (Zuccarato giallo with 663 mg GA/100 gFW and naturalantioxidants (Pruno Regina with 47.46 Fe2+/100 gFW. The characterization of these plums could represent also an important resource for the international activity in the genetic improving andthe collection of the more interesting quality traits could be useful for improving the Prunus database actually in use.

  13. Purple and Celie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官宇

    2013-01-01

    In the novel The Color Purple, purple is a color that Alice Walker uses to symbolize the main character:Celie. In col⁃or psychology, purple is a complex color. At first, it has two contradictory symbolic meanings just as Celie’s personality. Second⁃ly, purple is a color which blends blue and red. In western countries, red symbolized man and blue symbolized woman. Howev⁃er, Celie is a person who has both man’s and woman’s characteristics. At last, purple is a changeable color. Celie’s early misery life is like dark purple which has more of a passive meaning. And her later life turns out to be light purple which symbolizes more of the beautiful things. And the turning of her life may be viewed as awakening of womanism.

  14. SICILIAN JURASSIC PHYSIOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGIC REALMS (ITALY

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    BENEDETTO ABATE

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Two tectono-sedimentary domains, which were deformed during the Neogene and evolved into two large structural sectors, characterize the Sicilian Jurassic: the Maghrebides and Peloritani. Africa margin sediments, passing downward to Triassic successions and perhaps originally to Paleozoic deposits, characterize the former. The latter belongs to the European "Calabrian Arc", where the Jurassic transgressively rests on a continental substrate (i.e. the crystalline Variscan basement. These domains are characterized by four sedimentary facies: shallow platform-derived limestones; condensed seamount-type red limestones; nodular limestones with ammonites; deep radiolarites and shales. These facies are illustrated in a dozen of stratigraphic logs. The drowning of most Triassic-Liassic carbonate platforms or ramps and the deepening of adjacent basins came with inferred Jurassic strike-slip tectonics, connected to the relative movement of Africa (Gondwanan part vs Europe (Laurasian part; the same strike-slip tectonics may have caused scattered intraplate volcanic seamounts found in Maghrebides. During the Jurassic the Maghrebide realm was characterized by the interfingering of basins and carbonate platforms. During the Early and Middle Liassic, carbonate platforms and ramps were dominant. Since Toarcian either radiolarites in some basins or Ammonite-bearing calcareous muds developed with intervening basaltic flows, and were accompanied by condensed pelagic carbonates on the ensialic seamount-type highs. The Peloritani realm displays similar characteristics, but with later transgression on the basement, several strike-slip basins and without any volcanoes.

  15. Status of Purple Loosetrife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A letter to the New York Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit regarding measures taken to control Purple loosestife at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge....

  16. Agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic characterisation of Sicilian Origanum vulgare (L.) ecotypes.

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    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Martinelli, Federico; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Leto, Claudio; Maggio, Antonella; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Although Origanum vulgare (L.) has been deeply analysed at phytochemical level, poor knowledge is available regarding non-volatile compounds such as lipids. The aim of this work was to characterise five wild Sicilian Origanum ecotypes from an agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic perspective. Serradifalco presented higher dry weight and inflorescences/plant than the others while Favara had a significantly higher number of branches per plant and more extensive flowered stratum. Metabolomic analysis, performed with LC-MS-TOF, allowed a preliminary characterisation of the non-volatile metabolome of the five oregano ecotypes Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. Twenty-five metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, carnithines, nucleic bases and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Lipidomic analysis identified 115 polar plant membrane glycerolipid species. Thirteen of them were differentially present in the two chosen ecotypes. The role of these metabolites in plant physiology from a qualitative and pharmacological point of view was discussed.

  17. Purple coneflower viruses: species diversity and harmfulness

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    Dunich A. A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases became an actual problem in medicinal plants cultivation. The number of viruses known to infect purple coneflower increased significantly in the last years in many countries. However, there is no any review about the viral diseases of this valuable medicinal crop. Therefore, the aim of this article is to summarize the main information about the viruses affecting purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench.. An analysis of the literature data showed that purple coneflower could be infected by 10 viruses. These viruses belong to the families Bromoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Secoviridae, Potyviridae, Vir­ga­vi­ri­dae, and almost all of them are considered to be highly harmful plant viruses. Additionally, four of them (TMV, TSWV, CMV, PVY are in the top 10 of the most economically important plant viruses in the world and occupy the first places. Such distribution and harmfulness of these viruses are explained by a wide range of sensitive host-plants, wild plants and weeds – reservoirs of an infection, and also a large number of vectors. The data from a few countries show that the viral diseases of purple coneflower are becoming more severe from year to year. The appearance of new viruses is registered on coneflower every year that complicates prognosis and risk estimation of epiphytoties in these regions which, for example, were revealed in Bulgaria, Lithuania and Ukraine. This review presents the detailed symptoms of the viral diseases in purple coneflower, the main properties of each virus and data about their harmful effect on the quality of raw material (the concentration of biologically active substances and heavy metals in plants.

  18. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF DIRECT SALES IN SICILIAN FARMS

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    Filippo Sgroi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many farmers today adopt direct sales as an entrepreneurial strategy in order to achieve a competitive advantage. The aim of this study has been to analyze the role that direct sales play in Sicilian farms and how the short food supply chain is able to valorize the endogenous resources of rural areas and increase the net income of farmer. Our results showed that direct sales, in conjunction with conventional sales, can represent a growing opportunity for farmers and lead to an improvement in the economic performances of agricultural businesses, an increase in farm investments and the creation of new job opportunities.

  19. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

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    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  20. Prion protein gene frequencies in three Sicilian dairy sheep populations

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    Santo Caracappa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the prion protein (PrP genotype and haplotype frequencies in three Sicilian dairy sheep populations. The three populations were: (1 1096 Valle del Belice animals, (2 1143 Comisana animals, and (3 1771 individuals from 5 flocks with scrapie outbreaks, in which the animals were crossbreds derived from indigenous Sicilian dairy breeds. PrP genotypes are described for the three codons 136 (Alanine or Valine; A, V, 154 (Histidine or Arginine; H, R, and 171 (Glutamine, Arginine or Histidine; Q, R, H which represent polymorphisms known to be linked with scrapie susceptibility. The Valle del Belice haplotype frequencies were 32.3% ARR, 6.5% AHQ, 1.0% ARH, 58.8% ARQ, and 1.4% VRQ. The Comisana frequencies were 39.4% ARR, 2.9% AHQ, 2.9% ARH, 50.9% ARQ, and 3.9% VRQ. In the flocks with scrapie outbreaks the frequencies were 32.8% ARR, 2.4% AHQ, 1.7% ARH, 59.1% ARQ, and 3.9% VRQ. In all three populations ARQ and ARR were the most frequent haplotypes. Multiple generations of strong selection will be needed to fixate the most resistant ARR haplotype.

  1. Charm of Purple Clay A private museum in Wuxi is devoted to purple-clay art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Purple-clay art pieces will be on display in a museum opening soon in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. The museum, named Shuaiyuan Purple Clay Museum, is part of the Shuaiyuan Purple Clay Art Exhibition Center

  2. Measuring and modeling twilight's purple light

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    Lee, Raymond L.; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2003-01-01

    During many clear twilights, much of the solar sky is dominated by pastel purples. This purple light's red component has long been ascribed to transmission through and scattering by stratospheric dust and other aerosols. Clearly the vivid purples of post-volcanic twilights are related to increased stratospheric aerosol loading. Yet our time-series measurements of purple-light spectra, combined with radiative transfer modeling and satellite soundings, indicate that background stratospheric aerosols by themselves do not redden sunlight enough to cause the purple light's reds. Furthermore, scattering and extinction in both the troposphere and the stratosphere are needed to explain most purple lights.

  3. Organizational and welfare mode of breast centers network: a survey of Sicilian radiologists.

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    Marino, Maria Adele; Pennisi, Orazio; Donia, Annalisa; Sofia, Carmelo; Guerra, Claudio; Privitera, Carmelo; Romeo, Placido

    2017-04-20

    The European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists has created quality indicators for breast units to establish the minimum standards of care for patients. In Italy, each region differs, indeed, in terms of health care and services warranted to patients suffering from breast cancer. Since Sicilian Regional Administration today is still disregarding implementation of the provisions contained in the proposal of the Ministry of Health entitled "Guidelines on Organizational and Health Care Methods of Breast Centers Network" in November 2015 the Sicilian Regional Group of the Italian Society of Radiology (SIRM) decided to carry out a survey to see the position of the Sicilian Healthcare System and define the gap to bridge over. Sicilian breast imaging radiologists were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning the type of job relationship (public or private sector), qualification (Manager, Department Manager, Freelancer) and years of experience on breast imaging. With regard to technological requirements, were answered the questions about the number, type, age and completeness of accessories of the equipment supplied in the Sicilian healthcare facilities. The data showed that over 64% of breast imagers in Sicilian centers work in breast units, whereas only 18% are involved in screening programs. A majority of radiologists (81%) working in the breast health care system is very experienced (more than 10 years of experience in the field). The result provided concerning the medical and technical staff demonstrates an uneven situation, but overall an inadequate value compared with the required guidelines especially in interventional procedures. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the method used and the results obtained. These data have to be shared with policy makers to enhance quality improvement in Sicilian Breast Center Network.

  4. Photoreceptor proteins from purple bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, J.; van der Horst, M.A.; Chua, T.K.; Ávila Pérez, M.; van Wilderen, L.J.; Alexandre, M.T.A.; Groot, M.-L.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Hunter, C.N.; Daldal, F.; Thurnauer, M.C.; Beatty, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Purple bacteria contain representatives of four of the six main families of photoreceptor proteins: phytochromes, BLUF domain containing proteins, xanthopsins (i.e., photoactive yellow proteins), and phototropins (containing one or more light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains). Most of them have a

  5. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

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    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  6. Genetics of longevity. data from the studies on Sicilian centenarians

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    Balistreri Carmela R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The demographic and social changes of the past decades have determined improvements in public health and longevity. So, the number of centenarians is increasing as a worldwide phenomenon. Scientists have focused their attention on centenarians as optimal model to address the biological mechanisms of "successful and unsuccessful ageing". They are equipped to reach the extreme limits of human life span and, most importantly, to show relatively good health, being able to perform their routine daily life and to escape fatal age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Thus, particular attention has been centered on their genetic background and immune system. In this review, we report our data gathered for over 10 years in Sicilian centenarians. Based on results obtained, we suggest longevity as the result of an optimal performance of immune system and an over-expression of anti-inflammatory sequence variants of immune/inflammatory genes. However, as well known, genetic, epigenetic, stochastic and environmental factors seem to have a crucial role in ageing and longevity. Epigenetics is associated with ageing, as demonstrated in many studies. In particular, ageing is associated with a global loss of methylation state. Thus, the aim of future studies will be to analyze the weight of epigenetic changes in ageing and longevity.

  7. I ferri dell'Opra. Il teatro delle marionette siciliane

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    Rosario Perricone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – IT L'Opera dei pupi siciliana costituisce una preziosa testimonianza dell'intricata eredità storico-culturale della Sicilia. Le proclamazioni dell'Unesco e l'attenzione rivolta alle modalità di patrimonializzazione delle pratiche tradizionali, hanno favorito lo sviluppo di un'analisi, sia di tipo diacronico che sincronico, con una prospettiva antropologica tesa ad indagare le strategie di invenzione e costruzione della tradizione e della sua problematizzazione con particolare riferimento al concetto di “memoria culturale”. È con queste premesse che il presente lavoro si pone come obbiettivo di analizzare le strutture fondamentali, la grammatica e la sintassi dello spettacolo di Opera dei pupi soffermandosi sulla sua evoluzione all'interno di un mutato contesto di fruizione. Abstract – EN The Sicilian Opera dei Pupi is a valuable testament of the intricate historical and cultural heritage of Sicily. The Unesco declarations and the attention paid to the processes by means of which traditional practices are transformed into common heritage, have fostered the development of an analysis, both diachronic and synchronic, based on an anthropological perspective: its aim is to investigate the strategies of invention and creation of Tradition and of its problematization with particular reference to the concept of "cultural memory". Following these premisses, the present work aims to analyze the basic structures, grammar and syntax of the Opera dei Pupi show, highlighting its evolution in the new context of use.

  8. An analysis of astronomical alignments of Greek Sicilian Temples

    CERN Document Server

    Salt, Alun

    2010-01-01

    In the eighth century BC something peculiar seems to happen on Sicily. The archaeological record starts to show the arrival of Greek material culture. By the fifth century BC the island is effectively 'Hellenised' and ancient historians record the political and military action of poleis, Greek city-states. Each polis has traditionally been seen as the offshoot of a city elsewhere. Genealogies of cities ultimately end in cities found in the cities of the Peloponnese and the Aegean. The 'Greek' identity of the Sicilian cities is part of a wider debate on the concept of Identity in the ancient world. This paper considers if there is a contribution archaeoastronomers can make to such discussions by considering the alignments of Greek temples. Greek religion was intimately related to notions of civic identity and what it meant to be 'Greek'. I propose a method of studying small samples of temples, which combines both alignment analysis and historical context. Therefore it may be possible that a study of the temple...

  9. 13C Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and µ-Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Sicilian Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Germana; Capitani, Donatella; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Proietti, Noemi; Raneri, Simona; Longobardo, Ugo; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2016-08-01

    (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and µ-Raman spectroscopy were applied to characterize Sicilian amber samples. The main goal of this work was to supply a complete study of simetite, highlighting discriminating criteria useful to distinguish Sicilian amber from fossil resins from other regions and laying the foundations for building a spectroscopic database of Sicilian amber. With this aim, a private collection of unrefined simetite samples and fossil resins from the Baltic region and Dominican Republic was analyzed. Overall, the obtained spectra permitted simetite to be distinguished from the other resins. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the spectroscopic data, allowing the clustering of simetite samples with respect to the Baltic and Dominican samples and to group the simetite samples in two sets, depending on their maturity. Finally, the analysis of loadings allowed for a better understanding of the spectral features that mainly influenced the discriminating characteristics of the investigated ambers.

  10. ESTIMATING SOIL PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION FOR SICILIAN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bagarello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil particle-size distribution (PSD is commonly used for soil classification and for estimating soil behavior. An accurate mathematical representation of the PSD is required to estimate soil hydraulic properties and to compare texture measurements from different classification systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Haverkamp and Parlange (HP and Fredlund et al. (F PSD models to fit 243 measured PSDs from a wide range of 38 005_Bagarello(547_33 18-11-2009 11:55 Pagina 38 soil textures in Sicily and to test the effect of the number of measured particle diameters on the fitting of the theoretical PSD. For each soil textural class, the best fitting performance, established using three statistical indices (MXE, ME, RMSE, was obtained for the F model with three fitting parameters. In particular, this model performed better in the fine-textured soils than the coarse-textured ones but a good performance (i.e., RMSE < 0.03 was detected for the majority of the investigated soil textural classes, i.e. clay, silty-clay, silty-clay-loam, silt-loam, clay-loam, loamy-sand, and loam classes. Decreasing the number of measured data pairs from 14 to eight determined a worse fitting of the theoretical distribution to the measured one. It was concluded that the F model with three fitting parameters has a wide applicability for Sicilian soils and that the comparison of different PSD investigations can be affected by the number of measured data pairs.

  11. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  12. High Rates of Neutralizing Antibodies to Toscana and Sandfly Fever Sicilian Viruses in Livestock, Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Nazli; Sherifi, Kurtesh; Taraku, Arber; Bërxholi, Kristaq; Charrel, Rémi N

    2017-06-01

    Toscana and sandfly fever Sicilian viruses (TOSV and SFSV, respectively), both transmitted by sand flies, are prominent human pathogens in the Old World. Of 1,086 serum samples collected from cattle and sheep during 2013 in various regions of Kosovo (Balkan Peninsula), 4.7% and 53.4% had neutralizing antibodies against TOSV and SFSV, respectively.

  13. Soil Aggregation and Its Relationship with Organic Carbon of Purple Soils in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of soil aggregate dynamics with soil organic carbon is complex with varied spatio-temporal processes in macro-and micro-aggregates, This paper is to determine the aggregation of soil aggregates in purple soils (Regosols in FAO Taxonomy or Entisols in USDA Taxonomy) for four types of land use, cropland [com (Zea mays L.)], orchard (citrus), forestland (bamboo or cypress), and barren land (wild grass), and to explore their relationship with soil organic carbon in the Sichuan basin of southwestern China. Procedures and methods, including manual dry sieving procedure, Yoder's wet sieving procedure, pyrophosphates solution method, and Kachisky method, are used to acquire dry, wet, and chemically stable aggregates, and microaggregates. Light and heavy fractions of soil organic carbon were separated using 2.0 g mL-1 HgI2-KI mixed solution. The loosely, stably, and tightly combined organic carbon in heavy fraction were separated by extraction with 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M NaOH-0.1M Na4P2O7 mixed solution (pH 13). The results show that the contents of dry and wet macroaggregates > 0.25 mm in diameter were 974.1 and 900.0 g kg-1 highest in red brown purple soils under forestland, while 889.6 and 350.6 g kg-1 lowest in dark purple soil and lowest in grey brown purple soils under cropland, respectively. The chemical stability of macroaggregates was lowest in grey brown purple soil with 8.47% under cropland, and highest in red brown purple soil with 69.34% under barren land. The content of microaggregates in dark purple soils was 587 g kg-1 higher than brown purple soils, while 655 g kg-1 in red brown purple soils was similar to grey brown purple soils (651 g kg-1). Cropland conditions, only 38.4% of organic carbon was of the combined form, and 61.6% of that existed in light fraction. Forestland conditions, 90.7% of organic carbon in red brown purple soil was complexed with minerals as a form of humic substances. The contents and stability of wet aggregates >0.25 mm

  14. PURPLE URINE BAG SYNDROME: AN ALARMING HUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare phenomenon reported mostly in females on an indwelling catheter in chronically constipated with alkaline urine. It is secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubicin producing bacteria. Here we present this interesting case of an elderly woman who had purple colored urine bag

  15. Panda Apparel Adds Neon Purple Color

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Neon Tees division of the Panda Apparel Group is introducing Neon Purple to their line. Bright with a capital B has been on top of the fashion trends for the past year. With the addition of neon purple, an exciting new offering is available to apparel

  16. Molecular identification of Sicilian (dߺ-thalassemia associated with ß-thalassemia and hemoglobin S in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade T.G. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two unrelated Brazilian families with an association of the Sicilian form of (deltaߺ-thalassemia with hemoglobin S and ß-thalassemia. Direct sequencing of the ß-globin gene showed only the hemoglobin S mutation in patient 1 and the ß-thalassemia IVS1-110 in patient 2. The other allele was deleted in both patients and PCR of DNA samples of the breakpoint region of both patients showed a band of approximately 1,150 bp, expected to be observed in the DNA of carriers of Sicilian (deltaߺ-thalassemia. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment confirmed the Sicilian deletion. There are few reports concerning the Hb S/(deltaߺ-thalassemia association and patient 2 is the first reported case of Sicilian type of (deltaߺ-thalassemia in association with ß-thalassemia documented at the molecular level.

  17. Enhanced rate of intramolecular electron transfer in an engineered purple CuA azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Lu, Y; Ang, M C

    1999-01-01

    V for blue copper azurin). The reorganization energy of the CuA center is calculated to be 0.4 eV, which is only 50% of that found for the wild-type azurin. These results represent a direct comparison of electron transfer properties of the blue and purple CuA sites in the same protein framework and provide...... and CuA centers are placed in the same location in the protein while all other structural elements remain the same. Long-range electron transfer is induced between the disulfide radical anion, produced pulse radiolytically, and the oxidized binuclear CuA center in the purple azurin mutant. The rate...... support for the notion that the binuclear purple CuA center is a more efficient electron transfer agent than the blue single copper center because reactivity of the former involves a lower reorganization energy....

  18. POSSIBLE FUTURE SCENARIOS FOR SICILIAN CEREAL CROPPING IN THE LIGHT OF CURRENT TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Crescimanno, Maria; De Stefano, V; Galati, Antonino

    2008-01-01

    This paper sets out the results of a research project carried out by the University of Palermo and financed by the Sicilian Region, which aims to establish the impact of the Fischler Reform on Sicilian agriculture, and to project future scenarios that take into account some of the changes that the production process may undergo in the Region, following both the application of the Reform itself (now in force) and the eventual application of indications contained in the Health check. The impact...

  19. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror’s movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  20. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  1. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  2. S100B concentration in colostrums of Burkinabe and Sicilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpore Jacques

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is to determine the S100B concentration in colostrums of 51 Burkinabe and 30 Sicilian women, still living in their countries, and in case of a difference to search for its explanations, considering also ethnic differences. The concentration of S100B, in colostrums of the first three days from the delivery, was assessed with commercial immunoluminometric assay. The production of colostrums was significantly higher in Burkinabe women, where the colostrums S100B levels in the first day of lactation showed to be at 24 h higher than those of Sicilian mothers (672.21 ± 256.67 ng/ml vs 309.36 ± 65.28 ng/ml and progressively decreased reaching the values of Sicilian mothers in the second and third day (204.31 ± 63.25 ng/ml and 199.42 ± 45.28 ng/ml, respectively. Correlation was found between the level of S100B and the length of stage II (duration of expulsive phase of delivery, but the correlation with pain was found only in Burkinabe women. The S100B level in colostrums of Burkinabe mothers differs from that of Sicilians only in the first day of lactation, and in consideration that Burkinabe women produce more colostrums, their newborns receive, during the first days of life, an higher amount of S100B. The elevated quantity of S100B ingested by Burkinabe newborn in the first days of life could promote the physiological postnatal brain adaptation and maturation in the precarious delivery condition of African infants.

  3. Enhanced rate of intramolecular electron transfer in an engineered purple CuA azurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farver, O; Lu, Y; Ang, M C; Pecht, I

    1999-02-02

    The recent expression of an azurin mutant where the blue type 1 copper site is replaced by the purple CuA site of Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase has yielded an optimal system for examining the unique electron mediation properties of the binuclear CuA center, because both type 1 and CuA centers are placed in the same location in the protein while all other structural elements remain the same. Long-range electron transfer is induced between the disulfide radical anion, produced pulse radiolytically, and the oxidized binuclear CuA center in the purple azurin mutant. The rate constant of this intramolecular process, kET = 650 +/- 60 s-1 at 298 K and pH 5.1, is almost 3-fold faster than for the same process in the wild-type single blue copper azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (250 +/- 20 s-1), in spite of a smaller driving force (0.69 eV for purple CuA azurin vs. 0.76 eV for blue copper azurin). The reorganization energy of the CuA center is calculated to be 0.4 eV, which is only 50% of that found for the wild-type azurin. These results represent a direct comparison of electron transfer properties of the blue and purple CuA sites in the same protein framework and provide support for the notion that the binuclear purple CuA center is a more efficient electron transfer agent than the blue single copper center because reactivity of the former involves a lower reorganization energy.

  4. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  5. Purple%颜色文化——紫色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Royalty and Spirituality 高贵与信仰 Purple is royalty. A mysterious color, purple is associated with both nobility and spirituality. The opposites of hot red and cool blue combine to create this intriguing color.

  6. The lost Adventure Archipelago (Sicilian Channel, Mediterranean Sea): Morpho-bathymetry and Late Quaternary palaeogeographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civile, Dario; Lodolo, Emanuele; Zecchin, Massimo; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Baradello, Luca; Accettella, Daniela; Cova, Andrea; Caffau, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    The rise in sea level following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) radically altered pre-existing geography, pushing back the former shorelines. The effect of this eustatic change was particularly intense and dramatic in flat lands and shelves, such as the Sicilian Channel. High-resolution bathymetric maps and Chirp seismic profiles analyzed in this study show that the Sicilian Channel, now lying at depths rarely exceeding 150 m, has emerged several times during its geological history. The last emergence was during the Early Holocene, when kilometre-sized islands punctuated the north-western sector of the Sicilian Channel, the Adventure Plateau, forming a broad archipelago. Many of these islands, now located in water ranging in depth from - 10 to - 40 m, are composed of highly deformed Neogene sedimentary rocks (Talbot, Ante-Talbot, Nereo, and Pantelleria Vecchia banks), while others represent submarine Pleistocene volcanic edifices (Galatea, Anfitrite and Tetide banks). Sedimentary cover in all of these banks is virtually absent. High-resolution seismic profiles allowed the identification of post-LGM morphological markers associated with the marine transgression, some of which are characterized by melt water-pulses, as demonstrated by the presence of specific and distinct erosional features. Combining swath bathymetric data with the seismic profiles, we have generated two palaeogeographic maps of the former Adventure Archipelago at two specific time frames: (1) at the end of the Younger Dryas stadial (11,500 yr B.P., corresponding to a former sea level of - 60 m), and (2) at the end of the melt-water pulse 1B (11,200 yr B.P., corresponding to a former sea level of - 42 m). Maps clearly show that in just 300 years the geography of the archipelago has changed dramatically, so much so that some islands have disappeared and some have decreased by more than 80% of their pre-Younger Dryas size.

  7. Mycotoxins in durum wheat grain: hygienic-health quality of sicilian production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, G; Lo Bianco, M; Bognanni, R; Saimbene, G

    2008-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and aflatoxin concentrations in Sicilian durum wheat were determined through ELISA tests. The results highlighted the safety of the grain samples at harvest because deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and aflatoxin levels did not exceed European legal limits. With regard to aflatoxins, reliability of the ELISA test was evaluated, comparing it with HPLC analyses. The comparison of HPLC and ELISA data showed a tendency to overestimate aflatoxin concentrations with respect to chromatographic determinations. The usefulness of ELISA was confirmed as a rapid screening method; however, when contamination levels are close to legal limits, chromatographic analyses are necessary to quantify aflatoxins with greater accuracy and specificity.

  8. Purple urine bag syndrome- changing hue!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (PUBS is a unique disease entity characterised by purple discoloration of urine secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubin producing bacteria and is predominantly seen in constipated, chronically debilitated and catheterised women with alkaline urine. This syndrome indicates underlying recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs associated with higher incidence of mortality and morbidity than urinary tract infection alone without this occurrence. This article is about an elderly hypothyroid woman with PUBS and reviews the need to be aware of this entity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(1.000: 31-32

  9. The Sicilian Architect Tommaso Maria Napoli and the Baroque Cathedral of Dubrovnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat-Levaj, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of the Dubrovnik Cathedral (1671-1713 – a monumental three-nave basilica with a dome over the crossing – was commissioned, thanks to Abbot Stjepan Gradić, from the Roman architect Andrea Bufalini. Among the leaders of construction, which lasted for over four decades, the Sicilian architect Tommaso Maria Napoli stands out. During his nine-year stay in Dubrovnik (1689-98 he was the only one who engaged in radical changes in the design. Through his changes to the vaulting and lighting of the main nave and sanctuary, as well as the introduction of terraces above the side chapels, he gave the building better proportions, and moreover he balanced its volume by enriching the Cathedral with the plastic expressiveness characteristic of Sicilian architecture at that time. Napoli was the only architect involved in the construction of the Dubrovnik Cathedral who had an international reputation, from his native Sicily, to Naples, Rome, and the Habsburg Monarchy. This makes his inventive corrections to Bufalini's design even more significant.

  10. Identification of SNPs in the promoter of β-lactoglobulin gene in three Sicilian goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Portolano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to sequence the full-length promoter region of the caprine β-lactoglobulin (β-lg gene in three Sicilian goat breeds (Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria, in order to identify polymorphisms, to search for transcription factors (TFs sites, and to check if polymorphisms found lay within TFs binding sites. The promoter region of β-lg gene in Sicilian goat breeds showed high level of polymorphism due to the presence of 31 SNPs. Binding sites for several TFs were found within the goat β-lg promoter and within regions conserved between ovine and caprine species. Two SNPs were detected within TFs binding sites, such as MPBF and NF-I. Further studies are in progress to confirm polymorphic sites, to evaluate the possible effect of these mutations on binding affinity of TFs, their relationship with β-lg gene expression, and the functional role of SNPs within the TFs sites of the promoter region on milk traits.

  11. Photoluminescence of Turkish purple jade (turkiyenite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatipoglu, Murat, E-mail: murat.hatipoglu@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eyluel University, IMYO, Izmir Multidisciplinary Vocational School, Gemmology and Jewellery Programme, TR-35380 Buca-Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eyluel University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Natural Building Stones and Gem Stones, TR-35370 Buca-Izmir (Turkey); Basevirgen, Yasemin [Dokuz Eyluel University, IMYO, Izmir Multidisciplinary Vocational School, Gemmology and Jewellery Programme, TR-35380 Buca-Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eyluel University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Natural Building Stones and Gem Stones, TR-35370 Buca-Izmir (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    The purple-colored unique gem material is only found in the Harmanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I k (Bursa) region of the western Anatolia (Turkey). Therefore, it is specially called 'Turkish purple jade or turkiyenite' on the worldwide gem market. Even though its jadeite implication is the principal constituent, the material cannot be considered as a single jadeite mineral since other implications are quartz, orthoclase, epidote, chloritoid and phlogopite minerals. Even if the analytical methods are used to characterize and identify the Turkish purple jade samples in detail, the luminescence spectra, especially photoluminescence features regarding to composite mineral implications of the material are important because of the existence the numerous characteristic broad and intensive luminescence bands in the samples. We can state that the UV-irradiation luminescence centers as photoluminescence (PL) are due to the overall signals in the Turkish purple jade samples. Accordingly, the distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 743, 717, 698, 484, 465 and 442 nm in PL-2D (counter diagram and sections) and PL-3D (sequence spectra) ranging between 300 and 900 nm of wavelengths, and between 220 and 340 K of temperatures are observed. Finally, photoluminescence features of the heterogeneous-structured material cannot be simply attributed to any chemical impurities, since the jade mass has numerous heterogeneous mineral constituents instead of a single jadeite mineral. Six different mineral implications and chemical impurities in the material composition display complex and individual all kind of luminescence features. Therefore, photoluminescence as well as radioluminescence, cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra provide positive identification regarding to the provenance (geographic origin) of the original Turkish purple jade (turkiyenite). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purple-colored gem material is only found in the Harmanc Latin

  12. A cross-sectional study of PRNP gene in two native Sicilian goat populations in Italy: a relation between prion gene polymorphisms and scrapie incidence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SERGIO MIGLIORE; STEFANO AGNELLO; SALVATORE D’AVOLA; WILFRED GOLDMANN; VINCENZO DI MARCO LO PRESTI; MARIA VITALE

    2017-06-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals, and scrapie in small ruminants is considered the archetype of TSEs. Derivata di Siria is a native dairy goat of Sicily (south Italy), which is related to Syrian goat breeds. Scrapie disease is considered endemic in Sicily since 1997, following the administration of an infected vaccine.Derivata di Siria goatswere involved in six of 66 scrapie-infected flocks in Sicily. Prion protein gene (PRNP) analysis revealed that none of the scrapie cases carried the p.Gln222Lys variant. Sequencing of PRNP in this goat population showed a high frequency (15%) of p.Gln222Lys variant confirming itsassociation with scrapie resistance. PRNP polymorphisms were also analysed in the population of Pantelleria, a small Sicilian Island, where scrapie has never been reported. The native goat breed ‘Pantesca’ was maintained up to almost80 years and the size of the sheep population on this island has historically been very low. Currently, a crossbreed goat population of 253 heads is present on the island. PRNP genotyping of Pantelleria goats showed genetic variation, withlow presence of wild-type goats and the lack of protective alleles. These data reinforce the association between PRNP polymorphisms in small ruminants and scrapie incidence.

  13. Characterization of Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 strain encoding NSs of Punta Toro virus or sandfly fever Sicilian virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Lihoradova

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen which can cause hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate of abortion in ruminants. MP-12 strain, a live-attenuated candidate vaccine, is attenuated in the M- and L-segments, but the S-segment retains the virulent phenotype. MP-12 was manufactured as an Investigational New Drug vaccine by using MRC-5 cells and encodes a functional NSs gene, the major virulence factor of RVFV which 1 induces a shutoff of the host transcription, 2 inhibits interferon (IFN-β promoter activation, and 3 promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR. MP-12 lacks a marker for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA. Although MP-12 lacking NSs works for DIVA, it does not replicate efficiently in type-I IFN-competent MRC-5 cells, while the use of type-I IFN-incompetent cells may negatively affect its genetic stability. To generate modified MP-12 vaccine candidates encoding a DIVA marker, while still replicating efficiently in MRC-5 cells, we generated recombinant MP-12 encoding Punta Toro virus Adames strain NSs (rMP12-PTNSs or Sandfly fever Sicilian virus NSs (rMP12-SFSNSs in place of MP-12 NSs. We have demonstrated that those recombinant MP-12 viruses inhibit IFN-β mRNA synthesis, yet do not promote the degradation of PKR. The rMP12-PTNSs, but not rMP12-SFSNSs, replicated more efficiently than recombinant MP-12 lacking NSs in MRC-5 cells. Mice vaccinated with rMP12-PTNSs or rMP12-SFSNSs induced neutralizing antibodies at a level equivalent to those vaccinated with MP-12, and were efficiently protected from wild-type RVFV challenge. The rMP12-PTNSs and rMP12-SFSNSs did not induce antibodies cross-reactive to anti-RVFV NSs antibody and are therefore applicable to DIVA. Thus, rMP12-PTNSs is highly efficacious, replicates efficiently in MRC-5 cells, and encodes a DIVA marker, all of which

  14. Resonance Raman studies of the purple membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aton, B; Doukas, A G; Callender, R H; Becher, B; Ebrey, T G

    1977-06-28

    The individual resonance Raman spectra of the PM568 and M412 forms of light-adapted purple membrane from Halobacterium halobium have been measured using the newly developed flow technique. For comparison purposes, the Raman spectra of the model chromophores, all-trans- and 13-cis retinal n-butylamine, both as protonated and unprotonated Schiff bases, have also been obtained. In agreement with previous work, the Raman data indicate that the retinal chromophore is linked to the purple membrane protein via a protonated. Schiff base in the case of the PM568 and an unprotonated Schiff base for the M412 form. The basic mechanism for color regulation in both forms appears to be electron delocalization. The spectral features of the two forms are different from each other and different from the model compound spectra.

  15. The Female Bonding in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余跃

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at a survey of the female bonding in The Color Purple,which plays an important role in the heroine's finding her voice and sense of self.By examining the black women's struggle to explore their identity and claim their selves under sexual and racial oppressions,Alice Walker,the author,shows her understanding of the process that black women must undergo to achieve their vision.

  16. Economic and Financial Comparison between Organic and Conventional Farming in Sicilian Lemon Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sicily has a long tradition in citrus fruit cultivations that with vineyard and olive tree represent the main Mediterranean tree crops. In this paper we have evaluated the economic and financial sustainability of lemon production, both in organic farming and in conventional farming; the two systems differing just for inputs utilized in production process. Economic analysis has been carried out in a representative case study located in the Sicilian northwestern coast, considering an orchard economic life equal to 50 years. Results, which referred to one hectare area, showed both a higher economic and financial sustainability of organic farming respect to conventional farming. The higher profitability of organic farming was due to minor labor requirement and to greater market appreciation for organic products that granted a premium price respect to conventional prices. Moreover, greater profitability of organic farming and use of environmentally friendly inputs in production process make farms competitive and eco-friendly.

  17. Implementation of green harvesting in the Sicilian wine industry: Effects on the cooperative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Galati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to assessing the effectiveness of the GH measure to contribute in reducing the supply of wine grapes, and thus contrasting the fall of wine prices in those years when especially abundant productions are expected. By analysing the application of this measure to the Sicilian wine sector during the three-year period (2010–2012, we assess its effects on the regional wine cooperative system. The results from the analysis of the statistical data show that the GH measure was successful in terms of the number of applications, the supported area and financial expenditures, and contributed with other factors to determining a reduction in wine grape production. The empirical survey shows that GH has been contributing to contrast the fall of wine prices in this region and helping the recovery of the wine market. However, an increase in operating costs as well as difficulties in the planning activities of the cooperatives has been recorded.

  18. Antioxidant activity of Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte) nut extract and its bioactive components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Carla; Tesoriere, Luisa; Butera, Daniela; Fazzari, Marco; Monastero, Massimo; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2007-02-07

    Pistacia vera L. is the only species of Pistacia genus producing edible nuts. This paper investigates the antioxidant potential of a Sicilian variety of pistachio nut by chemical as well as biological assays and measured antioxidant vitamins and a number of antioxidant polyphenols in either the hydrophilic and/or the lipophilic nut extract. In accordance with the majority of foods, the total antioxidant activity, measured as a TAA test, was much higher (50-fold) in the hydrophilic than in the lipophilic extract. Substantial amounts of total phenols were measured. The hydrophilic extract inhibited dose-dependently both the metal-dependent and -independent lipid oxidation of bovine liver microsomes, and the Cu+2-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Peroxyl radical-scavenging as well as chelating activity of nut components may be suggested to explain the observed inhibition patterns. Among tocopherols, gamma-tocopherol was the only vitamin E isomer found in the lipophilic extract that did not contain any carotenoid. Vitamin C was found only in a modest amount. The hydrophilic extract was a source of polyphenol compounds among which trans-resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, and a remarkable amount of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, 3.68 and 3.40 mg per 100 g of edible nut, respectively, were evaluated. With the exception of isoflavones that appeared unmodified, the amounts of other bioactive molecules were remarkably reduced in the pistachio nut after roasting, and the total antioxidant activity decreased by about 60%. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that the Sicilian pistachio nut may be considered for its bioactive components and can effectively contribute to a healthy status.

  19. Crystal structures of acid blue and alkaline purple forms of bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hideo; Murakami, Midori; Kouyama, Tsutomu

    2005-08-19

    Bacteriorhodopsin, a light-driven proton pump found in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum, exhibits purple at neutral pH but its color is sensitive to pH. Here, structures are reported for an acid blue form and an alkaline purple form of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. When the P622 crystal prepared at pH 5.2 was acidified with sulfuric acid, its color turned to blue with a pKa of 3.5 and a Hill coefficient of 2. Diffraction data at pH 2-5 indicated that the purple-to-blue transition accompanies a large structural change in the proton release channel; i.e. the extracellular half of helix C moves towards helix G, narrowing the proton release channel and expelling a water molecule from a micro-cavity in the vicinity of the retinal Schiff base. In this respect, the acid-induced structural change resembles the structural change observed upon formation of the M intermediate. But, the acid blue form contains a sulfate ion in a site(s) near Arg82 that is created by re-orientations of the carboxyl groups of Glu194 and Glu204, residues comprising the proton release complex. This result suggests that proton uptake by the proton release complex evokes the anion binding, which in turn induces protonation of Asp85, a key residue regulating the absorption spectrum of the chromophore. Interestingly, a pronounced structural change in the proton release complex was also observed at high pH; i.e. re-orientation of Glu194 towards Tyr83 was found to take place at around pH 10. This alkaline transition is suggested to be accompanied by proton release from the proton release complex and responsible for rapid formation of the M intermediate at high pH.

  20. Determination of plasticisers and BPA in Sicilian and Calabrian nectar honeys by selected ion monitoring GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Tropea, Alessia; Casale, Ermina Katia; Fede, Maria Rita; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-11-01

    Twenty-six plasticisers and bisphenol A (BPA) in 39 Sicilian and Calabrian nectar honeys of different botanical south Italian origin were determined by GC-MS. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was the most abundant plasticiser in all samples, reaching up 202.7 ± 153.1 µg kg(-1), followed by di-butylphthalate with a concentration of 40.3 ± 9.3 µg kg(-1), whereas the concentration of the other phthalates varied from not detectable to 68.2 µg kg(-1). Trace levels of adipate, sebacate and BPA were not detected in any samples. Among the different floral origin honeys, di-ethylphthalate levels were above the limit of quantification (LOQ) in orange blossom, wildflower and chestnut honey samples. Among the honeys of different geographical origin, di-methylphthalate, di-butylphthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate concentrations were similar. Calabrian honeys showed levels of di-ethylphthalate always lower than the LOQ, moreover di-(2-methylpropyl)phthalate levels were lower than the Sicilian ones. On the contrary, in Sicilian honeys di-(2-methylpropyl)phthalate levels were higher and di-ethylphthalate was present in 37% of samples.

  1. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in transgenic purple tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Rhodes, Davina; Shen, Yanting; Song, Weixing; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Most tomatoes produce little anthocyanins, but the transgenic purple tomato biosynthesizes a high level of anthocyanins due to expression of two transcription factors (Del and Ros1). This study was to identify and quantify anthocyanins in this transgenic tomato line. Seven anthocyanins, including two new anthocyanins [malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(feruloyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside], were identified by LC-MS/MS. Petunidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and delphinidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, making up 86% of the total anthocyanins. Compared to undetectable anthocyanins in the wild type, the contents of anthocyanins in the whole fruit, peel, and flesh of the Del/Ros1-transgenic tomato were 5.2±0.5, 5.1±0.5, and 5.8±0.3g/kg dry matter, respectively. Anthocyanins were undetectable in the seeds of both wide-type and transgenic tomato lines. Such novel and high levels of anthocyanins obtained in this transgenic tomato may provide unique functional products with potential health benefits.

  2. Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentini, Francesca; Venza, Francesca

    2007-03-30

    In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily.

  3. Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venza Francesca

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily.

  4. Symbolic Significance of Colors in the Novel The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓珏

    2007-01-01

    This paper mainly explains the symbolic significance of colors in the novel The Color Purple by using theory of Alice Walker's Womaism. Black,in The Color Purple stands for humbleness,blue for a life of impulse,red for liberty and hope ,purple for women's consummate happiness. And the choice of "purple" as its title ,conceives a purple centered symbolic color system,which reveals the black women's expectation for living an ideal happy life. Walker gives an expression of black women's political condition ,state of life under the racial and sexual oppression. Her intentions are to arouse women's consciousness of self and to call on them to be self-respected ,self-supported and eventually be self-liberated.

  5. Factors influencing the development of otitis media among Sicilian children affected by upper respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Martines

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Upper respiratory tract infection is a nonspecific term used to describe an acute infection involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Upper respiratory tract infections in children are often associated with Eustachian tube dysfunction and complicated by otitis media, an inflammatory process within the middle ear. Environmental, epidemiologic and familial risk factors for otitis media (such as sex, socioeconomic and educational factors, smoke exposure, allergy or duration of breastfeeding have been previously reported, but actually no data about their diffusion among Sicilian children with upper respiratory tract infections are available. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main risk factors for otitis media and their prevalence in Sicilian children with and without upper respiratory tract infections. METHODS: A case-control study of 204 children with upper respiratory tract infections who developed otitis media during a 3 weeks monitoring period and 204 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventeen epidemiologically relevant features were inventoried by means of standardized questionnaires and skin tests were performed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the association between risk factors and occurrence of otitis media. RESULTS: Otitis media resulted strongly associated to large families, low parental educational attainment, schooling within the third years of life (p < 0.05; children were more susceptible to develop otitis media in the presence of asthma, cough, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, snoring and apnea (p < 0.05. Allergy and urban localization increased the risk of otitis media in children exposed to smoke respectively of 166% and 277% (p < 0.05; the joint effect of asthma and presence of pets in allergic population increased the risk of recurrence of 11%, while allergy, cough and runny nose together increased this risk of 74%. CONCLUSIONS

  6. Factors influencing the development of otitis media among Sicilian children affected by upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martines, Francesco; Salvago, Pietro; Ferrara, Sergio; Messina, Giuseppe; Mucia, Marianna; Plescia, Fulvio; Sireci, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infection is a nonspecific term used to describe an acute infection involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Upper respiratory tract infections in children are often associated with Eustachian tube dysfunction and complicated by otitis media, an inflammatory process within the middle ear. Environmental, epidemiologic and familial risk factors for otitis media (such as sex, socioeconomic and educational factors, smoke exposure, allergy or duration of breastfeeding) have been previously reported, but actually no data about their diffusion among Sicilian children with upper respiratory tract infections are available. To investigate the main risk factors for otitis media and their prevalence in Sicilian children with and without upper respiratory tract infections. A case-control study of 204 children with upper respiratory tract infections who developed otitis media during a 3 weeks monitoring period and 204 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventeen epidemiologically relevant features were inventoried by means of standardized questionnaires and skin tests were performed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the association between risk factors and occurrence of otitis media. Otitis media resulted strongly associated to large families, low parental educational attainment, schooling within the third years of life (potitis media in the presence of asthma, cough, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, snoring and apnea (potitis media in children exposed to smoke respectively of 166% and 277% (potitis media are common childhood diseases strongly associated with low parental educational attainment (p=0.0001), exposure to smoke (p=0.0001), indoor exposure to mold (p=0.0001), laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (p=0.0002) and the lack of breast-feeding (p=0.0014); an increased risk of otitis media recurrences was observed in the presence of allergy, persistent cough and runny nose (p=0

  7. Wild Soul

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina; C

    2005-01-01

    There’s a wild soul inside me waiting to show its self to the world There's a wild soul inside me with fire in it’s eyes, and danger in it’s claws. There’s a wild soul in side me with a voice that no one can’t hear and a presence no one can’t feel There’S a wild soul inside me waiting for me to let it run to let it turn into, wind,fire,and rain There’s a wild soul inside me that is coming ou to ignight a fire in us a11 it will spread like a brush fire. My wild soul, Your wild soul, a flame that can not die....

  8. Characterisation of the Microflora Contaminating the Wooden Vats Used for Traditional Sicilian Cheese Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Cinzia; Miraglia, Viviana; Lazzara, Fabrizio; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Macaluso, Giusi; Arcuri, Luigi; Settanni, Luca; Mancuso, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Sicilian cheese productions are carried out employing traditional wooden vats, called tina. Many studies have highlighted the beneficial role of wooden dairy equipment by contributing to enriching the milk microflora and improving the acidification processes. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the safety of the wooden vats used to coagulate milk. To this purpose, the different microbial populations hosted onto the internal surfaces of the vats used to produce two different stretched cheeses, namely Caciocavallo Palermitano and Vastedda della valle del Belìce DOP, were investigated for the presence of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as for bacteria with inhibitory effect in vitro against pathogenic microorganisms. A wide biodiversity of protechnological lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in terms of species, was revealed. Several LAB inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. The wooden vats analysed resulted safe for three main findings: absence of the main pathogenic species, presence of high levels of LAB, anti-Listeria activity of many LAB. PMID:27800376

  9. Natural co-occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B and aflatoxins in Sicilian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Vita; Avellone, Giuseppe; Pitonzo, Rosa; Capocchiano, Valentina Giusi; Mazza, Alessia; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The natural occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 (OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in red wines was investigated by HPLC/FLD after immunoaffinity column clean-up in 57 market samples produced in Sicily (Italy). The results showed a very low incidence of these mycotoxins in analysed samples, confirming the high degree of quality and safety of Sicilian red wines. The results indicated 71.9% and 64.9% positive samples for OTA and OTB respectively, with an average level of 0.13 μg l(-1), well below the European maximum permitted levels (MLs). The aflatoxin most frequently detected in the samples was AFG1, present in 57.9% of samples, while the other aflatoxins were rarely present. Recovery experiments were carried out on eight mycotoxin-free red wines spiked with OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at two different levels. The limits of detection (LODs) in wines were 0.02 µg l(-1) for OTA, 0.04 µg l(-1) for OTB, 0.03 µg l(-1) for AFG1, AFG2 and AFB2, and 0.05 µg l(-1) for AFB1. A good correlation was found, with good performances in term of precision for the method.

  10. Olive leaf extract from Sicilian cultivar reduced lipid accumulation by inducing thermogenic pathway during adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa ePalmeri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Olive leaves contain a wide variety of phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids, and include also many other pharmacological active compounds. They could play an important role in human diet and health because of their ability to lower blood pressure, increase coronary arteries blood flow and decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Olive leaf extract (OLE from Sicilian cultivar on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism. We showed that OLE treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein UCP1, SIRT-1, PPARα and Pgc-1α. Furthermore, OLE significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that OLE may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis.

  11. Olive Leaf Extract from Sicilian Cultivar Reduced Lipid Accumulation by Inducing Thermogenic Pathway during Adipogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Rosa; Monteleone, Julieta I.; Spagna, Giovanni; Restuccia, Cristina; Raffaele, Marco; Vanella, Luca; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Olive leaves contain a wide variety of phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols, flavonoids, and secoiridoids, and include also many other pharmacological active compounds. They could play an important role in human diet and health because of their ability to lower blood pressure, increase coronary arteries blood flow and decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive leaf extract (OLE) from Sicilian cultivar on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism. We showed that OLE treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein uncoupling protein 1, sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and coactivator 1 alpha. Furthermore, OLE significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that OLE may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27303302

  12. Is there sustainable entrepreneurship in the wine industry? Exploring Sicilian wineries participating in the SOStain program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Schimmenti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change and the accelerating depletion of natural resources have contributed to increase discussions about the role of private enterprises in reversing negative environmental trends. Rather than focusing on profit maximization, policy makers and consumers pressure groups expect firms to meet a triple-bottom line of economic, environmental and social value creation. Hence sustainable entrepreneurship has received recently increasing interest as a phenomenon and a research topic. More recently, the concept of sustainability has been taken seriously in the Italian wine industry. The organizational challenge for entrepreneurship is to better integrate social and environmental performance into the economic business logic. The aim of this manuscript is to illustrate, through a descriptive approach, the adaptation of the wine industry to the new scenario of sustainable entrepreneurship. To reach this goal we carried out an explorative analysis of 3 Sicilian wineries involved in the SOStain program, which aims at the improvement of sustainability in the wine industry. The findings of the analysis show the existence of sustainability-driven entrepreneurship, in which the wineries undertake to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life for the workforce, their families, the local and global community as well as future generations.

  13. NMR analysis of aldehydes in Sicilian extra-virgin olive oils by DPFGSE techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rotondo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The DPFGSE NMR sequences open new perspectives in the volatile compounds analysis of food matrices. Many fresh extra-virgin Sicilian olive oils, analyzed by this technique, show two main resonances in the aldehydic spectral region (9–10 ppm, at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm. The former was never reported so far, the latter was sometime highlighted as a minor aldehydic component signal of spectra showing stronger resonances at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm. Thermal treatment at 220°C of extra virgin olive oil samples lead to the complete transformation of the resonances at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm into those at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm in 50 minutes. Analogous transformation takes place place in CDCl3 at rt in several weeks. These results suggest the transformation of relatively unstable compounds into thermodynamically more stable products whose resonances are commonly reported in the literature. Even though these chemical changes involve minimal amount of product, they are of crucial importance to define: i organoleptic extra virgin olive oil properties; ii fraudulent chemical or thermal treatment detection; iii extra virgin oil ageing.

