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Sample records for purple nonsulfur bacteria

  1. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth.

  2. Molecular Regulation of Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Nonsulfur Purple Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabita, Fred Robert [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanism by which a transcriptional activator protein affects CO2 fixation (cbb) gene expression in nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria, with special emphasis to Rhodobacter sphaeroides and with comparison to Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These studies culminated in several publications which indicated that additional regulators interact with the master regulator CbbR in both R. sphaeroides and R. palustris. In addition, the interactive control of the carbon and nitrogen assimilatory pathways was studied and unique regulatory signals were discovered.

  3. "Paraffin wax-overlay of pour plate", a method for the isolation and enumeration of purple non-sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, A; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Arunasri, K

    2004-12-01

    A modification of pour plate technique with an overlay of wax was used for isolation and enumeration of purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) with equal efficiency as that of agar shake culture. The total count of PNSB ranged from 10(5)-10(8) CFU g dry soil(-1) and belonged to the genera of Rhodobacter, Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodocista and Rubrivivax.

  4. Metabolic network modeling of redox balancing and biohydrogen production in purple nonsulfur bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammel Hartmut

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB are facultative photosynthetic bacteria and exhibit an extremely versatile metabolism. A central focus of research on PNSB dealt with the elucidation of mechanisms by which they manage to balance cellular redox under diverse conditions, in particular under photoheterotrophic growth. Results Given the complexity of the central metabolism of PNSB, metabolic modeling becomes crucial for an integrated analysis of the accumulated biological knowledge. We reconstructed a stoichiometric model capturing the central metabolism of three important representatives of PNSB (Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Using flux variability analysis, the model reveals key metabolic constraints related to redox homeostasis in these bacteria. With the help of the model we can (i give quantitative explanations for non-intuitive, partially species-specific phenomena of photoheterotrophic growth of PNSB, (ii reproduce various quantitative experimental data, and (iii formulate several new hypotheses. For example, model analysis of photoheterotrophic growth reveals that - despite a large number of utilizable catabolic pathways - substrate-specific biomass and CO2 yields are fixed constraints, irrespective of the assumption of optimal growth. Furthermore, our model explains quantitatively why a CO2 fixing pathway such as the Calvin cycle is required by PNSB for many substrates (even if CO2 is released. We also analyze the role of other pathways potentially involved in redox metabolism and how they affect quantitatively the required capacity of the Calvin cycle. Our model also enables us to discriminate between different acetate assimilation pathways that were proposed recently for R. sphaeroides and R. rubrum, both lacking the isocitrate lyase. Finally, we demonstrate the value of the metabolic model also for potential biotechnological applications: we examine the theoretical

  5. Arsenic metabolism in purple nonsulfur bacteria%紫色非硫细菌的砷代谢机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕常江; 赵春贵; 杨素萍; 曲音波

    2012-01-01

    [目的]系统阐述紫色非硫细菌(PNSB)砷代谢机制和砷代谢基因簇的进化关系.[方法]通过生物信息学方法分析了PNSB砷代谢基因簇的分布、组成、排布方式.采用UV-Vis和HPLC-ICP-MS方法,研究了3个PNSB种类对砷的抗性、砷形态及价态的转化、砷在细胞中的积累和分布以及磷酸盐对As细胞毒性的影响.[结果]砷基因簇分析表明:已公布全基因组序列的17个PNSB菌株基因组中均含有以ars operon为核心的砷代谢基因簇,由1-4个操纵子组成,主要含有与细胞质砷还原和砷甲基化代谢相关的基因,但基因的组成和排列方式因种和菌株而异,尤其是arsM和两类进化来源不同的arsC.实验结果表明:光照厌氧条件下,3个PNSB种类对As(V)和As(Ⅲ)均具有抗性,As(V)和As(Ⅲ)均能进入细胞 ;在胞内As(V)能够还原为As(Ⅲ)并被排出胞外,但不能将As(Ⅲ)氧化为As(V),也未检测到甲基砷化物 ;磷酸盐浓度升高,能够抑制As(V)进入细胞,降低As(V)对细胞的毒性,而不能抑制As(Ⅲ)进入细胞.[结论]PNSB砷代谢机制主体为细胞质As(V)还原,也还有砷甲基化途径.通过对砷代谢基因簇结构多样性特点和进化方式分析,提出了与Rosen不同的ars operon进化途径.这对深入开展PNSB砷代谢和基因之间的相互作用研究奠定基础.%To elucidate the arsenic metabolic pathway of purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB). [Methods] We investigated the distribution within their genomes, organization, composition, arrangement, core genes and coding proteins of arsenic gene clusters found in complete genome from 17 strains of PNSB by comparing the genomes analysis, and studied the arsenic metabolism in 3 members of PNSB under anaerobic conditions by UV-Vis and HPLC-ICP-MS. [Results] Arsenate reduction and arsenite methylation pathways mediated by ars operon are the dominating arsenic metabolic processes. The arsenic gene clusters differ vastly in composition and

  6. Calvin cycle mutants of photoheterotrophic purple nonsulfur bacteria fail to grow due to an electron imbalance rather than toxic metabolite accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gina C; McKinlay, James B

    2014-03-01

    Purple nonsulfur bacteria grow photoheterotrophically by using light for energy and organic compounds for carbon and electrons. Disrupting the activity of the CO2-fixing Calvin cycle enzyme, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO), prevents photoheterotrophic growth unless an electron acceptor is provided or if cells can dispose of electrons as H2. Such observations led to the long-standing model wherein the Calvin cycle is necessary during photoheterotrophic growth to maintain a pool of oxidized electron carriers. This model was recently challenged with an alternative model wherein disrupting RubisCO activity prevents photoheterotrophic growth due to the accumulation of toxic ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) (D. Wang, Y. Zhang, E. L. Pohlmann, J. Li, and G. P. Roberts, J. Bacteriol. 193:3293-3303, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00265-11). Here, we confirm that RuBP accumulation can impede the growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum (Rs. rubrum) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rp. palustris) RubisCO-deficient (ΔRubisCO) mutants under conditions where electron carrier oxidation is coupled to H2 production. However, we also demonstrate that Rs. rubrum and Rp. palustris Calvin cycle phosphoribulokinase mutants that cannot produce RuBP cannot grow photoheterotrophically on succinate unless an electron acceptor is provided or H2 production is permitted. Thus, the Calvin cycle is still needed to oxidize electron carriers even in the absence of toxic RuBP. Surprisingly, Calvin cycle mutants of Rs. rubrum, but not of Rp. palustris, grew photoheterotrophically on malate without electron acceptors or H2 production. The mechanism by which Rs. rubrum grows under these conditions remains to be elucidated.

  7. Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050 contains photosynthetic LH2 antenna complexes that are not enriched with phosphatidylglycerol, and the phospholipids have a fatty acyl composition that is unusual for purple non-sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas J; Coleman, Julie K; Howard, Tina D; Johnston, Evelyn; Cogdell, Richard J

    2002-12-01

    The phospholipid composition of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050 grown aerobically or anaerobically in the light was determined. The major phospholipids present in the aerobic cells were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE; 54%), phosphatidylglycerol (PG; 24%) and cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol, DPG) (14%), together with phosphatidylcholine (PC; 5%). On moving the cells to anaerobic photosynthetic growth in the light PE remained the major phospholipid (37-49%), but there was a major change in the proportion of PC, which increased to 31-33%, and corresponding reductions in the contents of PG to 11-16% and DPG to 4-5%. The fatty acid composition of the phospholipids was unusual, compared with other purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria, in that it contained 16:0 (29%), 17:1 (20%) and 19:1 (9%) plus several mainly unsaturated 2-OH fatty acids (9% total) as major components, when grown aerobically in the dark. In contrast when grown photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions there was <2% 17:1 or 19:1 present, while the amounts of 16:1 and 18:1 increased, and 16:0 decreased. The phospholipid composition of the purified light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) complex was PE (43%), PC (42%) and DPG (15%). Unexpectedly, there was no PG associated with the purified LH2. These findings contrast with previous studies on several other photosynthetic bacteria, which had shown an increase in PG upon photosynthetic growth [Biochem. J. 181 (1979) 339]. The prior hypothesis that phosphatidylglycerol has some specific role to play in the function of light-harvesting complexes cannot be true for Rps. acidophila. It is suggested that specific integral membrane proteins may strongly influence the phospholipid content of the host membranes into which they are inserted.

  8. Characterizations of purple non-sulfur bacteria isolated from paddy fields, and identification of strains with potential for plant growth-promotion, greenhouse gas mitigation and heavy metal bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakpirom, Jakkapan; Kantachote, Duangporn; Nunkaew, Tomorn; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed at selecting purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) isolated from various paddy fields, including Cd- and Zn-contaminated paddy fields, based on their biofertilizer properties. Among 235 PNSB isolates, strain TN110 was most effective in plant growth-promoting substance (PGPS) production, releasing 3.2 mg/L of [Formula: see text] , 4.11 mg/L of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and 3.62 mg/L of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and reducing methane emission up to 80%. This strain had nifH, vnfG and anfG, which are the Mo, V and Fe nitrogenase genes encoded for key enzymes in nitrogen fixation under different conditions. This strain provided 84% and 55% removal of Cd and Zn, respectively. Another isolate, TN414, not only produced PGPS (1.30 mg/L of [Formula: see text] , 0.94 mg/L of ALA and 0.65 mg/L of IAA), but was also efficient in removing both Cd and Zn at 72% and 74%, respectively. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing, strain TN110 was identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris, while strain TN414 was Rubrivivax gelatinosus. A combination of TN110 and TN414 could potentially provide a biofertilizer, which is a greener alternative to commercial/chemical fertilizers and an agent for bioremediation of heavy metals and greenhouse gas mitigation in paddy fields. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. All rights reserved.

  9. Rhodoferax antarcticus sp. nov., a moderately psychrophilic purple nonsulfur bacterium isolated from an Antarctic microbial mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, M. T.; Jung, D. O.; Woese, C. R.; Achenbach, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    A new species of purple nonsulfur bacteria isolated from an Antarctic microbial mat is described. The organism, designated strain ANT.BR, was mildly psychrophilic, growing optimally at 15-18 degrees C with a growth temperature range of 0-25 degrees C. Cells of strain ANT.BR were highly motile curved rods and spirals, contained bacteriochlorophyll a, and showed a multicomponent in vivo absorption spectrum. A specific phylogenetic relationship was observed between strain ANT.BR and the purple bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans FR2T, and the two organisms shared several physiological and other phenotypic properties, with the notable exception of growth temperature optimum. Tests of genomic DNA hybridization, however, showed Rfx. fermentans FR2T and strain ANT.BR to be genetically distinct bacteria. Because of its unique set of properties, especially its requirement for low growth temperatures, we propose to recognize strain ANT.BR as a new species of the genus Rhodoferax, Rhodoferax antarcticus, named for its known habitat, the Antarctic.

  10. Rhodobaca bogoriensis gen. nov. and sp. nov., an alkaliphilic purple nonsulfur bacterium from African Rift Valley soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, A D; Achenbach, L A; Jung, D O; Madigan, M T

    2000-01-01

    From enrichment cultures established for purple nonsulfur bacteria using water and sediment samples from Lake Bogoria and Crater Lake, two soda lakes in the African Rift Valley, three strains of purple nonsulfur bacteria were isolated; strain LBB1 was studied in detail. Cells of strain LBB1 were motile and spherical to rod-shaped, suggesting a relationship to Rhodobacter or Rhodovulum species, and the organism was capable of both phototrophic and chemotrophic growth on a wide variety of organic compounds. Phototrophically grown cultures were yellow to yellow-brown in color and grew optimally at pH 9 (pH range 7.5-10) and 1% NaCl (range 0-10%). In physiological studies of strain LBB1, neither photoautotrophy (H2- or sulfide-dependent) nor nitrogen fixation was observed. Absorption spectra revealed that all three strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spheroidene pathway and synthesized only a light-harvesting (LH) I-type photosynthetic antenna complex. Electron microscopy of cells of strain LBB1 revealed a vesicular intracytoplasmic membrane system, although only a few vesicles were observed per cell. The G+C content of strain LBB1 DNA was 59 mol%, significantly lower than that of known Rhodobacter and Rhodovulum species, and its phylogeny as determined by ribosomal RNA gene sequencing placed it within the Rhodobacter/Rhodovulum clade yet distinct from all described species of either of these genera. The unique assemblage of properties observed in strain LBB1 warrants its inclusion in a new genus of purple nonsulfur bacteria and the name Rhodobaca bogoriensis is proposed herein, the genus name reflecting morphological characteristics and the species epithet referring to the habitat.

  11. 1H NMR of High-Potential Iron-Sulfur Protein from the Purple Non-Sulfur Bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciurli, Stefano; Cremonini, Mauro Andrea; Kofod, Pauli

    1996-01-01

    Oxidized and reduced forms of high-potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) from the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodoferux fermentans have been characterized using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Pairwise and sequence-specific assignments of hyperfine-shifted 1H-NMR signals to protons of cysteine...

  12. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  13. A KDP-LIKE, HIGH-AFFINITY, K+-TRANSLOCATING ATPASE IS EXPRESSED DURING GROWTH OF RHODOBACTER-SPHAEROIDES IN LOW POTASSIUM MEDIA - DISTRIBUTION OF THIS K+-ATPASE AMONG PURPLE NONSULFUR PHOTOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ABEE, T; HELLINGWERF, KJ; BAKKER, EP; SIEBERS, A; KONINGS, WN

    1992-01-01

    Cells of the purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides express a high-affinity K+ uptake system when grown in media with low K+ concentrations. Antibodies against the catalytic KdpB protein or the whole KdpABC complex of Escherichia coli cross-react with a 70.0 kDa R. sphaeroides protein

  14. Photoreceptor proteins from purple bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, J.; van der Horst, M.A.; Chua, T.K.; Ávila Pérez, M.; van Wilderen, L.J.; Alexandre, M.T.A.; Groot, M.-L.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Hunter, C.N.; Daldal, F.; Thurnauer, M.C.; Beatty, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Purple bacteria contain representatives of four of the six main families of photoreceptor proteins: phytochromes, BLUF domain containing proteins, xanthopsins (i.e., photoactive yellow proteins), and phototropins (containing one or more light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains). Most of them have a

  15. Malate dehydrogenase in phototrophic purple bacteria: purification, molecular weight, and quaternary structure.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The citric acid cycle enzyme malate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the nonsulfur purple bacteria Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodomicrobium vannielii, and Rhodocyclus purpureus. Malate dehydrogenase was purified from each species by either a single- or a two-step protocol: triazine dye affinity chromatography was the key step in purification of malate dehydrogenase in all cases. Purification of malate dehydrogenase resulted in a 130- to 240-fold increase in ...

  16. The green non-sulfur bacteria: a deep branching in the eubacterial line of descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaizu, H.; Debrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Mandelco, L.; Studier, J. A.; Woese, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons define a phylogenetic grouping, the green non-sulfur bacteria and relatives (GNS), known to contain the genera Chloroflexus, Herpetosiphon and Thermomicrobium--organisms that have little phenotypic similarity. The unit is phylogenetically deep, but entirely distinct from any other eubacterial division (phylum). It is also relatively ancient--branching from the common eubacterial stem earlier than any other group of eubacteria reported thus far. The group phenotype is predominantly thermophilic, and its thermophilic members, especially Thermomicrobium, are more slowly evolving than Herpetosiphon, a mesophile. The GNS unit appears significantly older than either the green sulfur bacteria or the cyanobacteria--making it likely that organisms such as Chloroflexus, not the cyanobacteria, generated the oldest stromatolites, which formed over three billion years ago.

  17. On the role of cytochrome c8 in photosynthetic electron transfer of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Ciurli, Stefano; Kofod, Pauli

    1997-01-01

    We report on the isolation, purification and functional characterization of a soluble c-type cytochrome from light-grown cells of the purple phototroph Rhodoferax fermentans. This cytochrome is basic (pI = 8), has a molecular mass of 12 kDa, and is characterized by a midpoint reduction potential...... of +285 mV. Partial analysis of the N-terminus amino-acid sequence shows a high similarity with cytochromes of c8 type (formerly called Pseudomonas cytochrome c-551 type). Time-resolved spectrophotometric studies show that this cytochrome c8 reduces the tetraheme subunit of the photosynthetic reaction...

  18. Taxonomy of phototrophic green and purple bacteria: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, N; Trüper, H G

    1983-01-01

    The presently existing classification for the green and purple bacteria comprises physiological-ecological assemblages of phototrophic bacteria with anoxygenic photosynthesis. The taxonomic units of the different levels were based entirely on common phenotypic traits, including morphological, cytological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Since degrees of resemblance form the basis of the grouping, this classification cannot reflect the genetic or evolutionary relatedness of these bacteria, neither among themselves nor with other bacteria. The advantage of the artificial system, however, is the use of features which can be established in most laboratories and which allow the comparison and identification of newly isolated strains with those already studied and described. The four existing families correspond to the four major recognized, ecophysiological groups, the Chlorobiaceae and Chloroflexaceae among the green bacteria, and the Chromatiaceae and Rhodospirillaceae among the purple bacteria. Our knowledge of all these groups is incomplete; this is reflected by the fact that seven new species have been described during the past three years (6th Newsletter on phot. bacteria, Trüper and Hansen, 1982). The description of the new genus and species Erythrobacter longus (Shiba and Simidu, 1982) is also interesting, as it comprises aerobic chemoorganotrophic marine bacteria which form bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids; however, no strains were able to grow phototrophilcally. Significant success is currently being obtained in the different approaches toward elucidating the genetic relationships within and outside of the purple and green bacteria. Detailed studies of the lipopolysaccharides of several species and genera of the Rhodospirillaceae (Weckesser et al., 1979, and more recent paper) have proven to be very useful for the recognition of relationships or dissimilarities between the species of a genus or between different genera. Amino acid sequence

  19. Rings, ellipses and horseshoes: how purple bacteria harvest solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J; Gardiner, Alastair T; Roszak, Aleksander W; Law, Christopher J; Southall, June; Isaacs, Neil W

    2004-01-01

    This Review summarises the current state of research on the structure and function of light-harvesting apparatus in purple photosynthetic bacteria. Particular emphasis is placed on the major open questions still outstanding in this field in addition to what is already known.

  20. Okenane, a biomarker for purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae), and other new carotenoid derivatives from the 1640 Ma Barney Creek Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J.; Schaeffer, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    Carbonates of the 1640 million years (Ma) old Barney Creek Formation (BCF), McArthur Basin, Australia, contain more than 22 different C 40 carotenoid derivatives including lycopane, γ-carotane, β-carotane, chlorobactane, isorenieratane, β-isorenieratane, renieratane, β-renierapurpurane, renierapurpurane and the monoaromatic carotenoid okenane. These biomarkers extend the geological record of carotenoid derivatives by more than 1000 million years. Okenane is potentially derived from the red-colored aromatic carotenoid okenone. Based on a detailed review of the ecology and physiology of all extant species that are known to contain okenone, we interpret fossil okenane as a biomarker for planktonic purple sulfur bacteria of the family Chromatiaceae. Okenane is strictly a biomarker for anoxic and sulfidic conditions in the presence of light (photic zone euxinia) and indicates an anoxic/oxic transition (temporarily) located at less than 25 m depth and, with a high probability, less than 12 m depth. For the BCF, we also interpret renierapurpurane, renieratane and β-renierapurpurane as biomarkers for Chromatiaceae with a possible contribution of cyanobacterial synechoxanthin to the renierapurpurane pool. Although isorenieratane may, in principle, be derived from actinobacteria, in the BCF these biomarkers almost certainly derive from sulfide-oxidizing phototrophic green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae). Biological precursors of γ-carotane, β-carotane and lycopane are found among numerous autotrophic and almost all phototrophic organisms in the three domains of life. In the BCF, a paucity of diagnostic eukaryotic steroids suggests that algae were rare and, therefore, that cyanobacterial carotenoids such as β-carotene, echinenone, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin are the most likely source of observed β-carotane. γ-Carotane may be derived from cyanobacteria, Chlorobiaceae and green non-sulfur bacteria (Chloroflexi), while the most likely biological sources for lycopane

  1. An Innovative Device to Convert Olive Mill Wastewater into a Suitable Effluent for Feeding Purple Non-Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Carlozzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A device (prototype with a working volume of 200 L was used to deplete olive mill wastewater (OMW of polyphenols. The OMW transformed into feedstock by means of the device was then used for feeding a lab-scale photobioreactor, just for testing the production of bioH2. The main novelty of this prototype consists in the combination of several adsorbent matrices and the exploitation of their synergic action. In this investigation, three matrices have been used: active carbon, Azolla and zeolite. The device was operated at an olive oil company located in the heart of the Chianti zone (Province of Florence, Italy. The efficiency of polyphenol removal obtained using the device was ≥96%. The multi-matrix effluent (MMeff generated was then used to obtain three different culture broths containing 25%, 50% and 100% of MMeff, respectively. The diluted (with water culture broths were suitable for hydrogen generation, with the highest hydrogen production rate (12.7 mL H2/Lculture/h being obtained using 50% MMeff. The hydrogen yields were: 334 mL H2/L of MMeff, when feeding the photofermenter with pure effluent (100%; 1308 mL H2/L of MMeff, with the half-diluted effluent (50%, v/v; and 432 mL H2/L of MMeff, with the highest-diluted effluent (25%, v/v.

  2. Fructose metabolism of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum: effect of carbon dioxide on growth, and production of bacteriochlorophyll and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Christiane; Grammel, Hartmut

    2012-04-05

    During fermentative metabolism, carbon dioxide fixation plays a key role in many bacteria regarding growth and production of organic acids. The present contribution, dealing with the facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, reveals not only the strong influence of ambient carbon dioxide on the fermentative break-down of fructose but also a high impact on aerobic growth with fructose as sole carbon source. Both growth rates and biomass yield increased with increasing carbon dioxide supply in chemoheterotrophic aerobic cultures. Furthermore, intracellular metabolite concentration measurements showed almost negligible concentrations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate under aerobic growth, in contrast to several metabolites of the glycolysis. In addition, we present a dual phase fed-batch process, where an aerobic growth phase is followed by an anaerobic production phase. The biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and the secretion of organic acids were both affected by the carbon dioxide supply, the pH value and by the cell density at the time of switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. The formation of pigmented photosynthetic membranes and the amount of bacteriochlorophyll were inversely correlated to the secretion of succinate. Accounting the high biotechnological potential of R. rubrum, optimization of carbon dioxide supply is important because of the favored application of fructose-containing fermentable feedstock solutions in bio-industrial processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectroscopy of Single Light-Harvesting Complexes from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria at 1.2 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, A.M. van; Ketelaars, M.; Köhler, J.; Aartsma, T.J.; Schmidt, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first observation of the fluorescence-excitation spectra of individual light-harvesting complexes (LH2) from purple photosynthetic bacteria at 1.2 K. The spectra reveal the electronic transitions to the individual excitonic states of the assembly of absorbing

  4. Spectroscopy of Single Light-Harvesting Complexes from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria at 1.2 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, A.M. van; Ketelaars, M.; Köhler, J.; Aartsma, T.J.; Schmidt, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first observation of the fluorescence-excitation spectra of individual light-harvesting complexes (LH2) from purple photosynthetic bacteria at 1.2 K. The spectra reveal the electronic transitions to the individual excitonic states of the assembly of absorbing bacterioch

  5. The structural basis of light-harvesting in purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J; Isaacs, Neil W; Freer, Andrew A; Howard, Tina D; Gardiner, Alastair T; Prince, Steve M; Papiz, Miroslavr Z

    2003-11-27

    A typical purple bacterial photosynthetic unit consists of two types of light-harvesting complex (LH1 and LH2) together with a reaction centre. This short review presents a description of the structure of the LH2 complex from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, which has recently been improved to a resolution of 2.0 A [Papiz et al., J. Mol. Biol. 326 (2003) 1523-1538]. We show how this structure has helped to reveal the details of the various excitation energy transfer events in which it is involved.

  6. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE INTERACTIONS AMONG CYANOBACTERIA, PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA AND CHEMOTROPIC SULFUR BACTERIA IN MICROBIAL MAT COMMUNITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEWIT, R; VANDENENDE, FP; VANGEMERDEN, H

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic one-dimensional reaction diffusion model was constructed to simulate benthic stratification patterns and population dynamics of cyanobacteria, purple and colorless sulfur bacteria as found in marine microbial mats. The model involves the major biogeochemical processes of the sulfur c

  7. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE INTERACTIONS AMONG CYANOBACTERIA, PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA AND CHEMOTROPIC SULFUR BACTERIA IN MICROBIAL MAT COMMUNITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEWIT, R; VANDENENDE, FP; VANGEMERDEN, H

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic one-dimensional reaction diffusion model was constructed to simulate benthic stratification patterns and population dynamics of cyanobacteria, purple and colorless sulfur bacteria as found in marine microbial mats. The model involves the major biogeochemical processes of the sulfur c

  8. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE INTERACTIONS AMONG CYANOBACTERIA, PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA AND CHEMOTROPIC SULFUR BACTERIA IN MICROBIAL MAT COMMUNITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEWIT, R; VANDENENDE, FP; VANGEMERDEN, H

    A deterministic one-dimensional reaction diffusion model was constructed to simulate benthic stratification patterns and population dynamics of cyanobacteria, purple and colorless sulfur bacteria as found in marine microbial mats. The model involves the major biogeochemical processes of the sulfur

  9. Sun-beams, cucumbers, and purple bacteria : Historical milestones in early studies of photosynthesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, H

    1988-10-01

    Discovery of the general outlines of plant and bacterial photosyntheses required the efforts of a large number of gifted scientists over the course of two centuries. The first to suggest that sunlight might affect plants in some way other than through conversion of light to heat was Stephen Hales, in 1725, and this notion was promptly satirized by Jonathan Swift in his description of the "cucumber project" inGulliver's Travels (1726). Considerably later, in 1772, Joseph Priestley reported the first experiments showing the production of "dephlogisticated air" (oxygen gas) by plants, and the interdependence of animal and plant life mediated by gases. Priestley and others, however, had difficulty repeating these experiments, mainly because they were unaware of the requirement for light in photosynthesis. The latter was clearly demonstrated in 1779 by Jan Ingen-Housz, who also determined that leaves were the primary sites of the photosynthetic production of oxygen by plants. When purple bacteria were first studied in the late 19th century by Theodor Engelmann, light-dependent O2 formation could not be detected. Contradictory observations in this connection were reported for a number of decades, but eventually the absence of O2 production in photosynthesis by purple bacteria was conclusively established. Attempts to explain why the bacteria do not evolve O2 led Cornelis van Niel to propose a "unified, comparative biochemical" explanation of photosynthetic processes that was widely accepted. This hypothesis, however, was abandoned soon after photophosphorylation by membranes from purple bacteria and plant chloroplasts was discovered in 1954. Unexpectedly, rapid progress in molecular biological and genetic studies of the membrane-bound reaction centers of purple bacteria indicate that current investigations are on the verge of revealing the detailed mechanisms by which energy conversion occurs in the reaction centers of all photosynthetic organisms.

  10. Characterization of purple and green photosynthetic bacteria isolated from the lagoon of Agatti Atoll (Lakshadweep Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D

    s wa s als o sup hyphenminus plemented wit h 0.5 g of sterile boile d egg pe r tub e t o test for photoorganotrophi c Rhodospirillaceae . At the end o f the incubatio n period , som e tube s develope d intense purpl e viole t colouratio n an d som e... s o f purpl e bacteria develope d bot h o n organi c an d inorgani c media. Th e developmen t was , however , faste r i n th e organic medium . Th e cells tende d t o gro w i n aggre hyphenminus gates o n th e walls o f the tubes . Microscopi c examin...

  11. Geometry, supertransfer, and optimality in the light harvesting of purple bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Baghbanzadeh, Sima

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable rotational symmetry of the photosynthetic antenna complexes of purple bacteria has long been thought to enhance their light harvesting and excitation energy transport. We study the role of symmetry by modeling hypothetical antennas whose symmetry is broken by altering the orientations of the bacteriochlorophyll pigments. We find that in both LH2 and LH1 complexes, symmetry increases energy transfer rates by enabling the cooperative, coherent process of supertransfer. The enhancement is particularly pronounced in the LH1 complex, whose natural geometry outperforms the average randomized geometry by 5.5 standard deviations, one of the most significant increase due to coherent effects in any photosynthetic complex studied to date.

  12. Fluorescence enhancement of light-harvesting complex 2 from purple bacteria coupled to spherical gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujak, Ł. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Czechowski, N. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Piatkowski, D. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Litvin, R. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Mackowski, S. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Brotosudarmo, T. H. P. [Ma Chung Univ., Malang (Indonesia). Ma Chung Research Center for Photosynthetic Pigments; Pichler, S. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom). Inst. of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology; Cogdell, R. J. [Univ. Linz (Austria). Inst. fur Halbleiter-und Festkorperphysik; Heiss, W. [Univ. Linz (Austria). Inst. fur Halbleiter-und Festkorperphysik

    2011-10-24

    The influence of plasmon excitations in spherical gold nanoparticles on the optical properties of a light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from the purple bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been studied. Systematic analysis is facilitated by controlling the thickness of a silica layer between Au nanoparticles and LH2 complexes. Fluorescence of LH2 complexes features substantial increase when these complexes are separated by 12 nm from the gold nanoparticles. At shorter distances, non-radiative quenching leads to a decrease of fluorescence emission. The enhancement of fluorescence originates predominantly from an increase of absorption of pigments comprising the LH2 complex.

  13. Broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy reveals a carotenoid dark state in purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Mulvaney, Rachel M; Cogdell, Richard J; Scholes, Gregory D

    2013-04-01

    Although the energy transfer processes in natural light-harvesting systems have been intensively studied for the past 60 years, certain details of the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. We performed broadband two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy measurements on light-harvesting proteins from purple bacteria and isolated carotenoids in order to characterize in more detail the excited-state manifold of carotenoids, which channel energy to bacteriochlorophyll molecules. The data revealed a well-resolved signal consistent with a previously postulated carotenoid dark state, the presence of which was confirmed by global kinetic analysis. The results point to this state's role in mediating energy flow from carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll.

  14. Genus specific unusual carotenoids in purple bacteria, Phaeospirillum and Roseospira: structures and biosyntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaichi, Shinichi; Maoka, Takashi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Shimada, Keizo

    2011-07-01

    Phototrophic bacteria necessarily contain carotenoids for photosynthesis, and a few phototrophic purple bacteria accumulate unusual carotenoids. The carotenoids in the genera Phaeospirillum and Roseospira were identified using spectroscopic methods. All species of the genus Phaeospirillum contained characteristic polar carotenoids in addition to lycopene and hydroxylycopene (rhodopin); hydroxylycopene glucoside, dihydroxylycopene, and its mono- and/or diglucosides. From the structures of these carotenoids, their accumulation was suggested to be due to absence of CrtD (acyclic carotenoid C-3,4 desaturase) and to possession of glucosyltransferase. Species of the genus Roseospira have been reported to have unusual absorption spectra in acetone extract, and they were found to accumulate 3,4-didehydrorhodopin as a major carotenoid. This may be due to low activity of CrtF (acyclic 1-hydroxycarotenoid methyltransferase). The study concludes in identifying genus specific unusual carotenoids, which is probably due to characteristic nature of some carotenogenesis enzymes.

  15. Biosynthesis and Isotopic Composition of Bacteriochlorophyll a and Okenone in Purple Sulfur Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Scott, J. H.; Steele, A.; Cody, G. D.; Ohara, S.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria play an integral part in the anaerobic cycling of sulfur. Bacteriochloroyphll a (Bchl a) is a well-studied photosynthetic compound required for photosynthesis in the organisms that possess it. The only known fossil of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) in the geologic record is okenane, believed to be of biologic origin originating from the carotenoid pigment okenone, which has only been documented in eleven species of Chromatiaceae. Organic geochemical studies have identified okenane in preserved organic matter in rocks and ancient sediments and further, okenone production has been observed in modern water columns and sediment surfaces. We have undertaken a comprehensive study on the biosynthesis of bacterial pigments including okenone and C, N, and S isotopic fractionation during various growth modes in controlled laboratory experiments of purple sulfur bacteria. Cultures of Marichromatium purpuratum 1591, M. purpuratum 1711, Thiocapsa marina 5653, and FGL21 (isolated from the chemocline of Fayetteville Green Lake, NY) were grown under autotrophic and photoheterotrophic (e.g. acetate or pyruvate) conditions in batch cultures. Concentrations of okenone and Bchl a were quantified as a function of time and growth by Ultra Performance-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UP-LC-MS) and spectrophotometry. Overall okenone and Bchl a concentrations reached μM levels in the cultures. At stationary phase, all four strains achieved concentrations of okenone and Bchl a that were approximately 2.5 fM and 0.2 fM per cell, respectively, with okenone to Bchl a ratios of approximately 12 to 1. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) was performed on bulk cells and compound specific analysis of Bchl a and okenone to better understand the fractionation associated with the production of the compounds.

  16. Excitonic energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Jun; Sun Kewei; Zhao Yang; Lee, Chee Kong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu Yunjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Guangdong 518060 (China); Cao Jianshu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2012-06-28

    Two distinct approaches, the Frenkel-Dirac time-dependent variation and the Haken-Strobl model, are adopted to study energy transfer dynamics in single-ring and double-ring light-harvesting (LH) systems in purple bacteria. It is found that the inclusion of long-range dipolar interactions in the two methods results in significant increase in intra- or inter-ring exciton transfer efficiency. The dependence of exciton transfer efficiency on trapping positions on single rings of LH2 (B850) and LH1 is similar to that in toy models with nearest-neighbor coupling only. However, owing to the symmetry breaking caused by the dimerization of BChls and dipolar couplings, such dependence has been largely suppressed. In the studies of coupled-ring systems, both methods reveal an interesting role of dipolar interactions in increasing energy transfer efficiency by introducing multiple intra/inter-ring transfer paths. Importantly, the time scale (4 ps) of inter-ring exciton transfer obtained from polaron dynamics is in good agreement with previous studies. In a double-ring LH2 system, non-nearest neighbor interactions can induce symmetry breaking, which leads to global and local minima of the average trapping time in the presence of a non-zero dephasing rate, suggesting that environment dephasing helps preserve quantum coherent energy transfer when the perfect circular symmetry in the hypothetic system is broken. This study reveals that dipolar coupling between chromophores may play an important role in the high energy transfer efficiency in the LH systems of purple bacteria and many other natural photosynthetic systems.

  17. Biomarker evidence for green and purple sulphur bacteria in a stratified Palaeoproterozoic sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J; Love, Gordon D; Summons, Roger E; Knoll, Andrew H; Logan, Graham A; Bowden, Stephen A

    2005-10-06

    The disappearance of iron formations from the geological record approximately 1.8 billion years (Gyr) ago was the consequence of rising oxygen levels in the atmosphere starting 2.45-2.32 Gyr ago. It marks the end of a 2.5-Gyr period dominated by anoxic and iron-rich deep oceans. However, despite rising oxygen levels and a concomitant increase in marine sulphate concentration, related to enhanced sulphide oxidation during continental weathering, the chemistry of the oceans in the following mid-Proterozoic interval (approximately 1.8-0.8 Gyr ago) probably did not yet resemble our oxygen-rich modern oceans. Recent data indicate that marine oxygen and sulphate concentrations may have remained well below current levels during this period, with one model indicating that anoxic and sulphidic marine basins were widespread, and perhaps even globally distributed. Here we present hydrocarbon biomarkers (molecular fossils) from a 1.64-Gyr-old basin in northern Australia, revealing the ecological structure of mid-Proterozoic marine communities. The biomarkers signify a marine basin with anoxic, sulphidic, sulphate-poor and permanently stratified deep waters, hostile to eukaryotic algae. Phototrophic purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were detected in the geological record based on the new carotenoid biomarker okenane, and they seem to have co-existed with communities of green sulphur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae). Collectively, the biomarkers support mounting evidence for a long-lasting Proterozoic world in which oxygen levels remained well below modern levels.

  18. Membrane development in purple photosynthetic bacteria in response to alterations in light intensity and oxygen tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederman, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    Studies on membrane development in purple bacteria during adaptation to alterations in light intensity and oxygen tension are reviewed. Anoxygenic phototrophic such as the purple α-proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides have served as simple, dynamic, and experimentally accessible model organisms for studies of the photosynthetic apparatus. A major landmark in photosynthesis research, which dramatically illustrates this point, was provided by the determination of the X-ray structure of the reaction center (RC) in Blastochloris viridis (Deisenhofer and Michel, EMBO J 8:2149-2170, 1989), once it was realized that this represented the general structure for the photosystem II RC present in all oxygenic phototrophs. This seminal advance, together with a considerable body of subsequent research on the light-harvesting (LH) and electron transfer components of the photosynthetic apparatus has provided a firm basis for the current understanding of how phototrophs acclimate to alterations in light intensity and quality. Oxygenic phototrophs adapt to these changes by extensive thylakoid membrane remodeling, which results in a dramatic supramolecular reordering to assure that an appropriate flow of quinone redox species occurs within the membrane bilayer for efficient and rapid electron transfer. Despite the high level of photosynthetic unit organization in Rba. sphaeroides as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements have demonstrated that the addition of the peripheral LH2 antenna complex in cells adapting to low-intensity illumination results in a slowing of the rate of electron transfer turnover by the RC of up to an order of magnitude. This is ascribed to constraints in quinone redox species diffusion between the RC and cytochrome bc1 complexes arising from the increased packing density as the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) bilayer becomes crowded with LH2 rings. In addition to downshifts in light intensity as a paradigm

  19. Excitonic energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Jun; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Yunjin; Lee, Chee Kong; Cao, Jianshu

    2012-01-01

    Two distinct approaches, the Frenkel-Dirac time-dependent variation and the Haken-Strobl model, are adopted to study energy transfer dynamics in single-ring and double-ring light-harvesting systems in purple bacteria. It is found that inclusion of long-range dipolar interactions in the two methods results in significant increases in intra- or inter-ring exciton transfer efficiency. The dependence of exciton transfer efficiency on trapping positions on single rings of LH2 (B850) and LH1 is similar to that in toy models with nearest-neighbor coupling only. However, owing to the symmetry breaking caused by the dimerization of BChls and dipolar couplings, such dependence has been largely suppressed. In the studies of coupled-ring systems, both methods reveal interesting role of dipolar interaction in increasing energy transfer efficiency by introducing multiple intra/inter-ring transfer paths. Importantly, the time scale (~4ps) of inter-ring exciton transfer obtained from polaron dynamics is in good agreement wit...

  20. Dimeric carotenoid interaction in the light-harvesting antenna of purple phototrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo, J; Lozano, R M; Fernandez-Cabrera, C; Ramirez, J M

    1991-03-15

    The carotenoid content of intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles isolated from purple phototrophic bacteria was reduced to a variable extent by mild extraction with light petroleum. Using preparations obtained from Rhodobacter capsulatus strains that contained the Light Harvesting System I (LHI) complex as the only major photosynthetic holochrome, it was shown that the visible circular dichroism of the carotenoids increased with the square of the membrane carotenoid content, as expected from being caused by dimeric exciton interaction. No chirality resulting from twists of the individual planar chromophore was detected. Therefore the contribution to carotenoid optical activity of non-degenerate interactions with bacteriochlorophyll or the apoprotein does not appear to be significant. The broadening of the absorption band of the bound pigment, caused by the splitting of the monomer transition, was demonstrated in membrane vesicles of both Rb, capsulatus and Rhodospirillum rubrum as a decrease of the fine structure of the band. Furthermore, the dimeric organization of the carotenoid pigments in the bacterial LHI complex accounted for the observed quantitative relationship between the fine structure of the band and the carotenoid content of the membrane.

  1. Singlet-triplet fission of carotenoid excitation in light-harvesting LH2 complexes of purple phototrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenina, I B; Makhneva, Z K; Moskalenko, A A; Gudkov, N D; Bolshakov, M A; Pavlova, E A; Proskuryakov, I I

    2014-03-01

    The current generally accepted structure of light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple phototrophic bacteria conflicts with the observation of singlet-triplet carotenoid excitation fission in these complexes. In LH2 complexes from the purple bacterium Allochromatium minutissimum, a drop in the efficiency of carotenoid triplet generation is demonstrated, which correlates with the extent of selective photooxidation of bacteriochlorophylls absorbing at ~850 nm. We conclude that singlet-triplet fission of carotenoid excitation proceeds with participation of these excitonically coupled bacteriochlorophylls. In the framework of the proposed mechanism, the contradiction between LH2 structure and photophysical properties of carotenoids is eliminated. The possibility of singlet-triplet excitation fission involving a third mediator molecule was not considered earlier.

  2. CO2 assimilation in the chemocline of Lake Cadagno is dominated by a few types of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storelli, Nicola; Peduzzi, Sandro; Saad, Maged

    2013-01-01

    Lake Cadagno is characterized by a compact chemocline that harbors high concentrations of various phototrophic sulfur bacteria. Four strains representing the numerically most abundant populations in the chemocline were tested in dialysis bags in situ for their ability to fix CO₂. The purple sulfur...... and form II of RuBisCO, respectively. Transcription analyses confirmed that, whereas cbbM remained poorly expressed throughout light and dark exposure, cbbL expression varied during the light-dark cycle and was affected by the available carbon sources. Interestingly, the peaks in cbbL expression did...

  3. The study of photo-induced ultrafast dynamics in light-harvesting complex LH2 of purple bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-min; YAN Yong-li; LIU Kang-jun; XU Chun-he; QIAN Shi-xiong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce the photo-induced ultrafast dynamics taking place in the peripheral light harvesting antenna LH2 from purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides by using absorption,fluorescence emission and ultrafast spectroscopic techniques.Three kinds of LH2 sampies,pH treated LH2 (complete removal of B800 pigments),carotenoid mutated LH2 (GM 309) and electrochemical oxidation treated LH2 were used in comparison with native LH2 to investigate the mechanism of photo-induced ultrafast energy transfer within the LH2 complex.

  4. The architecture and function of the light-harvesting apparatus of purple bacteria: from single molecules to in vivo membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J; Gall, Andrew; Köhler, Jürgen

    2006-08-01

    This review describes the structures of the two major integral membrane pigment complexes, the RC-LH1 'core' and LH2 complexes, which together make up the light-harvesting system present in typical purple photosynthetic bacteria. The antenna complexes serve to absorb incident solar radiation and to transfer it to the reaction centres, where it is used to 'power' the photosynthetic redox reaction and ultimately leads to the synthesis of ATP. Our current understanding of the biosynthesis and assembly of the LH and RC complexes is described, with special emphasis on the roles of the newly described bacteriophytochromes. Using both the structural information and that obtained from a wide variety of biophysical techniques, the details of each of the different energy-transfer reactions that occur, between the absorption of a photon and the charge separation in the RC, are described. Special emphasis is given to show how the use of single-molecule spectroscopy has provided a more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the energy-transfer processes. We have tried, with the help of an Appendix, to make the details of the quantum mechanics that are required to appreciate these molecular mechanisms, accessible to mathematically illiterate biologists. The elegance of the purple bacterial light-harvesting system lies in the way in which it has cleverly exploited quantum mechanics.

  5. Excitonic level structures of LH1 and LH2 of purple photosynthetic bacteria using an analytical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光参; 汪力; 杨国桢

    2003-01-01

    The excitonic level structure of a ring-like chain of dimers is discussed analytically in order to aid the understanding of the possible spectral properties of LH1 and LH2 of purple photosynthetic bacteria. Under the approximation of dipoledipole interaction between Bchls, the excitonic levels, bandwidths and energy gap between two Davydov subbands are expressed analytically in terms of interaction energies and configurational parameters of dipoles. Our model includes all the interactions between pigment molecules in the system. The oscillator strengths and circular dichroism (CD) for the excitonic states are also presented analytically. The simulated absorption and CD spectra of LH1 and LH2 complexes reproduce the main features of the measured results.

  6. STUDY ON THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF PERIPHERAL LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEXES (LH2 IN PURPLE NON-SULPHUR PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatas H.P. Brotosudarmo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis provides an example of a natural process that has been optimized during evolution to harness solar energy efficiently and safely, and finally to use it to produce a carbon-based fuel. Initially, solar energy is captured by the light harvesting pigment-protein complexes. In purple bacteria these antenna complexes are constructed on a rather simple modular basis. Light absorbed by these antenna complexes is funnelled downhill to reaction centres, where light drives a trans-membrane redox reaction. The light harvesting proteins not only provide the scaffolding that correctly positions the bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoid pigments for optimal energy transfer but also creates an environment that can modulate the wavelength at which different bacteriochlorophyll molecules absorb light thereby creating the energy funnel. How these proteins can modulate the absorption spectra of the bacteriochlorophylls will be discussed in this review.

  7. Photoprotection Mechanism of Light-Harvesting Antenna Complex from Purple Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Horibe, Tomoko; Sugisaki, Mitsuru; Cogdell, Richard J; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-02-11

    Photosynthetic light-harvesting apparatus efficiently capture sunlight and transfer the energy to reaction centers, while they safely dissipate excess energy to surrounding environments for a protection of their organisms. In this study, we performed pump-probe spectroscopic measurements with a temporal window ranging from femtosecond to submillisecond on the purple bacterial antenna complex LH2 from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 to clarify its photoprotection functions. The observed excited state dynamics in the time range from subnanosecond to microsecond exhibits that the triplet-triplet excitation energy transfer from bacteriochlorophyll a to carotenoid takes place with a time constant of 16.7 ns. Furthermore, ultrafast spectroscopic data suggests that a molecular assembly of bacteriochlorophyll a in LH2 efficiently suppresses a generation of triple bacteriochlorophyll a.

  8. [Physicochemical, catalytic, and regulatory properties of malate dehydrogenase from Rhodovulum steppense bacteria, strain A-20s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eprintsev, A T; Falaleeva, M I; Parfenova, I V; Liashchenko, M S; Kompantseva, E I; Tret'iakova, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical, regulatory, and kinetic properties of malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) from haloalkaliphilic purple nonsulfur Rhodovulum steppense bacteria, strain A-20s, were studied. The malate dehydrogenase (MDH) preparation with a specific activity of 0.775 ± 0.113 U/mg protein was obtained in an electrophoretically homogeneous state using multistep purification. Using homogenous preparations, the molecular weight and the Michaelis constant of the enzyme were determined; the effects of metal ions, the temperature effect, and the thermal stability of the MDH were studied. The dimer structure of the enzyme was demonstrated by DS-Na-electrophoresis.

  9. Pleiotropic effects of puf interposon mutagenesis on carotenoid biosynthesis in Rubrivivax gelatinosus. A new gene organization in purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchane, S; Picaud, M; Vernotte, C; Reiss-Husson, F; Astier, C

    1997-01-17

    Rubrivivax gelatinosus mutants affected in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathways were created by interposon mutagenesis within the puf operon. Genetic and biochemical analysis of several constructed mutants suggest that at least crtC is localized downstream of the puf operon and that it is cotranscribed with this operon. Sequence analysis confirmed the genetic data and showed the presence of crtD and crtC genes downstream of the puf operon, a localization different from that known for other purple bacteria. Inactivation of the crtD gene indicated that the two crt genes are cotranscribed and that they are involved not only in the hydroxyspheroidene biosynthesis pathway as in Rhodobacter sphaeroides and R. capsulatus, but also in the spirilloxanthin biosynthesis pathway. Carotenoid genes implicated in the spirilloxanthin biosynthesis pathway were thus identified for the first time. Furthermore, analysis of carotenoid synthesis in the mutants gave genetic evidence that crtD and crtC genes are cotranscribed with the puf operon using the oxygen-regulated puf promoter.

  10. CO₂ assimilation in the chemocline of Lake Cadagno is dominated by a few types of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Nicola; Peduzzi, Sandro; Saad, Maged M; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Perret, Xavier; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-05-01

    Lake Cadagno is characterized by a compact chemocline that harbors high concentrations of various phototrophic sulfur bacteria. Four strains representing the numerically most abundant populations in the chemocline were tested in dialysis bags in situ for their ability to fix CO₂. The purple sulfur bacterium Candidatus 'Thiodictyon syntrophicum' strain Cad16(T) had the highest CO₂ assimilation rate in the light of the four strains tested and had a high CO₂ assimilation rate even in the dark. The CO₂ assimilation of the population represented by strain Cad16(T) was estimated to be up to 25% of the total primary production in the chemocline. Pure cultures of strain Cad16(T) exposed to cycles of 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness exhibited the highest CO₂ assimilation during the first 4 h of light. The draft genome sequence of Cad16(T) showed the presence of cbbL and cbbM genes, which encode form I and form II of RuBisCO, respectively. Transcription analyses confirmed that, whereas cbbM remained poorly expressed throughout light and dark exposure, cbbL expression varied during the light-dark cycle and was affected by the available carbon sources. Interestingly, the peaks in cbbL expression did not correlate with the peaks in CO₂ assimilation.

  11. Spectral Diffusion and Electron-Phonon Coupling of the B800 BChl a Molecules in LH2 Complexes from Three Different Species of Purple Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, J.; Gabrielsen, M.; Oellerich, S.; Michel, H.; van Heel, M.; Cogdell, R.J.; Köhler, J.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the spectral diffusion and the electron-phonon coupling of B800 bacteriochlorophyll a molecules in the peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2 for three different species of purple bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodospirillum molischianum, and Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. We come to the conclusion that B800 binding pockets for Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are rather similar with respect to the polarity of the protein environment but that the packaging of the αβ-polypeptides seems to be less tight in Rb. sphaeroides with respect to the other two species. PMID:19883604

  12. Development of technology for organic wastewater treatment by microorganisms and production of materials for conserving environment. Part 1. ; Organic wastewater treatment by photoshynthetic bacteria and microalgae. Biseibutsu ni yoru yukikei haisui shori to yojo biseibutsu no shigenka ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. ; Kogosei saikin to sorui ni yoru haisui shori ni kansuru kihonteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, A.; Kita, D.; Kubotera, T.; Tsuji, H. (Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-02-10

    The present report introduces a system which simultaneously executes the purification of organic wastewater and recovery of recyclable matters. The system uses photosynthetic bacteria and microalgae as well as the conventionally used activated sludge bacteria. Environmental maintenance use agents are produced by processing bacteria and algae generated during the wastewater treatment. The photosynthetic bacteria are purple non-sulfuric bacteria, which also contain amino acid, vitamin and other useful physiologically activated matter. The wastewater treatment which utilizes them has the advantage of miniaturizing the plant and lowering the power. As algae, chlorella and spirulina are used in order to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus in the water to be treated. The following is an actual result of wastewater treatment in a beancurd maker's plant: if purple non-sulfuric bacteria are used, high concentration organic wastewater can be treated without dilution so that the plant can be miniaturized. The chlorella culture is so effective that the nitrogen and phosphorus remaining in the wastewater are absorbed and removed by the chlorella with its increasing. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. On the biphoton excitation of the fluorescence of the bacteriochlorophyll molecules of purple photosynthetic bacteria by powerful near IR femto-picosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A. Yu., E-mail: borissov@belozersky.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Belozersky Institute of Physicochemical Biology (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    The authors of a number of experimental works detected nonresonance biphoton excitation of bacteriochlorophyll molecules, which represent the main pigment in the light-absorbing natural 'antenna' complexes of photosynthesizing purple bacteria, by femtosecond IR pulses (1250-1500 nm). They believe that IR quanta excite hypothetic forbidden levels of the pigments of these bacteria in the double frequency range 625-750 nm. We propose and ground an alternative triplet mechanism to describe this phenomenon. According to our hypothesis, the mechanism of biphoton excitation of molecules by IR quanta can manifest itself specifically, through high triplet levels of molecules in the high fields induced by femtosecond-picosecond laser pulses.

  14. A Microsensor Study of the Interaction between Purple Sulfur and Green Sulfur Bacteria in Experimental Benthic Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringault, O.; de Wit, R.; Kühl, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between the purple sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina and the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii was studied in a gradient chamber under a 16-hours light-8-hours dark regime. The effects of interaction were inferred by comparing the final outcome of a mixed...... place during the dark periods, while the bottom layer grew phototrophically during the light periods only. In the mixed culture, the relative density of P. aestuarii was lower than in the axenic culture, which reflects the effects of the competition for sulfide. However, the relative density of T...

  15. Antioxidant Activity in Vitro of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Purple Sweet Potato%紫甘薯乳酸发酵醪体外抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长亮; 张村雪; 郭秋实; 汤琳

    2012-01-01

    Five different fermentation broths were prepared by fermentation of purple sweet potato, red-core sweet potato, red jujube, apple juice or apple pomace by lactic acid bacteria. The total antioxidant capacity and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity of the fermentation broths and purple sweet potato vinegar were tested. Lactic acid bacteria fermentation resulted in a slight increase in the antioxidant activity of purple sweet potato. The total antioxidant capacity was increased to 200.18 mg/mL. The DPPH radical scavenging rate of fermented purple sweet potato was 96.99% at the dosage of 100 IzL, which was comparable to that of purple sweet potato vinegar. Purple sweet potato fermentation broth exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity among the five fermentation broths.%测定5种乳酸发酵醪和紫甘薯醋的总抗氧化能力和对二苯代苦昧酰基(DPPH)自由基清除率,结果表明紫:甘薯乳酸发酵后抗氧化能力轻微增强,总抗氧化能力达200.18mg/mL,添加量为100μL时对DPPH自由基清除率达96.99%,与紫甘薯醋抗氧化能力相当。5种乳酸发酵醪中,紫甘薯乳酸发酵醪抗氧化能力最强。

  16. The origin of the unusual Qy red shift in LH1-RC complexes from purple bacteria Thermochromatium tepidum as revealed by Stark absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Yu, Long-Jiang; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2015-12-01

    Native LH1-RC of photosynthetic purple bacteria Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum, B915, has an ultra-red BChl a Qy absorption. Two blue-shifted complexes obtained by chemical modification, B893 and B882, have increasing full widths at half maximum (FWHM) and decreasing transition dipole oscillator strength. 77K Stark absorption spectroscopy studies were employed for the three complexes, trying to understand the origin of the 915 nm absorption. We found that Tr(∆α) and |∆μ| of both Qy and carotenoid (Car) bands are larger than for other purple bacterial LH complexes reported previously. Moreover, the red shifts of the Qy bands are associated with (1) increasing Tr(∆α) and |∆μ| of the Qy band, (2) the red shift of the Car Stark signal and (3) the increasing |∆μ| of the Car band. Based on the results and the crystal structure, a combined effect of exciton-charge transfer (CT) states mixing, and inhomogeneous narrowing of the BChl a site energy is proposed to be the origin of the 915 nm absorption. CT-exciton state mixing has long been found to be the origin of strong Stark signal in LH1 and special pair, and the more extent of the mixing in Tch. tepidum LH1 is mainly the consequence of the shorter BChl-BChl distances. The less flexible protein structure results in a smaller site energy disorder (inhomogeneous narrowing), which was demonstrated to be able to influence |∆μ| and absorption.

  17. Interaction and Synergism of Microbial Fuel Cell Bacteria within Methanogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, David

    2004-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production from waste biomass has both terrestrial and Martian advanced life support applications. On earth, biological hydrogen production is being explored as a greenhouse neutral form of clean and efficient energy. In a permanently enclosed space habitat, carbon loop closure is required to reduce mission costs. Plants are grown to revitalize oxygen supply and are consumed by habitat inhabitants. Unharvested portions must then be recycled for reuse in the habitat. Several biological degradation techniques exist, but one process, biophotolysis, can be used to produce hydrogen from inedible plant biomass. This process is two-stage, with one stage using dark fermentation to convert plant wastes into organic acids. The second stage, photofermentation, uses photoheterotrophic purple non-sulfur bacteria with the addition of light to turn the organic acids into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Such a system can prove useful as a co-generation scheme, providing some of the energy needed to power a larger primary carbon recovery system, such as composting. Since butyrate is expected as one of the major inputs into photofermentation, a characterization study was conducted with the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides SCJ, a novel photoheterotrophic non-sulfur purple bacteria, to examine hydrogen production performance at 10 mM-100 mM butyrate concentrations. As butyrate levels increased, hydrogen production increased up to 25 mM, and then decreased and ceased by 100 mM. Additionally, lag phase increased with butyrate concentration, possibly indicating some product inhibition. Maximal substrate conversion efficiency was 8.0%; maximal light efficiency was 0.89%; and maximal hydrogen production rate was 7.7 Umol/mg/cdw/hr (173 ul/mg cdw/hr). These values were either consistent or lower than expected from literature.

  18. PURPLE URINE BAG SYNDROME: AN ALARMING HUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare phenomenon reported mostly in females on an indwelling catheter in chronically constipated with alkaline urine. It is secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubicin producing bacteria. Here we present this interesting case of an elderly woman who had purple colored urine bag

  19. Molecular Mechanism of Solar Energy Harvesting by Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria%紫色光合细菌捕获太阳能的分子机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万能; 陈国平; 胡宗利; 李尽哲; 何帅

    2011-01-01

    光合作用是地球上最重要的化学反应,生物体通过它捕获太阳能,转为化学能供生长繁殖需要.光合细菌是地球上最早出现的具有原始光能合成体系的微生物,其光合反应中心是一个由多种色素分子与蛋白质以非共价键方式结合的、具有特定构象的色素-蛋白复合体-光反应中心RC(Reaction center)和LH(Light Harvesting),光能通过电荷分离及电子转移反应转化为化学能,其效率是当前人工模拟远远不能及的.本文综述了紫色光合细菌捕获太阳能的分子结构、作用机理的研究进展,并结合作者在R.sphaeroides LHII蛋白组份同源及异源基因表达方面的研究结果进行相应的分析,明确了Rhodobacter sphaeroides基因组中同源基因puc2BA的表达特点和功能,Rhodovulum sulfidophilum pucsBA与R.sphaeroides pufBA能够同时在R.sphaeroides中表达,能同时形成LHII和LHI,并具有能量传递功能.%Photosynthesis is arguably the most important biological process, by it organisms harvest solar energy and transfer it into chemical energy for growth and reproduction.The photosynthetic bacteria are the earliest microbe with photosynthesis found on earth.The photosynthetic apparatus of purple bacteria is a nanometric assembly in the intracytoplasmic membranes and consists of pigment-protein complexes, the photosynthetic RC (Reaction center) and LH (Light harvesting).The primary processes of photosynthesis involve absorption of photons by LH complexes, transfer of excitation energy from the LH complexes to the photosynthetic RC, where the primary energy conversion takes place.The researches on molecular structure and mechanism of purple photosynthetic bacteria harvesting solar energy were summarized.Molecular biology techniques and spectroscopic analysis were applied to research the expression and function of puc2BA and pucsBA by the authors, and it was concluded that the puc2BA gene was normally expressed in Rhodobacter

  20. 紫细菌光合色素指纹图谱的建立与色素分析%Fingerprinting analysis of photopigments in purple bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓民权; 赵春贵; 程茜茹; 杨素萍; 曲音波

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Photopigments, including carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll a, are the most important functional units of photosynthesis in purple bacteria. We developed rapid qualitative and quantitative methods to determine photopigments. [Methods] Using Rhodopesudomonas palustris CQV97 as a reference, we used image gray intensity analysis, absorption spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography (TLC) , HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS) for photopigment analysis. [Results] The total amount of photopigments increased by 13.5% by using modified acetone-methanol extraction. We developed two types of photopigment fingerprintings by TLC and HPLC, estimated the apparent relative content of each photopigment of fingerprintings, and determined the corresponding relationships between Rf value of each photopigment on TLC fingerprinting and retention time of each photopigment elution in HPLC fingerprinting. Based on the data from the absorption spectra, MS and related photopigment biosynthetic pathway analysis, we identified 11 photopigments in CQY97 strain. Using this strain as a standard, we analyzed photopigments of the tested samples by TLC or HPLC. It was shown that (1) the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the two methods was less than 5% ; (2) the compositions and contents of the theory sample were consistent with that of the standard sample; (3) the photopigment compositions of the real sample was the same as the standard sample, but the photopigment content was different. [Conclusion] Both of TLC and HPLC analyses for photopigment determination have good stability and repeatability. The fingerprintings analyses are suitable for rapid determination of photopigments of purple bacteria and have important application in control of regulation mechanism for photopigment synthesis.%[目的]探索快速高效的色素样品制备方法;为建立紫细菌全色素TLC和HPLC标准指纹图谱和数据库提供研究方法和思路;为色素代谢与调控等研究提供快

  1. Purple and Celie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官宇

    2013-01-01

    In the novel The Color Purple, purple is a color that Alice Walker uses to symbolize the main character:Celie. In col⁃or psychology, purple is a complex color. At first, it has two contradictory symbolic meanings just as Celie’s personality. Second⁃ly, purple is a color which blends blue and red. In western countries, red symbolized man and blue symbolized woman. Howev⁃er, Celie is a person who has both man’s and woman’s characteristics. At last, purple is a changeable color. Celie’s early misery life is like dark purple which has more of a passive meaning. And her later life turns out to be light purple which symbolizes more of the beautiful things. And the turning of her life may be viewed as awakening of womanism.

  2. Purple urine bag syndrome- changing hue!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (PUBS is a unique disease entity characterised by purple discoloration of urine secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubin producing bacteria and is predominantly seen in constipated, chronically debilitated and catheterised women with alkaline urine. This syndrome indicates underlying recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs associated with higher incidence of mortality and morbidity than urinary tract infection alone without this occurrence. This article is about an elderly hypothyroid woman with PUBS and reviews the need to be aware of this entity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(1.000: 31-32

  3. Energy transfer pathways in light-harvesting complexes of purple bacteria as revealed by global kinetic analysis of two-dimensional transient spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Mulvaney, Rachel M; Anna, Jessica M; Cogdell, Richard J; Scholes, Gregory D

    2013-09-26

    Excited state dynamics in LH2 complexes of two purple bacterial species were studied by broad-band two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. The optical response was measured in the 500-600 nm spectral region on the 0-400 fs time scale. Global target analysis of two-dimensional (2D) transient spectra revealed the main energy transfer pathways between carotenoid S2, 1Bu(-) and S1 states and bacteriochlorophyll Qx state. Global analysis ascertained the evolutionary and vibration-associated spectra, which also indicated the presence of a higher-lying vibrational level in the carotenoid S1 state. The estimation of the spectral overlap between the 1Bu(-) state and the Qx state indicated a significant contribution of the 1Bu(-) state to the overall S2-to-Qx excitation energy transfer.

  4. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  5. Status of Purple Loosetrife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A letter to the New York Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit regarding measures taken to control Purple loosestife at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge....

  6. Ação do imazapic+imazapyr sobre a tiririca (Cyperus rotundus e os desnitrificadores em milho Action of imazapic+imazapyr on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and denitrifying bacteria in corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ulbrich

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do experimento foram avaliar a eficácia do imazapic+imazapyr sobre a tiririca e a influência desta planta daninha sobre a população de desnitrificadores em solo cultivado com milho. O experimento foi realizado em caixas de 0,70 x 0,30 x 0,30 m, onde foram semeados o milho tolerante às imidazolinonas (C-901CL e plantados 50 bulbos de tiririca. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por: 1. milho sem tiririca; 2. milho com tiririca; 3. milho com tiririca capinada; 4. milho com tiririca e imazapic+imazapyr (63+21g ha-1 de i.a. em pós-emergência; e 5. milho com tiririca e imazapic+imazapyr (63+21g ha-1 de i.a. em pré-emergência. O herbicida foi eficiente em pós-emergência, diminuindo as manifestações epígeas da tiririca em 41% e proporcionando controle visual de 88% aos 21 dias após a aplicação. Os desnitrificadores do solo aumentaram em seis e dez vezes aos 24 e 54 dias após a semeadura do milho, respectivamente, com a presença de tiririca. A aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência reduziu a população de desnitrificadores para 1,91x10(5 NMP (número mais provável, 89% menor que a testemunha capinada (16,78x10(5 NMP.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of imazapic+imazapyr in controling purple nutsedge and its effect on the population of denitrifying bacteria in soil cultivated with corn. The trial was set up in 0.70 x 0.30 x 0.30 m boxes where imidazolinone tolerant corn (C901CL was seeded together with 50 purple nutsedge bulbs. The experimental design was randomized with six replications. The treatments were: 1 corn without nutsedge; 2 corn with nutsedge; 3 corn with cut nutsedge; 4 corn with nutsedge treated with imazapic+imazapyr (63+21 g ha-1 i.a applied in post-emergence and 5 corn with nutsedge treated with imazapic+imazapyr (63+21 g ha-1 i.a, applied in pre-emergence. The herbicide was efficient when

  7. On the role of cytochrome c8 in photosynthetic electron transfer of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Ciurli, Stefano; Kofod, Pauli

    1997-01-01

    of +285 mV. Partial analysis of the N-terminus amino-acid sequence shows a high similarity with cytochromes of c8 type (formerly called Pseudomonas cytochrome c-551 type). Time-resolved spectrophotometric studies show that this cytochrome c8 reduces the tetraheme subunit of the photosynthetic reaction...

  8. Phototrophic Growth and Accumulation of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate by Purple Nonsulfur Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris SP5212

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mukhopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris SP5212 to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate [P(3HB-co-3HV] in particular was, assessed in acetate medium supplemented with hydroxybutyrate and valerate as cosubstrates. The isolate accumulated the polymer accounting for some 49.06% and 30% of cell dry weight when grown in hydroxybutyrate and valerate, respectively. PHA accumulation as well as 3HV monomer incorporation (30 mol% was maximum at 0.1% hydroxybutyrate, while valerate at 0.1% and 0.3% was suitable for total polymer accumulation and 3HV monomer incorporation, respectively. Cosupplementation of hydroxybutyrate and valerate in the ratio of 3 : 1 led to the accumulation of PHA accounting for 54% of cell dry weight, which contained more than 50 mol% of 3HV monomer. Moreover, the biphasic cultivation conditions with hydroxybutyrate as cosubstrate have improved the quality as well as quantity of the accumulated copolymer significantly.

  9. Effect of Applying Phosphate-solubilizing Bacteria to Acid Purple Soil on Yield-increasing of Soybean%酸性紫色土施用溶磷菌对大豆的增产效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 谢庭生

    2012-01-01

    酸性紫色土大豆施用溶磷菌(水剂)的试验结果表明:与常规施肥比较,土壤中有效磷含量提高16.04%;大豆植株分枝数、株高、每株有效结荚数明显增加;最低结荚位明显降低,百粒鲜豆重明显增加;大豆单产提高7.87%,纯收入显著增加,产量增加达极显著水平;对土壤无污染,生态效益好.%Applying phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (water) to acid purple soil where planted soybean to conduct experiment. The results showed that the content of available phosphor in soil increased by 16.04%; the branch number, the plant height, the effective pot-setting number per plant and the fresh weight of bean increased obviously; the lowest pod position reduced obviously, but the fresh weight of 100 beans increased significantly; unit yield of soybean increased by 7.87%, the pure income increased significantly, and the yield-increasing reached significant level; this treatment had no pollution on soil and has good ecological benefit.

  10. 3种紫细菌天然光合色素敏化DSSC光电转化性能%Photoelectric conversion performance of natural photosynthetic pigments from three typical members of purple bacteria for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付乔明; 赵春贵; 杨素萍

    2014-01-01

    基于自然界光合作用机理的DSSC研究备受关注。不产氧光合细菌中的紫细菌是研究光合作用机理的良好模式生物。从3种典型紫细菌中获得了7种具有不同吸光范围、极性和结构的细菌叶绿素a(BChl a)和类胡萝卜素(Car)以及3种改性BChl a。在此基础上,较系统地比较了天然与改性BChl a、多组分与单一组分Car、BChl a色素浓度、BChl a和Car共敏对DSSC光电性能的影响,并对色素与半导体材料的相互作用进行了表征。结果表明:100 mW·cm-2入射光强下,在不添加任何分散剂(spacer)的条件下,具有近红外吸收的天然BChl a光电转化性能较优,光电转换效率为1.26%。单一组分Car比多组分Car具有较高的光电性能,玫红品Car光电转换效率最佳。BChl a敏化TiO2薄膜电极,吸收光谱红移,800 nm特征荧光淬灭。BChl a与Car共敏TiO2薄膜电极,拓宽了可见光吸收光谱,短路电流和光电转换效率比BChl a提高了12%和7.3%。紫细菌天然色素廉价易得、环境友好,不仅能吸收可见光,而且能有效利用红外光,这对研制响应可见光-近红外的太阳能电池光电器件具有重要参考价值。%The photovoltaic conversion systems based on photosynthesis have recently attracted much attention as alternative energy technology of the future. More interests are focused on the development of eco-friendly, cost-effective and safer dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC)based on the principles and natural pigments of photosynthesis. Purple bacteria in anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are good model systems for elucidating molecular mechanisms of photosynthesis. In this study, the photoelectrochemical properties of seven different natural photosynthetic pigments of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) and carotenoids (Car) from Rhodopseudomonas palustris CQV97, Rhodobacter azotoformans R7 and Marichromatium sp. 283-1, and three modified BChl a

  11. Charm of Purple Clay A private museum in Wuxi is devoted to purple-clay art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Purple-clay art pieces will be on display in a museum opening soon in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. The museum, named Shuaiyuan Purple Clay Museum, is part of the Shuaiyuan Purple Clay Art Exhibition Center

  12. Measuring and modeling twilight's purple light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L.; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2003-01-01

    During many clear twilights, much of the solar sky is dominated by pastel purples. This purple light's red component has long been ascribed to transmission through and scattering by stratospheric dust and other aerosols. Clearly the vivid purples of post-volcanic twilights are related to increased stratospheric aerosol loading. Yet our time-series measurements of purple-light spectra, combined with radiative transfer modeling and satellite soundings, indicate that background stratospheric aerosols by themselves do not redden sunlight enough to cause the purple light's reds. Furthermore, scattering and extinction in both the troposphere and the stratosphere are needed to explain most purple lights.

  13. Construction and Characterization of B850-Only LH2 Energy Transfer System in Purple Bacteria%紫细菌B800缺失LH2能量传递模型的构建及性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 赵春贵; 岳慧英; 杨素萍; 曲音波; 焦念志

    2015-01-01

    To seek microscopic molecular mechanism of energy transfer and complex reconstitution in the photosynthesis ,the conditions for construction of B850‐only peripheral light‐harvesting complex (LH2) and their properties were investigated using absorption ,fluorescence spectroscopy ,molecular sieve chromatography ,ultrafiltration and sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS‐PAGE) from the purple bacteria .The results indicated that bacteriochlorophylls (BChl) of B800 incu‐bated in 10 mmo · L -1 Tris‐HCl (pH 8.0) buffer are selectively released from their binding sites of LH2 of Rhodobacter azoto‐formans(A‐LH2)by0.08% (W/V)SDS.B850‐onlyA‐LH2wasconstructedafterremovingfreeBChlmixingwith10% meth‐yl alcohol by ultrafiltration .B850 BChl was released after A‐LH2 was incubated for 240 min in dark at room temperature (RT) . While BChl of B800 incubated in pH 1.9 buffer were selectively released from their binding sites of LH 2 of Rhodopseudomonas palustris (P‐LH2) .The authors acquired two components using molecular sieve chromatography .Free BChl of one component was not removed and self‐assembled to P‐LH2 .The other removed free BChl and B850‐only P‐LH2 was constructed .B850 un‐changed after P‐LH2 was incubated .P‐LH2 αandβsubunits have different molecular weights ,but those of A‐LH2 are in the contrary .It is concluded that B850‐only P‐LH2 is more stable than A‐LH2 .The enigmatic split of the B800 absorption band was not observed in these LH2 ,but we acquired two kinds of B800‐released LH2 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris .The authors’ results may provide a new light to separate homogeneous Apoprotein LH 2 .%构建B800缺失L H2对于阐明光合作用中光能传递的分子机制与捕光复合体组装机制具有重要意义。采用吸收光谱、荧光光谱、分子筛层析、超滤和SDS‐PAGE等方法研究了紫细菌两个典型种外周捕光复合体(LH2)约800 nm特征光谱(B800

  14. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  15. Temperature dependent LH1→RC energy transfer in purple bacteria Tch. tepidum with shiftable LH1-Qy band: A natural system to investigate thermally activated energy transfer in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Yu, Long-Jiang; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-04-01

    The native LH1-RC complex of the purple bacterium Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum has an ultra-red LH1-Qy absorption at 915nm, which can shift to 893 and 882nm by means of chemical modifications. These unique complexes are a good natural system to investigate the thermally activated energy transfer process, with the donor energies different while the other factors (such as the acceptor energy, special pair at 890nm, and the distance/relative orientation between the donor and acceptor) remain the same. The native B915-RC, B893-RC and B882-RC complexes, as well as the LH1-RC complex of Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides were studied by temperature-dependent time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The energy transfer time constants, kET(-1), are 65, 45, 46 and 45ps at room temperature while 225, 58, 85, 33ps at 77K for the B915-RC, B893-RC, B882-RC and Rba. sphaeroides LH1-RC, respectively. The dependences of kET on temperature have different trends. The reorganization energies are determined to be 70, 290, 200 and 45cm(-1), respectively, by fitting kET vs temperature using Marcus equation. The activation energies are 200, 60, 115 and 20cm(-1), respectively. The influences of the structure (the arrangement of the 32 BChl a molecules) on kET are discussed based on these results, to reveal how the B915-RC complex accomplishes its energy transfer function with a large uphill energy of 290cm(-1).

  16. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the Globally Integrated Spectral Variability of the Archean Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  17. Panda Apparel Adds Neon Purple Color

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Neon Tees division of the Panda Apparel Group is introducing Neon Purple to their line. Bright with a capital B has been on top of the fashion trends for the past year. With the addition of neon purple, an exciting new offering is available to apparel

  18. Monolateral purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a constellation of findings resulting in purple discoloration of the urine and/or urine drainage bag(s) occurring in patients with long-term urinary indwelling catheters. Other causative factors may include constipation, female gender, the presence of bacteria containing sulphatase and phosphatase enzymes, and alkaline urine. While the contributing factors for PUBS are linked with high morbidity, PUBS itself is a benign condition. A case study of monolateral PUBS in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes (NTs) is presented.

  19. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror’s movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  20. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  1. Studies on photosynthetic bacteria isolated from an estuarine beach of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karanth, N.G.K.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -sulphur purple bacteria). It had a characteristic absorption maximum at 850 nm which is a general feature of purple bacteria. The optimum pH for this strain was 7. Effect of different organic substances, nitrogenous compounds, and pollutants CO2 fixation...

  2. Modeling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth: The purple planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle, E.; Sanroma, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutierrez-Navarro, A. M.; Lopez, R.; Montañes-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-03-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. But the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet were purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and bacteria concentration/ distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  3. Proteomic analysis of the purple sulfur bacterium Candidatus "Thiodictyon syntrophicum" strain Cad16T isolated from Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storelli, Nicola; Saad, Maged M.; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Lake Cadagno is characterised by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). 2D-DIGE was used to monitor the global changes in the proteome of Candidatus "Thiodictyon syntrophicum" strain Cad16T both in the presence and absence of light. This study aimed...

  4. Proteomic analysis of the purple sulfur bacterium Candidatus "Thiodictyon syntrophicum" strain Cad16T isolated from Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storelli, Nicola; Saad, Maged M.; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik;

    2014-01-01

    Lake Cadagno is characterised by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). 2D-DIGE was used to monitor the global changes in the proteome of Candidatus "Thiodictyon syntrophicum" strain Cad16T both in the presence and absence of light. This study aimed...

  5. Purple%颜色文化——紫色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Royalty and Spirituality 高贵与信仰 Purple is royalty. A mysterious color, purple is associated with both nobility and spirituality. The opposites of hot red and cool blue combine to create this intriguing color.