  14. Characterisation of the microflora contaminating the wooden vats used for traditional Sicilian cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Scatassa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Sicilian cheese productions are carried out employing traditional wooden vats, called tina. Many studies have highlighted the beneficial role of wooden dairy equipment by contributing to enriching the milk microflora and improving the acidification processes. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the safety of the wooden vats used to coagulate milk. To this purpose, the different microbial populations hosted onto the internal surfaces of the vats used to produce two different stretched cheeses, namely Caciocavallo Palermitano and Vastedda della valle del Belìce DOP, were investigated for the presence of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as for bacteria with inhibitory effect in vitro against pathogenic microorganisms. A wide biodiversity of protechnological lactic acid bacteria (LAB, in terms of species, was revealed. Several LAB inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. The wooden vats analysed resulted safe for three main findings: absence of the main pathogenic species, presence of high levels of LAB, anti-Listeria activity of many LAB.

  15. Study of quantitative and qualitative variations in essential oils of Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Cicero, Nicola; Gervasi, Teresa; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical characterisation of 10 Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L. biotypes essential oils is reported. The main goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between the essential oils yield and the geographical distribution of the species plants. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to cluster biotypes according to the essential oils chemical composition. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 (v/w). In total 82 compounds have been identified, these represent 96.7-99.9% of the essential oil. The most represented compounds in the essential oils were 1.8-cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, verbenone, α-pinene, limonene, bornyl acetate and terpinolene. The results show that the essential oil yield of the 10 biotypes is affected by the environmental characteristics of the sampling sites while the chemical composition is linked to the genetic characteristics of different biotypes.

  16. Old sleeping Sicilian beauty: seed germination in the palaeoendemic Petagnaea gussonei (Spreng.) Rauschert (Saniculoideae, Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, O; Gianguzzi, L; Carucci, F; De Luca, A; Gesuele, R; Guida, M

    2015-09-01

    Petagnaea gussonei (Apiaceae) is a perennial herbaceous species endemic to northeast Sicily (Nebrodi Mountains). It is considered a remnant of the Sicilian Tertiary flora, and is endangered according to the Red List. There is no information in the literature about the germinability of its seeds, even though seed production is know to occur. The aim of this study was to obtain data to better understand seed germination of this species and its biological implications. Thus, several approaches were employed: vitality analyses, gibberellic acid supply, germination and soil microbial flora analyses via end-point and qPCR. The results suggest that seed germination occurs after ca. 1.5 years at a rate of ca. 11%. The seeds can be classified as physiologically dormant, and probably require prolonged cold stratification for germination. Because seed germination is low, it is likely that agamic reproduction represents an important mean for its conservation and survival. These results have important implications for P. gussonei survival and should be considered in possible re-introduction attempts aimed at restoring threatened populations.

  17. Precise reply and clarifications on behalf of Sicilian Public Health Authorities to the case report published by La Rosa and collegues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Francesco; Costantino, Claudio; Restivo, Vincenzo; Casuccio, Nicolò; Corsello, Giovanni; Palermo, Mario; Tozzo, Ignazio

    2016-11-01

    As a results of the case report "Post-rotavirus vaccine intussusception in identical twins: a case report" recently published on Human Vaccines & Immunotherapy by La Rosa et al., the principal Sicilian Public Health Authorities decided to specify several points and underline some important details omitted by the authors. In particular, aims to underline the remarkable benefit for Sicilian Regional Health service after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccination. Universal mass vaccination against rotavirus is properly managed by the Regional Health Authorities and is contributing to a consistent increase of public health in the Sicilian pediatric population; any modification of such a program should be based on robust scientific evidences. Finally, a single case report should not be considered as a basis to recommend a change in the clinical practice but instead a possible point of start for discussion and research.

  18. Atomically resolved images of lithium purple bronze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, Melanie; Bienert, Robert; Waelsch, Michael; Podlich, Tatjana; Matzdorf, Rene [Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Kassel (Germany); Jin, Rongying [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lousiana State University (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The lithium molybdenum purple bronze Li{sub 0.9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 17} is a quasi 1D metal at room temperature showing Luttinger liquid physics. The highly anisotropic conductivity runs along the crystallographic b axis where Mo-O chains, formed by the shared edges of the MoO{sub 6} octahedra, provide the electrical transport. Li{sub 0.9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 17} samples were investigated with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. By cleaving the samples at low temperatures (60 K) we obtained atomically resolved images of the surface. In these images the Mo-O chains are visible, which are covered by layers of MoO{sub 6} octahedra and MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra.

  19. Incoming editorial: bigger, purple, pragmatic, and parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2011-03-01

    It is with great excitement and enthusiasm that I write to you regarding several updates, new initiatives and changes with our journal. As you may have already noticed, this includes the change to a larger format, and a return to the color purple that helped define this journal from the early 1980s through the turn of the century, as well as to the original title "Psychotherapy." The change in format will allow us to benefit from the standard American Psychological Association (APA) journal design and layout, leading to more efficient processing and arrangement within their electronic journal system. I have found this first year as the Incoming Editor of Psychotherapy to be as challenging, rewarding, and intellectually stimulating as I imagined it would be, and I remain quite excited and enthusiastic about the work ahead. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Wild harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants wer

  1. Molecular identification of Sicilian (dß)º-thalassemia associated with ß-thalassemia and hemoglobin S in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two unrelated Brazilian families with an association of the Sicilian form of (deltaß)º-thalassemia with hemoglobin S and ß-thalassemia. Direct sequencing of the ß-globin gene showed only the hemoglobin S mutation in patient 1 and the ß-thalassemia IVS1-110 in patient 2. The other allele was deleted in both patients and PCR of DNA samples of the breakpoint region of both patients showed a band of approximately 1,150 bp, expected to be o...

  2. Molecular Identification Of Sicilian (deltabeta) Degrees-thalassemia Associated With Beta-thalassemia And Hemoglobin S In Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two unrelated Brazilian families with an association of the Sicilian form of (deltabeta) degrees -thalassemia with hemoglobin S and beta-thalassemia. Direct sequencing of the beta-globin gene showed only the hemoglobin S mutation in patient 1 and the beta-thalassemia IVS1-110 in patient 2. The other allele was deleted in both patients and PCR of DNA samples of the breakpoint region of both patients showed a band of approximately 1,150 ...

  3. Molecular identification of Sicilian (deltaß)º-thalassemia associated with ß-thalassemia and hemoglobin S in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two unrelated Brazilian families with an association of the Sicilian form of (deltaß)º-thalassemia with hemoglobin S and ß-thalassemia. Direct sequencing of the ß-globin gene showed only the hemoglobin S mutation in patient 1 and the ß-thalassemia IVS1-110 in patient 2. The other allele was deleted in both patients and PCR of DNA samples of the breakpoint region of both patients showed a band of approximately 1,150 bp, expected to be o...

  4. New acylated anthocyanins from purple yam and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Chiemi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Agawa, Sayuri; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Kozone, Ikuko; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Terahara, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Purple yam (Dioscorea alata L.), which is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is characterized by its color and viscosity. Previous studies have shown that purple yams contain a variety of acylated anthocyanins that exhibit higher levels of antioxidant activity than the corresponding nonacylated compounds. In this study, the pigments found in purple yams from the Philippines (D. alata) were isolated and evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Four new acylated anthocyanins, alanins (1-4) were isolated from the MeOH extracts of purple yam, which were subsequently determined to be cyanidin (1, 2, and 4) and peonidin (3) type compounds, along with four known anthocyanins (5-8). The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectroscopic methods, including NMR and MS analyses. The antioxidant activities of anthocyanins 1-8 were investigated using oxygen radical absorbing capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays.

  5. PRIAMO project: a feasibility study on Sicilian sites for sea power plants in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotti, A.; Borghini, M.; Cucco, A.; De Domenico, E.; Dibenedetto, V.; Fazioli, L.; Genovese, L.; Iaria, G.; Olita, A.; Raffa, F.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.; Spanò, N.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy sources has recently favoured the exploitation of wind energy and photovoltaic, with strong repercussions on the landscape due to the visual impact of wind turbines and of the photovoltaic panels. A policy protecting the landscape suggests to focus on innovative solutions that enable the use of renewable energy and a low visual impact. This can be done with extensive offshore diving equipment installed in the sea, formed by turbines that use ocean currents to produce electric energy. The accommodation at sea, as well as offering greater availability of sites, has the advantage of giving a better and relatively constant resource with maximum efficiency and productivity. The international scenario suggests the need to identify sites potentially suitable and safe for energy use, placed at a distance from the coast at depths with bathymetric characteristics that make the power plant installation safe and technologically and economically feasible. In this context, the project PRIAMO (Planning, Research and Innovation in a Oriented Marine Environment), funded by the European Commission through the Sicilian Regional Operational Programme (POR), aims to verify the potential suitability of two Sicilian coastal sites, i.e. the Strait of Messina and a stretch of coast near Capo Granitola (Strait of Sicily). The work is realised with a view to the exploitation of marine currents that will be studied through the use of existing or new numerical models from the open sea to the coastal scale, then evaluating its cost-effectiveness in collaboration with Atlantis Resources Corp. Pte. Ltd (UK), European manufacturer of underwater turbines. An environmental study is done through monitoring and remediation techniques to assess the potential size of the foundation structure: sedimentological and morpho-bathymetric characteristics of the bottom, depth, steepness of the seabed, benthic biocoenoses, and load-bearing capacity of the area affected

  6. "Let's take back our roots through Science". The Sicilian Sulfur: a mineralogical treasure to rediscover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Bianca

    2015-04-01

    The name of sulfur is synonymous of Sicily! Sicilian Sulfur minerals and evaporitic deposits are well-known because they are connected with an important evolution stage of the old mediterranean area. In this Island, in the southern part of Italy, a geological formation of Messinian age, called "gessoso solfifera", outcrops. These rocks are widespread in the south and south-west Sicily, and, there, salt mines and "zolfare", sulfur mines, were located. The formation is characterized by large amounts of gypsum, potassium salts, sodium chlorates and other deposits. Most of the main mineralogical museum collections all over the world have at least a sample of one of these minerals that are usually characterized by a high aesthetic quality. When I proposed a lesson on the origin of sulfur in evaporitic rocks, I realized that an important part of the hystory of our region was in danger to be forgotten by younger generation. The exploitation of this mineral resource in the past is strictly linked to the troubled social and cultural transformation of Sicily during the last century. Thus, this is a particularly suitable topic for a multidisciplinary approach. In cooperation with the Mineralogical Museum (SteBiCeF Department, University of Palermo), a learning project was proposed to a group of 4th year high school students. It has been carrying on in order to develop the knowledge of the geological and chemical features of evaporitic deposits and to promote scientific abilities together with a better understanding of social-environmental issues. Project aims and activities include: ➢ Solubility and saturation experiments to reconstruct a simplified model of minerals deposition ➢ Working in groups: collection of data about old geological outcrops and current evaporating basins where rocks are forming in the world as well as information on sicilian mines from literature and historical documents (video, interviews, pictures, newspapers and others) ➢ a guided tour of the

  7. Scenario analysis of Agro-Environment measure adoption for soil erosion protection in Sicilian vineyard (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Fantappiè, Maria; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    carbon content of the topsoil (averaged on the first 50 cm of soil depth) with the table published by Stone and Hilborn (2012). The slope-length and slope gradient (LS) factors were derived from the Digital Terrain Model of Sicily (20 x 20 m) using the formulas proposed by Wischmeier and Smith (1978), and revised by McCool et al. (1987 and 1989). The C factor were applied according previous studies in the same area and ranged among 0.22 and 0.12 and less than 0.10 using permanent species able to reduce erosion rate up to 90% (Gristina et al., 2006; Novara et al. 2011). The scenario analysis of the soil erosion reduction after the adoption of AEM could be used by policy makers as a base for the evaluation of the Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) to be paid to farmers through the future Agro-Ecosystem measures incentives. Gristina, L., Bagarello, V., Ferro, V., Poma, I., 2006. Cover and management factor for Sicilian vineyard systems. In: 14th International Soil conservation Organization Conference—Water Management and Soil Conservation in Semi-arid Environments, 14-19 May 2006, Marrakech, Marocco (ISCO2006), pp. 1-4. A Novara, L Gristina, SS Saladino, A Santoro, A Cerda 2011 Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 140-147

  8. Noise risk assessment in a bottling line of a modern Sicilian winery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Vallone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In wine industry, bottling is a phase of the production cycle characterized by high levels of noise mostly due to repeated collisions between the bottles. In Italy the Law Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk, identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This study aims at evaluating the equivalent and peak noise level inside the bottling plant area of a modern Sicilian winery. In particular, the influence of the working capacity (number of bottles produced per hour on noise levels was evaluated. We considered three test conditions: T1 with working capacity of 4,000 bottles per hour, T2 with working capacity of 5,000 bottles per hour and T3 with working capacity of 6,000 bottles per hour. Fifteen measurement points were identified inside the bottling area. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. The tests were performed in compliance with ISO 9612 and ISO 9432 regulations. The results show that as bottling plant working capacity increases, noise level increases. The measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 95 dB(A in test T3. In this case, the operator working along the bottling line is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  9. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a group of Sicilian multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Luisa; Scazzone, C; Ragonese, P; Salemi, G; Lo Sasso, B; Schillaci, R; Musso, G; Bellia, C; Ciaccio, M

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an auto-immune disease whose etiology remains controversial. Both genetic and environmental factors are thought to be involved in the risk of developing the disease. The purpose of our study was to assess the association of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms with MS and to investigate the interaction of these polymorphisms with vitamin D levels. A total of 179 Sicilian subjects, including 104 MS patients and 75 healthy controls, were studied. The most common VDR polymorphisms (Fok-I, Bsm-I, Taq-I and Apa-I) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses in both groups and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined in MS patients by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of the four VDR polymorphisms did not differ significantly between MS patients and healthy controls, and were unrelated to the forms and the course of MS. Low serum levels of 25(OH)D were observed in MS patients but no association was observed between VDR and 25(OH)D levels except for Fok-I. Moreover, MS patients with FF and Ff genotype had a significantly lower serum levels of 25(OH)D compared with ff carriers (P < 0.05 FF vs Ff and Ff vs ff). Our findings showed no association between VDR polymorphisms and risk of MS. Interestingly, F allele could confer a genetic predisposition to lower 25(OH)D levels.

  10. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    steep (>5%, with measured slopes of more than 22%) and soil textures were predominantly sandy loam and sandy silt loam with medium topsoil permeability. Subsurface traffic pans were observed in almost all tested fields from 20 to 40 cm depth. Where VSA scores were low, runoff potential scores were high, which shows a positive relation between both diagnostic tools. Lessons taken from field diagnosis are that farm managers cannot always implement "good" soil, water and input management practices. For example, grape quality may be adversely impacted which creates a reluctance to change (White 2003). In our paper, we review current advisory practices to mitigate runoff in Sicilian vineyards, such as residue management, continuous soil cover and no-till (Novara et al. 2011, 2013, Leys et al. 2010, Arneaz et al. 2007), against our observations and discussions with farm managers. Our findings, especially in the Regaleali vineyards, indicate that the focus for change should not only be at the edge of the field, but also in the field (Sabbagh et al. 2009). Runoff should be stopped at source first and discussion with farm managers is critical before advising on BMP plans for runoff mitigation, especially in viticulture since wine production is a multidisciplinary profession. References Arneaz, J., Lasanta, T., Ruiz-Flaño, Ortigosa, L. Factors affecting runoff and erosion under simulated rainfall in Mediterranean vineyards, Soil & Tillage Research 93 (2007) 324-334. ARPA, Water Incore, Sustainable water management through common responsibility enhancement in Mediterranean River Basins, 2010. Diodato, N., Bellocchi, G. Storminess and environmental changes in the Mediterranean Central Area, Earth Interactions (2010), 14, Paper No. 4. Leys, A. Govers, G., Gillijns K., Berckmoes E., Takken I. Scale effects on runoff and erosion losses from arable land under conservation and conventional tillage: the role of residue cover, Journal of Hydrology (2010), 390, 143-154. Novara, A

  11. Wild yam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laboratory into various steroids, such as estrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The root and the bulb of the plant ... wild yam and diosgenin promoted as a “natural DHEA.” This is because in the laboratory DHEA is ...

  12. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  13. Ibn Sab‘īn’s Sicilian Questions: the Text, its Sources, and their Historical Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akasoy, Anna Ayşe

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sicilian Questions are the earliest preserved text of the philosopher and Sufi Ibn Sab‘īn of Murcia (c. 614/1217-668/1270. Even though the prologue of the text claims that it is a response to questions sent by Frederick II to the Arab world, it seems more likely that it was an introductory manual for Arab students of philosophy, dealing with four specific and controversial problems as a way of presenting general concepts of Aristotelian philosophy. This article analyses the structure and way of argumentation in the Sicilian Questions. Particular attention is being paid to the relationship between mysticism and philosophy and the sources of the text, above all the philosophical writings of Ibn Rushd. Ibn Sab‘īn and his Sicilian Questions are interpreted as reflecting the intellectual milieu of late Almohad Spain. The text might have been originally composed in a ṭalaba context, and it also reflects some of the key concerns of Almohad ideology.

    Las Cuestiones Sicilianas son el primer texto conservado del filósofo y sufí Ibn Sab‘īn de Murcia (c. 614/1217-668/1270. Aunque el prólogo del texto pretende que se trata de respuestas a preguntas mandadas por Federico II al mundo árabe, parece más probable que se trate de un manual introductorio para estudiantes árabes de filosofía, discutiendo cuatro problemas específicos y controvertidos como manera de presentar conceptos generales de la filosofía aristotélica. Este artículo analiza la estructura y la manera de argumentar en las Cuestiones Sicilianas. Dedica su atención en particular a la relación entre el Sufismo y la filosofía y a las fuentes del texto, sobre todo los textos filosóficos de Ibn Rušd. Interpreta a Ibn Sab‘īn y sus Cuestiones Sicilianas como un reflejo del ambiente intelectual en el Oeste del Mediterráneo durante los últimos años de los Almohades. El texto fue posiblemente compuesto en un contexto

  14. Wild Marshmallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maiaugree, Wasan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Suriharn, Bhalang [Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Extract from husk, cob and silk of purple corn was used as a photosensitizer in DSSC. • Effect of solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and DI water on DSSC efficiency was studied. • The highest efficiency of 1.06% was obtained in DSSC based on acetone extraction. - Abstract: Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin; Maiaugree, Wasan; Suriharn, Bhalang; Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  17. Multifaceted Health Benefits of Mangifera indica L. (Mango): The Inestimable Value of Orchards Recently Planted in Sicilian Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauricella, Marianna; Emanuele, Sonia; Calvaruso, Giuseppe; Giuliano, Michela; D'Anneo, Antonella

    2017-05-20

    Historically, Mangifera indica L. cultivations have been widely planted in tropical areas of India, Africa, Asia, and Central America. However, at least 20 years ago its spreading allowed the development of some cultivars in Sicily, an island to the south of Italy, where the favourable subtropical climate and adapted soils represent the perfect field to create new sources of production for the Sicilian agricultural supply chain. Currently, cultivations of Kensington Pride, Keitt, Glenn, Maya, and Tommy Atkins varieties are active in Sicily and their products meet the requirements of local and European markets. Mango plants produce fleshy stone fruits rich in phytochemicals with an undisputed nutritional value for its high content of polyphenolics and vitamins. This review provides an overview of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties of mango, a fruit that should be included in everyone's diet for its multifaceted biochemical actions and health-enhancing properties.

  18. On the road of dung: hypothetical dispersal routes of dung beetles in the circum–Sicilian volcanic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, M.; Agoglitta, R.; Dawson, H.; Zunino, M.

    2016-07-01

    We analysed dung beetle communities on ten volcanic islands located around Sicily (Italy) to identify the most probable dispersal routes in the colonization of these islands. Assuming two scenarios, we analysed the dung beetle communities through the coefficient of dispersal direction DD2. Our results suggest that dispersal fluxes do not strictly follow the ‘stepping stone’ dynamic. Lipari and Vulcano are the likely core source areas for the north–of–Sicily area. In the Sicily Channel, Linosa appears to have been the main target area with three equivalent fluxes from Tunisia, Sicily, and Malta, while the fauna of Pantelleria resulted from their interchange and proximity to Tunisian fauna. In light of the congruence of our results with the known history of human movements and colonization, we propose a likely human contribution to the genesis of the dung beetle fauna of the circum–Sicilian volcanic islands. (Author)

  19. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  20. A multivariate statistical analysis coming from the NMR metabolic profile of cherry tomatoes (The Sicilian Pachino case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Macaluso, Andrea; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Dugo, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian cherry tomato of Pachino. Thanks to its organoleptic and healthy properties, this particular foodstuff was the first tomato accredited by the European PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) certification of quality. Due to the relatively high price of the final product commercial frauds originated in the Italian and international markets. Hence, there is a growing interest to develop analytical techniques able to predict the origin of a tomato sample, indicating whether or not it originates from the area of Pachino, Sicily (Italy). In this paper we have determined the molar concentration of the metabolites constituent the PGI cherry tomato of Pachino. Furthermore, by means of a multivariate statistical analysis we have identified which metabolites are relevant for sample differentiation.

  1. External beam irradiation in the palliation of bone metastases: a practice analysis among Sicilian Departments of Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Stefano; Pontoriero, Antonio; Delia, Pietro; Santacaterina, Anna

    2004-01-01

    In the treatment of bone metastases, the choice of radiation fractionation, total radiation dose, delivery technique, and imaging studies before treatment varies among radiation oncologists. Surveys on this issue, using case scenarios, have been published by groups from Europe, North America, and Australia-New Zealand. Our objective was to analyze retrospectively the "real" practice in nine radiotherapy centers located in Sicily. A questionnaire including 17 items was distributed to 30 practicing radiation oncologists working in seven departments of four Sicilian cities (Messina, Catania, Ragusa and Palermo) during a meeting of the Sicilian Division of the Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica (AIRO). Participants were asked to answer the questions using a card for every patient treated with external beam irradiation from 1 January to 31 December, 2000. Six centers returned the questionnaires; 332 cards were valuable for a total of 5644 responses. All six responding departments used linear accelerators for treatment delivery. The most common dose fractionation was 30 Gy in 10 fractions and the most common technique used was opposed parallel local fields. Before the start of irradiation a bone scan was performed in 325 of the 332 (98%) patients treated and CT and/or MRI was performed in 320 (96%); surprisingly, standard roentgenograms were used in only 142 of 332 patients (42.8%). The "real" radiation practice for bone metastases in the region of Sicily confirms the results of the previously reported international surveys: there is a clear preference for fractionated treatment and local field therapy. The results of randomized studies, which demonstrated both the efficacy and the feasibility of a single 6-8 Gy fraction in the palliation of bone metastases, have little or no impact on the pattern of practice.

  2. B(a)P adduct levels and fertility: A cross‑sectional study in a Sicilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri Conti, Gea; Calogero, Aldo Eugenio; Giacone, Filippo; Fiore, Maria; Barchitta, Martina; Agodi, Antonella; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-05-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon for human tissues. Still today it is not fully investigated if BaP can affect negatively the male fertility through the BaP‑DNA adducts production. In the present study, BaP Tetrol I‑1 (TI‑1) and BaP Tetrol II‑2 (TII‑2) BaP‑DNA adducts were investigated in spermatozoa of a Sicilian male population. Semen samples from 86 volunteers in two eastern Sicilian cities (Regalbuto and Melilli) were collected. The quality of semen was evaluated in all samples according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. We analyzed BaP‑DNA adducts in extracted sperm cell DNA using the modified high‑performance liquid chromatography‑fluorescence method to detects both Tetrols. Differences between Tetrol levels were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed‑rank test and the Mann‑Whitney U test, as appropriate. Correlation between semen quality parameters and Tetrol concentrations were analyzed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Σ(TI‑1+TII‑2) were significantly higher in spermatozoa of volunteers from Regalbuto. Furthermore, a greater dispersion of the levels of adducts was observed in these specimens. TI‑1 adducts were higher than TII‑2 in Melilli samples (95% CI) and TII‑2 were higher than TI‑1 in Regalbuto semen samples (95% CI). A significant inverse correlation between sperm progressive motility and both TI‑1 and TII‑2 adducts was observed. The present study showed that BaP negatively affects male fertility by TI‑1 and TII‑2 DNA‑adduct production. These results suggest that DNA adducts could be used as biomarker to assess BaP exposure by air pollution. Further studies are needed to confirm if these findings could affect male fertility because of the growing impairment of this function observed in recent years.

  3. B(a)P adduct levels and fertility: A cross-sectional study in a Sicilian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Gea Oliveri; Calogero, Aldo Eugenio; Giacone, Filippo; Fiore, Maria; Barchitta, Martina; Agodi, Antonella; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon for human tissues. Still today it is not fully investigated if BaP can affect negatively the male fertility through the BaP-DNA adducts production. In the present study, BaP Tetrol I-1 (TI-1) and BaP Tetrol II-2 (TII-2) BaP-DNA adducts were investigated in spermatozoa of a Sicilian male population. Semen samples from 86 volunteers in two eastern Sicilian cities (Regalbuto and Melilli) were collected. The quality of semen was evaluated in all samples according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. We analyzed BaP-DNA adducts in extracted sperm cell DNA using the modified high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence method to detects both Tetrols. Differences between Tetrol levels were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate. Correlation between semen quality parameters and Tetrol concentrations were analyzed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Σ(TI-1+TII-2) were significantly higher in spermatozoa of volunteers from Regalbuto. Furthermore, a greater dispersion of the levels of adducts was observed in these specimens. TI-1 adducts were higher than TII-2 in Melilli samples (95% CI) and TII-2 were higher than TI-1 in Regalbuto semen samples (95% CI). A significant inverse correlation between sperm progressive motility and both TI-1 and TII-2 adducts was observed. The present study showed that BaP negatively affects male fertility by TI-1 and TII-2 DNA-adduct production. These results suggest that DNA adducts could be used as biomarker to assess BaP exposure by air pollution. Further studies are needed to confirm if these findings could affect male fertility because of the growing impairment of this function observed in recent years. PMID:28350051

  4. Estudio lingüístico-comparativo del siciliano y el español Comparative-linguistic study between sicilian and spanish languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Núñez Méndez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio ofrece una propuesta lingüístico-comparativa entre el español y el siciliano. Mientras que se han realizado detalladas comparaciones entre lenguas romances, menos atención se le ha dado al siciliano, dado su carácter de dialecto del italiano. Según algunos lingüistas, el siciliano, como el sardo (hablado en Cerdeña, no se constituye como un dialecto, sino como una lengua independiente, que perdió su estatus de tal cuando el parlamento italiano decidió asignar una lengua oficial nacional. En esta investigación, independientemente de la interpretación del siciliano como lengua o como dialecto, se analizarán algunos de los aspectos fónicos, léxicos, ortográficos y morfológicos más sobresalientes que lo diferencian del español. Paralelamente, se establecen correspondencias con el italiano y el latín para entender mejor los procesos evolutivos del siciliano. Nuestro propósito reside en contribuir al canon analítico de estudios de dialectos y lenguas romances y en darle más visibilidad al siciliano, el cual cuenta con pocos estudios de esta índole.This study proposes a linguistic-comparative analysis of both Spanish and Sicilian. While numerous linguistic studies have been done on Romanic languages, very few deal with Sicilian, isolated as a dialect of Italian. According to some linguists, Sicilian, as well as Sardinian (spoken in Sardinia, is not a dialect but an independent language per se. It lost its language status when the Italian parliament decided to assign a national language. This research, independently of Sicilian being a language or a dialect, analyses the most important phonetic, lexical, spelling and morphological differences with his sister-language, Spanish. At the same time, some parallelisms with Italian and Latin will be presented to understand better the linguistic evolution of Sicilian. Therefore, our main goal lies on contributing to the analytical cannon of studies in both Romanic languages

  5. Calcium binding to the purple membrane : A molecular dynamics study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Tsjerk A.; Daura, Xavier; Padros, Esteve; Mark, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    The purple membrane (PM) is a specialized membrane patch found in halophilic archaea, containing the photoreceptor bacteriorhodopsin (bR). It is long known that calcium ions bind to the PM, but their position and role remain elusive to date. Molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with a highl

  6. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular

  7. Using polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromocresol purple in radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Munzer; al Kassiri, Haroun; Daher, Yarob

    2011-02-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with bromocresol purple was investigated as a high-dose radiation dosimeter. The absorbance at 417 nm depends linearly on the dose below 50 kGy. The response depends neither on dose rate nor on the irradiation temperature. The effects of post-irradiation storage in the dark and in indirect sunlight are also discussed.

  8. Halosulfuron reduced purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds persist and cause economic losses in agricultural systems because they exploit an underutilized portion of that system. Reducing the impact of weeds on agroecosystems begins with minimizing the number of propagules (e.g, seeds and tubers) that are produced and returned to the soil. Purple nu...

  9. Alice Walker's Womanism Colored in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧慧

    2009-01-01

    In her famous novel The Color Purple,Alice Walker's womanism is colored by four kinds of conseiousness-female consciousness,racial consciousness,root-seeking consciousness,and universal consciousness.It is owing to the womanism that the heroine celie grown from an abused woman to an independent selfhood.

  10. Rings, ellipses and horseshoes: how purple bacteria harvest solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J; Gardiner, Alastair T; Roszak, Aleksander W; Law, Christopher J; Southall, June; Isaacs, Neil W

    2004-01-01

    This Review summarises the current state of research on the structure and function of light-harvesting apparatus in purple photosynthetic bacteria. Particular emphasis is placed on the major open questions still outstanding in this field in addition to what is already known.

  11. Purple Bacterial Light-harvesting Complexes: From Dreams to Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J; Hashimoto, Hideki; Gardiner, Alastair T

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the main stages involved in the research efforts designed to try and understand the structure and function of purple bacterial antenna complexes. Wherever possible the work has been illustrated by pictures of the major people who carried it out.

  12. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular ri

  13. CCR5Δ32 Polymorphism Associated with a Slower Rate Disease Progression in a Cohort of RR-MS Sicilian Patients

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    Rosalia D'Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS disease is carried through inflammatory and degenerative stages. Based on clinical feaures, it can be subdivided into three groups: relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive MS, and primary progressive MS. Multiple sclerosis has a multifactorial etiology with an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and autoimmune inflammatory mechanism in which play a key role CC-chemokines and its receptors. In this paper, we studied the frequency of CCR5 gene Δ32 allele in a cohort of Sicilian RR-MS patients comparing with general Sicilian population. Also, we evaluate the association between this commonly polymorphism and disability development and age of disease onset in the same cohort. Our results show that presence of CCR5Δ32 is significantly associated with expanded disability status scale score (EDSS but not with age of disease onset.

  14. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  15. Role of physical forcings and nutrient availability on the control of satellite-based chlorophyll a concentration in the coastal upwelling area of the Sicilian Channel

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    Bernardo Patti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The northern sector of the Sicilian Channel is an area of favourable upwelling winds, which ought to support primary production. However, the values for primary production are low when compared with other Mediterranean areas and very low compared with the most biologically productive regions of the world’s oceans: California, the Canary Islands, Humboldt and Benguela. The aim of this study was to identify the main factors that limit phytoplankton biomass in the Sicilian Channel and modulate its monthly changes. We compared satellite-based estimates of chlorophyll a concentration in the Strait of Sicily with those observed in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems mentioned above and in other Mediterranean wind-induced coastal upwelling systems (the Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Lions and the Aegean Sea. Our results show that this low level of chlorophyll is mainly due to the low nutrient level in surface and sub-surface waters, independently of wind-induced upwelling intensity. Further, monthly changes in chlorophyll are mainly driven by the mixing of water column and wind-induced and/or circulation-related upwelling processes. Finally, primary production limitation due to the enhanced stratification processes resulting from the general warming trend of Mediterranean waters is not active over most of the coastal upwelling area off the southern Sicilian coast.

  16. Testing the shape-similarity hypothesis between particle-size distribution and water retention for Sicilian soils

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    Chiara Antinoro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of the Arya and Paris (AP model to estimate the soil water retention curve requires a detailed description of the particlesize distribution (PSD but limited experimental PSD data are generally determined by the conventional sieve-hydrometer (SH method. Detailed PSDs can be obtained by fitting a continuous model to SH data or performing measurements by the laser diffraction (LD method. The AP model was applied to 40 Sicilian soils for which the PSD was measured by both the SH and LD methods. The scale factor was set equal to 1.38 (procedure AP1 or estimated by a logistical model with parameters gathered from literature (procedure AP2. For both SH and LD data, procedure AP2 allowed a more accurate prediction of the water retention than procedure AP1, confirming that it is not convenient to use a unique value of  for soils that are very different in texture. Despite the differences in PSDs obtained by the SH and LD methods, the water retention predicted by a given procedure (AP1 or AP2 using SH or LD data was characterized by the same level of accuracy. Discrepancies in the estimated water retention from the two PSD measurement methods were attributed to underestimation of the finest diameter frequency obtained by the LD method. Analysis also showed that the soil water retention estimated using the SH method was affected by an estimation bias that could be corrected by an optimization procedure (OPT. Comparison of a-distributions and water retention shape indices obtained by the two methods (SH or LD indicated that the shape-similarity hypothesis is better verified if the traditional sieve-hydrometer data are used to apply the AP model. The optimization procedure allowed more accurate predictions of the water retention curves than the traditional AP1 and AP2 procedures. Therefore, OPT can be considered a valid alternative to the more complex logistical model for estimating the water retention curve of Sicilian soils.

  17. An Analysis of Ecowomanism in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静颖

    2016-01-01

    The Color Purple is a well known work of Alice Walker, which describes black women living in the bottom of that soci?ety and a course of them keep fighting for realizing spiritual liberation and personality independence, as well as equality in politics and race. Many scholars at home and abroad prefer to study this novel from feminism, womanism, and writing technique, but few study it from ecowamnism perspcctive. This thesis intends to take The Color Purple of Alice Walker as a research object, ecowom?anism as a theoretical basis for reflecting ecowomanism in it and actual meanings. Only when women bravely realized their self-value, beauty and preciousness and knew the self-importance and being an independent person from spiritual and body, can they achieve happiness. Only we respect, close, head for nature, can harmonious coexistence with nature be realized.

  18. Antioxidative effect of purple corn extracts during storage of mayonnaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ying; Kim, Hee-Woong; Li, He; Lee, Deug-Chan; Rhee, Hae-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin is a powerful natural antioxidant. Purple corn husk is rich in anthocyanin. In this paper the antioxidative effect of anthocyanin-rich purple corn husk extract (PCHE) in mayonnaise during storage was studied. The antioxidative effect of the mayonnaise containing PCHE was evaluated by measuring peroxide values, p-anisidine values, total oxidation values, acid values, and iodine values at time intervals for 10 weeks. The antioxidative effect of the mayonnaise containing PCHE was higher than that of mayonnaise with chemical antioxidants BHT and EDTA as positive control. The mayonnaise containing 0.4 g/kg PCHE showed the strongest antioxidative performance during storage. This study suggests that PCHE could be used as natural antioxidant in high fat food and as a substitute to chemical antioxidant with its purplish colour marking its difference from ordinary mayonnaise. Such colour difference will tell consumers that their food contains natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Psychological Deformity of Black Males in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳蔚

    2012-01-01

      The Color Purple,adapted from Alice Walker’s magnum opus - a long epistolary novel,is a famous movie about the miserable experience of black females and their unremitting resistance against every kind of oppression. In addition,this movie has also exposed the psychological deformity of black male. This paper focuses on the characters of black male, sufficiently probes and analyses the causes of black male’s psychological deformity.

  20. Mammalian-like Purple Acid Phosphatases in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) comprise of a family of binuclear metal-containing hydrolases, some members of which have been isolated and characterized from animal, plant and fungal sources[1]. PAPs not only catalyze the hydrolyses of a wide range of phosphate esters and anhydrides under acidic reaction conditions,but also catalyze the generation of hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton-like reaction, by virtue of the presence of a redox-active binuclear metal center.

  1. Extraction and Purification of Pigment from Purple Sweet Potato Wine Vinasse

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    Zhongsheng Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato pigment is a natural food pigment with bright color and multiplies biological functions such as antioxidant activity etc. There is a large amount of unused pigment in the vinasse of purple sweet potato wine. Therefore, in this study, the extraction processes of purple sweet potato pigment from purple sweet potato wine vinasse, as well as its purification conditions were investigated. As the results, 0.9% citric acid-95% ethanol (2/3, v/v was a suitable extraction solvent to obtain the higher yield of purple sweet potato pigment from vinasse. AB-8 column chromatography showed that the loading ratio of 1/10 (w/v of resin and pigment with the solvent of 40% ethanol at the flow rate of 2 mL/min were the optimal conditions for the purification of purple sweet potato pigment.

  2. In vitro evaluation of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated during traditional Sicilian cheese making

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    Giusi Macaluso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-the-lawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin, amylolytic (α-amylase and lipolytic (lipase enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product.

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated During Traditional Sicilian Cheese Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Giusi; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Gaglio, Raimondo; Mancuso, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-the-lawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA) and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin), amylolytic (a-amylase) and lipolytic (lipase) enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis) were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product.

  4. Taxonomy of phototrophic green and purple bacteria: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, N; Trüper, H G

    1983-01-01

    The presently existing classification for the green and purple bacteria comprises physiological-ecological assemblages of phototrophic bacteria with anoxygenic photosynthesis. The taxonomic units of the different levels were based entirely on common phenotypic traits, including morphological, cytological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Since degrees of resemblance form the basis of the grouping, this classification cannot reflect the genetic or evolutionary relatedness of these bacteria, neither among themselves nor with other bacteria. The advantage of the artificial system, however, is the use of features which can be established in most laboratories and which allow the comparison and identification of newly isolated strains with those already studied and described. The four existing families correspond to the four major recognized, ecophysiological groups, the Chlorobiaceae and Chloroflexaceae among the green bacteria, and the Chromatiaceae and Rhodospirillaceae among the purple bacteria. Our knowledge of all these groups is incomplete; this is reflected by the fact that seven new species have been described during the past three years (6th Newsletter on phot. bacteria, Trüper and Hansen, 1982). The description of the new genus and species Erythrobacter longus (Shiba and Simidu, 1982) is also interesting, as it comprises aerobic chemoorganotrophic marine bacteria which form bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids; however, no strains were able to grow phototrophilcally. Significant success is currently being obtained in the different approaches toward elucidating the genetic relationships within and outside of the purple and green bacteria. Detailed studies of the lipopolysaccharides of several species and genera of the Rhodospirillaceae (Weckesser et al., 1979, and more recent paper) have proven to be very useful for the recognition of relationships or dissimilarities between the species of a genus or between different genera. Amino acid sequence

  5. Fullerene-Benzene purple and yellow clusters: Theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Megan P.; Khan, Sakiba; Baytak, Aysegul K.; Khan, Arshad

    2016-11-01

    Fullerene (FR, C60) gives a purple colored solution almost instantly when benzene is added to it. Interestingly, this purple solution turns yellow in about 7 weeks and remains yellow afterwards. The concentration of the purple complex increases with temperature indicating its formation kinetically favored, which transforms into a more stable yellow complex very slowly with time. The geometry optimization by density functional theory (DFT) followed by spectra (TD-DFT method) calculations suggest that the purple and yellow complexes are due to clusters of six benzene molecules arranged vertically and horizontally respectively around the FR molecule.

  6. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  7. Effect of the Purple carbon black on the properties of NR/BR blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanfang, Zhao; Dan, Liu; Shengbo, Lin; Binjian; Yinmei, Zhao; Shuangquan, Liao

    2014-08-01

    Purple black is light colored mineral filler mining in recent years in Hainan. The effect of the dosage of the purple carbon black and purple carbon black modificated by Si69 on the vulcanization characteristics, mechanical properties, thermal stability, the damping performance of NR/BR blend rubber were studied, and the blending adhesive tensile sections were analyzed by SEM. Research showed that, with the increasing dosage of the purple carbon black, vulcanization characteristics of NR/BR blend had a little change. Adding the purple carbon black into blending had a reinforcing effect. when the dosage of the purple carbon black was 20, the mechanical properties of blending adhesive was good; Coupling agent Si69 had a modification effect on the purple carbon black. With increasing dosage of Si69, performance of the rubber was improved initially and then decreased; when the mass fraction of Si69 was 8% of the dosage of the purple carbon black, rubber performance was optimal. Purple carbon black had no obvious effect on thermal stability of the rubber, but it improved the damping rubber temperature and damping factor.

  8. Gem-quality Turkish purple jade: Geological and mineralogical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Başevirgen, Yasemin; Chamberlain, Steven C.

    2012-02-01

    In the Harmancık-Bursa region of the western Anatolia (Turkey), an extensive contact metamorphic aureole at the border between the Late Mesozoic coherent metaclastic rocks of blueschist facies and the Early Senozoic intrusive granodiorite stock hosts an interesting and unique gem material with a mineral assemblage consisting mainly of jadeite, quartz, orthoclase, epidote, chloritoid, and phlogopite as identified by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and polarized-light microscopy. In addition, chemical analyses performed with X-ray fluorescence and inductive-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy show that the mass of the metamorphic aureole has a silica-rich, calc-alkaline chemical content. Therefore, some rock building elements (such as Al, Ca, Na, K, P, Sr, and B of which characterize an acidic-neutral rock formation) and trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Be, Cu, Ga, La, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are remarkable high ratios. Pale purple-colored gem material of this composition appears to be unique to Turkey, also is only found in one narrow provenance in Turkey. Therefore, it is specially called "Turkish (and/or Anatolian) purple jade" on the worldwide gem market. Even though the mineral jadeite is the principal constituent, 40% by volume as determined with petrographic thin-section examination under a polarized-light microscope, the material cannot be considered pure jadeite. Specific gravity measurements of the jade using a hydrostatic balance confirm that it has a heterogeneous structure. The measured average specific gravity of 3.04, is significantly lower than the normal range for characterized jadeites of 3.24-3.43. Turkish purple jade samples were examined in detail using dispersive confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (DCμRS) as well as other well-known analytical methods. The resulting strong micro-Raman bands that peaked at 1038, 984, 697, 571, 521, 464, 430, 372, 326, 307, 264, and 201 cm -1 are characteristics of the Turkish purple jade. The first most

  9. Two-dimensional protonic percolation on lightly hydrated purple membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupley, J A; Siemankowski, L; Careri, G; Bruni, F

    1988-12-01

    The capacitance and dielectric loss factor were measured for a sample of purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium as a function of hydration level (0.017 to >0.2 g of water/g of membrane) and frequency (10 kHz to 10 MHz). The capacitance and the derived conductivity show explosive growth above a threshold hydration level, h(c) approximately 0.0456. The conductivity shows a deuterium isotope effect, H/(2)H = 1.38, in close agreement with expectation for a protonic process. The level h(c) is frequency independent and shows no deuterium isotope effect. These properties are analogous to those found for lysozyme in a related study. Protonic conduction for the purple membrane can be considered, as for lysozyme, within the framework of a percolation model. The critical exponent, t, which describes the conductivity of a percolative system near the threshold, has the value 1.23. This number is in close agreement with expectation from theory for a two-dimensional percolative process. The dielectric properties of the purple membrane are more complex than those of lysozyme, seen in the value of h(c) and in the frequency and hydration dependence of the loss factor. There appear to be preferred regions of proton conduction. The percolation model is based upon stochastic behavior of a system partially populated with conducting elements. This model suggests that ion transport in membranes and its control can be based on pathways formed of randomly connected conducting elements and that a fixed geometry (a proton wire) is not the only possible basis for a mechanism of conduction.

  10. Tectonic evolution of the Sicilian Maghrebian Chain inferred from stratigraphic and petrographic evidences of Lower Cretaceous and Oligocene flysch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglisi Diego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a Lower Cretaceous flysch group, cropping out from the Gibraltar Arc to the Balkans with a very similar structural setting and sedimentary provenance always linked to the dismantling of internal areas, suggests the existence of only one sedimentary basin (Alpine Tethys s.s., subdivided into many other minor oceanic areas. The Maghrebian Basin, mainly developed on thinned continental crust, was probably located in the westernmost sector of the Alpine Tethys. Cretaceous re-organization of the plates triggered one (or more tectonic phases, well recorded in almost all the sectors of the Alpine Tethys. However, the Maghrebian Basin seems to have been deformed by Late- or post-Cretaceous tectonics, connected with a “meso-Alpine” phase (pre-Oligocene, already hypothesized since the beginning of the nineties. Field geological evidence and recent biostratigraphic data also support this important meso- Alpine tectonic phase in the Sicilian segment of the Maghrebian Chain, indicated by the deformations of a Lower Cretaceous flysch sealed by Lower Oligocene turbidite deposits. This tectonic development is emphasized here because it was probably connected with the onset of rifting in the southern paleomargin of the European plate, the detaching of the so-called AlKaPeCa block (Auct.; i.e. Alboran + Kabylian + Calabria and Peloritani terranes and its fragmentation into several microplates. The subsequent early Oligocene drifting of these microplates led to the progressive closure of the Maghrebian Basin and the opening of new back-arc oceanic basins, strongly controlled by extensional processes, in the western Mediterranean (i.e. Gulf of Lion, Valencia Trough, Provençal Basin and Alboran Sea.

  11. Serological association between Leishmania infantum and sand fly fever Sicilian (but not Toscana) virus in sheltered dogs from southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Alwassouf, Sulaf; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Ayhan, Nazli; Pereira, André; Charrel, Remi N; Campino, Lenea

    2017-03-13

    Phlebotomine sand fly-borne diseases such as leishmanioses and phleboviruses are emerging threats to animal and public health. Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis in Portugal. Antibodies to Toscana virus (TOSV) and sand fly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) were also reported in dogs from the south of the country. The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible association between exposure to L. infantum, TOSV and SFSV in sheltered dogs from the south of Portugal. Seventy-six (13.1%) out of 581 dogs were seropositive for L. infantum, 327 (56.3%) for SFSV and 36 (6.2%) for TOSV. Six dogs were co-exposed with L. infantum and TOSV, 51 with L. infantum and SFSV and 25 with TOSV and SFSV. One dog had antibodies to the three pathogens. Leishmania infantum seroprevalence was significantly higher in pure breed dogs than in mongrels and in dogs with clinical signs while SFSV positivity was significantly higher in males, in pure and cross-breed dogs than in mongrels and in those not treated with insecticides. Seroprevalence for both viruses was significantly higher in dogs over than 7 years-old than in those aged 1-7. A significant association was observed between the presence of antibodies to L. infantum and SFSV. The presence of antibodies to several phlebotomine sand fly-borne pathogens in dogs, reinforces the need to implement efficient prophylactic measures to prevent infection among vertebrate hosts including humans. The results also indicate that dogs are good sentinels for assessing human exposure to TOSV and SFSV. Further studies must be performed to elucidate the role of dogs in the dynamics of transmission and if they can play a role as amplifying or reservoir hosts in the natural cycle of these viruses. Public and animal health impacts of these phleboviruses in Portugal should be addressed via serological and virological studies on both phlebotomine sand flies and vertebrate hosts, especially on humans.

  12. Shared language, diverging genetic histories: high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variability in Calabrian and Sicilian Arbereshe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Tofanelli, Sergio; De Fanti, Sara; Quagliariello, Andrea; Bortolini, Eugenio; Ferri, Gianmarco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Brisighelli, Francesca; Capelli, Cristian; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Sineo, Luca; Luiselli, Donata; Boattini, Alessio; Pettener, Davide

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between genetic and linguistic diversification in human populations has been often explored to interpret some specific issues in human history. The Albanian-speaking minorities of Sicily and Southern Italy (Arbereshe) constitute an important portion of the ethnolinguistic variability of Italy. Their linguistic isolation from neighboring Italian populations and their documented migration history, make such minorities particularly effective for investigating the interplay between cultural, geographic and historical factors. Nevertheless, the extent of Arbereshe genetic relationships with the Balkan homeland and the Italian recipient populations has been only partially investigated. In the present study we address the genetic history of Arbereshe people by combining highly resolved analyses of Y-chromosome lineages and extensive computer simulations. A large set of slow- and fast-evolving molecular markers was typed in different Arbereshe communities from Sicily and Southern Italy (Calabria), as well as in both the putative Balkan source and Italian sink populations. Our results revealed that the considered Arbereshe groups, despite speaking closely related languages and sharing common cultural features, actually experienced diverging genetic histories. The estimated proportions of genetic admixture confirm the tight relationship of Calabrian Arbereshe with modern Albanian populations, in accordance with linguistic hypotheses. On the other hand, population stratification and/or an increased permeability of linguistic and geographic barriers may be hypothesized for Sicilian groups, to account for their partial similarity with Greek populations and their higher levels of local admixture. These processes ultimately resulted in the differential acquisition or preservation of specific paternal lineages by the present-day Arbereshe communities.

  13. A Psychoanalytic Reading of Celie in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡培琳

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the protagonist, Celie, in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple. Celie who is ugly, lacks of mother’s love, and oppressed in a universe of men. She admires Shug who is a beautiful woman. According to Lacan ’s theory, Celie’s love for Shug is a metonymic hunting for her mother’s body. Celie’s hunting process is along the metonymic chain of signifiers. And finally Celie finds her happiness even though the chain of signifiers continues.

  14. Antioxidant effect of Purple basil(Lamiaceae Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Mastaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants used in folk and traditional medicines have been accepted as therapeutic drug development in modern medicine. SinceOcimum basilicum cv. dark opal has been used in Persian traditional medicine and many Iranian dishes,it was considered important to determine the reductive capacity of the purple basil oils and extracts, as this may indicate their potential as antioxidants. Results indicated that the extracts have more powerful antioxidant activity than the oils.Also,the phytochemical analysis of the extracts has led to the identification of 3 phenolic. Our study, partially validates the traditional use of this medicinal herb as complementary medicine.

  15. Purple sweet potato colour--a potential therapy for galactosemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timson, David J

    2014-06-01

    Galactosemia is an inherited metabolic disease in which galactose is not properly metabolised. There are various theories to explain the molecular pathology, and recent experimental evidence strongly suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role. High galactose diets are damaging to experimental animals and oxidative stress also plays a role in this toxicity which can be alleviated by purple sweet potato colour (PSPC). This plant extract is rich in acetylated anthocyanins which have been shown to quench free radical production. The objective of this Commentary is to advance the hypothesis that PSPC, or compounds therefrom, may be a viable basis for a novel therapy for galactosemia.

  16. The interaction between purple membrane and membrane lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane was reconstituted into different lipid vesicles. The effect of three different lipids on the structure and function of bacteriorhodopsin in lipid vesicles was studied by the observation on freeze-fracture eletron microscopy, the rotational diffusion of bacteriorhodopsin in lipid vesicles, the measurement of absorption spectrum, and the absorbance change with time. For these prepared samples, the results showed that DMPC was the stable lipid environment of bacteriorhodopsin; egg-pc causeed the loss of retinal chromophore of bacteriorhodopsin and it was not reversible change, cholesterol could stabilize the bacteriorhodopsin in lipid environment,but it caused the aggregation of bacteriorhodopsin.

  17. Two-dimensional protonic percolation on lightly hydrated purple membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Rupley, John A.; Siemankowski, Linda; Careri, Giorgio; Bruni, Fabio

    1988-01-01

    The capacitance and dielectric loss factor were measured for a sample of purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium as a function of hydration level (0.017 to >0.2 g of water/g of membrane) and frequency (10 kHz to 10 MHz). The capacitance and the derived conductivity show explosive growth above a threshold hydration level, hc ≈ 0.0456. The conductivity shows a deuterium isotope effect, H/2H = 1.38, in close agreement with expectation for a protonic process. The level hc is frequency independe...

  18. The structural basis of light-harvesting in purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J; Isaacs, Neil W; Freer, Andrew A; Howard, Tina D; Gardiner, Alastair T; Prince, Steve M; Papiz, Miroslavr Z

    2003-11-27

    A typical purple bacterial photosynthetic unit consists of two types of light-harvesting complex (LH1 and LH2) together with a reaction centre. This short review presents a description of the structure of the LH2 complex from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, which has recently been improved to a resolution of 2.0 A [Papiz et al., J. Mol. Biol. 326 (2003) 1523-1538]. We show how this structure has helped to reveal the details of the various excitation energy transfer events in which it is involved.

  19. Research on purple seed stain of soybean: germplasm screening and genetic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean purple seed stain (PSS) causes seed decay and purple seed discoloration, resulting in overall poor seed quality and reduced market grade and value. It is a prevalent disease that also affects seed vigor and stand establishment. PSS is caused by the fungus Cercospora kikuchii and other Cercos...

  20. Screening a diverse soybean germplasm collection for reaction to purple seed stain caused by Cercospora kikuchii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple seed stain (PSS), caused by Cercospora kikuchii, is a prevalent soybean disease that causes latent seed infection, seed decay, purple seed discoloration, and overall quality deterioration. The objective of this research was to screen soybean accessions from the USDA germplasm collection for r...

  1. Anthocyanins and flavonols are responsible for purple color of Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Baolu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Jingtao; Yin, Wencheng; Feng, Ye; Xie, Qiaoli; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Lablab pods, as dietary vegetable, have high nutritional values similar to most of edible legumes. Moreover, our studies confirmed that purple lablab pods contain the natural pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols. Compared to green pods, five kinds of anthocyanins (malvidin, delphinidin and petunidin derivatives) were found in purple pods by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major contents were delphinidin derivatives. Besides, nine kinds of polyphenol derivatives (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and apigenin derivatives) were detected by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major components were quercetin and myricetin derivatives. In order to discover their molecular mechanism, expression patterns of biosynthesis and regulatory gens of anthocyanins and flavonols were investigated. Experimental results showed that LpPAL, LpF3H, LpF3'H, LpDFR, LpANS and LpPAP1 expressions were significantly induced in purple pods compared to green ones. Meanwhile, transcripts of LpFLS were more abundant in purple pods than green or yellow ones, suggestind that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols are accumulated in purple pods. Under continuously dark condition, no anthocyanin accumulation was detected in purple pods and transcripts of LpCHS, LpANS, LpFLS and LpPAP1 were remarkably repressed, indicating that anthocyanins and flavonols biosynthesis in purple pods was regulated in light-dependent manner. These results indicate that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols contribute to purple pigmentations of pods.

  2. Long Noncoding RNA PURPL Suppresses Basal p53 Levels and Promotes Tumorigenicity in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ling Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Basal p53 levels are tightly suppressed under normal conditions. Disrupting this regulation results in elevated p53 levels to induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and tumor suppression. Here, we report the suppression of basal p53 levels by a nuclear, p53-regulated long noncoding RNA that we termed PURPL (p53 upregulated regulator of p53 levels. Targeted depletion of PURPL in colorectal cancer cells results in elevated basal p53 levels and induces growth defects in cell culture and in mouse xenografts. PURPL associates with MYBBP1A, a protein that binds to and stabilizes p53, and inhibits the formation of the p53-MYBBP1A complex. In the absence of PURPL, MYBBP1A interacts with and stabilizes p53. Silencing MYBBP1A significantly rescues basal p53 levels and proliferation in PURPL-deficient cells, suggesting that MYBBP1A mediates the effect of PURPL in regulating p53. These results reveal a p53-PURPL auto-regulatory feedback loop and demonstrate a role for PURPL in maintaining basal p53 levels.

  3. Spatial and temporal sensitivity of purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B.P.; Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) are commonly used in toxicity tests on the west coast for permit monitoring and other applications. They have variable spawning seasons that usually peak in the winter months, but recent work suggests sea urchins can be kept in spawning condition year-round. In this study adult broodstock sea urchins were kept in spawning condition in the laboratory. The gametes from these animals were used in fertilization and larval development experiments designed to assess temporal variability in response to zinc sulfate over a year-long period. The results of these tests were compared to concurrent experiments using gametes from a wild population. Similar tests were conducted comparing urchins from three geographically isolated groups on the west coast. Fertilization tests for the temporal study produced variable EC50`s ranging from 4.1 mg/l to > 100 {micro}g/l zinc. Urchins demonstrated decreased sensitivity during summer months with lab animals showing a more dramatic trend. Larval development tests resulted in EC50`s averaging 107.4 {+-} 21.9 {micro}g/l zinc for laboratory urchins and 97.2 {+-} 19.2 {micro}g/l zinc for wild urchins. Interpopulation larval development results were not significantly different. EC50`s were 133.0 {+-} 19.2 {micro}g/l for Newport, Oregon urchins, 116.1 {+-} 16.8 {micro}g/l for Carmel, California, and 94.3 {+-} 28.8 {micro}g/l for San Diego, California. Similar variability was encountered in the interpopulation fertilization tests. Methods to reduce fertilization test variability have been investigated, and will be discussed in terms of sperm to egg ratios and sperm collection techniques.

  4. Purple drank prevalence and characteristics of misusers of codeine cough syrup mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnich, Laura E; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee; Marcum, Catherine D

    2013-09-01

    A mixture of codeine cough syrup with alcohol and/or a soft drink known as "purple drank" has gained media attention in recent years as a drug associated with professional athletes and southern rap music. The existing research on purple drank consumption has primarily utilized samples of African Americans residing in the Houston, Texas area. This is the first scholarly study of purple drank use outside of the Houston, Texas area among a general population of young adults, and indicates that purple drank use is not limited to African American males. The findings depict higher odds of the use of purple drank among other racial and ethnic groups, males, and homosexual, bisexual, and transgender college students from urban areas.

  5. Anthocyanin Accumulation and Molecular Analysis of Correlated Genes in Purple Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Mingku; Zhu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhijin; Tian, Shibing; Chen, Guoping

    2015-04-29

    Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed widely for the round swollen stem. Purple kohlrabi shows abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and swollen stem. Here, different kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from the purple kohlrabi cultivar (Kolibri) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In order to study the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kohlrabi, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulatory genes in purple kohlrabi and a green cultivar (Winner) was examined by quantitative PCR. In comparison with the colorless parts in the two cultivars, most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and two transcription factors were drastically upregulated in the purple tissues. To study the effects of light shed on the anthocyanin accumulation of kohlrabi, total anthocyanin contents and transcripts of associated genes were analyzed in sprouts of both cultivars grown under light and dark conditions.

  6. Fenton Discoloration of Ultrasonicated Purple Cactus Pear Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del S; Santander-Martínez, Ingrid Renata; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Ariza-Ortega, José A; Omaña-Covarrubias, Ariana; Torres-Valencia, Jesús Martín; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of color, betaxanthin, and betacyanin pigments in the presence of Cu(II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (HO•) from ultrasonicated purple cactus pear juice at amplitudes of 40%, 60%, and 80%, in comparison to untreated sample. L* parameter of juice treated at 40% and 80% amplitude for 25 and 15 min, respectively (11.3 and 9.3, respectively), were significantly higher compared to the control; b* and hue parameters of juice treated at 80%, 25 min showed values of 1.7 and 0.1, respectively. Color differences (ΔE) were lower (juices treated at high amplitude (80%) and short times (3-5 min). Juice treated at 40% 15 min, 60% 25 min, 80% 15 and 25 min presented high values of betacyanins (281.7 mg·L(-1), 255.9 mg·L(-1), 294.4 mg·L(-1), and 276.7 mg·L(-1), respectively). Betaxanthin values were higher in the juices treated at 40% 5 min and 80% 15 and 25 min (154.2 mg·L(-1), 135.2 mg·L(-1), and 128.5 mg·L(-1), respectively). Purple cactus pear juice exhibited significant chelating activity of copper ions and great stability when exposed to HO•.

  7. Effects of Several Purple Potato Additions on Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bădărău Carmen Liliana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato cultivars with purple flesh represent an efficient and natural source of antioxidants, this vegetable having high content in polyphenols (especially anthocyanin pigments. The research goal of this work was to evaluate the anthocyanin and polyphenols content of several Romanian potato varieties (Albastru-Violet de Gălănești and Christian and the effects of these potatoes (add to dough in different proportions on several bread quality indicators. The bread quality depends on physical and chemical properties and on several signs like: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, bread’s volume. In this research experiment, beside the total polyphenols and anthocyanin content, the analysis performed on bread (prepared using different potatoes addition 5%, 15% and 30% were sensorial and physic chemical analysis (product volume, crumb porosity, height/diameter ratio, moist and acidity. Experimental results indicated that 15% purple potato cultivar added on the dough was the most indicate proportion to be used in bread processing.

  8. Fast UPLC/PDA determination of squalene in Sicilian P.D.O. pistachio from Bronte: Optimization of oil extraction method and analytical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Andrea; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Di Stefano, Vita; Capocchiano, Valentina; Mangano, Valentina; Saija, Emanuele; Pellizzeri, Vito; Casale, Katia Erminia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-04-15

    A fast reversed-phase UPLC method was developed for squalene determination in Sicilian pistachio samples that entry in the European register of the products with P.D.O. In the present study the SPE procedure was optimized for the squalene extraction prior to the UPLC/PDA analysis. The precision of the full analytical procedure was satisfactory and the mean recoveries were 92.8±0.3% and 96.6±0.1% for 25 and 50mgL(-1) level of addition, respectively. Selected chromatographic conditions allowed a very fast squalene determination; in fact it was well separated in ∼0.54min with good resolution. Squalene was detected in all the pistachio samples analyzed and the levels ranged from 55.45-226.34mgkg(-1). Comparing our results with those of other studies it emerges that squalene contents in P.D.O. Sicilian pistachio samples, generally, were higher than those measured for other samples of different geographic origins.

  9. Phenolic content of Sicilian virgin olive oils and their effect on MG-63 human osteoblastic cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Martínez, O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was, first, to investigate the influence of olive variety and elevation of orchards on the phenolic compound content of Sicilian virgin olive oils (VOOs and, second, to investigate the effects of VOO phenolic extracts on osteoblast cell growth using the human MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. Olive oil phenolic content and its effect on human osteosarcoma cell proliferation varied according to the type of cultivar and the grove altitude. This variation was also observed within the same type of cultivar. This observation demonstrates that the cultivar and the grove location can significantly affect the chemical composition and bioactivity of virgin olive oil. Although this study supports the hypothesis that virgin olive oil phenolic fractions exert a beneficial effect on bone health, further studies assessing the in vivo accessibility of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds to osteoblast cells should be carried out.El objetivo del presente trabajo es investigar la influencia de la variedad y la altitud del cultivo en el contenido fenólico de aceites de oliva virgen Sicilianos. Asimismo, se ha investigado el efecto de los extractos fenólicos de los aceites en el crecimiento de osteoblastos usando la línea celular de osteosarcoma humano MG-63. El contenido fenólico y el efecto de los extractos analizados en la proliferación de la línea celular osteoblástica muestra una variabilidad consistente de acuerdo con el tipo y la altitud del cultivo. Estos datos demuestran que estas características pueden afectar significativamente la composición química y los efectos en salud del aceite de oliva virgen. Los resultados de este trabajo soportan la hipótesis de que las fracciones fenólicas de los aceites de oliva vírgenes ejercen un efecto beneficioso en la salud ósea. Asimismo, se deben realizar más estudios que establezcan la accesibilidad in vivo de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva virgen a las células osteoblásticas.

  10. The Metallurgy of the Sicilian Final Bronze Age/Early Iron Age necropolis of Madonna del Piano (Catania, Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giumlia-Mair, Alessandra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis results of the copper- based finds, from the important Sicilian necropolis of Madonna del Piano, near Grammichele (Catania, dated between the local Final Bronze Age 2 and the Early Iron Age IA. 122 copper-based finds from the 273 graves (1970-71 of the large cemetery have been analysed. The sampled objects belong to different classes, there are for instance weapons of offence and defence, such as swords and greaves, small decorative objects for personal use, such as rings, fibulae, belt hooks, belt decorations, and small tools, such as the knives used by women, reels, needles and razors, but also small functional parts, such as rivets and nails, repairs and even a kind of musical instrument, such as the tintinnabula. The methods employed were AAS and SEM, where possible, and XRF in all cases. The aim of the research was that of evaluating the skill of the local artisans, of determining the most common copper-based alloys in use in Sicily in this period and comparing the data with the analysis results of contemporary groups of finds from other areas of the Italian peninsula and from other European regions.

    El artículo presenta el resultado de los análisis realizados a los metales de base cobre de la importante necrópolis siciliana de Madonna del Piano, próxima a Grammichele (Catania, fechada entre el Bronce Final 2 y la Primera Edad del Hierro IA. Se han estudiado un total de 122 objetos de base cobre procedentes de 273 tumbas excavadas entre 1970 y 1971. Los objetos muestreados pertenecen a diferentes tipos, armas ofensivas y defensivas tales como espadas y grebas, pequeños objetos de uso personal como anillos, fíbulas, broches de cinturón y pequeñas herramientas como cuchillos usados por las mujeres, carretes, agujas, navajas, pero también elementos funcionales como remaches, clavos y un tipo de instrumento como el tintinábulo. Los métodos de análisis utilizados fueron AAS y SEM, cuando fue

  11. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  12. Updated Multichannel Infrared Solar Spectrograph at Purple Mountain Observatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎辉; 尤建圻; 吴琴娣; 于兴凤

    2002-01-01

    We describe the newly updated multichannel infrared solar spectrograph at the Purple Mountain Observatory that now uses three Apogee APTp grade i scientific CCDs as its detectors and works at three wavelengths, He I 10830 , Call 8542 and Ha, simultaneously. The spectral resolutions of these lines are 0.04776, 0.05113 and 0.05453 per pixel, respectively. Some observation examples are presented. The observed profiles of the three lines demonstrate that redshift and asymmetry exist in the impulsive phase of the given disc flare and both blueshift and redshift exist in the presented flare spray in the impulsive phase of a limb flare. They also indicate that horizontal expansion exists in addition to the quick radial motion in the flare spray.

  13. Dielectric dispersion and protonic conduction in hydrated purple membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, I; Váró, G

    1988-01-01

    Dielectric dispersion effects were studied in purple membranes of different hydration levels. The capacitance and conductivity were measured over the frequency range of 10(2) Hz to 10(5) Hz. With increase in the hydration level, the conductivity increases sharply above the critical hydration of hc = 0.06 g H2O/g protein. This critical hydration is close to the extent of the first continuous strongly bound water layer and is interpreted as the threshold for percolative proton transfer. The capacitance increases continuously with increasing hydration and a larger increase above the water content of 0.1 g H2O/g protein can be seen only at low frequencies. Maxwell-Wagner relaxation also appears above this hydration, showing the presence of a bulk water phase.

  14. Protein-lipid interactions in the purple bacterial reaction centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael R; Fyfe, Paul K; Roszak, Aleksander W; Isaacs, Neil W; Cogdell, Richard J

    2002-10-11

    The purple bacterial reaction centre uses the energy of sunlight to power energy-requiring reactions such as the synthesis of ATP. During the last 20 years, a combination of X-ray crystallography, spectroscopy and mutagenesis has provided a detailed insight into the mechanism of light energy transduction in the bacterial reaction centre. In recent years, structural techniques including X-ray crystallography and neutron scattering have also been used to examine the environment of the reaction centre. This mini-review focuses on recent studies of the surface of the reaction centre, and briefly discusses the importance of the specific protein-lipid interactions that have been resolved for integral membrane proteins.

  15. Use of purple durum wheat to produce naturally functional fresh and dry pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; De Simone, Vanessa; De Leonardis, Anna Maria; Giovanniello, Valentina; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Lecce, Lucia; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2016-08-15

    In this study, the effects of different milling procedures (roller-milling vs. stone-milling) and pasta processing (fresh vs. dried spaghetti), and cooking on the antioxidant components and sensory properties of purple durum wheat were investigated. Milling and pasta processing were performed using one purple and one conventional non-pigmented durum wheat genotypes, and the end-products were compared with commercial pasta. The results show that the stone milling process preserved more compounds with high health value (total fibre and carotenoids, and in the purple genotype, also anthocyanins) compared to roller-milling. The drying process significantly (ppasta production. The sensory properties of pasta from the purple genotype did not significantly differ from commercial wholemeal pasta, and its in vitro glycemic index was even lower. Thus, it is possible to consider this genetic material as a good ingredient for the production of functional foods from cereals naturally rich in bioactive compounds.

  16. Protection Island NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Purple Martin Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Purple Martin (Progne subis) is listed as a Species of Concern by the State and is the focus of a citizen science restoration project designed to provide...

  17. Erosion and Sediment Production in Small Watershed in Purple Hilly Areas and Prevention Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangBao-hua; HeYu-rong; ZhouHong-yi; ZhuBo

    2003-01-01

    Purple Soil distributes extensively and mainly in China. Because of abundant easily weatherable parent rocks/materials and unstable soil structure, and also influenced by parent materials, usage systems, and slope gradients, erosion and sediment production of purple soils are very severe with main fashions of water erosion and gravitational erosion. Basing on observed data in small watersheds, rainfall erosivity,vegetation coverage, previous soil water content, flow and relating; factors such as climate, topograph of small watershed,land usage, and soil kinds are all the influence factors of erosion and erodibility of purple soil as well as sediment production and transport in small watershed of purple hilly areas.The effective technological countermeasures of ecosystem restoration, agricultural tillage for water conservation and erosion prevention, agriculture project, and soil changing for fertility and anti-erosion were provided.

  18. Erosion and Sediment Production in Small Watershed in Purple Hilly Areas and Prevention Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bao-hua; He Yu-rong; Zhou Hong-yi; Zhu Bo

    2003-01-01

    Purple Soil distributes extensively and mainly in China. Because of abundant easily weatherable parent rocks/materials and unstable soil structure, and also influenced by parent materials, usage systems, and slope gradients, erosion and sediment production of purple soils are very severe with main fashions of water erosion and gravitational erosion. Basing on observed data in small watersheds, rainfall erosivity,vegetation coverage, previous soil water content, flow and relating factors such as climate, topograph of small watershed,land usage, and soil kinds are all the influence factors of erosion and erodibility of purple soil as well as sediment production and transport in small watershed of purple hilly areas.The effective technological countermeasures of ecosystem restoration, agricultural tillage for water conservation and erosion prevention, agriculture project, and soil changing for fertility and anti-erosion were provided.

  19. The quantitative determination of the spectral distribution of phototactic sensitivity in the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milatz, J.M.W.; Manten, A.

    1953-01-01

    By using a compensation method, the action spectrum (spectral distribution of stimulating efficiency in a quantitative measure) of phototaxis in the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch) Molisch Strain 4 was determined. Two differently coloured adjacent small light fields were projected

  20. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases.

  1. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Nelis Imanningsih; Deddy Muchtadi; Tutik Wresdiyati; Nurheni Sri Palupi2); Komari

    2013-01-01

    Purple Dioscorea alata (DA) tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process ...

  2. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of purple pericarp gene Pb in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Purple rice is a type of rice with anthocyanins deposited in its grain pericarp. The rice Pb gene controlling purple pericarp character is known to be on chromosome 4, and the purple color is dominant over white color. In this study, we fine mapped the Pb gene using two F2 segregating populations, i.e. Pei'ai 64S (white) × Yunanheixiannuo (purple) and Pei'ai 64S × Chuanheinuo (purple). In the first-pass mapping, the Pb gene was located in the region downstream the SSR marker RM3820. In the fine mapping, the candidate region was saturated with InDel and CAPS markers developed specifically for this study. Eventually, the Pb gene was mapped within the 25-kb region delimited by the upstream marker RID3 and the downstream marker RID4. The delimited region contained two annotated genes, Ra and bhlh16 (TIGR Rice Genome, R.5). The former is a homologue of the Myc transcription factor Lc controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize, and the latter is a homologue of the TT8 gene, which is also an Myc transcription factor gene controlling the pericarp pigmentation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence analysis showed that the exon 7 of the Ra gene of Yunanheixiannuo and Chuanheinuo had a 2-bp (GT) deletion compared with those of the white rice varieties Pei'ai 64S, 9311 and Nipponbare. A CAPS marker, CAPSRa, was developed according to the GT deletion for analysis of the two F2 segregating populations and 106 rice lines. The results showed that all F2 plants with white pericarp, and all non-purple rice lines (63 white and 22 red) contained no GT deletion, but all 20 purple rice lines contained the GT deletion. These results suggested that the Ra gene may be the Pb gene and the purple pericarp characteristic of rice is caused by the GT deletion within exon 7 of the Ra gene.

  3. The Sicilian Mafia: transformation to a global evil A Máfia siciliana: a transformação num mal global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Puccio-Den

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the ways in which social perceptions of the Mafia have shifted over time. Initially considered as a Sicilian way of being, as an attitude, the Sicilian Mafia was subsequently viewed as a universal, global, and even religious form of Evil, to be fought in a war in which texts and images were weapons and judicial institutions constituted the battlefield. I will also explore how local powers institutionalised an “anti-Mafia religion”, using as a case-study the Festival of Santa Rosalia in Palermo. In this context, I will discuss the emergence of a new, anti-Mafia iconography and the use of a specific literary genre, that of political hagiography.O objectivo deste artigo é o de explorar os processos através dos quais as percepções sociais sobre a máfia se foram alterando no decurso do tempo. Inicialmente considerada como uma “forma de ser siciliana”, uma atitude, a máfia siciliana foi subsequentemente sendo interpretada como uma expressão universal, global, religiosa do “mal”, a ser combatida numa guerra - onde as armas eram os textos e as imagens e as instituições judiciais o campo de batalha. Abordarei também, através do estudo de caso do Festival de Santa Rosália em Palermo, a forma como os poderes locais institucionalizaram uma “religião antimáfia”. Neste contexto, discutirei a emergência de uma nova iconografia antimáfia e o uso de um género literário específico: a hagiografia política.

  4. Seroprevalence of Sandfly-Borne Phleboviruses Belonging to Three Serocomplexes (Sandfly fever Naples, Sandfly fever Sicilian and Salehabad in Dogs from Greece and Cyprus Using Neutralization Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaf Alwassouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies are endemic in the Mediterranean area. The last decade has witnessed the description of an accumulating number of novel viruses. Although, the risk of exposure of vertebrates is globally assessed, detailed geographic knowledge is poor even in Greece and Cyprus where sandfly fever has been recognized for a long time and repeatedly. A total of 1,250 dogs from mainland Greece and Greek archipelago on one hand and 422 dogs from Cyprus on the other hand have been sampled and tested for neutralising antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV, Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV, Arbia virus, and Adana virus i.e. four viruses belonging to the 3 sandfly-borne serocomplexes known to circulate actively in the Mediterranean area. Our results showed that (i SFSV is highly prevalent with 71.9% (50.7-84.9% depending on the region in Greece and 60.2% (40.0-72.6% in Cyprus; (ii TOSV ranked second with 4.4% (0-15.4% in Greece and 8.4% (0-11.4% in Cyprus; (iii Salehabad viruses (Arbia and Adana displayed also substantial prevalence rates in both countries with values ranging from 0-22.6% depending on the region and on the virus strain used in the test. These results demonstrate that circulation of viruses transmitted by sand flies can be estimated qualitatively using dog sera. As reported in other regions of the Mediterranean, these results indicate that it is time to shift these viruses from the "neglected" status to the "priority" status in order to stimulate studies aiming at defining and quantifying their medical and veterinary importance and possible public health impact. Specifically, viruses belonging to the Sandfly fever Sicilian complex should be given careful consideration. This calls for implementation of direct and indirect diagnosis in National reference centers and in hospital microbiology laboratories and systematic testing of unelucidated febrile illness and central and peripheral nervous system febrile

  5. Non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex from Brescia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Idone, Ambra; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Baraldi, Pietro; Crivello, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Purple codices are among the most relevant and prestigious book productions of Late Antique and Medieval age. They usually contained texts from Holy Writings written with golden or silver inks on parchment dyed in a purple hue. According to the tradition, the colour of parchment was obtained by the well renowned Tyrian purple dye. From the material point of view, however, very little is known about the compounds actually used in the manufacture of these manuscripts. Presently, the information available is limited to the ancient art treatises, with very few diagnostic evidences supporting them and, moreover, none confirming the presence of Tyrian purple. It is more than apparent, then, the need to have at disposal larger and more complete information at the concern, in order to verify what came to us from the literary tradition only. In this study, preliminary results are presented from non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex, the so-called CodexBrixianus, held in the Biblioteca Civica Queriniana at Brescia (Italy). Analyses were carried out with XRF spectrometry, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, molecular spectrofluorimetry and optical microscopy. The results suggest the hypothesis that Tyrian purple had been used as a minor component mixed with other less precious dyes such as folium or orchil.

  6. Characteristics and functional properties of purple corn (Zea mays L. var. subnigroviolaceo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoseline Guillén-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zea Mays L. variety purple (purple corn is a plant native of America, which has the episperm seeds (grains and the cobs (cob in purple, which gives special characteristics to the pigments that have (between 1.5% and 6.0%, called anthocyanins, which belong to the group of flavonoids. Due to its high content of anthocyanins (cianin C3G-3-glucose as its main color and phenolic compounds act as powerful natural antioxidant and anticancer, Further having functional properties due to these bioactive compounds. The purple corn also provides significant amounts of starch, about 80% (complex carbohydrate, 10% of sugars provide sweetness, up to 11% protein, up to 2% minerals and B vitamins and ascorbic acid, concentrated in endosperm (grain free envelope. Also the nutritional value, the purple corn has a rich composition of phytochemicals, which have beneficial effects on our body, such as neutralize free radicals and act as antimutagenic. His review paper aimed to collect information on the studies undertaken to purple corn as an alternative to artificial food dyes and health benefits when included in the diet. Benefits such as cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, lowering cholesterol, fighting diabetes, being the most remarkable antioxidant action (wrinkle.

  7. Morphological characteristic of purple long yard bean cultivars and their tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M W Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of purple long yard bean which tolerance to drought stress and have high productivity can improve farming in arid area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of the tolerance purple long yard beans to drought stress based on morphologic characters, to get the hypothesis method of tolerance and to obtain tolerance cultivars to the drought stress. Eight cultivars of purple long yard beans, i.e. UBPHU1-41, UBPHU1-130, UBPU3-153, UBPU1-202, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, Brawijaya 4 and Bagong 2, were tested in two environmental conditions, 100% field capacity and 50% field capacity. The results showed that drought stress in purple long yard bean affected all morphological characters observed, except for root length and flowering time. Estimation of tolerance to drought stress using the Principles Component Analysis (PCA showed that the shoot fresh weight could be an indicator of purple pod bean tolerance to drought stress. However, the test using Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI was not able to classify the purple long yard bean tolerance to drought stress. The results of analysis using PCA followed by discriminant analysis and clustering dendrogram showed that the UBPU1-41, UBPU1-130, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, UB4 and Bagong 2 cultivars were medium cultivars that are tolerant to drought stress. Therefore, they can be planted in semiarid regions.

  8. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Gradish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp. are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common, red clover (Trifolium pratense, and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  9. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G. Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J.; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  10. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Purple Membrane from Halobacterium Halobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argade, Pramod Vasant

    Purple membrane from the halophilic bacteria, Halobacterium halobium, contains the protein, bacteriorhodopsin, which functions as a light transducing proton pump. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the functioning of bacteriorhodopsin is a key problem in membrane biophysics. After absorbing a photon, this protein cycles through a series of characteristic intermeidate states and pumps H('+) ions across the membrane. In this way, the energy of the absorbed photon is stored in the electrochemical potential gradient formed across the membrane. This energy is subsequently available for metabolism by the bacterium. Bacteriorhodopsin consists of a retinal chromophore (which is responsible for the purple color) bound to the protein, bacterioopsin, whose sequence is known and consists of 248 amino acid residues. There is evidence that conformational changes in the chromophore may contribute to the proton pumping action. Resonance Raman light scattering provides a selective tool to monitor the conformational changes in the chromophore during the proton pumping cycle. This dissertation consists of applying resonance Raman light scattering in conjunction with a variety of newly developed experimental techniques to gain information about the mode of action of bacteriorhodopsin. By selective isotopic labelling of (epsilon)-amino nitrogen of the lysine residues of the protein, the site of attachment of the chromophore with the protein was verified by in situ measurements. Also, a model proposing a secondary interaction of the chromophore with a lysine residue other than the binding site of the chromophore was tested using this method. Furthermore, by selective isotopic labelling of only a part of the protein the location of the lysine on the protein to which the chromophore is bound, was found by in situ measurements to be the fragment consisting of amino acid residues 72 through 248 of the protein. This is inconsistent with the previously reported binding site at

  11. Diversity of wild bees supports pollination services in an urbanized landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, David M; Matteson, Kevin C; Minor, Emily S

    2015-11-01

    Plantings in residential neighborhoods can support wild pollinators. However, it is unknown how effectively wild pollinators maintain pollination services in small, urban gardens with diverse floral resources. We used a 'mobile garden' experimental design, whereby potted plants of cucumber, eggplant, and purple coneflower were brought to 30 residential yards in Chicago, IL, USA, to enable direct assessment of pollination services provided by wild pollinator communities. We measured fruit and seed set and investigated the effect of within-yard characteristics and adjacent floral resources on plant pollination. Increased pollinator visitation and taxonomic richness generally led to increases in fruit and seed set for all focal plants. Furthermore, fruit and seed set were correlated across the three species, suggesting that pollination services vary across the landscape in ways that are consistent among different plant species. Plant species varied in terms of which pollinator groups provided the most visits and benefit for pollination. Cucumber pollination was linked to visitation by small sweat bees (Lasioglossum spp.), whereas eggplant pollination was linked to visits by bumble bees. Purple coneflower was visited by the most diverse group of pollinators and, perhaps due to this phenomenon, was more effectively pollinated in florally-rich gardens. Our results demonstrate how a diversity of wild bees supports pollination of multiple plant species, highlighting the importance of pollinator conservation within cities. Non-crop resources should continue to be planted in urban gardens, as these resources have a neutral and potentially positive effect on crop pollination.

  12. Investigation of structural change of purple membrane in storage by transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The structural change of purple membrane during storage has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope. It is found that many liposomes have spontaneously evolved from the purple membrane sheets isolated three years ago. The membrane proteins on the liposomes, bacteriorhodopsin, are still presented as trimers in 2-D hexagonal structure, which is the same as that in natural cell membrane. However, the cytoplasmic surface of purple membrane faced outside on the liposomes.

  13. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth.

  14. Growth and yield of maize in purple nutsedge interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Valadão Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed evaluates the influence of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus on the agronomic performance of maize. We conducted a field experiment at Viçosa, MG, in completely randomized design experimental with three replications. The treatments consisted of the interaction of maize with nine nutsedge densities (0, 10, 30, 50, 90, 110, 130, 160 and 260 plants m-2. In the flowering culture was made the measurement of plant height, the insertion of the corn ears and the total dry matter of corn plants. At harvest were determined ear weight, grain yield and 100-grain weight adjusted to 13% moisture. Higher density of nutsedge increased plant height and the insertion of the first corn ear. We also observed a reduction in total dry matter accumulation, ear weight, 100-grain weight and grain yield in all densities evaluate. Nutsedge control, even at low densities is necessary because the presence of this plant promotes negative effect on growth and development of corn with a direct consequences on crop productivity.

  15. SYMMETRY AS CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR IN WALKER'S THE COLOR PURPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tapia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes three types of the conceptual metaphor of embodied symmetry in Alice Walker's novel, The color purple (1982. These metaphorical projections, perceived as equilibrium and its breakage in abstract phenomena, enable readers to reexamine issues of race, non-traditional families, and gender roles. The dis/equilibrium emerges in the novel's epistolary structure. Biological equilibrium breaks in incidents of rape and incest. Walker creates characters in the novel through default-concept opposites of black/white, submissive/dominant, male/female and others. These contraries foreground issues of race and gender. The novel's asymmetries engage readers, leading them to rethink individual character histories and motives. The removal of objects (e.g., rape, mothers deprived of children suggests conceptual asymmetry and alerts readers to parallel themes of sexual and racial oppression. Subjugation sometimes subtle, sometimes blatant- manifests in simple oppositions. In epistemological terms, readers seek causal explanations for the asymmetries of the narrative, interpreting each to recover its history.

  16. Red, purple and pink: the colors of diffusion on pinterest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Bakhshi

    Full Text Available Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work-e.g. design of engaging image filters.

  17. Redox properties of an engineered purple Cu(A) azurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dapeng; Wang, Xiaotang; Davidson, Victor L

    2002-08-01

    Purple Cu(A) centers are a class of binuclear, mixed-valence copper complexes found in cytochrome c oxidase and nitrous oxide reductase. An engineered Cu(A) protein was formed by replacing a portion of the amino acid sequence that contains three of the ligands to the native type I copper center of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin with the corresponding portion of sequence from the Cu(A) center of cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 461]. Oxidation-reduction midpoint potential (E(m)) values of the Cu(A) azurin of +399+/-10 and +380+/-2mV, respectively, were determined by cyclic voltammetry and spectrochemical titration. An n value of one was obtained, indicating that the redox reaction is cycling between the mixed valence and the fully reduced states. Whereas the E(m) value of native azurin is pH dependent, the E(m) value of Cu(A) azurin is not, as expected for the Cu(A) center. Similarities and differences in the redox properties are discussed in terms of the known crystal structures of Cu(A) centers in cytochrome c oxidase and Cu(A) azurin.

  18. Purple Salt and Tiny Drops of Water in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Some meteorites, especially those called carbonaceous chondrites, have been greatly affected by reaction with water on the asteroids in which they formed. These reactions, which took place during the first 10 million years of the Solar System's history, formed assorted water-bearing minerals, but nobody has found any of the water that caused the alteration. Nobody, that is, until now. Michael Zolensky and team of scientists from the Johnson Space Center in Houston and Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, Virginia) discovered strikingly purple sodium chloride (table salt) crystals in two meteorites. The salt contains tiny droplets of salt water (with some other elements dissolved in it). The salt is as old as the Solar System, so the water trapped inside the salt is also ancient. It might give us clues to the nature of the water that so pervasively altered carbonaceous chondrites and formed oceans on Europa and perhaps other icy satellites. However, how the salt got into the two meteorites and how it trapped the water remains a mystery - at least for now.

  19. Tillage Effect on Organic Carbon in a Purple Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xue-Xia; GAO Ming; WEI Chao-Fu; XIE De-Ti; PAN Gen-Xing

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) based on a long-term experiment with various tillage systems were studied in a paddy soil derived from purple soil in Chongqing, China. Organic carbon storage in the 0-20and 0-40 cm soil layers under different tillage systems were in an order: ridge tillage with rice-rape rotation (RT-rr)> conventional tillage with rice only (CT-r) > ridge tillage with rice only (RT-r) > conventional tillage with rice-rape rotation (CT-rr). The RT-rr system had significantly higher levels of soil organic carbon in the 0-40 cm topsoil, while the proportion of the total remaining organic carbon in the total soil organic carbon in the 0-10 cm layer was greatest in the RT-rr system. This was the reason why the RT-rr system enhanced soil organic carbon storage. These showed that tillage system type was crucial for carbon storage. Carbon levels in soil humus and crop-yield results showed that the RT-rr system enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity. Adoption of this tillage system would be beneficial both for environmental protection and economic development.

  20. Total Monomeric Anthocyanin and Total Flavonoid Content of Processed Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potato Florentina Damşa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that processing change physical and chemical composition of foods, thus affecting the content in bioactive substances. Potatoes are almost always consumed after processing (baked, fried or boiled making it critical to understand the effect of such processing techniques on the containing in bioactive compounds. In order to determine the influence of processing on the content of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids was achieved the extraction of these compounds from boiled and baked purple potato tuber (Albastru-Violet de Galanesti variety. Also, in order to obtain the maximum amount of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids from processed potatoes was applied ultrasonic extraction (20 kHz and was performed the mathematical modeling (central composite design using SigmaXL software. The total anthocyanins content were determined spectrophotometrically by the pH differential method and the total flavonoids content were determine colorimetric by AlCl3 method. This study proves that the potato processing decreases the content of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids.

  1. Study on the Technology of Purple Yam and Purple Sweet Potato Noodles%紫淮山紫薯营养面条的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 杨君; 周妮妮; 张伟惠; 赖来展

    2014-01-01

    Powder was made by vacuum drying fresh purple yam.With purple yam powder,purple sweet potato powder and flour as the main raw material a new nutritional and heathy noodles was made.Through the combination of single-factor test and orthogonal test was used to determine noodle break rate,loss rate,and sensory evaluation value,the best formula of noodles was concluded.The results showed that the optimum compound for purple chinese yam and purple sweet potato noodle is flour amout 100 g,salt 1.5 g,purple yam powder 10%, purple sweet potato powder 5%, earrageenin 0.5%.Under the obove congditiongs, the noole break rate is 0 and the noodle loss rate is 8.25%,the product has good sensory properties,high nutrional value ,strong health fountion,it would have a broad market prospect.%用新鲜紫淮山通过真空干燥制得紫淮山粉。以紫淮山粉、紫薯粉、面粉为主要原料,研制成新型营养保健面条。采用单因素和正交试验相结合的方法测定面条的断条率、烹煮损失率和感官评价值,确定紫淮山紫薯面条的最佳加工工艺配方。结果表明:紫淮山紫薯面条的最佳配方为高筋面粉量100 g,食盐1.5 g,添加紫淮山粉10%,紫薯粉5%,卡拉胶0.50%。在此工艺条件下,面条断条率为0、烹煮损失率为8.25%,产品感官性状良好、营养价值高、保健作用强,具有广阔的市场前景。

  2. Effect of a light-induced pH gradient on purple-to-blue and purple-to-red transitions of bacteriorhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasuda-Kouyama, A.; Fukuda, K.; Iio, T.; Kouyama, T. (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-07-24

    Bacteriorhodopsin-containing vesicles that were able to alkalize the extravesicular medium by greater than 1.5 pH units under illumination, i.e., inside-out vesicles, were reconstituted by reverse-phase evaporation with Halobacterium halobium polar lipids or exogenous phospholipids. Acid titration of a dark-adapted sample was accompanied by a color change from purple to blue (pKa = 2.5-4.5 in 0.15 M K2SO4), and alkali titration resulted in the formation of a red species absorbing maximally at 480 nm (pKa = 7 to greater than 9), the pKa values and the extents of these color changes being dependent on the nature of lipid. When a vesicle suspension at neutral or weakly acidic pH was irradiated by continuous light so that a large pH gradient was generated across the membrane, either a purple-to-blue or a purple-to-red transition took place. The light-induced purple-to-red transition was significant in an unbuffered vesicle suspension and correlated with the pH change in the extravesicular medium. The result suggests that the purple-to-red transition is driven from the extravesicular side, i.e., from the C-terminal membrane surface. In the presence of buffer molecules outside, the dominant color change induced in the light was the purple-to-blue transition, which seemed to be due to a large decrease in the intravesicular pH. But an apparently inconsistent result was obtained when the extravesicular medium was acidified by a HCl pulse, which was accompanied by a rapid color change to blue. We arrived at the following explanation: The two bR isomers, one containing all-trans-retinal and the other 13-cis-retinal, respond differently to pH changes in the extravesicular and the intravesicular medium. In this relation, full light adaptation was not achieved when the light-induced purple-to-blue transition was significant.

  3. Effect of a light-induced pH gradient on purple-to-blue and purple-to-red transitions of bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuda-Kouyama, A; Fukuda, K; Iio, T; Kouyama, T

    1990-07-24

    Bacteriorhodopsin-containing vesicles that were able to alkalize the extravesicular medium by greater than 1.5 pH units under illumination, i.e., inside-out vesicles, were reconstituted by reverse-phase evaporation with Halobacterium halobium polar lipids or exogenous phospholipids. Acid titration of a dark-adapted sample was accompanied by a color change from purple to blue (pKa = 2.5-4.5 in 0.15 M K2SO4), and alkali titration resulted in the formation of a red species absorbing maximally at 480 nm (pKa = 7 to greater than 9), the pKa values and the extents of these color changes being dependent on the nature of lipid. When a vesicle suspension at neutral or weakly acidic pH was irradiated by continuous light so that a large pH gradient was generated across the membrane, either a purple-to-blue or a purple-to-red transition took place. The light-induced purple-to-red transition was significant in an unbuffered vesicle suspension and correlated with the pH change in the extravesicular medium. The result suggests that the purple-to-red transition is driven from the extravesicular side, i.e., from the C-terminal membrane surface. In the presence of buffer molecules outside, the dominant color change induced in the light was the purple-to-blue transition, which seemed to be due to a large decrease in the intravesicular pH. But an apparently inconsistent result was obtained when the extravesicular medium was acidified by a HCl pulse, which was accompanied by a rapid color change to blue. We arrived at the following explanation: The two bR isomers, one containing all-trans-retinal and the other 13-cis-retinal, respond differently to pH changes in the extravesicular and the intravesicular medium. In this relation, full light adaptation was not achieved when the light-induced purple-to-blue transition was significant; i.e., only the 13-cis isomer is likely to respond to a pH change at the N-terminal membrane surface.

  4. Back to the Wild

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    After decades of captive breeding,wild horses survive on their own in northwest China’s nature reserve Seven wild horses raised in captivity were released into the West Lake National Nature Reserve in Dunhuang,northwest China’s Gansu Province, on September 25, 2010.

  5. Comparison of loess and purple rill erosions measured with volume replacement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Huang, Yu-han; Zhao, Yu; Mo, Bin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2015-11-01

    Rills are commonly found on sloping farm fields in both the loess and the purple soil regions of China. A comparative study on rill erosion between the two soils is important to increase research knowledge and exchange application experiences. Rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils were determined through laboratory experiments with the volume replacement method. Water was used to refill the eroded rill segments to compute eroded volume before sediment concentration distribution along the rill was computed using the soil bulk density, flow rate, and water flow duration. The experimental loess soil materials were from the Loess Plateau and purple soil from the southwestern part of China, Chongqing City. A laboratory experimental platform was used to construct flumes to simulate rills with 12.0 m length, 0.1 m width, and 0.3 m depth. Soil materials were filled into the flumes at a bulk density of 1.2 g cm-3 to a depth of 20 cm to form rills for experiments on five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°) and three flow rates (2, 4, and 8 L/min). After each experimental run under the given slope gradient and flow rate, the rill segments from the upper slope between 0-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-3, …, 7-8, 8-10, and 10-12 m were lined with plastic sheets before be re-filled with water to determine sediment concentration after the eroded volumes was measured. Rill erosion differed between the two soils. As purple soil started to erode at a higher erosive force than loess soil, it possibly exhibits higher resistance to water erosion. The subsequent erosion process in the eroding purple rill was similar to that in the loess rill. However, the total erosion in the eroding loess rill was more than that in the eroding purple rill. The maximum sediment concentration transported by the eroding purple rills was significantly lower, approximately 55% of those transported by the loess rills under the same flow rate and slope gradient. Hence, less purple sediments can

  6. Understory flora and community physiognomy of planted forests in the degraded purple soil ecosystem, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUZhan-yuan; YUEYong-jie; GUOJian-fen; CHENGuang-shui; XIEJin-sheng; HEZong-ming; YANGYu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The flora and community physiognomy of degraded plantation ecosystems on purple soil were investigated in Ninghua County of Fujian Province, China to understand the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem processes.. Four different restoration communities (labeled as ecological restoration treatment I, II, Ill and IV) were selected by space-time replacement method according to the erosion intensity in degraded purple soil ecosystem. The results showed that there were totally 86 plant species belonging to 78 genera and 43 families in the degraded purple soil ecosystem. Of the 15 types of distribution area in spermatophyte genus, 12 types were found in the purple soil ecosystem. Along restoration gradient from low to high, plant growth type and life form spectra became abundant more and more, and the spermatophyte genera for each distribution area type and genera numbers for different foliage characters increased as well. It is concluded that the plant flora and physiognomy in ecological restoration process become more complex and diverse, indicating that the forest ecosystem on purple soil tends to be more stable.

  7. Wild, but not too-wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    von Essen, Erica; Allen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Rewilding is positioned as ‘post'-conservation through its emphasis on unleashing the autonomy of natural processes. In this paper, we argue that the autonomy of nature rhetoric in rewilding is challenged by human interventions. Instead of joining critique toward the ‘managed wilderness' approach of rewilding, however, we examine the injustices this entails for keystone species. Reintroduction case studies demonstrate how arbitrary standards for wildness are imposed on these animals as they d...

  8. Secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren aged 11-13 years during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Cristina; Rossetti, Paola; Baratta, Roberto; La Spina, Nadia; La Delfa, Lavinia; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Vigneri, Riccardo; Frittitta, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to gender and area of residence between two cohorts of students aged 11-13 years in Sicily. The analysis was performed on 1,839 schoolchildren, with 924 and 915 children being studied in 1999-2001 and 2009-2010, respectively. The children who were enrolled during 2009-2010 had significantly higher body mass indexes (BMI), BMI z-scores, and waist circumferences than the children who were studied during 1999-2001 (p<0.0001 for all); these differences was also observed when the cohort was subdivided according to gender or residence area The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 7.9% in 1999-2001 to 13.7% in 2009-2010 (p<0.0001), whereas thinness decreased significantly from 10.1% to 2.3% (p<0.0001) in the same periods. The increase of trends in the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in males (9.7% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.0006) than in females (6.3% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.04) and was slightly higher in urban areas (8.8% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.002) than in rural areas (7.8% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.012). The male gender was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese (odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence intervals: 1.24-2.15; p = 0.0005) in 2009-2010 than in 1999-2001, after adjusting for age and the residence area. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren during the last decade and that this trend was related to gender, age and the area of residence. More specifically, our data indicated that the prevalence of obesity increased by 5.8%, the prevalence of thinness decreased by 7.8% and the prevalence of normal-weight children did not change over the course of a decade. These results suggest a shift in the body weights of Sicilian children toward the upper percentiles.

  9. Secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren aged 11-13 years during the last decade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Parrino

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to gender and area of residence between two cohorts of students aged 11-13 years in Sicily. The analysis was performed on 1,839 schoolchildren, with 924 and 915 children being studied in 1999-2001 and 2009-2010, respectively. The children who were enrolled during 2009-2010 had significantly higher body mass indexes (BMI, BMI z-scores, and waist circumferences than the children who were studied during 1999-2001 (p<0.0001 for all; these differences was also observed when the cohort was subdivided according to gender or residence area The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 7.9% in 1999-2001 to 13.7% in 2009-2010 (p<0.0001, whereas thinness decreased significantly from 10.1% to 2.3% (p<0.0001 in the same periods. The increase of trends in the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in males (9.7% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.0006 than in females (6.3% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.04 and was slightly higher in urban areas (8.8% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.002 than in rural areas (7.8% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.012. The male gender was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese (odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence intervals: 1.24-2.15; p = 0.0005 in 2009-2010 than in 1999-2001, after adjusting for age and the residence area. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren during the last decade and that this trend was related to gender, age and the area of residence. More specifically, our data indicated that the prevalence of obesity increased by 5.8%, the prevalence of thinness decreased by 7.8% and the prevalence of normal-weight children did not change over the course of a decade. These results suggest a shift in the body weights of Sicilian children toward the upper percentiles.

  10. Seroprevalence of Sandfly‐Borne Phleboviruses Belonging to Three Serocomplexes (Sandfly fever Naples, Sandfly fever Sicilian and Salehabad) in Dogs from Greece and Cyprus Using Neutralization Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwassouf, Sulaf; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Bichaud, Laurence; Ntais, Pantelis; Mazeris, Apostolos; Antoniou, Maria; Charrel, Remi N.

    2016-01-01

    Phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies are endemic in the Mediterranean area. The last decade has witnessed the description of an accumulating number of novel viruses. Although, the risk of exposure of vertebrates is globally assessed, detailed geographic knowledge is poor even in Greece and Cyprus where sandfly fever has been recognized for a long time and repeatedly. A total of 1,250 dogs from mainland Greece and Greek archipelago on one hand and 422 dogs from Cyprus on the other hand have been sampled and tested for neutralising antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV), Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV), Arbia virus, and Adana virus i.e. four viruses belonging to the 3 sandfly-borne serocomplexes known to circulate actively in the Mediterranean area. Our results showed that (i) SFSV is highly prevalent with 71.9% (50.7–84.9% depending on the region) in Greece and 60.2% (40.0–72.6%) in Cyprus; (ii) TOSV ranked second with 4.4% (0–15.4%) in Greece and 8.4% (0–11.4%) in Cyprus; (iii) Salehabad viruses (Arbia and Adana) displayed also substantial prevalence rates in both countries with values ranging from 0–22.6% depending on the region and on the virus strain used in the test. These results demonstrate that circulation of viruses transmitted by sand flies can be estimated qualitatively using dog sera. As reported in other regions of the Mediterranean, these results indicate that it is time to shift these viruses from the "neglected" status to the "priority" status in order to stimulate studies aiming at defining and quantifying their medical and veterinary importance and possible public health impact. Specifically, viruses belonging to the Sandfly fever Sicilian complex should be given careful consideration. This calls for implementation of direct and indirect diagnosis in National reference centers and in hospital microbiology laboratories and systematic testing of unelucidated febrile illness and central and peripheral nervous system febrile

  11. Screening for resistance to purple seed stain Cercospora kikuchii by seed inoculation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.H.; Oh, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to establish a mass-screening technique for resistance to purple seed stain disease in soybean. Seeds sterilized in 1 : 10,000 mercuric chloride for 1 minute and transferred to Petridishes containing 20ml water agar plus 50 ppM of the sodium salt of 2,4-D were inoculated by placing a small agar cube containing fungal mycelium on the seed coat of each seed. A positive correlation betweeen natural infection of purple seed stain and purple discoloration by seed inoculation technique was highly significant and by this technique, some native soybean collections and introduced varieties were tested for resistance to the disease. Most of the soybean varieties tested were susceptible except for the varieties Hill, Harosoy and Sac, resistant comparatively.