  6. Origin of mitochondria by intracellular enslavement of a photosynthetic purple bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondria originated by permanent enslavement of purple non-sulphur bacteria. These endosymbionts became organelles through the origin of complex protein-import machinery and insertion into their inner membranes of protein carriers for extracting energy for the host. A chicken-and-egg problem exists: selective advantages for evolving import machinery were absent until inner membrane carriers were present, but this very machinery is now required for carrier insertion. I argue here that this...

  7. Microbial characteristics of purple paddy soil in response to Pb pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Zhang, La-Mei; Zhou, Xin-Bin; Shi, Xiao-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The study focused on the change of microbial characteristics affected by Plumbum pollution with purple paddy soil in an incubation experiment. The results showed that low concentration of Plumbum had little effect on most of microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activity. However, denitrifying activity was inhibited severely, and inhibition rate was up to 98%. Medium and high concentration of Plumbum significantly reduced the amounts and activity of all microorganisms and enzymatic activity, which increased with incubation time. Negative correlations were found between Plumbum concentrations and microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activities except fungi and actinomyces. Thus they can be used to indicate the Plumbum pollution levels to some extent. LD(50) of denitrifying bacteria (DB) and ED50 of denitrifying activity were 852mg/kg and 33.5mg/kg. Across all test soil microbes, denitrifying bacteria was most sensitive to Plumbum pollution in purple paddy soil. Value of early warning showed that anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria (ACDB) and actinomyces were also sensitive to Plumbum pollution. We concluded that denitrifying activity, actinomyces, ACDB or DB can be chosen as predictor of Plumbum contamination in purple paddy soil.

  8. Photoluminescence of Turkish purple jade (turkiyenite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatipoglu, Murat, E-mail: murat.hatipoglu@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eyluel University, IMYO, Izmir Multidisciplinary Vocational School, Gemmology and Jewellery Programme, TR-35380 Buca-Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eyluel University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Natural Building Stones and Gem Stones, TR-35370 Buca-Izmir (Turkey); Basevirgen, Yasemin [Dokuz Eyluel University, IMYO, Izmir Multidisciplinary Vocational School, Gemmology and Jewellery Programme, TR-35380 Buca-Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eyluel University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Natural Building Stones and Gem Stones, TR-35370 Buca-Izmir (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    The purple-colored unique gem material is only found in the Harmanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I k (Bursa) region of the western Anatolia (Turkey). Therefore, it is specially called 'Turkish purple jade or turkiyenite' on the worldwide gem market. Even though its jadeite implication is the principal constituent, the material cannot be considered as a single jadeite mineral since other implications are quartz, orthoclase, epidote, chloritoid and phlogopite minerals. Even if the analytical methods are used to characterize and identify the Turkish purple jade samples in detail, the luminescence spectra, especially photoluminescence features regarding to composite mineral implications of the material are important because of the existence the numerous characteristic broad and intensive luminescence bands in the samples. We can state that the UV-irradiation luminescence centers as photoluminescence (PL) are due to the overall signals in the Turkish purple jade samples. Accordingly, the distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 743, 717, 698, 484, 465 and 442 nm in PL-2D (counter diagram and sections) and PL-3D (sequence spectra) ranging between 300 and 900 nm of wavelengths, and between 220 and 340 K of temperatures are observed. Finally, photoluminescence features of the heterogeneous-structured material cannot be simply attributed to any chemical impurities, since the jade mass has numerous heterogeneous mineral constituents instead of a single jadeite mineral. Six different mineral implications and chemical impurities in the material composition display complex and individual all kind of luminescence features. Therefore, photoluminescence as well as radioluminescence, cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra provide positive identification regarding to the provenance (geographic origin) of the original Turkish purple jade (turkiyenite). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purple-colored gem material is only found in the Harmanc Latin

  9. Purple coneflower viruses: species diversity and harmfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunich A. A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases became an actual problem in medicinal plants cultivation. The number of viruses known to infect purple coneflower increased significantly in the last years in many countries. However, there is no any review about the viral diseases of this valuable medicinal crop. Therefore, the aim of this article is to summarize the main information about the viruses affecting purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench.. An analysis of the literature data showed that purple coneflower could be infected by 10 viruses. These viruses belong to the families Bromoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Secoviridae, Potyviridae, Vir­ga­vi­ri­dae, and almost all of them are considered to be highly harmful plant viruses. Additionally, four of them (TMV, TSWV, CMV, PVY are in the top 10 of the most economically important plant viruses in the world and occupy the first places. Such distribution and harmfulness of these viruses are explained by a wide range of sensitive host-plants, wild plants and weeds – reservoirs of an infection, and also a large number of vectors. The data from a few countries show that the viral diseases of purple coneflower are becoming more severe from year to year. The appearance of new viruses is registered on coneflower every year that complicates prognosis and risk estimation of epiphytoties in these regions which, for example, were revealed in Bulgaria, Lithuania and Ukraine. This review presents the detailed symptoms of the viral diseases in purple coneflower, the main properties of each virus and data about their harmful effect on the quality of raw material (the concentration of biologically active substances and heavy metals in plants.

  10. Research on yogurt with purple potato%紫薯酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹瑾; 程缘; 韩翠萍; 刘玲; 崔娜; 李刚; 王楠楠

    2012-01-01

    With fresh milk, fresh purple sweet potato as the main raw material, add streptococcus thermophilus and Bulgaria coli to make yogurt-Processing condition of the yogurt mixed purple sweet potato were studied. By single—factor test and orthogonal test to determine the optimal technological parameters of the production of purple sweet potato yogurt. Results show that the optimal fermentation parameters as: ratio of purple sweet potato and fresh milk is 1:4, inoculum is 4%, fermentation temperature is 37 ℃, fermentation time is 12 h, the amount of sugar added to 9%.Under the condition, the yogurt is lavender, uniform texture, aroma and rich, with a purple sweet potato lactic add bacteria fermented yoghurt aroma. The yogurt has a sweet and delicious taste with delicate, soft.%以鲜牛奶,新鲜紫薯为主要原料,添加嗜热链球菌和保加利亚乳杆菌,研究搅拌型紫薯酸奶的加工工艺条件.通过单因素试验和正交试验确定制作紫薯酸奶的最佳工艺参数.结果表明,紫薯与鲜牛奶的比例为1∶4,接种量为4%,发酵温度37℃,发酵时间为12 h,白砂糖添加量为9%.此条件下制作的酸奶呈淡紫色,质地均匀一致,具有紫薯和浓郁的乳酸菌发酵酸奶的香味,酸甜可口,口感细腻,柔和.

  11. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments in the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Akos T; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2003-06-01

    A pigment mutant strain of the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS was isolated by plasposon mutagenesis. Nineteen open reading frame, most of which are thought to be genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, bacteriochlorophyll, and the photosynthetic reaction center, were identified surrounding the plasposon in a 22-kb-long chromosomal locus. The general arrangement of the photosynthetic genes was similar to that in other purple photosynthetic bacteria; however, the locations of a few genes occurring in this region were unusual. Most of the gene products showed the highest similarity to the corresponding proteins in Rubrivivax gelatinosus. The plasposon was inserted into the crtD gene, likely inactivating crtC as well, and the carotenoid composition of the mutant strain corresponded to the aborted spirilloxanthin pathway. Homologous and heterologous complementation experiments indicated a conserved function of CrtC and CrtD in the purple photosynthetic bacteria. The crtDC and crtE genes were shown to be regulated by oxygen, and a role of CrtJ in aerobic repression was suggested.

  12. Resonance Raman studies of the purple membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aton, B; Doukas, A G; Callender, R H; Becher, B; Ebrey, T G

    1977-06-28

    The individual resonance Raman spectra of the PM568 and M412 forms of light-adapted purple membrane from Halobacterium halobium have been measured using the newly developed flow technique. For comparison purposes, the Raman spectra of the model chromophores, all-trans- and 13-cis retinal n-butylamine, both as protonated and unprotonated Schiff bases, have also been obtained. In agreement with previous work, the Raman data indicate that the retinal chromophore is linked to the purple membrane protein via a protonated. Schiff base in the case of the PM568 and an unprotonated Schiff base for the M412 form. The basic mechanism for color regulation in both forms appears to be electron delocalization. The spectral features of the two forms are different from each other and different from the model compound spectra.

  13. The Female Bonding in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余跃

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at a survey of the female bonding in The Color Purple,which plays an important role in the heroine's finding her voice and sense of self.By examining the black women's struggle to explore their identity and claim their selves under sexual and racial oppressions,Alice Walker,the author,shows her understanding of the process that black women must undergo to achieve their vision.

  14. Investigation on antimicrobial effects of essential oil of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. and identification of its chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Izadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea L. is a perennial herbaceous with astringent properties, disinfectant, antimicrobial and anti intoxication activity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of shoot essential oil of purple coneflower against some microorganisms including gram positive, gram negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Material and Methods: In this experimental and laboratory investigation, plant samples were collected in full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. The chemical constitutes of this oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS method. Anti microbial properties of the essential oil were determined using micro broth dilution and well disk diffusion methods. At the end, data were analyzed by the SPSS version 15 software, using the T-test and Duncan s' test. Results: Twenty nine components were identified by GC and GC/MS in the essential oil of purple coneflower representing 96.21% of total oil. The major components were Germacrene D (53.30%, -Cymene (9.78%, β-Caryophyllene (7.52%, α-Humulene (5.22%, β-Bisabolene (4.43% and α-Pinene (4.23%, respectively. This oil exhibited strong antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast with average of inhibition zone (AIZ 39.63. Microorganisms differ in their resistance to purple coneflower oil. All of the bacteria including gram positive and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than fungi and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than gram positive bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium were more resistant than others. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that coneflower essential oil with significant antimicrobial effects and can be used instead of synthetic antibiotics that microbial resistance towards them is increasing.

  15. Development of biomarkers and a diagnostic tool for investigation of coinfections by and interactions between potato purple top and potato witches’-broom phytoplasmas in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Basin potato purple top (PPT) phytoplasma and Alaska potato witches’-broom (PWB) phytoplasma are two closely-related but mutually distinct pathogenic bacteria that infect potato and other vegetable crops. Inhabiting phloem sieve elements and being transmitted by phloem-feeding insect vecto...

  16. Characterizing the purple Earth: Modelling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Sanromá, E; Parenteau, M N; Kiang, N Y; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A M; López, R; Montañés-Rodríguez, P

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected, and the efforts of future missions are placed on the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. But the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Ga, and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Ga ago. At that time one of the more widespread life forms on the planet were purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we used a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-IR radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents an...

  17. A simple evaluation of soil quality of waterlogged purple paddy soils with different productivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjun; Zhou, Wei; Lv, Jialong; He, Ping; Liang, Guoqing; Jin, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of soil quality can be crucial for designing efficient farming systems and ensuring sustainable agriculture. The present study aimed at evaluating the quality of waterlogged purple paddy soils with different productivities in Sichuan Basin. The approach involved comprehensive analyses of soil physical and chemical properties, as well as enzyme activities and microbial community structure measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). A total of 36 soil samples were collected from four typical locations, with 12 samples representing high productivity purple paddy soil (HPPS), medium productivity purple paddy soil (MPPS) and low productivity purple paddy soil (LPPS), respectively. Most measured soil properties showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among HPPS, MPPS and LPPS. Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to identify appropriate soil quality indicators. A minimum data set (MDS) including total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), acid phosphatase (ACP), total bacteria (TB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was established and accounted for 82.1% of the quality variation among soils. A soil quality index (SQI) was developed based on the MDS method, whilst HPPS, MPPS and LPPS received mean SQI scores of 0.725, 0.536 and 0.425, respectively, with a ranking of HPPS > MPPS > LPPS. HPPS showed relatively good soil quality characterized by optimal nutrient availability, enzymatic and microbial activities, but the opposite was true of LPPS. Low levels of TN, AP and soil microbial activities were considered to be the major constraints limiting the productivity in LPPS. All soil samples collected were rich in available N, K, Si and Zn, but deficient in available P, which may be the major constraint for the studied regions. Managers in our study area should employ more appropriate management in the LPPS to improve its rice productivity, and particularly to any potential limiting factor.

  18. Symbolic Significance of Colors in the Novel The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓珏

    2007-01-01

    This paper mainly explains the symbolic significance of colors in the novel The Color Purple by using theory of Alice Walker's Womaism. Black,in The Color Purple stands for humbleness,blue for a life of impulse,red for liberty and hope ,purple for women's consummate happiness. And the choice of "purple" as its title ,conceives a purple centered symbolic color system,which reveals the black women's expectation for living an ideal happy life. Walker gives an expression of black women's political condition ,state of life under the racial and sexual oppression. Her intentions are to arouse women's consciousness of self and to call on them to be self-respected ,self-supported and eventually be self-liberated.

  19. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Purple Membrane from Halobacterium Halobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argade, Pramod Vasant

    Purple membrane from the halophilic bacteria, Halobacterium halobium, contains the protein, bacteriorhodopsin, which functions as a light transducing proton pump. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the functioning of bacteriorhodopsin is a key problem in membrane biophysics. After absorbing a photon, this protein cycles through a series of characteristic intermeidate states and pumps H('+) ions across the membrane. In this way, the energy of the absorbed photon is stored in the electrochemical potential gradient formed across the membrane. This energy is subsequently available for metabolism by the bacterium. Bacteriorhodopsin consists of a retinal chromophore (which is responsible for the purple color) bound to the protein, bacterioopsin, whose sequence is known and consists of 248 amino acid residues. There is evidence that conformational changes in the chromophore may contribute to the proton pumping action. Resonance Raman light scattering provides a selective tool to monitor the conformational changes in the chromophore during the proton pumping cycle. This dissertation consists of applying resonance Raman light scattering in conjunction with a variety of newly developed experimental techniques to gain information about the mode of action of bacteriorhodopsin. By selective isotopic labelling of (epsilon)-amino nitrogen of the lysine residues of the protein, the site of attachment of the chromophore with the protein was verified by in situ measurements. Also, a model proposing a secondary interaction of the chromophore with a lysine residue other than the binding site of the chromophore was tested using this method. Furthermore, by selective isotopic labelling of only a part of the protein the location of the lysine on the protein to which the chromophore is bound, was found by in situ measurements to be the fragment consisting of amino acid residues 72 through 248 of the protein. This is inconsistent with the previously reported binding site at

  20. Influence of environmental factors on growth and pigment synthesis by purple thiobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. О. Pavlova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different environmental factors on growth and pigment biosynthesis by particular strains of purple thiobacteria was investigated. These strains belong to the genus Chromatium, Thiocystis, Thiocapsa and Lamprocystis and were isolated from Yavoriv sulphur mine. Calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and sodium chloride should be included in the medium for optimal growth of these bacteria. Addition of these elements entails increasing the biomass production and synthesis of carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Initial concentration of inoculum and electron donor has essential influence on growth of purple thiobacteria. Early in the development of culture, sulphide was oxidized, and then the growth impairment and destruction of cells under exposure of light were observed. For the optimization of bacteria growth the electron donor (sulphide must be added many times during the cultivation process in the concentration, which is not exceed an inhibition dose. The additional bringing of the electron donor in the medium promotes the raise of cells’ biomass. The acetate introduction in the medium has positive influence on the pigments’ biosynthesis. The essential factor of growth and pigments’ biosynthesis is the light intensity. Peak gain of the culture growth was observed under 400 lx. The amplification of light exposure is accompanied by the decrease of growth and content of pigments in cells. Oxygen inhibits the synthesis of pigments in all strains

  1. Atomically resolved images of lithium purple bronze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, Melanie; Bienert, Robert; Waelsch, Michael; Podlich, Tatjana; Matzdorf, Rene [Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Kassel (Germany); Jin, Rongying [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lousiana State University (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The lithium molybdenum purple bronze Li{sub 0.9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 17} is a quasi 1D metal at room temperature showing Luttinger liquid physics. The highly anisotropic conductivity runs along the crystallographic b axis where Mo-O chains, formed by the shared edges of the MoO{sub 6} octahedra, provide the electrical transport. Li{sub 0.9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 17} samples were investigated with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. By cleaving the samples at low temperatures (60 K) we obtained atomically resolved images of the surface. In these images the Mo-O chains are visible, which are covered by layers of MoO{sub 6} octahedra and MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra.

  2. Incoming editorial: bigger, purple, pragmatic, and parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2011-03-01

    It is with great excitement and enthusiasm that I write to you regarding several updates, new initiatives and changes with our journal. As you may have already noticed, this includes the change to a larger format, and a return to the color purple that helped define this journal from the early 1980s through the turn of the century, as well as to the original title "Psychotherapy." The change in format will allow us to benefit from the standard American Psychological Association (APA) journal design and layout, leading to more efficient processing and arrangement within their electronic journal system. I have found this first year as the Incoming Editor of Psychotherapy to be as challenging, rewarding, and intellectually stimulating as I imagined it would be, and I remain quite excited and enthusiastic about the work ahead. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  4. Purple phototrophic bacterium enhances stevioside yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB on growth and stevioside (ST yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant (-1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms.

  5. New acylated anthocyanins from purple yam and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Chiemi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Agawa, Sayuri; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Kozone, Ikuko; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Terahara, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Purple yam (Dioscorea alata L.), which is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is characterized by its color and viscosity. Previous studies have shown that purple yams contain a variety of acylated anthocyanins that exhibit higher levels of antioxidant activity than the corresponding nonacylated compounds. In this study, the pigments found in purple yams from the Philippines (D. alata) were isolated and evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Four new acylated anthocyanins, alanins (1-4) were isolated from the MeOH extracts of purple yam, which were subsequently determined to be cyanidin (1, 2, and 4) and peonidin (3) type compounds, along with four known anthocyanins (5-8). The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectroscopic methods, including NMR and MS analyses. The antioxidant activities of anthocyanins 1-8 were investigated using oxygen radical absorbing capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays.

  6. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  7. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...... in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative...

  8. Toxic, antimicrobial and hemagglutinating activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo V.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, hemagglutinating and toxic activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela are described. Intact or dialyzed purple fluid inhibited the growth of species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the action was not bactericidal but bacteriostatic. The active factor or factors were heat labile and sensitive to extreme pH values. The fluid preferentially agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and, to a lesser extent, human blood cells, and this activity was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, a fact suggesting the presence of a lectin. The fluid was also toxic to brine shrimp nauplii (LD50 141.25 µg protein/ml and to mice injected intraperitoneally (LD50 201.8 ± 8.6 mg protein/kg, in a dose-dependent fashion. These toxic activities were abolished when the fluid was heated. Taken together, the data suggest that the activities of the purple fluid are due primarily to substance(s of a protein nature which may be involved in the chemical defense mechanism of this sea hare.

  9. Evolution of KaiC-Dependent Timekeepers: A Proto-circadian Timing Mechanism Confers Adaptive Fitness in the Purple Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijun Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian (daily rhythms are a fundamental and ubiquitous property of eukaryotic organisms. However, cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotic group for which bona fide circadian properties have been persuasively documented, even though homologs of the cyanobacterial kaiABC central clock genes are distributed widely among Eubacteria and Archaea. We report the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris (that harbors homologs of kaiB and kaiC only poorly sustains rhythmicity in constant conditions-a defining characteristic of circadian rhythms. Moreover, the biochemical characteristics of the Rhodopseudomonas homolog of the KaiC protein in vivo and in vitro are different from those of cyanobacterial KaiC. Nevertheless, R. palustris cells exhibit adaptive kaiC-dependent growth enhancement in 24-h cyclic environments, but not under non-natural constant conditions. Therefore, our data indicate that Rhodopseudomonas does not have a classical circadian rhythm, but a novel timekeeping mechanism that does not sustain itself in constant conditions. These results question the adaptive value of self-sustained oscillatory capability for daily timekeepers and establish new criteria for circadian-like systems that are based on adaptive properties (i.e., fitness enhancement in rhythmic environments, rather than upon observations of persisting rhythms in constant conditions. We propose that the Rhodopseudomonas system is a "proto" circadian timekeeper, as in an ancestral system that is based on KaiC and KaiB proteins and includes some, but not necessarily all, of the canonical properties of circadian clocks. These data indicate reasonable intermediate steps by which bona fide circadian systems evolved in simple organisms.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maiaugree, Wasan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Suriharn, Bhalang [Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Extract from husk, cob and silk of purple corn was used as a photosensitizer in DSSC. • Effect of solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and DI water on DSSC efficiency was studied. • The highest efficiency of 1.06% was obtained in DSSC based on acetone extraction. - Abstract: Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  11. Proteomic analysis of the purple sulfur bacterium Candidatus “Thiodictyon syntrophicum” strain Cad16T isolated from Lake Cadagno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Storelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lake Cadagno is characterised by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB. 2D-DIGE was used to monitor the global changes in the proteome of Candidatus “Thiodictyon syntrophicum” strain Cad16T both in the presence and absence of light. This study aimed to disclose details regarding the dark CO2 assimilation of the PSB, as this mechanism is often observed but is not yet sufficiently understood. Our results showed the presence of 17 protein spots that were more abundant in the dark, including three enzymes that could be part of the autotrophic dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, normally observed in archaea.

  12. Applications of the Phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower in Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (EP, purple coneflower have been used traditionally in North America for the treatment of various types of infections and wounds, and they have become very popular herbal medicines globally. Recent studies have revealed that certain standardized preparations contain potent and selective antiviral and antimicrobial activities. In addition, they display multiple immune-modulatory activities, comprising stimulation of certain immune functions such as phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which are manifested as alterations in secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. These immune modulations result from upregulation or downregulation of the relevant genes and their transcription factors. All these bioactivities can be demonstrated at noncytotoxic concentrations of extract and appear to be due to multiple components rather than the individual chemical compounds that characterize Echinacea extracts. Potential applications of the bioactive extracts may go beyond their traditional uses.

  13. Purple-bacterial light harvesting benefits more from energy funnelling than from delocalisation

    CERN Document Server

    Baghbanzadeh, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Light-harvesting complexes of purple bacteria have two properties that are thought to contribute to the efficiency of their exciton transport: an energy funnel that directs excitons towards the reaction centre as well as substantial excitonic delocalisation, which can enhance transport through supertransfer. To determine the relative importance of these two features, we compared models of the light-harvesting apparatus with thousands of counterfactual situations in which the extent of delocalisation and the energy landscape were altered. We find that the influence of delocalisation is usually minor and sometimes deleterious, especially when compared to the decisive importance of a funnel in the energy landscape. Consequently, delocalisation is most likely a side-effect of the dense chlorophyll packing that evolved to increase light absorption per reaction centre.

  14. Applications of the phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower) in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (EP, purple coneflower) have been used traditionally in North America for the treatment of various types of infections and wounds, and they have become very popular herbal medicines globally. Recent studies have revealed that certain standardized preparations contain potent and selective antiviral and antimicrobial activities. In addition, they display multiple immune-modulatory activities, comprising stimulation of certain immune functions such as phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which are manifested as alterations in secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. These immune modulations result from upregulation or downregulation of the relevant genes and their transcription factors. All these bioactivities can be demonstrated at noncytotoxic concentrations of extract and appear to be due to multiple components rather than the individual chemical compounds that characterize Echinacea extracts. Potential applications of the bioactive extracts may go beyond their traditional uses.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin; Maiaugree, Wasan; Suriharn, Bhalang; Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  16. Phototropic sulfur and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the chemocline of meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele PEDUZZI

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Cadagno, a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the catchment area of a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the Piora Valley in the southern Alps of Switzerland, is characterized by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of sulfate, steep gradients of oxygen, sulfide and light and a turbidity maximum that correlates to large numbers of bacteria (up to 107 cells ml-1. The most abundant taxa in the chemocline are large- and small-celled purple sulfur bacteria, which account for up to 35% of all bacteria, and sulfate- reducing bacteria that represent up to 23% of all bacteria. Depending on the season, as much as 45% of all bacteria in the chemocline are associated in aggregates consisting of different populations of small-celled purple sulfur bacteria of the genus Lamprocystis (up to 35% of all bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria of the family Desulfobulbaceae (up to 12% of all bacteria that are almost completely represented by bacteria closely related to Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes. Their association in aggregates is restricted to small-celled purple sulfur bacteria of the genus Lamprocystis, but not obligate since non-associated cells of bacteria related to D. thiozymogenes are frequently found, especially under limited light conditions in winter and early summer. Aggregate formation and concomitant growth enhancement of isolates of both partners of this association suggests synergistic interactions that might resemble a sulfide-based source-sink relationship between the sulfate-reducing bacterium that is able to sustain growth by a disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds (sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite, with the purple sulfur bacteria acting as a biotic scavenger. The availability of these isolates opens up the door for future studies considering other facets of potential interactions in aggregates since both types of organisms are metabolically highly versatile and interactions may not be limited to sulfur compounds only.

  17. Calcium binding to the purple membrane : A molecular dynamics study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Tsjerk A.; Daura, Xavier; Padros, Esteve; Mark, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    The purple membrane (PM) is a specialized membrane patch found in halophilic archaea, containing the photoreceptor bacteriorhodopsin (bR). It is long known that calcium ions bind to the PM, but their position and role remain elusive to date. Molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with a highl

  18. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular

  19. Using polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromocresol purple in radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Munzer; al Kassiri, Haroun; Daher, Yarob

    2011-02-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with bromocresol purple was investigated as a high-dose radiation dosimeter. The absorbance at 417 nm depends linearly on the dose below 50 kGy. The response depends neither on dose rate nor on the irradiation temperature. The effects of post-irradiation storage in the dark and in indirect sunlight are also discussed.

  20. Halosulfuron reduced purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds persist and cause economic losses in agricultural systems because they exploit an underutilized portion of that system. Reducing the impact of weeds on agroecosystems begins with minimizing the number of propagules (e.g, seeds and tubers) that are produced and returned to the soil. Purple nu...

  1. Alice Walker's Womanism Colored in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧慧

    2009-01-01

    In her famous novel The Color Purple,Alice Walker's womanism is colored by four kinds of conseiousness-female consciousness,racial consciousness,root-seeking consciousness,and universal consciousness.It is owing to the womanism that the heroine celie grown from an abused woman to an independent selfhood.

  2. Purple Bacterial Light-harvesting Complexes: From Dreams to Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J; Hashimoto, Hideki; Gardiner, Alastair T

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the main stages involved in the research efforts designed to try and understand the structure and function of purple bacterial antenna complexes. Wherever possible the work has been illustrated by pictures of the major people who carried it out.

  3. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular ri

  4. An Analysis of Ecowomanism in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静颖

    2016-01-01

    The Color Purple is a well known work of Alice Walker, which describes black women living in the bottom of that soci?ety and a course of them keep fighting for realizing spiritual liberation and personality independence, as well as equality in politics and race. Many scholars at home and abroad prefer to study this novel from feminism, womanism, and writing technique, but few study it from ecowamnism perspcctive. This thesis intends to take The Color Purple of Alice Walker as a research object, ecowom?anism as a theoretical basis for reflecting ecowomanism in it and actual meanings. Only when women bravely realized their self-value, beauty and preciousness and knew the self-importance and being an independent person from spiritual and body, can they achieve happiness. Only we respect, close, head for nature, can harmonious coexistence with nature be realized.

  5. Antioxidative effect of purple corn extracts during storage of mayonnaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ying; Kim, Hee-Woong; Li, He; Lee, Deug-Chan; Rhee, Hae-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin is a powerful natural antioxidant. Purple corn husk is rich in anthocyanin. In this paper the antioxidative effect of anthocyanin-rich purple corn husk extract (PCHE) in mayonnaise during storage was studied. The antioxidative effect of the mayonnaise containing PCHE was evaluated by measuring peroxide values, p-anisidine values, total oxidation values, acid values, and iodine values at time intervals for 10 weeks. The antioxidative effect of the mayonnaise containing PCHE was higher than that of mayonnaise with chemical antioxidants BHT and EDTA as positive control. The mayonnaise containing 0.4 g/kg PCHE showed the strongest antioxidative performance during storage. This study suggests that PCHE could be used as natural antioxidant in high fat food and as a substitute to chemical antioxidant with its purplish colour marking its difference from ordinary mayonnaise. Such colour difference will tell consumers that their food contains natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Modulatory Effect of Anthocyanins from Purple Sweet Potato on Human Intestinal Microbiota in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Yang, Yang; Wu, Zufang; Weng, Peifang

    2016-03-30

    In order to investigate the modulatory effect of purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPAs) on human intestinal microbiota, PSPAs were prepared by column chromatography and their influence on intestinal microbiota was analyzed by monitoring the bacterial populations and analyzing short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations at different time points. The numbers (log10 cell/mL) of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., Bacteroides-Prevotella, Clostridium histolyticum, and total bacteria after 24 h of culture in anaerobic fermentation broth containing PSPAs were 8.44 ± 0.02, 8.30 ± 0.01, 7.80 ± 0.03, 7.60 ± 0.03, and 9.00 ± 0.02, respectively, compared with 8.21 ± 0.03, 8.12 ± 0.02, 7.95 ± 0.02, 7.77 ± 0.02, and 9.01 ± 0.03, respectively, in the controls. The results showed that PSPAs induced the proliferation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., inhibited the growth of Bacteroides-Prevotella and Clostridium histolyticum, and did not affect the total bacteria number. Total SCFA concentrations in the cultures with PSPAs were significantly higher than in the controls (P microbiota, contributing to improvements in human health.

  7. Enrichments for phototrophic bacteria and characterization by morphology and pigment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine several sulfide containing environments for the presence of phototrophic bacteria and to obtain enriched cultures of some of the bacteria present. The field sites were Alum Rock State Park, the Palo Alto salt marsh, the bay area salt ponds, and Big Soda Lake (near Fallon, Nevada). Bacteria from these sites were characterized by microscopic examination, measurement of in vitro absorption spectra, and analysis of carotenoid pigments. Field observations at one of the bay area salt ponds, in which the salt concentration was saturating (about 30 percent NaCl) and the sediments along the shore of the pond covered with a gypsum crust, revealed a layer of purple photosynthetic bacteria under a green layer in the gypsum crust. Samples of this gypsum crust were taken to the laboratory to measure light transmission through the crust and to try to identify the purple photosynthetic bacteria present in this extremely saline environment.

  8. The Psychological Deformity of Black Males in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳蔚

    2012-01-01

      The Color Purple,adapted from Alice Walker’s magnum opus - a long epistolary novel,is a famous movie about the miserable experience of black females and their unremitting resistance against every kind of oppression. In addition,this movie has also exposed the psychological deformity of black male. This paper focuses on the characters of black male, sufficiently probes and analyses the causes of black male’s psychological deformity.

  9. Mammalian-like Purple Acid Phosphatases in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) comprise of a family of binuclear metal-containing hydrolases, some members of which have been isolated and characterized from animal, plant and fungal sources[1]. PAPs not only catalyze the hydrolyses of a wide range of phosphate esters and anhydrides under acidic reaction conditions,but also catalyze the generation of hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton-like reaction, by virtue of the presence of a redox-active binuclear metal center.

  10. Phylogenetic Diversity of Bacteria Associated with the Marine Sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole S.; Wilson, Kate J.; Blackall, Linda L.; Hill, Russell T.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular techniques were employed to document the microbial diversity associated with the marine sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. The phylogenetic affiliation of sponge-associated bacteria was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing of cloned DNA fragments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm the presence of the predominant groups indicated by 16S rDNA analysis. The community structure was extremely diverse with representatives of the Actinobacteria, low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, the β- and γ-subdivisions of the Proteobacteria, Cytophaga/Flavobacterium, green sulfur bacteria, green nonsulfur bacteria, planctomycetes, and other sequence types with no known close relatives. FISH probes revealed the spatial location of these bacteria within the sponge tissue, in some cases suggesting possible symbiotic functions. The high proportion of 16S rRNA sequences derived from novel actinomycetes is good evidence for the presence of an indigenous marine actinomycete assemblage in R. odorabile. High microbial diversity was inferred from low duplication of clones in a library with 70 representatives. Determining the phylogenetic affiliation of sponge-associated microorganisms by 16S rRNA analysis facilitated the rational selection of culture media and isolation conditions to target specific groups of well-represented bacteria for laboratory culture. Novel media incorporating sponge extracts were used to isolate bacteria not previously recovered from this sponge. PMID:11133476

  11. Extraction and Purification of Pigment from Purple Sweet Potato Wine Vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongsheng Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato pigment is a natural food pigment with bright color and multiplies biological functions such as antioxidant activity etc. There is a large amount of unused pigment in the vinasse of purple sweet potato wine. Therefore, in this study, the extraction processes of purple sweet potato pigment from purple sweet potato wine vinasse, as well as its purification conditions were investigated. As the results, 0.9% citric acid-95% ethanol (2/3, v/v was a suitable extraction solvent to obtain the higher yield of purple sweet potato pigment from vinasse. AB-8 column chromatography showed that the loading ratio of 1/10 (w/v of resin and pigment with the solvent of 40% ethanol at the flow rate of 2 mL/min were the optimal conditions for the purification of purple sweet potato pigment.

  12. Fullerene-Benzene purple and yellow clusters: Theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Megan P.; Khan, Sakiba; Baytak, Aysegul K.; Khan, Arshad

    2016-11-01

    Fullerene (FR, C60) gives a purple colored solution almost instantly when benzene is added to it. Interestingly, this purple solution turns yellow in about 7 weeks and remains yellow afterwards. The concentration of the purple complex increases with temperature indicating its formation kinetically favored, which transforms into a more stable yellow complex very slowly with time. The geometry optimization by density functional theory (DFT) followed by spectra (TD-DFT method) calculations suggest that the purple and yellow complexes are due to clusters of six benzene molecules arranged vertically and horizontally respectively around the FR molecule.

  13. Effect of the Purple carbon black on the properties of NR/BR blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanfang, Zhao; Dan, Liu; Shengbo, Lin; Binjian; Yinmei, Zhao; Shuangquan, Liao

    2014-08-01

    Purple black is light colored mineral filler mining in recent years in Hainan. The effect of the dosage of the purple carbon black and purple carbon black modificated by Si69 on the vulcanization characteristics, mechanical properties, thermal stability, the damping performance of NR/BR blend rubber were studied, and the blending adhesive tensile sections were analyzed by SEM. Research showed that, with the increasing dosage of the purple carbon black, vulcanization characteristics of NR/BR blend had a little change. Adding the purple carbon black into blending had a reinforcing effect. when the dosage of the purple carbon black was 20, the mechanical properties of blending adhesive was good; Coupling agent Si69 had a modification effect on the purple carbon black. With increasing dosage of Si69, performance of the rubber was improved initially and then decreased; when the mass fraction of Si69 was 8% of the dosage of the purple carbon black, rubber performance was optimal. Purple carbon black had no obvious effect on thermal stability of the rubber, but it improved the damping rubber temperature and damping factor.

  14. Gem-quality Turkish purple jade: Geological and mineralogical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Başevirgen, Yasemin; Chamberlain, Steven C.

    2012-02-01

    In the Harmancık-Bursa region of the western Anatolia (Turkey), an extensive contact metamorphic aureole at the border between the Late Mesozoic coherent metaclastic rocks of blueschist facies and the Early Senozoic intrusive granodiorite stock hosts an interesting and unique gem material with a mineral assemblage consisting mainly of jadeite, quartz, orthoclase, epidote, chloritoid, and phlogopite as identified by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and polarized-light microscopy. In addition, chemical analyses performed with X-ray fluorescence and inductive-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy show that the mass of the metamorphic aureole has a silica-rich, calc-alkaline chemical content. Therefore, some rock building elements (such as Al, Ca, Na, K, P, Sr, and B of which characterize an acidic-neutral rock formation) and trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Be, Cu, Ga, La, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are remarkable high ratios. Pale purple-colored gem material of this composition appears to be unique to Turkey, also is only found in one narrow provenance in Turkey. Therefore, it is specially called "Turkish (and/or Anatolian) purple jade" on the worldwide gem market. Even though the mineral jadeite is the principal constituent, 40% by volume as determined with petrographic thin-section examination under a polarized-light microscope, the material cannot be considered pure jadeite. Specific gravity measurements of the jade using a hydrostatic balance confirm that it has a heterogeneous structure. The measured average specific gravity of 3.04, is significantly lower than the normal range for characterized jadeites of 3.24-3.43. Turkish purple jade samples were examined in detail using dispersive confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (DCμRS) as well as other well-known analytical methods. The resulting strong micro-Raman bands that peaked at 1038, 984, 697, 571, 521, 464, 430, 372, 326, 307, 264, and 201 cm -1 are characteristics of the Turkish purple jade. The first most

  15. Two-dimensional protonic percolation on lightly hydrated purple membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupley, J A; Siemankowski, L; Careri, G; Bruni, F

    1988-12-01

    The capacitance and dielectric loss factor were measured for a sample of purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium as a function of hydration level (0.017 to >0.2 g of water/g of membrane) and frequency (10 kHz to 10 MHz). The capacitance and the derived conductivity show explosive growth above a threshold hydration level, h(c) approximately 0.0456. The conductivity shows a deuterium isotope effect, H/(2)H = 1.38, in close agreement with expectation for a protonic process. The level h(c) is frequency independent and shows no deuterium isotope effect. These properties are analogous to those found for lysozyme in a related study. Protonic conduction for the purple membrane can be considered, as for lysozyme, within the framework of a percolation model. The critical exponent, t, which describes the conductivity of a percolative system near the threshold, has the value 1.23. This number is in close agreement with expectation from theory for a two-dimensional percolative process. The dielectric properties of the purple membrane are more complex than those of lysozyme, seen in the value of h(c) and in the frequency and hydration dependence of the loss factor. There appear to be preferred regions of proton conduction. The percolation model is based upon stochastic behavior of a system partially populated with conducting elements. This model suggests that ion transport in membranes and its control can be based on pathways formed of randomly connected conducting elements and that a fixed geometry (a proton wire) is not the only possible basis for a mechanism of conduction.