  12. Purple urine bag syndrome in end-stage chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Delgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When faced with violet, purple or purplish-blue urine, clinicians should consider urinary tract infection in their differential diagnosis. Case report: A 60-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease and non-adherence to renal replacement therapy was admitted to our hospital for placement of hemodialysis catheter. During her hospitalization she had purple urine, and purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS was diagnosed. She was effectively treated with antibiotics and her urine returned to a dark yellow color. Discussion: Although this condition is often easily treated, diagnosing PUBS in chronic renal patients probably means an increased serum concentration of indoxyl sulfate, metabolite that is involved in the progression of both CKD and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Hence, in the context of our renal patients, perhaps PUBS is not as benign as supposed.

  13. Ambipolar organic field effect transistors and inverters with the natural material Tyrian Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Daniel Głowacki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambipolar organic semiconductors enable complementary-like circuits in organic electronics. Here we show promising electron and hole transport properties in the natural pigment Tyrian Purple (6,6’-dibromoindigo. X-ray diffraction of Tyrian Purple films reveals a highly-ordered structure with a single preferential orientation, attributed to intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This material, with a band gap of ∼1.8 eV, demonstrates high hole and electron mobilities of 0.22 cm2/V·s and 0.03 cm2/V·s in transistors, respectively; and air-stable operation. Inverters with gains of 250 in the first and third quadrant show the large potential of Tyrian Purple for the development of integrated organic electronic circuits.

  14. Characteristics of Phosphorous Adsorption and Desorption by Organo-Mineral Colloidal Complexes of Purple Paddy Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of P adsorption and desorption by organo-mineral colloidal complexes (OMC)were studied using acid, calcareous and neutral purple paddy soils taken from Chongqing and Sichuan, China.The results showed that the P adsorption capacity of the organo-mineral colloidal complexes differed with the soil types, being higher for the acid and calcareous purple soils than for the neutral purple soils. Partial removal of the organic matter increased the adsorption capacity of the colloidal complexes. A very significant positive correlation was found between the amounts of P desorbed from OMC and the P saturation degrees.The P adsorption reaction was quick at the early stage and slowed later. The raise of temperature increased P adsorption capacity and P adsorption rate of the colloidal complexes. The adsorption processes could be described by the Elovich equation.

  15. Zonal Distribution of the Erosion-Landslide and Soil Micromorphological Features in Purple Hilly Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yurong; LIAO Chaolin; XU Pei; ZHANG Baohua

    2005-01-01

    In the purple hilly region, erosions and landslides are all serious, and it is of great scientific value and practical significance to study their formation mechanism and distribution features there.In this paper, soil micromorphological methods and techniques were used to study the erosion zonal distribution in the region. The results indicated: (1)According to erosion process, the spacial distribution zones of the erosions and landslides in the purple hilly region with different solums were divided into scouring erosion zone, transport-diffusion zone, rocks and soil turbulence zone and sediment-bury zone; (2)The soil micromorphologic taxonomic feature identifying different erosion-landslide zone were found by studying the soil micromorphology of erosive zone in purple hilly region; (3) As for the erosion-landslide formation in the region, besides the external factors, the internal factors were found more important and favorable for landslide formation through the studies on the mieormorphological features of slide soil.

  16. Expression Analysis of Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Grains of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Sen LIU; Fang WANG; Yu-Xiu DONG; Xian-Sheng ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The grain color of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important characteristic in crop production.Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes (DFR) encode the key enzyme dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, which is involved in the pigmentation of plant tissues. To investigate the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin deposition in grains of wheat, we determined the expression of the wheat DFR gene in purple grains of cultivar Heimai 76. The results showed that DFR transcripts were localized in the seed coat of purple grains rather than in the pericarp, whereas anthocyanins were accumulated in both tissues of purple grains,suggesting that anthocyanin deposition was mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of the TaDFR-A gene in Arabidopsis showed that TaDFR-A was responsible for the pigmentation of Arabidopsis plant tissues, indicating TaDFR-A gene has the same role in Arabidopsis.

  17. Solid-state NMR studies of bacteriorhodopsin and the purple membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, A J

    2001-01-01

    proteins. This technique may prove particularly useful when studying large proteins that are difficult to orient where the MAS lineshapes will remain relatively unaffected in comparison with current static NMR methods. Finally the MAOSS method was extended to the study of the lipid components of the purple membrane and the feasibility of determining structural constraints from phospholipid headgroups was assessed. The potential of using sup 3 sup 1 P NMR to observe qualitative protein-lipid interactions in both the purple membrane and reconstituted membranes containing bovine rhodopsin was also demonstrated. Following the demonstration of a new MAS NMR method for resolving orientational constraints in uni-axially oriented biological membranes (Glaubitz and Watts, 1998), experiments were performed to realise the potential of the new method on large, oriented membrane proteins. Using bacteriorhodopsin in the purple membrane as a paradigm for large membrane proteins, the protein was specifically labelled with de...

  18. Effect of the Purple Corn Beverage “Chicha Morada” in Composite Resin during Dental Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Eric Dario; Delgado-Cotrina, Leyla; Rumiche, Francisco Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    During dental bleaching the staining potential of the surface would increase. This study aims to evaluate the staining susceptibility of one bleached composite resin after the exposure to three different beverages: Peruvian purple corn based beverage (chicha morada), green tea, and distilled water. Thirty disk-shaped specimens of one nanofill composite resin were prepared. The specimens were then divided into six groups (n = 5): purple corn (P), purple corn + bleaching (PB), green tea (T), green tea + bleaching (TB), distilled water (W), and distilled water + bleaching (WB). In groups that received bleaching, two sessions of bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide were done. Following bleaching, specimens were exposed to each liquid thirty minutes daily. Color was measured with a digital spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, color measurement differences between the obtained results were used: during bleaching, after bleaching, and during + after bleaching. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the color changes in the resins of all groups (p 3.3). PMID:27034897

  19. 紫山药紫甘薯保健酸乳的开发研究%Research and Development on Purple Sweet Potato and Purple Yam Acidophilus Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆新; 袁书林

    2012-01-01

    以紫山药、紫甘薯和牛乳为原料,研发出一种集营养与保健作用为一体的新型保健饮料——紫山药紫甘薯保健酸乳;对其生产过程中的护色、发酵原料配比和发酵工艺参数分别进行了正交试验筛选。结果表明:紫山药紫甘薯最佳护色条件为柠檬酸0.4%、维生素C1.3%、氯化钙f1.30%,护色时间2h;发酵原料最佳配比V(为紫山药原浆):V(紫甘薯原浆)=2:1、原料乳的添加量为25%、糖的添加量为4%;最佳发酵工艺参数为发酵时间7h、发酵温度43℃、接种量4%。%Purple yam, purple sweet potato and milk as raw materials, "Purple Sweet Potato and Purple Yam Acidophilus Milk"--a new type of healthy drink was developed. The craft of protecting color, the ratio of raw material and ferrtaentation process parameters were optimized by the orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimal protecting color conditions were citric acid 0.4%, vitamin C 1.3%, calcium chloride 0.30%, protect color time 2 h; the optimal ratio of raw material were purple yam juice : purple sweet potato=2 : 1, the raw milk 25%, sucrose 4%. The optimal fermentation process parameters were fermentation time 7 h, fermentation temperature 43℃, inoculation concentration 4%.

  20. Transcriptional activation of a MYB gene controls the tissue-specific anthocyanin accumulation in a purple cauliflower mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonoids such as anthocyanins possess significant health benefits to humans and play important physiological roles in plants. An interesting Purple gene mutation in cauliflower confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, giving intense purple color in very young leaves, curds, and see...

  1. First report of purple coneflower phyllody associated with a 16SrI-B phytoplasma in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench) is a flowering perennial plant native to North America and widely grown as an ornamental flower. During the summers of 1994 and 2007, purple coneflower plants in Maryland sporadically exhibited symptoms resembling those caused by phytoplasma infect...

  2. [Characteristics of Adsorption Leaching and Influencing Factors of Dimethyl Phthalate in Purple Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Song, Jiao-yan; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fa

    2016-02-15

    The typical soil-purple soil in Three Gorges Reservoir was the tested soil, the characteristics of adsorption leaching of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in contaminated water by the soil, and the influencing factors in the process were conducted using soil column leaching experiment. The results showed that the parabolic equation was the best equation describing adsorption kinetics of DMP by soils. The concentration of DMP in the leaching solution had significant effect on the adsorption amounts of DMP. With the increasing concentration of DMP in the leaching solution, the adsorption capacities of DMP by purple soil increased linearly. The ionic strength and pH in leaching solution had significant effects on adsorption of DMP. On the whole, increasing of the ionic strength restrained the adsorption. The adsorption amounts at pH 5.0-7.0 were more than those under other pH condition. The addition of exogenous organic matter (OM) in purple soil increased the adsorption amount of DMP by purple soil. However, the adsorption amount was less than those with other addition amounts of exogenous OM when the addition of exogenous OM was too high (> or = 30 g x kg(-1)). The addition of surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (SDBS) in purple soil increased the adsorption amount of DMP by purple soil. The adsorption amount was maximal when the addition amount of SDBS was 50 mg x kg(-1). However, the adsorption amounts decreased with increasing addition amounts of SDBS although the adsorption amounts were still more than that of the control group, and the adsorption amount was almost equal to that of the control group when the addition amount of SDBS was 800 mg x kg(-1). Continuous leaching time affected the vertical distribution of DMP in the soil column. When the leaching time was shorter, the upper soil column adsorbed more DMP, while the DMP concentrations in upper and lower soil columns became similar with the extension of leaching time.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Key Candidate Genes Mediating Purple Ovary Coloration in Asiatic Hybrid Lilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leifeng; Yang, Panpan; Yuan, Suxia; Feng, Yayan; Xu, Hua; Cao, Yuwei; Ming, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Lily tepals have a short lifespan. Once the tepals senesce, the ornamental value of the flower is lost. Some cultivars have attractive purple ovaries and fruits which greatly enhance the ornamental value of Asiatic hybrid lilies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. To investigate the transcriptional network that governs purple ovary coloration in Asiatic hybrid lilies, we obtained transcriptome data from green ovaries (S1) and purple ovaries (S2) of Asiatic “Tiny Padhye”. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 4228 differentially expressed genes. Differential expression analysis revealed that ten unigenes including four CHS genes, one CHI gene, one F3H gene, one F3′H gene, one DFR gene, one UFGT gene, and one 3RT gene were significantly up-regulated in purple ovaries. One MYB gene, LhMYB12-Lat, was identified as a key transcription factor determining the distribution of anthocyanins in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. Further qPCR results showed unigenes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed in purple ovaries of three purple-ovaried Asiatic hybrid lilies at stages 2 and 3, while they showed an extremely low level of expression in ovaries of three green-ovaried Asiatic hybrid lilies during all developmental stages. In addition, shading treatment significantly decreased pigment accumulation by suppressing the expression of several unigenes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in ovaries of Asiatic “Tiny Padhye”. Lastly, a total of 15,048 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were identified in 13,710 sequences, and primer pairs for SSRs were designed. The results could further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. PMID:27879624

  4. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  5. Monolateral purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a constellation of findings resulting in purple discoloration of the urine and/or urine drainage bag(s) occurring in patients with long-term urinary indwelling catheters. Other causative factors may include constipation, female gender, the presence of bacteria containing sulphatase and phosphatase enzymes, and alkaline urine. While the contributing factors for PUBS are linked with high morbidity, PUBS itself is a benign condition. A case study of monolateral PUBS in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes (NTs) is presented.

  6. Production of purple potato mackerel balls%紫薯鲐鱼鱼丸的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2015-01-01

    Fish ball is popular among consumers for its deliciousness, nutritiousness and conven-ience. The mackerel and purple potato were taken as main raw materials to make fish balls. Through the quality evaluation,the effect of purple potato mackerel ball was satisfying.%鱼丸以其美味、营养与便捷倍受消费者青睐. 本文以紫薯和鲐鱼为主要原料试制紫薯鲐鱼丸,紫薯鲐鱼丸产品经质量评价,效果令人满意.

  7. First Results from the Relocated and Enhanced Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, R.; Argall, P. S.; Bandoro, J.; Khanna, J.; McCullough, E. M.; Sica, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Western Ontario's Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) has been in near continuous operation since 1993 and routinely measures temperature from 10 km to above 100 km, water vapor mixing ratio in the troposphere and stratosphere, as well as aerosol products. The PCL was recently relocated to a new custom-built, environmentally friendly facility at Western's Environmental Research Station located 9 km north of the campus. The PCL move allowed the opportunity for many new and exciting instrumentation upgrades and improvements. Our new transmitter, a Litron Nd:YAG laser, produces 1000 mJ/pulse at 532 nm with a 30 Hz repetition rate (i.e. 30 W). This new laser increases our transmitter power by 2.5 times compared to our previous laser and boosts the PCL's power-aperture product to 160 W/m2. We have also upgraded the counting electronics to improve the vertical height resolution of our Rayleigh temperature from 24 m to 7.5 m and our water vapour, vibrational Raman temperature, and aerosol measurements from 250 m to 24 m. As well, the system is now capable of automatic alignment during operations. The water vapor measurements have been further improved by the addition of a white light calibration source. We are in the process of upgrading the system for more direct aerosol measurements by including a low altitude aerosol channel using a small co-aligned telescope. The enhanced system will have two major impacts on upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere science. First, our new laser will allow our temperature measurements to gain another 10 km in altitude, pushing them at times above 110 km. Second, due to the new inversion method developed by Khanna (2011), an assumption of a seed pressure at the top of the atmosphere will no longer be required, so any systematic retrieval uncertainties will be less than the measurement statistical uncertainty in the lower thermosphere. With the seeding of the temperature profiles now done at the lowest heights (i.e. stratosphere), the

  8. Evaluation of maturity group III soybean lines for resistance to purple seed stain in Mississippi, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple seed stain (PSS) of soybean is an important disease caused by Cercospora kikuchii. PSS reduces seed quality and market grade, affects seed germination and vigor, and has been reported wherever soybeans are grown worldwide. In 2009, PSS caused 6.4 million bushels of yield losses in 16 southern...

  9. Evaluation of maturity group IV soybean lines for resistance to purple seed stains in Mississippi 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple seed stain (PSS) of soybean is an important disease caused by Cercospora kikuchii. PSS reduces seed quality and market grade, affects seed germination and vigor, and has been reported wherever soybeans are grown worldwide. In 2009, PSS caused 6.4 million bushels of yield losses in 16 southern...

  10. Reaction of maturity group V soybean lines to purple seed stains in Mississippi 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, soybean purple seed stain (PSS) caused 6.4 million bushels of yield losses in 16 southern states. This disease severely reduces seed market grade and affects seed germination and vigor. PSS is caused by Cercospora kikuchii and is an economy important disease. To identify new sources of resi...

  11. Inheritance of and molecular markers for purple seed stain resistance in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple seed stain (PSS) caused by Cercospora kikuchii, is an important disease of soybean, causing seed quality deterioration. Use of genetic resistance is the most practical and economical way to control the disease. The objectives of this research were to investigate the inheritance of resistance...

  12. Peter Wilcox: A new purple-skin, yellow flesh fresh market potato cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Wilcox is a new, medium-maturing, purple-skin, yellow-flesh potato cultivar for fresh market. Peter Wilcox also produces light-colored chips, although it is being released primarily as a fresh market potato because of its skin and flesh colors. Tubers of Peter Wilcox are attractive, smooth, wi...

  13. A View from the Mountain Top: The Purple Mountain Observatory Library, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the author's experience directing the Purple Mountain Observatory Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in Nanjing, China. Routine collection development, management and preservation issues are described, and the unique challenges and opportunities involved in operating a remote observatory library are highlighted.

  14. Analytic Reading of The Color Purple the Death and Rebirth of Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋少华

    2008-01-01

    The Color Purple for the first time not only reveals the racial and sexual discrimination but also tells those oppressed black women the way to solve it. The paper is trying to analyze the work from the heroines (their main experiences and connections with each other), the linguistic arts and the motifs, etc.

  15. Spectroscopy of Single Light-Harvesting Complexes from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria at 1.2 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, A.M. van; Ketelaars, M.; Köhler, J.; Aartsma, T.J.; Schmidt, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first observation of the fluorescence-excitation spectra of individual light-harvesting complexes (LH2) from purple photosynthetic bacteria at 1.2 K. The spectra reveal the electronic transitions to the individual excitonic states of the assembly of absorbing

  16. Effect of the Purple Corn Beverage "Chicha Morada" in Composite Resin during Dental Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Eric Dario; Delgado-Cotrina, Leyla; Rumiche, Francisco Aurelio; Tay, Lidia Yileng

    2016-01-01

    During dental bleaching the staining potential of the surface would increase. This study aims to evaluate the staining susceptibility of one bleached composite resin after the exposure to three different beverages: Peruvian purple corn based beverage (chicha morada), green tea, and distilled water. Thirty disk-shaped specimens of one nanofill composite resin were prepared. The specimens were then divided into six groups (n = 5): purple corn (P), purple corn + bleaching (PB), green tea (T), green tea + bleaching (TB), distilled water (W), and distilled water + bleaching (WB). In groups that received bleaching, two sessions of bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide were done. Following bleaching, specimens were exposed to each liquid thirty minutes daily. Color was measured with a digital spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, color measurement differences between the obtained results were used: during bleaching, after bleaching, and during + after bleaching. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the color changes in the resins of all groups (p composite resin regardless of the bleaching procedure. However, purple corn was the only beverage that caused a perceptible color change (ΔE > 3.3).

  17. Spectroscopy of Single Light-Harvesting Complexes from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria at 1.2 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, A.M. van; Ketelaars, M.; Köhler, J.; Aartsma, T.J.; Schmidt, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first observation of the fluorescence-excitation spectra of individual light-harvesting complexes (LH2) from purple photosynthetic bacteria at 1.2 K. The spectra reveal the electronic transitions to the individual excitonic states of the assembly of absorbing bacterioch

  18. Construction and characterization of an azurin analog for the purple copper site in cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M; Richards, J H; Lu, Y

    1996-01-09

    A protein analog of a purple copper center has been constructed from a recombinant blue copper protein (Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin) by replacing the loop containing the three ligands to the blue copper center with the corresponding loop of the CuA center in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from Paracoccus denitrificans. The electronic absorption in the UV and visible region (UV-vis) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of this analog are remarkably similar to those of the native CuA center in COX from Paracoccus denitrificans. The above spectra can be obtained upon addition of a mixture of Cu2+ and Cu+. Addition of Cu2+ only results in a UV-vis spectrum consisting of absorptions from both a purple copper center and a blue copper center. This spectrum can be converted to the spectrum of a pure purple copper by a prolonged incubation in the air, or by addition of excess ascorbate. The azurin mutant reported here is an example of an engineered purple copper center with the A480/A530 ratio greater than 1 and with no detectable hyperfines, similar to those of the CuA sites in COX of bovine heart and of Paracoccus denitrificans.

  19. 50 CFR 21.45 - Depredation order for depredating purple gallinules in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depredation order for depredating purple gallinules in Louisiana. 21.45 Section 21.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE...

  20. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  1. Literary Techniques Employed to Develop Celie's Character in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚妍

    2014-01-01

    In 1982, Alice Walker's The Color Purple, was published and became one of the best sellers. As the novel progressed, Celie's acquiescent behavior transformed into one of resilience and dignity. By incorporating the literary techniques of tone, symbolism, and juxtaposition into her novel, Alice Walker was able to develop Celie's character, emphasizing her progression from subservience to independence.

  2. Alexandrite-like effect in purple flowers analyzed with newly devised round RGB diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasajima, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    The gemstone alexandrite is known for its feature to change color depending on the spectral quality of the incident light. Thus, the stone looks green when illuminated by white LED light but looks red when illuminated by incandescent light. This effect (alexandrite effect) is caused by a special relationship between the spectral quality of the incident light and the absorbance spectrum of the stone. Here we report an alexandrite-like effect in the petals of torenia and cyclamen flowers. These flowers are purple in sunlight but magenta (reddish) in incandescent light, and violet (bluish purple) in white LED light. The m-n, triangle and round diagrams are devised to calculate the colors of visible light spectra, based on the RGB color-matching function. Using these calculations, the alexandrite-like effect in purple flowers was successfully analyzed in terms of the interaction between the incident light spectrum and the absorbance spectrum of their purple anthocyanin. This analysis allows both logical and intuitive understanding of the colors exhibited by any object showing alexandrite–like properties.

  3. LC-PDA-EIS/MSn identification of new anthocyanins in purple radish (Raphanus sativus L. variety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An LC-PDA-ESI/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the anthocyanins of purple Bordeaux radish. This study identified 57 anthocyanins: 23 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 12 acylated cyanidin 3-(glucosylacyl) acylsophoroside-5-diglucosides, and 22 acylated cyanid...

  4. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...

  5. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. as dentin hypersensitivity desensitization gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariza Hanum Mayvita Iskandar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is a short sharp sense of pain in the teeth when exposed to excitatory stimulus. A total of 74% of world population experiencing dentin hypersensitivity. Home treatment topical desensitization is rarely found in Indonesia. The use of dentrifice is less practical because it must be done with regular brushing. Indonesia has abundant natural resources, one of which is purple sweet potato. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. has highest potasium ions compared to other foodstuffs. Potassium ions can be a solution of dentin hypersensitivity by temporary blocking the suffix pulp nerve impulses. Purpose: The research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the 10% purple sweet potato extract gel of the dental pain threshold score. Method: An experimental study carried out by dental pain threshold score measurements using vitality tester into the teeth with gum recession. Samples included 32 respondents with a single blind and pre-post test control group design. They were divided into treatment group and negative control group. Paired T-test and Wilcoxon were used as data analysis. Result: The results showed dental pain threshold score increasing either in treatment group and negative control, although not as significant as in the treatment group. Conclusion: 10% purple sweet potato extract gel containing potassium ions is able to reduce the pain of dentin hypersensitivity.

  6. Purple Computational Environment With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, B; Shuler, J

    2006-08-21

    Purple is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Purple Computational Environment documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY06 LLNL Level 1 General Availability Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories, but also documents needs of the LLNL and Alliance users working in the unclassified environment. Additionally, the Purple Computational Environment maps the provided capabilities to the Trilab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the General Availability user environment capabilities of the ASC community. Appendix A lists these requirements and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met for each section of this document. The Purple Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the Tri-lab community.

  7. Into the urban wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollee, Eefke Maria; Pouliot, Mariéve; McDonald, Morag A.

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many people depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. While urbanisation causes landscape changes, little is known of how this process affects the use of wild plant resources by urban populations. This study contributes to addressing this knowledge gap by exploring...... the prevalence and determinants of urban collectors of wild plants in Kampala, Uganda. During February to August 2015, 93 structured interviews were conducted in inner, outer, and peri-urban areas of the city. The findings in this study show that urban wild plants are used by almost half (47%) of the respondents......, mainly for medicinal purposes but also as a complement to diets. The findings further indicate that residents with lower income, of younger age (urban areas are more likely to be urban collectors. Seasonality appears to be of greater importance...

  8. 紫薯挂面加工工艺研究%Processing Technology of Vermicelli with Purple Sweet Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑建伟; 谢新华; 李巍

    2014-01-01

    以小麦粉和紫薯为主要原料,采用以紫薯泥代替紫薯淀粉的方法,对紫薯挂面的制作工艺进行研究。通过正交试验确定了生产紫薯挂面的最佳配方为紫薯与小麦粉比例3∶7、水添加量31%和谷朊粉添加量1.5%。用此配方生产的紫薯挂面色泽鲜艳,具有紫薯特有的香味,断条率低,口感良好,营养丰富。%Taking wheat flour and purple sweet potato as raw material, new technology of adding purple mashed potatoes instead of purple sweet potato starch was applied to study production process of purple sweet potato vermicelli. Optimum parameters of vermicelli with purple sweet potato were confirmed by orthogonal experiment.Results showed that ratio of purple sweet potato to wheat flour was 3∶7, water was 31%, wheat gluten was 1.5%.Product had bright color, special purple sweet potato flavor, low rate of broken bars, good taste and rich in nutrition.

  9. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the Globally Integrated Spectral Variability of the Archean Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  10. Research on yogurt with purple potato%紫薯酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹瑾; 程缘; 韩翠萍; 刘玲; 崔娜; 李刚; 王楠楠

    2012-01-01

    With fresh milk, fresh purple sweet potato as the main raw material, add streptococcus thermophilus and Bulgaria coli to make yogurt-Processing condition of the yogurt mixed purple sweet potato were studied. By single—factor test and orthogonal test to determine the optimal technological parameters of the production of purple sweet potato yogurt. Results show that the optimal fermentation parameters as: ratio of purple sweet potato and fresh milk is 1:4, inoculum is 4%, fermentation temperature is 37 ℃, fermentation time is 12 h, the amount of sugar added to 9%.Under the condition, the yogurt is lavender, uniform texture, aroma and rich, with a purple sweet potato lactic add bacteria fermented yoghurt aroma. The yogurt has a sweet and delicious taste with delicate, soft.%以鲜牛奶,新鲜紫薯为主要原料,添加嗜热链球菌和保加利亚乳杆菌,研究搅拌型紫薯酸奶的加工工艺条件.通过单因素试验和正交试验确定制作紫薯酸奶的最佳工艺参数.结果表明,紫薯与鲜牛奶的比例为1∶4,接种量为4%,发酵温度37℃,发酵时间为12 h,白砂糖添加量为9%.此条件下制作的酸奶呈淡紫色,质地均匀一致,具有紫薯和浓郁的乳酸菌发酵酸奶的香味,酸甜可口,口感细腻,柔和.

  11. Hunting the Wild Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Scientists and volunteers plan a new Shennongjia exploration for Bigfoot After being shelved for many years, a plan to search for the wild man in the Shennongjia forestry district is once again under way. This time, scientists want to raise as much as 10 million yuan ($1.6 million) to employ advanced technology and recruit staff worldwide for the project.

  12. William Wilde: Historian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, L

    2016-05-01

    This essay attempts to assess William Wilde as a social historian. It examines some of his contributions to the discipline of history and looks particularly at 'The food of the Irish', which was published in the Dublin University Magazine in February 1854.

  13. Wild ideas in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münke, Christopher; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Foraging for all manner of wild plants, animals and fungi and their products makes up part of the traditional diets of approximately 300 million worldwide (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Furthermore, their relevance in the global food supply is often underestimated, as policies and statistics at nat...

  14. Using a kairomone-based attracting system to enhance biological control of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae by Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae in Sicilian vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Mansour

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The “potato trap” technique was applied for the fi rst time in Italian (Sicily vineyards in an attempt to assess: a the impact of the kairomonal activity of the vine mealybug sex pheromone (S-(+-lavandulyl senecioate (LS on the parasitism of mealybugs by the encyrtid Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci, b the influence of two commonly used insecticides on the parasitization activity of A. sp. near pseudococci towards mealybugs, and c the efficiency of the release of A. sp. near pseudococci in enhancing parasitism rates of mealybugs. The number of captured A. sp. near pseudococci females in LS baited traps was significantly higher than that in unbaited traps. The minimal number of days for the first parasitoid emergence in LS baited traps was almost 3 days earlier, compared to unbaited control, suggesting a faster host detection by the encyrtid when LS is applied. These findings resulted in a significant increase in parasitism of mealybugs by A. sp. near pseudococci in LS baited traps relative to unbaited traps suggesting that the LS is used by the encyrtid as kairomone to ensure greater potential for host searching activity. Insecticide treatments significantly affected parasitization activity of A. sp. near pseudococci on mealybugs when compared to an untreated control with parasitoid release. The buprofezin, chlorpyriphos-methyl and untreated control with no parasitoid release treatments had statistically similar numbers of emerged parasitoids from exposed mealybugs. The obtained results provide evidence that, in the absence of conventional insecticides applications, the use of the LS could be a promising tool to improve and strengthen biological control of mealybugs by A. sp. near pseudococci within Sicilian vineyard conditions.

  15. Enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins gene in purple-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Seyeon; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yun-Hee; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is an important root crop that produces low molecular weight antioxidants such as carotenoids and anthocyanin. The sweetpotato orange (IbOr) protein is involved in the accumulation of carotenoids. To increase the levels of carotenoids in the storage roots of sweetpotato, we generated transgenic sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in an anthocyanin-rich purple-fleshed cultivar (referred to as IbOr plants). IbOr plants exhibited increased carotenoid levels (up to 7-fold) in their storage roots compared to wild type (WT) plants, as revealed by HPLC analysis. The carotenoid contents of IbOr plants were positively correlated with IbOr transcript levels. The levels of zeaxanthin were ∼ 12 times elevated in IbOr plants, whereas β-carotene increased ∼ 1.75 times higher than those of WT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that most carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes were up-regulated in the IbOr plants, including PDS, ZDS, LCY-β, CHY-β, ZEP and Pftf, whereas LCY-ɛ was down-regulated. Interestingly, CCD1, CCD4 and NCED, which are related to the degradation of carotenoids, were also up-regulated in the IbOr plants. Anthocyanin contents and transcription levels of associated biosynthetic genes seemed to be altered in the IbOr plants. The yields of storage roots and aerial parts of IbOr plants and WT plants were not significantly different under field cultivation. Taken together, these results indicate that overexpression of IbOr-Ins can increase the carotenoid contents of sweetpotato storage roots.

  16. VDBP, CYP27B1, and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Gene Polymorphism Analyses in a Group of Sicilian Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, L; Scazzone, C; Lo Sasso, B; Bellia, C; Bivona, G; Realmuto, S; Brighina, F; Schillaci, R; Ragonese, P; Salemi, G; Ciaccio, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of central nervous system regarded as one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults. The exact etiology of MS is not yet known, although epidemiological data indicate that both genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure are involved. A poor vitamin D status has been proposed as the most attractive environmental factor. Several evidence have highlighted the importance of mutations in vitamin D-regulating genes for vitamin D status. The purpose of our study was to assess the genetic variants of VDBP and CYP27B1 in MS patients and in a control group. A total of 192 subjects, including 100 MS patients and 92 healthy controls, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in MS patients and controls by high-performance liquid chromatography. We did not observe any statically significant difference in the distribution of genotypic VDBP variants between the study groups. 25(OH)D plasma levels were significantly higher in the control group versus MS patients; MS patients who carried Gc2 showed lower 25(OH)D plasma levels and those who carried Gc1f showed higher levels. We observed only wild-type allele for CYP27B1 mutations analyzed both in MS patients and in the control group. In conclusion, our findings do not support a role of an independent effect of the investigated vitamin D-related gene variants, VDBP and CYP27B1, in the risk of MS.

  17. Low-concentration, continuous brachial plexus block in the management of Purple Glove Syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Purple Glove Syndrome is a devastating complication of intravenous phenytoin administration. Adequate analgesia and preservation of limb movement for physiotherapy are the two essential components of management. Case presentation A 26-year-old Tamil woman from India developed Purple Glove Syndrome after intravenous administration of phenytoin. She was managed conservatively by limb elevation, physiotherapy and oral antibiotics. A 20G intravenous cannula was inserted into...

  18. Assessment of Input-Output Transformation in Purple Passion Fruit Production in Central-Eastern and North-Rift, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Macharia; Maina Mwangi

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing economic importance of purple passion fruit in Kenya. The primary objective of this study was to assess the input-output transformation process in purple passion fruit production in Central-Eastern and North-Rift Kenya in order to identify avenues for improving and sustaining productivity. Cross-sectional data from 123 multistage sampled farmers was collected using a structured questionnaire, which was subjected to stochastic frontier in STATA 1...

  19. Wild ideas in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münke, Christopher; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Foraging for all manner of wild plants, animals and fungi and their products makes up part of the traditional diets of approximately 300 million worldwide (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Furthermore, their relevance in the global food supply is often underestimated, as policies and statistics...... at national and regional levels tend to neglect their importance for food sovereignty and food culture (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Foraged plants often grow spontaneously and many exist independent of human interaction (Heywood, 1999)...

  20. Hibiscus and Wild Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Woodcut artist Zheng Shuang convinces the audience through her display of poetic emotion Benefiting from training in watercoior paintings early in life, strict literary sketch training as well, as 10 years study at the Central Academy of Fine Aris, Zheng has mare than 30 years teaching experience at the Ouangzhou Academy of Fine Aris "I"m a roadside grass, a wild flower," Zheng Shuang describes herself She said she often talks to nature-the mountains, the trees, the flowers and the

  1. Wild bees and agroecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Morandin, Lora

    2005-01-01

    Research in agriculture often focuses on development of new technologies rather than on potential environmental impacts. Pollinators, primarily bees, are essential to agriculture, providing significant yield benefit in over 66% of crop species. Currently, dramatic losses of managed honey bee pollinators in North America along with suspected world-wide losses of wild pollinators are focusing research attention on an impending but still poorly documented pollination crisis. Essential questions ...

  2. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian cultivars of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Susana; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Taco, Verónica; Poveda, Cristina; Ayuda-Durán, Begoña; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2016-03-01

    Tree tomato fruits from the yellow giant, giant purple and New Zealand purple cultivars, cultivated in Ecuador were analysed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Twelve hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives and four anthocyanins (in the purple cultivars) were detected and identified. The hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives mostly derived from caffeic acid, being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and rosmarinic acid the majority compounds. Furthermore, various rosmarinic acid glucosides, caffeoyl glucoside, feruloyl glucoside and two ferulic acid dehydrodimers were tentatively identified. The presence of rosmarinic acid is particularly relevant as it constituted a majority phenolic compound in the four studied tree tomato cultivars and it had not been reported previously in this fruit. In the purple cultivars main anthocyanins were pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside and delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside. The New Zealand purple cultivar was by far the richest sample in both hydroxycinnamates (421.6mg/100g dry pulp) and anthocyanins (168.9mg/100g dry pulp). Antioxidant capacity, as determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays, followed the same pattern as phenolic contents, with the New Zealand purple cultivar being the one with the highest and the yellow giant cultivar with the lowest values.

  3. Bejaging wilde zwijnen werkt averechts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhürne, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Het jagen op wilde zwijnen helpt niet om de wilde zwijnenstand in Nederland te verlagen. Dat blijkt uit een onderzoek van Marcel Vossestein. Het hoge afschotpercentage leidt tot een hogere vruchtbaarheid onder de zeugen en tot instabiele, onnatuurlijke populaties

  4. Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that

  5. A purple-colored 1M mica clay from Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, P.-L.

    1969-01-01

    A purple-colored clay of 1M mica polymorph in association with lead-zinc ore was collected from an abandoned mine dump near Silverton, Colorado. Electron micrographs show that the crystallites of the clay are less than 2?? in size and have poorly developed hexagonal outlines. Differential thermal and i.r. absorption analyses indicate similarity with those of muscovite. The structural formula of the 1M mica polymorph is (K1??45Na0??02) (Al3??75Mg0??19) (Si6??90Al1??10) O20(OH)4. The purple color may be related to trace amounts of manganese in the clay. ?? 1969.

  6. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance.

  7. Characterization of purple and green photosynthetic bacteria isolated from the lagoon of Agatti Atoll (Lakshadweep Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D

    s wa s als o sup hyphenminus plemented wit h 0.5 g of sterile boile d egg pe r tub e t o test for photoorganotrophi c Rhodospirillaceae . At the end o f the incubatio n period , som e tube s develope d intense purpl e viole t colouratio n an d som e... s o f purpl e bacteria develope d bot h o n organi c an d inorgani c media. Th e developmen t was , however , faste r i n th e organic medium . Th e cells tende d t o gro w i n aggre hyphenminus gates o n th e walls o f the tubes . Microscopi c examin...

  8. Malate dehydrogenase in phototrophic purple bacteria: purification, molecular weight, and quaternary structure.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The citric acid cycle enzyme malate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the nonsulfur purple bacteria Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodomicrobium vannielii, and Rhodocyclus purpureus. Malate dehydrogenase was purified from each species by either a single- or a two-step protocol: triazine dye affinity chromatography was the key step in purification of malate dehydrogenase in all cases. Purification of malate dehydrogenase resulted in a 130- to 240-fold increase in ...

  9. A simple evaluation of soil quality of waterlogged purple paddy soils with different productivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjun; Zhou, Wei; Lv, Jialong; He, Ping; Liang, Guoqing; Jin, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of soil quality can be crucial for designing efficient farming systems and ensuring sustainable agriculture. The present study aimed at evaluating the quality of waterlogged purple paddy soils with different productivities in Sichuan Basin. The approach involved comprehensive analyses of soil physical and chemical properties, as well as enzyme activities and microbial community structure measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). A total of 36 soil samples were collected from four typical locations, with 12 samples representing high productivity purple paddy soil (HPPS), medium productivity purple paddy soil (MPPS) and low productivity purple paddy soil (LPPS), respectively. Most measured soil properties showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among HPPS, MPPS and LPPS. Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to identify appropriate soil quality indicators. A minimum data set (MDS) including total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), acid phosphatase (ACP), total bacteria (TB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was established and accounted for 82.1% of the quality variation among soils. A soil quality index (SQI) was developed based on the MDS method, whilst HPPS, MPPS and LPPS received mean SQI scores of 0.725, 0.536 and 0.425, respectively, with a ranking of HPPS > MPPS > LPPS. HPPS showed relatively good soil quality characterized by optimal nutrient availability, enzymatic and microbial activities, but the opposite was true of LPPS. Low levels of TN, AP and soil microbial activities were considered to be the major constraints limiting the productivity in LPPS. All soil samples collected were rich in available N, K, Si and Zn, but deficient in available P, which may be the major constraint for the studied regions. Managers in our study area should employ more appropriate management in the LPPS to improve its rice productivity, and particularly to any potential limiting factor.

  10. Nobel lecture. The photosynthetic reaction centre from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    OpenAIRE

    Deisenhofer, J.; Michel, H

    1989-01-01

    In our lectures we first describe the history and methods of membrane protein crystallization, before we show how the structure of the photosynthetic reaction centre from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis was solved. Then the structure of this membrane protein complex is correlated with its function as a light-driven electron pump across the photosynthetic membrane. Finally we draw conclusions on the structure of the photosystem II reaction centre from plants and discuss the aspec...

  11. Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of atomized andean purple corn (Zea mayz L) hydroalcoholic extract in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Jorge; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico farmaceútico.; Raez, Ernesto; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico patólogo.; Rodríguez, Miguel; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Chumpitaz, Víctor; Facultad Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Burga, Jonny; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; De la Cruz, Walter; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Valencia, José; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico Farmacéutico.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of the atomized hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn) in rats with induced hypertension. Material and methods. We used five groups of six Holtzmann rats each, one without hypertension (negative control) and four with hypertension induced by L-NAME: positive control and three groups for the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. The treatment was carried out orally once a day for 25 days. Th...

  12. Control of yellow and purple nutsedge in elevated CO2 environments with glyphosate and halosulfuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Christopher Marble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have significantly increased over the past century and are expected to continue rising in the future. While elevated levels of CO2 will likely result in higher crop yields, weed growth is also highly likely to increase, which could increase the incidence of herbicide resistant biotypes. An experiment was conducted in 2012 to determine the effects of an elevated CO2 environment on glyphosate and halosulfuron efficacy for postemergence control of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.. Both species of nutsedge where grown in 3.0-L containers under either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 µmol mol-1 CO2 in open-top field chambers and treated with either 0.5×, 1.0×, or 1.5× of the manufacturer’s labeled rate of halosulfuron, glyphosate, or a tank mix of the two herbicides. The growth of both nutsedge species responded positively to elevated CO2, purple nutsedge had increased shoot and root dry weights and yellow nutsedge had increased shoot, root, and tuber dry weights and counts. Few treatment differences were observed among the herbicides at any of the rates tested. At three weeks following herbicide application, both purple and yellow nutsedge were adequately controlled by both herbicides and combinations at all rates tested, regardless of CO2 concentration. Based on this study, it is likely that predicted future CO2 levels will have little impact on the efficacy of single applications of halosulfuron or glyphosate for control of purple and yellow nutsedge at the growth stages described here, although scenarios demanding more persistent control efforts remain a question.

  13. Control of yellow and purple nutsedge in elevated CO2 environments with glyphosate and halosulfuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, S Christopher; Prior, Stephen A; Runion, G Brett; Torbert, H Allen

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have significantly increased over the past century and are expected to continue rising in the future. While elevated levels of CO2 will likely result in higher crop yields, weed growth is also highly likely to increase, which could increase the incidence of herbicide resistant biotypes. An experiment was conducted in 2012 to determine the effects of an elevated CO2 environment on glyphosate and halosulfuron efficacy for postemergence control of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.). Both species of nutsedge where grown in 3.0-L containers under either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 μmol mol(-1)) CO2 in open-top field chambers and treated with either 0.5×, 1.0×, or 1.5× of the manufacturer's labeled rate of halosulfuron, glyphosate, or a tank mix of the two herbicides. The growth of both nutsedge species responded positively to elevated CO2, purple nutsedge had increased shoot and root dry weights and yellow nutsedge had increased shoot, root, and tuber dry weights and counts. Few treatment differences were observed among the herbicides at any of the rates tested. At 3 weeks following herbicide application, both purple and yellow nutsedge were adequately controlled by both herbicides and combinations at all rates tested, regardless of CO2 concentration. Based on this study, it is likely that predicted future CO2 levels will have little impact on the efficacy of single applications of halosulfuron or glyphosate for control of purple and yellow nutsedge at the growth stages described here, although scenarios demanding more persistent control efforts remain a question.

  14. Modeling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth: The purple planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle, E.; Sanroma, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutierrez-Navarro, A. M.; Lopez, R.; Montañes-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-03-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. But the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet were purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and bacteria concentration/ distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  15. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat, Barley, Maize and Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    , it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic...... that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains....

  16. Construction and characterization of an azurin analog for the purple copper site in cytochrome c oxidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, M; Richards, J. H.; Lu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A protein analog of a purple copper center has been constructed from a recombinant blue copper protein (Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin) by replacing the loop containing the three ligands to the blue copper center with the corresponding loop of the CuA center in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from Paracoccus denitrificans. The electronic absorption in the UV and visible region (UV-vis) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of this analog are remarkably similar to those of the native CuA...

  17. Origin of mitochondria by intracellular enslavement of a photosynthetic purple bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondria originated by permanent enslavement of purple non-sulphur bacteria. These endosymbionts became organelles through the origin of complex protein-import machinery and insertion into their inner membranes of protein carriers for extracting energy for the host. A chicken-and-egg problem exists: selective advantages for evolving import machinery were absent until inner membrane carriers were present, but this very machinery is now required for carrier insertion. I argue here that this...

  18. Reorganization energy of the CuA center in purple azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Hwang, Hee Jung; Pecht, Israel

    2007-01-01

    shown that lowering the pH from 8.0 to 4.0 results in a similar (~0.4 eV) decrease in reorganization energy for both blue (type 1) and purple (CuA) azurins, even though the reorganization energies of the two different copper centers are different at a given pH. These results suggest that the MV state...

  19. Sun-beams, cucumbers, and purple bacteria : Historical milestones in early studies of photosynthesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, H

    1988-10-01

    Discovery of the general outlines of plant and bacterial photosyntheses required the efforts of a large number of gifted scientists over the course of two centuries. The first to suggest that sunlight might affect plants in some way other than through conversion of light to heat was Stephen Hales, in 1725, and this notion was promptly satirized by Jonathan Swift in his description of the "cucumber project" inGulliver's Travels (1726). Considerably later, in 1772, Joseph Priestley reported the first experiments showing the production of "dephlogisticated air" (oxygen gas) by plants, and the interdependence of animal and plant life mediated by gases. Priestley and others, however, had difficulty repeating these experiments, mainly because they were unaware of the requirement for light in photosynthesis. The latter was clearly demonstrated in 1779 by Jan Ingen-Housz, who also determined that leaves were the primary sites of the photosynthetic production of oxygen by plants. When purple bacteria were first studied in the late 19th century by Theodor Engelmann, light-dependent O2 formation could not be detected. Contradictory observations in this connection were reported for a number of decades, but eventually the absence of O2 production in photosynthesis by purple bacteria was conclusively established. Attempts to explain why the bacteria do not evolve O2 led Cornelis van Niel to propose a "unified, comparative biochemical" explanation of photosynthetic processes that was widely accepted. This hypothesis, however, was abandoned soon after photophosphorylation by membranes from purple bacteria and plant chloroplasts was discovered in 1954. Unexpectedly, rapid progress in molecular biological and genetic studies of the membrane-bound reaction centers of purple bacteria indicate that current investigations are on the verge of revealing the detailed mechanisms by which energy conversion occurs in the reaction centers of all photosynthetic organisms.

  20. A Study of TheColorPurple from the Lexical Feature of Literary Stylistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying

    2015-01-01

    The Color Purple is one of the most outstanding works of Alice Walker, and more and more people keep close eyes on the novel. In the thesis, it is intended to explore Alice Walker’s writing style from a stylistic perspective, trying to explain how the“meaning”of TheColorPurpleis created through the writer’s linguistic choices and narrative techniques, and to appre⁃ciate the beauty and strength hidden under the surface.

  1. Wild radical square zero algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that a radical square zero algebra is wild, if and only if it is of Corner's type, and it is strictly wild if and only if it is Endo-wild. This gives a negative answer to a problem posed by Simson.

  2. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments in the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Akos T; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2003-06-01

    A pigment mutant strain of the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS was isolated by plasposon mutagenesis. Nineteen open reading frame, most of which are thought to be genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, bacteriochlorophyll, and the photosynthetic reaction center, were identified surrounding the plasposon in a 22-kb-long chromosomal locus. The general arrangement of the photosynthetic genes was similar to that in other purple photosynthetic bacteria; however, the locations of a few genes occurring in this region were unusual. Most of the gene products showed the highest similarity to the corresponding proteins in Rubrivivax gelatinosus. The plasposon was inserted into the crtD gene, likely inactivating crtC as well, and the carotenoid composition of the mutant strain corresponded to the aborted spirilloxanthin pathway. Homologous and heterologous complementation experiments indicated a conserved function of CrtC and CrtD in the purple photosynthetic bacteria. The crtDC and crtE genes were shown to be regulated by oxygen, and a role of CrtJ in aerobic repression was suggested.

  3. Sensory Quality of Orange, Purple and Yellow Carrots Stored under Controlled Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of long-term storage of carrot (Daucus carota L. roots under normal and controlled atmosphere (CA on their sensory quality and soluble solids content was investigated. Carrot cultivars of orange (‘Nebula’, purple-orange (‘Purple Haze’ and yellow (‘Mello Yello’ colour of the roots were stored for 6 months at 0-1oC, under controlled atmosphere (CA of gas composition 5% CO2+10% O2, 2% CO2+5% O2, 5% CO2+5% O2 and at normal atmosphere. Sensory quality was evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis method. Roots of ‘Nebula’ showed the best overall quality under normal atmosphere, although CA resulted in higher firmness and crunchiness. Roots of ‘Purple Haze’ showed the best quality under 5% CO2+5% O2 or 5% CO2+10% O2. Storage in these CA variants resulted in higher sweetness, juiciness, crunchiness and firmness. Roots of ‘Mello Yello’ showed the smallest differences in quality under CA variants. Storage of carrots in CA did not result in off-flavour or off-odour. CA-stored roots showed higher soluble solids content.

  4. Chemical Behavior of Cadmium in Purple Soil as Affected by Surfactants and EDTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Cheng; XIONG Zhi-Ting; DONG Shan-Yan

    2006-01-01

    A soil batch experiment was conducted to investigate both separate and compound effects of three types of surfactants:anionic dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid sodiumsalt (DBSS), cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic nonyl phenol polyethyleneoxy ether (TX-100), as well as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on cadmium solubility, sorption kinetics, and sorption-desorption behavior in purple soil. The results indicated that both individual application of the three types of surfactants and surfactants combined with EDTA could stimulate Cd extraction from the soil with a general effectiveness ranking of EDTA/TX-100 > EDTA/DBSS > EDTA/CTAB > EDTA > TX-100 >DBSS > CTAB. Further study showed that the compound application of surfactants and EDTA had stronger (P < 0.05)effects on Cd solubility than those added individually. The application of surfactants and EDTA to purple soil (P < 0.05)decreased the proportion of Cd sorbed, while their effectiveness ranking was similar to that of enhanced solubilization. The sorption kinetics of Cd in purple soil was best described by the double-constant equation, while the Freundlich equation gave an excellent fit to the sorption isotherm curves. Therefore, surfactant-enhanced remediation of Cd contaminated soil is feasible and further research should be conducted.

  5. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  6. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martinez-Cardenas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II chelation, the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•, in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05 and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05 to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90 and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86. All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  7. The anti-photooxidation of anthocyanins-rich leaves of a purple rice cultivar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Changlian; LIN Guizhu; LIN Zhifang; CHEN Shaowei

    2006-01-01

    In the leaf of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Yunnan purple rice, the anthocyanins with an obvious absorption peak at 530nm were distributed in the cells of upper and lower epidermis, bulliform tissue and bristle. The maximal photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and chlorophyll content in flag leaves were 28% and 23%, respectively, more than the common green leaf rice cultivar Chijiaoruanzhan. Higher chlorophyll content is probably one of the physiological adaptations for enhancing light harvesting capacity of the antenna in photosystems in this cyanic leaves species. Upon the photooxidation of leaf segments mediated by methyl viologen in weak light for 3 days, the distinct bleaching of anthocyanins in purple rice was associated with the reduction of scavenging ability to DPPH· free radical ability and the increase in membrane leakage rate. But almost no changes in contents of flavonoids and total phenolics were observed. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fo, qP and фPSII decreased with the increase in NPQ and DES of xanthophylls cycle after photooxidation treatment. Green rice leaves showed more decrease in DPPH· scavenging rate and more increase in cell membrane leakage rate but showed a trace of anthocyanins during photooxidation. It is suggested that anthocyanin may be a beneficial and primary antioxidant in sun cyanic rice leaves against oxidative stress induced by environmental adversity. And photooxidation could induce different changing patterns of anthocyanins between the tested purple and green rice leaves.

  8. Effect of the Purple Corn Beverage “Chicha Morada” in Composite Resin during Dental Bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dario Acuña

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During dental bleaching the staining potential of the surface would increase. This study aims to evaluate the staining susceptibility of one bleached composite resin after the exposure to three different beverages: Peruvian purple corn based beverage (chicha morada, green tea, and distilled water. Thirty disk-shaped specimens of one nanofill composite resin were prepared. The specimens were then divided into six groups (n=5: purple corn (P, purple corn + bleaching (PB, green tea (T, green tea + bleaching (TB, distilled water (W, and distilled water + bleaching (WB. In groups that received bleaching, two sessions of bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide were done. Following bleaching, specimens were exposed to each liquid thirty minutes daily. Color was measured with a digital spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, color measurement differences between the obtained results were used: during bleaching, after bleaching, and during + after bleaching. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the color changes in the resins of all groups (p3.3.

  9. Microbial characteristics of purple paddy soil in response to Pb pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Zhang, La-Mei; Zhou, Xin-Bin; Shi, Xiao-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The study focused on the change of microbial characteristics affected by Plumbum pollution with purple paddy soil in an incubation experiment. The results showed that low concentration of Plumbum had little effect on most of microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activity. However, denitrifying activity was inhibited severely, and inhibition rate was up to 98%. Medium and high concentration of Plumbum significantly reduced the amounts and activity of all microorganisms and enzymatic activity, which increased with incubation time. Negative correlations were found between Plumbum concentrations and microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activities except fungi and actinomyces. Thus they can be used to indicate the Plumbum pollution levels to some extent. LD(50) of denitrifying bacteria (DB) and ED50 of denitrifying activity were 852mg/kg and 33.5mg/kg. Across all test soil microbes, denitrifying bacteria was most sensitive to Plumbum pollution in purple paddy soil. Value of early warning showed that anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria (ACDB) and actinomyces were also sensitive to Plumbum pollution. We concluded that denitrifying activity, actinomyces, ACDB or DB can be chosen as predictor of Plumbum contamination in purple paddy soil.

  10. The development of purple sweet potato bread%紫薯甜面包的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高徐梅; 吕远平

    2011-01-01

    In order to enrich bread varieties and develop more nutritional bread,with the sensory evaluation as the index,the key technical parameters of purple sweet potato bread are determined by orthogonal test as the following:the addition of 100 g purple sweet potato powder and 180 g sugar to each 1 000 g flour,and the dough fermentation time 120 min.The final product has a good color and taste.The product's indexes of purple sweet potato bread are also put forward as well.%为了丰富面包品种、开发更具营养价值的面包,以紫薯甜面包的感官评分为考察指标,通过正交试验确定了紫薯甜面包的关键技术参数:每1 000 g面粉添加100 g紫薯粉、180 g白砂糖,面团发酵时间为120min,所研制的紫薯甜面包具有良好的色泽和口感。同时给出了紫薯甜面包的产品指标。

  11. The Dark-Purple Tea Cultivar 'Ziyan' Accumulates a Large Amount of Delphinidin-Related Anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Song; Li, Sha; Tang, Qian; Li, Huan-Xiu; Chen, Shen-Xiang; Li, Pin-Wu; Xu, Jin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Guo, Xiang

    2016-04-06

    Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%). The full-length cDNA sequences of flavonoid pathway genes were isolated by RNA-Seq coupled with conventional TA cloning, and their expression patterns were characterized. Purple-leaved cultivars had lower amounts of total catechins, polyphenols, and water extract than ordinary non-anthocyanin cultivars but similar levels of caffeine. Because dark-purple-leaved Camellia species are rare in nature, this study provides new insights into the interplay between the accumulations of anthocyanins and other bioactive components in tea leaves.

  12. Anthocyanin accumulation and transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Pan, Yu; Zhao, Zhiping; Tian, Shibing; Hu, Zongli

    2014-12-24

    Bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide for its edible leaves. The purple cultivars rich in health-promoting anthocyanins are usually more eye-catching and valuable. Fifteen kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from a purple bok choy cultivar (Zi He) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in bok choy, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in seedlings and leaves of the purple cultivar and the green cultivar (Su Zhouqing). Compared with the other tissues, BrTT8 and most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in the leaves and light-grown seedlings of Zi He. The results that heterologous expression of BrTT8 promotes the transcription of partial anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in regeneration shoots of tomato indicate that BrTT8 plays an important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  13. Response characteristics of soil fractal features to different land uses in typical purple soil watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bang-lin; Chen, Xiao-yan; Ding, Lin-qiao; Huang, Yu-han; Zhou, Ji; Yang, Tian-tian

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD) is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743 μm to 5.749 μm for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 μm. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is D claysoil properties shows that the intensity of correlation to the soil texture and soil organic matter has the order as: D silt>D silt(U)>D sand (U)>D sand and D silt>D silt(U)>D sand>D sand(U), respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the D silt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies.

  14. Response characteristics of soil fractal features to different land uses in typical purple soil watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-lin Luo

    Full Text Available As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743 μm to 5.749 μm for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 μm. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is D clayD silt(U>D sand (U>D sand and D silt>D silt(U>D sand>D sand(U, respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the D silt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies.

  15. Effects of Purple Blotch Infection on the Proximate and Mineral Contents of Onion Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aliero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Alternaria porri Ell. ( Ciferri associated with purple blotch disease in onion on the proximate and mineral composition of onion leaves was investigated. Samples of both healthy and purple blotch - infected onion leaves were dried and analyzed for the nutritional components except moisture content. The mineral contents ( Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe , Zn were determined by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The infected leaf showed a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in the quantity of the crudeprotein, fat, fibre and ash. The moisture content was. significantly (p < 0.05 lower in healthy onion leaves (88.0% than in the infected leaves (94.7%. Similarly, carbohydrate content was lower in diseased leaves than in healthy onion leaves. The levels of minerals were ignificantly (p < 0.05 lower in diseased leaves compared to the healthy (control leaves indicating that the infection of onion leaves by purple blotch pathogen (Alternaria porri had a significant impact in reducing the nutritional value of the onion leaves. It is important to avoid fungal contamination with a view to enhance nutrient bioavailability for human consumption.

  16. Food and feeding ecology of purple sandpipers Calidris maritima on rocky intertidal habitats (Helgoland, German Bight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Volker

    On the island of Helgoland (German Bight) Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima feed mainly in the intertidal of piers and rocky shores. The main prey species are Littorina saxatilis and Mytilus edulis, complemented by crustaceans, polychaetes, other molluscs and green algae. Beach habitats are used as alternative feeding sites during storms. Feeding sites seem to be selected according to rates of assimilated energy intake. The most profitable habitat (wrack beds on the high-tide line with kelp-fly larvae, 16.8 W) is used after arrival in October but is not available during winter. Because of high intake rates in rocky habitats (13.1 W on piers, 5.5 W on mussel beds), which allow short daily feeding times, and available alternative feeding sites during storms, Purple Sandpipers do not need to carry fat reserves in winter like other waders wintering in central and Western Europe. This, and the ever accessible food supply of epibenthic macrofauna on rocky shores, may enable Purple Sandpipers to winter further north than other wader species.

  17. The Functional Properties and Product Development of Purple Sweet Potato%紫甘薯的功能性质及产品开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何胜生

    2013-01-01

    详细介绍了紫甘薯的营养成分及其生理功能的研究现状.同时,对紫色甘薯的营养及药用价值的深入研究也促进了紫甘薯加工的发展,简述了紫色甘薯脆片、紫色甘薯软糖、紫色地瓜干等紫甘薯系列产品的加工工艺.%The research status of nutritional components and physiological functions of purple sweet potato were introduced in details. The deeply research about nutrition and medicinal value of purple sweet potato could promote the development of purple sweet potato processing. The processing technique of purple sweet potato crisp, purple potato soft candy and dried purple sweet potato were briefly described.

  18. KARAKTERISTIK WARNA DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN ANTOSIANIN UBI JALAR UNGU [Color Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Sweet Potato

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin is a natural pigment that produces a range of colors, varying from red, purple, blue to yellow. The stability of the anthocyanin color is affected by pH, temperature, and light. Purple sweet potato is rich in anthocyanin, particularly a stable acylated anthocyanin. This research was conducted to study the effect of pH on color and antioxidative activity of anthocyanin extracted from purple sweet potatoes, harvested from Cilembu-Sumedang, Banjaran-Bandung, and Pakembangan-Kuningan....

  19. Parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild ruminants and wild boar belong to the order Artiodactyla, the suborders Ruminantia and Nonruminantia and are classified as wild animals for big game hunting, whose breeding presents a very important branch of the hunting economy. Diseases caused by protozoa are rarely found in wild ruminants in nature. Causes of coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis, giardiasis, babesiosis, and theileriosis have been diagnosed in deer. The most significant helminthoses in wild ruminants are fasciosis, dicrocoeliasis, paramphistomosis, fascioloidosis, cysticercosis, anoplocephalidosis, coenurosis, echinococcosis, pulmonary strongyloidiasis, parasitic gastroenteritis, strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis, with certain differences in the extent of prevalence of infection with certain species. The most frequent ectoparasitoses in wild deer and doe are diseases caused by ticks, mites, scabies mites, and hypoderma. The most represented endoparasitoses in wild boar throughout the world are coccidiosis, balantidiasis, metastrongyloidiasis, verminous gastritis, ascariasis, macracanthorhynchosis, trichinelosis, trichuriasis, cystecercosis, echinococcosis, and less frequently, there are also fasciolosis and dicrocoeliasis. The predominant ectoparasitoses in wild boar are ticks and scabies mites. Knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar is of extreme importance for the process of promoting the health protection system for animals and humans, in particular when taking into account the biological and ecological hazard posed by zoonotic infections.

  20. Spectroscopic studies of two spectral variants of light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Bina, David; Picken, Nichola; Honkanen, Suvi; Blankenship, Robert E; Holten, Dewey; Cogdell, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Two spectral forms of the peripheral light-harvesting complex (LH2) from the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Allochromatium vinosum were purified and their photophysical properties characterized...

  1. Wilde's worlds: Sir William Wilde in Victorian Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeachie, J

    2016-05-01

    Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde. To provide an overall assessment of his career. Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Census and of the west of Ireland, William Wilde Victorian medical man and Wilde the Irish medical man-the historian of Irish medical traditions and the biographer of Irish medical men, and William Wilde as an Irish Victorian. A variety of close British Isles parallels can be drawn between Wilde and his cohort in the medical elite of Dublin and their clinical peers in Edinburgh and London both in terms of clinical practice and self-presentation and in terms of the social and political challenges facing their respective ancient regime hegemonies in an age of democratic radicalisation. The shared ideological interests of Wilde and his cohort, however, were also challenged by the socio-political particularities and complexities of Ireland during the first half of the nineteenth century culminating in the catastrophe of the Great Famine. William Wilde saw the practice of scientific medicine as offering a means of deliverance from historical catastrophe for Irish society and invoked a specifically Irish scientific and medical tradition going back to the engagement with the condition of Ireland by enlightened medical men in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

  2. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  3. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple Dioscorea alata (DA tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process should be taken into account; for instance, soaking in citric acid and blanching in order to preserve the bioactive compounds. To examine the inhibitory effects of acidic soaking and steam blanching on polyphenol oxidase activities, these experiments used four levels of citric acid (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% and two levels of steam blanching time course (5 and 10 minutes. It was found that steam blanching for 5 or 10 minutes could reduce the activity of polyphenol oxidase, and consequently, retard the oxidation process and retain the polyphenolic compounds. Soaking the purple DA slices into a 1% citric acid solution followed by steam blanching for 10 min resulted in the highest total anthocyanins (104.36 mg/100 g, polyphenols (198.52 mg equivalent gallic acid/100 g, with an antioxidant capacity of 1.300 mg trolox equivalent/100 g. This study showed that the retention of bioactive compounds of DA tuber through soaking the tuber slices in solution containing inexpensive chemicals like citric acid at low concentrations, combined with 10 minutes of steam blanching resulted in flour containing total anthocyanins and phenolic as high as 44.51 and 62.58% of fresh tuber, respectively.

  4. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g significantly (p < 0.05 increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%. Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05 decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9% compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05 during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%. Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109% but decreased bound (2% to 3% phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC significantly (p < 0.05 decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05 decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05 increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  5. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Centrifugation and Ultrafiltration: Multistage Process for Polyphenol Recovery from Purple Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhou Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES, was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centrifugation of purple sweet potato extract at 2500 rpm over 6 min, led to better polyphenol recovery, with satisfactory protein removal (reused for future purposes, than PSP extract filtration without centrifugation. Results showed that anthocyanin was efficiently recovered (99% from permeate. The exponential model fit well with the experimental ultrafiltration data and led to the calculation of the membrane’s fouling coefficient. The optimization of centrifugation conditions showed that, at a centrifugation speed of 4000 rpm (1195× g and duration of 7.74 min, the optimized polyphenol recovery and fouling coefficient were 34.5% and 29.5 m−1, respectively. The removal of proteins in the centrifugation process means that most of the anthocyanin content (90% remained after filtration. No significant differences in the intensities of the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 peaks were found in the samples taken before and after centrifugation for the main anthocyanins; peonidin-3-feruloylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-caffeoyl-feruloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside. This proves that centrifugation is an efficient method for protein removal without anthocyanin loss. This study considers this process an ultrasound-assisted extraction-centrifugation-ultrafiltration for purple sweet potato valorization in “green” technology.

  6. Soluble and bound phenolic compounds in different Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Montilla, Elyana; Hillebrand, Silke; Antezana, Amalia; Winterhalter, Peter

    2011-07-13

    In nine Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) varieties the content of phenolic compounds as well as the anthocyanin composition has been determined. The phenotypes under investigation included four red and five blue varieties (Kulli, Ayzuma, Paru, Tuimuru, Oke, Huaca Songo, Colorado, Huillcaparu, and Checchi). In purple corn, phenolic compounds were highly concentrated in cell walls. Thus, simultaneous determination of soluble and bound-form phenolics is essential for analysis, extraction, and quantification. The present study reports the determination of soluble and insoluble-bound fraction of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) in Bolivian purple corn varieties. Enzymatic, thermal, and alkaline hydrolyses were used to obtain the cell wall-linked phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid values ranged from 132.9 to 298.4 mg/100 g, and p-coumaric acid contents varied between 251.8 and 607.5 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively, and were identified as the main nonanthocyanin phenolics. The total content of phenolic compounds ranged from 311.0 to 817.6 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW, and the percentage contribution of bound to total phenolics varied from 62.1 to 86.6%. The total monomeric anthocyanin content ranged from 1.9 to 71.7 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW. Anthocyanin profiles are almost the same among the different samples. Differences are observed only in the relative percentage of each anthocyanin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and its malonated derivative were detected as major anthocyanins. Several dimalonylated monoglucosides of cyanidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin were present as minor constituents.

  7. REVIEW: TIBET WILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William V Bleisch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: George B. Schaller. 2012. Tibet Wild: A Naturalist's Journeys on the Roof of the World. Washington, D.C.; Island Press George Schaller's remarkable career spans nearly six decades of work resulting in field studies of wildlife in the most remote regions, including pioneering investigations on four continents. More than half of that time was spent involved with studies of the wildlife of the Tibetan Plateau and neighboring regions. Following each new phase of his career, from his work on mountain gorillas in Rwanda, tigers in India, lions on the Serengeti, wild sheep in the Himalayas, and Tibetan antelope and other wildlife on the Tibetan steppes, he has made the time to publish a book on each of his expeditions – or more exactly, two (see full list in Appendix. One is always a scholarly monograph full of data, tables, and maps, the other a popular account for the general public. These paired volumes are usually published within one year of each other, and there have been six such pairings so far. For example, Schaller's classic the Mountain Monarchs: Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya was published in 1978; in 1980, he published Stones of Silence: Journeys in the Himalaya; in 1997 he published the popular Tibet's Hidden Wilderness: Wildlife and Nomads of the Chang Tang Reserve; and the next year, 1998, saw the appearance of his scholarly monograph Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe. By this accounting, this latest book, coming fifteen years after the last, seems an outlier – perhaps we can expect a scholarly monograph on Schaller's work in Tibet and Central Asia soon. And yet, this current book is scholarly enough, being filled with facts, figures, maps, and even data tables. Perhaps it is meant to pair with the highly personal A Naturalist and Other Beasts, a collection of essays that Schaller has written over the past fifty years. However, this new book has few references and is interspersed with anecdotes, bibliographic

  8. A Comparative Feminist Study of The Color Purple and Good Morning, Miss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 井媛

    2012-01-01

      Chi Li and Alice Walker are both feminist writers. In their Good Morning, Miss and The Color Purple, male-central⁃ism and the benighted state of women are thoroughly exposed. Sisterhood plays an important role in the awakening of women in both books, but the prospect of man-woman relationship is sharply different. By making comparison and analyzing the underly⁃ing reasons, it can be seen that there’s still a distance between the Western and Chinese feminism.

  9. A Path to Freedom——Life of black women in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丽丹

    2005-01-01

    Alice Walker sThe Color Purple,published in 1982,tells the story of Celie,ablack woman in the South.Celie was a blackwoman growing up in the South.She mustovercome masogeny,racism and poverty toestablish herself as an independent person.Thenovel also follows the maturation of her sisterNettie and the lives of Shug,Albert,and muchof his extended family.Celie writes letters toGodin which she tells about her life-her roles asdaughter,wife,sister,and mother.In thecourse of her story,Celie meets a series of othe...

  10. Yellow and purple nutsedges survey in the southeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyherabide Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 79 fields was conducted between December 1993 and January 1994, to determine the distribution and relative importance of species of the genus Cyperus, to justify developing management strategies in the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Yellow and purple nutsedge were found in 43% and 9% respectively of the surveyed fields. Thirty eight per cent of the surveyed area showed a heavy infestation of yellow nutsedge, and in 90% of cases yellow nutsedge was invading fields cultivated with summer crops and associated with one or more of other seven perennial weeds, mainly bermudagrass.

  11. Molecular Regulation of Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Nonsulfur Purple Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabita, Fred Robert [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanism by which a transcriptional activator protein affects CO2 fixation (cbb) gene expression in nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria, with special emphasis to Rhodobacter sphaeroides and with comparison to Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These studies culminated in several publications which indicated that additional regulators interact with the master regulator CbbR in both R. sphaeroides and R. palustris. In addition, the interactive control of the carbon and nitrogen assimilatory pathways was studied and unique regulatory signals were discovered.

  12. Geometry, supertransfer, and optimality in the light harvesting of purple bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Baghbanzadeh, Sima

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable rotational symmetry of the photosynthetic antenna complexes of purple bacteria has long been thought to enhance their light harvesting and excitation energy transport. We study the role of symmetry by modeling hypothetical antennas whose symmetry is broken by altering the orientations of the bacteriochlorophyll pigments. We find that in both LH2 and LH1 complexes, symmetry increases energy transfer rates by enabling the cooperative, coherent process of supertransfer. The enhancement is particularly pronounced in the LH1 complex, whose natural geometry outperforms the average randomized geometry by 5.5 standard deviations, one of the most significant increase due to coherent effects in any photosynthetic complex studied to date.

  13. Fluorescence enhancement of light-harvesting complex 2 from purple bacteria coupled to spherical gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujak, Ł. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Czechowski, N. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Piatkowski, D. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Litvin, R. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Mackowski, S. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Brotosudarmo, T. H. P. [Ma Chung Univ., Malang (Indonesia). Ma Chung Research Center for Photosynthetic Pigments; Pichler, S. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom). Inst. of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology; Cogdell, R. J. [Univ. Linz (Austria). Inst. fur Halbleiter-und Festkorperphysik; Heiss, W. [Univ. Linz (Austria). Inst. fur Halbleiter-und Festkorperphysik

    2011-10-24

    The influence of plasmon excitations in spherical gold nanoparticles on the optical properties of a light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from the purple bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been studied. Systematic analysis is facilitated by controlling the thickness of a silica layer between Au nanoparticles and LH2 complexes. Fluorescence of LH2 complexes features substantial increase when these complexes are separated by 12 nm from the gold nanoparticles. At shorter distances, non-radiative quenching leads to a decrease of fluorescence emission. The enhancement of fluorescence originates predominantly from an increase of absorption of pigments comprising the LH2 complex.

  14. Purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gamete manipulation using optical trapping and microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W.

    2013-04-01

    A system has been developed that allows for optical and fluidic manipulation of gametes. The optical manipulation is performed by using a single-point gradient trap with a 40× oil immersion PH3 1.3 NA objective on a Zeiss inverted microscope. The fluidic manipulation is performed by using a custom microfluidic chamber designed to fit into the short working distance between the condenser and objective. The system is validated using purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gametes and has the potential to be used for mammalian in vitro fertilization and animal husbandry.

  15. Broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy reveals a carotenoid dark state in purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Mulvaney, Rachel M; Cogdell, Richard J; Scholes, Gregory D

    2013-04-01

    Although the energy transfer processes in natural light-harvesting systems have been intensively studied for the past 60 years, certain details of the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. We performed broadband two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy measurements on light-harvesting proteins from purple bacteria and isolated carotenoids in order to characterize in more detail the excited-state manifold of carotenoids, which channel energy to bacteriochlorophyll molecules. The data revealed a well-resolved signal consistent with a previously postulated carotenoid dark state, the presence of which was confirmed by global kinetic analysis. The results point to this state's role in mediating energy flow from carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll.

  16. KARAKTERISTIK WARNA DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN ANTOSIANIN UBI JALAR UNGU [Color Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Mahmudatussa’adah1,2*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin is a natural pigment that produces a range of colors, varying from red, purple, blue to yellow. The stability of the anthocyanin color is affected by pH, temperature, and light. Purple sweet potato is rich in anthocyanin, particularly a stable acylated anthocyanin. This research was conducted to study the effect of pH on color and antioxidative activity of anthocyanin extracted from purple sweet potatoes, harvested from Cilembu-Sumedang, Banjaran-Bandung, and Pakembangan-Kuningan. The experiments applied a completely randomized design with two replicates, analyzed in triplo. The results showed that the total number of monomeric anthocyanin in purple sweet potato harvested from Cilembu (3.78±0.08 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g dry weight, dw was higher than that of Banjaran (3.18±0.01 mg/g and Pakembangan (2.25±0.01 mg/g. The color of purple sweet potato anthocyanin extract was pH dependent. The color changed from red to faded red, purple, blue, green, and yellow as the pH increased from 1 to 14. The content of anthocyanins from three locations of purple sweet potatoes differed from each other (p<0.05. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of purple sweet potato anthocyanins extracted at pH 1 was higher than that at pH 4.5 and pH 7.

  17. Functional characterization of Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase in anthocyanin biosynthesis of purple sweet potato underlies the direct evidence of anthocyanins function against abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Fan, Weijuan; Li, Hong; Yang, Jun; Huang, Jirong; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) is a key enzyme in the catalysis of the stereospecific reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanidins in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In the purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cv. Ayamurasaki, expression of the IbDFR gene was strongly associated with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves, stems and roots. Overexpression of the IbDFR in Arabidopsis tt3 mutants fully complemented the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coat, cotyledon and hypocotyl. Downregulation of IbDFR expression in transgenic sweet potato (DFRi) using an RNAi approach dramatically reduced anthocyanin accumulation in young leaves, stems and storage roots. In contrast, the increase of flavonols quercetin-3-O-hexose-hexoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside in the leaves and roots of DFRi plants is significant. Therefore, the metabolic pathway channeled greater flavonol influx in the DFRi plants when their anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation were decreased. These plants also displayed reduced antioxidant capacity compared to the wild type. After 24 h of cold treatment and 2 h recovery, the wild-type plants were almost fully restored to the initial phenotype compared to the slower recovery of DFRi plants, in which the levels of electrolyte leakage and hydrogen peroxide accumulation were dramatically increased. These results provide direct evidence of anthocyanins function in the protection against oxidative stress in the sweet potato. The molecular characterization of the IbDFR gene in the sweet potato not only confirms its important roles in flavonoid metabolism but also supports the protective function of anthocyanins of enhanced scavenging of reactive oxygen radicals in plants under stressful conditions.

  18. The Wilde analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) took on the challenge of teaching us how to live artfully. From the dynamic successes and tragedies of his own life Oscar knew that everything worthy of existence is worthy of art, including its ugliness and suffering. Oscar observed much about human nature, especially his own, in an era when convention was not challenged, knowledge was taught and appearances were everything. For him, "The supreme vice is shallowness."(1) Society and psychoanalysis can still be honored and shaken by his words. The paradoxical and complex nature of Oscar's insights was as good as any coming from a thoughtful psychoanalyst. After the first two attempts to write about Oscar fell flat, it became clear that I must engage with him and try to match the unsparing commitment to explore his unconscious and interior life. In the process of creating the array of sketches of my psychoanalytic encounters with Oscar, I also found the words to describe what drew me to the field some 20 years ago-the art of psychoanalysis.

  19. Binding of a single divalent cation directly correlates with the blue-to-purple transition in bacteriorhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonas, R.; Ebrey, T.G. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The authors have characterized a unique divalent cation binding site on bacteriorhodopsin which controls the blue-to-purple transition in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobiu. To identify this site they first showed the correlation between the binding of one Ca{sup 2+} per bacteriorhodopsin and the amount of blue membrane converted to purple membrane. When the free Ca{sup 2+} was reduced below 1 {mu}M, and the pH was set below 5.0 with 0.5 mM citrate, only binding to this high-affinity site was observed, and we could separate its effect from the effect of other divalent cations binding to the membrane under other conditions. Second, the titration of purple membrane showed that protons are taken up in two distinct steps, about 13 with a pK{sub a} of 4-5 and an additional 2 protons with a pK{sub a} for the purple-to-blue transition in 5mM MgSO{sub 4}. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest a direct role for cations in the regulation of the bacteriorhodopsin color under normal conditions. They also found that the intrinsic pK{sub a} for the purple-to-blue transition is about 2.05, suggesting this is the pK{sub a} of the group or groups that, when protonated, lead to the blue membrane. Previously published data can now be interpreted to suggest that the cation regulates an active site near the retinal chromophore. A binding site for the divalent cation that includes Asp-212 and interactions with the protonated Schiff base, Asp-85, Tyr-57, Tyr-185, and Arg-82 is proposed.

  20. Binding of a single divalent cation directly correlates with the blue-to-purple transition in bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, R; Ebrey, T G

    1991-01-01

    We have characterized a unique divalent cation binding site on bacteriorhodopsin which controls the blue-to-purple transition in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium. To identify this site we first showed the correlation between the binding of one Ca2+ per bacteriorhodopsin and the amount of blue membrane converted to purple membrane. When the free Ca2+ was reduced below 1 microM, and the pH was set below 5.0 with 0.5 mM citrate, only binding to this high-affinity site was observed, and we could separate its effect from the effect of other divalent cations binding to the membrane under other conditions. Second, the titration of purple membrane showed that protons are taken up in two distinct steps, about 13 with a pKa of 4-5 and an additional 2 protons with a pKa of 2.75, in 5 mM MgSO4. The latter is identical to the pKa for the purple-to-blue transition in 5 mM MgSO4. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest a direct role for cations in the regulation of the bacteriorhodopsin color under normal conditions. We have also found that the intrinsic pKa for the purple-to-blue transition is about 2.05, suggesting this is the pKa of the group or groups that, when protonated, lead to the blue membrane. Previously published data can now be interpreted to suggest that the cation regulates an active site near the retinal chromophore. A binding site for the divalent cation that includes Asp-212 and interactions with the protonated Schiff base, Asp-85, Tyr-57, Tyr-185, and Arg-82 is proposed.

  1. Wild McEliece Incognito

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Lange, Tanja; Peters, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    The wild McEliece cryptosystem uses wild Goppa codes over nite elds to achieve smaller public key sizes compared to the original McEliece cryptosystem at the same level of security against all attacks known. However, the cryptosystem drops one of the condence-inspiring shields built into the orig...

  2. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins accumulation in purple clam Hiatula rostrata and toxic effect on milkfish Chanos chanos larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y

    2001-11-01

    In an attempt to feed purple clams (Hiatula rostrata) with dinoglagellate Alexandrium minutum, the maximal accumulation toxicity of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins reached 40.6 MU/g on day 5 of feeding. Subsequently, the toxicity increased no further, although purple clams ingested more toxic algae. Furthermore, when milkfish (Chanos chanos) larvae were treated with toxic, nontoxic A. minutum or PSP toxin-containing extract in the water medium, it was found that the mortality of fish increased with the increasing concentrations of toxic algae. PSP toxin-containing extract did not show any toxic effect on milkfish larvae.

  3. 穿越老上海的风情——上海PURPLE ONION餐厅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delphine Moreau; 徐智超; Derryck Menere(摄影)

    2010-01-01

    Purple Onion坐落在上海老法租界,周边是令人愉悦的住宅及零售区域、中式和法式建筑、国际餐厅及小店,传统的弄堂、沿街绿树成荫,是今日城市构成元素的完美结合。两位设计师Dariel&Arfeuillere希望Purple Onion与这些元素互动,在这片颇具历史感的区域显得既传统亲切又卓尔不群。

  4. PLANT SUCCESSION ON SICILIAN TERRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. RUHL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 189 phytosociological relevés have been made in five areas of Sicily, three on volcanic substrates and two on limestones, to study plant community succession trends within abandoned terraced vineyards and cereal fields. Disturbance status and abandonment age was recorded for each sample plot. DCA of these relevés suggests that four are the most important factors driving succession, i.e. geological substrate, bioclimate, age of abandonment and disturbance. In most cases - if there are some dispersal centres near the old fields - undisturbed and less disturbed terraces evolve quite rapidly towards the local potential “climax” community. Different trends have been recorded on the areas which underwent and still undergo frequent and severe disturbance: succession is biased or even blocked in a steady state, so that grassland, garrigue, mantle or herb-dominated communities prevail. The species composition of the plant communities subject to disturbance seems to be strongly connected with the time gap between abandonment and first disturbance occurrence. The “mixed” ecological-structural-phytosociological approach here adopted to describe plant communities was quite effective to interpret abandoned terraces communities and their dynamism.

  5. PLANT SUCCESSION ON SICILIAN TERRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. RUHL

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available 189 phytosociological relevés have been made in five areas of Sicily, three on volcanic substrates and two on limestones, to study plant community succession trends within abandoned terraced vineyards and cereal fields. Disturbance status and abandonment age was recorded for each sample plot. DCA of these relevés suggests that four are the most important factors driving succession, i.e. geological substrate, bioclimate, age of abandonment and disturbance. In most cases - if there are some dispersal centres near the old fields - undisturbed and less disturbed terraces evolve quite rapidly towards the local potential “climax” community. Different trends have been recorded on the areas which underwent and still undergo frequent and severe disturbance: succession is biased or even blocked in a steady state, so that grassland, garrigue, mantle or herb-dominated communities prevail. The species composition of the plant communities subject to disturbance seems to be strongly connected with the time gap between abandonment and first disturbance occurrence. The “mixed” ecological-structural-phytosociological approach here adopted to describe plant communities was quite effective to interpret abandoned terraces communities and their dynamism.

  6. Genetic architecture of purple pigmentation and tagging of some loci to SSR markers in pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusapati Varalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the construction of integrated genetic maps in pearl millet involving certain purple phenotype and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. These maps provide a direct means of implementing DNA marker-assisted selection and of facilitating "map-based cloning" for engineering novel traits. The purple pigmentation of leaf sheath, midrib and leaf margin was inherited together 'en bloc' under the control of a single dominant locus (the 'midrib complex' and was inseparably associated with the locus governing the purple coloration of the internode. The purple panicle was caused by a single dominant locus. Each of the three characters (purple lamina, purple stigma and purple seed was governed by two complementary loci. One of the two loci governing purple seed was associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2090 in linkage group 1, with a linkage value of 22 cM, while the other locus was associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2270 in linkage group 6, with a linkage value of 23 cM. The locus for purple pigmentation of the midrib complex was either responsible for pigmentation of the panicle in a pleiotropic manner or was linked to it very closely and associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2086 in linkage group 4, with a suggestive linkage value of 21 cM. A dominant allele at this locus seems to be a prerequisite for the development of purple pigmentation in the lamina, stigma and seed. These findings suggest that the locus for pigmentation of the midrib complex might regulate the basic steps in anthocyanin pigment development by acting as a structural gene while other loci regulate the formation of color in specific plant parts.

  7. A putative functional MYB transcription factor induced by low temperature regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Li, Yali; Zhou, Shuang; Chen, Guoping

    2012-02-01

    The purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor) is a mutation in kales, giving the mutant phenotype of brilliant purple color in the interior. Total anthocyanin analysis showed that the amount of anthocyanins in the purple kale was up to 1.73 mg g(-1) while no anthocyanin was detected in the white kale. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple kale, we analyzed the expression of structural genes and some transcription factors associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar "Red Dove" and the white cultivar "White Dove". The result showed that nearly all the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes showed higher expression levels in the purple cultivar than in the white cultivar, especially for DFR and ANS, they were barely detected in the white cultivar. Interestingly, the fact that a R2R3 MYB transcription factor named BoPAP1 was extremely up-regulated in the purple kale and induced by low temperature attracted our attention. Further sequence analysis showed that BoPAP1 shared high similarity with AtPAP1 and BoMYB1. In addition, the anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale is strongly induced by the low temperature stress. The total anthocyanin contents in the purple kale under low temperature were about 50-fold higher than the plants grown in the greenhouse. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes C4H, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFGT were all enhanced under the low temperature. These evidences strongly suggest that BoPAP1 may play an important role in activating the anthocyanin structural genes for the abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale.

  8. Phosphorus transport with runoff of simulated rainfall from purple-soil cropland of different surface conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; ZHANG Jin-zhong; ZHU Bo; ZHOU Pei; MIAO Chi-yuan; WANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the patterns of phosphorus transport from purple-soil cropland of 5° and 10° slopes with bare and vegetated surfaces, respectively. Each type of land was tested under a simulated moderate rainfall of 0.33 mm/min, a downfall of 0.90 mm/min, and a rainstorm of 1.86 mm/min. Runoff dynamics and changes in the export amount of phosphorus are influenced by the rainfall intensity, the slope and surface conditions of cropland. The vegetation diverts rain water from the surface into soil and helps the formation of a subsurface runoff, but has little influence on runoff process at the same sloping degree. Vegetated soil has a smaller phosphorous loss, particularly much less in the particulate form. A heavier rainfall flushes away more phosphorous. Rainwater percolating soil carries more dissolved phosphorous than particulate phosphorous. Understanding the patterns of phosphorous transport under various conditions from purple soil in the middle of Sichuan basin is helpful for developing countermeasures against non-point-source pollution resulting in the eutrophication of water bodies in this region that could, if not controlled properly, deteriorate the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  9. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szantoi, Zoltan [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: szantzo@auburn.edu; Chappelka, Arthur H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Muntifering, Russell B. [Animal Sciences Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Somers, Greg L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: somergl@auburn.edu

    2007-11-15

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O{sub 3}) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O{sub 3} in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O{sub 3} interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O{sub 3} effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent. - EDU can potentially ameliorate negative effects of O{sub 3} on nutritive quality in purple coneflower.

  10. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p bread.

  11. Population structure of Purple Sandpipers (Calidris maritima) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Nathalie M; Stewart, Donald T; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Elderkin, Mark F; Mittelhauser, Glen; Mockford, Stephen; Paquet, Julie; Robertson, Gregory J; Summers, Ron W; Tudor, Lindsay; Mallory, Mark L

    2017-05-01

    The Purple Sandpiper (Calidris maritima) is a medium-sized shorebird that breeds in the Arctic and winters along northern Atlantic coastlines. Migration routes and affiliations between breeding grounds and wintering grounds are incompletely understood. Some populations appear to be declining, and future management policies for this species will benefit from understanding their migration patterns. This study used two mitochondrial DNA markers and 10 microsatellite loci to analyze current population structure and historical demographic trends. Samples were obtained from breeding locations in Nunavut (Canada), Iceland, and Svalbard (Norway) and from wintering locations along the coast of Maine (USA), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland (Canada), and Scotland (UK). Mitochondrial haplotypes displayed low genetic diversity, and a shallow phylogeny indicating recent divergence. With the exception of the two Canadian breeding populations from Nunavut, there was significant genetic differentiation among samples from all breeding locations; however, none of the breeding populations was a monophyletic group. We also found differentiation between both Iceland and Svalbard breeding populations and North American wintering populations. This pattern of divergence is consistent with a previously proposed migratory pathway between Canadian breeding locations and wintering grounds in the United Kingdom, but argues against migration between breeding grounds in Iceland and Svalbard and wintering grounds in North America. Breeding birds from Svalbard also showed a genetic signature intermediate between Canadian breeders and Icelandic breeders. Our results extend current knowledge of Purple Sandpiper population genetic structure and present new information regarding migration routes to wintering grounds in North America.

  12. Carotenoid profile and retention in yellow-, purple- and red-fleshed potatoes after thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Pivec, Vladimír; Orsák, Matyáš; Hamouz, Karel

    2016-04-15

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of thermal processing on carotenoid profile, quantity and stability in 22 colour-fleshed potato cultivars grown in the Czech Republic. The total of nine carotenoids was analysed by HPLC using a C30 column and PDA detection. The total carotenoid content for all cultivars ranged from 1.44 to 40.13 μg/g DM. Yellow cultivars showed a much higher average total carotenoid content (26.22 μg/g DM) when compared to red/purple-fleshed potatoes (5.69 μg/g DM). Yellow cultivars were dominated by antheraxanthin, whereas neoxanthin was the main carotenoid in red/purple cultivars. Thermal processing significantly impacted all potato cultivars. Boiling decreased the total carotenoids by 92% compared to baking (88%). Lutein was the most stable carotenoid against thermal processing (decreased by 24-43%) followed by β-carotene (decreased by 78-83%); other carotenoids were degraded nearly completely. Increased formation of (Z)-isomers by thermal processing has not been confirmed.

  13. Characterizing the purple Earth: Modelling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Sanromá, E; Parenteau, M N; Kiang, N Y; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A M; López, R; Montañés-Rodríguez, P

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected, and the efforts of future missions are placed on the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. But the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Ga, and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Ga ago. At that time one of the more widespread life forms on the planet were purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we used a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-IR radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents an...

  14. Characterization of Natural Dye Extracted from Wormwood and Purple Cabbage for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used natural dyes as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to replace expensive chemical synthetic dyes. We prepared two natural dyes, chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye, by extracting them from wormwood and purple cabbage, respectively. Moreover, we mixed the prepared chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye at 5 different volume ratios to form cocktail dyes. For preparation of photoelectrode, P25 TiO2 nanoparticles were used to prepare paste, which was coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass by the spin coating method at different spin coating speeds in order to form TiO2 thin films with different thicknesses. The DSSC prepared by the cocktail dye achieves photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 1.95%, open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.765 V, and short-circuit current density (JSC of 5.83 mA/cm2. Moreover, the prepared DSSC sensitized solely by chlorophyll extract of wormwood achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 0.9%, whereas the DSSC sensitized solely by anthocyanin extract of purple cabbage achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.47%, achieving the longest lifetime of electrons amongst these three dyes.

  15. Phenolic compound profiles and their corresponding antioxidant Capacity of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Patricia; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    Folin-Ciocalteu and TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay together with the spectrophotometric determination of betalains were applied to investigate the correlation between phenolics and their contribution to the antioxidant capacity of five different Costa Rican genotypes of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) and of H. polyrhizus fruits. Maximum antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and betalain contents were observed in the genotype 'Lisa'. While non-betalainic phenolic compounds contributed only to a minor extent, betalains were responsible for the major antioxidant capacity of purple pitaya juices evaluated. The phenolic pattern of each genotype was also thoroughly investigated using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry. In addition to the well known betalains previously reported in Hylocereus fruits, several biosynthetic precursors were detected. Notably, decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betalains were identified as genuine compounds of the juices. Some of these compounds were previously described as artifacts upon heat exposure. Moreover, gallic acid was identified for the first time in pitaya fruits. While the phenolic profiles generally differed between genotypes, phenolic compound composition of 'Rosa' resembled that of H. polyrhizus with respect to total contents of betacyanins, betalainic precursors, phyllocactin and cyclo-Dopa malonyl-glucosides.

  16. Methylation mediated by an anthocyanin, O-methyltransferase, is involved in purple flower coloration in Paeonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui; Wu, Jie; Ji, Kui-Xian; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Su, Shang; Shu, Qing-Yan; Ren, Hong-Xu; Liu, Zheng-An; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Anthocyanins are major pigments in plants. Methylation plays a role in the diversity and stability of anthocyanins. However, the contribution of anthocyanin methylation to flower coloration is still unclear. We identified two homologous anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) genes from purple-flowered (PsAOMT) and red-flowered (PtAOMT) Paeonia plants, and we performed functional analyses of the two genes in vitro and in vivo. The critical amino acids for AOMT catalytic activity were studied by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed that the recombinant proteins, PsAOMT and PtAOMT, had identical substrate preferences towards anthocyanins. The methylation activity of PsAOMT was 60 times higher than that of PtAOMT in vitro. Interestingly, this vast difference in catalytic activity appeared to result from a single amino acid residue substitution at position 87 (arginine to leucine). There were significant differences between the 35S::PsAOMT transgenic tobacco and control flowers in relation to their chromatic parameters, which further confirmed the function of PsAOMT in vivo. The expression levels of the two homologous AOMT genes were consistent with anthocyanin accumulation in petals. We conclude that AOMTs are responsible for the methylation of cyanidin glycosides in Paeonia plants and play an important role in purple coloration in Paeonia spp.

  17. Rhodoferax antarcticus sp. nov., a moderately psychrophilic purple nonsulfur bacterium isolated from an Antarctic microbial mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, M. T.; Jung, D. O.; Woese, C. R.; Achenbach, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    A new species of purple nonsulfur bacteria isolated from an Antarctic microbial mat is described. The organism, designated strain ANT.BR, was mildly psychrophilic, growing optimally at 15-18 degrees C with a growth temperature range of 0-25 degrees C. Cells of strain ANT.BR were highly motile curved rods and spirals, contained bacteriochlorophyll a, and showed a multicomponent in vivo absorption spectrum. A specific phylogenetic relationship was observed between strain ANT.BR and the purple bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans FR2T, and the two organisms shared several physiological and other phenotypic properties, with the notable exception of growth temperature optimum. Tests of genomic DNA hybridization, however, showed Rfx. fermentans FR2T and strain ANT.BR to be genetically distinct bacteria. Because of its unique set of properties, especially its requirement for low growth temperatures, we propose to recognize strain ANT.BR as a new species of the genus Rhodoferax, Rhodoferax antarcticus, named for its known habitat, the Antarctic.

  18. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds.

  19. A closer look at the feather coloration in the male purple sunbird, Nectarinia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Biswa Bhusana; Marathe, Sandhya Amol; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno; Mishra, Monalisa

    2016-06-01

    During the breeding season male, but not female, individuals of the purple sunbird possess colourful plumage of chiefly blue and black coloration with a splatter of orange and yellow on the chest. Representative feathers of these colours were collected from male birds during the breeding season and analyzed by reflectance and scanning electron microscopy. The rachis, which is the central support of a feather on which various barbs and barbules are arranged, is spongy and made up of keratin layers with rod-shaped melanosomes sparsely distributed within these layers. Barbs and barbules are the structural units of the feather and depending on how they are arranged provide a characteristic shape to the feather. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of the feathers revealed the presence of various metal elements that might contribute to the feathers' colorations. Blue feathers are iridescent and contain mainly iron, copper, zinc and cobalt (in that order of abundance); black feathers were also found to contain mainly iron and copper, but chromium instead of zinc and cobalt, while yellow feathers were found to contain predominantly cobalt and nickel. The metal content of the feathers in an as yet unknown way may be involved in the production of the distinct absorbance and reflectance patterns that the brilliant plumage of the purple sunbird is renowned for.

  20. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  1. Evolutionary Competition Between Primitive Photosynthetic Systems: Existence of an early purple Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, William B.; DasSarma, S.; Reid, I. N.

    2006-12-01

    The onset of photosynthesis in primitive cyanobacteria is thought to have profoundly altered the Earth’s atmosphere by producing an oxygen-rich atmosphere some 2 billion years ago. However, the pigments used by chlorophyll-based photosynthesis absorb at a variety of wavelengths, curiously except those centered around the peak of the Solar spectrum, 550nm. By contrast, simpler retinal-based light harvesting systems such as the haloarchaeal purple membrane bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin show a strong well-defined peak of absorbance centered at 550nm. The spectroscopic complementarity for retinal pigments with chlorophyll-based pigments suggests an intriguing possibility of their co-evolution. This hypothesis argues that simpler retinal-based phototrophic capability may have evolved earlier, in microorganisms that dominated during the anaerobic and purple phase of the planet. Later, the more complex chlorophyll-based photosystem pigments could have evolved to harvest light in regions of the spectrum not absorbed by preexisting species. This would have led to the greening and oxidation of our planet and displacement of most of the retinal-based microorganisms. Not surprisingly, evidence for retinal chromoproteins have recently turned up in a variety of planktonic microorganisms. Although speculative, such a scenario would indicate that retinal-based phototrophy may be one of the oldest metabolic capabilities on Earth. Moreover, if the chlorophyll absorption spectrum is simply a product of adaptation, then its utility as a potential biomarker is likely to be limited.

  2. Influence of environmental factors on growth and pigment synthesis by purple thiobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. О. Pavlova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different environmental factors on growth and pigment biosynthesis by particular strains of purple thiobacteria was investigated. These strains belong to the genus Chromatium, Thiocystis, Thiocapsa and Lamprocystis and were isolated from Yavoriv sulphur mine. Calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and sodium chloride should be included in the medium for optimal growth of these bacteria. Addition of these elements entails increasing the biomass production and synthesis of carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Initial concentration of inoculum and electron donor has essential influence on growth of purple thiobacteria. Early in the development of culture, sulphide was oxidized, and then the growth impairment and destruction of cells under exposure of light were observed. For the optimization of bacteria growth the electron donor (sulphide must be added many times during the cultivation process in the concentration, which is not exceed an inhibition dose. The additional bringing of the electron donor in the medium promotes the raise of cells’ biomass. The acetate introduction in the medium has positive influence on the pigments’ biosynthesis. The essential factor of growth and pigments’ biosynthesis is the light intensity. Peak gain of the culture growth was observed under 400 lx. The amplification of light exposure is accompanied by the decrease of growth and content of pigments in cells. Oxygen inhibits the synthesis of pigments in all strains

  3. A glucose biosensor employing a stable artificial peroxidase based on ruthenium purple anchored cinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Jyh-Myng; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai; Chung, Ching-Rue

    2003-06-01

    Iron-enriched industrial waste cinder (CFe*) has been recycled for efficient and stable anchoring of Ru(CN)6(4-) to the formation of a hybrid ruthenium purple complex. The cinder/ruthenium purple hybrid-modified carbon paste electrode (designated as CPE/CFe*-RP) was worked out for hydrodynamic analysis of H2O2 at a low detecting potential of 0.0 V versus Ag/AgCl in pH 7 ammonium buffer solution. The highly active, selective, and stable electrocatalytic system with a function similar to peroxidase enzyme shows a linear calibration curve up to 0.8 mM H2O2 at a rotation rate of 3600 rpm with slope and detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.11 microA/microM and 33 nM, respectively. Interference by direct electrochemical oxidation of easily oxidizable substances can be prevented as a result of the low detecting potential of the working system. A glucose biosensor was further constructed by coating with glucose oxidase and Tosflex on the CPE/CFe*-RP (denoted as CPE/CFe*-RP/GOx/Ts). The proposed CPE/CFe*-RP/GOx/Ts with a two-layer configuration, that is, enzyme and protecting layers, exhibits good operational performance in terms of response time, linearity, detection limit, and lifetime.

  4. Experience of the Art of Purple Clay in the Exhibition of Yixing Purple Clay Pots%从宜兴紫砂壶展中感受紫砂艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周笑梅

    2016-01-01

    A batch of purple clay works donated by ceramists of Yixing, Jiangsu, was on display in Anhui Museum. The exquisite works help people fully appreciate the profound and excellent purple clay craftsmanship of China, as well as the charm of the purple clay art and the intelligence and wisdom of celebrated purple clay artists. They will also cultivate the audience's love and sense of pride for China's long-standing history and culture.%安徽博物院展出了一批由江苏宜兴陶艺家捐赠的紫陶作品,这些精美的作品让人充分体会到我国紫砂技艺博大精深,感慨紫砂艺术的魅力,为历史上著名的紫砂艺人的聪明才智喝彩,为我国拥有悠久的历史文化而骄傲和自豪。

  5. Sweet Rice Wine Brewed with Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato%紫心甘薯酿制甜米酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤瑾; 李金生

    2009-01-01

    紫心甘薯含有大量的花青素,有一定的保健作用.以紫心甘薯为原料与糯米混合糖化发酵酿制的紫薯甜米酒,色泽深红透亮,口味鲜甜,酒香浓郁,该种深红色米酒为米酒类产品增添了新品种,同时为紫心甘薯的综合利用提供了新途径.%Purple-fleshed sweet potato contains plenty of anthocyanin,which promotes health in a certain way.The purple sweet potato rice wine is brewed from the fermented mixture of saccharified purple-fleshed sweet potato and glutinous rice.As the wine has a crystal carmine color,a fresh taste and fragrant odor,the burgundy-colored rice wine has added a new variety to the rice wine family,which provides a new way for the comprehensive use of purple-fleshed sweet potato.

  6. PARTIAL HYDROLYSIS OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO FLOUR BY AMYLASE FROM Saccharomycopsis fibuligera AND ITS APPLICATION FOR COMPOSITE BREADMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Safari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato is one of underutilized carbohydrate sources in Indonesia, whilst known as good source of carbohydrate and can act as functional food due to its anthocyanine and dietary fiber contents. Therefore in the present study, we try to modify the sweet potato flour by partial hydrolysis using amylase produced by Saccharomycospsis fibuligera R64 and apply the partially hydrolyzed flour for composite breadmaking. The amylase was produced using batch method and partially purified by the addition of ammonium sulfate followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G25 using fast performance liquid chromatography system. The enzyme was then used to hydrolyze the purple sweet potato flour. Characterizations of the partially hydrolyzed flour comprise reduction in amylose-iodine complex, SEM and XRD. Partially hydrolyzed flour was then used as composite flour for bread, with ratio of wheat to partially hydrolyzed purple sweet potato flour was 70 : 30. The produced bread was then analyzed for its texture, organoleptic test and visualization of the bread crumb using TEM. The results of the present study indicate that the enzyme partially hydrolyzed the sweet potato flour. Even though the quality of the composite bread is not as good as wheat bread, partial hydrolysis seems to improve the texture and appearance of the composite bread, as indicated by better swelling volume and firmness of the composite bread using partially hydrolyzed purple sweet potato flour.