  16. A Psychoanalytic Reading of Celie in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡培琳

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the protagonist, Celie, in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple. Celie who is ugly, lacks of mother’s love, and oppressed in a universe of men. She admires Shug who is a beautiful woman. According to Lacan ’s theory, Celie’s love for Shug is a metonymic hunting for her mother’s body. Celie’s hunting process is along the metonymic chain of signifiers. And finally Celie finds her happiness even though the chain of signifiers continues.

  17. Antioxidant effect of Purple basil(Lamiaceae Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Mastaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants used in folk and traditional medicines have been accepted as therapeutic drug development in modern medicine. SinceOcimum basilicum cv. dark opal has been used in Persian traditional medicine and many Iranian dishes,it was considered important to determine the reductive capacity of the purple basil oils and extracts, as this may indicate their potential as antioxidants. Results indicated that the extracts have more powerful antioxidant activity than the oils.Also,the phytochemical analysis of the extracts has led to the identification of 3 phenolic. Our study, partially validates the traditional use of this medicinal herb as complementary medicine.

  18. Purple sweet potato colour--a potential therapy for galactosemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timson, David J

    2014-06-01

    Galactosemia is an inherited metabolic disease in which galactose is not properly metabolised. There are various theories to explain the molecular pathology, and recent experimental evidence strongly suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role. High galactose diets are damaging to experimental animals and oxidative stress also plays a role in this toxicity which can be alleviated by purple sweet potato colour (PSPC). This plant extract is rich in acetylated anthocyanins which have been shown to quench free radical production. The objective of this Commentary is to advance the hypothesis that PSPC, or compounds therefrom, may be a viable basis for a novel therapy for galactosemia.

  19. The interaction between purple membrane and membrane lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane was reconstituted into different lipid vesicles. The effect of three different lipids on the structure and function of bacteriorhodopsin in lipid vesicles was studied by the observation on freeze-fracture eletron microscopy, the rotational diffusion of bacteriorhodopsin in lipid vesicles, the measurement of absorption spectrum, and the absorbance change with time. For these prepared samples, the results showed that DMPC was the stable lipid environment of bacteriorhodopsin; egg-pc causeed the loss of retinal chromophore of bacteriorhodopsin and it was not reversible change, cholesterol could stabilize the bacteriorhodopsin in lipid environment,but it caused the aggregation of bacteriorhodopsin.

  20. Two-dimensional protonic percolation on lightly hydrated purple membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Rupley, John A.; Siemankowski, Linda; Careri, Giorgio; Bruni, Fabio

    1988-01-01

    The capacitance and dielectric loss factor were measured for a sample of purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium as a function of hydration level (0.017 to >0.2 g of water/g of membrane) and frequency (10 kHz to 10 MHz). The capacitance and the derived conductivity show explosive growth above a threshold hydration level, hc ≈ 0.0456. The conductivity shows a deuterium isotope effect, H/2H = 1.38, in close agreement with expectation for a protonic process. The level hc is frequency independe...

  1. Research on purple seed stain of soybean: germplasm screening and genetic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean purple seed stain (PSS) causes seed decay and purple seed discoloration, resulting in overall poor seed quality and reduced market grade and value. It is a prevalent disease that also affects seed vigor and stand establishment. PSS is caused by the fungus Cercospora kikuchii and other Cercos...

  2. Screening a diverse soybean germplasm collection for reaction to purple seed stain caused by Cercospora kikuchii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple seed stain (PSS), caused by Cercospora kikuchii, is a prevalent soybean disease that causes latent seed infection, seed decay, purple seed discoloration, and overall quality deterioration. The objective of this research was to screen soybean accessions from the USDA germplasm collection for r...

  3. Anthocyanins and flavonols are responsible for purple color of Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Baolu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Jingtao; Yin, Wencheng; Feng, Ye; Xie, Qiaoli; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Lablab pods, as dietary vegetable, have high nutritional values similar to most of edible legumes. Moreover, our studies confirmed that purple lablab pods contain the natural pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols. Compared to green pods, five kinds of anthocyanins (malvidin, delphinidin and petunidin derivatives) were found in purple pods by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major contents were delphinidin derivatives. Besides, nine kinds of polyphenol derivatives (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and apigenin derivatives) were detected by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major components were quercetin and myricetin derivatives. In order to discover their molecular mechanism, expression patterns of biosynthesis and regulatory gens of anthocyanins and flavonols were investigated. Experimental results showed that LpPAL, LpF3H, LpF3'H, LpDFR, LpANS and LpPAP1 expressions were significantly induced in purple pods compared to green ones. Meanwhile, transcripts of LpFLS were more abundant in purple pods than green or yellow ones, suggestind that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols are accumulated in purple pods. Under continuously dark condition, no anthocyanin accumulation was detected in purple pods and transcripts of LpCHS, LpANS, LpFLS and LpPAP1 were remarkably repressed, indicating that anthocyanins and flavonols biosynthesis in purple pods was regulated in light-dependent manner. These results indicate that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols contribute to purple pigmentations of pods.

  4. Long Noncoding RNA PURPL Suppresses Basal p53 Levels and Promotes Tumorigenicity in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ling Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Basal p53 levels are tightly suppressed under normal conditions. Disrupting this regulation results in elevated p53 levels to induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and tumor suppression. Here, we report the suppression of basal p53 levels by a nuclear, p53-regulated long noncoding RNA that we termed PURPL (p53 upregulated regulator of p53 levels. Targeted depletion of PURPL in colorectal cancer cells results in elevated basal p53 levels and induces growth defects in cell culture and in mouse xenografts. PURPL associates with MYBBP1A, a protein that binds to and stabilizes p53, and inhibits the formation of the p53-MYBBP1A complex. In the absence of PURPL, MYBBP1A interacts with and stabilizes p53. Silencing MYBBP1A significantly rescues basal p53 levels and proliferation in PURPL-deficient cells, suggesting that MYBBP1A mediates the effect of PURPL in regulating p53. These results reveal a p53-PURPL auto-regulatory feedback loop and demonstrate a role for PURPL in maintaining basal p53 levels.

  5. Purple drank prevalence and characteristics of misusers of codeine cough syrup mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnich, Laura E; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee; Marcum, Catherine D

    2013-09-01

    A mixture of codeine cough syrup with alcohol and/or a soft drink known as "purple drank" has gained media attention in recent years as a drug associated with professional athletes and southern rap music. The existing research on purple drank consumption has primarily utilized samples of African Americans residing in the Houston, Texas area. This is the first scholarly study of purple drank use outside of the Houston, Texas area among a general population of young adults, and indicates that purple drank use is not limited to African American males. The findings depict higher odds of the use of purple drank among other racial and ethnic groups, males, and homosexual, bisexual, and transgender college students from urban areas.

  6. Anthocyanin Accumulation and Molecular Analysis of Correlated Genes in Purple Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Mingku; Zhu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhijin; Tian, Shibing; Chen, Guoping

    2015-04-29

    Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed widely for the round swollen stem. Purple kohlrabi shows abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and swollen stem. Here, different kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from the purple kohlrabi cultivar (Kolibri) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In order to study the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kohlrabi, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulatory genes in purple kohlrabi and a green cultivar (Winner) was examined by quantitative PCR. In comparison with the colorless parts in the two cultivars, most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and two transcription factors were drastically upregulated in the purple tissues. To study the effects of light shed on the anthocyanin accumulation of kohlrabi, total anthocyanin contents and transcripts of associated genes were analyzed in sprouts of both cultivars grown under light and dark conditions.

  7. Origin of mitochondria by intracellular enslavement of a photosynthetic purple bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2006-08-07

    Mitochondria originated by permanent enslavement of purple non-sulphur bacteria. These endosymbionts became organelles through the origin of complex protein-import machinery and insertion into their inner membranes of protein carriers for extracting energy for the host. A chicken-and-egg problem exists: selective advantages for evolving import machinery were absent until inner membrane carriers were present, but this very machinery is now required for carrier insertion. I argue here that this problem was probably circumvented by conversion of the symbiont protein-export machinery into protein-import machinery, in three phases. I suggest that the first carrier entered the periplasmic space via pre-existing beta-barrel proteins in the bacterial outer membrane that later became Tom40, and inserted into the inner membrane probably helped by a pre-existing inner membrane protein, thereby immediately providing the protoeukaryote host with photosynthesate. This would have created a powerful selective advantage for evolving more efficient carrier import by inserting Tom70 receptors. Massive gene transfer to the nucleus inevitably occurred by mutation pressure. Finally, pressure from harmful, non-selected gene transfer to the nucleus probably caused evolution of the presequence mechanism, and photosynthesis was lost.

  8. Fenton Discoloration of Ultrasonicated Purple Cactus Pear Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del S; Santander-Martínez, Ingrid Renata; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Ariza-Ortega, José A; Omaña-Covarrubias, Ariana; Torres-Valencia, Jesús Martín; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of color, betaxanthin, and betacyanin pigments in the presence of Cu(II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (HO•) from ultrasonicated purple cactus pear juice at amplitudes of 40%, 60%, and 80%, in comparison to untreated sample. L* parameter of juice treated at 40% and 80% amplitude for 25 and 15 min, respectively (11.3 and 9.3, respectively), were significantly higher compared to the control; b* and hue parameters of juice treated at 80%, 25 min showed values of 1.7 and 0.1, respectively. Color differences (ΔE) were lower (juices treated at high amplitude (80%) and short times (3-5 min). Juice treated at 40% 15 min, 60% 25 min, 80% 15 and 25 min presented high values of betacyanins (281.7 mg·L(-1), 255.9 mg·L(-1), 294.4 mg·L(-1), and 276.7 mg·L(-1), respectively). Betaxanthin values were higher in the juices treated at 40% 5 min and 80% 15 and 25 min (154.2 mg·L(-1), 135.2 mg·L(-1), and 128.5 mg·L(-1), respectively). Purple cactus pear juice exhibited significant chelating activity of copper ions and great stability when exposed to HO•.

  9. Effects of Several Purple Potato Additions on Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bădărău Carmen Liliana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato cultivars with purple flesh represent an efficient and natural source of antioxidants, this vegetable having high content in polyphenols (especially anthocyanin pigments. The research goal of this work was to evaluate the anthocyanin and polyphenols content of several Romanian potato varieties (Albastru-Violet de Gălănești and Christian and the effects of these potatoes (add to dough in different proportions on several bread quality indicators. The bread quality depends on physical and chemical properties and on several signs like: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, bread’s volume. In this research experiment, beside the total polyphenols and anthocyanin content, the analysis performed on bread (prepared using different potatoes addition 5%, 15% and 30% were sensorial and physic chemical analysis (product volume, crumb porosity, height/diameter ratio, moist and acidity. Experimental results indicated that 15% purple potato cultivar added on the dough was the most indicate proportion to be used in bread processing.

  10. The kinetic model for slow photoinduced electron transport in the reaction centers of purple bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdenko, T. V.; Barabash, Y. M.; Knox, P. P.; Seifullina, N. Kh.

    2016-06-01

    The present work is related to the investigation of slow kinetics of electron transport in the reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Experimental data on the absorption kinetics of aqueous solutions of reaction centers at different modes of photoexcitation are given. It is shown that the kinetics of oxidation and reduction of RCs are well described by the sum of three exponential functions. This allows to suggest a two-level kinetic model for electron transport in the RC as a system of four electron-conformational states which correspond to three balance differential equations combined with state equation. The solution of inverse problem made it possible to obtain the rate constant values in kinetic equations for different times and intensities of exciting light. Analysis of rate constant values in different modes of RC excitation allowed to suggest that two mechanisms of structural changes are involved in RC photo-oxidation. One mechanism leads to the increment of the rate of electron return, another one—to its drop. Structural changes were found out to occur in the RCs under incident light. After light was turned off, the reduction of RCs was determined by the second mechanism.

  11. Transient grating spectroscopy in photosynthetic purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugisaki, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [CREST-JST and Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Fujiwara, Masazumi; Fujii, Ritsuko [CREST-JST and Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nakagawa, Katsunori; Nango, Mamoru [CREST-JST and Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Cogdell, Richard J. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, IBLS, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, Hideki [CREST-JST and Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The vibronic coherence of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes has been investigated by means of transient grating spectroscopy using sub 20 fs optical pulses. In the present work, we focus our attention on the LH2 antenna complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 because the information about their structure investigated by the electron and atomic force microscopy is available and the electric levels of pigments are well resolved, resulting in clear absorption spectrum. The vibronic coherent oscillations with a period of a few tens of femtoseconds have been clearly observed. We found that the temporal change of the coherent oscillations reflects the vibrational relaxation in the ground state. Calculations based on the Brownian oscillator model were performed under the impulsive excitation limit. The spectral density has been determined from the Raman measurement of spheroidene. Good agreement between the calculation and the experimental results has been achieved in the linear absorption spectrum and transient grating signal, which strongly supports the validity of our model.

  12. Coherence in the B800 Ring of Purple Bacteria LH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y. C.; Silbey, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    We study the quantum coherence in the B800 ring and how it affects the dynamics of excitation energy transfer (EET) in photo-synthetic light-harvesting systems. From an analysis of the spectrum, we determine the disorder parameters for the B800 ring and show that the relatively weak electronic coupling between B800 pigments subtly changes the dynamics of EET and improves the uniformity and robustness of B800→B850 EET at room temperature, an example of how a multichromophoric assembly can exploit coherence to optimize the efficiency of photosynthesis. A molecular-level description for the dynamics of EET in the light-harvesting system may prove useful for understanding other nanoscale molecular assemblies and designing efficient nanoscale optical devices.

  13. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  14. Appearance of new taxa: invertebrates, phytoplankton and bacteria in an alkaline, saline, meteorite crater lake, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available of purple sulphur bacteria in the lake. The absence of submerged and emergent aquatic macrophytes in the lake limits habitat diversity for attached diatoms in the littoral regions. Both the numbers of families and the density of the benthic invertebrates...

  15. Síndrome de la orina morada en bolsa en paciente anciana con suplementos nutricionales Purple urine bag syndrome in elderly woman with nutritional supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Domínguez Alegría

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de la orina morada en bolsa es una entidad poco frecuente que afecta característicamente a mujeres de edad avanzada con sondaje vesical prolongado y debilitadas por enfermedades crónicas. La presencia de patología urológica previa, el encamamiento prolongado y el estreñimiento crónico son factores predisponentes. El color morado de la orina se debe a la presencia de elevadas concentraciones de bacterias con actividad indoxilsulfatasa/fosfatasa que se desarrollan en un ambiente alcalino en presencia de otros factores. En el caso que presentamos la administración de suplementos nutricionales ricos en triptófano tuvieron un papel relevante en la generación de este síndrome.The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare entity which typically affects elderly women with prolonged urinary catheterization and weakening chronic diseases. Other predisposing factors are previous urologic pathology, immobility syndrome and chronic constipation. The purple color is due to the presence of high loads of bacteria with sulphatase - phosphatase activity which develop in an alkaline environment as well as the presence of other factors. In the case we present the administration of nutritional supplements containing tryptophan conditioned the generation of this syndrome.

  16. Updated Multichannel Infrared Solar Spectrograph at Purple Mountain Observatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎辉; 尤建圻; 吴琴娣; 于兴凤

    2002-01-01

    We describe the newly updated multichannel infrared solar spectrograph at the Purple Mountain Observatory that now uses three Apogee APTp grade i scientific CCDs as its detectors and works at three wavelengths, He I 10830 , Call 8542 and Ha, simultaneously. The spectral resolutions of these lines are 0.04776, 0.05113 and 0.05453 per pixel, respectively. Some observation examples are presented. The observed profiles of the three lines demonstrate that redshift and asymmetry exist in the impulsive phase of the given disc flare and both blueshift and redshift exist in the presented flare spray in the impulsive phase of a limb flare. They also indicate that horizontal expansion exists in addition to the quick radial motion in the flare spray.

  17. Dielectric dispersion and protonic conduction in hydrated purple membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, I; Váró, G

    1988-01-01

    Dielectric dispersion effects were studied in purple membranes of different hydration levels. The capacitance and conductivity were measured over the frequency range of 10(2) Hz to 10(5) Hz. With increase in the hydration level, the conductivity increases sharply above the critical hydration of hc = 0.06 g H2O/g protein. This critical hydration is close to the extent of the first continuous strongly bound water layer and is interpreted as the threshold for percolative proton transfer. The capacitance increases continuously with increasing hydration and a larger increase above the water content of 0.1 g H2O/g protein can be seen only at low frequencies. Maxwell-Wagner relaxation also appears above this hydration, showing the presence of a bulk water phase.

  18. Protein-lipid interactions in the purple bacterial reaction centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael R; Fyfe, Paul K; Roszak, Aleksander W; Isaacs, Neil W; Cogdell, Richard J

    2002-10-11

    The purple bacterial reaction centre uses the energy of sunlight to power energy-requiring reactions such as the synthesis of ATP. During the last 20 years, a combination of X-ray crystallography, spectroscopy and mutagenesis has provided a detailed insight into the mechanism of light energy transduction in the bacterial reaction centre. In recent years, structural techniques including X-ray crystallography and neutron scattering have also been used to examine the environment of the reaction centre. This mini-review focuses on recent studies of the surface of the reaction centre, and briefly discusses the importance of the specific protein-lipid interactions that have been resolved for integral membrane proteins.

  19. Sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototrophic and filamentous sulfur bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, R.; Brune, D.; Poplawski, R.; Schmidt, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria taken from different habitate (Alum Rock State Park, Palo Alto salt marsh, and Big Soda Lake) were grown on selective media, characterized by morphological and pigment analysis, and compared with bacteria maintained in pure culture. A study was made of the anaerobic reduction of intracellular sulfur globules by a phototrophic sulfur bacterium (Chromatium vinosum) and a filamentous aerobic sulfur bacterium (Beggiatoa alba). Buoyant densities of different bacteria were measured in Percoll gradients. This method was also used to separate different chlorobia in mixed cultures and to assess the relative homogeneity of cultures taken directly or enriched from natural samples (including the purple bacterial layer found at a depth of 20 meters at Big Soda Lake.) Interactions between sulfide oxidizing bacteria were studied.

  20. Use of purple durum wheat to produce naturally functional fresh and dry pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; De Simone, Vanessa; De Leonardis, Anna Maria; Giovanniello, Valentina; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Lecce, Lucia; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2016-08-15

    In this study, the effects of different milling procedures (roller-milling vs. stone-milling) and pasta processing (fresh vs. dried spaghetti), and cooking on the antioxidant components and sensory properties of purple durum wheat were investigated. Milling and pasta processing were performed using one purple and one conventional non-pigmented durum wheat genotypes, and the end-products were compared with commercial pasta. The results show that the stone milling process preserved more compounds with high health value (total fibre and carotenoids, and in the purple genotype, also anthocyanins) compared to roller-milling. The drying process significantly (ppasta production. The sensory properties of pasta from the purple genotype did not significantly differ from commercial wholemeal pasta, and its in vitro glycemic index was even lower. Thus, it is possible to consider this genetic material as a good ingredient for the production of functional foods from cereals naturally rich in bioactive compounds.

  1. Protection Island NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Purple Martin Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Purple Martin (Progne subis) is listed as a Species of Concern by the State and is the focus of a citizen science restoration project designed to provide...

  2. Erosion and Sediment Production in Small Watershed in Purple Hilly Areas and Prevention Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangBao-hua; HeYu-rong; ZhouHong-yi; ZhuBo

    2003-01-01

    Purple Soil distributes extensively and mainly in China. Because of abundant easily weatherable parent rocks/materials and unstable soil structure, and also influenced by parent materials, usage systems, and slope gradients, erosion and sediment production of purple soils are very severe with main fashions of water erosion and gravitational erosion. Basing on observed data in small watersheds, rainfall erosivity,vegetation coverage, previous soil water content, flow and relating; factors such as climate, topograph of small watershed,land usage, and soil kinds are all the influence factors of erosion and erodibility of purple soil as well as sediment production and transport in small watershed of purple hilly areas.The effective technological countermeasures of ecosystem restoration, agricultural tillage for water conservation and erosion prevention, agriculture project, and soil changing for fertility and anti-erosion were provided.

  3. Erosion and Sediment Production in Small Watershed in Purple Hilly Areas and Prevention Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bao-hua; He Yu-rong; Zhou Hong-yi; Zhu Bo

    2003-01-01

    Purple Soil distributes extensively and mainly in China. Because of abundant easily weatherable parent rocks/materials and unstable soil structure, and also influenced by parent materials, usage systems, and slope gradients, erosion and sediment production of purple soils are very severe with main fashions of water erosion and gravitational erosion. Basing on observed data in small watersheds, rainfall erosivity,vegetation coverage, previous soil water content, flow and relating factors such as climate, topograph of small watershed,land usage, and soil kinds are all the influence factors of erosion and erodibility of purple soil as well as sediment production and transport in small watershed of purple hilly areas.The effective technological countermeasures of ecosystem restoration, agricultural tillage for water conservation and erosion prevention, agriculture project, and soil changing for fertility and anti-erosion were provided.

  4. The quantitative determination of the spectral distribution of phototactic sensitivity in the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milatz, J.M.W.; Manten, A.

    1953-01-01

    By using a compensation method, the action spectrum (spectral distribution of stimulating efficiency in a quantitative measure) of phototaxis in the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch) Molisch Strain 4 was determined. Two differently coloured adjacent small light fields were projected

  5. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases.

  6. Soil Aggregation and Its Relationship with Organic Carbon of Purple Soils in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of soil aggregate dynamics with soil organic carbon is complex with varied spatio-temporal processes in macro-and micro-aggregates, This paper is to determine the aggregation of soil aggregates in purple soils (Regosols in FAO Taxonomy or Entisols in USDA Taxonomy) for four types of land use, cropland [com (Zea mays L.)], orchard (citrus), forestland (bamboo or cypress), and barren land (wild grass), and to explore their relationship with soil organic carbon in the Sichuan basin of southwestern China. Procedures and methods, including manual dry sieving procedure, Yoder's wet sieving procedure, pyrophosphates solution method, and Kachisky method, are used to acquire dry, wet, and chemically stable aggregates, and microaggregates. Light and heavy fractions of soil organic carbon were separated using 2.0 g mL-1 HgI2-KI mixed solution. The loosely, stably, and tightly combined organic carbon in heavy fraction were separated by extraction with 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M NaOH-0.1M Na4P2O7 mixed solution (pH 13). The results show that the contents of dry and wet macroaggregates > 0.25 mm in diameter were 974.1 and 900.0 g kg-1 highest in red brown purple soils under forestland, while 889.6 and 350.6 g kg-1 lowest in dark purple soil and lowest in grey brown purple soils under cropland, respectively. The chemical stability of macroaggregates was lowest in grey brown purple soil with 8.47% under cropland, and highest in red brown purple soil with 69.34% under barren land. The content of microaggregates in dark purple soils was 587 g kg-1 higher than brown purple soils, while 655 g kg-1 in red brown purple soils was similar to grey brown purple soils (651 g kg-1). Cropland conditions, only 38.4% of organic carbon was of the combined form, and 61.6% of that existed in light fraction. Forestland conditions, 90.7% of organic carbon in red brown purple soil was complexed with minerals as a form of humic substances. The contents and stability of wet aggregates >0.25 mm

  7. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria......, Thiomargarita namibiensis, with a diameter of 750 mum. All bacteria, including those that swim around in the environment, obtain their food molecules by molecular diffusion. Only the fastest and largest swimmers known, Thiovulum majus, are able to significantly increase their food supply by motility...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria...

  8. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  9. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Nelis Imanningsih; Deddy Muchtadi; Tutik Wresdiyati; Nurheni Sri Palupi2); Komari

    2013-01-01

    Purple Dioscorea alata (DA) tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process ...

  10. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of purple pericarp gene Pb in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Purple rice is a type of rice with anthocyanins deposited in its grain pericarp. The rice Pb gene controlling purple pericarp character is known to be on chromosome 4, and the purple color is dominant over white color. In this study, we fine mapped the Pb gene using two F2 segregating populations, i.e. Pei'ai 64S (white) × Yunanheixiannuo (purple) and Pei'ai 64S × Chuanheinuo (purple). In the first-pass mapping, the Pb gene was located in the region downstream the SSR marker RM3820. In the fine mapping, the candidate region was saturated with InDel and CAPS markers developed specifically for this study. Eventually, the Pb gene was mapped within the 25-kb region delimited by the upstream marker RID3 and the downstream marker RID4. The delimited region contained two annotated genes, Ra and bhlh16 (TIGR Rice Genome, R.5). The former is a homologue of the Myc transcription factor Lc controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize, and the latter is a homologue of the TT8 gene, which is also an Myc transcription factor gene controlling the pericarp pigmentation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence analysis showed that the exon 7 of the Ra gene of Yunanheixiannuo and Chuanheinuo had a 2-bp (GT) deletion compared with those of the white rice varieties Pei'ai 64S, 9311 and Nipponbare. A CAPS marker, CAPSRa, was developed according to the GT deletion for analysis of the two F2 segregating populations and 106 rice lines. The results showed that all F2 plants with white pericarp, and all non-purple rice lines (63 white and 22 red) contained no GT deletion, but all 20 purple rice lines contained the GT deletion. These results suggested that the Ra gene may be the Pb gene and the purple pericarp characteristic of rice is caused by the GT deletion within exon 7 of the Ra gene.

  11. Non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex from Brescia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Idone, Ambra; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Baraldi, Pietro; Crivello, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Purple codices are among the most relevant and prestigious book productions of Late Antique and Medieval age. They usually contained texts from Holy Writings written with golden or silver inks on parchment dyed in a purple hue. According to the tradition, the colour of parchment was obtained by the well renowned Tyrian purple dye. From the material point of view, however, very little is known about the compounds actually used in the manufacture of these manuscripts. Presently, the information available is limited to the ancient art treatises, with very few diagnostic evidences supporting them and, moreover, none confirming the presence of Tyrian purple. It is more than apparent, then, the need to have at disposal larger and more complete information at the concern, in order to verify what came to us from the literary tradition only. In this study, preliminary results are presented from non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex, the so-called CodexBrixianus, held in the Biblioteca Civica Queriniana at Brescia (Italy). Analyses were carried out with XRF spectrometry, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, molecular spectrofluorimetry and optical microscopy. The results suggest the hypothesis that Tyrian purple had been used as a minor component mixed with other less precious dyes such as folium or orchil.

  12. Characteristics and functional properties of purple corn (Zea mays L. var. subnigroviolaceo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoseline Guillén-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zea Mays L. variety purple (purple corn is a plant native of America, which has the episperm seeds (grains and the cobs (cob in purple, which gives special characteristics to the pigments that have (between 1.5% and 6.0%, called anthocyanins, which belong to the group of flavonoids. Due to its high content of anthocyanins (cianin C3G-3-glucose as its main color and phenolic compounds act as powerful natural antioxidant and anticancer, Further having functional properties due to these bioactive compounds. The purple corn also provides significant amounts of starch, about 80% (complex carbohydrate, 10% of sugars provide sweetness, up to 11% protein, up to 2% minerals and B vitamins and ascorbic acid, concentrated in endosperm (grain free envelope. Also the nutritional value, the purple corn has a rich composition of phytochemicals, which have beneficial effects on our body, such as neutralize free radicals and act as antimutagenic. His review paper aimed to collect information on the studies undertaken to purple corn as an alternative to artificial food dyes and health benefits when included in the diet. Benefits such as cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, lowering cholesterol, fighting diabetes, being the most remarkable antioxidant action (wrinkle.

  13. Morphological characteristic of purple long yard bean cultivars and their tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M W Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of purple long yard bean which tolerance to drought stress and have high productivity can improve farming in arid area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of the tolerance purple long yard beans to drought stress based on morphologic characters, to get the hypothesis method of tolerance and to obtain tolerance cultivars to the drought stress. Eight cultivars of purple long yard beans, i.e. UBPHU1-41, UBPHU1-130, UBPU3-153, UBPU1-202, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, Brawijaya 4 and Bagong 2, were tested in two environmental conditions, 100% field capacity and 50% field capacity. The results showed that drought stress in purple long yard bean affected all morphological characters observed, except for root length and flowering time. Estimation of tolerance to drought stress using the Principles Component Analysis (PCA showed that the shoot fresh weight could be an indicator of purple pod bean tolerance to drought stress. However, the test using Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI was not able to classify the purple long yard bean tolerance to drought stress. The results of analysis using PCA followed by discriminant analysis and clustering dendrogram showed that the UBPU1-41, UBPU1-130, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, UB4 and Bagong 2 cultivars were medium cultivars that are tolerant to drought stress. Therefore, they can be planted in semiarid regions.

  14. 紫薯南瓜凝固型酸奶发酵工艺研究%Research on Fermentation Technology of Purple Sweet Potato and Pumpkin Yoghourt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海燕; 邵元健; 李文婷

    2015-01-01

    Using purple sweet potato, pumpkin and milk as raw material, Lactic acid bacteria as leavening agents, the fermentation conditions of lactic acid fermented yoghourt were studied. The orthogonal experiments of L16(35) results showed that the optimize fermentation conditions were:the proportion of slurry and milk was 1 : 5 (g/mL),with the addition of sucrose 9 %, inoculums 0.7 %,fermentation time 5 hours, fermentation temperature 42 ℃. Under these conditions, the purple sweet potato and pumpkin yoghourt took on well-distributed quality, smooth, flour and sweet delicious taste with purple sweet potato and pumpkin fragrance, full-bodied scent of yoghourt coming from lactic fermentation. Both physiochemical indexes and microbial indexes complied with national standards.%以紫薯、南瓜、牛奶为主要原料,利用乳酸菌进行发酵,得到一种风味酸奶.通过L 16(3 5)正交试验优化发酵工艺条件,最佳发酵条件为:紫薯---南瓜浆与牛乳的比例为1:5(g/mL),蔗糖添加量为9%,菌种接种量为0.7%,发酵时间为5 h,发酵温度42℃.在该条件下制成酸奶质地均匀,口感细腻,酸甜可口,具有紫薯、南瓜的香味和浓郁的乳酸菌发酵酸奶香味,理化指标和微生物指标均符合国家标准.

  15. Investigation of structural change of purple membrane in storage by transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The structural change of purple membrane during storage has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope. It is found that many liposomes have spontaneously evolved from the purple membrane sheets isolated three years ago. The membrane proteins on the liposomes, bacteriorhodopsin, are still presented as trimers in 2-D hexagonal structure, which is the same as that in natural cell membrane. However, the cytoplasmic surface of purple membrane faced outside on the liposomes.

  16. Growth and yield of maize in purple nutsedge interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Valadão Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed evaluates the influence of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus on the agronomic performance of maize. We conducted a field experiment at Viçosa, MG, in completely randomized design experimental with three replications. The treatments consisted of the interaction of maize with nine nutsedge densities (0, 10, 30, 50, 90, 110, 130, 160 and 260 plants m-2. In the flowering culture was made the measurement of plant height, the insertion of the corn ears and the total dry matter of corn plants. At harvest were determined ear weight, grain yield and 100-grain weight adjusted to 13% moisture. Higher density of nutsedge increased plant height and the insertion of the first corn ear. We also observed a reduction in total dry matter accumulation, ear weight, 100-grain weight and grain yield in all densities evaluate. Nutsedge control, even at low densities is necessary because the presence of this plant promotes negative effect on growth and development of corn with a direct consequences on crop productivity.

  17. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in transgenic purple tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Rhodes, Davina; Shen, Yanting; Song, Weixing; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Most tomatoes produce little anthocyanins, but the transgenic purple tomato biosynthesizes a high level of anthocyanins due to expression of two transcription factors (Del and Ros1). This study was to identify and quantify anthocyanins in this transgenic tomato line. Seven anthocyanins, including two new anthocyanins [malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(feruloyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside], were identified by LC-MS/MS. Petunidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and delphinidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, making up 86% of the total anthocyanins. Compared to undetectable anthocyanins in the wild type, the contents of anthocyanins in the whole fruit, peel, and flesh of the Del/Ros1-transgenic tomato were 5.2±0.5, 5.1±0.5, and 5.8±0.3g/kg dry matter, respectively. Anthocyanins were undetectable in the seeds of both wide-type and transgenic tomato lines. Such novel and high levels of anthocyanins obtained in this transgenic tomato may provide unique functional products with potential health benefits.

  18. SYMMETRY AS CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR IN WALKER'S THE COLOR PURPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tapia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes three types of the conceptual metaphor of embodied symmetry in Alice Walker's novel, The color purple (1982. These metaphorical projections, perceived as equilibrium and its breakage in abstract phenomena, enable readers to reexamine issues of race, non-traditional families, and gender roles. The dis/equilibrium emerges in the novel's epistolary structure. Biological equilibrium breaks in incidents of rape and incest. Walker creates characters in the novel through default-concept opposites of black/white, submissive/dominant, male/female and others. These contraries foreground issues of race and gender. The novel's asymmetries engage readers, leading them to rethink individual character histories and motives. The removal of objects (e.g., rape, mothers deprived of children suggests conceptual asymmetry and alerts readers to parallel themes of sexual and racial oppression. Subjugation sometimes subtle, sometimes blatant- manifests in simple oppositions. In epistemological terms, readers seek causal explanations for the asymmetries of the narrative, interpreting each to recover its history.

  19. Red, purple and pink: the colors of diffusion on pinterest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Bakhshi

    Full Text Available Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work-e.g. design of engaging image filters.

  20. Redox properties of an engineered purple Cu(A) azurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dapeng; Wang, Xiaotang; Davidson, Victor L

    2002-08-01

    Purple Cu(A) centers are a class of binuclear, mixed-valence copper complexes found in cytochrome c oxidase and nitrous oxide reductase. An engineered Cu(A) protein was formed by replacing a portion of the amino acid sequence that contains three of the ligands to the native type I copper center of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin with the corresponding portion of sequence from the Cu(A) center of cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 461]. Oxidation-reduction midpoint potential (E(m)) values of the Cu(A) azurin of +399+/-10 and +380+/-2mV, respectively, were determined by cyclic voltammetry and spectrochemical titration. An n value of one was obtained, indicating that the redox reaction is cycling between the mixed valence and the fully reduced states. Whereas the E(m) value of native azurin is pH dependent, the E(m) value of Cu(A) azurin is not, as expected for the Cu(A) center. Similarities and differences in the redox properties are discussed in terms of the known crystal structures of Cu(A) centers in cytochrome c oxidase and Cu(A) azurin.

  1. Purple Salt and Tiny Drops of Water in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Some meteorites, especially those called carbonaceous chondrites, have been greatly affected by reaction with water on the asteroids in which they formed. These reactions, which took place during the first 10 million years of the Solar System's history, formed assorted water-bearing minerals, but nobody has found any of the water that caused the alteration. Nobody, that is, until now. Michael Zolensky and team of scientists from the Johnson Space Center in Houston and Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, Virginia) discovered strikingly purple sodium chloride (table salt) crystals in two meteorites. The salt contains tiny droplets of salt water (with some other elements dissolved in it). The salt is as old as the Solar System, so the water trapped inside the salt is also ancient. It might give us clues to the nature of the water that so pervasively altered carbonaceous chondrites and formed oceans on Europa and perhaps other icy satellites. However, how the salt got into the two meteorites and how it trapped the water remains a mystery - at least for now.

  2. Tillage Effect on Organic Carbon in a Purple Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xue-Xia; GAO Ming; WEI Chao-Fu; XIE De-Ti; PAN Gen-Xing

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) based on a long-term experiment with various tillage systems were studied in a paddy soil derived from purple soil in Chongqing, China. Organic carbon storage in the 0-20and 0-40 cm soil layers under different tillage systems were in an order: ridge tillage with rice-rape rotation (RT-rr)> conventional tillage with rice only (CT-r) > ridge tillage with rice only (RT-r) > conventional tillage with rice-rape rotation (CT-rr). The RT-rr system had significantly higher levels of soil organic carbon in the 0-40 cm topsoil, while the proportion of the total remaining organic carbon in the total soil organic carbon in the 0-10 cm layer was greatest in the RT-rr system. This was the reason why the RT-rr system enhanced soil organic carbon storage. These showed that tillage system type was crucial for carbon storage. Carbon levels in soil humus and crop-yield results showed that the RT-rr system enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity. Adoption of this tillage system would be beneficial both for environmental protection and economic development.

  3. Total Monomeric Anthocyanin and Total Flavonoid Content of Processed Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potato Florentina Damşa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that processing change physical and chemical composition of foods, thus affecting the content in bioactive substances. Potatoes are almost always consumed after processing (baked, fried or boiled making it critical to understand the effect of such processing techniques on the containing in bioactive compounds. In order to determine the influence of processing on the content of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids was achieved the extraction of these compounds from boiled and baked purple potato tuber (Albastru-Violet de Galanesti variety. Also, in order to obtain the maximum amount of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids from processed potatoes was applied ultrasonic extraction (20 kHz and was performed the mathematical modeling (central composite design using SigmaXL software. The total anthocyanins content were determined spectrophotometrically by the pH differential method and the total flavonoids content were determine colorimetric by AlCl3 method. This study proves that the potato processing decreases the content of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids.

  4. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    , Thiomargarita namibiensis, with a diameter of 750 mum. All bacteria, including those that swim around in the environment, obtain their food molecules by molecular diffusion. Only the fastest and largest swimmers known, Thiovulum majus, are able to significantly increase their food supply by motility......, the 80 x 600 mum large Epulopiscium sp. from the gut of tropical fish, are presumably living in a very nutrient-rich medium. Many large bacteria contain numerous inclusions in the cells that reduce the volume of active cytoplasm. The most striking examples of competitive advantage from large cell size...

  5. Study on the Technology of Purple Yam and Purple Sweet Potato Noodles%紫淮山紫薯营养面条的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 杨君; 周妮妮; 张伟惠; 赖来展

    2014-01-01

    Powder was made by vacuum drying fresh purple yam.With purple yam powder,purple sweet potato powder and flour as the main raw material a new nutritional and heathy noodles was made.Through the combination of single-factor test and orthogonal test was used to determine noodle break rate,loss rate,and sensory evaluation value,the best formula of noodles was concluded.The results showed that the optimum compound for purple chinese yam and purple sweet potato noodle is flour amout 100 g,salt 1.5 g,purple yam powder 10%, purple sweet potato powder 5%, earrageenin 0.5%.Under the obove congditiongs, the noole break rate is 0 and the noodle loss rate is 8.25%,the product has good sensory properties,high nutrional value ,strong health fountion,it would have a broad market prospect.%用新鲜紫淮山通过真空干燥制得紫淮山粉。以紫淮山粉、紫薯粉、面粉为主要原料,研制成新型营养保健面条。采用单因素和正交试验相结合的方法测定面条的断条率、烹煮损失率和感官评价值,确定紫淮山紫薯面条的最佳加工工艺配方。结果表明:紫淮山紫薯面条的最佳配方为高筋面粉量100 g,食盐1.5 g,添加紫淮山粉10%,紫薯粉5%,卡拉胶0.50%。在此工艺条件下,面条断条率为0、烹煮损失率为8.25%,产品感官性状良好、营养价值高、保健作用强,具有广阔的市场前景。

  6. Effect of a light-induced pH gradient on purple-to-blue and purple-to-red transitions of bacteriorhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasuda-Kouyama, A.; Fukuda, K.; Iio, T.; Kouyama, T. (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-07-24

    Bacteriorhodopsin-containing vesicles that were able to alkalize the extravesicular medium by greater than 1.5 pH units under illumination, i.e., inside-out vesicles, were reconstituted by reverse-phase evaporation with Halobacterium halobium polar lipids or exogenous phospholipids. Acid titration of a dark-adapted sample was accompanied by a color change from purple to blue (pKa = 2.5-4.5 in 0.15 M K2SO4), and alkali titration resulted in the formation of a red species absorbing maximally at 480 nm (pKa = 7 to greater than 9), the pKa values and the extents of these color changes being dependent on the nature of lipid. When a vesicle suspension at neutral or weakly acidic pH was irradiated by continuous light so that a large pH gradient was generated across the membrane, either a purple-to-blue or a purple-to-red transition took place. The light-induced purple-to-red transition was significant in an unbuffered vesicle suspension and correlated with the pH change in the extravesicular medium. The result suggests that the purple-to-red transition is driven from the extravesicular side, i.e., from the C-terminal membrane surface. In the presence of buffer molecules outside, the dominant color change induced in the light was the purple-to-blue transition, which seemed to be due to a large decrease in the intravesicular pH. But an apparently inconsistent result was obtained when the extravesicular medium was acidified by a HCl pulse, which was accompanied by a rapid color change to blue. We arrived at the following explanation: The two bR isomers, one containing all-trans-retinal and the other 13-cis-retinal, respond differently to pH changes in the extravesicular and the intravesicular medium. In this relation, full light adaptation was not achieved when the light-induced purple-to-blue transition was significant.

  7. Effect of a light-induced pH gradient on purple-to-blue and purple-to-red transitions of bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuda-Kouyama, A; Fukuda, K; Iio, T; Kouyama, T

    1990-07-24

    Bacteriorhodopsin-containing vesicles that were able to alkalize the extravesicular medium by greater than 1.5 pH units under illumination, i.e., inside-out vesicles, were reconstituted by reverse-phase evaporation with Halobacterium halobium polar lipids or exogenous phospholipids. Acid titration of a dark-adapted sample was accompanied by a color change from purple to blue (pKa = 2.5-4.5 in 0.15 M K2SO4), and alkali titration resulted in the formation of a red species absorbing maximally at 480 nm (pKa = 7 to greater than 9), the pKa values and the extents of these color changes being dependent on the nature of lipid. When a vesicle suspension at neutral or weakly acidic pH was irradiated by continuous light so that a large pH gradient was generated across the membrane, either a purple-to-blue or a purple-to-red transition took place. The light-induced purple-to-red transition was significant in an unbuffered vesicle suspension and correlated with the pH change in the extravesicular medium. The result suggests that the purple-to-red transition is driven from the extravesicular side, i.e., from the C-terminal membrane surface. In the presence of buffer molecules outside, the dominant color change induced in the light was the purple-to-blue transition, which seemed to be due to a large decrease in the intravesicular pH. But an apparently inconsistent result was obtained when the extravesicular medium was acidified by a HCl pulse, which was accompanied by a rapid color change to blue. We arrived at the following explanation: The two bR isomers, one containing all-trans-retinal and the other 13-cis-retinal, respond differently to pH changes in the extravesicular and the intravesicular medium. In this relation, full light adaptation was not achieved when the light-induced purple-to-blue transition was significant; i.e., only the 13-cis isomer is likely to respond to a pH change at the N-terminal membrane surface.

  8. Comparison of loess and purple rill erosions measured with volume replacement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Huang, Yu-han; Zhao, Yu; Mo, Bin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2015-11-01

    Rills are commonly found on sloping farm fields in both the loess and the purple soil regions of China. A comparative study on rill erosion between the two soils is important to increase research knowledge and exchange application experiences. Rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils were determined through laboratory experiments with the volume replacement method. Water was used to refill the eroded rill segments to compute eroded volume before sediment concentration distribution along the rill was computed using the soil bulk density, flow rate, and water flow duration. The experimental loess soil materials were from the Loess Plateau and purple soil from the southwestern part of China, Chongqing City. A laboratory experimental platform was used to construct flumes to simulate rills with 12.0 m length, 0.1 m width, and 0.3 m depth. Soil materials were filled into the flumes at a bulk density of 1.2 g cm-3 to a depth of 20 cm to form rills for experiments on five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°) and three flow rates (2, 4, and 8 L/min). After each experimental run under the given slope gradient and flow rate, the rill segments from the upper slope between 0-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-3, …, 7-8, 8-10, and 10-12 m were lined with plastic sheets before be re-filled with water to determine sediment concentration after the eroded volumes was measured. Rill erosion differed between the two soils. As purple soil started to erode at a higher erosive force than loess soil, it possibly exhibits higher resistance to water erosion. The subsequent erosion process in the eroding purple rill was similar to that in the loess rill. However, the total erosion in the eroding loess rill was more than that in the eroding purple rill. The maximum sediment concentration transported by the eroding purple rills was significantly lower, approximately 55% of those transported by the loess rills under the same flow rate and slope gradient. Hence, less purple sediments can

  9. Understory flora and community physiognomy of planted forests in the degraded purple soil ecosystem, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUZhan-yuan; YUEYong-jie; GUOJian-fen; CHENGuang-shui; XIEJin-sheng; HEZong-ming; YANGYu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The flora and community physiognomy of degraded plantation ecosystems on purple soil were investigated in Ninghua County of Fujian Province, China to understand the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem processes.. Four different restoration communities (labeled as ecological restoration treatment I, II, Ill and IV) were selected by space-time replacement method according to the erosion intensity in degraded purple soil ecosystem. The results showed that there were totally 86 plant species belonging to 78 genera and 43 families in the degraded purple soil ecosystem. Of the 15 types of distribution area in spermatophyte genus, 12 types were found in the purple soil ecosystem. Along restoration gradient from low to high, plant growth type and life form spectra became abundant more and more, and the spermatophyte genera for each distribution area type and genera numbers for different foliage characters increased as well. It is concluded that the plant flora and physiognomy in ecological restoration process become more complex and diverse, indicating that the forest ecosystem on purple soil tends to be more stable.

  10. Screening for resistance to purple seed stain Cercospora kikuchii by seed inoculation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.H.; Oh, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to establish a mass-screening technique for resistance to purple seed stain disease in soybean. Seeds sterilized in 1 : 10,000 mercuric chloride for 1 minute and transferred to Petridishes containing 20ml water agar plus 50 ppM of the sodium salt of 2,4-D were inoculated by placing a small agar cube containing fungal mycelium on the seed coat of each seed. A positive correlation betweeen natural infection of purple seed stain and purple discoloration by seed inoculation technique was highly significant and by this technique, some native soybean collections and introduced varieties were tested for resistance to the disease. Most of the soybean varieties tested were susceptible except for the varieties Hill, Harosoy and Sac, resistant comparatively.

  11. Purple urine bag syndrome in end-stage chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Delgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When faced with violet, purple or purplish-blue urine, clinicians should consider urinary tract infection in their differential diagnosis. Case report: A 60-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease and non-adherence to renal replacement therapy was admitted to our hospital for placement of hemodialysis catheter. During her hospitalization she had purple urine, and purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS was diagnosed. She was effectively treated with antibiotics and her urine returned to a dark yellow color. Discussion: Although this condition is often easily treated, diagnosing PUBS in chronic renal patients probably means an increased serum concentration of indoxyl sulfate, metabolite that is involved in the progression of both CKD and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Hence, in the context of our renal patients, perhaps PUBS is not as benign as supposed.

  12. Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Di Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm2 and a high IPCE value (65% at λ = 470 nm. Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm2, corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%.

  13. Ambipolar organic field effect transistors and inverters with the natural material Tyrian Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Daniel Głowacki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambipolar organic semiconductors enable complementary-like circuits in organic electronics. Here we show promising electron and hole transport properties in the natural pigment Tyrian Purple (6,6’-dibromoindigo. X-ray diffraction of Tyrian Purple films reveals a highly-ordered structure with a single preferential orientation, attributed to intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This material, with a band gap of ∼1.8 eV, demonstrates high hole and electron mobilities of 0.22 cm2/V·s and 0.03 cm2/V·s in transistors, respectively; and air-stable operation. Inverters with gains of 250 in the first and third quadrant show the large potential of Tyrian Purple for the development of integrated organic electronic circuits.

  14. Enhanced rate of intramolecular electron transfer in an engineered purple CuA azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Lu, Y; Ang, M C

    1999-01-01

    V for blue copper azurin). The reorganization energy of the CuA center is calculated to be 0.4 eV, which is only 50% of that found for the wild-type azurin. These results represent a direct comparison of electron transfer properties of the blue and purple CuA sites in the same protein framework and provide...... and CuA centers are placed in the same location in the protein while all other structural elements remain the same. Long-range electron transfer is induced between the disulfide radical anion, produced pulse radiolytically, and the oxidized binuclear CuA center in the purple azurin mutant. The rate...... support for the notion that the binuclear purple CuA center is a more efficient electron transfer agent than the blue single copper center because reactivity of the former involves a lower reorganization energy....

  15. Characteristics of Phosphorous Adsorption and Desorption by Organo-Mineral Colloidal Complexes of Purple Paddy Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of P adsorption and desorption by organo-mineral colloidal complexes (OMC)were studied using acid, calcareous and neutral purple paddy soils taken from Chongqing and Sichuan, China.The results showed that the P adsorption capacity of the organo-mineral colloidal complexes differed with the soil types, being higher for the acid and calcareous purple soils than for the neutral purple soils. Partial removal of the organic matter increased the adsorption capacity of the colloidal complexes. A very significant positive correlation was found between the amounts of P desorbed from OMC and the P saturation degrees.The P adsorption reaction was quick at the early stage and slowed later. The raise of temperature increased P adsorption capacity and P adsorption rate of the colloidal complexes. The adsorption processes could be described by the Elovich equation.

  16. Zonal Distribution of the Erosion-Landslide and Soil Micromorphological Features in Purple Hilly Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yurong; LIAO Chaolin; XU Pei; ZHANG Baohua

    2005-01-01

    In the purple hilly region, erosions and landslides are all serious, and it is of great scientific value and practical significance to study their formation mechanism and distribution features there.In this paper, soil micromorphological methods and techniques were used to study the erosion zonal distribution in the region. The results indicated: (1)According to erosion process, the spacial distribution zones of the erosions and landslides in the purple hilly region with different solums were divided into scouring erosion zone, transport-diffusion zone, rocks and soil turbulence zone and sediment-bury zone; (2)The soil micromorphologic taxonomic feature identifying different erosion-landslide zone were found by studying the soil micromorphology of erosive zone in purple hilly region; (3) As for the erosion-landslide formation in the region, besides the external factors, the internal factors were found more important and favorable for landslide formation through the studies on the mieormorphological features of slide soil.

  17. Expression Analysis of Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Grains of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Sen LIU; Fang WANG; Yu-Xiu DONG; Xian-Sheng ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The grain color of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important characteristic in crop production.Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes (DFR) encode the key enzyme dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, which is involved in the pigmentation of plant tissues. To investigate the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin deposition in grains of wheat, we determined the expression of the wheat DFR gene in purple grains of cultivar Heimai 76. The results showed that DFR transcripts were localized in the seed coat of purple grains rather than in the pericarp, whereas anthocyanins were accumulated in both tissues of purple grains,suggesting that anthocyanin deposition was mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of the TaDFR-A gene in Arabidopsis showed that TaDFR-A was responsible for the pigmentation of Arabidopsis plant tissues, indicating TaDFR-A gene has the same role in Arabidopsis.

  18. Solid-state NMR studies of bacteriorhodopsin and the purple membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, A J

    2001-01-01

    proteins. This technique may prove particularly useful when studying large proteins that are difficult to orient where the MAS lineshapes will remain relatively unaffected in comparison with current static NMR methods. Finally the MAOSS method was extended to the study of the lipid components of the purple membrane and the feasibility of determining structural constraints from phospholipid headgroups was assessed. The potential of using sup 3 sup 1 P NMR to observe qualitative protein-lipid interactions in both the purple membrane and reconstituted membranes containing bovine rhodopsin was also demonstrated. Following the demonstration of a new MAS NMR method for resolving orientational constraints in uni-axially oriented biological membranes (Glaubitz and Watts, 1998), experiments were performed to realise the potential of the new method on large, oriented membrane proteins. Using bacteriorhodopsin in the purple membrane as a paradigm for large membrane proteins, the protein was specifically labelled with de...

  19. Effect of the Purple Corn Beverage “Chicha Morada” in Composite Resin during Dental Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Eric Dario; Delgado-Cotrina, Leyla; Rumiche, Francisco Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    During dental bleaching the staining potential of the surface would increase. This study aims to evaluate the staining susceptibility of one bleached composite resin after the exposure to three different beverages: Peruvian purple corn based beverage (chicha morada), green tea, and distilled water. Thirty disk-shaped specimens of one nanofill composite resin were prepared. The specimens were then divided into six groups (n = 5): purple corn (P), purple corn + bleaching (PB), green tea (T), green tea + bleaching (TB), distilled water (W), and distilled water + bleaching (WB). In groups that received bleaching, two sessions of bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide were done. Following bleaching, specimens were exposed to each liquid thirty minutes daily. Color was measured with a digital spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, color measurement differences between the obtained results were used: during bleaching, after bleaching, and during + after bleaching. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the color changes in the resins of all groups (p 3.3). PMID:27034897

  20. 紫山药紫甘薯保健酸乳的开发研究%Research and Development on Purple Sweet Potato and Purple Yam Acidophilus Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆新; 袁书林

    2012-01-01

    以紫山药、紫甘薯和牛乳为原料,研发出一种集营养与保健作用为一体的新型保健饮料——紫山药紫甘薯保健酸乳;对其生产过程中的护色、发酵原料配比和发酵工艺参数分别进行了正交试验筛选。结果表明:紫山药紫甘薯最佳护色条件为柠檬酸0.4%、维生素C1.3%、氯化钙f1.30%,护色时间2h;发酵原料最佳配比V(为紫山药原浆):V(紫甘薯原浆)=2:1、原料乳的添加量为25%、糖的添加量为4%;最佳发酵工艺参数为发酵时间7h、发酵温度43℃、接种量4%。%Purple yam, purple sweet potato and milk as raw materials, "Purple Sweet Potato and Purple Yam Acidophilus Milk"--a new type of healthy drink was developed. The craft of protecting color, the ratio of raw material and ferrtaentation process parameters were optimized by the orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimal protecting color conditions were citric acid 0.4%, vitamin C 1.3%, calcium chloride 0.30%, protect color time 2 h; the optimal ratio of raw material were purple yam juice : purple sweet potato=2 : 1, the raw milk 25%, sucrose 4%. The optimal fermentation process parameters were fermentation time 7 h, fermentation temperature 43℃, inoculation concentration 4%.

  1. Transcriptional activation of a MYB gene controls the tissue-specific anthocyanin accumulation in a purple cauliflower mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonoids such as anthocyanins possess significant health benefits to humans and play important physiological roles in plants. An interesting Purple gene mutation in cauliflower confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, giving intense purple color in very young leaves, curds, and see...

  2. First report of purple coneflower phyllody associated with a 16SrI-B phytoplasma in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench) is a flowering perennial plant native to North America and widely grown as an ornamental flower. During the summers of 1994 and 2007, purple coneflower plants in Maryland sporadically exhibited symptoms resembling those caused by phytoplasma infect...

  3. Fermentation Technology for Purple Sweet Potato Juice Soybean Yoghurt%发酵型紫薯大豆酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新惠; 白婷; 张崟; 王国燕; 李俊霞; 邓晓燕; 罗静; 张庆

    2015-01-01

    以紫薯和黄豆为主要原料,选用嗜热链球菌(Streptococcus thermophiles 6038)和德氏乳酸杆菌保加利亚亚种(Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus),以1∶1混合作为发酵剂进行发酵,以感官评价为参考指标,确定紫薯大豆酸奶工艺参数。结果表明,紫薯大豆酸奶最佳工艺参数为:紫薯浆添加量8%、蔗糖添加量9%、接种量3%、发酵温度38℃、发酵时间8 h。在此条件下发酵的紫薯大豆酸奶,色泽呈均匀香芋色,口感细腻,酸奶特殊香气及紫薯味浓郁,酸甜适中,可溶性固形物≥10%,蛋白质含量≥2.9%,pH 4.6,酸度59°T,菌落总数3.1×107 cfu/mL,乳酸菌数2.8×107 cfu/mL,未检测出大肠杆菌和致病菌,其质量达到GB19302-2010《食品安全国家标准发酵乳》对酸奶的指标要求。%A new fermentation technology for solidification fermented soy milk prepared with purple sweet potato juice was investigated. The purple potatoes and soy milk were considered as raw materials and the mixture of Streptococcus thermophiles 6038 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus (1 ∶ 1) was selected as culture starters for preparation new flavor soybean yoghurt. The sensory evaluation was used as the index and the optimal fermentation technology of purple sweet potato juice soybean yoghurt was determined. The results showed that the best purple sweet potato soybean yogurt fermentation process parameters were as purple sweet potato juice addition 8 %, sugar addition 9 %, inoculation 3 %, fermentation temperature 38 ℃ and fermentation time 8 h. The healthcare yoghurt obtained was featured by uniform color , nice texture and smooth taste. Furthermore, the results showed that the quality of soybean yoghurt was as soluble solids≥10%, protein content≥2.9%, pH 4.6, the acidity of 59 °T, total number of colonies 3.1×107 cfu/mL and number of lactic acid bacteria 2.8×107 cfu/mL without E.coli and pathogenic

  4. [Characteristics of Adsorption Leaching and Influencing Factors of Dimethyl Phthalate in Purple Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Song, Jiao-yan; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fa

    2016-02-15

    The typical soil-purple soil in Three Gorges Reservoir was the tested soil, the characteristics of adsorption leaching of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in contaminated water by the soil, and the influencing factors in the process were conducted using soil column leaching experiment. The results showed that the parabolic equation was the best equation describing adsorption kinetics of DMP by soils. The concentration of DMP in the leaching solution had significant effect on the adsorption amounts of DMP. With the increasing concentration of DMP in the leaching solution, the adsorption capacities of DMP by purple soil increased linearly. The ionic strength and pH in leaching solution had significant effects on adsorption of DMP. On the whole, increasing of the ionic strength restrained the adsorption. The adsorption amounts at pH 5.0-7.0 were more than those under other pH condition. The addition of exogenous organic matter (OM) in purple soil increased the adsorption amount of DMP by purple soil. However, the adsorption amount was less than those with other addition amounts of exogenous OM when the addition of exogenous OM was too high (> or = 30 g x kg(-1)). The addition of surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (SDBS) in purple soil increased the adsorption amount of DMP by purple soil. The adsorption amount was maximal when the addition amount of SDBS was 50 mg x kg(-1). However, the adsorption amounts decreased with increasing addition amounts of SDBS although the adsorption amounts were still more than that of the control group, and the adsorption amount was almost equal to that of the control group when the addition amount of SDBS was 800 mg x kg(-1). Continuous leaching time affected the vertical distribution of DMP in the soil column. When the leaching time was shorter, the upper soil column adsorbed more DMP, while the DMP concentrations in upper and lower soil columns became similar with the extension of leaching time.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Key Candidate Genes Mediating Purple Ovary Coloration in Asiatic Hybrid Lilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leifeng; Yang, Panpan; Yuan, Suxia; Feng, Yayan; Xu, Hua; Cao, Yuwei; Ming, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Lily tepals have a short lifespan. Once the tepals senesce, the ornamental value of the flower is lost. Some cultivars have attractive purple ovaries and fruits which greatly enhance the ornamental value of Asiatic hybrid lilies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. To investigate the transcriptional network that governs purple ovary coloration in Asiatic hybrid lilies, we obtained transcriptome data from green ovaries (S1) and purple ovaries (S2) of Asiatic “Tiny Padhye”. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 4228 differentially expressed genes. Differential expression analysis revealed that ten unigenes including four CHS genes, one CHI gene, one F3H gene, one F3′H gene, one DFR gene, one UFGT gene, and one 3RT gene were significantly up-regulated in purple ovaries. One MYB gene, LhMYB12-Lat, was identified as a key transcription factor determining the distribution of anthocyanins in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. Further qPCR results showed unigenes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed in purple ovaries of three purple-ovaried Asiatic hybrid lilies at stages 2 and 3, while they showed an extremely low level of expression in ovaries of three green-ovaried Asiatic hybrid lilies during all developmental stages. In addition, shading treatment significantly decreased pigment accumulation by suppressing the expression of several unigenes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in ovaries of Asiatic “Tiny Padhye”. Lastly, a total of 15,048 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were identified in 13,710 sequences, and primer pairs for SSRs were designed. The results could further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. PMID:27879624

  6. Production of purple potato mackerel balls%紫薯鲐鱼鱼丸的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2015-01-01

    Fish ball is popular among consumers for its deliciousness, nutritiousness and conven-ience. The mackerel and purple potato were taken as main raw materials to make fish balls. Through the quality evaluation,the effect of purple potato mackerel ball was satisfying.%鱼丸以其美味、营养与便捷倍受消费者青睐. 本文以紫薯和鲐鱼为主要原料试制紫薯鲐鱼丸,紫薯鲐鱼丸产品经质量评价,效果令人满意.

  7. First Results from the Relocated and Enhanced Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, R.; Argall, P. S.; Bandoro, J.; Khanna, J.; McCullough, E. M.; Sica, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Western Ontario's Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) has been in near continuous operation since 1993 and routinely measures temperature from 10 km to above 100 km, water vapor mixing ratio in the troposphere and stratosphere, as well as aerosol products. The PCL was recently relocated to a new custom-built, environmentally friendly facility at Western's Environmental Research Station located 9 km north of the campus. The PCL move allowed the opportunity for many new and exciting instrumentation upgrades and improvements. Our new transmitter, a Litron Nd:YAG laser, produces 1000 mJ/pulse at 532 nm with a 30 Hz repetition rate (i.e. 30 W). This new laser increases our transmitter power by 2.5 times compared to our previous laser and boosts the PCL's power-aperture product to 160 W/m2. We have also upgraded the counting electronics to improve the vertical height resolution of our Rayleigh temperature from 24 m to 7.5 m and our water vapour, vibrational Raman temperature, and aerosol measurements from 250 m to 24 m. As well, the system is now capable of automatic alignment during operations. The water vapor measurements have been further improved by the addition of a white light calibration source. We are in the process of upgrading the system for more direct aerosol measurements by including a low altitude aerosol channel using a small co-aligned telescope. The enhanced system will have two major impacts on upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere science. First, our new laser will allow our temperature measurements to gain another 10 km in altitude, pushing them at times above 110 km. Second, due to the new inversion method developed by Khanna (2011), an assumption of a seed pressure at the top of the atmosphere will no longer be required, so any systematic retrieval uncertainties will be less than the measurement statistical uncertainty in the lower thermosphere. With the seeding of the temperature profiles now done at the lowest heights (i.e. stratosphere), the

  8. Evaluation of maturity group III soybean lines for resistance to purple seed stain in Mississippi, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple seed stain (PSS) of soybean is an important disease caused by Cercospora kikuchii. PSS reduces seed quality and market grade, affects seed germination and vigor, and has been reported wherever soybeans are grown worldwide. In 2009, PSS caused 6.4 million bushels of yield losses in 16 southern...

  9. Evaluation of maturity group IV soybean lines for resistance to purple seed stains in Mississippi 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple seed stain (PSS) of soybean is an important disease caused by Cercospora kikuchii. PSS reduces seed quality and market grade, affects seed germination and vigor, and has been reported wherever soybeans are grown worldwide. In 2009, PSS caused 6.4 million bushels of yield losses in 16 southern...

  10. Reaction of maturity group V soybean lines to purple seed stains in Mississippi 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, soybean purple seed stain (PSS) caused 6.4 million bushels of yield losses in 16 southern states. This disease severely reduces seed market grade and affects seed germination and vigor. PSS is caused by Cercospora kikuchii and is an economy important disease. To identify new sources of resi...

  11. Inheritance of and molecular markers for purple seed stain resistance in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple seed stain (PSS) caused by Cercospora kikuchii, is an important disease of soybean, causing seed quality deterioration. Use of genetic resistance is the most practical and economical way to control the disease. The objectives of this research were to investigate the inheritance of resistance...

  12. Peter Wilcox: A new purple-skin, yellow flesh fresh market potato cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Wilcox is a new, medium-maturing, purple-skin, yellow-flesh potato cultivar for fresh market. Peter Wilcox also produces light-colored chips, although it is being released primarily as a fresh market potato because of its skin and flesh colors. Tubers of Peter Wilcox are attractive, smooth, wi...

  13. A View from the Mountain Top: The Purple Mountain Observatory Library, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the author's experience directing the Purple Mountain Observatory Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in Nanjing, China. Routine collection development, management and preservation issues are described, and the unique challenges and opportunities involved in operating a remote observatory library are highlighted.

  14. Analytic Reading of The Color Purple the Death and Rebirth of Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋少华

    2008-01-01

    The Color Purple for the first time not only reveals the racial and sexual discrimination but also tells those oppressed black women the way to solve it. The paper is trying to analyze the work from the heroines (their main experiences and connections with each other), the linguistic arts and the motifs, etc.

  15. Effect of the Purple Corn Beverage "Chicha Morada" in Composite Resin during Dental Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Eric Dario; Delgado-Cotrina, Leyla; Rumiche, Francisco Aurelio; Tay, Lidia Yileng

    2016-01-01

    During dental bleaching the staining potential of the surface would increase. This study aims to evaluate the staining susceptibility of one bleached composite resin after the exposure to three different beverages: Peruvian purple corn based beverage (chicha morada), green tea, and distilled water. Thirty disk-shaped specimens of one nanofill composite resin were prepared. The specimens were then divided into six groups (n = 5): purple corn (P), purple corn + bleaching (PB), green tea (T), green tea + bleaching (TB), distilled water (W), and distilled water + bleaching (WB). In groups that received bleaching, two sessions of bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide were done. Following bleaching, specimens were exposed to each liquid thirty minutes daily. Color was measured with a digital spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, color measurement differences between the obtained results were used: during bleaching, after bleaching, and during + after bleaching. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the color changes in the resins of all groups (p composite resin regardless of the bleaching procedure. However, purple corn was the only beverage that caused a perceptible color change (ΔE > 3.3).

  16. Construction and characterization of an azurin analog for the purple copper site in cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M; Richards, J H; Lu, Y

    1996-01-09

    A protein analog of a purple copper center has been constructed from a recombinant blue copper protein (Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin) by replacing the loop containing the three ligands to the blue copper center with the corresponding loop of the CuA center in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from Paracoccus denitrificans. The electronic absorption in the UV and visible region (UV-vis) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of this analog are remarkably similar to those of the native CuA center in COX from Paracoccus denitrificans. The above spectra can be obtained upon addition of a mixture of Cu2+ and Cu+. Addition of Cu2+ only results in a UV-vis spectrum consisting of absorptions from both a purple copper center and a blue copper center. This spectrum can be converted to the spectrum of a pure purple copper by a prolonged incubation in the air, or by addition of excess ascorbate. The azurin mutant reported here is an example of an engineered purple copper center with the A480/A530 ratio greater than 1 and with no detectable hyperfines, similar to those of the CuA sites in COX of bovine heart and of Paracoccus denitrificans.

  17. 50 CFR 21.45 - Depredation order for depredating purple gallinules in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depredation order for depredating purple gallinules in Louisiana. 21.45 Section 21.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE...

  18. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  19. Literary Techniques Employed to Develop Celie's Character in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚妍

    2014-01-01

    In 1982, Alice Walker's The Color Purple, was published and became one of the best sellers. As the novel progressed, Celie's acquiescent behavior transformed into one of resilience and dignity. By incorporating the literary techniques of tone, symbolism, and juxtaposition into her novel, Alice Walker was able to develop Celie's character, emphasizing her progression from subservience to independence.

  20. Alexandrite-like effect in purple flowers analyzed with newly devised round RGB diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasajima, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    The gemstone alexandrite is known for its feature to change color depending on the spectral quality of the incident light. Thus, the stone looks green when illuminated by white LED light but looks red when illuminated by incandescent light. This effect (alexandrite effect) is caused by a special relationship between the spectral quality of the incident light and the absorbance spectrum of the stone. Here we report an alexandrite-like effect in the petals of torenia and cyclamen flowers. These flowers are purple in sunlight but magenta (reddish) in incandescent light, and violet (bluish purple) in white LED light. The m-n, triangle and round diagrams are devised to calculate the colors of visible light spectra, based on the RGB color-matching function. Using these calculations, the alexandrite-like effect in purple flowers was successfully analyzed in terms of the interaction between the incident light spectrum and the absorbance spectrum of their purple anthocyanin. This analysis allows both logical and intuitive understanding of the colors exhibited by any object showing alexandrite–like properties.

  1. LC-PDA-EIS/MSn identification of new anthocyanins in purple radish (Raphanus sativus L. variety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An LC-PDA-ESI/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the anthocyanins of purple Bordeaux radish. This study identified 57 anthocyanins: 23 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 12 acylated cyanidin 3-(glucosylacyl) acylsophoroside-5-diglucosides, and 22 acylated cyanid...

  2. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...

  3. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. as dentin hypersensitivity desensitization gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariza Hanum Mayvita Iskandar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is a short sharp sense of pain in the teeth when exposed to excitatory stimulus. A total of 74% of world population experiencing dentin hypersensitivity. Home treatment topical desensitization is rarely found in Indonesia. The use of dentrifice is less practical because it must be done with regular brushing. Indonesia has abundant natural resources, one of which is purple sweet potato. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. has highest potasium ions compared to other foodstuffs. Potassium ions can be a solution of dentin hypersensitivity by temporary blocking the suffix pulp nerve impulses. Purpose: The research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the 10% purple sweet potato extract gel of the dental pain threshold score. Method: An experimental study carried out by dental pain threshold score measurements using vitality tester into the teeth with gum recession. Samples included 32 respondents with a single blind and pre-post test control group design. They were divided into treatment group and negative control group. Paired T-test and Wilcoxon were used as data analysis. Result: The results showed dental pain threshold score increasing either in treatment group and negative control, although not as significant as in the treatment group. Conclusion: 10% purple sweet potato extract gel containing potassium ions is able to reduce the pain of dentin hypersensitivity.

  4. Purple Computational Environment With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, B; Shuler, J

    2006-08-21

    Purple is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Purple Computational Environment documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY06 LLNL Level 1 General Availability Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories, but also documents needs of the LLNL and Alliance users working in the unclassified environment. Additionally, the Purple Computational Environment maps the provided capabilities to the Trilab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the General Availability user environment capabilities of the ASC community. Appendix A lists these requirements and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met for each section of this document. The Purple Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the Tri-lab community.

  5. Rhizosphere Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Feoktistova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with the analysis of modern literature data on rhizosphere bacteria and their role in plant life. The structure of rhizosphere has been characterized. The role of plants as the centers of formation of microbial communities has been shown. Data on the main groups of microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere have been provided. The associative relationship between rhizobacteria and partner plants has been investigated. The modern concept of holobiont defined as the whole host plant organism and microorganisms associated with it has been reviewed. The role of rhizobacteria in the processes of nitrogen fixation has been discussed in detail. The mechanisms of direct stimulation of plant growth by biosynthesis of phytohormones, improvement of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition, increase in resistance to stress, and stimulation mediated by antagonism against pathogenic microorganisms have been analyzed. The criteria for selection of rhizobacteria for practical purposes have been discussed.

  6. 紫薯挂面加工工艺研究%Processing Technology of Vermicelli with Purple Sweet Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑建伟; 谢新华; 李巍

    2014-01-01

    以小麦粉和紫薯为主要原料,采用以紫薯泥代替紫薯淀粉的方法,对紫薯挂面的制作工艺进行研究。通过正交试验确定了生产紫薯挂面的最佳配方为紫薯与小麦粉比例3∶7、水添加量31%和谷朊粉添加量1.5%。用此配方生产的紫薯挂面色泽鲜艳,具有紫薯特有的香味,断条率低,口感良好,营养丰富。%Taking wheat flour and purple sweet potato as raw material, new technology of adding purple mashed potatoes instead of purple sweet potato starch was applied to study production process of purple sweet potato vermicelli. Optimum parameters of vermicelli with purple sweet potato were confirmed by orthogonal experiment.Results showed that ratio of purple sweet potato to wheat flour was 3∶7, water was 31%, wheat gluten was 1.5%.Product had bright color, special purple sweet potato flavor, low rate of broken bars, good taste and rich in nutrition.

  7. Enhanced rate of intramolecular electron transfer in an engineered purple CuA azurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farver, O; Lu, Y; Ang, M C; Pecht, I

    1999-02-02

    The recent expression of an azurin mutant where the blue type 1 copper site is replaced by the purple CuA site of Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase has yielded an optimal system for examining the unique electron mediation properties of the binuclear CuA center, because both type 1 and CuA centers are placed in the same location in the protein while all other structural elements remain the same. Long-range electron transfer is induced between the disulfide radical anion, produced pulse radiolytically, and the oxidized binuclear CuA center in the purple azurin mutant. The rate constant of this intramolecular process, kET = 650 +/- 60 s-1 at 298 K and pH 5.1, is almost 3-fold faster than for the same process in the wild-type single blue copper azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (250 +/- 20 s-1), in spite of a smaller driving force (0.69 eV for purple CuA azurin vs. 0.76 eV for blue copper azurin). The reorganization energy of the CuA center is calculated to be 0.4 eV, which is only 50% of that found for the wild-type azurin. These results represent a direct comparison of electron transfer properties of the blue and purple CuA sites in the same protein framework and provide support for the notion that the binuclear purple CuA center is a more efficient electron transfer agent than the blue single copper center because reactivity of the former involves a lower reorganization energy.

  8. Advance in Sulfur Reduction and Non-Sulfur Preservation Measures of Grape Storage%葡萄降硫和非硫保鲜措施研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志宏; 赵猛; 赵迎丽; 王亮; 陈嘉; 焦旋; 王春生

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is the most effective means of controlling gray mold infection and maintaining the quality of grape. Because of SO2 residues on grape, this paper reviewed domestic and foreign research on grape non-sulfur or sulfur reducing preservative measures in recent years, and introduced the ice temperature storage, controlled atmosphere, ozone, coating, high voltage electrostatic field, biological control, controlled/slow release sulfur producing antistaling agent, chlorine dioxide (ClO2), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) preservation principle and effect of such measures. In addition, different storage period of grape preservation measures and future research on further reducing the dose of SO2 and the grape post-harvest residues were described.%二氧化硫(SO2)是防治灰霉侵染和保持葡萄品质的最有效手段。基于SO2残留的食品安全问题,就近年来国内外对葡萄非硫或降硫保鲜措施的研究进行文献综述,介绍了冰温保鲜、气调保鲜、臭氧、涂膜、高压静电场、生物防治、控/缓释硫制保鲜剂、二氧化氯(ClO2)、1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)等措施的防腐保鲜原理及功效,并对不同贮藏期的葡萄保鲜措施和今后降低葡萄采后SO2使用剂量及残留量的进一步研究进行阐述和展望,为鲜食葡萄非硫或降硫贮藏保鲜技术及保鲜剂的研究提供理论参考。

  9. Detection of Quorum Sensing Signals in Gram-Negative Bacteria by Using Reporter Strain CV026

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Humayan KABIR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing signals are referred to as acylated homoserine lactones (AHL that are mainly found in Gram-negative bacteria. It implies the ability of certain bacteria of producing different AHL molecules. The bacteria Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Xenorhabdus nematophila were cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB10 media and CV026 was used as a reporter strain to detect the presence of AHLs produced by the cultured bacteria. In this study, the reporter strain has revealed the quorum sensing ability of P. aureofaciens and X. nematophila by producing the purple pigment violacein in the supply of external AHLs molecules. Thin layer chromatography (TLC bioassay having four controls was conducted to detect specific AHL molecule supplied by P. aureofaciens and X. nematophila. The specific AHL molecule was observed to be migrated according to their polarity on the TLC plate.

  10. Low-concentration, continuous brachial plexus block in the management of Purple Glove Syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Purple Glove Syndrome is a devastating complication of intravenous phenytoin administration. Adequate analgesia and preservation of limb movement for physiotherapy are the two essential components of management. Case presentation A 26-year-old Tamil woman from India developed Purple Glove Syndrome after intravenous administration of phenytoin. She was managed conservatively by limb elevation, physiotherapy and oral antibiotics. A 20G intravenous cannula was inserted into...