  7. Proteomic analysis of the purple sulfur bacterium Candidatus "Thiodictyon syntrophicum" strain Cad16T isolated from Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storelli, Nicola; Saad, Maged M.; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Lake Cadagno is characterised by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). 2D-DIGE was used to monitor the global changes in the proteome of Candidatus "Thiodictyon syntrophicum" strain Cad16T both in the presence and absence of light. This study aimed...

  8. 1H NMR of High-Potential Iron-Sulfur Protein from the Purple Non-Sulfur Bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciurli, Stefano; Cremonini, Mauro Andrea; Kofod, Pauli

    1996-01-01

    Oxidized and reduced forms of high-potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) from the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodoferux fermentans have been characterized using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Pairwise and sequence-specific assignments of hyperfine-shifted 1H-NMR signals to protons of cysteine...

  9. The Color Quantitatively Expression, Rehabilitation and Color origin study of gray-purple nephrite from Qinghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Z.; Shen, A. H.; Lu, R.; Yang, M.

    2014-12-01

    Gray-purple nephrite is a special type of nephrite occurred in Sanchahe mining, Qinghai province, China. To quantitatively study its color, a representative gray-purple nephrite with typical color change from light to dark color was chosen as the experiment sample. By combination of the UV-VIS transmittance spectra and 1976 CIE L*a*b* Colorimetric parameters, we first realized the quantitative expression and color rehabilitation of the transmitted light color of this nephrite with a specific thickness (1.0 mm). Besides, according to the typical emission peak centered at 580 nm of photoluminescence spectra, and the absorption peak centered at 530 nm, as well as the contents of Mn element increased with the purple becoming darker, we can inferred that the purple color of nephrite was mainly caused by Mn2+. This conclusion was confirmed by our EPR spectroscopy results. For the famous color pattern "stream line" in the dark region, shown as color stripes with 100~10 μm size, we will also use micro-XRD mapping and in the future XANES mapping to determine the phase and chemical composition. This research method could offer valuable references to the color quantitatively expression and coloration mechanism research of other jewelries.

  10. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE INTERACTIONS AMONG CYANOBACTERIA, PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA AND CHEMOTROPIC SULFUR BACTERIA IN MICROBIAL MAT COMMUNITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEWIT, R; VANDENENDE, FP; VANGEMERDEN, H

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic one-dimensional reaction diffusion model was constructed to simulate benthic stratification patterns and population dynamics of cyanobacteria, purple and colorless sulfur bacteria as found in marine microbial mats. The model involves the major biogeochemical processes of the sulfur c

  11. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE INTERACTIONS AMONG CYANOBACTERIA, PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA AND CHEMOTROPIC SULFUR BACTERIA IN MICROBIAL MAT COMMUNITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEWIT, R; VANDENENDE, FP; VANGEMERDEN, H

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic one-dimensional reaction diffusion model was constructed to simulate benthic stratification patterns and population dynamics of cyanobacteria, purple and colorless sulfur bacteria as found in marine microbial mats. The model involves the major biogeochemical processes of the sulfur c

  12. Proteomic analysis of the purple sulfur bacterium Candidatus "Thiodictyon syntrophicum" strain Cad16T isolated from Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storelli, Nicola; Saad, Maged M.; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik;

    2014-01-01

    Lake Cadagno is characterised by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). 2D-DIGE was used to monitor the global changes in the proteome of Candidatus "Thiodictyon syntrophicum" strain Cad16T both in the presence and absence of light. This study aimed...

  13. "Paraffin wax-overlay of pour plate", a method for the isolation and enumeration of purple non-sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, A; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Arunasri, K

    2004-12-01

    A modification of pour plate technique with an overlay of wax was used for isolation and enumeration of purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) with equal efficiency as that of agar shake culture. The total count of PNSB ranged from 10(5)-10(8) CFU g dry soil(-1) and belonged to the genera of Rhodobacter, Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodocista and Rubrivivax.

  14. Geographical provenancing of purple grape juices from different farming systems by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry using supervised statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organic, biodynamic and conventional purple grape juices (PGJ; n = 79) produced in Brazil and Europe were characterized by volatile organic compounds (m/z 20-160) measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), and classification models were built using supervised sta

  15. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE INTERACTIONS AMONG CYANOBACTERIA, PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA AND CHEMOTROPIC SULFUR BACTERIA IN MICROBIAL MAT COMMUNITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEWIT, R; VANDENENDE, FP; VANGEMERDEN, H

    A deterministic one-dimensional reaction diffusion model was constructed to simulate benthic stratification patterns and population dynamics of cyanobacteria, purple and colorless sulfur bacteria as found in marine microbial mats. The model involves the major biogeochemical processes of the sulfur

  16. Organophosphate toxicity in wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, V F

    1976-10-01

    An accidental poisoning of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) by O,O-Diethyl O-[p-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl] phosphorothioate is reported. Diagnosis was achieved by history, clinical observations, postmortem lesions, diagnostic therapy and pesticide analysis.

  17. Veluws wild mag gaan zwerven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Herten, reeën en wilde zwijnen krijgen vrij baan op de Veluwe. Als ze zich tenminste netjes gaan gedragen in hun nieuwe leefgebieden. Alterra ontwikkelde daarom een plan om hun eerste stappen te monitoren.

  18. Environmental Assessment of Wild Turkey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report on the environmental assessment and proposed restocking of Wild Turkey at Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Santee Refuge proposes,...

  19. Omgaan met meer wilde zwijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman-Berson, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    Op de Veluwe mogen de komende jaren meer zwijnen leven. Betekent dat nog meer overlast dan in de afgelopen jaren? Of valt het juist mee door de nieuwe aanpak? Enkele zwijnenkenners geven reactie in dit Jaar van het wilde zwijn.

  20. and tulbaghia species (wild garlic)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, College of Natural and Applied ... Tulbaghia (wild Garlic) is a plant genus most closely related to the genus ... Moreover, recent scientific studies have been performed on crude extracts.

  1. Wild dogma Ⅱ: The role and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN; Richard M. ENGEMAN; Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-01-01

    The studies of Allen (2011) and Allen et al.(2011) revently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats.They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data,describing most of the current literature as 'wild dogma'.In this short supplement,we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia.We discuss nomenclature,and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6):737-740,2011].

  2. Extending the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatology Above 100 km Altitude Using an Inversion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, A.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, S.; McCullough, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the algorithm given by Chanin and Hauchecorne (1980; henceforth CH) for the last 3 decades. Recently Khanna et al. have presented an inversion approach to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles. This method uses a nonlinear inversion method with a Monte Carlo technique to determine the statistical uncertainties for the retrieved nightly average temperature profiles. Using this approach, Purple Crow Lidar temperature profiles can now be extended 10 km higher in altitude compared to those calculated with the CH method, with reduced systematic uncertainty. Argall and Sica (2007) used the CH method to produce a climatology of the Purple Crow Lidar measurements from 1994 to 2004 which was compared with the CIRA-86 model. The CH method integrates temperatures downward, and requires the assumption of a 'seed' pressure at the highest altitude, taken from a model. Geophysical variation here, in the lower thermosphere, is sufficiently large to cause temperature retrievals to be unreliable for the top 10 or more km; uncertainties due to this pressure assumption cause the top two scale heights of temperatures from each profile to be discarded until the retrieval is no longer sensitive to the seed pressure. Khanna et al. (2012) use an inversion approach which allows the corrected lidar photocount profile to be integrated upward, as opposed to downward as required by the CH method. Khanna et al. (2012) showed that seeding the retrieval at the lowest instead of top height allows a much smaller uncertainty in the contribution of the seed pressure to the temperature compared to integrating from the top of the profile. Two other benefits to seeding the retrieval at the lower altitudes (around 30 km) include reduced geophysical variability, and the availability of routine pressure measurements from radiosondes. This presentation will show an extension of the Khanna et al. (2012) comparison

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Quality Improvement of Purple Cabbage under Different Combinations of Monochromatic Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biyun; Zhou, Xiangzhu; Xu, Ru; Wang, Jin; Lin, Yizhang; Pang, Jie; Wu, Shuang; Zhong, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    Light is essential for plant growth. Light intensity, photoperiod, and light quality all affect plant morphology and physiology. Compared to light intensity, photoperiod, little is known about the effects of different monochromatic lights on crop species. To investigate how different lighting conditions influence crops with heterogeneous colors in leaves, we examined photosynthetic characteristics and quality (regarding edibility and nutrition) of purple cabbage under different combinations of lights. Eight different treatments were applied including monochromic red (R), monochromic blue (B), monochromic yellow (Y), monochromic green (G), and the combination of red and blue (3/1, RB), red/blue/yellow (3/1/1, RBY), red/blue/green (3/1/1,RBG), and white light as the control. Our results indicate that RBY (3/1/1) treatment promotes the PSII activity of purple cabbage, resulting in improved light energy utilization. By contrast, both G and Y lights alone have inhibitory effect on the PSII activity of purple cabbage. In addition, RBY (3/1/1) significantly boosts the anthocyanin and flavonoids content compared with other treatments. Although we detected highest soluble protein and vitamin C content under B treatment (increased by 30.0 and 14.3% compared with the control, respectively), RBY (3/1/1) appeared to be the second-best lighting condition (with soluble protein and vitamin C content increased by 8.6 and 4.1%, respectively compared with the control). Thus we prove that the addition of yellow light to the traditional combination of red/blue lighting conditions is beneficial to synthesizing photosynthetic pigments and enables superior outcome of purple cabbage growth. Our results indicate that the growth and nutritional quality of purple cabbage are greatly enhanced under RBY (3/1/1) light, and suggest that strategical management of lighting conditions holds promise in maximizing the economic efficiency of plant production and food quality of vegetables grown in

  4. Assessment of Input-Output Transformation in Purple Passion Fruit Production in Central-Eastern and North-Rift, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Macharia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been increasing economic importance of purple passion fruit in Kenya. The primary objective of this study was to assess the input-output transformation process in purple passion fruit production in Central-Eastern and North-Rift Kenya in order to identify avenues for improving and sustaining productivity. Cross-sectional data from 123 multistage sampled farmers was collected using a structured questionnaire, which was subjected to stochastic frontier in STATA 11 for analysis. The results showed that the purple passion fruit production input elasticity was 0.95 which represented decreasing returns to scale (DRS. The results also indicated that passion fruit farm size and manure had a negative and positive significant effect on purple passion fruit yields at 1% significance level, respectively. On the other hand, number of seedlings and hired labour variables had positive and significant effect on the fruit yields at 5% level. The results implied that passion farm size was overused while manure, number of seedlings and hired labour were underused. The gamma parameter (γ was 0.86 which indicates that 86% of the total variation in purple passion fruit output was due to technical inefficiencies. The overall mean technical efficiency (TE was 59% which indicated a cost saving estimate of 32% for the average farmer in attaining the TE of the most technically efficient farmer (86%. The study recommends up-scaling of passion fruit farming information systems so as to provide a basis for optimal use of production resources.

  5. Evaluation of laboratory-scale in situ capping sediments with purple parent rock to control the eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuejiao; Shi, Wenhao; Ni, Jiupai; Li, Zhenlun

    2017-01-16

    In this study, the effectiveness of controlling the eutrophication using purple parent rock to cap the sediments was evaluated in the laboratory scale. Sediments were collected from Sanxikou reservoir (China) in July 2013. Then, three types of purple parent rock (T1f, J3p, and J2s) which are distributed widely in southwest China were used to cap the sediments. Limestone and calcite were used as the contrast group, because they had been reported as effective controls on eutrophication. Then, they were incubated at 20 °C for 46 days. The results indicated that the application of purple parent rock as a barrier material can effectively inhibit the release of nutrient elements in sediments, and the inhibition rates of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonium (NH4-N), and nitrate (NO3-N) were much better than that of limestone and calcite. Among the three types of purple parent rock, J3p exhibited the best inhibitory effect on the release of nitrogen in sediments, and the inhibition efficiency of TN, NH4-N, and NO3-N was 59.7, 77.6, and 45.1%, respectively. As for T1f, it exhibited the best inhibitory effect on the release of TP in sediments with the inhibition rate of 94.4%. Whereas all these capping materials showed weak inhibition on release of organic matter in sediments, and the inhibition efficiencies were less than 20%. Moreover, these treatments could also cause distinct changes in the microbial community in sediments and overlying water, and the contents of TN and TP in all capping materials increased. All results demonstrated that purple parent rock could inhibit the release of nutrient in sediments through mechanical interception, physical adsorption, and chemical absorption as well as changing the microbial activity in the covering layer, sediments, or overlying water.

  6. Characterization of the cation binding sites of the purple membrane. Electron spin resonance and flash photolysis studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunach, M.; Seigneuret, M.; Rigaud, J.L.; Padros, E.

    1987-02-24

    The binding of Mn/sup 2 +/ and La/sup 3 +/ to the blue membrane prepared by deionization of the Halobacterium halobium purple membrane has been studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, visible absorption spectroscopy, and flash photolysis. ESR studies indicated that 10 Mn/sup 2 +/ binding sites are present per bacteriorhodopsin monomer. Five high- and medium-affinity sites, normally occupied by Ca/sup 2 +/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ in the purple membrane, as well as five low-affinity sites were found. Proteolysis and chemical modification experiments indicated that the low-affinity sites are located on the bacteriorhodopsin C-terminal segment, while the high- and medium-affinity sites involve other carboxyl groups of the protein. Competition experiments indicated that La/sup 2 +/ binds much more strongly than Mn/sup 2 +/ to these sites. Visible absorption spectroscopy and flash photolysis experiments indicated that binding of Mn/sup 2 +/ or La/sup 3 +/ regenerates both the purple color and formation of the M/sub 4//sup 12/ intermediate. The effect occurs progressively as cations bind to the high- and medium-affinity sites, bound La/sup 3 +/ being more effective than bound Mn/sup 2 +/. It is suggested that divalent cations support both the purple color and proton-pumping activity by rendering less negative the surface potential of the purple membrane. This process may promote deprotonation of the counterion of the retinal Schiff base and possibly of other functional groups. On the other hand, it is proposed that the inhibitory effect of La/sup 3 +/ is mainly due to binding to a site distinct from those of divalent cations.

  7. Cultivation technique points of northern purple perilla%北方紫苏栽培技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓飞; 刘淑霞; 肖宇; 郭梦桥; 程薪宇; 关向军; 徐海军; 魏国江

    2016-01-01

    近年来随着紫苏健康食品的开发,其作为健康食材,深受人们的青睐。北方紫苏种植面积呈现明显上升趋势,黑龙江省近几年每年的紫苏种植面积都超过15万亩以上。采用先进的栽培技术,可以提高紫苏产量和质量,提高紫苏种植的社会效益和经济效益。通过介绍紫苏土地选择、品种选择、整地措施、合理施肥、种子处理、合理群体密度、病虫草害防治等,以促进紫苏丰产丰收。%In recent years, with the development of purple perilla, it has been favored by people as the health food. Planted area of northern purple perilla has showed a clear upward trend, and its planted area of Heilongjiang has been more than 15 million mu each year. The use of advanced cultivation techniques can improve the yield and quality of purple perilla and improve its social and economic benefits. The land selection, variety selection, soil preparation measures, reasonable fertilization, seed treatment, reasonable population density, pest and weed control of purple perilla are introduced to promote the high yield of purple perilla.

  8. WildSilkbase: An EST database of wild silkmoths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional genomics has particular promise in silkworm biology for identifying genes involved in a variety of biological functions that include: synthesis and secretion of silk, sex determination pathways, insect-pathogen interactions, chorionogenesis, molecular clocks. Wild silkmoths have hardly been the subject of detailed scientific investigations, owing largely to non-availability of molecular and genetic data on these species. As a first step, in the present study we generated large scale expressed sequence tags (EST in three economically important species of wild silkmoths. In order to make these resources available for the use of global scientific community, an EST database called 'WildSilkbase' was developed. Description WildSilkbase is a catalogue of ESTs generated from several tissues at different developmental stages of 3 economically important saturniid silkmoths, an Indian golden silkmoth, Antheraea assama, an Indian tropical tasar silkmoth, A. mylitta and eri silkmoth, Samia cynthia ricini. Currently the database is provided with 57,113 ESTs which are clustered and assembled into 4,019 contigs and 10,019 singletons. Data can be browsed and downloaded using a standard web browser. Users can search the database either by BLAST query, keywords or Gene Ontology query. There are options to carry out searches for species, tissue and developmental stage specific ESTs in BLAST page. Other features of the WildSilkbase include cSNP discovery, GO viewer, homologue finder, SSR finder and links to all other related databases. The WildSilkbase is freely available from http://www.cdfd.org.in/wildsilkbase/. Conclusion A total of 14,038 putative unigenes was identified in 3 species of wild silkmoths. These genes provide important resources to gain insight into the functional and evolutionary study of wild silkmoths. We believe that WildSilkbase will be extremely useful for all those researchers working in the areas of

  9. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Keun Jin; Yeong-Jung Kim; Jae Hong Park; In-Chul Hur; Sang-Hae Nam; Daekeun Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combina...

  10. Applications of the Phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower in Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (EP, purple coneflower have been used traditionally in North America for the treatment of various types of infections and wounds, and they have become very popular herbal medicines globally. Recent studies have revealed that certain standardized preparations contain potent and selective antiviral and antimicrobial activities. In addition, they display multiple immune-modulatory activities, comprising stimulation of certain immune functions such as phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which are manifested as alterations in secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. These immune modulations result from upregulation or downregulation of the relevant genes and their transcription factors. All these bioactivities can be demonstrated at noncytotoxic concentrations of extract and appear to be due to multiple components rather than the individual chemical compounds that characterize Echinacea extracts. Potential applications of the bioactive extracts may go beyond their traditional uses.

  11. Women Identity and Meta-fictional Features in The Loves of Lady Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘棋文

    2013-01-01

      Two of most prominent characteristics of Angela Carter’s short stories are unconditional female protagonists and meta-fictional features. Carter is known as an eccentric feminist, however due to her radical attitude towards marriage, woman and prosti⁃tute;she is criticized and denounced by some other feminists. Female protagonists in her short story are often depicted as fatal wom⁃en. On the other hand, as a post-modernist writer, Carter constantly explores fundamental questions like the nature of language, the relationship between text, reader and author, etc. How does Carter depict a fatal woman? What are the answers towards those essen⁃tial inquiries? With those questions in mind, this paper will first analyze one of the typical Carter’s heroines Lady Purple, to exam⁃ine the multiple identities in this persona and then analyze the meta-fictional features in this short story.

  12. Purple-bacterial light harvesting benefits more from energy funnelling than from delocalisation

    CERN Document Server

    Baghbanzadeh, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Light-harvesting complexes of purple bacteria have two properties that are thought to contribute to the efficiency of their exciton transport: an energy funnel that directs excitons towards the reaction centre as well as substantial excitonic delocalisation, which can enhance transport through supertransfer. To determine the relative importance of these two features, we compared models of the light-harvesting apparatus with thousands of counterfactual situations in which the extent of delocalisation and the energy landscape were altered. We find that the influence of delocalisation is usually minor and sometimes deleterious, especially when compared to the decisive importance of a funnel in the energy landscape. Consequently, delocalisation is most likely a side-effect of the dense chlorophyll packing that evolved to increase light absorption per reaction centre.

  13. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gutiérrez-Macías

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC, ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively.

  14. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  15. Genus specific unusual carotenoids in purple bacteria, Phaeospirillum and Roseospira: structures and biosyntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaichi, Shinichi; Maoka, Takashi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Shimada, Keizo

    2011-07-01

    Phototrophic bacteria necessarily contain carotenoids for photosynthesis, and a few phototrophic purple bacteria accumulate unusual carotenoids. The carotenoids in the genera Phaeospirillum and Roseospira were identified using spectroscopic methods. All species of the genus Phaeospirillum contained characteristic polar carotenoids in addition to lycopene and hydroxylycopene (rhodopin); hydroxylycopene glucoside, dihydroxylycopene, and its mono- and/or diglucosides. From the structures of these carotenoids, their accumulation was suggested to be due to absence of CrtD (acyclic carotenoid C-3,4 desaturase) and to possession of glucosyltransferase. Species of the genus Roseospira have been reported to have unusual absorption spectra in acetone extract, and they were found to accumulate 3,4-didehydrorhodopin as a major carotenoid. This may be due to low activity of CrtF (acyclic 1-hydroxycarotenoid methyltransferase). The study concludes in identifying genus specific unusual carotenoids, which is probably due to characteristic nature of some carotenogenesis enzymes.

  16. Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of the Resistant Starch from Purple Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato starch is a potential resource for resistant starch production. The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT and enzyme debranching combined heat-moisture treatment (EHMT on the morphological, crystallinity and thermal properties of PSP starches were investigated. The results indicated that, after HMT or EHMT treatments, native starch granules with smooth surface was destroyed to form a more compact, irregular and sheet-like structure. The crystalline pattern was transformed from C-type to B-type with decreasing relative crystallinity. Due to stronger crystallites formed in modified starches, the swelling power and solubility of HMT and EHMT starch were decreased, while the transition temperatures and gelatinization enthalpy were significantly increased. In addition, HMT and EHMT exhibited greater effects on the proliferation of bifidobacteria compared with either glucose or high amylose maize starch.

  17. Purple phototrophic bacterium enhances stevioside yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB on growth and stevioside (ST yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant (-1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms.

  18. Applications of the phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower) in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (EP, purple coneflower) have been used traditionally in North America for the treatment of various types of infections and wounds, and they have become very popular herbal medicines globally. Recent studies have revealed that certain standardized preparations contain potent and selective antiviral and antimicrobial activities. In addition, they display multiple immune-modulatory activities, comprising stimulation of certain immune functions such as phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which are manifested as alterations in secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. These immune modulations result from upregulation or downregulation of the relevant genes and their transcription factors. All these bioactivities can be demonstrated at noncytotoxic concentrations of extract and appear to be due to multiple components rather than the individual chemical compounds that characterize Echinacea extracts. Potential applications of the bioactive extracts may go beyond their traditional uses.

  19. Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of the Resistant Starch from Purple Sweet Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yafeng; Wang, Qi; Li, Baoyu; Lin, Liangmei; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Zheng, Baodong; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-07-19

    Purple sweet potato starch is a potential resource for resistant starch production. The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and enzyme debranching combined heat-moisture treatment (EHMT) on the morphological, crystallinity and thermal properties of PSP starches were investigated. The results indicated that, after HMT or EHMT treatments, native starch granules with smooth surface was destroyed to form a more compact, irregular and sheet-like structure. The crystalline pattern was transformed from C-type to B-type with decreasing relative crystallinity. Due to stronger crystallites formed in modified starches, the swelling power and solubility of HMT and EHMT starch were decreased, while the transition temperatures and gelatinization enthalpy were significantly increased. In addition, HMT and EHMT exhibited greater effects on the proliferation of bifidobacteria compared with either glucose or high amylose maize starch.

  20. [Effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Xing; He, Bing-Hui; Mei, Xue-Mei; Liang, Yan-Ling; Xiong, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Taking bare land as the control, this paper studied the effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area. For the test six planting modes, the soil permeability was in the order of Eriobotrya japonica > Citrus limon > Vetiveria zizanioides hedgerows +corn >Leucaena leucocephala hedgerows + corn> Hemerocallis fulva > corn> bare land, and decreased with increasing depth. The eigenvalues of soil infiltration were in the order of initial infiltration rate> average infiltration rate> stable infiltration rate. The soil permeability had significant positive linear correlations with soil total porosity, non-capillary porosity, initial moisture content, water holding capacity, and organic matter content, and significant negative linear correlation with soil bulk density. The common empirical infiltration model could well fit the soil moisture infiltration processes under the six planting modes, while the Kostiakov equation could not.

  1. Photoprotection Mechanism of Light-Harvesting Antenna Complex from Purple Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Horibe, Tomoko; Sugisaki, Mitsuru; Cogdell, Richard J; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-02-11

    Photosynthetic light-harvesting apparatus efficiently capture sunlight and transfer the energy to reaction centers, while they safely dissipate excess energy to surrounding environments for a protection of their organisms. In this study, we performed pump-probe spectroscopic measurements with a temporal window ranging from femtosecond to submillisecond on the purple bacterial antenna complex LH2 from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 to clarify its photoprotection functions. The observed excited state dynamics in the time range from subnanosecond to microsecond exhibits that the triplet-triplet excitation energy transfer from bacteriochlorophyll a to carotenoid takes place with a time constant of 16.7 ns. Furthermore, ultrafast spectroscopic data suggests that a molecular assembly of bacteriochlorophyll a in LH2 efficiently suppresses a generation of triple bacteriochlorophyll a.

  2. Characteristics of Organo—Mineral Complexing of Microaggregates in Paddy Soils Developed from Purple Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEICHAOFU; XIEDETI; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with characteristics of organo-mineral complexing of microaggreagtes in the paddy soils developed from purple soils in Sichuan,China,Results show that the contents of orgainc matter in microaggreagates are in the order of 1-0.25mm>smaller than 0.05mm>0.05-0.25mm,But the organic matter in 1-0.01mm microaggregates accounts for 68.1%-78.7% of that in soil.The organic matter in 0.05mm microaggregates.The contents of loosely combined humus and the ratios of loosely and tithtly combined humus markedly decline with the size of microaggregates.Fresh soil humus formed from semi-decomposed organic material or organic manure added is combined first with0.05mm microaggregates.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of purple banana fiber; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica de fibra de bananeira roxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, A.P.B.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Miranda, C.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Cruz, A.M.F.; Luporini, S.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: anapaulabispo43@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Due to the environmental appeal that has grown in recent years, researches involving the use of renewable sources raw materials reaffirm this need. The vegetable fibers has excelled as promising materials with possibilities in different applications. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the physicochemical properties of banana fiber. These fibers were extracted from the banana pseudostem of a species not yet reported in the literature, Musa velutina, known as purple banana. For this experiment were used in natura fibers and processed fibers with NaOH 5% which were characterized by TGA, DSC, DRX and FTIR analysis. In the thermal analysis, both tested fibers showed good thermal properties. In DRX analysis, the processed fibers showed higher crystallinity. The use of these materials implies adding value to an agricultural waste in addition to being a more ecologically correct proposal. (author)

  4. Reduction of MTT to Purple Formazan by Vitamin E Isomers in the Absence of Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Wen; Loh, Hwei-San; Ting, Kang-Nee; Bradshaw, Tracey Dawn; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah

    2015-04-01

    The yellow tetrazolium salt 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) is widely used to determine cell viability in cell proliferation and cytotoxic assays. MTT is reduced by metabolically active cells to form an insoluble purple formazan product that is quantifiable by spectrophotometry. It is the most common and direct assay for cell viability. However, in this present study, we demonstrated that the vitamin E isomers α-β-γ-δ-tocotrienols and α-tocopherol were able to reduce MTT into a formazan product, despite the absence of living cells. For comparison, a second method for determining cell viability, which is the neutral red uptake assay, was used in parallel with the MTT assay. The results showed that neutral red did not interact with the vitamin E isomers. Our findings suggest that the MTT assay is not suitable for studying the proliferative effects of vitamin E isomers on cell growth.

  5. The genomic complement of purple acid phosphatase phytases in the Triticeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holme, Inger

    2011-01-01

    phytase activity in the mature grains, however varying significantly between the individual species. After multiple steps of chromatography, the phytase activity elutes as one peak, indicating that it consists of either one enzyme or more than one very similar enzymes. Recent work in our group** has...... demonstrated that these enzymes are purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhy’s) encoded by a few highly conserved mRNA’s expressed either during grain filling (PAPhy_a’s) or germination (PAPhy_b’s). In the present study, 15 genomic PAPhy sequences from wheat, barley, rye, einkorn and Aegilops taushii were......, PAPhy_b promoters contain elements typical of gibberellic acid induced germination related hydrolases. PAPhy_a promoters in contrast possess elements known from storage protein promoters. **Dionisio G, Madsen CK, Holm PB, Welinder KG, Jørgensen M, Stoger E, Arcalis E, Brinch-Pedersen H. Cloning...

  6. Anthocyanin-rich purple corn extract inhibit diabetes-associated glomerular angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyung Kang

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the major diabetic complications and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Abnormal angiogenesis results in new vessels that are often immature and play a pathological role in DN, contributing to renal fibrosis and disrupting glomerular failure. Purple corn has been utilized as a daily food and exerts disease-preventive activities. This study was designed to investigate whether anthocyanin-rich purple corn extract (PCE prevented glomerular angiogenesis under hyperglycemic conditions. Human endothelial cells were cultured in conditioned media of mesangial cells exposed to 33 mM high glucose (HG-HRMC-CM. PCE decreased endothelial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α induced by HG-HRMC-CM. Additionally, PCE attenuated the induction of the endothelial marker of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1 and integrin β3 enhanced in HG-HRMC-CM. Endothelial tube formation promoted by HG-HRMC-CM was disrupted in the presence of PCE. In the in vivo study employing db/db mice treated with 10 mg/kg PCE for 8 weeks, PCE alleviated glomerular angiogenesis of diabetic kidneys by attenuating the induction of VEGF and HIF-1α. Oral administration of PCE retarded the endothelial proliferation in db/db mouse kidneys, evidenced by its inhibition of the induction of vascular endothelium-cadherin, PECAM-1 and Ki-67. PCE diminished the mesangial and endothelial induction of angiopoietin (Angpt proteins under hypeglycemic conditions. The induction and activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 were dampened by treating PCE to db/db mice. These results demonstrate that PCE antagonized glomerular angiogenesis due to chronic hyperglycemia and diabetes through disturbing the Angpt-Tie-2 ligand-receptor system linked to renal VEGFR2 signaling pathway. Therefore, PCE may be a potent therapeutic agent targeting abnormal angiogenesis in DN leading to kidney failure.

  7. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Luo, Banglin; Ding, Linqiao; Gong, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0-0.5 m, 0.5-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-4 m, 4-5 m, 5-6 m, 6-7 m, 7-8 m, 8-10 m, and 10-12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min) and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°). The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  8. Cloning and characterization of nif structural and regulatory genes in the purple sulfur bacterium, Halorhodospira halophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuihiji, Hisayoshi; Yamazaki, Yoichi; Kamikubo, Hironari; Imamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Mikio

    2006-03-01

    Halorhodospira halophila is a halophilic photosynthetic bacterium classified as a purple sulfur bacterium. We found that H. halophila generates hydrogen gas during photoautotrophic growth as a byproduct of a nitrogenase reaction. In order to consider the applied possibilities of this photobiological hydrogen generation, we cloned and characterized the structural and regulatory genes encoding the nitrogenase, nifH, nifD and nifA, from H. halophila. This is the first description of the nif genes for a purple sulfur bacterium. The amino-acid sequences of NifH and NifD indicated that these proteins are an Fe protein and a part of a MoFe protein, respectively. The important residues are conserved completely. The sequence upstream from the nifH region and sequence similarities of nifH and nifD with those of the other organisms suggest that the regulatory system might be a NifL-NifA system; however, H. halophila lacks nifL. The amino-acid sequence of H. halophila NifA is closer to that of the NifA of the NifL-NifA system than to that of NifA without NifL. H. halophila NifA does not conserve either the residue that interacts with NifL or the important residues involved in NifL-independent regulation. These results suggest the existence of yet another regulatory system, and that the development of functional systems and their molecular counterparts are not necessarily correlated throughout evolution. All of these Nif proteins of H. halophila possess an excess of acidic residues, which acts as a salt-resistant mechanism.

  9. Physicochemical characterization of white, yellow and purple maize flours and rheological characterization of their doughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R; Chenlo, F; Arufe, S; Rubinos, S N

    2015-12-01

    White, yellow and purple maize flours were obtained after dried kernels milling with two different sieves (200 and 500 μm). Hygroscopic characteristics, particle size distribution, colour and total starch and damaged starch (DS) of flours were determined. Maize flour doughs were obtained by mixing of flour and water in a laboratory kneader (Mixolab®) at constant dough consistency (1.10 ± 0.07 Nm). Dough properties like water absorption (WA), development and stability times were determined. Rheological characterization was carried out at 30 °C by means of oscillatory frequency sweep (1-100 rad s(-1)) at 0.1 % strain and creep (50 Pa, 60 s) - recovery (0 Pa, 180 s) tests using a controlled stress rheometer. No significant differences were observed among water desorption isotherms of maize varieties and Halsey model was satisfactorily employed. Under the same milling conditions, white maize flours showed higher average particles size than purple and yellow maize flours. A model to predict flours colour involving colour parameters of the particle size fractions is proposed. Flours obtained with smaller particle size showed higher DS content and WA. For tested doughs, the mechanical spectra showed that elastic component was dominant over the viscous one. Damping factor varied slightly with angular frequency. Moduli values depended on average particle size and WA of dough. Creep-recovery data were satisfactorily fit with Burgers model. Instantaneous creep compliance varied with the same trend than elastic modulus. Viscoelastic creep compliance increased linearly with WA of the tested doughs and, at constant average flour particle size, increased with increasing DS.

  10. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0–0.5 m, 0.5–1 m, 1–2 m, 2–3 m, 3–4 m, 4–5 m, 5–6 m, 6–7 m, 7–8 m, 8–10 m, and 10–12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  11. Biosynthesis and Isotopic Composition of Bacteriochlorophyll a and Okenone in Purple Sulfur Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Scott, J. H.; Steele, A.; Cody, G. D.; Ohara, S.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria play an integral part in the anaerobic cycling of sulfur. Bacteriochloroyphll a (Bchl a) is a well-studied photosynthetic compound required for photosynthesis in the organisms that possess it. The only known fossil of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) in the geologic record is okenane, believed to be of biologic origin originating from the carotenoid pigment okenone, which has only been documented in eleven species of Chromatiaceae. Organic geochemical studies have identified okenane in preserved organic matter in rocks and ancient sediments and further, okenone production has been observed in modern water columns and sediment surfaces. We have undertaken a comprehensive study on the biosynthesis of bacterial pigments including okenone and C, N, and S isotopic fractionation during various growth modes in controlled laboratory experiments of purple sulfur bacteria. Cultures of Marichromatium purpuratum 1591, M. purpuratum 1711, Thiocapsa marina 5653, and FGL21 (isolated from the chemocline of Fayetteville Green Lake, NY) were grown under autotrophic and photoheterotrophic (e.g. acetate or pyruvate) conditions in batch cultures. Concentrations of okenone and Bchl a were quantified as a function of time and growth by Ultra Performance-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UP-LC-MS) and spectrophotometry. Overall okenone and Bchl a concentrations reached μM levels in the cultures. At stationary phase, all four strains achieved concentrations of okenone and Bchl a that were approximately 2.5 fM and 0.2 fM per cell, respectively, with okenone to Bchl a ratios of approximately 12 to 1. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) was performed on bulk cells and compound specific analysis of Bchl a and okenone to better understand the fractionation associated with the production of the compounds.

  12. Excitonic energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Jun; Sun Kewei; Zhao Yang; Lee, Chee Kong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu Yunjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Guangdong 518060 (China); Cao Jianshu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2012-06-28

    Two distinct approaches, the Frenkel-Dirac time-dependent variation and the Haken-Strobl model, are adopted to study energy transfer dynamics in single-ring and double-ring light-harvesting (LH) systems in purple bacteria. It is found that the inclusion of long-range dipolar interactions in the two methods results in significant increase in intra- or inter-ring exciton transfer efficiency. The dependence of exciton transfer efficiency on trapping positions on single rings of LH2 (B850) and LH1 is similar to that in toy models with nearest-neighbor coupling only. However, owing to the symmetry breaking caused by the dimerization of BChls and dipolar couplings, such dependence has been largely suppressed. In the studies of coupled-ring systems, both methods reveal an interesting role of dipolar interactions in increasing energy transfer efficiency by introducing multiple intra/inter-ring transfer paths. Importantly, the time scale (4 ps) of inter-ring exciton transfer obtained from polaron dynamics is in good agreement with previous studies. In a double-ring LH2 system, non-nearest neighbor interactions can induce symmetry breaking, which leads to global and local minima of the average trapping time in the presence of a non-zero dephasing rate, suggesting that environment dephasing helps preserve quantum coherent energy transfer when the perfect circular symmetry in the hypothetic system is broken. This study reveals that dipolar coupling between chromophores may play an important role in the high energy transfer efficiency in the LH systems of purple bacteria and many other natural photosynthetic systems.

  13. High sensitivity electron diffraction analysis. A study of divalent cation binding to purple membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, A.K.; Stroud, R.M. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-02-01

    A sensitive high-resolution electron diffraction assay for change in structure is described and harnessed to analyze the binding of divalent cations to the purple membrane (PM) of Halobacterium halobium. Low-dose electron diffraction patterns are subject to a matched filter algorithm. to extract accurate values of reflection intensities. This, coupled with a scheme to account for twinning and specimen tilt in the microscope, yields results that are sensitive enough to rapidly quantitate any structure change in PM brought about by site-directed mutagenesis to the level of less than two carbon atoms. Removal of tightly bound divalent cations (mainly Ca2+ and Mg2+) from PM causes a color change to blue and is accompanied by a severely altered photocycle of the protein bacteriohodopsin (bR), a light-driven proton pump. We characterize the structural changes that occur upon association of 3:1 divalent cation to PM, versus membranes rendered purple by addition of excess Na+. High resolution, low dose electron diffraction data obtained from glucose-embedded samples of Pb2+ and Na+ reconstituted PM preparations at room temperature identify several sites with total occupancy of 2.01 +/- 0.05 Pb2+ equivalents. The color transition as a function of ion concentration for Ca2+ or Mg2+ and Pb2+ are strictly comparable. A (Pb2(+)-Na+) PM Fourier difference map in projection was synthesized at 5 A using the averaged data from several nominally untilted patches corrected for twinning and specimen tilt. We find six major sites located on helices 7, 5, 4, 3, 2 in close association with bR. These partially occupied sites (0.55-0.24 Pb2+ equivalents) represent preferential sites of binding for divalent cations and complements our earlier result by x-ray diffraction.

  14. Is it turquoise + fuchsia = purple or is it turquoise + fuchsia = blue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    The first step in communicating color is to name it. The second step is color semiotics. The third step is introducing structure in the set of colors. In color education at all levels, this structure often takes the form of formulæ, like red + green = yellow, or turquoise + red = black. In recent times, Johannes Itten's color theory and its associated color wheel have been very influential, mostly through its impact on Bauhaus, although a number of color order systems and circles have been introduced over the centuries. Students get confused when they are trying to formulate the color name arithmetic using the structure of color order systems and concepts like complementary colors and opponent colors. Suddenly turquoise + fuchsia = purple instead of blue; purple and violet become blurred, and finally the student's head explodes under the epistemological pressures of Itten, Albers, Goethe, Runge, Newton, da Vinci, and all the other monsters of color structure. In this contribution we propose a systematic presentation of structure in color, from color theories to color naming. We start from the concept of color perception introduced by da Vinci and work ourselves through color measurement, color formation, and color naming, to develop the basis for a robust system based on table lookup and interpolation. One source of confusion is that color naming has been quite loose in color theory, where for example red can be used interchangeably with fuchsia, and blue with turquoise. Furthermore, common color terms are intermingled with technical colorant terms, for example cyan and aqua or fuchsia and magenta. We present the evolution of a few color terms, some of which have experienced a radical transition over the centuries, and describe an experiment showing the robustness of crowd-sourcing for color naming.

  15. KANDUNGAN ANTOSIANIN DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN UBI JALAR UNGU SEGAR DAN PRODUK OLAHANNYA (Anthocyanins Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Purple Fleshed Sweet Potato and Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida El Husna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple fleshed sweet potato is a potential source of anthocyanins which is as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic. Anthocyanins can be damaged by high temperatures. However, traditionally a number of processed sweet potato products involve heat treatment. This study aimed to assess the reduction of anthocyanins content in processed sweet potato products (flour, chips, sweet potato, steamed, boiled, and fried pieces from two types of local purple fleshed sweet potato (light purple and dark purple, therefore it might provide useful information stages in order to maintain the content of anthocyanins. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD of factorial arrangement treatments (two types of purple fleshed sweet potato, and five types of purple fleshed sweet potato processed products. The main analysis parameter are anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The anthocyanins content of dark purple fleshed sweet potato was 61.85 mg/100g, 17 times higher than light purple fleshed sweet potatoes 3.51 mg/100g. Dark purple fleshed sweet potatoes have antioxidant activity approximately 59.25%, greater than light purple fleshed sweet potatoes 56.64%. Decrease in anthocyanins content for processed products from both types of purple sweet potatoes showed the same trend. Purple sweet potato processed products that able to maintain fairly high the content of anthocyanins (the lowest rate of decline in anthocyanin levels were obtained on a steamed sweet potato (34.14% for dark purple and 42.16% for light purple, while the highest reduction obtained on the product chips (95.21% for dark purple and 88.47% for light purple. Reduction of antioxidant activity showed a directly proportion of the decrease in anthocyanins content of processed products, with the exception of processed products chips. Keywords: Purple fleshed sweet potato, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity   ABSTRAK Ubi jalar ungu potensial

  16. 紫薯玉米粒乳酸菌乳饮料生产工艺及其稳定性研究%Study on production process and stability of lactobacillus milk beverage with purple yam and purple corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏仲珊; 李华丽; 邓萍; 陈瑶; 罗玉

    2012-01-01

    The purple yam as the main materials prepared purple yam liquid and the milk prepard fermented milk,added sugar,stabilizing agent,chelating agent in fermented milk,mixed equably,which prepared with purple yam liquid according to the proportion,then put purple corn in it,sterilizing then get lactobacillus milk beverage with purple yam and purple corn product.The single factor and the response surface experiment indicated that the addition of stabilizing agent was 0.24%(monoglyceride:CMC:agar-agar=10:9:3),the addition of chelating agent was 0.048%(sodium phosphate trimer:calgon=2:3),homogenize pressure was 30MPa,sterilizing temperature was 80℃.In this condition,the precipitation rate of the beverage was only 1.68%,achieved basically the effect of stability.%以紫薯为原料制备酶解紫薯液,以鲜牛奶为原料制备发酵乳,往发酵乳中加入糖、稳定剂和螯合剂,搅拌混匀,按比例加入紫薯液进行调配,再进行灌装,灌装同时放入备用紫玉米粒,经杀菌,即得到紫薯玉米粒乳酸菌乳饮料产品。通过单因素及响应面实验,对复合稳定剂添加量、螯合剂添加量、均质压力和杀菌温度等影响因素进行了稳定性研究。结果表明,复合稳定剂(单甘酯:CMC:琼脂=10:9:3)加量为0.24%,螯合剂(三聚磷酸钠:六偏磷酸钠=2:3)加量为0.048%,均质压力为30MPa,杀菌温度为80℃。在此工艺条件下,饮料的沉淀率为1.68%,基本达到了稳定效果。

  17. House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) Conjunctivitis, and Mycoplasma spp. Isolated from North American Wild Birds, 1994-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, David H; Hawley, Dana M; Geary, Steven J; Dhondt, André A

    2016-07-01

    Sampling wild birds for mycoplasma culture has been key to the study of House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) conjunctivitis, yielding isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum spanning the temporal and geographic ranges of disease from emergence to endemicity. Faced with the challenges and costs of sample collection over time and from remote locations for submission to our laboratory for mycoplasma culture, protocols evolved to achieve a practical optimum. Herein we report making M. gallisepticum isolates from House Finches almost every year since the disease emerged in 1994, and we now have 227 isolates from 17 states. Our wild bird host range for M. gallisepticum isolates includes Blue Jay ( Cyanocitta cristata ), American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis), Lesser Goldfinch (Spinus psaltria), Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus), Evening Grosbeak ( Coccothraustes vespertinus ), and herein first reports for Western Scrub-jay ( Aphelocoma californica ), and American Crow ( Corvus brachyrhynchos ). By collecting and identifying isolates from birds with clinical signs similar to those of House Finch conjunctivitis, we also expanded the known host range of Mycoplasma sturni and obtained isolates from additional wild bird species. Accumulating evidence shows that a diverse range of wild bird species may carry or have been exposed to M. gallisepticum in the US, as in Europe and Asia. Therefore, the emergence of a pathogenic M. gallisepticum strain in House Finches may actually be the exception that has allowed us to identify the broader epidemiologic picture.

  18. Wild, scenic, and transcendental rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    “A more lovely stream than this has never flowed on Earth,” 19th century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the confluence of the Assabet and Concord Rivers, streams that meander about 40 km west of Boston, Massachusetts.Segments of these streams as well as the Assabet River became the newest additions to the U.S. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, when President Bill Clinton signed into law the “Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Wild and Scenic River Act” on April 9.

  19. Vasodilatador effect mediated by nitric oxide of the Zea mays L (Andean purple corn) hydroalcoholic extract in aortic rings of rat

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Loaiza, Oscar; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Agustinos, Arequipa, Perú. Estudiante de medicina.; Paz-Aliaga, Azael; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Científico, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Biólogo, PhD en Fisiología y Biofísica.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the vasodilator response of the hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn) and to determine if this response is mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Material and methods: We obtained an extract by maceration for eight days of Andean purple corn cobs in 70% ethanol and subsequent concentration of the product. Thoracic aortic rings were evaluated in an isolated organ chamber, bathed with Krebs-Hensleit solution (KH), and vasomotor activity was recorded with ...

  20. Capillariasis in penned wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, G A; Turner, L W; Tucker, F S

    1979-07-01

    Capillariasis caused by Capillaria annulata was associated with dilated crops, emaciation and mortality of 23 juvenile wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in a captive flock. Gross lesions in the crops ranged from slithtly-thickened lining folds to a thick necrotic diphtheritic membrane covering the entire inside surface. The parasites were in the squamous epithelium. Hygromycin controlled the outbreak.

  1. Bee-Wild about Pollinators!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bonnie; Kil, Jenny; Evans, Elaine; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    With their sunny stripes and fuzzy bodies, bees are beloved--but unfortunately, they are in trouble. Bee decline, of both wild bees as well as managed bees like honey bees, has been in the news for the last several years. Habitat loss, diseases, pests, and pesticides have made it difficult for bees to survive in many parts of our world (Walsh…

  2. Wild Man of the Woods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛勤

    1994-01-01

    Nowadays. it is easy to see gorillas in the wild, if you have the time and money. You go to the central African state of Rwanda, pay a certain amount in U.S. dollars, and are taken by a trained guide to meet one of the gorilla families that live on the slopes of the Virunga Mountains. But

  3. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  4. Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129...

  5. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...

  6. Application prospect of purple sweet potatoes in meat products%紫薯在肉制品中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦冰; 胡红梅; 祝恒前; 孙大地; 毛晓茗

    2012-01-01

    自紫薯引入中国,其产品开发类型主要围绕着色素提取和功能性食品进行的;其中功能性食品包括紫薯全粉、冻干食品、紫薯饮料、茎尖蔬菜和休闲食品。结合紫薯的营养价值和紫薯淀粉的理化性质,本文对紫薯在肉制品行业的应用前景进行了探讨,同时为新品研发提供可行性依据。%Since the purple sweet potatoes were introduced into China, its products development mainly focus on pigment extraction and functional food. Functional foods included purple sweet potatoes powder, freeze -dried food, beverage made by purple sweet potatoes, stem tip vegetables and snack foods. Combination of nutrition value of purple sweep potatoes and physicochemical properties of purple sweet potato starch, the application prospect of purple sweet potatoes in meat industry was discussed, which providing a feasible basis for new product development.

  7. EVALUATION OF BIOAGENTS FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE ONION PURPLE BLOTCH AND BULB YIELD LOSS ASSESSMENT UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. YADAV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the several diseases, purple blotch diseases of onion (Allium cepa L. caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cif. is one of the most destructive disease causing accountable losses of about 80 to 90 per cent. The results obtained on the field efficacy of different bioagents tested, Pseudomonas fluorescens--I (0.5% was found most antifungal against A. porri and recorded significantly least mean disease intensity (37.19% and gave maximum bulb yield (27183 kg/ha. Both the fungal and bacterial antagonists tested were also found effective against A. porri and recorded significantly reduced mean disease intensity thereby increased the bulb yield over unsprayed control. Based on incremental cost:benefit ratio (ICBR of the bioagents spray treatments, P. fluorescens--I (ICBR, 1:13.87 was found economical and effective for the management of purple blotch of onion followed by Bacillus subtilis (ICBR, 1:12.93.

  8. Singlet-triplet fission of carotenoid excitation in light-harvesting LH2 complexes of purple phototrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenina, I B; Makhneva, Z K; Moskalenko, A A; Gudkov, N D; Bolshakov, M A; Pavlova, E A; Proskuryakov, I I

    2014-03-01

    The current generally accepted structure of light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple phototrophic bacteria conflicts with the observation of singlet-triplet carotenoid excitation fission in these complexes. In LH2 complexes from the purple bacterium Allochromatium minutissimum, a drop in the efficiency of carotenoid triplet generation is demonstrated, which correlates with the extent of selective photooxidation of bacteriochlorophylls absorbing at ~850 nm. We conclude that singlet-triplet fission of carotenoid excitation proceeds with participation of these excitonically coupled bacteriochlorophylls. In the framework of the proposed mechanism, the contradiction between LH2 structure and photophysical properties of carotenoids is eliminated. The possibility of singlet-triplet excitation fission involving a third mediator molecule was not considered earlier.

  9. Production of elastic sausage with purple sweet potato leaves%紫薯叶弹力香肠的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2016-01-01

    研究以猪肉为主要原料,添加紫薯叶,在传统香肠肉制品的加工工艺和配方基础之上进行改进,制作出紫薯叶弹力香肠,该弹力香肠具有较好的感官和理化指标,营养价值较高。%The pork was taken as the main raw material. On the basis of traditional sausage meat products, the process technology and formula were improved, and purple sweet potato leaves were added to make the elastic sausage of purple sweet potato leaves. The elastic sausage had better sensory and physical and chemical indicators, and had high nutritional value.

  10. Membrane development in purple photosynthetic bacteria in response to alterations in light intensity and oxygen tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederman, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    Studies on membrane development in purple bacteria during adaptation to alterations in light intensity and oxygen tension are reviewed. Anoxygenic phototrophic such as the purple α-proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides have served as simple, dynamic, and experimentally accessible model organisms for studies of the photosynthetic apparatus. A major landmark in photosynthesis research, which dramatically illustrates this point, was provided by the determination of the X-ray structure of the reaction center (RC) in Blastochloris viridis (Deisenhofer and Michel, EMBO J 8:2149-2170, 1989), once it was realized that this represented the general structure for the photosystem II RC present in all oxygenic phototrophs. This seminal advance, together with a considerable body of subsequent research on the light-harvesting (LH) and electron transfer components of the photosynthetic apparatus has provided a firm basis for the current understanding of how phototrophs acclimate to alterations in light intensity and quality. Oxygenic phototrophs adapt to these changes by extensive thylakoid membrane remodeling, which results in a dramatic supramolecular reordering to assure that an appropriate flow of quinone redox species occurs within the membrane bilayer for efficient and rapid electron transfer. Despite the high level of photosynthetic unit organization in Rba. sphaeroides as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements have demonstrated that the addition of the peripheral LH2 antenna complex in cells adapting to low-intensity illumination results in a slowing of the rate of electron transfer turnover by the RC of up to an order of magnitude. This is ascribed to constraints in quinone redox species diffusion between the RC and cytochrome bc1 complexes arising from the increased packing density as the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) bilayer becomes crowded with LH2 rings. In addition to downshifts in light intensity as a paradigm

  11. Investigation on antimicrobial effects of essential oil of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. and identification of its chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Izadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea L. is a perennial herbaceous with astringent properties, disinfectant, antimicrobial and anti intoxication activity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of shoot essential oil of purple coneflower against some microorganisms including gram positive, gram negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Material and Methods: In this experimental and laboratory investigation, plant samples were collected in full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. The chemical constitutes of this oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS method. Anti microbial properties of the essential oil were determined using micro broth dilution and well disk diffusion methods. At the end, data were analyzed by the SPSS version 15 software, using the T-test and Duncan s' test. Results: Twenty nine components were identified by GC and GC/MS in the essential oil of purple coneflower representing 96.21% of total oil. The major components were Germacrene D (53.30%, -Cymene (9.78%, β-Caryophyllene (7.52%, α-Humulene (5.22%, β-Bisabolene (4.43% and α-Pinene (4.23%, respectively. This oil exhibited strong antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast with average of inhibition zone (AIZ 39.63. Microorganisms differ in their resistance to purple coneflower oil. All of the bacteria including gram positive and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than fungi and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than gram positive bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium were more resistant than others. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that coneflower essential oil with significant antimicrobial effects and can be used instead of synthetic antibiotics that microbial resistance towards them is increasing.

  12. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. A. Rashid; F. S. Rehmani; Arman, M; Ibrahim, M; Shafique, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of...

  13. The Power Of Language On the Narrative Strategies of Their Eyes Were Watching God and The Colour Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦彦

    2008-01-01

    Their Eyes Were Watching God and The Colour Purple are very famous in the black woman literature.The two novels have something in common.They both record the growth of woman.The two novels share the same theme and reach the same goal by different routes.The two novels adopt two different narrative strategies to express the process of personal development.

  14. Soil carbon sequestration under long-term rice-based cropping systems of purple soil in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-zhu; CHEN Qing-rui; QIN Yu-sheng; CHEN Kun; TU Shi-hua; XU Ming-gang; ZHANG Wen-ju

    2015-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is a complex process controled by farming practices, climate and some other environment factors. Since purple soils are unique in China and used as the main cropland in Sichuan Basin of China, it is of great importance to study and understand the impacts of different fertilizer amendments on soil organic carbon (SOC) changes with time. A research was carried out to investigate the relationship between soil carbon sequestration and organic carbon input as affected by different fertilizer treatments at two long-term rice-based cropping system experiments set up in early 1980s. Each experiment consisted of six identical treatments, including (1) no fertilizer (CK), (2) nitrogen and phos-phorus fertilizers (NP), (3) nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), (4) fresh pig manure (M), (5) nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers plus manure (MNP), and (6) nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers plus manure (MNPK). The results showed that annual harvestable carbon biomass was the highest in the treatment of MNPK, folowed by MNP and NPK, then M and NP, and the lowest in CK. Most of fertilizer treatments resulted in a signiifcant gain in SOC ranging from 6.48 to 29.13% compared with the CK, and raised soil carbon sequestration rate to 0.10–0.53 t ha–1 yr−1. Especialy, addition of manure on the basis of mineral fertilizers was very conducive to SOC maintenance in this soil. SOC content and soil carbon sequestration rate under balanced fertilizer treatments (NPK and MNPK) in the calcareous purple soil (Suining) were higher than that in the acid purple soil (Leshan). But carbon conversion rate at Leshan was 11.00%, almost 1.5 times of that (7.80%) at Suining. Signiifcant linear correlations between soil carbon sequestration and carbon input were observed at both sites, signifying that the purple soil was not carbon-saturated and stil had considerable potential to sequestrate more carbon.

  15. High sensitivity electron diffraction analysis. A study of divalent cation binding to purple membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A K; Stroud, R M

    1990-02-01

    A sensitive high-resolution electron diffraction assay for change in structure is described and harnessed to analyze the binding of divalent cations to the purple membrane (PM) of Halobacterium halobium. Low-dose electron diffraction patterns are subject to a matched filter algorithm (Spencer, S. A., and A. A. Kossiakoff. 1980. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 13:563-571). to extract accurate values of reflection intensities. This, coupled with a scheme to account for twinning and specimen tilt in the microscope, yields results that are sensitive enough to rapidly quantitate any structure change in PM brought about by site-directed mutagenesis to the level of less than two carbon atoms. Removal of tightly bound divalent cations (mainly Ca2+ and Mg2+) from PM causes a color change to blue and is accompanied by a severely altered photocycle of the protein bacteriohodopsin (bR), a light-driven proton pump. We characterize the structural changes that occur upon association of 3:1 divalent cation to PM, versus membranes rendered purple by addition of excess Na+. High resolution, low dose electron diffraction data obtained from glucose-embedded samples of Pb2+ and Na+ reconstituted PM preparations at room temperature identify several sites with total occupancy of 2.01 +/- 0.05 Pb2+ equivalents. The color transition as a function of ion concentration for Ca2+ or Mg2+ and Pb2+ are strictly comparable. A (Pb2(+)-Na+) PM Fourier difference map in projection was synthesized at 5 A using the averaged data from several nominally untilted patches corrected for twinning and specimen tilt. We find six major sites located on helices 7, 5, 4, 3, 2 (nomenclature of Engelman et al. 1980. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77:2023-2027) in close association with bR. These partially occupied sites (0.55-0.24 Pb2+ equivalents) represent preferential sites of binding for divalent cations and complements our earlier result by x-ray diffraction (Katre et al. 1986. Biophys. J. 50:277-284).

  16. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome May Not Be Benign: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Bhattarai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a rare condition in which there is purple discoloration of the urine with its collecting bag and associated tubing occurs. It is considered a benign condition. We report an unusual case of PUBS in an 87-year-old female from nursing home who had a history of recurrent UTI. She also had a history of ureteral obstruction requiring left nephrostomy tube. She was brought to emergency department with altered mental status which developed five days after the occurrence of purple discoloration of the urinary bag. Her urine culture grew vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. She died within three days of hospitalization despite intensive care in tertiary center. This case highlights that PUBS may not always be benign and should be approached on a case-by-case basis because it may signal the underlying UTI which might be very difficult to treat. Failure of recognition of this peculiar color early could delay the appropriate intervention leading to fatal complication. This case also represents the rare occurrence of PUBS in the setting of nephrostomy tube.

  17. Toxic, antimicrobial and hemagglutinating activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo V.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, hemagglutinating and toxic activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela are described. Intact or dialyzed purple fluid inhibited the growth of species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the action was not bactericidal but bacteriostatic. The active factor or factors were heat labile and sensitive to extreme pH values. The fluid preferentially agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and, to a lesser extent, human blood cells, and this activity was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, a fact suggesting the presence of a lectin. The fluid was also toxic to brine shrimp nauplii (LD50 141.25 µg protein/ml and to mice injected intraperitoneally (LD50 201.8 ± 8.6 mg protein/kg, in a dose-dependent fashion. These toxic activities were abolished when the fluid was heated. Taken together, the data suggest that the activities of the purple fluid are due primarily to substance(s of a protein nature which may be involved in the chemical defense mechanism of this sea hare.

  18. Purple Staining of Archaeological Human Bone: An Investigation of Probable Cause and Implications for Other Tissues and Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrard Cole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excavations in the 1990s at the medieval Chapter House of Worcester Cathedral, UK, revealed medieval human skeletal remains, some of which exhibited a distinctive purple coloration. The nature of the colored bone was investigated using solvents for stain extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, plane polarized (PPL and cross-polarized (XPL light microscopy, and auto fluorescence (AF microscopy. Normal bone from the cemetery was used as a control. The color does not arise from a stain soluble in normal organic solvents. EDX and XRD analysis showed no significant difference between purple and normal bone. XRF analysis shows the presence of trace levels of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in the affected material. This exhibited a pink color in acid phase and a blue color in alkaline phase. These two states were reversible. The alkaline phase gradually changed irreversibly to yellow over time. These data suggest that the coloration is consistent with the presence of high levels of purple acid phosphatase (PAP enzyme. The presence of trace amounts of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper suggests a plant or fungal origin for the putative PAP, possibly a member of the Aspergillus ficuum species.

  19. 紫薯生物饮料的研制%Preparation of Purple Sweet Potato Biological Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰

    2016-01-01

    With purple sweet potato as the main material,the technology of preparing purple sweet potato biological beverage was stud-ied.By single factor experiment and orthogonal test,the optimum purple sweet potato beverage formula was 4% sucrose,0.15% citric acid and 0.15% Composite stabilizers(CMC -Na :xanthan gum :agar =1:1:1).After optimization,the beverage featured by bright color,good taste,rich nutrition and it is one kind of potential biological beverage.%以紫薯为原料,对紫薯生物饮料加工工艺进行研究.通过单因素与正交实验确定了紫薯饮料的最佳调配工艺参数为:蔗糖添加量为4%,柠檬酸添加量为0.15%,复合型稳定剂(CMC -Na∶黄原胶∶琼脂=1∶1∶1)添加量为0.15%.此工艺参数下制作的紫薯饮料色泽鲜艳、口感良好、营养丰富并且具有一定的市场发展潜力.

  20. The Development of Steamed Sponge Cake of Purple Sweet Potato%紫薯发糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋燕飞; 李燮昕; 柴琦; 刘天杰; 杨悠

    2016-01-01

    紫薯含有丰富的花青素和砷元素,其营养价值和保健作用引起人们的高度关注。文章以试验制作为基础,通过感官评价确定紫薯发糕最优配方和生产工艺为:紫薯泥120g,酵母3g,白糖40g,中筋面粉300g,温水270g(水温30℃)。%In recent years,with more and more awareness people put on their healthcare,the purple sweet pota-to,on accout of its beneficial components,is gradually becoming public's choice for diet.Taking purple sweet potato sponge cake as its subject,this paper explores its optimal recipe and production through orthogonal tests and sensory evaluation.The findings suggest the following recipe:120g mashed purple sweet potato,3g yeast, 40g sugar,300g all-purpose flour,and 270g water(30℃).

  1. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis) Ciferri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Satyabrata; Chand, Subodh Kumar; Mandal, Purander; Tripathy, Pradyumna; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur) in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001). All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India. PMID:27904458

  2. 紫薯造型饼干的研制%Development of Purple Sweet Potato Biscuits of Different Shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋燕飞; 李燮昕; 柴琦; 杨悠; 刘天杰

    2016-01-01

    Purple sweet potato is rich in anthocyanin and selenium,and its nutritional value and health function are attracting increasing attention.This paper establishes the optimal formulation for purple sweet potato bis-cuits by means of orthogonal test and sensory evaluation:25g purple sweet potato flour,210g cake flour,80g ic-ing sugar,110g salt-free butter,70g egg yolk,40g milk powder,and 5.5 PH value.Biscuits of this recipe are popular for its color and texture.%紫薯富含丰富的花青素和硒元素,其营养价值和保健作用日益引起人们的高度关注。文章以紫薯饼干为基础,通过正交试验、感官鉴评确定最优配方和生产工艺为:紫薯粉25g、低筋面粉210g、糖粉80g、无盐黄油110g、蛋黄70g、奶粉40g,pH值为5.5。按照最优配方所研制的紫薯造型饼干具有良好的色泽和口感,更受大众喜爱。

  3. Purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) polyacetylenes decrease lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of inflammatory proteins in macrophage and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2008-05-28

    Carrots ( Daucus carota L.) contain phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolics, polyacetylenes, isocoumarins, and sesquiterpenes. Purple carrots also contain anthocyanins. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and phytochemicals from purple carrots was investigated by determining attenuation of the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A bioactive chromatographic fraction (Sephadex LH-20) reduced LPS inflammatory response. There was a dose-dependent reduction in nitric oxide production and mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) and iNOS in macrophage cells. Protein secretions of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were reduced 77 and 66% in porcine aortic endothelial cells treated with 6.6 and 13.3 microg/mL of the LH-20 fraction, respectively. Preparative liquid chromatography resulted in a bioactive subfraction enriched in the polyacetylene compounds falcarindiol, falcarindiol 3-acetate, and falcarinol. The polyacetylenes were isolated and reduced nitric oxide production in macrophage cells by as much as 65% without cytotoxicity. These results suggest that polyacetylenes, not anthocyanins, in purple carrots are responsible for anti-inflammatory bioactivity.

  4. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis Ciferri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyabrata Nanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001. All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India.

  5. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  6. Genetic mapping of resistance to purple seed stain in PI 80837 soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric Wayne; Feng, Chunda; Fenn, Patrick; Chen, Pengiun

    2008-01-01

    Purple seed stain (PSS) of soybean caused by Cercospora kikuchii is an important disease that reduces market grade and can affect seed germination and vigor. A single dominant gene was shown to confer PSS resistance in PI 80837. The objective of this research was to map the PSS resistance gene in PI 80837 using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A cross was made between the PSS-susceptible cultivar Agripro 350 (AP 350) and PI 80837. The F2 population and parents were grown in the field, and the resistance or susceptibility of individual plants was determined by assaying the seed for infection by C. kikuchii. DNA of parent and F2 plants was extracted for SSR analysis and mapping. Segregation ratios for seed infection and for SSR markers showed that a single dominant gene conditions resistance to PSS in PI 80837. The candidate resistance gene was mapped between Sat_308 (6.6 cM) and Satt594 (11.6 cM) on molecular linkage group G. These markers may be useful in marker-assisted selection for utilizing PSS resistance from PI 80837 in a breeding program.

  7. Pulsed-electric-field-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from purple-fleshed potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Cregenzán, Oliver; Luengo, Elisa; Alvarez, Ignacio; Raso, Javier

    2013-02-15

    The influence of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on the anthocyanin extraction yield (AEY) from purple-fleshed potato (PFP) at different extraction times (60-480 min) and temperatures (10-40°C) using water and ethanol (48% and 96%) as solvents has been investigated. Response surface methodology was used to determine optimal PEF treatment and optimise anthocyanin extraction. A PEF treatment of 3.4 kV/cm and 105 μs (35 pulses of 3 μs) resulted in the highest cell disintegration index (Z(p)=1) at the lowest specific energy requirements (8.92 kJ/kg). This PEF treatment increased the AEY, the effect being higher at lower extraction temperature with water as solvent. After 480 min at 40°C, the AEY obtained for the untreated sample using 96% ethanol as the solvent (63.9 mg/100 g fw) was similar to that obtained in the PEF-treated sample using water (65.8 mg/100 g fw). Therefore, PEF was possible with water, a more environmental-friendly solvent than ethanol, without decreasing the AEY from PFP.

  8. Acylated pelargonidin glycosides in the red-purple flowers of Pharbitis nil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, T S; Saito, N; Yokoi, M; Shigihara, A; Honda, T

    1992-01-01

    Four acylated pelargonidin glycosides and pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside were isolated from 23 red-purple cultivars of Pharbitis nil. The acylated anthocyanins were all based on pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside and were identified as the 3-O-[2-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-caffeyl)-beta-D- glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside), the 3-O-[2-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta- D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside), the 3-O-[2-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta- D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-caffeyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta- D-glucopyranoside); and the 3-O-[2-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-4-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D- glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)- beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D- glucopyranoside). By the analysis of these anthocyanin constituents variously in 23 cultivars, it was found that the red flower colour gradually changed into more bluish colour with increasing numbers of caffeic acid residues in the acylated pelargonidin glycosides. The stabilities of these anthocyanins increased in the order of increasing caffeyl substitution.

  9. Identification of natural red and purple dyes on textiles by Fiber-optics Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynez-Rojas, M. A.; Casanova-González, E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding dye chemistry and dye processes is an important issue for studies of cultural heritage collections and science conservation. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is a powerful technique, which allows preliminary dye identification, causing no damage or mechanical stress on the artworks subjected to analysis. Some information related to specific light scattering and absorption can be obtained in the UV-visible and infrared range (300-1400 nm) and it is possible to discriminate the kind of support fiber in the near infrared region (1000-2500 nm). The main spectral features of natural dye fibers samples, such as reflection maxima, inflection points and reflection minima, can be used in the differentiation of various red natural dyes. In this work, a set of dyed references were manufactured following Mexican recipes with red dyes (cochineal and brazilwood) in order to determine the characteristic FORS spectral features of fresh and aged dyed fibers for their identification in historical pieces. Based on these results, twenty-nine indigenous textiles belonging to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People of Mexico were studied. Cochineal and brazilwood were successfully identified by FORS in several pieces, as well as the mixture of cochineal and indigo for purple color.

  10. Identification of natural red and purple dyes on textiles by Fiber-optics Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynez-Rojas, M A; Casanova-González, E; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J L

    2017-02-09

    Understanding dye chemistry and dye processes is an important issue for studies of cultural heritage collections and science conservation. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is a powerful technique, which allows preliminary dye identification, causing no damage or mechanical stress on the artworks subjected to analysis. Some information related to specific light scattering and absorption can be obtained in the UV-visible and infrared range (300-1400nm) and it is possible to discriminate the kind of support fiber in the near infrared region (1000-2500nm). The main spectral features of natural dye fibers samples, such as reflection maxima, inflection points and reflection minima, can be used in the differentiation of various red natural dyes. In this work, a set of dyed references were manufactured following Mexican recipes with red dyes (cochineal and brazilwood) in order to determine the characteristic FORS spectral features of fresh and aged dyed fibers for their identification in historical pieces. Based on these results, twenty-nine indigenous textiles belonging to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People of Mexico were studied. Cochineal and brazilwood were successfully identified by FORS in several pieces, as well as the mixture of cochineal and indigo for purple color.

  11. Biomarker evidence for green and purple sulphur bacteria in a stratified Palaeoproterozoic sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J; Love, Gordon D; Summons, Roger E; Knoll, Andrew H; Logan, Graham A; Bowden, Stephen A

    2005-10-06

    The disappearance of iron formations from the geological record approximately 1.8 billion years (Gyr) ago was the consequence of rising oxygen levels in the atmosphere starting 2.45-2.32 Gyr ago. It marks the end of a 2.5-Gyr period dominated by anoxic and iron-rich deep oceans. However, despite rising oxygen levels and a concomitant increase in marine sulphate concentration, related to enhanced sulphide oxidation during continental weathering, the chemistry of the oceans in the following mid-Proterozoic interval (approximately 1.8-0.8 Gyr ago) probably did not yet resemble our oxygen-rich modern oceans. Recent data indicate that marine oxygen and sulphate concentrations may have remained well below current levels during this period, with one model indicating that anoxic and sulphidic marine basins were widespread, and perhaps even globally distributed. Here we present hydrocarbon biomarkers (molecular fossils) from a 1.64-Gyr-old basin in northern Australia, revealing the ecological structure of mid-Proterozoic marine communities. The biomarkers signify a marine basin with anoxic, sulphidic, sulphate-poor and permanently stratified deep waters, hostile to eukaryotic algae. Phototrophic purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were detected in the geological record based on the new carotenoid biomarker okenane, and they seem to have co-existed with communities of green sulphur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae). Collectively, the biomarkers support mounting evidence for a long-lasting Proterozoic world in which oxygen levels remained well below modern levels.

  12. Origin of mitochondria by intracellular enslavement of a photosynthetic purple bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2006-08-07

    Mitochondria originated by permanent enslavement of purple non-sulphur bacteria. These endosymbionts became organelles through the origin of complex protein-import machinery and insertion into their inner membranes of protein carriers for extracting energy for the host. A chicken-and-egg problem exists: selective advantages for evolving import machinery were absent until inner membrane carriers were present, but this very machinery is now required for carrier insertion. I argue here that this problem was probably circumvented by conversion of the symbiont protein-export machinery into protein-import machinery, in three phases. I suggest that the first carrier entered the periplasmic space via pre-existing beta-barrel proteins in the bacterial outer membrane that later became Tom40, and inserted into the inner membrane probably helped by a pre-existing inner membrane protein, thereby immediately providing the protoeukaryote host with photosynthesate. This would have created a powerful selective advantage for evolving more efficient carrier import by inserting Tom70 receptors. Massive gene transfer to the nucleus inevitably occurred by mutation pressure. Finally, pressure from harmful, non-selected gene transfer to the nucleus probably caused evolution of the presequence mechanism, and photosynthesis was lost.

  13. Extractive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Lamivudine and Zidovudine in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using Bromocresol Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Evrim Kepekci Tekkeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method has been established for the quantitation of lamivudine (LVD and zidovudine (ZVD in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the reaction between the investigated drug substances and bromocresol purple (BCP producing ion-pair complexes in acidic buffers which are suitable for chloroform extraction. The maximum absorbance of these complexes was measured at 424 nm in chloroform. All variables were studied to optimize the reaction conditions. Linearity ranges were found to be 25–250 μg mL−1 for LVD-BCP and 50–300 μg mL−1 for ZVD-BCP. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. Excipients in pharmaceutical formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The results were compared statistically with those obtained by the HPLC method reported in the literature. According to the results, the proposed method can be recommended for quality control and routine analysis.

  14. A C-banded karyotype of mitotic chromosomes in diploid purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weizhen; Li, Qingling; Chen, Xiaolu; Ren, Yi; Chen, Rong; Wu, Hong; Yang, Yuesheng

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploid ermpglasm is an important resource for genetic studies and identification of individual chromosomes in the cells of the aneuploid is an important step. The karyotype has already been established for purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.), but due to the high similarity in the morphology of several pairs of chromosomes in this species, it cannot be used to identify individual chromosomes in its own complement. The objectives of this study are to develop and evaluate the Giemsa C-banding technique for the purpose of identifying the individual chromosomes in Echinacea purpurea. The established karyotype with C-bands showed that all the 11 pairs of chromosomes possessed centromeric bands. Telomeric bands appeared most frequently in almost all the chromosomes with only two exceptions, the short arm of the chromosome 9 and the long arm of the chromosome 10. Intercalary bands were found mainly in the long arm of some chromosomes with only two exceptions, the chromosomes 1 and 2 that had intercalary bands on both arms. The chromosome 4 was the only chromosome where intercalary bands were absent. Chromosomes in E. purpurea could be stained with Giemsa to bear C-bands. By classifying the chromosomes into groups and judging the C-bands, each chromosome could be identified. The methods established in this study might be used for the identification of chromosome constitution in aneuploid E. purpurea created in a breeding program.

  15. Excitonic energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Jun; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Yunjin; Lee, Chee Kong; Cao, Jianshu

    2012-01-01

    Two distinct approaches, the Frenkel-Dirac time-dependent variation and the Haken-Strobl model, are adopted to study energy transfer dynamics in single-ring and double-ring light-harvesting systems in purple bacteria. It is found that inclusion of long-range dipolar interactions in the two methods results in significant increases in intra- or inter-ring exciton transfer efficiency. The dependence of exciton transfer efficiency on trapping positions on single rings of LH2 (B850) and LH1 is similar to that in toy models with nearest-neighbor coupling only. However, owing to the symmetry breaking caused by the dimerization of BChls and dipolar couplings, such dependence has been largely suppressed. In the studies of coupled-ring systems, both methods reveal interesting role of dipolar interaction in increasing energy transfer efficiency by introducing multiple intra/inter-ring transfer paths. Importantly, the time scale (~4ps) of inter-ring exciton transfer obtained from polaron dynamics is in good agreement wit...

  16. Molecular phylogeny of four homeobox genes from the purple sea star Pisaster ochraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassi, Giorgio; Imai, Janice Hitomi; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Homeobox genes cloned from the purple sea star Pisaster ochraceus (Phylum Echinodermata/Class Asteroidea) were used along with related sequences available from members of other representative animal phyla to generate molecular phylogenies for Distal-less/Dlx, Hox5, Hox7, and Hox9/10 homeobox genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred based on the predicted 60 amino acid homeodomain, using amino acid (AA) and nucleotide (NT) models as well as the recently developed codon substitution models of sequence evolution. The resulting phylogenetic trees were mostly congruent with the consensus species-tree, grouping these newly identified genes with those isolated from other Asteroidea. This analysis also allowed a preliminary comparison of the performance of codon models with that of NT and AA evolutionary models in the inference of homeobox phylogeny. We found that, overall, the NT models displayed low reliability in recovering major clades at the Superphylum/Phylum level, and that codon models were slightly more dependable than AA models. Remarkably, in the majority of cases, codon substitution models seemed to outperform both AA and NT models at both the Class level and homeobox paralogy-group level of classification.

  17. Anti-scourability of purple soil on hillslopes with different land uses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jianhui; LIU; Gangcai; NI; Shijun; ZHU; Bo; GE; Fanglong

    2003-01-01

    A large-scale flume (40 cm×10 cm×10 cm) was used to determine soil anti-scourability of 4 different land uses of purple soil in hilly areas of Sichuan, China under artificial removal of vegetation to examine the effects of land uses on sediment production by runoff. The results showed that soil anti-scourability declined with the increase of slope gradients in the form of power function, but there was a significant difference in the effects of slope gradients on anti-scourability between different land uses. The ratio of the mean values of soil anti-scourability was 1︰2.2︰2.5︰3.6 for forest land, new waste pasture, old waste pasture, crop land respectively, indicating that forest and grass use can significantly improve soil anti-scourability. Compared with the observations from the runoff plots located at the same sites in this region, an inconsistent result was found between anti-scourability and anti-erodibility in hilly areas of Sichuan. Essential causes of the differences in soil anti-scourability were further discussed based on analyzing the influence of inherent soil characteristics induced by different land uses on soil anti-scourability.

  18. DECOLORIZATION OF BROMOCRESOL PURPLE (BCP PHOTOINDUCED BY A Fe (III OXYHYDROXYDE (GOETHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S BELATTAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the decolorization of bromocresol purple (BCP using Fe (III oxyhydroxide (Goethite as an inducer. The mixture dye- Goethite in dark condition and ambient temperature, shows a reaction between the dye and the Fe (III oxyhydroxide. Indeed, the tracking of the reaction using UV-visible spectrophotometry showed a low decrease in the principal band of the dye. This reveal the existence of an interaction between the substrate and the Goethite whitch is important in acidic medium. The irradiation at 365 nm of mixture Goethite-BCP (1g.L-1- 10-4 M leads to a transformation of substrate. The decrease of the band at 432nm and the presence of an isosbestic point at 508 nm support the transformation of BCP.  The substrate kinetics disappearances are improved in acidic medium. The addition of hydrogen peroxide (5.10-3 mol.L-1 in a suspension of Goethite, accelerate significantly the rate of disappearance of the dye. Natural radiation tests showed that the degradation was faster than artificial one at 365 nm. Studies on mineralization using COD method certify that this method, compatible with the environment, may be considered in the treatment of wastewater.

  19. The Modulatory Effect of Anthocyanins from Purple Sweet Potato on Human Intestinal Microbiota in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Yang, Yang; Wu, Zufang; Weng, Peifang

    2016-03-30

    In order to investigate the modulatory effect of purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPAs) on human intestinal microbiota, PSPAs were prepared by column chromatography and their influence on intestinal microbiota was analyzed by monitoring the bacterial populations and analyzing short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations at different time points. The numbers (log10 cell/mL) of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., Bacteroides-Prevotella, Clostridium histolyticum, and total bacteria after 24 h of culture in anaerobic fermentation broth containing PSPAs were 8.44 ± 0.02, 8.30 ± 0.01, 7.80 ± 0.03, 7.60 ± 0.03, and 9.00 ± 0.02, respectively, compared with 8.21 ± 0.03, 8.12 ± 0.02, 7.95 ± 0.02, 7.77 ± 0.02, and 9.01 ± 0.03, respectively, in the controls. The results showed that PSPAs induced the proliferation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., inhibited the growth of Bacteroides-Prevotella and Clostridium histolyticum, and did not affect the total bacteria number. Total SCFA concentrations in the cultures with PSPAs were significantly higher than in the controls (P microbiota, contributing to improvements in human health.

  20. Characterisation of the LH2 spectral variants produced by the photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Picken, Nichola; Honkanen, Suvi; Kelly, Sharon; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Blankenship, Robert E; Shimizu, Yuuki; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; Cogdell, Richard J

    2014-11-01

    This study systematically investigated the different types of LH2 produced by Allochromatium (Alc.) vinosum, a photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium, in response to variations in growth conditions. Three different spectral forms of LH2 were isolated and purified, the B800-820, B800-840 and B800-850 LH2 types, all of which exhibit an unusual split 800 peak in their low temperature absorption spectra. However, it is likely that more forms are also present. Relatively more B800-820 and B800-840 are produced under low light conditions, while relatively more B800-850 is produced under high light conditions. Polypeptide compositions of the three different LH2 types were determined by a combination of HPLC and TOF/MS. The B800-820, B800-840 and B800-850 LH2 types all have a heterogeneous polypeptide composition, containing multiple types of both α and β polypeptides, and differ in their precise polypeptide composition. They all have a mixed carotenoid composition, containing carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin series. In all cases the most abundant carotenoid is rhodopin; however, there is a shift towards carotenoids with a higher conjugation number in LH2 complexes produced under low light conditions. CD spectroscopy, together with the polypeptide analysis, demonstrates that these Alc. vinosum LH2 complexes are more closely related to the LH2 complex from Phs. molischianum than they are to the LH2 complexes from Rps. acidophila.

  1. Dimeric carotenoid interaction in the light-harvesting antenna of purple phototrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo, J; Lozano, R M; Fernandez-Cabrera, C; Ramirez, J M

    1991-03-15

    The carotenoid content of intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles isolated from purple phototrophic bacteria was reduced to a variable extent by mild extraction with light petroleum. Using preparations obtained from Rhodobacter capsulatus strains that contained the Light Harvesting System I (LHI) complex as the only major photosynthetic holochrome, it was shown that the visible circular dichroism of the carotenoids increased with the square of the membrane carotenoid content, as expected from being caused by dimeric exciton interaction. No chirality resulting from twists of the individual planar chromophore was detected. Therefore the contribution to carotenoid optical activity of non-degenerate interactions with bacteriochlorophyll or the apoprotein does not appear to be significant. The broadening of the absorption band of the bound pigment, caused by the splitting of the monomer transition, was demonstrated in membrane vesicles of both Rb, capsulatus and Rhodospirillum rubrum as a decrease of the fine structure of the band. Furthermore, the dimeric organization of the carotenoid pigments in the bacterial LHI complex accounted for the observed quantitative relationship between the fine structure of the band and the carotenoid content of the membrane.

  2. Viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of purple-rice drinks following ultrahigh pressure and pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how pressure (500, 600 MPa/20 min) altered the viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of germinated and non-germinated purple-rice drinks in comparison with pasteurization. Accordingly, color parameters, storage and loss moduli, anthocyanin content, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic compounds and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylthydrazyl (DPPH) capacity of the processed drinks were determined. The finding showed that germinated and pressurized rice drink had lower Browning Index than the non-germinated and pasteurized rice drink. The plots of storage and loss moduli for processed rice drinks indicated that time of pressurization had greater impact on gel structural modification than the level of pressure used. The phytochemicals, including total phenolics, and DPPH capacity in pressurized rice drinks retained higher quantity than those in pasteurized drink, despite less treatment effects on anthocyanin. On the contrary, both γ-oryzanol and GABA were found in high amounts in germinated rice drink with little variation among processing effects.

  3. Using genetically modified tomato crop plants with purple leaves for absolute weed/crop classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lati, Ran N; Filin, Sagi; Aly, Radi; Lande, Tal; Levin, Ilan; Eizenberg, Hanan

    2014-07-01

    Weed/crop classification is considered the main problem in developing precise weed-management methodologies, because both crops and weeds share similar hues. Great effort has been invested in the development of classification models, most based on expensive sensors and complicated algorithms. However, satisfactory results are not consistently obtained due to imaging conditions in the field. We report on an innovative approach that combines advances in genetic engineering and robust image-processing methods to detect weeds and distinguish them from crop plants by manipulating the crop's leaf color. We demonstrate this on genetically modified tomato (germplasm AN-113) which expresses a purple leaf color. An autonomous weed/crop classification is performed using an invariant-hue transformation that is applied to images acquired by a standard consumer camera (visible wavelength) and handles variations in illumination intensities. The integration of these methodologies is simple and effective, and classification results were accurate and stable under a wide range of imaging conditions. Using this approach, we simplify the most complicated stage in image-based weed/crop classification models. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Lipid composition of integral purple membrane by 1H and 31P NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Christian; Kessler, Brigitte; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    2005-08-01

    In the purple membrane (PM) of halobacteria, lipids stabilize the trimeric arrangement of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) molecules and mediate the packing of the trimers in a regular crystalline arrangement. To date, the identification and quantification of these lipids has been based either on lipid extraction procedures or structural models. By directly solubilizing PMs from Halobacterium salinarum in aqueous detergent solutions (SDS or Triton X-100), we avoided any separation or modification steps that might modify the lipid composition or even the lipid molecules themselves. Our analysis of integral PM preparations should resolve partially conflicting literature data on the lipid composition of the PM. Using 31P and 1H NMR of detergent-solubilized but otherwise untreated samples, we found two glycolipids and 6.4 +/- 0.1 phospholipids per BR molecule, 4.4 +/- 0.1 of the latter being the phosphatidylglycerophosphate methyl ester. The only glycolipid detected was S-TGD-1. For an additional glycolipid, glycocardiolipin, that was recently identified in lipid extracts, we show that it was produced mainly during the lipid extraction procedure but also was partially dependent on the preparation of the PM suspensions.

  5. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szantoi, Zoltan; Chappelka, Arthur H; Muntifering, Russell B; Somers, Greg L

    2007-11-01

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O3) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O3 in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O3 interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O3 effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent.

  6. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  7. Comparison of Yield and Content of Anthocyanin of Purple Corn of Different Combining Types%紫玉米不同组配方式的花青素含量及产量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史振声; 贾森

    2012-01-01

    以18个玉米自交系组配成的16个紫玉米杂交组合为试验材料,研究不同组配方式配制的紫玉米籽粒、穗轴、苞叶、雄穗花青素含量及花青素产量.结果表明:(1)不同组配方式的紫玉米籽粒花青素含量、籽粒产量及籽粒花青素产量差异均较大.深紫玉米×深紫玉米,花青素含量最高;深紫非糯玉米×糯玉米,籽粒产量最高;深紫玉米×深紫玉米,籽粒花青素产量最高.(2)深紫玉米×深紫玉米,穗轴花青素含量、花青素产量最高;非紫苞叶×深紫苞叶,紫玉米苞叶花青素含量、花青素产量最高;非紫雄穗×深紫雄穗,紫玉米雄穗花青素含量、花青素产量最高.(3)穗轴花青素含量与籽粒花青素含量呈极显著正相关;雄穗花青素含量与苞叶花青素含量呈极显著正相关.(4)紫玉米花青素总产量(籽粒、稳轴、苞叶、雄穗)为:深紫×深紫>深紫×浅紫>非紫×深紫>浅紫×非紫;籽粒花青素产量对总花青素产量贡献最大.%Content and yield of anthocyanin in grain, cob, bract and tassel of purple corn of different combining types were studied using 16 purple corn hybrids grouped by 18 maize inbred lines. The results showed that;l. Differences of content of grain anthocyanin, grain yield and grain anthocyanin yield of purple corn of different combining types were all great. Content of anthocyanin of Deep Purple corn × Deep Purple corn was the highest; grain yield of Deep Purple non-waxy corn × waxy corn was the highest; yield of grain anthocyanin of Deep Purple corn × Deep Purple corn was the highest. 2. Yield and content of cob anthocyanin of Deep Purple corn x Deep Purple corn were both the highest; content and yield of bract anthocyanin of Purple non-bract corn x Deep Purple bract corn were both the highest; content and yield of tassel anthocyanin of Purple non-tassel corn × Deep Purple tassel corn were both the highest. 3. Content of cob and grain

  8. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.

  9. Minnesota Wild and Scenic River Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — District boundaries for wild, scenic, and recreational rivers designated under the Minnesota State Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. Includes portions of the Minnesota...

  10. Unusual phenolic compounds contribute to ecophysiological performance in the purple-colored green alga zygogonium ericetorum (zygnematophyceae, streptophyta) from a high-alpine habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Siegfried; Remias, Daniel; Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    The filamentous green alga Zygogonium ericetorum (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) was collected in a high-alpine rivulet in Tyrol, Austria. Two different morphotypes of this alga were found: a purple morph with a visible purple vacuolar content and a green morph lacking this coloration. These morphotypes were compared with respect to their secondary metabolites, ultrastructure, and ecophysiological properties. Colorimetric tests with aqueous extracts of the purple morph indicated the presence of soluble compounds such as phenolics and hydrolyzable tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography-screening showed that Z. ericetorum contained several large phenolic peaks with absorption maxima at ∼280 nm and sometimes with minor maxima at ∼380 nm. Such compounds are uncommon for freshwater green microalgae, and could contribute to protect the organism against increased UV and visible (VIS) irradiation. The purple Z. ericetorum contained larger amounts (per dry weight) of the putative phenolic substances than the green morph; exposure to irradiation may be a key factor for accumulation of these phenolic compounds. Transmission electron microscopy of the purple morph showed massive vacuolization with homogenous medium electron-dense content in the cell periphery, which possibly contains the secondary compounds. In contrast, the green morph had smaller, electron-translucent vacuoles. The ecophysiological data on photosynthesis and desiccation tolerance indicated that increasing photon fluence densities led to much higher relative electron transport rates (rETR) in the purple than in the green morph. These data suggest that the secondary metabolites in the purple morph are important for light acclimation in high-alpine habitats. However, the green morph recovered better after 4 d of rehydration following desiccation stress.

  11. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Ya Li; Jiao-Jiao Zhang; Dong-Ping Xu; Tong Zhou; Yue. Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we rev...

  12. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  13. Tame-wild dichotomy for derived categories

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkert, Viktor I.; Drozd, Yuriy A.

    2003-01-01

    We prove that every finite dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field is either derived tame or derived wild. The proof is based on the technique of matrix problems (boxes and reduction algorithm). It implies, in particular, that any degeneration of a derived wild algebra is derived wild; respectively, any deformation of a derived tame algebra is derived tame.

  14. 葡萄皮紫色素的稳定性研究%Extraction and Stability of the Purple Pigment in Grape Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective The extraction and stability of Purple pigment in Grape Skin were studied. Methods The Grape Skin was taken as raw material with the 80%ethanol extracted Grape skin purple pigment, and its stability had been done more through research. Results The purple pigment is purple cream, fragrant air, not dissolve in chloroform, hardly dissolve in acetone, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, dissolve in methanol, ethanol, easy to dissolve in water;The stability of this purple pigment was good when pH is within 3.0~6.0;Fe3+, Cu2+, Fe2+on the purple is known as a certain impact, Ba2+, Mn2+, Ca2+, K+has little effect to the purple pigment;The stability of the purple pigment got worse under the light;the pur-ple pigment did not react too much to the preservative;purple pigment removal capacity than Vc weak DPPH free radical. Conclusion Purple pigment in the grape skin during the actual production application should pay attention to adjust pH, dark storage, avoid to use of iron containers;preservatives on the purple pigment of no significant impact;purple pigment has some antioxidant activity.%目的 探讨葡萄皮紫色素的提取及其稳定性.方法 以葡萄皮为原料,采用80%乙醇提取葡萄皮紫色素,并对其稳定性做较深入研究.结果 葡萄皮紫色素为紫色膏状,气芳香,不溶于氯仿,难溶于丙酮、乙醚、乙酸乙酯,溶于甲醇、乙醇,易溶于水;在pH值=3~6时,葡萄皮紫色素稳定性好;Fe3+、Cu2+、Fe2+对紫色素有一定影响,Ba2+、Mn2+、Ca2+、K+对紫色素影响不大;光对紫色素有降解作用;防腐剂对紫色素稳定性影响不显著;紫色素清除DPPH自由基能力比维生素C弱.结论 葡萄皮紫色素在实际生产过程中应注意调节pH值,避光贮存,避免使用铁制容器;防腐剂对紫色素无显著影响;紫色素具有一定的抗氧化性.

  15. Nano-structure of the cristobalite and tridymite stacking sequences in the common purple opal from the Gevrekseydi deposit, Seyitömer-Kütahya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Hatipoğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The strata that include the fine purple opal formations examined in this paper from the magmagenetic hydrothermal dis solutions. The opals are locally known as Gevrekseydi purple opals. These opal-bearing strata are deposited in volcanic lavas and tuffs in the Seyitömer-Kütahya region of western Turkey. The purple opals are common-type and attractive gem-quality, and they are sold on the worldwide gem markets. We conducted mineralogical investigations to clarify their silica building components, measure their nano-size, and determine their origins. The opals are an opal-CT (opal-cristobalite/tridymite- type silica polymorph with the variable number of cristobalite and tridymite layers. The cristobalite and tridymite stacking sequences were evaluated in terms of maturation, crystallite size, and genesis of the opaline silica material. These sequences are modelled using X-ray diffraction patterns. The relationship between the crystallite size and full width at half maximum values of the Gevrekseydi purple opals were also examined using X-ray diffraction patterns. The crystallite sizes were found to be L=17 nm for the main opal-CT peak (4.09 Å, L=23 nm for the shoulder opal-CT peak (4.29 Å, and L=27 nm for the opal-CT/C peak (2.51 Å. Given the relationship between the crystallite size and maturation of opal-CT, the Gevrekseydi volcanic common purple opals are most likely in a stage of early to mid maturation

  16. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  17. WILD HONEY INTOXICATION: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munire Babayigit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild honey intoxication (WHI is a rare disease that results from consuming honey produced by Rhododendron polen feeded bees. WHI develops due to grayanotoxin (GT that it contains. WHI might present with mild symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological systems or might also present in a life threatining form with AV block and cardiovascular collaps. In this report we aimed to present clinical presentation and treatment of a case of WHI. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 197-199

  18. [Dynamic characteristics of phosphorus in purple paddy soil and its environmental Impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-ping; Shi, Xiao-jun

    2008-02-01

    The dynamic characteristics of phosphorus (P) in the surface water and runoff of paddy field with different P fertilizing treatments were investigated using the field experiment under the independent irrigation system as well as its environmental impact. The results showed that the concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in the surface water increased as the fertilizing amounts enhanced and reached the peak values after 24 h for all treatments in range of 0.928-3.824 mg/L. And the fluctuation of TP concentration in surface water was drastic during the first 30 days with the average contents of 0.259-1.433 mg/L which exceeded the critic values of eutrophication. Therefore, the field managements such as inter-tillage and drainage should be avoided during the time. After 40 days, the TP concentration declined slowly and then came to stabilization with low values after 60 days. The contents of different P forms in the runoff water increased with the improved amounts of precipitation and fertilizing and above 50% was dissolved phosphorus (DP). The DP was the dominant one in the P loss of the purple paddy soil and the loss load changed between 0.358 and 2.579 kg/hm2. Additionally, the P loss more easily occurred for the treatment of utilizing the cattle manure than that of straw, approximately 40% of loss load higher. Both the loss load and apparent P loss ratio evidently declined with the treatment of fertilizer combined with straw, suggesting that it was the better measure for reducing the P loss in the paddy field.

  19. Distribution and Transformation of Native and Added Ni Fractions in Purple Soils from Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUCONG

    1996-01-01

    The distribution and transformation of added and native Ni in purple soils were investigated with both sequential extraction procedure and isotopic tracer technique.The distribution of added and native Ni was greatly dependent on soil properties.Low soil pH was favorable for soluble plus exchangeable(EX) Fraction,while Fe/Mn oxides and clay for Fe/Mn oxide bound(OX) and residual(RES) fractions.The added Ni,however,has not yet reached the distribution equilibrium up to the 150th day after incubation.This was reflected in the fact that the proportion of EX fraction from added Ni was 150%-600% as much as that of native Ni,while that of RES fraction was only about 80%,Once entering soil,the applied soluble Ni was rapidly transformed into other fractions,but the organic complexe (OM) fraction of added Ni was relatively stable during incubation.The carbonate bound(CAB)fraction showed a progressive increase and attained a peak value after 0-14d of incubation and thereafter decreased gradually.The occurrence time of this peak advanced as initial soil pH increased.but the peak would disappear when initial soil pH was higher than 7.5(or containing free CaCO3).The transformation processes of the EX,OX and RES fractions could be described by Elovich and two-constant rate equations,and the rate were positively correlated with soil pH,CEC and clay.These finding could explain why there are differences in ecological and environmental effects of Ni in different soils and at various intervals.

  20. Morphological and physiological responses of lowland purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) to flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Rolly G.; Baltazar, Aurora M.; Merca, Florinia E.; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Johnson, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is a major weed of upland crops and vegetables. Recently, a flood-tolerant ecotype evolved as a serious weed in lowland rice. This study attempted to establish the putative growth and physiological features that led to this shift in adaptation. Methodology Tubers of upland C. rotundus (ULCR) and lowland C. rotundus (LLCR) ecotypes were collected from their native habitats and maintained under the respective growth conditions in a greenhouse. Five experiments were conducted to assess the variation between the two ecotypes in germination, growth and tuber morphology when grown in their native or ‘switched’ conditions. Carbohydrate storage and mobilization, and variation in anaerobic respiration under hypoxia were compared. Principal results Tubers of LLCR were larger than those of ULCR, with higher carbohydrate content, and larger tubers developed with increasing floodwater depth. Stems of LLCR had larger diameter and proportionally larger air spaces than those of ULCR: a method of aerating submerged plant parts. The LLCR ecotype can also mobilize and use carbohydrate reserves under hypoxia, and it maintained relatively lower and steadier activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as a measure of sustained anaerobic respiration. In contrast, ADH activity in ULCR increased faster upon a shift to hypoxia and then sharply decreased, suggesting depletion of available soluble sugar substrates. The LLCR ecotype also maintained lower lactate dehydrogenase activity under flooded conditions, which could reduce chances of cellular acidosis. Conclusions These adaptive traits in the LLCR ecotype were expressed constitutively, but some of them, such as tuber growth and aerenchyma development, are enhanced with stress severity. The LLCR ecotype attained numerous adaptive traits that could have evolved as a consequence of natural evolution or repeated management practices, and alternative strategies are necessary because

  1. Investigation of Detector Behaviour At High Count Rates for the Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, R. J.; McCullough, E. M.; Jalali, A.; Hartery, S.; Farhani, G.; Argall, P.; Argall, S.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature measurements in the middle and upper atmosphere are an important complement to similar measurements in the lower atmosphere. Even modest size Rayleigh-scatter lidars are capable of high quality measurements of temperature in the stratosphere (above 25 km) and lower mesosphere. The most commonly reported uncertainty, that due to counting statistics, is well understood and affects temperatures at the greatest heights (i.e. lowest signal rates). Counting statistics have a lesser effect on temperatures at the lower range of measurements, where the photocount rate is larger. However, if a lidar's dynamic range is increased by combining analog and digital counting profiles into a 'glued' profile, the gluing introduces a systematic uncertainty. In this presentation we will show the effect of the uncertainty due to gluing on our temperature measurements. The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL), located at the The University of Western Ontario's Echo Base Field Station near London, Canada, has undergone considerable modifications to its transmitter (now a Litron Nd:YAG laser outputting 1 J/pulse at 532 nm with a repetition rate of 30 Hz) as well as to its data acquisition system. The PCL has retained its 2.6 m diameter liquid mercury mirror, giving the system a large power-aperture product. Such a large throughput requires simultaneous analog-digital detection to obtain Rayleigh-scatter temperatures from 25 to above 100 km. The analog and digital profiles must be combined into a single continuous profile, a process called gluing. Several excellent methods for gluing profiles have been presented, but prior to now systematic uncertainties due to the procedure have not been quantified. We will present a detailed characterization of the analog and digital counting channels, using a variety of tests which will show the effect of the gluing procedure on the retrieved temperature.

  2. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K; Holm, Preben B; Welinder, Karen G; Jørgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-07-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains.

  3. Comparative genetic analysis of Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatases AtPAP10, AtPAP12, and AtPAP26 provides new insights into their roles in plant adaptation to phosphate deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangsheng Wang; Shan Lu; Ye Zhang; Zheng Li; Xiaoqiu Du; Dong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Induction and secretion of acid phosphatases (APases) is thought to be an adaptive mechanism that helps plants survive and grow under phosphate (Pi) deprivation. In Arabidopsis, there are 29 purple acid phosphatase (AtPAP) genes. To systematical y investigate the roles of different AtPAPs, we first identified knockout or knock-down T-DNA lines for al 29 AtPAP genes. Using these atpap mutants combined with in-gel and quantitative APase enzyme assays, we demonstrated that AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 are two major intracellular and secreted APases in Arabidopsis while AtPAP10 is mainly a secreted APase. On Pi-deficient (P-) medium or P-medium supplemented with the organophosphates ADP and fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6-P), growth of atpap10 was significantly reduced whereas growth of atpap12 was only moderately reduced, and growth of atpap26 was nearly equal to that of the wild type (WT). Overexpression of the AtPAP12 or AtPAP26 gene, however, caused plants to grow better on P-or P- medium supplemented with ADP or Fru-6-P. Interest-ingly, Pi levels are essential y the same for the WT and overexpressing lines, although these two types of plants have significantly different growth phenotypes. These results suggest that the APases may have other roles besides enhancing internal Pi recycling or releasing Pi from external organophosphates for plant uptake.

  4. Echolocation in wild toothed whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Zimmer, Walter M. X.

    2001-05-01

    Don Griffin showed more than 50 years ago that bats echolocate for orientation and to capture prey. Experiments also demonstrated that captive dolphins can echolocate; more recent work parallels Griffin's work with bats in the wild. Digital acoustic recording tags were attached to sperm and beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris, to record outgoing clicks and incoming echoes. The sperm whale data show echoes from the sea surface and seafloor, which are probably used for orientation and obstacle avoidance. When diving, sperm whales adjust their interclick interval as they change their pitch angle, consistent with the hypothesis that they are echolocating on a horizontal layer at the depth at which they will feed. This suggests that they may be listening for volume reverberation to select a prey patch. The beam pattern of sperm whales includes a narrow, forward-directed high-frequency beam probably used for prey detection, and a broader, backward-directed lower-frequency beam probably used for orientation. Beaked whales produce directional clicks with peak frequencies in the 25-40-kHz region. Echoes from individual prey items have been detected from clicks of beaked whales. This opens a new window into the study of how animals use echolocation to forage in the wild.