  11. Assessment of Input-Output Transformation in Purple Passion Fruit Production in Central-Eastern and North-Rift, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Macharia; Maina Mwangi

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing economic importance of purple passion fruit in Kenya. The primary objective of this study was to assess the input-output transformation process in purple passion fruit production in Central-Eastern and North-Rift Kenya in order to identify avenues for improving and sustaining productivity. Cross-sectional data from 123 multistage sampled farmers was collected using a structured questionnaire, which was subjected to stochastic frontier in STATA 1...

  12. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian cultivars of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Susana; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Taco, Verónica; Poveda, Cristina; Ayuda-Durán, Begoña; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2016-03-01

    Tree tomato fruits from the yellow giant, giant purple and New Zealand purple cultivars, cultivated in Ecuador were analysed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Twelve hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives and four anthocyanins (in the purple cultivars) were detected and identified. The hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives mostly derived from caffeic acid, being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and rosmarinic acid the majority compounds. Furthermore, various rosmarinic acid glucosides, caffeoyl glucoside, feruloyl glucoside and two ferulic acid dehydrodimers were tentatively identified. The presence of rosmarinic acid is particularly relevant as it constituted a majority phenolic compound in the four studied tree tomato cultivars and it had not been reported previously in this fruit. In the purple cultivars main anthocyanins were pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside and delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside. The New Zealand purple cultivar was by far the richest sample in both hydroxycinnamates (421.6mg/100g dry pulp) and anthocyanins (168.9mg/100g dry pulp). Antioxidant capacity, as determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays, followed the same pattern as phenolic contents, with the New Zealand purple cultivar being the one with the highest and the yellow giant cultivar with the lowest values.

  13. A purple-colored 1M mica clay from Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, P.-L.

    1969-01-01

    A purple-colored clay of 1M mica polymorph in association with lead-zinc ore was collected from an abandoned mine dump near Silverton, Colorado. Electron micrographs show that the crystallites of the clay are less than 2?? in size and have poorly developed hexagonal outlines. Differential thermal and i.r. absorption analyses indicate similarity with those of muscovite. The structural formula of the 1M mica polymorph is (K1??45Na0??02) (Al3??75Mg0??19) (Si6??90Al1??10) O20(OH)4. The purple color may be related to trace amounts of manganese in the clay. ?? 1969.

  14. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance.

  15. Preliminary Studies on the Biological Characteristics of Yacon purple blotch%雪莲果紫斑病菌生物学特性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 涂勇; 尹蓉; 李江

    2014-01-01

    设定不同培养基、pH值、不同温度和光照条件对雪莲果紫斑病病原菌进行生物学特性的初步研究。结果表明,雪莲果紫斑病菌的最适培养基为PDA,菌丝最适生长温度为24℃,最佳pH值为7~8,光照对菌丝生长影响不大。%The biological characteristics of Yacon purple blotch pathogenic bacteria were studied under the different culture medium, pH values, temperature and illumination. The results showed that the PDA was the optimum culture medium;the pathogenic bacteria could grow well under 24℃and its optimal pH was 7~8;and the illumination affected the hypha growth less.

  16. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Purple Acid Phosphatase Gene (MtPAP1) from Medicago truncatula Barrel Medic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel purple acid phosphatase gene (MtPAP1) was isolated from the model legume Medicago truncatula Barrel Medic. The cDNA was 1 698 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 398 bp capable of encoding an N-terminal signal peptide of 23 amino acids. The transcripts of MtPAP1 were mainly detected in leaves under high-phosphate conditions, whereas under low-phosphate conditions the transcript level was reduced in leaves and increased in roots, with the strongest hybridization signal detected in roots. A chimeric gene construct fusing MtPAP1 and GFPwas made in which the fusion was driven by the CaMV35S promoter. Transgenlc Arabidopsis plants carrying the chimeric gene constructs showed that the fusion protein was mainly located at the apoplast based on confocal microscopic analysis, showing that MtPAP1 could be secreted to the outside of the cell directed by the signal peptide at the N-terminal. The coding region of MtPAP1 without signal peptide was inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a (+) and overexpressed in Escherlchia coll BL21(DE3). The acid phosphatase (APase) proteins extracted from bacterial culture were found largely based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. An enzyme activity assay demonstrated that the APase activity in the transformed bacteria was 3.16-fold higher than that of control. The results imply that MtPAP1 functions to improve phosphorus acquisition in plants under conditions of phosphorus (P) stress.

  17. Nobel lecture. The photosynthetic reaction centre from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    OpenAIRE

    Deisenhofer, J.; Michel, H

    1989-01-01

    In our lectures we first describe the history and methods of membrane protein crystallization, before we show how the structure of the photosynthetic reaction centre from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis was solved. Then the structure of this membrane protein complex is correlated with its function as a light-driven electron pump across the photosynthetic membrane. Finally we draw conclusions on the structure of the photosystem II reaction centre from plants and discuss the aspec...

  18. Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of atomized andean purple corn (Zea mayz L) hydroalcoholic extract in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Jorge; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico farmaceútico.; Raez, Ernesto; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico patólogo.; Rodríguez, Miguel; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Chumpitaz, Víctor; Facultad Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Burga, Jonny; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; De la Cruz, Walter; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Valencia, José; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico Farmacéutico.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of the atomized hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn) in rats with induced hypertension. Material and methods. We used five groups of six Holtzmann rats each, one without hypertension (negative control) and four with hypertension induced by L-NAME: positive control and three groups for the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. The treatment was carried out orally once a day for 25 days. Th...

  19. Control of yellow and purple nutsedge in elevated CO2 environments with glyphosate and halosulfuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Christopher Marble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have significantly increased over the past century and are expected to continue rising in the future. While elevated levels of CO2 will likely result in higher crop yields, weed growth is also highly likely to increase, which could increase the incidence of herbicide resistant biotypes. An experiment was conducted in 2012 to determine the effects of an elevated CO2 environment on glyphosate and halosulfuron efficacy for postemergence control of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.. Both species of nutsedge where grown in 3.0-L containers under either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 µmol mol-1 CO2 in open-top field chambers and treated with either 0.5×, 1.0×, or 1.5× of the manufacturer’s labeled rate of halosulfuron, glyphosate, or a tank mix of the two herbicides. The growth of both nutsedge species responded positively to elevated CO2, purple nutsedge had increased shoot and root dry weights and yellow nutsedge had increased shoot, root, and tuber dry weights and counts. Few treatment differences were observed among the herbicides at any of the rates tested. At three weeks following herbicide application, both purple and yellow nutsedge were adequately controlled by both herbicides and combinations at all rates tested, regardless of CO2 concentration. Based on this study, it is likely that predicted future CO2 levels will have little impact on the efficacy of single applications of halosulfuron or glyphosate for control of purple and yellow nutsedge at the growth stages described here, although scenarios demanding more persistent control efforts remain a question.

  20. Control of yellow and purple nutsedge in elevated CO2 environments with glyphosate and halosulfuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, S Christopher; Prior, Stephen A; Runion, G Brett; Torbert, H Allen

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have significantly increased over the past century and are expected to continue rising in the future. While elevated levels of CO2 will likely result in higher crop yields, weed growth is also highly likely to increase, which could increase the incidence of herbicide resistant biotypes. An experiment was conducted in 2012 to determine the effects of an elevated CO2 environment on glyphosate and halosulfuron efficacy for postemergence control of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.). Both species of nutsedge where grown in 3.0-L containers under either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 μmol mol(-1)) CO2 in open-top field chambers and treated with either 0.5×, 1.0×, or 1.5× of the manufacturer's labeled rate of halosulfuron, glyphosate, or a tank mix of the two herbicides. The growth of both nutsedge species responded positively to elevated CO2, purple nutsedge had increased shoot and root dry weights and yellow nutsedge had increased shoot, root, and tuber dry weights and counts. Few treatment differences were observed among the herbicides at any of the rates tested. At 3 weeks following herbicide application, both purple and yellow nutsedge were adequately controlled by both herbicides and combinations at all rates tested, regardless of CO2 concentration. Based on this study, it is likely that predicted future CO2 levels will have little impact on the efficacy of single applications of halosulfuron or glyphosate for control of purple and yellow nutsedge at the growth stages described here, although scenarios demanding more persistent control efforts remain a question.

  1. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat, Barley, Maize and Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    , it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic...... that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains....

  2. Construction and characterization of an azurin analog for the purple copper site in cytochrome c oxidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, M; Richards, J. H.; Lu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A protein analog of a purple copper center has been constructed from a recombinant blue copper protein (Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin) by replacing the loop containing the three ligands to the blue copper center with the corresponding loop of the CuA center in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from Paracoccus denitrificans. The electronic absorption in the UV and visible region (UV-vis) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of this analog are remarkably similar to those of the native CuA...

  3. Reorganization energy of the CuA center in purple azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Hwang, Hee Jung; Pecht, Israel

    2007-01-01

    shown that lowering the pH from 8.0 to 4.0 results in a similar (~0.4 eV) decrease in reorganization energy for both blue (type 1) and purple (CuA) azurins, even though the reorganization energies of the two different copper centers are different at a given pH. These results suggest that the MV state...

  4. A Study of TheColorPurple from the Lexical Feature of Literary Stylistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying

    2015-01-01

    The Color Purple is one of the most outstanding works of Alice Walker, and more and more people keep close eyes on the novel. In the thesis, it is intended to explore Alice Walker’s writing style from a stylistic perspective, trying to explain how the“meaning”of TheColorPurpleis created through the writer’s linguistic choices and narrative techniques, and to appre⁃ciate the beauty and strength hidden under the surface.

  5. Crystal structures of acid blue and alkaline purple forms of bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hideo; Murakami, Midori; Kouyama, Tsutomu

    2005-08-19

    Bacteriorhodopsin, a light-driven proton pump found in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum, exhibits purple at neutral pH but its color is sensitive to pH. Here, structures are reported for an acid blue form and an alkaline purple form of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. When the P622 crystal prepared at pH 5.2 was acidified with sulfuric acid, its color turned to blue with a pKa of 3.5 and a Hill coefficient of 2. Diffraction data at pH 2-5 indicated that the purple-to-blue transition accompanies a large structural change in the proton release channel; i.e. the extracellular half of helix C moves towards helix G, narrowing the proton release channel and expelling a water molecule from a micro-cavity in the vicinity of the retinal Schiff base. In this respect, the acid-induced structural change resembles the structural change observed upon formation of the M intermediate. But, the acid blue form contains a sulfate ion in a site(s) near Arg82 that is created by re-orientations of the carboxyl groups of Glu194 and Glu204, residues comprising the proton release complex. This result suggests that proton uptake by the proton release complex evokes the anion binding, which in turn induces protonation of Asp85, a key residue regulating the absorption spectrum of the chromophore. Interestingly, a pronounced structural change in the proton release complex was also observed at high pH; i.e. re-orientation of Glu194 towards Tyr83 was found to take place at around pH 10. This alkaline transition is suggested to be accompanied by proton release from the proton release complex and responsible for rapid formation of the M intermediate at high pH.

  6. Structural Characterization of the Novel and Thermal Stable Hydrogenases from the Purple Sulfur Bacteria Thiocapsa Roseopersicina and Lamprobacter Modestohalophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    a molecules of hydrogenase from T. roseopersicina form a ring-shaped hexameric complex with D3 symmetry. It is assumed that the formation of such...Optimization of purification of the hydrogenase from L. modestohalophilus 8 3.4. Optimization of the purification of hydrogenase complex ...activity were pooled and concentrated by ultrafiltration . Methods of preparation of crystal and study of 3D structure of hydrogenase from T

  7. Sensory Quality of Orange, Purple and Yellow Carrots Stored under Controlled Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of long-term storage of carrot (Daucus carota L. roots under normal and controlled atmosphere (CA on their sensory quality and soluble solids content was investigated. Carrot cultivars of orange (‘Nebula’, purple-orange (‘Purple Haze’ and yellow (‘Mello Yello’ colour of the roots were stored for 6 months at 0-1oC, under controlled atmosphere (CA of gas composition 5% CO2+10% O2, 2% CO2+5% O2, 5% CO2+5% O2 and at normal atmosphere. Sensory quality was evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis method. Roots of ‘Nebula’ showed the best overall quality under normal atmosphere, although CA resulted in higher firmness and crunchiness. Roots of ‘Purple Haze’ showed the best quality under 5% CO2+5% O2 or 5% CO2+10% O2. Storage in these CA variants resulted in higher sweetness, juiciness, crunchiness and firmness. Roots of ‘Mello Yello’ showed the smallest differences in quality under CA variants. Storage of carrots in CA did not result in off-flavour or off-odour. CA-stored roots showed higher soluble solids content.

  8. Chemical Behavior of Cadmium in Purple Soil as Affected by Surfactants and EDTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Cheng; XIONG Zhi-Ting; DONG Shan-Yan

    2006-01-01

    A soil batch experiment was conducted to investigate both separate and compound effects of three types of surfactants:anionic dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid sodiumsalt (DBSS), cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic nonyl phenol polyethyleneoxy ether (TX-100), as well as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on cadmium solubility, sorption kinetics, and sorption-desorption behavior in purple soil. The results indicated that both individual application of the three types of surfactants and surfactants combined with EDTA could stimulate Cd extraction from the soil with a general effectiveness ranking of EDTA/TX-100 > EDTA/DBSS > EDTA/CTAB > EDTA > TX-100 >DBSS > CTAB. Further study showed that the compound application of surfactants and EDTA had stronger (P < 0.05)effects on Cd solubility than those added individually. The application of surfactants and EDTA to purple soil (P < 0.05)decreased the proportion of Cd sorbed, while their effectiveness ranking was similar to that of enhanced solubilization. The sorption kinetics of Cd in purple soil was best described by the double-constant equation, while the Freundlich equation gave an excellent fit to the sorption isotherm curves. Therefore, surfactant-enhanced remediation of Cd contaminated soil is feasible and further research should be conducted.

  9. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  10. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martinez-Cardenas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II chelation, the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•, in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05 and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05 to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90 and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86. All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  11. The anti-photooxidation of anthocyanins-rich leaves of a purple rice cultivar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Changlian; LIN Guizhu; LIN Zhifang; CHEN Shaowei

    2006-01-01

    In the leaf of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Yunnan purple rice, the anthocyanins with an obvious absorption peak at 530nm were distributed in the cells of upper and lower epidermis, bulliform tissue and bristle. The maximal photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and chlorophyll content in flag leaves were 28% and 23%, respectively, more than the common green leaf rice cultivar Chijiaoruanzhan. Higher chlorophyll content is probably one of the physiological adaptations for enhancing light harvesting capacity of the antenna in photosystems in this cyanic leaves species. Upon the photooxidation of leaf segments mediated by methyl viologen in weak light for 3 days, the distinct bleaching of anthocyanins in purple rice was associated with the reduction of scavenging ability to DPPH· free radical ability and the increase in membrane leakage rate. But almost no changes in contents of flavonoids and total phenolics were observed. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fo, qP and фPSII decreased with the increase in NPQ and DES of xanthophylls cycle after photooxidation treatment. Green rice leaves showed more decrease in DPPH· scavenging rate and more increase in cell membrane leakage rate but showed a trace of anthocyanins during photooxidation. It is suggested that anthocyanin may be a beneficial and primary antioxidant in sun cyanic rice leaves against oxidative stress induced by environmental adversity. And photooxidation could induce different changing patterns of anthocyanins between the tested purple and green rice leaves.

  12. Effect of the Purple Corn Beverage “Chicha Morada” in Composite Resin during Dental Bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dario Acuña

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During dental bleaching the staining potential of the surface would increase. This study aims to evaluate the staining susceptibility of one bleached composite resin after the exposure to three different beverages: Peruvian purple corn based beverage (chicha morada, green tea, and distilled water. Thirty disk-shaped specimens of one nanofill composite resin were prepared. The specimens were then divided into six groups (n=5: purple corn (P, purple corn + bleaching (PB, green tea (T, green tea + bleaching (TB, distilled water (W, and distilled water + bleaching (WB. In groups that received bleaching, two sessions of bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide were done. Following bleaching, specimens were exposed to each liquid thirty minutes daily. Color was measured with a digital spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, color measurement differences between the obtained results were used: during bleaching, after bleaching, and during + after bleaching. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the color changes in the resins of all groups (p3.3.

  13. The development of purple sweet potato bread%紫薯甜面包的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高徐梅; 吕远平

    2011-01-01

    In order to enrich bread varieties and develop more nutritional bread,with the sensory evaluation as the index,the key technical parameters of purple sweet potato bread are determined by orthogonal test as the following:the addition of 100 g purple sweet potato powder and 180 g sugar to each 1 000 g flour,and the dough fermentation time 120 min.The final product has a good color and taste.The product's indexes of purple sweet potato bread are also put forward as well.%为了丰富面包品种、开发更具营养价值的面包,以紫薯甜面包的感官评分为考察指标,通过正交试验确定了紫薯甜面包的关键技术参数:每1 000 g面粉添加100 g紫薯粉、180 g白砂糖,面团发酵时间为120min,所研制的紫薯甜面包具有良好的色泽和口感。同时给出了紫薯甜面包的产品指标。

  14. The Dark-Purple Tea Cultivar 'Ziyan' Accumulates a Large Amount of Delphinidin-Related Anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Song; Li, Sha; Tang, Qian; Li, Huan-Xiu; Chen, Shen-Xiang; Li, Pin-Wu; Xu, Jin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Guo, Xiang

    2016-04-06

    Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%). The full-length cDNA sequences of flavonoid pathway genes were isolated by RNA-Seq coupled with conventional TA cloning, and their expression patterns were characterized. Purple-leaved cultivars had lower amounts of total catechins, polyphenols, and water extract than ordinary non-anthocyanin cultivars but similar levels of caffeine. Because dark-purple-leaved Camellia species are rare in nature, this study provides new insights into the interplay between the accumulations of anthocyanins and other bioactive components in tea leaves.

  15. Anthocyanin accumulation and transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Pan, Yu; Zhao, Zhiping; Tian, Shibing; Hu, Zongli

    2014-12-24

    Bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide for its edible leaves. The purple cultivars rich in health-promoting anthocyanins are usually more eye-catching and valuable. Fifteen kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from a purple bok choy cultivar (Zi He) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in bok choy, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in seedlings and leaves of the purple cultivar and the green cultivar (Su Zhouqing). Compared with the other tissues, BrTT8 and most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in the leaves and light-grown seedlings of Zi He. The results that heterologous expression of BrTT8 promotes the transcription of partial anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in regeneration shoots of tomato indicate that BrTT8 plays an important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  16. Response characteristics of soil fractal features to different land uses in typical purple soil watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bang-lin; Chen, Xiao-yan; Ding, Lin-qiao; Huang, Yu-han; Zhou, Ji; Yang, Tian-tian

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD) is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743 μm to 5.749 μm for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 μm. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is D claysoil properties shows that the intensity of correlation to the soil texture and soil organic matter has the order as: D silt>D silt(U)>D sand (U)>D sand and D silt>D silt(U)>D sand>D sand(U), respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the D silt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies.

  17. Response characteristics of soil fractal features to different land uses in typical purple soil watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-lin Luo

    Full Text Available As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743 μm to 5.749 μm for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 μm. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is D clayD silt(U>D sand (U>D sand and D silt>D silt(U>D sand>D sand(U, respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the D silt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies.

  18. Effects of Purple Blotch Infection on the Proximate and Mineral Contents of Onion Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aliero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Alternaria porri Ell. ( Ciferri associated with purple blotch disease in onion on the proximate and mineral composition of onion leaves was investigated. Samples of both healthy and purple blotch - infected onion leaves were dried and analyzed for the nutritional components except moisture content. The mineral contents ( Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe , Zn were determined by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The infected leaf showed a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in the quantity of the crudeprotein, fat, fibre and ash. The moisture content was. significantly (p < 0.05 lower in healthy onion leaves (88.0% than in the infected leaves (94.7%. Similarly, carbohydrate content was lower in diseased leaves than in healthy onion leaves. The levels of minerals were ignificantly (p < 0.05 lower in diseased leaves compared to the healthy (control leaves indicating that the infection of onion leaves by purple blotch pathogen (Alternaria porri had a significant impact in reducing the nutritional value of the onion leaves. It is important to avoid fungal contamination with a view to enhance nutrient bioavailability for human consumption.

  19. Food and feeding ecology of purple sandpipers Calidris maritima on rocky intertidal habitats (Helgoland, German Bight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Volker

    On the island of Helgoland (German Bight) Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima feed mainly in the intertidal of piers and rocky shores. The main prey species are Littorina saxatilis and Mytilus edulis, complemented by crustaceans, polychaetes, other molluscs and green algae. Beach habitats are used as alternative feeding sites during storms. Feeding sites seem to be selected according to rates of assimilated energy intake. The most profitable habitat (wrack beds on the high-tide line with kelp-fly larvae, 16.8 W) is used after arrival in October but is not available during winter. Because of high intake rates in rocky habitats (13.1 W on piers, 5.5 W on mussel beds), which allow short daily feeding times, and available alternative feeding sites during storms, Purple Sandpipers do not need to carry fat reserves in winter like other waders wintering in central and Western Europe. This, and the ever accessible food supply of epibenthic macrofauna on rocky shores, may enable Purple Sandpipers to winter further north than other wader species.

  20. The Functional Properties and Product Development of Purple Sweet Potato%紫甘薯的功能性质及产品开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何胜生

    2013-01-01

    详细介绍了紫甘薯的营养成分及其生理功能的研究现状.同时,对紫色甘薯的营养及药用价值的深入研究也促进了紫甘薯加工的发展,简述了紫色甘薯脆片、紫色甘薯软糖、紫色地瓜干等紫甘薯系列产品的加工工艺.%The research status of nutritional components and physiological functions of purple sweet potato were introduced in details. The deeply research about nutrition and medicinal value of purple sweet potato could promote the development of purple sweet potato processing. The processing technique of purple sweet potato crisp, purple potato soft candy and dried purple sweet potato were briefly described.

  1. KARAKTERISTIK WARNA DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN ANTOSIANIN UBI JALAR UNGU [Color Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Sweet Potato

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin is a natural pigment that produces a range of colors, varying from red, purple, blue to yellow. The stability of the anthocyanin color is affected by pH, temperature, and light. Purple sweet potato is rich in anthocyanin, particularly a stable acylated anthocyanin. This research was conducted to study the effect of pH on color and antioxidative activity of anthocyanin extracted from purple sweet potatoes, harvested from Cilembu-Sumedang, Banjaran-Bandung, and Pakembangan-Kuningan....

  2. Endophytic bacteria from Ocimum sanctum and their yield enhancing capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rashmi; Kalra, Alok; Darokar, M P; Chandra, Mahesh; Aggarwal, Nitin; Singh, A K; Khanuja, S P S

    2010-03-01

    Endophytes are beneficial microbes that reside intercellularly inside the plants. Interaction of endophytes with the host plants and their function within their host are important to address ecological relevance of endophyte. Four endophytic bacteria OS-9, OS-10, OS-11, and OS-12 were isolated from healthy leaves of Ocimum sanctum. These isolated microbes were screened in dual culture against various phytopathogenic fungi viz. Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium solani, Alternaria solani, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Of these, strain OS-9 was found to be antagonistic to R. solani, A. solani, F. solani, and C. lindemuthianum while OS-11 was found antagonistic against A. solani only. The growth-promoting benefits of the endophytes were initially evaluated in the glasshouse by inoculated seeds of O. sanctum. Treatment with endophytes OS-10 and OS-11 resulted in significant enhancement of growth as revealed by increase in fresh as well as dry weight. Further, field trials involving two genotypes OS Purple and CIM-Angana were conducted with strains OS-10 and OS-11. The growth-promoting effect was visible on both the genotypes tested as the endophytes significantly enhanced fresh herbage yield (t/ha). Interestingly, these endophytes increased the content of essential oil particularly in cultivar OS Purple and thereby increasing the total oil yields. Molecular characterization of strain OS-11 indicated the strain to be highly related to the type strain of Bacillus subtilis.

  3. Spectroscopic studies of two spectral variants of light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Bina, David; Picken, Nichola; Honkanen, Suvi; Blankenship, Robert E; Holten, Dewey; Cogdell, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Two spectral forms of the peripheral light-harvesting complex (LH2) from the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Allochromatium vinosum were purified and their photophysical properties characterized...

  4. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  5. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  6. Characterization and application of lactic acid bacteria for tropical silage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholsen, Suradej; Khota, Waroon; Pang, Huili; Higgs, David; Cai, Yimin

    2016-10-01

    Strains TH 14, TH 21 and TH 64 were isolated from tropical silages, namely corn stover, sugar cane top and rice straw, respectively, prepared in Thailand. These strains were selected by low pH growth range and high lactic acid-producing ability, similar to some commercial inoculants. Based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain TH 14 was identified as Lactobacillus casei, and strains TH 21 and TH 64 were identified as L. plantarum. Strains TH 14, TH 21, TH 64 and two commercial inoculants, CH (L. plantarum) and SN (L. rhamnosus), were used as additives to fresh and wilted purple Guinea and sorghum silages prepared using a small-scale fermentation method. The number of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the forages before ensilage was relatively low but the numbers of coliform and aerobic bacteria were higher. Sorghum silages at 30 days of fermentation were all well preserved with low pH (3.56) and high lactic acid production (72.86 g/kg dry matter). Purple Guinea silage inoculated with LAB exhibited reduced count levels of aerobic and coliform bacteria, lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia nitrogen and increased lactic acid concentration, compared with the control. Strain TH 14 more effectively improved lactic acid production compared with inoculants and other strains. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple Dioscorea alata (DA tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process should be taken into account; for instance, soaking in citric acid and blanching in order to preserve the bioactive compounds. To examine the inhibitory effects of acidic soaking and steam blanching on polyphenol oxidase activities, these experiments used four levels of citric acid (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% and two levels of steam blanching time course (5 and 10 minutes. It was found that steam blanching for 5 or 10 minutes could reduce the activity of polyphenol oxidase, and consequently, retard the oxidation process and retain the polyphenolic compounds. Soaking the purple DA slices into a 1% citric acid solution followed by steam blanching for 10 min resulted in the highest total anthocyanins (104.36 mg/100 g, polyphenols (198.52 mg equivalent gallic acid/100 g, with an antioxidant capacity of 1.300 mg trolox equivalent/100 g. This study showed that the retention of bioactive compounds of DA tuber through soaking the tuber slices in solution containing inexpensive chemicals like citric acid at low concentrations, combined with 10 minutes of steam blanching resulted in flour containing total anthocyanins and phenolic as high as 44.51 and 62.58% of fresh tuber, respectively.

  8. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g significantly (p < 0.05 increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%. Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05 decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9% compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05 during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%. Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109% but decreased bound (2% to 3% phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC significantly (p < 0.05 decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05 decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05 increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Centrifugation and Ultrafiltration: Multistage Process for Polyphenol Recovery from Purple Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhou Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES, was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centrifugation of purple sweet potato extract at 2500 rpm over 6 min, led to better polyphenol recovery, with satisfactory protein removal (reused for future purposes, than PSP extract filtration without centrifugation. Results showed that anthocyanin was efficiently recovered (99% from permeate. The exponential model fit well with the experimental ultrafiltration data and led to the calculation of the membrane’s fouling coefficient. The optimization of centrifugation conditions showed that, at a centrifugation speed of 4000 rpm (1195× g and duration of 7.74 min, the optimized polyphenol recovery and fouling coefficient were 34.5% and 29.5 m−1, respectively. The removal of proteins in the centrifugation process means that most of the anthocyanin content (90% remained after filtration. No significant differences in the intensities of the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 peaks were found in the samples taken before and after centrifugation for the main anthocyanins; peonidin-3-feruloylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-caffeoyl-feruloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside. This proves that centrifugation is an efficient method for protein removal without anthocyanin loss. This study considers this process an ultrasound-assisted extraction-centrifugation-ultrafiltration for purple sweet potato valorization in “green” technology.

  10. Soluble and bound phenolic compounds in different Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Montilla, Elyana; Hillebrand, Silke; Antezana, Amalia; Winterhalter, Peter

    2011-07-13

    In nine Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) varieties the content of phenolic compounds as well as the anthocyanin composition has been determined. The phenotypes under investigation included four red and five blue varieties (Kulli, Ayzuma, Paru, Tuimuru, Oke, Huaca Songo, Colorado, Huillcaparu, and Checchi). In purple corn, phenolic compounds were highly concentrated in cell walls. Thus, simultaneous determination of soluble and bound-form phenolics is essential for analysis, extraction, and quantification. The present study reports the determination of soluble and insoluble-bound fraction of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) in Bolivian purple corn varieties. Enzymatic, thermal, and alkaline hydrolyses were used to obtain the cell wall-linked phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid values ranged from 132.9 to 298.4 mg/100 g, and p-coumaric acid contents varied between 251.8 and 607.5 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively, and were identified as the main nonanthocyanin phenolics. The total content of phenolic compounds ranged from 311.0 to 817.6 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW, and the percentage contribution of bound to total phenolics varied from 62.1 to 86.6%. The total monomeric anthocyanin content ranged from 1.9 to 71.7 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW. Anthocyanin profiles are almost the same among the different samples. Differences are observed only in the relative percentage of each anthocyanin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and its malonated derivative were detected as major anthocyanins. Several dimalonylated monoglucosides of cyanidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin were present as minor constituents.

  11. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  12. A Comparative Feminist Study of The Color Purple and Good Morning, Miss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 井媛

    2012-01-01

      Chi Li and Alice Walker are both feminist writers. In their Good Morning, Miss and The Color Purple, male-central⁃ism and the benighted state of women are thoroughly exposed. Sisterhood plays an important role in the awakening of women in both books, but the prospect of man-woman relationship is sharply different. By making comparison and analyzing the underly⁃ing reasons, it can be seen that there’s still a distance between the Western and Chinese feminism.

  13. A Path to Freedom——Life of black women in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丽丹

    2005-01-01

    Alice Walker sThe Color Purple,published in 1982,tells the story of Celie,ablack woman in the South.Celie was a blackwoman growing up in the South.She mustovercome masogeny,racism and poverty toestablish herself as an independent person.Thenovel also follows the maturation of her sisterNettie and the lives of Shug,Albert,and muchof his extended family.Celie writes letters toGodin which she tells about her life-her roles asdaughter,wife,sister,and mother.In thecourse of her story,Celie meets a series of othe...

  14. Yellow and purple nutsedges survey in the southeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyherabide Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 79 fields was conducted between December 1993 and January 1994, to determine the distribution and relative importance of species of the genus Cyperus, to justify developing management strategies in the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Yellow and purple nutsedge were found in 43% and 9% respectively of the surveyed fields. Thirty eight per cent of the surveyed area showed a heavy infestation of yellow nutsedge, and in 90% of cases yellow nutsedge was invading fields cultivated with summer crops and associated with one or more of other seven perennial weeds, mainly bermudagrass.

  15. Purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gamete manipulation using optical trapping and microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W.

    2013-04-01

    A system has been developed that allows for optical and fluidic manipulation of gametes. The optical manipulation is performed by using a single-point gradient trap with a 40× oil immersion PH3 1.3 NA objective on a Zeiss inverted microscope. The fluidic manipulation is performed by using a custom microfluidic chamber designed to fit into the short working distance between the condenser and objective. The system is validated using purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gametes and has the potential to be used for mammalian in vitro fertilization and animal husbandry.

  16. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  17. KARAKTERISTIK WARNA DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN ANTOSIANIN UBI JALAR UNGU [Color Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Mahmudatussa’adah1,2*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin is a natural pigment that produces a range of colors, varying from red, purple, blue to yellow. The stability of the anthocyanin color is affected by pH, temperature, and light. Purple sweet potato is rich in anthocyanin, particularly a stable acylated anthocyanin. This research was conducted to study the effect of pH on color and antioxidative activity of anthocyanin extracted from purple sweet potatoes, harvested from Cilembu-Sumedang, Banjaran-Bandung, and Pakembangan-Kuningan. The experiments applied a completely randomized design with two replicates, analyzed in triplo. The results showed that the total number of monomeric anthocyanin in purple sweet potato harvested from Cilembu (3.78±0.08 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g dry weight, dw was higher than that of Banjaran (3.18±0.01 mg/g and Pakembangan (2.25±0.01 mg/g. The color of purple sweet potato anthocyanin extract was pH dependent. The color changed from red to faded red, purple, blue, green, and yellow as the pH increased from 1 to 14. The content of anthocyanins from three locations of purple sweet potatoes differed from each other (p<0.05. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of purple sweet potato anthocyanins extracted at pH 1 was higher than that at pH 4.5 and pH 7.

  18. Binding of a single divalent cation directly correlates with the blue-to-purple transition in bacteriorhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonas, R.; Ebrey, T.G. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The authors have characterized a unique divalent cation binding site on bacteriorhodopsin which controls the blue-to-purple transition in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobiu. To identify this site they first showed the correlation between the binding of one Ca{sup 2+} per bacteriorhodopsin and the amount of blue membrane converted to purple membrane. When the free Ca{sup 2+} was reduced below 1 {mu}M, and the pH was set below 5.0 with 0.5 mM citrate, only binding to this high-affinity site was observed, and we could separate its effect from the effect of other divalent cations binding to the membrane under other conditions. Second, the titration of purple membrane showed that protons are taken up in two distinct steps, about 13 with a pK{sub a} of 4-5 and an additional 2 protons with a pK{sub a} for the purple-to-blue transition in 5mM MgSO{sub 4}. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest a direct role for cations in the regulation of the bacteriorhodopsin color under normal conditions. They also found that the intrinsic pK{sub a} for the purple-to-blue transition is about 2.05, suggesting this is the pK{sub a} of the group or groups that, when protonated, lead to the blue membrane. Previously published data can now be interpreted to suggest that the cation regulates an active site near the retinal chromophore. A binding site for the divalent cation that includes Asp-212 and interactions with the protonated Schiff base, Asp-85, Tyr-57, Tyr-185, and Arg-82 is proposed.

  19. Binding of a single divalent cation directly correlates with the blue-to-purple transition in bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, R; Ebrey, T G

    1991-01-01

    We have characterized a unique divalent cation binding site on bacteriorhodopsin which controls the blue-to-purple transition in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium. To identify this site we first showed the correlation between the binding of one Ca2+ per bacteriorhodopsin and the amount of blue membrane converted to purple membrane. When the free Ca2+ was reduced below 1 microM, and the pH was set below 5.0 with 0.5 mM citrate, only binding to this high-affinity site was observed, and we could separate its effect from the effect of other divalent cations binding to the membrane under other conditions. Second, the titration of purple membrane showed that protons are taken up in two distinct steps, about 13 with a pKa of 4-5 and an additional 2 protons with a pKa of 2.75, in 5 mM MgSO4. The latter is identical to the pKa for the purple-to-blue transition in 5 mM MgSO4. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest a direct role for cations in the regulation of the bacteriorhodopsin color under normal conditions. We have also found that the intrinsic pKa for the purple-to-blue transition is about 2.05, suggesting this is the pKa of the group or groups that, when protonated, lead to the blue membrane. Previously published data can now be interpreted to suggest that the cation regulates an active site near the retinal chromophore. A binding site for the divalent cation that includes Asp-212 and interactions with the protonated Schiff base, Asp-85, Tyr-57, Tyr-185, and Arg-82 is proposed.

  20. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins accumulation in purple clam Hiatula rostrata and toxic effect on milkfish Chanos chanos larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y

    2001-11-01

    In an attempt to feed purple clams (Hiatula rostrata) with dinoglagellate Alexandrium minutum, the maximal accumulation toxicity of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins reached 40.6 MU/g on day 5 of feeding. Subsequently, the toxicity increased no further, although purple clams ingested more toxic algae. Furthermore, when milkfish (Chanos chanos) larvae were treated with toxic, nontoxic A. minutum or PSP toxin-containing extract in the water medium, it was found that the mortality of fish increased with the increasing concentrations of toxic algae. PSP toxin-containing extract did not show any toxic effect on milkfish larvae.

  1. 穿越老上海的风情——上海PURPLE ONION餐厅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delphine Moreau; 徐智超; Derryck Menere(摄影)

    2010-01-01

    Purple Onion坐落在上海老法租界,周边是令人愉悦的住宅及零售区域、中式和法式建筑、国际餐厅及小店,传统的弄堂、沿街绿树成荫,是今日城市构成元素的完美结合。两位设计师Dariel&Arfeuillere希望Purple Onion与这些元素互动,在这片颇具历史感的区域显得既传统亲切又卓尔不群。

  2. [Relationships between vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunan Province, South-central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Zou, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Man-Yuan; Hu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Fang-Ping; Song, Guang-Tao; Lin, Zhong-Gui

    2013-01-01

    By using space series to replace time series, this paper studied the relationships between the vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on the slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunnan Province South-central China. There existed obvious differences in the soil physical and chemical properties at different restoration stages. From grassplot, grass-shrub, shrub to shrub-arbor, the soil organic matter, total and available N, and moisture contents increased markedly, soil bulk density had an obvious decrease, soil total and available P contents changed little, and soil pH decreased gradually, but no significant differences were observed among different restoration stages. At different restoration stages, the biomass of plant community had effects on the quantity and composition of soil microbes. The quantities of soil bacteria and fungi had significant positive correlations with the aboveground biomass of plant community, but the quantity of soil actinomycetes had less correlation with plant community's aboveground biomass. At different restoration stages, the activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased with increasing soil layer, and had significant positive correlations with plant community's richness and aboveground biomass.

  3. Intracellular Bacteria in Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz, Hans-Dieter; Brigge, Theo

    Intracellular bacteria in humans are typically detrimental, and such infections are regarded by the patients as accidental and abnormal. In protozoa it seems obvious that many bacteria have coevolved with their hosts and are well adapted to the intracellular way of life. Manifold interactions between hosts and intracellular bacteria are found, and examples of antibacterial resistance of unknown mechanisms are observed. The wide diversity of intracellular bacteria in protozoa has become particularly obvious since they have begun to be classified by molecular techniques. Some of the bacteria are closely related to pathogens; others are responsible for the production of toxins.