  5. Diet traditions in wild orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Meredith L; Zweifel, Nicole; Vogel, Erin R; Wich, Serge A; van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-10-01

    This study explores diet differences between two populations of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) to assess whether a signal of social learning can be detected in the observed patterns. The populations live in close proximity and in similar habitats but are separated by a river barrier that is impassable to orangutans in the study region. We found a 60% between-site difference in diet at the level of plant food items (plant species-organ combinations). We also found that individuals at the same site were more likely to eat the same food items than expected by chance. These results suggest the presence of diet (food selection) traditions. Detailed tests of three predictions of three models of diet acquisition allowed us to reject a model based on exclusive social learning but could not clearly distinguish between the remaining two models: one positing individual exploration and learning of food item selection and the other one positing preferential social learning followed by individual fine tuning. We know that maturing orangutans acquire their initial diet through social learning and then supplement it by years of low-level, individual sampling. We, therefore, conclude that the preferential social learning model produces the best fit to the geographic patterns observed in this study. However, the very same taxa that socially acquire their diets as infants and show evidence for innovation-based traditions in the wild paradoxically may have diets that are not easily distinguished from those acquired exclusively through individual learning. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. 紫淮山凝胶软糖的研制%Development of Purple Yam Gel Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 梁远毅; 许晓婷

    2014-01-01

    以新鲜紫淮山,白砂糖,葡萄糖为主要原料,通过对凝胶剂的复配及紫淮山软糖生产工艺的研究,得出制取紫淮山软糖的最佳配方为:紫淮山浆10%,凝胶剂5%(琼脂∶明胶=2∶1,质量比)白砂糖25%,葡萄糖10%;确定在50℃条件下干燥2 h后继续在45℃条件下干燥22 h,得到的紫淮山软糖质地柔软、组织细腻、口感滑润,保留了紫淮山特有的风味及营养价值。%Panocha was developed using fresh purple yam,white sugar and glucose as maimaterials,and gelata mix and the processing technology were studied in this paper.The best formula was purple yam slurry 10%,gel 5%(agar and gelatin than 2∶1),White sugar 25%glucose 10%;Determinating to dry for 2 h in 50℃conditions and dry for 22 h at the conditions of 45 ℃. The gel candy was soft,delicate tissue,smooth taste,retaining the unique flavor of the purple yam and the nutritional value.

  7. Rhodobaca bogoriensis gen. nov. and sp. nov., an alkaliphilic purple nonsulfur bacterium from African Rift Valley soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, A D; Achenbach, L A; Jung, D O; Madigan, M T

    2000-01-01

    From enrichment cultures established for purple nonsulfur bacteria using water and sediment samples from Lake Bogoria and Crater Lake, two soda lakes in the African Rift Valley, three strains of purple nonsulfur bacteria were isolated; strain LBB1 was studied in detail. Cells of strain LBB1 were motile and spherical to rod-shaped, suggesting a relationship to Rhodobacter or Rhodovulum species, and the organism was capable of both phototrophic and chemotrophic growth on a wide variety of organic compounds. Phototrophically grown cultures were yellow to yellow-brown in color and grew optimally at pH 9 (pH range 7.5-10) and 1% NaCl (range 0-10%). In physiological studies of strain LBB1, neither photoautotrophy (H2- or sulfide-dependent) nor nitrogen fixation was observed. Absorption spectra revealed that all three strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spheroidene pathway and synthesized only a light-harvesting (LH) I-type photosynthetic antenna complex. Electron microscopy of cells of strain LBB1 revealed a vesicular intracytoplasmic membrane system, although only a few vesicles were observed per cell. The G+C content of strain LBB1 DNA was 59 mol%, significantly lower than that of known Rhodobacter and Rhodovulum species, and its phylogeny as determined by ribosomal RNA gene sequencing placed it within the Rhodobacter/Rhodovulum clade yet distinct from all described species of either of these genera. The unique assemblage of properties observed in strain LBB1 warrants its inclusion in a new genus of purple nonsulfur bacteria and the name Rhodobaca bogoriensis is proposed herein, the genus name reflecting morphological characteristics and the species epithet referring to the habitat.

  8. WATER EXTRACT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO TUBERS REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE 0F HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED BY NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE JAWI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Compliance of hypertensive patients to take medication is one of many determinant factors to achieve successful treatment. Side effects and the expensive price of drugs are the causes of the incompliance of patients taking the medication. Utilization of herbal medicine is a new hope to resolve the issue. Purple sweet potato tuber is a plant part that expected has beneficial effect in lowering blood pressure because it contains anthocyanins which are antioxidants and can preserve endothelial function. To prove these hypothesis, a study was conducted with randomized control group pre and post-test design. The  study was done on 20 adult male Wistar rats that were divided into two groups of 10 rats.  Both groups of rats were made hypertensive by administering high doses of NaCl. Control group of rats given only NaCl alone for 14 days. Treatment group were given NaCl and water extract of purple sweet potato tuber with a dose of 4 cc per day for 14 days. Before treatment and during treatment, blood pressure were taken everyday with special sphygmomanometer. The results indicate a significant difference in blood pressure between the control group with treatment (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in blood pressure compared to the control group (P=0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of purple sweet potato tuber water extract may lower high blood pressure of rats induced by NaCl.

  9. [Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Speciation of Pb in Purple Soil and Soil Solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-15

    Lead (Pb) in purple soil was selected as the research target, using one-step extraction method with 0.01 mol · L⁻¹ sodium nitrate as the background electrolyte to study the release effect of citric acid (CA), tartaric acid (TA) and acetic acid (AC) with different concentrations. Sequential extraction and geochemical model (Visual Minteq v3.0) were applied to analyze and predict the speciation of Pb in soil solid phase and soil solution phase. Then the ebvironmental implications and risks of low-molecule weight organic acid (LMWOA) on soil Pb were analyzed. The results indicated that all three types of LMWOA increased the desorption capacity of Pb in purple soil, and the effect followed the descending order of CA > TA > AC. After the action of LMWOAs, the exchangeable Pb increased; the carbonate-bound Pb and Fe-Mn oxide bound Pb dropped in soil solid phase. Organic bound Pb was the main speciation in soil solution phase, accounting for 45.16%-75.05%. The following speciation of Pb in soil solution was free Pb, accounting for 22.71%-50.25%. For CA and TA treatments, free Pb ions and inorganic bound Pb in soil solution increased with increasing LMWOAs concentration, while organic bound Pb suffered a decrease in this process. An opposite trend for AC treatment was observed compared with CA and TA treatments. Overall, LMWOAs boosted the bioavailability of Pb in purple soil and had a potential risk to contaminate underground water. Among the three LMWOAs in this study, CA had the largest potential to activate soil Pb.

  10. The red, purple and blue modifications of polymeric unsymmetrical hydroxyalkadiynyl-N-arylcarbamate derivatives in Langmuir-Schaefer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, Alexander, E-mail: alexanderalekseev@yandex.ru [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Ihalainen, Petri, E-mail: petri.ihalainen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku FI-20500 (Finland); Ivanov, Artem [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Domnin, Ivan [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, Vera; Orekhov, Anton [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Lemmetyinen, Helge; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere FI-33101 (Finland); Peltonen, Jouko [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku FI-20500 (Finland); Vyaz' min, Sergey [Laboratory of Nanobiotechnologies, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    Solid topochemical photopolymerization (STP) of Langmuir-Schaefer films of a new class of unsymmetrical diynes, containing N-arylcarbamate groups in the hydrophobic part and hydroxymethylene groups in the hydrophilic part of the molecules was examined. In addition, the monomeric Langmuir monolayer formation was studied by Brewster angle microscopy and the surface morphology of monomer and polymer films on solid substrates were studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Three phases of polydiacetylene (PDA) (red, purple and blue) were observed after UV-light polymerization of above-mentioned films of alcohol diacetylene (DA) derivatives. The substitution of MeO group in the aryl ring substituent by hydrogen atom and the variation of the methylene group number in the hydrophobic part from 5 to 6 changed significantly the result of STP: instead of blue phase PDA observed for diynes with MeO group, the red phase PDA was observed for DA with H-atom from the very beginning of diyne film UV irradiation. For two other diynilic N-arylcarbamates of identical chemical structures except of the substituents in the aryl ring of hydrophobic parts of the molecules, no changes in the efficiency of polymerization or the position and shape of absorption bands were observed. This indicated the formation of the purple phase PDA. For these molecules, the number of methylene groups in hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of the molecules was 9 and 2, respectively. - Highlights: • STP reaction of diacetylenes in LS films depends on number and ratio of CH{sub 2} groups. • Three phases of polydiacetylene (red, purple and blue) were observed in LS films. • Structural organization of the monomer film determines the type of polymer phase.

  11. Effect of organic matter and calcium carbonate on behaviors of cadmium adsorption-desorption on/from purple paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiulan; Jiang, Tao; Du, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Batch experiments and sequential extraction analysis were employed to investigate the effects of soil organic matter and CaCO3 on the adsorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd(2+)) onto and from two purple paddy soils, an acidic purple paddy soil (APPS) and a calcareous purple paddy soil (CPPS). The Cd(2+) adsorption isotherms on both soils could be well-described by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. CPPS had a higher capacity and a stronger affinity for Cd(2+) adsorption compared with APPS. The adsorption process of Cd(2+) on APPS was dominated by electrostatic attractions, whereas the adsorption mechanism varied depending on the Cd(2+) concentrations in equilibrium solutions on CPPS. At low equilibrium concentrations, the adsorption process was primarily specific adsorption, but nonspecific adsorption dominated at high equilibrium concentrations. Removal of organic matter decreased the amount of Cd(2+) adsorption on both of the soils, slightly affected the Cd(2+) desorption rate and exchangeable Cd (EXC-Cd) in APPS and increased the desorption rate and EXC-Cd in CPPS, suggesting that the effect of organic matter on Cd(2+) adsorption-desorption depends on the soils. CPPS and APPS containing CaCO3 exhibited higher adsorption amounts but lower desorption rates and lower proportions of EXC-Cd than those of their corresponding soils without CaCO3, demonstrating that CaCO3 played an important role in Cd(2+) specific adsorption on soil. The changes in the thermodynamic parameters, including free energy (ΔG(0)), enthalpy (ΔH(0)) and entropy (ΔS(0)), as evaluated by the Van't Hoff equations, indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process with the primary interaction forces of dipole interactions and hydrogen bonds on APPS, whereas both physical and chemical interactions dominated the adsorption on CPPS.

  12. CO2 assimilation in the chemocline of Lake Cadagno is dominated by a few types of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storelli, Nicola; Peduzzi, Sandro; Saad, Maged

    2013-01-01

    Lake Cadagno is characterized by a compact chemocline that harbors high concentrations of various phototrophic sulfur bacteria. Four strains representing the numerically most abundant populations in the chemocline were tested in dialysis bags in situ for their ability to fix CO₂. The purple sulfur...... and form II of RuBisCO, respectively. Transcription analyses confirmed that, whereas cbbM remained poorly expressed throughout light and dark exposure, cbbL expression varied during the light-dark cycle and was affected by the available carbon sources. Interestingly, the peaks in cbbL expression did...

  13. A Microsensor Study of the Interaction between Purple Sulfur and Green Sulfur Bacteria in Experimental Benthic Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringault, O.; de Wit, R.; Kühl, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between the purple sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina and the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii was studied in a gradient chamber under a 16-hours light-8-hours dark regime. The effects of interaction were inferred by comparing the final outcome of a mixed...... place during the dark periods, while the bottom layer grew phototrophically during the light periods only. In the mixed culture, the relative density of P. aestuarii was lower than in the axenic culture, which reflects the effects of the competition for sulfide. However, the relative density of T...

  14. The study of photo-induced ultrafast dynamics in light-harvesting complex LH2 of purple bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-min; YAN Yong-li; LIU Kang-jun; XU Chun-he; QIAN Shi-xiong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce the photo-induced ultrafast dynamics taking place in the peripheral light harvesting antenna LH2 from purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides by using absorption,fluorescence emission and ultrafast spectroscopic techniques.Three kinds of LH2 sampies,pH treated LH2 (complete removal of B800 pigments),carotenoid mutated LH2 (GM 309) and electrochemical oxidation treated LH2 were used in comparison with native LH2 to investigate the mechanism of photo-induced ultrafast energy transfer within the LH2 complex.

  15. On the role of cytochrome c8 in photosynthetic electron transfer of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Ciurli, Stefano; Kofod, Pauli

    1997-01-01

    We report on the isolation, purification and functional characterization of a soluble c-type cytochrome from light-grown cells of the purple phototroph Rhodoferax fermentans. This cytochrome is basic (pI = 8), has a molecular mass of 12 kDa, and is characterized by a midpoint reduction potential...... of +285 mV. Partial analysis of the N-terminus amino-acid sequence shows a high similarity with cytochromes of c8 type (formerly called Pseudomonas cytochrome c-551 type). Time-resolved spectrophotometric studies show that this cytochrome c8 reduces the tetraheme subunit of the photosynthetic reaction...

  16. Proteomic analysis of the purple sulfur bacterium Candidatus “Thiodictyon syntrophicum” strain Cad16T isolated from Lake Cadagno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Storelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lake Cadagno is characterised by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB. 2D-DIGE was used to monitor the global changes in the proteome of Candidatus “Thiodictyon syntrophicum” strain Cad16T both in the presence and absence of light. This study aimed to disclose details regarding the dark CO2 assimilation of the PSB, as this mechanism is often observed but is not yet sufficiently understood. Our results showed the presence of 17 protein spots that were more abundant in the dark, including three enzymes that could be part of the autotrophic dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, normally observed in archaea.

  17. Purple urine bag syndrome: Case report from a nursing home resident with a false alarm of urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Faisal, A H; Shathiskumar, G; Nurul Izah, A

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS), as the name implies produces purplish discoloration of the urine. It is commonly observed among elderly women with constipation, and individuals with long term catheter in the setting of urinary tract infection (UTI). From the literature research, there were no publications on PUBS in Malaysia; however we believe that it is underreported. We present a unique case of this rare condition occurring in a 68-year-old man, a nursing home resident on long term urinary catheter. The urine cleared after hydration, antibiotic therapy and replacement of the catheter.

  18. Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Deng, Xiaoxiao; Park, Kun-Young; Qiu, Lihua; Pang, Liang

    2013-02-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice.

  19. 紫甘薯乳酸菌饮料工艺技术研究%Study on the Technology of Purple Sweet Potato Yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄和升; 王海平

    2015-01-01

    以紫甘薯和鲜乳为主要原料,研制紫甘薯活性乳酸菌饮料。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定紫甘薯乳酸菌饮料的最佳工艺条件为:发酵时间6.5 h、柠檬酸的添加量0.4%、白砂糖添加量8%、紫甘薯添加量20%,所得产品质地均匀,口感细腻,酸甜可口,具有紫甘薯的香味和浓郁的乳酸菌发酵的奶香味,理化指标和微生物指标均符合国家标准GB 16321-2003《乳酸菌饮料卫生标准》。%Purple sweet potato lactobacillus drink was made by making use of fresh milk and purple sweet potato. On the basis of single factor experiments ,process Condition was optimizated through a orthogonal experiments.Results showed that the optimal process parameters were as follows:fermentation time 6.5 h , citric acid 0.4%,sugar 8%,purple sweet potato20%.Purple sweet potato lactobacillus drink has refreshing taste , pure flavor, sweet and sour taste, of lactobacillus drink and purple sweet potat. The quality of purple sweet potato lactobacillus drink was in accordance with GB 16321-2003.

  20. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    Understanding source dynamics of invasive species is crucial to their management. Free-ranging wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have caused considerable ecological and agricultural damage throughout their global range, including Canada. Objectives were to assess the spatial and temporal patterns in domestic...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  1. Influenza infection in wild raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Bentler, Kevin T; Landolt, Gabrielle; Elmore, Stacey A; Minnis, Richard B; Campbell, Tyler A; Barras, Scott C; Root, J Jeffrey; Pilon, John; Pabilonia, Kristy; Driscoll, Cindy; Slate, Dennis; Sullivan, Heather; McLean, Robert G

    2008-12-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

  2. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K; Boesch, C; Goodall, J; Pusey, A; Williams, J; Wrangham, R

    2001-05-01

    In order to compare evolved human and chimpanzees' life histories we present a synthetic life table for free-living chimpanzees, derived from data collected in five study populations (Gombe, Taï, Kibale, Mahale, Bossou). The combined data from all populations represent 3711 chimpanzee years at risk and 278 deaths. Males show higher mortality than females and data suggest some inter-site variation in mortality. Despite this variation, however, wild chimpanzees generally have a life expectancy at birth of less than 15 years and mean adult lifespan (after sexual maturity) is only about 15 years. This is considerably lower survival than that reported for chimpanzees in zoos or captive breeding colonies, or that measured among modern human hunter-gatherers. The low mortality rate of human foragers relative to chimpanzees in the early adult years may partially explain why humans have evolved to senesce later than chimpanzees, and have a longer juvenile period.

  3. PEMANFAATAN UBI JALAR UNGU (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir SEBAGAI PENGGANTI SEBAGIAN TEPUNG TERIGU DAN SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN PADA ROTI TAWAR [Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir as a Partial Subtitute of Wheat flour and Source of Antioxidant on Plain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir is potential for functional food, especially as antioxidant source due to its purple color and other nutrient content. The objective of this research was to produce plain bread containing antioxidant by partial substitution of wheat flour with purple sweet potato flour. The result showed that the best plain bread was produced by a maximum substitution of 20% purple sweet potato flour to wheat flour. The hedonic characteristics of the resulting bread including aroma, taste, and texture were not significantly different from bread without substitution. Nevertheless, the crust was harder and darker. Addition of 1.0% GMS emulsifier and reduction of purple potato flour to 15% increased the score of softness, hedonic texture, acceptance level, as well as the volume of the bread. The substituted bread had antioxidant activity of 55833.78 ppm DPPH as shown by the IC50 value and contained 4.30% of dietary fiber.

  4. Research advances on natural purple corm pigment%天然黑玉米色素研究与应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金亭

    2013-01-01

    Purple corn pigment is anthocyanins,a kind of natural pigment from the purple corm plant,purple corm cob and purple seed,which is a kind of safety,not poisonous edible. It clearly had antioxidant activity,anti–tumor,anti–aging,reducing blood pressure,regulating blood lipids and blood glucose level and so on. The purple corm pigment was extracted in acid solvent,containing 9 anthocyanins at least and the main active components of red pigment was anthocyanins–3–glucoside. Purple corn pigment is a type of existing natural food additives,and can be used to color for food, medicine,cosmetics,dyes and other industries.Based on the latest research results of home and abroad in recent 10 years,the extraction process,the chemical constitution,the physic–chemical property,the biological active functions,and application of purple corm pigment were summarized. This information may lead to a reference value in depth study,the comprehensive development and application of the purple corm pigment.%  黑玉米色素是从黑色玉米植株、玉米芯和玉米籽粒中提取花青苷,是一种安全、无毒天然食用色素;黑玉米色素呈有良好抗氧化活性,并具抗肿瘤、延缓衰老、降血压、调节血脂、降血糖等功能。黑玉米色素以酸性溶剂提取,其至少含有9种花色苷,主要活性物质为花青素–3–葡萄糖苷;黑玉米色素作为天然食品添加剂,可用于食品、药品、化妆品、染色剂等。该文综述黑玉米色素化学结构、理化性质、提取工艺及应用价值,对加强该色素深入研究和开发利用具有一定参考价值。

  5. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  6. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  7. Pig, F1 (wild boar x pig) and wild boar meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ragni, M.; S. Tarricone; Pinto, F.; Dimatteo, S; G. Marsico; Rasulo, A

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen carcasses of wild boars, pigs, hybrids F1 (wild boar x pig) and reared wild boar have been examined to study the meat quality and the fatty acid composition. Four carcasses came from hunted wild boars and twelve from animals reared in outdoor pens till nine months of age. The meat produced by the hunted wild animals, although not marketable, offers the best quality and nutritional characteristics. The use of hybrids reared in outdoor pens can approximate or equalize the hunted wild bo...

  8. Aquaculture, Capture Fisheries, and Wild Fish Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Jiang

    2007-01-01

    In a general equilibrium model, this paper examines how the rise of aquaculture and the decline of wild fish stocks are related. Two factors, population growth and technological improvement in aquaculture, have been studied in an aquaculture restricted entry case and an aquaculture free entry case. Both factors raise aquaculture production, while changes in wild fish stocks hinge on entry conditions. In the restricted entry case, population growth reduces wild fish stocks, but technological p...

  9. Alleviation of Copper Toictiy to Maize by Phosphours Fertilizer in Purple Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZHENGYIN; CHENYUCHENG

    1997-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of phosphours fertilizer in inhibiting the copper toxicity to maizce(Zea mays L.) in neutral purple soil.Results indicated that the growth of the shoot and roots of maize plant was obviously reduced by copper and the height and biomass were significantly negatively correlated to the application levels of copper(r=-0.899**--0.994**) at no P and low P(100 mg kg-1).However,the maize biomass was relatively increased and the high Cu(100 and 200 mg kg-1) induced toxicity of maize was greatly alleviated in all treatments with medium P( 300mg kg-1) and high P (500mg kg-1). to maintain the normal growth of miaze plant(≥3.68 g pot-1),the critical application rates of phosphours fertilizer shouled be 160,210,300 and 500 mg P kg-1 at 10,50,100 and 200mg Cu kg-1 levels of the soil,respectively,The increases in polyphenol oxdase and catalase activities in maize leaf and dehydrogenase activity in roots by phosphorus fertilizer were in the order of medium P>high P>low P>no P.Activites of polyphenol oxidase an catalase were significantly positively correlated to the application levels of copper(r=0.892**-0.924**),whereas that of edhydrogenase was just rvers(r=-0.966**) at no P.Medium and high P represed the influence of copper on activities of three enzymes.Phosphorus fertilizer reduced the copper concentrations of maize roots and leaf and the change ranges of the P/Cu ratio of miaze roots and the P/Cu,N/Cu and K/Cu ratios of maize leaf ,The three ratios of maize leaf were 253±71.5 ,2643±839 and 1133±440 at normal growth of maize plant. respectively,Soil avaiable Cu could be markedly cut down by application of phosphours fertilizer ,especiallly at hight phosphorus level.

  10. Extending and Merging the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatologies Using the Inversion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Ali; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    Rayleigh and Raman scatter measurements from The University of Western Ontario Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) have been used to develop temperature climatologies for the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere using data from 1994 to 2013 (Rayleigh system) and from 1999 to 2013 (vibrational Raman system). Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the methods by Hauchecorne and Chanin (1980; henceforth HC) and Khanna et al. (2012). Argall and Sica (2007) used the HC method to compute a climatology of the PCL measurements from 1994 to 2004 for 35 to 110 km, while Iserhienrhien et al. (2013) applied the same technique from 1999 to 2007 for 10 to 35 km. Khanna et al. (2012) used the inversion technique to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles and found that it had advantages over the HC method. This paper presents an extension of the PCL climatologies created by Argall and Sica (2007) and Iserhienrhien et al. (2013). Both the inversion and HC methods were used to form the Rayleigh climatology, while only the latter was adopted for the Raman climatology. Then, two different approaches were used to merge the climatologies from 10 to 110 km. Among four different functional identities, a trigonometric hyperbolic relation results in the best choice for merging temperature profiles between the Raman and Low level Rayleigh channels, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.9 K for merging temperatures. Also, error function produces best result with uncertainty of 0.7 K between the Low Level Rayleigh and High Level Rayleigh channels. The results show that the temperature climatologies produced by the HC method when using a seed pressure are comparable to the climatologies produced by the inversion method. The Rayleigh extended climatology is slightly warmer below 80 km and slightly colder above 80 km. There are no significant differences in temperature between the extended and the previous Raman channel climatologies. Through out

  11. Extending and Merging the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatologies Using the Inversion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh and Raman scatter measurements from The University of Western Ontario Purple Crow Lidar (PCL have been used to develop temperature climatologies for the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere using data from 1994 to 2013 (Rayleigh system and from 1999 to 2013 (vibrational Raman system. Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the methods by Hauchecorne and Chanin (1980; henceforth HC and Khanna et al. (2012. Argall and Sica (2007 used the HC method to compute a climatology of the PCL measurements from 1994 to 2004 for 35 to 110 km, while Iserhienrhien et al. (2013 applied the same technique from 1999 to 2007 for 10 to 35 km. Khanna et al. (2012 used the inversion technique to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles and found that it had advantages over the HC method. This paper presents an extension of the PCL climatologies created by Argall and Sica (2007 and Iserhienrhien et al. (2013. Both the inversion and HC methods were used to form the Rayleigh climatology, while only the latter was adopted for the Raman climatology. Then, two different approaches were used to merge the climatologies from 10 to 110 km. Among four different functional identities, a trigonometric hyperbolic relation results in the best choice for merging temperature profiles between the Raman and Low level Rayleigh channels, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.9 K for merging temperatures. Also, error function produces best result with uncertainty of 0.7 K between the Low Level Rayleigh and High Level Rayleigh channels. The results show that the temperature climatologies produced by the HC method when using a seed pressure are comparable to the climatologies produced by the inversion method. The Rayleigh extended climatology is slightly warmer below 80 km and slightly colder above 80 km. There are no significant differences in temperature between the extended and the previous Raman channel climatologies

  12. Metabolic network modeling of redox balancing and biohydrogen production in purple nonsulfur bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammel Hartmut

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB are facultative photosynthetic bacteria and exhibit an extremely versatile metabolism. A central focus of research on PNSB dealt with the elucidation of mechanisms by which they manage to balance cellular redox under diverse conditions, in particular under photoheterotrophic growth. Results Given the complexity of the central metabolism of PNSB, metabolic modeling becomes crucial for an integrated analysis of the accumulated biological knowledge. We reconstructed a stoichiometric model capturing the central metabolism of three important representatives of PNSB (Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Using flux variability analysis, the model reveals key metabolic constraints related to redox homeostasis in these bacteria. With the help of the model we can (i give quantitative explanations for non-intuitive, partially species-specific phenomena of photoheterotrophic growth of PNSB, (ii reproduce various quantitative experimental data, and (iii formulate several new hypotheses. For example, model analysis of photoheterotrophic growth reveals that - despite a large number of utilizable catabolic pathways - substrate-specific biomass and CO2 yields are fixed constraints, irrespective of the assumption of optimal growth. Furthermore, our model explains quantitatively why a CO2 fixing pathway such as the Calvin cycle is required by PNSB for many substrates (even if CO2 is released. We also analyze the role of other pathways potentially involved in redox metabolism and how they affect quantitatively the required capacity of the Calvin cycle. Our model also enables us to discriminate between different acetate assimilation pathways that were proposed recently for R. sphaeroides and R. rubrum, both lacking the isocitrate lyase. Finally, we demonstrate the value of the metabolic model also for potential biotechnological applications: we examine the theoretical

  13. 紫薯电热加温育苗技术%Seedling Technology of Purple Sweet Potato using Electric Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈相波; 张萍; 魏伟; 龚礼萍; 欧阳昌东

    2014-01-01

    紫薯发芽难、发芽慢,造成紫薯种植中低产、低效。采用电热加温育苗,提早紫薯播种育苗,可有效解决薯块发芽难问题,提高紫薯发芽率以及育苗产率。早播促早发,早发促早栽,早栽促丰产、高效。%It was difficult for purple sweet potato to germinate and sprout quickly which caused the low output and efficiency in its plantation. The application of seedling technology by electric heating solved the problem effectively, which could speed up the process of sprouting for purple sweet potato seeds, and could improve its sprouting rate and seedling rate. In a word, early sowing shortened the sprouting time, then the seeding can be planted early to ensure the high yield and efficiency.

  14. Low-concentration, continuous brachial plexus block in the management of Purple Glove Syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Verghese T

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Purple Glove Syndrome is a devastating complication of intravenous phenytoin administration. Adequate analgesia and preservation of limb movement for physiotherapy are the two essential components of management. Case presentation A 26-year-old Tamil woman from India developed Purple Glove Syndrome after intravenous administration of phenytoin. She was managed conservatively by limb elevation, physiotherapy and oral antibiotics. A 20G intravenous cannula was inserted into the sheath of her brachial plexus and a continuous infusion of bupivacaine at a low concentration (0.1% with fentanyl (2 μg/ml at a rate of 1 to 2 ml/hr was given. She had adequate analgesia with preserved motor function which helped in physiotherapy and functional recovery of the hand in a month. Conclusion A continuous blockade of the brachial plexus with a low concentration of bupivacaine and fentanyl helps to alleviate the vasospasm and the pain while preserving the motor function for the patient to perform active movements of the finger and hand.

  15. The combined extract of purple waxy corn and ginger prevents cataractogenesis and retinopathy in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiraphatthanavong, Paphaphat; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee; Lertrat, Kamol; Suriharn, Bhalang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the crucial roles of oxidative stress and aldose reductase on diabetic complications and the protective effect against diabetic eye complication of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG) together with the synergistic effect concept, we aimed to determine anticataract and antiretinopathy effects of the combined extract of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG). The streptozotocin diabetics with the blood glucose levels >250 mg·dL(-1) were orally given the extract at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg·BW(-1) for 10 weeks. Then, lens opacity and histopathology of retina were determined. The changes of MDA together with the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and AR in lens were also determined using biochemical assays. All doses of PWCG decreased lens opacity, MDA, and AR in the lens of diabetic rats. The elevation of CAT and GPx activities was also observed. The antiretinopathy property of the combined extract was also confirmed by the increased number of neurons in ganglion cell layer and thickness of total retina and retinal nuclear layer in diabetic rats. PWCG is the potential functional food to protect against diabetic cataract and retinopathy. However, further studies concerning toxicity and clinical trial are still essential.

  16. A novel method: ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Chinese purple yam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Zong, Aizhen; Xu, Tongcheng; Zhan, Ping; Liu, Lina; Qiu, Bin; Liu, Wei; Jia, Min; Du, Fangling; Tian, Honglei

    2017-08-24

    Chinese purple yam is famous for therapeutic and nutritional values in lowering blood glucose, blood pressure and even preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases. However, traditional extraction techniques for the functional polyphenolic compounds mostly utilise unfriendly organic solvent and easily cause degradation of polyphenols. In this study, a novel ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction (IL-UAE) technique was utilised to obtain polyphenols. The optimal extraction condition included: solid-liquid ratio (0.05 g/mL), ionic liquid concentration (1.05 M), extraction temperature (67°C) and ultrasonic time (37 min). The maximum free radical scavenging activity (86.21%) and total antioxidant activity (2.21 mM) were achieved and matched well with the predicted values, superior to that of the extract from regular ethanol-based UAE. IL-UAE could be a rapid and green technique for efficient extraction of polyphenols from purple yam with low solvent consumption and few structural deterioration, exhibiting application potential in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. The architecture and function of the light-harvesting apparatus of purple bacteria: from single molecules to in vivo membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J; Gall, Andrew; Köhler, Jürgen

    2006-08-01

    This review describes the structures of the two major integral membrane pigment complexes, the RC-LH1 'core' and LH2 complexes, which together make up the light-harvesting system present in typical purple photosynthetic bacteria. The antenna complexes serve to absorb incident solar radiation and to transfer it to the reaction centres, where it is used to 'power' the photosynthetic redox reaction and ultimately leads to the synthesis of ATP. Our current understanding of the biosynthesis and assembly of the LH and RC complexes is described, with special emphasis on the roles of the newly described bacteriophytochromes. Using both the structural information and that obtained from a wide variety of biophysical techniques, the details of each of the different energy-transfer reactions that occur, between the absorption of a photon and the charge separation in the RC, are described. Special emphasis is given to show how the use of single-molecule spectroscopy has provided a more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the energy-transfer processes. We have tried, with the help of an Appendix, to make the details of the quantum mechanics that are required to appreciate these molecular mechanisms, accessible to mathematically illiterate biologists. The elegance of the purple bacterial light-harvesting system lies in the way in which it has cleverly exploited quantum mechanics.

  18. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from purple sweet potato using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Guan, Qingyan; Guo, Ying; He, Jingren; Liu, Gang; Li, Shuyi; Barba, Francisco J.; Jaffrin, Michel Y.

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of valuable components (anthocyanins and phenolics) from purple sweet potatoes using water as a solvent. The Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing extraction responses of anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption. Conditions to obtain maximal anthocyanin extraction yield, maximal phenolic extraction yield, and minimal specific energy consumption were different; an overall desirability function was used to search for overall optimal conditions: extraction temperature of 68ºC, ultrasonic treatment time of 52 min, and a liquid/solid ratio of 20. The optimized anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption were 4.91 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, 3.24 mg g-1 fresh weight, and 2.07 kWh g-1, respectively, with a desirability of 0.99. This study indicates that ultrasound-assisted extraction should contribute to a green process for valorization of purple sweet potatoes.

  19. Mechanisms of purple moor-grass (Molinia caerulea) encroachment in dry heathland ecosystems with chronic nitrogen inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Uta, E-mail: uta.friedrich@leuphana.de [Institute of Ecology, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany); Oheimb, Goddert von, E-mail: vonoheimb@uni-lueneburg.de [Institute of Ecology, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany); Dziedek, Christoph, E-mail: dziedek@leuphana.de [Institute of Ecology, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany); Kriebitzsch, Wolf-Ulrich, E-mail: wolf.kriebitzsch@vti.bund.de [Institute for World Forestry, Johann Heinrich von Thuenen Institute (vTI), Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Leuschnerstrasse 91, 21031 Hamburg (Germany); Selbmann, Katharina, E-mail: katharina_selbmann@web.de [Institute of Ecology, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany); Haerdtle, Werner, E-mail: haerdtle@uni-lueneburg.de [Institute of Ecology, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We analysed growth strategies (biomass allocation, nutrient sequestration and allocation) of heather (Calluna vulgaris) and purple moor-grass (Molinia caerulea) seedlings in monocultures and mixtures in relation to N, P, and N + P fertilisation in a greenhouse experiment in order to simulate a heath's pioneer phase under high airborne nitrogen (N) loads. N fertilisation increased the total biomass of both species in monocultures. In mixtures, M. caerulea sequestered about 65% of the N applied, while C. vulgaris suffered from N shortage (halving of the total biomass). Thus, in mixtures only M. caerulea will benefit from airborne N loads, and competition will become increasingly asymmetric with increasing N availability. Our results demonstrate that the heath's pioneer phase is the crucial tipping point at which the competitive vigour of M. caerulea (high belowground allocation, efficient use of belowground resources, shortened reproductive cycles) induces a shift to dominance of grasses under increased N availability. - Highlights: > M. caerulea seedlings sequestered about 65% of the N applied in mixtures. > M. caerulea seedlings stronger respond to N fertilisation than older plants do. > C. vulgaris seedlings halved their biomass in mixtures as a result of N shortage. > In mixtures, only M. caerulea will benefit from airborne N loads. - The present study indicates that the heath's pioneer phase is the crucial tipping point at which a shift to dominance of purple moor-grass occurs under increased N availability.

  20. Wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (L. in Chukotka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Chernyavskii

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed historical records of the abundance and distribution of wild reindeer {Rangifer tarandus L. in Chukotka and studied reindeer numbers, distribution and behavior from 1983 to 1993. There were large numbers of wild reindeer in Chukotka until the end of the eighteenth century, but during the nineteenth century the population declined probably from intensive harvest after the introduction of firearms by the Cossacks. During the nineteenth century herding of domestic reindeer also increased, and reindeer herders continued to hunt wild reindeer intensively. During the 1950s there were only about 8500 wild reindeer in two separate herds in Chukotka. By the late 1970s the wild reindeer population had increased to about 11 000. Ten years later we estimated 16 534 reindeer, and found only one contiguous population. Presently, the population calves and spends the summer in the Anadyr Uplands and migrates west and southwest to spend the winter in forest tundra and northern taiga regions. Predators, primarily wolves and brown bears, kill a significant number of calves. Today, the wild reindeer in Chukotka coexist with 300 000 domestic reindeer. However, current costs of gasoline and helicopters make it prohibitive to herd reindeer in much of central Chukotka, so that wild reindeer have room for expansion. Poaching is a major conservation problem. Poachers shoot wild reindeer from helicopters to obtain velvet antlers. Leaders of domestic reindeer cooperatives encourage poaching by telling people that wild reindeer are in fact just stray domestic reindeer and there is no enforcement of game laws.

  1. Chewing lice (phthiraptera of several species of wild birds in iran, with new records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Dik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there are about 520 species of birds in Iran, but only some of them have been checked for ectoparasites so far.The aim of this study was to check some more available species of the birds of Iran for lice.This study was performed between 2008-2010 in northern Iran. For this purpose we tried to check some of the wild bird species available and mostly not checked before to identify the lice of them.The birds were found in some of the houses of hunters keeping as trap for catching more birds, some of the bird keepers and a few dead birds from taxidermists. In this way we could check 79 birds of 6 species.We identified 11 lice species on the birds and overall 15.2 % of the examined birds were infested by the lice. Nine lice species including Aquanirmus podicipis, Pseudomenopon dolium, Ardeicola sp, Ciconiphilus decimfasciatus; Menacanthus sp, Austromenopon transversum, Pectinopygus gyricornis, Colpocephalum turbinatum and Hohorstiella lata were recorded for the first time on the birds in Iran. One specimen of Menacanthus sp was found on the purple Heron (Ardea purpurea that is a new host report for this lice.Although the infection rate was not very high in the birds, but 11 species of lice in 6 studied birds species in this study, shows there are still other lice species that exist in the birds and should be identified and added to Iran lice fauna list.

  2. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  3. The nomenclature of the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Smeenk, C.

    2007-01-01

    The 19th-century reports on the occurrence and identity of wild asses in North-East Africa are reviewed, as well as the names applied in various publications by Fitzinger and von Heuglin, respectively. The first published name for the African wild ass, Asinus africanus Fitzinger, 1858, is a nomen nu

  4. Care for the Wild in the Anthropocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Animal ethical approaches often focus on certain individual animal features and capabilities for attributing moral standing to them. These features are usually considered from a moral point of view as not differing for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated animals. However, several authors have argued f

  5. The nomenclature of the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Smeenk, C.

    2007-01-01

    The 19th-century reports on the occurrence and identity of wild asses in North-East Africa are reviewed, as well as the names applied in various publications by Fitzinger and von Heuglin, respectively. The first published name for the African wild ass, Asinus africanus Fitzinger, 1858, is a nomen nu

  6. 牛蒡紫山药发酵香肠的研究%Study on sausage fermented with burdock and purple yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2014-01-01

    Burdock and purple yam were added into fermented sausage to develop burdock purple yam fermented sausage. Through response surface analysis, the optimum main raw material ratio of bur-dock purple yam fermented sausage was defined ( compare with pork quality 100%) . The result showed that burdock, purple yam and soybean protein isolate was 4. 0%, 8. 0% and 9. 4%, respectively.%在发酵香肠中添加牛蒡及紫山药等原料研制牛蒡紫山药发酵香肠。利用响应面分析实验的方法优化并选择了牛蒡紫山药发酵香肠的主要原料配比(以猪肉质量为100%计)为∶牛蒡粉4.0%,紫山药粉8.0%,大豆分离蛋白9.4%。

  7. 紫木节高岭土选矿试验研究%Experimental Research of Mineral Processing on Purple Kibushi Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌燕; 张格; 王琪; 陆康

    2015-01-01

    内蒙古鄂尔多斯煤系高岭土,因含有较多腐殖质、炭质而呈紫褐色,又称紫木节高岭土。以鄂尔多斯紫木节高岭土为研究对象,对其进行除铁增白试验研究。采用“捣浆-磁选-漂白”工艺流程,可使高岭土煅烧白度由59.49%提高到85.87%,Fe2O3含量从1.38%降到0.74%,达到搪瓷工业一级高岭土(TT-1)的标准。%Inner Mongolia Erdos coal kaolin, because it contains more humus and carbonaceous which make it show the purple-brown, it also called purple kibushi kaolin. The Erdos purple kibushi kaolin was determined as the object of study, and it’s iron removal and bleaching experiments were studied. The use of “chopped-magnetic-bleaching” process, allows Erdos purple kibushi kaolincalcined whiteness increase from 59.49% to 85.87%, the content of Fe2O3 down from 1.38%to 0.74%, and it reaches the ifrst standard of enamel industry.

  8. 凝固型紫红薯酸奶制备工艺的研究%Production technology of solidified purple sweet potato yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓锦坚; 刘唤明

    2011-01-01

    The solidified purple sweet potato yogurt was fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the paper using purple sweet potato, defatted milk powder and sugar as raw materials.The optimal fermentation conditions were obtained by single factors and orthogonal experiments as follows: the mass ratio of purple sweet potato to water 2:8, sugar 8%, inoculum 4% and fermentation time 6h.Under these conditions, the solidified purple sweet potato yogurt was rich in anthocyanin.%以紫红薯、脱脂奶粉和白糖为原料,采用保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌发酵研制凝固型紫红薯酸奶.通过单因素试验验和正交试验优化,确定了凝固型紫红薯酸奶的制备工艺.试验表明,最佳紫红薯酸奶发酵条件为紫红薯与水按2:8的质量比、8%白砂糖、接种量4%及发酵时间6h,可生产出富含花青素的凝固型紫红薯酸奶.

  9. Development of biomarkers and a diagnostic tool for investigation of coinfections by and interactions between potato purple top and potato witches’-broom phytoplasmas in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Basin potato purple top (PPT) phytoplasma and Alaska potato witches’-broom (PWB) phytoplasma are two closely-related but mutually distinct pathogenic bacteria that infect potato and other vegetable crops. Inhabiting phloem sieve elements and being transmitted by phloem-feeding insect vecto...

  10. On the mechanism of action of soybean lipoxygenase-1. A stopped-flow kinetic study of the formation and conversion of yellow and purple enzyme species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Egmond, M.R.; Fasella, P.M.; Veldink, G.A.; Boldingh, J.

    1977-01-01

    1. The conversion of the native iron-containing lipoxygenase-1 into yellow and purple ferric enzyme species by 13-L-hydroperoxy-9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoic acid (R-13-OOH) was studied by measuring the absorbance changes at 330 nm and 580 nm, respectively in the stopped-flow apparatus. The

  11. Calling patterns of Western purple-faced langurs (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidea: Trachypithecus vetulus nestor) in a degraded human landscape in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschmann, C.; Moore, R.; Nekaris, K.A.I.

    2008-01-01

    The study of calling patterns is a useful non-invasive method for determining population densities and the taxonomic relationships of rare or cryptic animal species. The Western purple-faced langur Trachypithecus vetulus nestor, endemic to Sri Lanka’s lowland rainforests, is severely impacted by for

  12. Influence of cations on the blue to purple transition of bacteriorhodopsin. Comparison of Ca2+ and Hg2+ binding and their effect on the surface potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duñach, M; Seigneuret, M; Rigaud, J L; Padrós, E

    1988-11-25

    We have investigated the effect of Ca2+ and Hg2+ binding on various properties of the blue membrane prepared by deionization of the Halobacterium halobium purple membrane. Binding of radioactive 45Ca2+ and 203Hg2+ was monitored by a filtration technique. Five high and medium affinity sites for Ca2+ and seven low affinity sites for Hg2+ were found per bacteriorhodopsin. Competitive binding was observed only for three Ca2+ and three Hg2+. Visible absorption studies indicated that Ca2+ binding could restore the purple color of bacteriorhodopsin while Hg2+ was inefficient. Hg2- could partially reverse to blue the Ca2+-regenerated purple membrane in parallel with the displacement of three Ca2+. Effects of cation binding on the surface potential of the membrane were measured by Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy using a cationic spin-labeled amphiphile. Cations such as La3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, or Na+ strongly increased (i.e. rendered less negative) the surface potential. An univocal correlation was found between the cation-induced variation of surface potential and the extent of regeneration of the purple color. Hg2+ induced a smaller increase in surface potential than that corresponding to the effective divalent cations. This lower effect appears to be due to binding to sites not related to those of other cations.

  13. Biotechnology application of organic mulch as an alternative to the plastic mulch-methyl bromide system for suppressing purple and yellow nutsedges in tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus (purple and yellow nutsedges, respectively) are among the most serious weed problems in many cropping systems in Florida and other parts of the world. They have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in various horticultural crops. Production systems based o...

  14. Experiment and Application of Baojing Purple Sand from Hunan for Pottery Fabrication%湖南保靖县紫砂陶成瓷试验及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳小胜; 袁勇; 江良; 饶宗旺; 朱俊

    2011-01-01

    对湖南省保靖县的紫砂陶进行了化学成分分析以及瓷坯配方的试验,确定了优化配方。其中利用当地原料(含紫砂陶、镁质粘土)的用量,高达80%,生产出具有热稳定性高、造型新颖、美观且有良好保健作用的紫砂陶制品,从而为湖南保靖县大量开发紫砂陶矿提供了科学依据。%Chemical composition of purple sand from Bojing,Hunan was analyzed,and then the optimized body formula was obtained through experiments.Finally the purple sand pottery products with high thermal stability,novel shapes and good health effects were produced with 80% local materials(including purple sand and magnesia clay),which can provide technological reference for the utilization of purple sand from Baojing,Hunan.

  15. 紫红薯膳食纤维漂白工艺研究%Studies on the Bleaching Technology of Purple Ipomoea batatas Dietary Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少福; 蒋艳; 上官新晨; 沈勇根; 徐嘉琪; 罗娟

    2011-01-01

    为了得到色泽较浅的紫红薯膳食纤维,以样品的白度为指标,采用单因素和正交优化试验对H2O2漂白紫红薯膳食纤维的工艺进行研究.结果表明:将紫红薯膳食纤维用40 g/L H2O2溶液按1:15调成浆,pH值调整为10.0,在60 ℃的水浴中保温处理180 min,样品的白度值达到85.39%.%In order to obtain lighter -color purple lpomoea batatas dietary fiber, taking whiteness of the sample as an indicator, the bleaching technology of the purple lpomoea batatas dietary fibers was researched by H202 method. The optimum technologic parameters of the purple Ipomoea batatas IDF bleaching was obtained with single -factor and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that: 1:15 proportion of purple lpomoea batatas IDF to H2O2 solution, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide was 40 g/L, pH 10, temperature 60 ℃, time 180 min. Its brightness reached 85.39%.

  16. High mature grain phytase activity in the Triticeae has evolved by duplication followed by neofunctionalization of the purple acid phosphatase phytase (PAPhy) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holme, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The phytase activity in food and feedstuffs is an important nutritional parameter. Members of the Triticeae tribe accumulate purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhy) during grain filling. This accumulation elevates mature grain phytase activities (MGPA) up to levels between ~650 FTU/kg for barley...

  17. Wild food plants of Remote Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will C. McClatchey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural societies partly depend upon wild foods. Relationships between an agricultural society and its wild foods can be explored by examining how the society responds through colonization of new lands that have not been previously inhabited. The oldest clear example of this phenomenon took place about 5000 years ago in the tropical Western Pacific at the “boundary” interface between Near and Remote Oceania. An inventory of wild and domesticated food plants used by people living along “the remote side of ” that interface has been prepared from the literature. This was then assessed for the roles of plants at the time of original colonization of Remote Oceania. The majority of species are wild foods, and most of these are used as leafy vegetables and fruits. The wild food plants mostly serve as supplements to domesticated species, although there are a few that can be used as substitutes for traditional staples.

  18. 葡萄皮紫色素的稳定性研究%Extraction and Stability of the Purple Pigment in Grape Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective The extraction and stability of purple pigment in grape skin were studied. Methods The grape skin as raw material was extracted with the 80% ethanol, and its stability had been done research. Results The purple pigment is purple cream, not dissolve in chloroform, hardly in acetone, dissolve in methanol, ethanol, easy in water; The stability was good when pH is within 3.0~6.0;Fe3+, Cu2+, Fe2+on the purple is known as a certain impact;The stability got worse under the light;it did not react too much to the preservative;purple pigment removal capacity than Vc weak DPPH. Conclusion Purple pigment during the appli-cation should pay attention to adjust pH, dark storage, avoid to use of iron containers;purple pigment has some antioxidant activity.%目的:研究葡萄皮紫色素的提取及其稳定性。方法以葡萄皮为原料,采用80%乙醇提取,并对其稳定性做较深入研究。结果葡萄皮紫色素为紫色膏状,不溶于氯仿,难溶于丙酮、乙醚、乙酸乙酯,溶于甲醇、乙醇,易溶于水;在pH=3~6时,稳定性好;Fe3+、Cu2+、Fe2+对其有一定影响;光照对紫色素有降解作用;防腐剂对其影响不显著;紫色素清除DPPH的能力比Vc弱。结论葡萄皮紫色素在应用过程中应注意调节pH值,避光贮存,避免使用铁制容器;防腐剂对紫色素无显著影响;紫色素具有一定的抗氧化性。

  19. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  20. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of an anthocyanin-rich gene, BnaA.PL1, conferring purple leaves in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Zhu, Lixia; Yuan, Gaigai; Heng, Shuangping; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Because of the advantages of anthocyanins, the genetics and breeding of crops rich in anthocyanins has become a hot research topic. However, due to the lack of anthocyanin-related mutants, no regulatory genes have been mapped in Brassica napus. In this study, we first report the characterization of a B. napus line with purple leaves and the fine mapping and candidate screening of the BnaA.PL1 gene. The amount of anthocyanins in the purple leaf line was six times higher than that in a green leaf line. A genetic analysis indicated that the purple character was controlled by an incomplete dominant gene. Through map-based cloning, we localized the BnaA.PL1 gene to a 99-kb region at the end of B. napus chromosome A03. Transcriptional analysis of 11 genes located in the target region revealed that the expression level of only the BnAPR2 gene in seedling leaves decreased from purple to reddish green to green individuals, a finding that was consistent with the measured anthocyanin accumulation levels. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of BnAPR2 showed that the purple individual-derived allele contained 17 variants. Markers co-segregating with BnaA.PL1 were developed from the sequence of BnAPR2 and were validated in the BC4P2 population. These results suggested that BnAPR2, which encodes adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is likely to be a valuable candidate gene. This work may lay the foundation for the marker-assisted selection of B. napus vegetables that are rich in anthocyanins and for an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling anthocyanin accumulation in Brassica.