  4. Genetic architecture of purple pigmentation and tagging of some loci to SSR markers in pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusapati Varalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the construction of integrated genetic maps in pearl millet involving certain purple phenotype and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. These maps provide a direct means of implementing DNA marker-assisted selection and of facilitating "map-based cloning" for engineering novel traits. The purple pigmentation of leaf sheath, midrib and leaf margin was inherited together 'en bloc' under the control of a single dominant locus (the 'midrib complex' and was inseparably associated with the locus governing the purple coloration of the internode. The purple panicle was caused by a single dominant locus. Each of the three characters (purple lamina, purple stigma and purple seed was governed by two complementary loci. One of the two loci governing purple seed was associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2090 in linkage group 1, with a linkage value of 22 cM, while the other locus was associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2270 in linkage group 6, with a linkage value of 23 cM. The locus for purple pigmentation of the midrib complex was either responsible for pigmentation of the panicle in a pleiotropic manner or was linked to it very closely and associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2086 in linkage group 4, with a suggestive linkage value of 21 cM. A dominant allele at this locus seems to be a prerequisite for the development of purple pigmentation in the lamina, stigma and seed. These findings suggest that the locus for pigmentation of the midrib complex might regulate the basic steps in anthocyanin pigment development by acting as a structural gene while other loci regulate the formation of color in specific plant parts.

  5. A putative functional MYB transcription factor induced by low temperature regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Li, Yali; Zhou, Shuang; Chen, Guoping

    2012-02-01

    The purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor) is a mutation in kales, giving the mutant phenotype of brilliant purple color in the interior. Total anthocyanin analysis showed that the amount of anthocyanins in the purple kale was up to 1.73 mg g(-1) while no anthocyanin was detected in the white kale. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple kale, we analyzed the expression of structural genes and some transcription factors associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar "Red Dove" and the white cultivar "White Dove". The result showed that nearly all the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes showed higher expression levels in the purple cultivar than in the white cultivar, especially for DFR and ANS, they were barely detected in the white cultivar. Interestingly, the fact that a R2R3 MYB transcription factor named BoPAP1 was extremely up-regulated in the purple kale and induced by low temperature attracted our attention. Further sequence analysis showed that BoPAP1 shared high similarity with AtPAP1 and BoMYB1. In addition, the anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale is strongly induced by the low temperature stress. The total anthocyanin contents in the purple kale under low temperature were about 50-fold higher than the plants grown in the greenhouse. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes C4H, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFGT were all enhanced under the low temperature. These evidences strongly suggest that BoPAP1 may play an important role in activating the anthocyanin structural genes for the abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale.

  6. Plasma biochemistry values of recently wild-caught purple mouth moray eels (Gymnothorax vicinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Hoffman, Walter E; Priede, Megan; Pulver, Robert; Tuttle, Allison D

    2011-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish plasma biochemistry parameters for healthy recently wild-caught purple mouth moray eels (Gymnothorax vicinus) to provide a baseline of data for improved medical care in an aquarium or zoologic setting and for wild health assessments. Thirty-one clinically healthy purple mouth moray eels of unknown age and sex were caught from the wild, and were anesthetized 50 days following capture for blood collection from the ventral coccygeal vein. The median plasma biochemistry values were as follows: hematocrit = 21%, creatinine kinase = 2,100 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase = 97 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase = 88 U/L, alanine aminotransferase = 51 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 3,939 U/L, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase = 1 U/L, amylase = 40 U/L, blood urea nitrogen = moray eels to aid in monitoring elevations to these values in an aquarium setting over time so adjustments to the dietary regime may be utilized to prevent or improve conditions such as lipid keratopathy.

  7. Phosphorus transport with runoff of simulated rainfall from purple-soil cropland of different surface conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; ZHANG Jin-zhong; ZHU Bo; ZHOU Pei; MIAO Chi-yuan; WANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the patterns of phosphorus transport from purple-soil cropland of 5° and 10° slopes with bare and vegetated surfaces, respectively. Each type of land was tested under a simulated moderate rainfall of 0.33 mm/min, a downfall of 0.90 mm/min, and a rainstorm of 1.86 mm/min. Runoff dynamics and changes in the export amount of phosphorus are influenced by the rainfall intensity, the slope and surface conditions of cropland. The vegetation diverts rain water from the surface into soil and helps the formation of a subsurface runoff, but has little influence on runoff process at the same sloping degree. Vegetated soil has a smaller phosphorous loss, particularly much less in the particulate form. A heavier rainfall flushes away more phosphorous. Rainwater percolating soil carries more dissolved phosphorous than particulate phosphorous. Understanding the patterns of phosphorous transport under various conditions from purple soil in the middle of Sichuan basin is helpful for developing countermeasures against non-point-source pollution resulting in the eutrophication of water bodies in this region that could, if not controlled properly, deteriorate the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  8. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szantoi, Zoltan [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: szantzo@auburn.edu; Chappelka, Arthur H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Muntifering, Russell B. [Animal Sciences Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Somers, Greg L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: somergl@auburn.edu

    2007-11-15

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O{sub 3}) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O{sub 3} in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O{sub 3} interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O{sub 3} effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent. - EDU can potentially ameliorate negative effects of O{sub 3} on nutritive quality in purple coneflower.

  9. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p bread.

  10. Population structure of Purple Sandpipers (Calidris maritima) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Nathalie M; Stewart, Donald T; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Elderkin, Mark F; Mittelhauser, Glen; Mockford, Stephen; Paquet, Julie; Robertson, Gregory J; Summers, Ron W; Tudor, Lindsay; Mallory, Mark L

    2017-05-01

    The Purple Sandpiper (Calidris maritima) is a medium-sized shorebird that breeds in the Arctic and winters along northern Atlantic coastlines. Migration routes and affiliations between breeding grounds and wintering grounds are incompletely understood. Some populations appear to be declining, and future management policies for this species will benefit from understanding their migration patterns. This study used two mitochondrial DNA markers and 10 microsatellite loci to analyze current population structure and historical demographic trends. Samples were obtained from breeding locations in Nunavut (Canada), Iceland, and Svalbard (Norway) and from wintering locations along the coast of Maine (USA), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland (Canada), and Scotland (UK). Mitochondrial haplotypes displayed low genetic diversity, and a shallow phylogeny indicating recent divergence. With the exception of the two Canadian breeding populations from Nunavut, there was significant genetic differentiation among samples from all breeding locations; however, none of the breeding populations was a monophyletic group. We also found differentiation between both Iceland and Svalbard breeding populations and North American wintering populations. This pattern of divergence is consistent with a previously proposed migratory pathway between Canadian breeding locations and wintering grounds in the United Kingdom, but argues against migration between breeding grounds in Iceland and Svalbard and wintering grounds in North America. Breeding birds from Svalbard also showed a genetic signature intermediate between Canadian breeders and Icelandic breeders. Our results extend current knowledge of Purple Sandpiper population genetic structure and present new information regarding migration routes to wintering grounds in North America.

  11. Carotenoid profile and retention in yellow-, purple- and red-fleshed potatoes after thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Pivec, Vladimír; Orsák, Matyáš; Hamouz, Karel

    2016-04-15

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of thermal processing on carotenoid profile, quantity and stability in 22 colour-fleshed potato cultivars grown in the Czech Republic. The total of nine carotenoids was analysed by HPLC using a C30 column and PDA detection. The total carotenoid content for all cultivars ranged from 1.44 to 40.13 μg/g DM. Yellow cultivars showed a much higher average total carotenoid content (26.22 μg/g DM) when compared to red/purple-fleshed potatoes (5.69 μg/g DM). Yellow cultivars were dominated by antheraxanthin, whereas neoxanthin was the main carotenoid in red/purple cultivars. Thermal processing significantly impacted all potato cultivars. Boiling decreased the total carotenoids by 92% compared to baking (88%). Lutein was the most stable carotenoid against thermal processing (decreased by 24-43%) followed by β-carotene (decreased by 78-83%); other carotenoids were degraded nearly completely. Increased formation of (Z)-isomers by thermal processing has not been confirmed.

  12. Characterization of Natural Dye Extracted from Wormwood and Purple Cabbage for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used natural dyes as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to replace expensive chemical synthetic dyes. We prepared two natural dyes, chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye, by extracting them from wormwood and purple cabbage, respectively. Moreover, we mixed the prepared chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye at 5 different volume ratios to form cocktail dyes. For preparation of photoelectrode, P25 TiO2 nanoparticles were used to prepare paste, which was coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass by the spin coating method at different spin coating speeds in order to form TiO2 thin films with different thicknesses. The DSSC prepared by the cocktail dye achieves photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 1.95%, open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.765 V, and short-circuit current density (JSC of 5.83 mA/cm2. Moreover, the prepared DSSC sensitized solely by chlorophyll extract of wormwood achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 0.9%, whereas the DSSC sensitized solely by anthocyanin extract of purple cabbage achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.47%, achieving the longest lifetime of electrons amongst these three dyes.

  13. Phenolic compound profiles and their corresponding antioxidant Capacity of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Patricia; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    Folin-Ciocalteu and TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay together with the spectrophotometric determination of betalains were applied to investigate the correlation between phenolics and their contribution to the antioxidant capacity of five different Costa Rican genotypes of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) and of H. polyrhizus fruits. Maximum antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and betalain contents were observed in the genotype 'Lisa'. While non-betalainic phenolic compounds contributed only to a minor extent, betalains were responsible for the major antioxidant capacity of purple pitaya juices evaluated. The phenolic pattern of each genotype was also thoroughly investigated using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry. In addition to the well known betalains previously reported in Hylocereus fruits, several biosynthetic precursors were detected. Notably, decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betalains were identified as genuine compounds of the juices. Some of these compounds were previously described as artifacts upon heat exposure. Moreover, gallic acid was identified for the first time in pitaya fruits. While the phenolic profiles generally differed between genotypes, phenolic compound composition of 'Rosa' resembled that of H. polyrhizus with respect to total contents of betacyanins, betalainic precursors, phyllocactin and cyclo-Dopa malonyl-glucosides.

  14. Methylation mediated by an anthocyanin, O-methyltransferase, is involved in purple flower coloration in Paeonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui; Wu, Jie; Ji, Kui-Xian; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Su, Shang; Shu, Qing-Yan; Ren, Hong-Xu; Liu, Zheng-An; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Anthocyanins are major pigments in plants. Methylation plays a role in the diversity and stability of anthocyanins. However, the contribution of anthocyanin methylation to flower coloration is still unclear. We identified two homologous anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) genes from purple-flowered (PsAOMT) and red-flowered (PtAOMT) Paeonia plants, and we performed functional analyses of the two genes in vitro and in vivo. The critical amino acids for AOMT catalytic activity were studied by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed that the recombinant proteins, PsAOMT and PtAOMT, had identical substrate preferences towards anthocyanins. The methylation activity of PsAOMT was 60 times higher than that of PtAOMT in vitro. Interestingly, this vast difference in catalytic activity appeared to result from a single amino acid residue substitution at position 87 (arginine to leucine). There were significant differences between the 35S::PsAOMT transgenic tobacco and control flowers in relation to their chromatic parameters, which further confirmed the function of PsAOMT in vivo. The expression levels of the two homologous AOMT genes were consistent with anthocyanin accumulation in petals. We conclude that AOMTs are responsible for the methylation of cyanidin glycosides in Paeonia plants and play an important role in purple coloration in Paeonia spp.

  15. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds.

  16. A closer look at the feather coloration in the male purple sunbird, Nectarinia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Biswa Bhusana; Marathe, Sandhya Amol; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno; Mishra, Monalisa

    2016-06-01

    During the breeding season male, but not female, individuals of the purple sunbird possess colourful plumage of chiefly blue and black coloration with a splatter of orange and yellow on the chest. Representative feathers of these colours were collected from male birds during the breeding season and analyzed by reflectance and scanning electron microscopy. The rachis, which is the central support of a feather on which various barbs and barbules are arranged, is spongy and made up of keratin layers with rod-shaped melanosomes sparsely distributed within these layers. Barbs and barbules are the structural units of the feather and depending on how they are arranged provide a characteristic shape to the feather. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of the feathers revealed the presence of various metal elements that might contribute to the feathers' colorations. Blue feathers are iridescent and contain mainly iron, copper, zinc and cobalt (in that order of abundance); black feathers were also found to contain mainly iron and copper, but chromium instead of zinc and cobalt, while yellow feathers were found to contain predominantly cobalt and nickel. The metal content of the feathers in an as yet unknown way may be involved in the production of the distinct absorbance and reflectance patterns that the brilliant plumage of the purple sunbird is renowned for.

  17. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  18. Evolutionary Competition Between Primitive Photosynthetic Systems: Existence of an early purple Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, William B.; DasSarma, S.; Reid, I. N.

    2006-12-01

    The onset of photosynthesis in primitive cyanobacteria is thought to have profoundly altered the Earth’s atmosphere by producing an oxygen-rich atmosphere some 2 billion years ago. However, the pigments used by chlorophyll-based photosynthesis absorb at a variety of wavelengths, curiously except those centered around the peak of the Solar spectrum, 550nm. By contrast, simpler retinal-based light harvesting systems such as the haloarchaeal purple membrane bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin show a strong well-defined peak of absorbance centered at 550nm. The spectroscopic complementarity for retinal pigments with chlorophyll-based pigments suggests an intriguing possibility of their co-evolution. This hypothesis argues that simpler retinal-based phototrophic capability may have evolved earlier, in microorganisms that dominated during the anaerobic and purple phase of the planet. Later, the more complex chlorophyll-based photosystem pigments could have evolved to harvest light in regions of the spectrum not absorbed by preexisting species. This would have led to the greening and oxidation of our planet and displacement of most of the retinal-based microorganisms. Not surprisingly, evidence for retinal chromoproteins have recently turned up in a variety of planktonic microorganisms. Although speculative, such a scenario would indicate that retinal-based phototrophy may be one of the oldest metabolic capabilities on Earth. Moreover, if the chlorophyll absorption spectrum is simply a product of adaptation, then its utility as a potential biomarker is likely to be limited.

  19. A glucose biosensor employing a stable artificial peroxidase based on ruthenium purple anchored cinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Jyh-Myng; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai; Chung, Ching-Rue

    2003-06-01

    Iron-enriched industrial waste cinder (CFe*) has been recycled for efficient and stable anchoring of Ru(CN)6(4-) to the formation of a hybrid ruthenium purple complex. The cinder/ruthenium purple hybrid-modified carbon paste electrode (designated as CPE/CFe*-RP) was worked out for hydrodynamic analysis of H2O2 at a low detecting potential of 0.0 V versus Ag/AgCl in pH 7 ammonium buffer solution. The highly active, selective, and stable electrocatalytic system with a function similar to peroxidase enzyme shows a linear calibration curve up to 0.8 mM H2O2 at a rotation rate of 3600 rpm with slope and detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.11 microA/microM and 33 nM, respectively. Interference by direct electrochemical oxidation of easily oxidizable substances can be prevented as a result of the low detecting potential of the working system. A glucose biosensor was further constructed by coating with glucose oxidase and Tosflex on the CPE/CFe*-RP (denoted as CPE/CFe*-RP/GOx/Ts). The proposed CPE/CFe*-RP/GOx/Ts with a two-layer configuration, that is, enzyme and protecting layers, exhibits good operational performance in terms of response time, linearity, detection limit, and lifetime.

  20. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum DSM 180T during growth on different reduced sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgerber, Thomas; Dobler, Nadine; Polen, Tino; Latus, Jeanette; Stockdreher, Yvonne; Dahl, Christiane

    2013-09-01

    The purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum DSM 180(T) is one of the best-studied sulfur-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, and it has been developed into a model organism for laboratory-based studies of oxidative sulfur metabolism. Here, we took advantage of the organism's high metabolic versatility and performed whole-genome transcriptional profiling to investigate the response of A. vinosum cells upon exposure to sulfide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, or sulfite compared to photoorganoheterotrophic growth on malate. Differential expression of 1,178 genes was observed, corresponding to 30% of the A. vinosum genome. Relative transcription of 551 genes increased significantly during growth on one of the different sulfur sources, while the relative transcript abundance of 627 genes decreased. A significant number of genes that revealed strongly enhanced relative transcription levels have documented sulfur metabolism-related functions. Among these are the dsr genes, including dsrAB for dissimilatory sulfite reductase, and the sgp genes for the proteins of the sulfur globule envelope, thus confirming former results. In addition, we identified new genes encoding proteins with appropriate subcellular localization and properties to participate in oxidative dissimilatory sulfur metabolism. Those four genes for hypothetical proteins that exhibited the strongest increases of mRNA levels on sulfide and elemental sulfur, respectively, were chosen for inactivation and phenotypic analyses of the respective mutant strains. This approach verified the importance of the encoded proteins for sulfur globule formation during the oxidation of sulfide and thiosulfate and thereby also documented the suitability of comparative transcriptomics for the identification of new sulfur-related genes in anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria.

  1. Experience of the Art of Purple Clay in the Exhibition of Yixing Purple Clay Pots%从宜兴紫砂壶展中感受紫砂艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周笑梅

    2016-01-01

    A batch of purple clay works donated by ceramists of Yixing, Jiangsu, was on display in Anhui Museum. The exquisite works help people fully appreciate the profound and excellent purple clay craftsmanship of China, as well as the charm of the purple clay art and the intelligence and wisdom of celebrated purple clay artists. They will also cultivate the audience's love and sense of pride for China's long-standing history and culture.%安徽博物院展出了一批由江苏宜兴陶艺家捐赠的紫陶作品,这些精美的作品让人充分体会到我国紫砂技艺博大精深,感慨紫砂艺术的魅力,为历史上著名的紫砂艺人的聪明才智喝彩,为我国拥有悠久的历史文化而骄傲和自豪。

  2. Sweet Rice Wine Brewed with Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato%紫心甘薯酿制甜米酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤瑾; 李金生

    2009-01-01

    紫心甘薯含有大量的花青素,有一定的保健作用.以紫心甘薯为原料与糯米混合糖化发酵酿制的紫薯甜米酒,色泽深红透亮,口味鲜甜,酒香浓郁,该种深红色米酒为米酒类产品增添了新品种,同时为紫心甘薯的综合利用提供了新途径.%Purple-fleshed sweet potato contains plenty of anthocyanin,which promotes health in a certain way.The purple sweet potato rice wine is brewed from the fermented mixture of saccharified purple-fleshed sweet potato and glutinous rice.As the wine has a crystal carmine color,a fresh taste and fragrant odor,the burgundy-colored rice wine has added a new variety to the rice wine family,which provides a new way for the comprehensive use of purple-fleshed sweet potato.

  3. PARTIAL HYDROLYSIS OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO FLOUR BY AMYLASE FROM Saccharomycopsis fibuligera AND ITS APPLICATION FOR COMPOSITE BREADMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Safari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato is one of underutilized carbohydrate sources in Indonesia, whilst known as good source of carbohydrate and can act as functional food due to its anthocyanine and dietary fiber contents. Therefore in the present study, we try to modify the sweet potato flour by partial hydrolysis using amylase produced by Saccharomycospsis fibuligera R64 and apply the partially hydrolyzed flour for composite breadmaking. The amylase was produced using batch method and partially purified by the addition of ammonium sulfate followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G25 using fast performance liquid chromatography system. The enzyme was then used to hydrolyze the purple sweet potato flour. Characterizations of the partially hydrolyzed flour comprise reduction in amylose-iodine complex, SEM and XRD. Partially hydrolyzed flour was then used as composite flour for bread, with ratio of wheat to partially hydrolyzed purple sweet potato flour was 70 : 30. The produced bread was then analyzed for its texture, organoleptic test and visualization of the bread crumb using TEM. The results of the present study indicate that the enzyme partially hydrolyzed the sweet potato flour. Even though the quality of the composite bread is not as good as wheat bread, partial hydrolysis seems to improve the texture and appearance of the composite bread, as indicated by better swelling volume and firmness of the composite bread using partially hydrolyzed purple sweet potato flour.

  4. The Color Quantitatively Expression, Rehabilitation and Color origin study of gray-purple nephrite from Qinghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Z.; Shen, A. H.; Lu, R.; Yang, M.

    2014-12-01

    Gray-purple nephrite is a special type of nephrite occurred in Sanchahe mining, Qinghai province, China. To quantitatively study its color, a representative gray-purple nephrite with typical color change from light to dark color was chosen as the experiment sample. By combination of the UV-VIS transmittance spectra and 1976 CIE L*a*b* Colorimetric parameters, we first realized the quantitative expression and color rehabilitation of the transmitted light color of this nephrite with a specific thickness (1.0 mm). Besides, according to the typical emission peak centered at 580 nm of photoluminescence spectra, and the absorption peak centered at 530 nm, as well as the contents of Mn element increased with the purple becoming darker, we can inferred that the purple color of nephrite was mainly caused by Mn2+. This conclusion was confirmed by our EPR spectroscopy results. For the famous color pattern "stream line" in the dark region, shown as color stripes with 100~10 μm size, we will also use micro-XRD mapping and in the future XANES mapping to determine the phase and chemical composition. This research method could offer valuable references to the color quantitatively expression and coloration mechanism research of other jewelries.

  5. Geographical provenancing of purple grape juices from different farming systems by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry using supervised statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organic, biodynamic and conventional purple grape juices (PGJ; n = 79) produced in Brazil and Europe were characterized by volatile organic compounds (m/z 20-160) measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), and classification models were built using supervised sta

  6. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  7. Extending the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatology Above 100 km Altitude Using an Inversion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, A.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, S.; McCullough, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the algorithm given by Chanin and Hauchecorne (1980; henceforth CH) for the last 3 decades. Recently Khanna et al. have presented an inversion approach to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles. This method uses a nonlinear inversion method with a Monte Carlo technique to determine the statistical uncertainties for the retrieved nightly average temperature profiles. Using this approach, Purple Crow Lidar temperature profiles can now be extended 10 km higher in altitude compared to those calculated with the CH method, with reduced systematic uncertainty. Argall and Sica (2007) used the CH method to produce a climatology of the Purple Crow Lidar measurements from 1994 to 2004 which was compared with the CIRA-86 model. The CH method integrates temperatures downward, and requires the assumption of a 'seed' pressure at the highest altitude, taken from a model. Geophysical variation here, in the lower thermosphere, is sufficiently large to cause temperature retrievals to be unreliable for the top 10 or more km; uncertainties due to this pressure assumption cause the top two scale heights of temperatures from each profile to be discarded until the retrieval is no longer sensitive to the seed pressure. Khanna et al. (2012) use an inversion approach which allows the corrected lidar photocount profile to be integrated upward, as opposed to downward as required by the CH method. Khanna et al. (2012) showed that seeding the retrieval at the lowest instead of top height allows a much smaller uncertainty in the contribution of the seed pressure to the temperature compared to integrating from the top of the profile. Two other benefits to seeding the retrieval at the lower altitudes (around 30 km) include reduced geophysical variability, and the availability of routine pressure measurements from radiosondes. This presentation will show an extension of the Khanna et al. (2012) comparison

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Quality Improvement of Purple Cabbage under Different Combinations of Monochromatic Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biyun; Zhou, Xiangzhu; Xu, Ru; Wang, Jin; Lin, Yizhang; Pang, Jie; Wu, Shuang; Zhong, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    Light is essential for plant growth. Light intensity, photoperiod, and light quality all affect plant morphology and physiology. Compared to light intensity, photoperiod, little is known about the effects of different monochromatic lights on crop species. To investigate how different lighting conditions influence crops with heterogeneous colors in leaves, we examined photosynthetic characteristics and quality (regarding edibility and nutrition) of purple cabbage under different combinations of lights. Eight different treatments were applied including monochromic red (R), monochromic blue (B), monochromic yellow (Y), monochromic green (G), and the combination of red and blue (3/1, RB), red/blue/yellow (3/1/1, RBY), red/blue/green (3/1/1,RBG), and white light as the control. Our results indicate that RBY (3/1/1) treatment promotes the PSII activity of purple cabbage, resulting in improved light energy utilization. By contrast, both G and Y lights alone have inhibitory effect on the PSII activity of purple cabbage. In addition, RBY (3/1/1) significantly boosts the anthocyanin and flavonoids content compared with other treatments. Although we detected highest soluble protein and vitamin C content under B treatment (increased by 30.0 and 14.3% compared with the control, respectively), RBY (3/1/1) appeared to be the second-best lighting condition (with soluble protein and vitamin C content increased by 8.6 and 4.1%, respectively compared with the control). Thus we prove that the addition of yellow light to the traditional combination of red/blue lighting conditions is beneficial to synthesizing photosynthetic pigments and enables superior outcome of purple cabbage growth. Our results indicate that the growth and nutritional quality of purple cabbage are greatly enhanced under RBY (3/1/1) light, and suggest that strategical management of lighting conditions holds promise in maximizing the economic efficiency of plant production and food quality of vegetables grown in

  9. Assessment of Input-Output Transformation in Purple Passion Fruit Production in Central-Eastern and North-Rift, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Macharia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been increasing economic importance of purple passion fruit in Kenya. The primary objective of this study was to assess the input-output transformation process in purple passion fruit production in Central-Eastern and North-Rift Kenya in order to identify avenues for improving and sustaining productivity. Cross-sectional data from 123 multistage sampled farmers was collected using a structured questionnaire, which was subjected to stochastic frontier in STATA 11 for analysis. The results showed that the purple passion fruit production input elasticity was 0.95 which represented decreasing returns to scale (DRS. The results also indicated that passion fruit farm size and manure had a negative and positive significant effect on purple passion fruit yields at 1% significance level, respectively. On the other hand, number of seedlings and hired labour variables had positive and significant effect on the fruit yields at 5% level. The results implied that passion farm size was overused while manure, number of seedlings and hired labour were underused. The gamma parameter (γ was 0.86 which indicates that 86% of the total variation in purple passion fruit output was due to technical inefficiencies. The overall mean technical efficiency (TE was 59% which indicated a cost saving estimate of 32% for the average farmer in attaining the TE of the most technically efficient farmer (86%. The study recommends up-scaling of passion fruit farming information systems so as to provide a basis for optimal use of production resources.

  10. Evaluation of laboratory-scale in situ capping sediments with purple parent rock to control the eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuejiao; Shi, Wenhao; Ni, Jiupai; Li, Zhenlun

    2017-01-16

    In this study, the effectiveness of controlling the eutrophication using purple parent rock to cap the sediments was evaluated in the laboratory scale. Sediments were collected from Sanxikou reservoir (China) in July 2013. Then, three types of purple parent rock (T1f, J3p, and J2s) which are distributed widely in southwest China were used to cap the sediments. Limestone and calcite were used as the contrast group, because they had been reported as effective controls on eutrophication. Then, they were incubated at 20 °C for 46 days. The results indicated that the application of purple parent rock as a barrier material can effectively inhibit the release of nutrient elements in sediments, and the inhibition rates of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonium (NH4-N), and nitrate (NO3-N) were much better than that of limestone and calcite. Among the three types of purple parent rock, J3p exhibited the best inhibitory effect on the release of nitrogen in sediments, and the inhibition efficiency of TN, NH4-N, and NO3-N was 59.7, 77.6, and 45.1%, respectively. As for T1f, it exhibited the best inhibitory effect on the release of TP in sediments with the inhibition rate of 94.4%. Whereas all these capping materials showed weak inhibition on release of organic matter in sediments, and the inhibition efficiencies were less than 20%. Moreover, these treatments could also cause distinct changes in the microbial community in sediments and overlying water, and the contents of TN and TP in all capping materials increased. All results demonstrated that purple parent rock could inhibit the release of nutrient in sediments through mechanical interception, physical adsorption, and chemical absorption as well as changing the microbial activity in the covering layer, sediments, or overlying water.

  11. Characterization of the cation binding sites of the purple membrane. Electron spin resonance and flash photolysis studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunach, M.; Seigneuret, M.; Rigaud, J.L.; Padros, E.

    1987-02-24

    The binding of Mn/sup 2 +/ and La/sup 3 +/ to the blue membrane prepared by deionization of the Halobacterium halobium purple membrane has been studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, visible absorption spectroscopy, and flash photolysis. ESR studies indicated that 10 Mn/sup 2 +/ binding sites are present per bacteriorhodopsin monomer. Five high- and medium-affinity sites, normally occupied by Ca/sup 2 +/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ in the purple membrane, as well as five low-affinity sites were found. Proteolysis and chemical modification experiments indicated that the low-affinity sites are located on the bacteriorhodopsin C-terminal segment, while the high- and medium-affinity sites involve other carboxyl groups of the protein. Competition experiments indicated that La/sup 2 +/ binds much more strongly than Mn/sup 2 +/ to these sites. Visible absorption spectroscopy and flash photolysis experiments indicated that binding of Mn/sup 2 +/ or La/sup 3 +/ regenerates both the purple color and formation of the M/sub 4//sup 12/ intermediate. The effect occurs progressively as cations bind to the high- and medium-affinity sites, bound La/sup 3 +/ being more effective than bound Mn/sup 2 +/. It is suggested that divalent cations support both the purple color and proton-pumping activity by rendering less negative the surface potential of the purple membrane. This process may promote deprotonation of the counterion of the retinal Schiff base and possibly of other functional groups. On the other hand, it is proposed that the inhibitory effect of La/sup 3 +/ is mainly due to binding to a site distinct from those of divalent cations.

  12. Cultivation technique points of northern purple perilla%北方紫苏栽培技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓飞; 刘淑霞; 肖宇; 郭梦桥; 程薪宇; 关向军; 徐海军; 魏国江

    2016-01-01

    近年来随着紫苏健康食品的开发,其作为健康食材,深受人们的青睐。北方紫苏种植面积呈现明显上升趋势,黑龙江省近几年每年的紫苏种植面积都超过15万亩以上。采用先进的栽培技术,可以提高紫苏产量和质量,提高紫苏种植的社会效益和经济效益。通过介绍紫苏土地选择、品种选择、整地措施、合理施肥、种子处理、合理群体密度、病虫草害防治等,以促进紫苏丰产丰收。%In recent years, with the development of purple perilla, it has been favored by people as the health food. Planted area of northern purple perilla has showed a clear upward trend, and its planted area of Heilongjiang has been more than 15 million mu each year. The use of advanced cultivation techniques can improve the yield and quality of purple perilla and improve its social and economic benefits. The land selection, variety selection, soil preparation measures, reasonable fertilization, seed treatment, reasonable population density, pest and weed control of purple perilla are introduced to promote the high yield of purple perilla.

  13. [Utilization of LIN (lysine-indole-motility) medium for the preliminary identification of enteropathogenic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemühl, J; Bednarek, I

    1975-07-01

    A multiple-test medium for the routine laboratory identification of enteropathogenic bacteria is described. The medium has the following formula: Bacto-peptone (Difco) 5 g; yeast extract (Difco) 3 g; casein tryptic digest peptone (Merek) 15 g; glucose 1 g; L-lysine-monohydrochloride (Merck, No. 5700) 5 g; NaCl 5 g; bromcresol purple 0.016 g; agar 2 g; distilled water 1000 ml; final pH 6.6. The medium is dispensed in amounts of 5 ml into tubes of 14 X 85 mm and autoclaved at 120 degrees C for 10 min. The tubes are tightly closed with rubber stoppers. - The medium is inoculated by stabbing to the bottom of the tube. Readings are made after over-night incubation at 37 degrees C. A scheme for the preliminary identification of enteropathogenic bacteria is given, based on LIM medium in conjunction with Kligler's iron agar, and the oxidase reaction.

  14. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Keun Jin; Yeong-Jung Kim; Jae Hong Park; In-Chul Hur; Sang-Hae Nam; Daekeun Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combina...

  15. Women Identity and Meta-fictional Features in The Loves of Lady Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘棋文

    2013-01-01

      Two of most prominent characteristics of Angela Carter’s short stories are unconditional female protagonists and meta-fictional features. Carter is known as an eccentric feminist, however due to her radical attitude towards marriage, woman and prosti⁃tute;she is criticized and denounced by some other feminists. Female protagonists in her short story are often depicted as fatal wom⁃en. On the other hand, as a post-modernist writer, Carter constantly explores fundamental questions like the nature of language, the relationship between text, reader and author, etc. How does Carter depict a fatal woman? What are the answers towards those essen⁃tial inquiries? With those questions in mind, this paper will first analyze one of the typical Carter’s heroines Lady Purple, to exam⁃ine the multiple identities in this persona and then analyze the meta-fictional features in this short story.

  16. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gutiérrez-Macías

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC, ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively.

  17. Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of the Resistant Starch from Purple Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato starch is a potential resource for resistant starch production. The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT and enzyme debranching combined heat-moisture treatment (EHMT on the morphological, crystallinity and thermal properties of PSP starches were investigated. The results indicated that, after HMT or EHMT treatments, native starch granules with smooth surface was destroyed to form a more compact, irregular and sheet-like structure. The crystalline pattern was transformed from C-type to B-type with decreasing relative crystallinity. Due to stronger crystallites formed in modified starches, the swelling power and solubility of HMT and EHMT starch were decreased, while the transition temperatures and gelatinization enthalpy were significantly increased. In addition, HMT and EHMT exhibited greater effects on the proliferation of bifidobacteria compared with either glucose or high amylose maize starch.

  18. Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of the Resistant Starch from Purple Sweet Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yafeng; Wang, Qi; Li, Baoyu; Lin, Liangmei; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Zheng, Baodong; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-07-19

    Purple sweet potato starch is a potential resource for resistant starch production. The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and enzyme debranching combined heat-moisture treatment (EHMT) on the morphological, crystallinity and thermal properties of PSP starches were investigated. The results indicated that, after HMT or EHMT treatments, native starch granules with smooth surface was destroyed to form a more compact, irregular and sheet-like structure. The crystalline pattern was transformed from C-type to B-type with decreasing relative crystallinity. Due to stronger crystallites formed in modified starches, the swelling power and solubility of HMT and EHMT starch were decreased, while the transition temperatures and gelatinization enthalpy were significantly increased. In addition, HMT and EHMT exhibited greater effects on the proliferation of bifidobacteria compared with either glucose or high amylose maize starch.

  19. [Effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Xing; He, Bing-Hui; Mei, Xue-Mei; Liang, Yan-Ling; Xiong, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Taking bare land as the control, this paper studied the effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area. For the test six planting modes, the soil permeability was in the order of Eriobotrya japonica > Citrus limon > Vetiveria zizanioides hedgerows +corn >Leucaena leucocephala hedgerows + corn> Hemerocallis fulva > corn> bare land, and decreased with increasing depth. The eigenvalues of soil infiltration were in the order of initial infiltration rate> average infiltration rate> stable infiltration rate. The soil permeability had significant positive linear correlations with soil total porosity, non-capillary porosity, initial moisture content, water holding capacity, and organic matter content, and significant negative linear correlation with soil bulk density. The common empirical infiltration model could well fit the soil moisture infiltration processes under the six planting modes, while the Kostiakov equation could not.

  20. Characteristics of Organo—Mineral Complexing of Microaggregates in Paddy Soils Developed from Purple Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEICHAOFU; XIEDETI; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with characteristics of organo-mineral complexing of microaggreagtes in the paddy soils developed from purple soils in Sichuan,China,Results show that the contents of orgainc matter in microaggreagates are in the order of 1-0.25mm>smaller than 0.05mm>0.05-0.25mm,But the organic matter in 1-0.01mm microaggregates accounts for 68.1%-78.7% of that in soil.The organic matter in 0.05mm microaggregates.The contents of loosely combined humus and the ratios of loosely and tithtly combined humus markedly decline with the size of microaggregates.Fresh soil humus formed from semi-decomposed organic material or organic manure added is combined first with0.05mm microaggregates.

  1. Physicochemical characterization of purple banana fiber; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica de fibra de bananeira roxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, A.P.B.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Miranda, C.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Cruz, A.M.F.; Luporini, S.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: anapaulabispo43@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Due to the environmental appeal that has grown in recent years, researches involving the use of renewable sources raw materials reaffirm this need. The vegetable fibers has excelled as promising materials with possibilities in different applications. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the physicochemical properties of banana fiber. These fibers were extracted from the banana pseudostem of a species not yet reported in the literature, Musa velutina, known as purple banana. For this experiment were used in natura fibers and processed fibers with NaOH 5% which were characterized by TGA, DSC, DRX and FTIR analysis. In the thermal analysis, both tested fibers showed good thermal properties. In DRX analysis, the processed fibers showed higher crystallinity. The use of these materials implies adding value to an agricultural waste in addition to being a more ecologically correct proposal. (author)

  2. Reduction of MTT to Purple Formazan by Vitamin E Isomers in the Absence of Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Wen; Loh, Hwei-San; Ting, Kang-Nee; Bradshaw, Tracey Dawn; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah

    2015-04-01

    The yellow tetrazolium salt 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) is widely used to determine cell viability in cell proliferation and cytotoxic assays. MTT is reduced by metabolically active cells to form an insoluble purple formazan product that is quantifiable by spectrophotometry. It is the most common and direct assay for cell viability. However, in this present study, we demonstrated that the vitamin E isomers α-β-γ-δ-tocotrienols and α-tocopherol were able to reduce MTT into a formazan product, despite the absence of living cells. For comparison, a second method for determining cell viability, which is the neutral red uptake assay, was used in parallel with the MTT assay. The results showed that neutral red did not interact with the vitamin E isomers. Our findings suggest that the MTT assay is not suitable for studying the proliferative effects of vitamin E isomers on cell growth.

  3. The genomic complement of purple acid phosphatase phytases in the Triticeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holme, Inger

    2011-01-01

    phytase activity in the mature grains, however varying significantly between the individual species. After multiple steps of chromatography, the phytase activity elutes as one peak, indicating that it consists of either one enzyme or more than one very similar enzymes. Recent work in our group** has...... demonstrated that these enzymes are purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhy’s) encoded by a few highly conserved mRNA’s expressed either during grain filling (PAPhy_a’s) or germination (PAPhy_b’s). In the present study, 15 genomic PAPhy sequences from wheat, barley, rye, einkorn and Aegilops taushii were......, PAPhy_b promoters contain elements typical of gibberellic acid induced germination related hydrolases. PAPhy_a promoters in contrast possess elements known from storage protein promoters. **Dionisio G, Madsen CK, Holm PB, Welinder KG, Jørgensen M, Stoger E, Arcalis E, Brinch-Pedersen H. Cloning...

  4. Anthocyanin-rich purple corn extract inhibit diabetes-associated glomerular angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyung Kang

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the major diabetic complications and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Abnormal angiogenesis results in new vessels that are often immature and play a pathological role in DN, contributing to renal fibrosis and disrupting glomerular failure. Purple corn has been utilized as a daily food and exerts disease-preventive activities. This study was designed to investigate whether anthocyanin-rich purple corn extract (PCE prevented glomerular angiogenesis under hyperglycemic conditions. Human endothelial cells were cultured in conditioned media of mesangial cells exposed to 33 mM high glucose (HG-HRMC-CM. PCE decreased endothelial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α induced by HG-HRMC-CM. Additionally, PCE attenuated the induction of the endothelial marker of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1 and integrin β3 enhanced in HG-HRMC-CM. Endothelial tube formation promoted by HG-HRMC-CM was disrupted in the presence of PCE. In the in vivo study employing db/db mice treated with 10 mg/kg PCE for 8 weeks, PCE alleviated glomerular angiogenesis of diabetic kidneys by attenuating the induction of VEGF and HIF-1α. Oral administration of PCE retarded the endothelial proliferation in db/db mouse kidneys, evidenced by its inhibition of the induction of vascular endothelium-cadherin, PECAM-1 and Ki-67. PCE diminished the mesangial and endothelial induction of angiopoietin (Angpt proteins under hypeglycemic conditions. The induction and activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 were dampened by treating PCE to db/db mice. These results demonstrate that PCE antagonized glomerular angiogenesis due to chronic hyperglycemia and diabetes through disturbing the Angpt-Tie-2 ligand-receptor system linked to renal VEGFR2 signaling pathway. Therefore, PCE may be a potent therapeutic agent targeting abnormal angiogenesis in DN leading to kidney failure.

  5. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Luo, Banglin; Ding, Linqiao; Gong, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0-0.5 m, 0.5-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-4 m, 4-5 m, 5-6 m, 6-7 m, 7-8 m, 8-10 m, and 10-12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min) and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°). The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  6. Cloning and characterization of nif structural and regulatory genes in the purple sulfur bacterium, Halorhodospira halophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuihiji, Hisayoshi; Yamazaki, Yoichi; Kamikubo, Hironari; Imamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Mikio

    2006-03-01

    Halorhodospira halophila is a halophilic photosynthetic bacterium classified as a purple sulfur bacterium. We found that H. halophila generates hydrogen gas during photoautotrophic growth as a byproduct of a nitrogenase reaction. In order to consider the applied possibilities of this photobiological hydrogen generation, we cloned and characterized the structural and regulatory genes encoding the nitrogenase, nifH, nifD and nifA, from H. halophila. This is the first description of the nif genes for a purple sulfur bacterium. The amino-acid sequences of NifH and NifD indicated that these proteins are an Fe protein and a part of a MoFe protein, respectively. The important residues are conserved completely. The sequence upstream from the nifH region and sequence similarities of nifH and nifD with those of the other organisms suggest that the regulatory system might be a NifL-NifA system; however, H. halophila lacks nifL. The amino-acid sequence of H. halophila NifA is closer to that of the NifA of the NifL-NifA system than to that of NifA without NifL. H. halophila NifA does not conserve either the residue that interacts with NifL or the important residues involved in NifL-independent regulation. These results suggest the existence of yet another regulatory system, and that the development of functional systems and their molecular counterparts are not necessarily correlated throughout evolution. All of these Nif proteins of H. halophila possess an excess of acidic residues, which acts as a salt-resistant mechanism.

  7. Physicochemical characterization of white, yellow and purple maize flours and rheological characterization of their doughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R; Chenlo, F; Arufe, S; Rubinos, S N

    2015-12-01

    White, yellow and purple maize flours were obtained after dried kernels milling with two different sieves (200 and 500 μm). Hygroscopic characteristics, particle size distribution, colour and total starch and damaged starch (DS) of flours were determined. Maize flour doughs were obtained by mixing of flour and water in a laboratory kneader (Mixolab®) at constant dough consistency (1.10 ± 0.07 Nm). Dough properties like water absorption (WA), development and stability times were determined. Rheological characterization was carried out at 30 °C by means of oscillatory frequency sweep (1-100 rad s(-1)) at 0.1 % strain and creep (50 Pa, 60 s) - recovery (0 Pa, 180 s) tests using a controlled stress rheometer. No significant differences were observed among water desorption isotherms of maize varieties and Halsey model was satisfactorily employed. Under the same milling conditions, white maize flours showed higher average particles size than purple and yellow maize flours. A model to predict flours colour involving colour parameters of the particle size fractions is proposed. Flours obtained with smaller particle size showed higher DS content and WA. For tested doughs, the mechanical spectra showed that elastic component was dominant over the viscous one. Damping factor varied slightly with angular frequency. Moduli values depended on average particle size and WA of dough. Creep-recovery data were satisfactorily fit with Burgers model. Instantaneous creep compliance varied with the same trend than elastic modulus. Viscoelastic creep compliance increased linearly with WA of the tested doughs and, at constant average flour particle size, increased with increasing DS.

  8. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0–0.5 m, 0.5–1 m, 1–2 m, 2–3 m, 3–4 m, 4–5 m, 5–6 m, 6–7 m, 7–8 m, 8–10 m, and 10–12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  9. High sensitivity electron diffraction analysis. A study of divalent cation binding to purple membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, A.K.; Stroud, R.M. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-02-01

    A sensitive high-resolution electron diffraction assay for change in structure is described and harnessed to analyze the binding of divalent cations to the purple membrane (PM) of Halobacterium halobium. Low-dose electron diffraction patterns are subject to a matched filter algorithm. to extract accurate values of reflection intensities. This, coupled with a scheme to account for twinning and specimen tilt in the microscope, yields results that are sensitive enough to rapidly quantitate any structure change in PM brought about by site-directed mutagenesis to the level of less than two carbon atoms. Removal of tightly bound divalent cations (mainly Ca2+ and Mg2+) from PM causes a color change to blue and is accompanied by a severely altered photocycle of the protein bacteriohodopsin (bR), a light-driven proton pump. We characterize the structural changes that occur upon association of 3:1 divalent cation to PM, versus membranes rendered purple by addition of excess Na+. High resolution, low dose electron diffraction data obtained from glucose-embedded samples of Pb2+ and Na+ reconstituted PM preparations at room temperature identify several sites with total occupancy of 2.01 +/- 0.05 Pb2+ equivalents. The color transition as a function of ion concentration for Ca2+ or Mg2+ and Pb2+ are strictly comparable. A (Pb2(+)-Na+) PM Fourier difference map in projection was synthesized at 5 A using the averaged data from several nominally untilted patches corrected for twinning and specimen tilt. We find six major sites located on helices 7, 5, 4, 3, 2 in close association with bR. These partially occupied sites (0.55-0.24 Pb2+ equivalents) represent preferential sites of binding for divalent cations and complements our earlier result by x-ray diffraction.

  10. Is it turquoise + fuchsia = purple or is it turquoise + fuchsia = blue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    The first step in communicating color is to name it. The second step is color semiotics. The third step is introducing structure in the set of colors. In color education at all levels, this structure often takes the form of formulæ, like red + green = yellow, or turquoise + red = black. In recent times, Johannes Itten's color theory and its associated color wheel have been very influential, mostly through its impact on Bauhaus, although a number of color order systems and circles have been introduced over the centuries. Students get confused when they are trying to formulate the color name arithmetic using the structure of color order systems and concepts like complementary colors and opponent colors. Suddenly turquoise + fuchsia = purple instead of blue; purple and violet become blurred, and finally the student's head explodes under the epistemological pressures of Itten, Albers, Goethe, Runge, Newton, da Vinci, and all the other monsters of color structure. In this contribution we propose a systematic presentation of structure in color, from color theories to color naming. We start from the concept of color perception introduced by da Vinci and work ourselves through color measurement, color formation, and color naming, to develop the basis for a robust system based on table lookup and interpolation. One source of confusion is that color naming has been quite loose in color theory, where for example red can be used interchangeably with fuchsia, and blue with turquoise. Furthermore, common color terms are intermingled with technical colorant terms, for example cyan and aqua or fuchsia and magenta. We present the evolution of a few color terms, some of which have experienced a radical transition over the centuries, and describe an experiment showing the robustness of crowd-sourcing for color naming.

  11. How honey kills bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.S. Kwakman; A.A. te Velde; L. de Boer; D. Speijer; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; S.A.J. Zaat

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria t

  12. KANDUNGAN ANTOSIANIN DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN UBI JALAR UNGU SEGAR DAN PRODUK OLAHANNYA (Anthocyanins Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Purple Fleshed Sweet Potato and Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida El Husna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple fleshed sweet potato is a potential source of anthocyanins which is as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic. Anthocyanins can be damaged by high temperatures. However, traditionally a number of processed sweet potato products involve heat treatment. This study aimed to assess the reduction of anthocyanins content in processed sweet potato products (flour, chips, sweet potato, steamed, boiled, and fried pieces from two types of local purple fleshed sweet potato (light purple and dark purple, therefore it might provide useful information stages in order to maintain the content of anthocyanins. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD of factorial arrangement treatments (two types of purple fleshed sweet potato, and five types of purple fleshed sweet potato processed products. The main analysis parameter are anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The anthocyanins content of dark purple fleshed sweet potato was 61.85 mg/100g, 17 times higher than light purple fleshed sweet potatoes 3.51 mg/100g. Dark purple fleshed sweet potatoes have antioxidant activity approximately 59.25%, greater than light purple fleshed sweet potatoes 56.64%. Decrease in anthocyanins content for processed products from both types of purple sweet potatoes showed the same trend. Purple sweet potato processed products that able to maintain fairly high the content of anthocyanins (the lowest rate of decline in anthocyanin levels were obtained on a steamed sweet potato (34.14% for dark purple and 42.16% for light purple, while the highest reduction obtained on the product chips (95.21% for dark purple and 88.47% for light purple. Reduction of antioxidant activity showed a directly proportion of the decrease in anthocyanins content of processed products, with the exception of processed products chips. Keywords: Purple fleshed sweet potato, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity   ABSTRAK Ubi jalar ungu potensial

  13. Metallization of bacteria cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎向锋; 李雅芹; 蔡军; 张德远

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria cells with different standard shapes are well suited for use as templates for the fabrication of magnetic and electrically conductive microstructures. In this paper, metallization of bacteria cells is demonstrated by an electroless deposition technique of nickel-phosphorus initiated by colloid palladium-tin catalyst on the surfaces of Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus. The activated and metallized bacteria cells have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that both Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus had no deformation in shape after metallization; the metallized films deposited on the surfaces of bacteria cells are homogeneous in thickness and noncrystalline in phase structure. The kinetics of colloid palladium-tin solution and electroless plating on bacteria cells is discussed.

  14. 紫薯玉米粒乳酸菌乳饮料生产工艺及其稳定性研究%Study on production process and stability of lactobacillus milk beverage with purple yam and purple corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏仲珊; 李华丽; 邓萍; 陈瑶; 罗玉

    2012-01-01

    The purple yam as the main materials prepared purple yam liquid and the milk prepard fermented milk,added sugar,stabilizing agent,chelating agent in fermented milk,mixed equably,which prepared with purple yam liquid according to the proportion,then put purple corn in it,sterilizing then get lactobacillus milk beverage with purple yam and purple corn product.The single factor and the response surface experiment indicated that the addition of stabilizing agent was 0.24%(monoglyceride:CMC:agar-agar=10:9:3),the addition of chelating agent was 0.048%(sodium phosphate trimer:calgon=2:3),homogenize pressure was 30MPa,sterilizing temperature was 80℃.In this condition,the precipitation rate of the beverage was only 1.68%,achieved basically the effect of stability.%以紫薯为原料制备酶解紫薯液,以鲜牛奶为原料制备发酵乳,往发酵乳中加入糖、稳定剂和螯合剂,搅拌混匀,按比例加入紫薯液进行调配,再进行灌装,灌装同时放入备用紫玉米粒,经杀菌,即得到紫薯玉米粒乳酸菌乳饮料产品。通过单因素及响应面实验,对复合稳定剂添加量、螯合剂添加量、均质压力和杀菌温度等影响因素进行了稳定性研究。结果表明,复合稳定剂(单甘酯:CMC:琼脂=10:9:3)加量为0.24%,螯合剂(三聚磷酸钠:六偏磷酸钠=2:3)加量为0.048%,均质压力为30MPa,杀菌温度为80℃。在此工艺条件下,饮料的沉淀率为1.68%,基本达到了稳定效果。

  15. Antibiotics from predatory bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Korp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, which prey on other microorganisms, are commonly found in the environment. While some of these organisms act as solitary hunters, others band together in large consortia before they attack their prey. Anecdotal reports suggest that bacteria practicing such a wolfpack strategy utilize antibiotics as predatory weapons. Consistent with this hypothesis, genome sequencing revealed that these micropredators possess impressive capacities for natural product biosynthesis. Here, we will present the results from recent chemical investigations of this bacterial group, compare the biosynthetic potential with that of non-predatory bacteria and discuss the link between predation and secondary metabolism.

  16. Vasodilatador effect mediated by nitric oxide of the Zea mays L (Andean purple corn) hydroalcoholic extract in aortic rings of rat

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Loaiza, Oscar; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Agustinos, Arequipa, Perú. Estudiante de medicina.; Paz-Aliaga, Azael; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Científico, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Biólogo, PhD en Fisiología y Biofísica.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the vasodilator response of the hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn) and to determine if this response is mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Material and methods: We obtained an extract by maceration for eight days of Andean purple corn cobs in 70% ethanol and subsequent concentration of the product. Thoracic aortic rings were evaluated in an isolated organ chamber, bathed with Krebs-Hensleit solution (KH), and vasomotor activity was recorded with ...

  17. Application prospect of purple sweet potatoes in meat products%紫薯在肉制品中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦冰; 胡红梅; 祝恒前; 孙大地; 毛晓茗

    2012-01-01

    自紫薯引入中国,其产品开发类型主要围绕着色素提取和功能性食品进行的;其中功能性食品包括紫薯全粉、冻干食品、紫薯饮料、茎尖蔬菜和休闲食品。结合紫薯的营养价值和紫薯淀粉的理化性质,本文对紫薯在肉制品行业的应用前景进行了探讨,同时为新品研发提供可行性依据。%Since the purple sweet potatoes were introduced into China, its products development mainly focus on pigment extraction and functional food. Functional foods included purple sweet potatoes powder, freeze -dried food, beverage made by purple sweet potatoes, stem tip vegetables and snack foods. Combination of nutrition value of purple sweep potatoes and physicochemical properties of purple sweet potato starch, the application prospect of purple sweet potatoes in meat industry was discussed, which providing a feasible basis for new product development.

  18. [Darwin and bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2009-02-01

    As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never took knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution.

  19. Extracellular communication in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhabra, S.R.; Philipp, B.; Eberl, L.

    2005-01-01

    molecules, in different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria they control pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production, biofilm differentiation, DNA transfer and bioluminescence. The development of biosensors for the detection of these signal molecules has greatly facilitated their subsequent chemical...

  20. EVALUATION OF BIOAGENTS FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE ONION PURPLE BLOTCH AND BULB YIELD LOSS ASSESSMENT UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. YADAV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the several diseases, purple blotch diseases of onion (Allium cepa L. caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cif. is one of the most destructive disease causing accountable losses of about 80 to 90 per cent. The results obtained on the field efficacy of different bioagents tested, Pseudomonas fluorescens--I (0.5% was found most antifungal against A. porri and recorded significantly least mean disease intensity (37.19% and gave maximum bulb yield (27183 kg/ha. Both the fungal and bacterial antagonists tested were also found effective against A. porri and recorded significantly reduced mean disease intensity thereby increased the bulb yield over unsprayed control. Based on incremental cost:benefit ratio (ICBR of the bioagents spray treatments, P. fluorescens--I (ICBR, 1:13.87 was found economical and effective for the management of purple blotch of onion followed by Bacillus subtilis (ICBR, 1:12.93.

  1. Production of elastic sausage with purple sweet potato leaves%紫薯叶弹力香肠的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2016-01-01

    研究以猪肉为主要原料,添加紫薯叶,在传统香肠肉制品的加工工艺和配方基础之上进行改进,制作出紫薯叶弹力香肠,该弹力香肠具有较好的感官和理化指标,营养价值较高。%The pork was taken as the main raw material. On the basis of traditional sausage meat products, the process technology and formula were improved, and purple sweet potato leaves were added to make the elastic sausage of purple sweet potato leaves. The elastic sausage had better sensory and physical and chemical indicators, and had high nutritional value.

  2. Optimization on Production Technology of Aloe and Purple Yam Compound Vinegar%芦荟紫山药复合醋生产工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 袁书林

    2015-01-01

    研究芦荟紫山药复合醋的酿造工艺条件,利用响应面分析实验并得到最佳工艺条件。实验结果表明:芦荟紫山药复合醋的最佳酿造条件为:酒精发酵阶段,发酵液糖度为17.2%,酵母菌接种量为0.3%,发酵温度为25℃,发酵时间为120 h;醋酸发酵阶段,发酵酒液酒精度为8.4%,醋酸菌接种量为13.1%,发酵温度为33℃,发酵时间为144 h。%Study the brewing technology conditions of compound vinegar of aloe and purple yam by response surface methodology.The result indicates that the optimum conditions for making the compound vinegar are sugar degree of fermentation liquid of 17.2%,yeast inoculation quantity of 0.3%,fermentation temperature of 25 ℃ and fermentation time of 120 h in alcoholic fermentation phase;ethanol degree of fermentation liquor of 8.4%,acetic acid bacteria inoculation quantity of 13.1%,fermentation temperature of 33 ℃ and fermentation time of 144 h in acetic acid fermentation phase.

  3. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vassoler Serrato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2 is transformed into ammonia (NH3 by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are found between associative diazotrophs and plants, resulting in plant infection and colonization of internal tissues. Independent of the type of ecological interaction, glycans and glycoconjugates produced by these bacteria play an important role in the molecular communication prior and during colonization. Even though exopolysaccharides (EPS and lipochitooligosaccharides (LCO produced by diazotrophic bacteria and released onto the environment have their importance in the microbe-plant interaction, it is the lipopolysaccharides (LPS, anchored on the external membrane of these bacteria, that mediates the direct contact of the diazotroph with the host cells. These molecules are extremely variable among the several species of nitrogen fixing-bacteria, and there are evidences of the mechanisms of infection being closely related to their structure.

  4. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, Rodrigo V

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is transformed into ammonia (NH3) by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are found between associative diazotrophs and plants, resulting in plant infection and colonization of internal tissues. Independent of the type of ecological interaction, glycans, and glycoconjugates produced by these bacteria play an important role in the molecular communication prior and during colonization. Even though exopolysaccharides (EPS) and lipochitooligosaccharides (LCO) produced by diazotrophic bacteria and released onto the environment have their importance in the microbe-plant interaction, it is the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), anchored on the external membrane of these bacteria, that mediates the direct contact of the diazotroph with the host cells. These molecules are extremely variable among the several species of nitrogen fixing-bacteria, and there are evidences of the mechanisms of infection being closely related to their structure.

  5. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. A. Rashid; F. S. Rehmani; Arman, M; Ibrahim, M; Shafique, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of...

  6. The Power Of Language On the Narrative Strategies of Their Eyes Were Watching God and The Colour Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦彦

    2008-01-01

    Their Eyes Were Watching God and The Colour Purple are very famous in the black woman literature.The two novels have something in common.They both record the growth of woman.The two novels share the same theme and reach the same goal by different routes.The two novels adopt two different narrative strategies to express the process of personal development.

  7. Soil carbon sequestration under long-term rice-based cropping systems of purple soil in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-zhu; CHEN Qing-rui; QIN Yu-sheng; CHEN Kun; TU Shi-hua; XU Ming-gang; ZHANG Wen-ju

    2015-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is a complex process controled by farming practices, climate and some other environment factors. Since purple soils are unique in China and used as the main cropland in Sichuan Basin of China, it is of great importance to study and understand the impacts of different fertilizer amendments on soil organic carbon (SOC) changes with time. A research was carried out to investigate the relationship between soil carbon sequestration and organic carbon input as affected by different fertilizer treatments at two long-term rice-based cropping system experiments set up in early 1980s. Each experiment consisted of six identical treatments, including (1) no fertilizer (CK), (2) nitrogen and phos-phorus fertilizers (NP), (3) nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), (4) fresh pig manure (M), (5) nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers plus manure (MNP), and (6) nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers plus manure (MNPK). The results showed that annual harvestable carbon biomass was the highest in the treatment of MNPK, folowed by MNP and NPK, then M and NP, and the lowest in CK. Most of fertilizer treatments resulted in a signiifcant gain in SOC ranging from 6.48 to 29.13% compared with the CK, and raised soil carbon sequestration rate to 0.10–0.53 t ha–1 yr−1. Especialy, addition of manure on the basis of mineral fertilizers was very conducive to SOC maintenance in this soil. SOC content and soil carbon sequestration rate under balanced fertilizer treatments (NPK and MNPK) in the calcareous purple soil (Suining) were higher than that in the acid purple soil (Leshan). But carbon conversion rate at Leshan was 11.00%, almost 1.5 times of that (7.80%) at Suining. Signiifcant linear correlations between soil carbon sequestration and carbon input were observed at both sites, signifying that the purple soil was not carbon-saturated and stil had considerable potential to sequestrate more carbon.

  8. High sensitivity electron diffraction analysis. A study of divalent cation binding to purple membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A K; Stroud, R M

    1990-02-01

    A sensitive high-resolution electron diffraction assay for change in structure is described and harnessed to analyze the binding of divalent cations to the purple membrane (PM) of Halobacterium halobium. Low-dose electron diffraction patterns are subject to a matched filter algorithm (Spencer, S. A., and A. A. Kossiakoff. 1980. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 13:563-571). to extract accurate values of reflection intensities. This, coupled with a scheme to account for twinning and specimen tilt in the microscope, yields results that are sensitive enough to rapidly quantitate any structure change in PM brought about by site-directed mutagenesis to the level of less than two carbon atoms. Removal of tightly bound divalent cations (mainly Ca2+ and Mg2+) from PM causes a color change to blue and is accompanied by a severely altered photocycle of the protein bacteriohodopsin (bR), a light-driven proton pump. We characterize the structural changes that occur upon association of 3:1 divalent cation to PM, versus membranes rendered purple by addition of excess Na+. High resolution, low dose electron diffraction data obtained from glucose-embedded samples of Pb2+ and Na+ reconstituted PM preparations at room temperature identify several sites with total occupancy of 2.01 +/- 0.05 Pb2+ equivalents. The color transition as a function of ion concentration for Ca2+ or Mg2+ and Pb2+ are strictly comparable. A (Pb2(+)-Na+) PM Fourier difference map in projection was synthesized at 5 A using the averaged data from several nominally untilted patches corrected for twinning and specimen tilt. We find six major sites located on helices 7, 5, 4, 3, 2 (nomenclature of Engelman et al. 1980. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77:2023-2027) in close association with bR. These partially occupied sites (0.55-0.24 Pb2+ equivalents) represent preferential sites of binding for divalent cations and complements our earlier result by x-ray diffraction (Katre et al. 1986. Biophys. J. 50:277-284).

  9. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome May Not Be Benign: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Bhattarai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a rare condition in which there is purple discoloration of the urine with its collecting bag and associated tubing occurs. It is considered a benign condition. We report an unusual case of PUBS in an 87-year-old female from nursing home who had a history of recurrent UTI. She also had a history of ureteral obstruction requiring left nephrostomy tube. She was brought to emergency department with altered mental status which developed five days after the occurrence of purple discoloration of the urinary bag. Her urine culture grew vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. She died within three days of hospitalization despite intensive care in tertiary center. This case highlights that PUBS may not always be benign and should be approached on a case-by-case basis because it may signal the underlying UTI which might be very difficult to treat. Failure of recognition of this peculiar color early could delay the appropriate intervention leading to fatal complication. This case also represents the rare occurrence of PUBS in the setting of nephrostomy tube.

  10. Purple Staining of Archaeological Human Bone: An Investigation of Probable Cause and Implications for Other Tissues and Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrard Cole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excavations in the 1990s at the medieval Chapter House of Worcester Cathedral, UK, revealed medieval human skeletal remains, some of which exhibited a distinctive purple coloration. The nature of the colored bone was investigated using solvents for stain extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, plane polarized (PPL and cross-polarized (XPL light microscopy, and auto fluorescence (AF microscopy. Normal bone from the cemetery was used as a control. The color does not arise from a stain soluble in normal organic solvents. EDX and XRD analysis showed no significant difference between purple and normal bone. XRF analysis shows the presence of trace levels of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in the affected material. This exhibited a pink color in acid phase and a blue color in alkaline phase. These two states were reversible. The alkaline phase gradually changed irreversibly to yellow over time. These data suggest that the coloration is consistent with the presence of high levels of purple acid phosphatase (PAP enzyme. The presence of trace amounts of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper suggests a plant or fungal origin for the putative PAP, possibly a member of the Aspergillus ficuum species.

  11. 紫薯生物饮料的研制%Preparation of Purple Sweet Potato Biological Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰

    2016-01-01

    With purple sweet potato as the main material,the technology of preparing purple sweet potato biological beverage was stud-ied.By single factor experiment and orthogonal test,the optimum purple sweet potato beverage formula was 4% sucrose,0.15% citric acid and 0.15% Composite stabilizers(CMC -Na :xanthan gum :agar =1:1:1).After optimization,the beverage featured by bright color,good taste,rich nutrition and it is one kind of potential biological beverage.%以紫薯为原料,对紫薯生物饮料加工工艺进行研究.通过单因素与正交实验确定了紫薯饮料的最佳调配工艺参数为:蔗糖添加量为4%,柠檬酸添加量为0.15%,复合型稳定剂(CMC -Na∶黄原胶∶琼脂=1∶1∶1)添加量为0.15%.此工艺参数下制作的紫薯饮料色泽鲜艳、口感良好、营养丰富并且具有一定的市场发展潜力.

  12. The Development of Steamed Sponge Cake of Purple Sweet Potato%紫薯发糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋燕飞; 李燮昕; 柴琦; 刘天杰; 杨悠

    2016-01-01

    紫薯含有丰富的花青素和砷元素,其营养价值和保健作用引起人们的高度关注。文章以试验制作为基础,通过感官评价确定紫薯发糕最优配方和生产工艺为:紫薯泥120g,酵母3g,白糖40g,中筋面粉300g,温水270g(水温30℃)。%In recent years,with more and more awareness people put on their healthcare,the purple sweet pota-to,on accout of its beneficial components,is gradually becoming public's choice for diet.Taking purple sweet potato sponge cake as its subject,this paper explores its optimal recipe and production through orthogonal tests and sensory evaluation.The findings suggest the following recipe:120g mashed purple sweet potato,3g yeast, 40g sugar,300g all-purpose flour,and 270g water(30℃).

  13. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis) Ciferri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Satyabrata; Chand, Subodh Kumar; Mandal, Purander; Tripathy, Pradyumna; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur) in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001). All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India. PMID:27904458

  14. 紫薯造型饼干的研制%Development of Purple Sweet Potato Biscuits of Different Shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋燕飞; 李燮昕; 柴琦; 杨悠; 刘天杰

    2016-01-01

    Purple sweet potato is rich in anthocyanin and selenium,and its nutritional value and health function are attracting increasing attention.This paper establishes the optimal formulation for purple sweet potato bis-cuits by means of orthogonal test and sensory evaluation:25g purple sweet potato flour,210g cake flour,80g ic-ing sugar,110g salt-free butter,70g egg yolk,40g milk powder,and 5.5 PH value.Biscuits of this recipe are popular for its color and texture.%紫薯富含丰富的花青素和硒元素,其营养价值和保健作用日益引起人们的高度关注。文章以紫薯饼干为基础,通过正交试验、感官鉴评确定最优配方和生产工艺为:紫薯粉25g、低筋面粉210g、糖粉80g、无盐黄油110g、蛋黄70g、奶粉40g,pH值为5.5。按照最优配方所研制的紫薯造型饼干具有良好的色泽和口感,更受大众喜爱。

  15. Purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) polyacetylenes decrease lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of inflammatory proteins in macrophage and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2008-05-28

    Carrots ( Daucus carota L.) contain phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolics, polyacetylenes, isocoumarins, and sesquiterpenes. Purple carrots also contain anthocyanins. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and phytochemicals from purple carrots was investigated by determining attenuation of the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A bioactive chromatographic fraction (Sephadex LH-20) reduced LPS inflammatory response. There was a dose-dependent reduction in nitric oxide production and mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) and iNOS in macrophage cells. Protein secretions of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were reduced 77 and 66% in porcine aortic endothelial cells treated with 6.6 and 13.3 microg/mL of the LH-20 fraction, respectively. Preparative liquid chromatography resulted in a bioactive subfraction enriched in the polyacetylene compounds falcarindiol, falcarindiol 3-acetate, and falcarinol. The polyacetylenes were isolated and reduced nitric oxide production in macrophage cells by as much as 65% without cytotoxicity. These results suggest that polyacetylenes, not anthocyanins, in purple carrots are responsible for anti-inflammatory bioactivity.

  16. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis Ciferri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyabrata Nanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001. All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India.

  17. The fecal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  18. Genetic mapping of resistance to purple seed stain in PI 80837 soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric Wayne; Feng, Chunda; Fenn, Patrick; Chen, Pengiun

    2008-01-01

    Purple seed stain (PSS) of soybean caused by Cercospora kikuchii is an important disease that reduces market grade and can affect seed germination and vigor. A single dominant gene was shown to confer PSS resistance in PI 80837. The objective of this research was to map the PSS resistance gene in PI 80837 using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A cross was made between the PSS-susceptible cultivar Agripro 350 (AP 350) and PI 80837. The F2 population and parents were grown in the field, and the resistance or susceptibility of individual plants was determined by assaying the seed for infection by C. kikuchii. DNA of parent and F2 plants was extracted for SSR analysis and mapping. Segregation ratios for seed infection and for SSR markers showed that a single dominant gene conditions resistance to PSS in PI 80837. The candidate resistance gene was mapped between Sat_308 (6.6 cM) and Satt594 (11.6 cM) on molecular linkage group G. These markers may be useful in marker-assisted selection for utilizing PSS resistance from PI 80837 in a breeding program.

  19. Pulsed-electric-field-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from purple-fleshed potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Cregenzán, Oliver; Luengo, Elisa; Alvarez, Ignacio; Raso, Javier

    2013-02-15

    The influence of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on the anthocyanin extraction yield (AEY) from purple-fleshed potato (PFP) at different extraction times (60-480 min) and temperatures (10-40°C) using water and ethanol (48% and 96%) as solvents has been investigated. Response surface methodology was used to determine optimal PEF treatment and optimise anthocyanin extraction. A PEF treatment of 3.4 kV/cm and 105 μs (35 pulses of 3 μs) resulted in the highest cell disintegration index (Z(p)=1) at the lowest specific energy requirements (8.92 kJ/kg). This PEF treatment increased the AEY, the effect being higher at lower extraction temperature with water as solvent. After 480 min at 40°C, the AEY obtained for the untreated sample using 96% ethanol as the solvent (63.9 mg/100 g fw) was similar to that obtained in the PEF-treated sample using water (65.8 mg/100 g fw). Therefore, PEF was possible with water, a more environmental-friendly solvent than ethanol, without decreasing the AEY from PFP.

  20. Acylated pelargonidin glycosides in the red-purple flowers of Pharbitis nil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, T S; Saito, N; Yokoi, M; Shigihara, A; Honda, T

    1992-01-01

    Four acylated pelargonidin glycosides and pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside were isolated from 23 red-purple cultivars of Pharbitis nil. The acylated anthocyanins were all based on pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside and were identified as the 3-O-[2-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-caffeyl)-beta-D- glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside), the 3-O-[2-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta- D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside), the 3-O-[2-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta- D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-caffeyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta- D-glucopyranoside); and the 3-O-[2-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-4-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D- glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)- beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D- glucopyranoside). By the analysis of these anthocyanin constituents variously in 23 cultivars, it was found that the red flower colour gradually changed into more bluish colour with increasing numbers of caffeic acid residues in the acylated pelargonidin glycosides. The stabilities of these anthocyanins increased in the order of increasing caffeyl substitution.

  1. Identification of natural red and purple dyes on textiles by Fiber-optics Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynez-Rojas, M. A.; Casanova-González, E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding dye chemistry and dye processes is an important issue for studies of cultural heritage collections and science conservation. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is a powerful technique, which allows preliminary dye identification, causing no damage or mechanical stress on the artworks subjected to analysis. Some information related to specific light scattering and absorption can be obtained in the UV-visible and infrared range (300-1400 nm) and it is possible to discriminate the kind of support fiber in the near infrared region (1000-2500 nm). The main spectral features of natural dye fibers samples, such as reflection maxima, inflection points and reflection minima, can be used in the differentiation of various red natural dyes. In this work, a set of dyed references were manufactured following Mexican recipes with red dyes (cochineal and brazilwood) in order to determine the characteristic FORS spectral features of fresh and aged dyed fibers for their identification in historical pieces. Based on these results, twenty-nine indigenous textiles belonging to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People of Mexico were studied. Cochineal and brazilwood were successfully identified by FORS in several pieces, as well as the mixture of cochineal and indigo for purple color.

  2. Identification of natural red and purple dyes on textiles by Fiber-optics Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynez-Rojas, M A; Casanova-González, E; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J L

    2017-02-09

    Understanding dye chemistry and dye processes is an important issue for studies of cultural heritage collections and science conservation. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is a powerful technique, which allows preliminary dye identification, causing no damage or mechanical stress on the artworks subjected to analysis. Some information related to specific light scattering and absorption can be obtained in the UV-visible and infrared range (300-1400nm) and it is possible to discriminate the kind of support fiber in the near infrared region (1000-2500nm). The main spectral features of natural dye fibers samples, such as reflection maxima, inflection points and reflection minima, can be used in the differentiation of various red natural dyes. In this work, a set of dyed references were manufactured following Mexican recipes with red dyes (cochineal and brazilwood) in order to determine the characteristic FORS spectral features of fresh and aged dyed fibers for their identification in historical pieces. Based on these results, twenty-nine indigenous textiles belonging to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People of Mexico were studied. Cochineal and brazilwood were successfully identified by FORS in several pieces, as well as the mixture of cochineal and indigo for purple color.

  3. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Marco, Gaetano Di [CNR, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Sede di Messina) Salita Sperone, C. da Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore Messina (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO{sub 2} films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J{sub sc}=3.84 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.340 V and fill factor=0.50. In the case of the extract of eggplant peels, the values determined were up to J{sub sc}=3.40 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.350 V and fill factor=0.40. Cyanidine-3-glucoside (cyanine) and delphinidin 3-[4-(p-coumaroyl)-L-rhamnosyl(1-6)-glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (nasunin) are the main pigments of cocktail dyes for red orange and eggplant, respectively. Actually, their application is far below the industrial requirements. Nevertheless, their study is an interesting multidisciplinary exercise useful for dissemination of knowledge and to educate people on renewable energy sources. Here, we report and discuss the role of the structure, the absorption spectra and the sensitization activity of the mentioned compounds. (author)

  4. Extractive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Lamivudine and Zidovudine in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using Bromocresol Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Evrim Kepekci Tekkeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method has been established for the quantitation of lamivudine (LVD and zidovudine (ZVD in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the reaction between the investigated drug substances and bromocresol purple (BCP producing ion-pair complexes in acidic buffers which are suitable for chloroform extraction. The maximum absorbance of these complexes was measured at 424 nm in chloroform. All variables were studied to optimize the reaction conditions. Linearity ranges were found to be 25–250 μg mL−1 for LVD-BCP and 50–300 μg mL−1 for ZVD-BCP. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. Excipients in pharmaceutical formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The results were compared statistically with those obtained by the HPLC method reported in the literature. According to the results, the proposed method can be recommended for quality control and routine analysis.

  5. A C-banded karyotype of mitotic chromosomes in diploid purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weizhen; Li, Qingling; Chen, Xiaolu; Ren, Yi; Chen, Rong; Wu, Hong; Yang, Yuesheng

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploid ermpglasm is an important resource for genetic studies and identification of individual chromosomes in the cells of the aneuploid is an important step. The karyotype has already been established for purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.), but due to the high similarity in the morphology of several pairs of chromosomes in this species, it cannot be used to identify individual chromosomes in its own complement. The objectives of this study are to develop and evaluate the Giemsa C-banding technique for the purpose of identifying the individual chromosomes in Echinacea purpurea. The established karyotype with C-bands showed that all the 11 pairs of chromosomes possessed centromeric bands. Telomeric bands appeared most frequently in almost all the chromosomes with only two exceptions, the short arm of the chromosome 9 and the long arm of the chromosome 10. Intercalary bands were found mainly in the long arm of some chromosomes with only two exceptions, the chromosomes 1 and 2 that had intercalary bands on both arms. The chromosome 4 was the only chromosome where intercalary bands were absent. Chromosomes in E. purpurea could be stained with Giemsa to bear C-bands. By classifying the chromosomes into groups and judging the C-bands, each chromosome could be identified. The methods established in this study might be used for the identification of chromosome constitution in aneuploid E. purpurea created in a breeding program.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of four homeobox genes from the purple sea star Pisaster ochraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassi, Giorgio; Imai, Janice Hitomi; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Homeobox genes cloned from the purple sea star Pisaster ochraceus (Phylum Echinodermata/Class Asteroidea) were used along with related sequences available from members of other representative animal phyla to generate molecular phylogenies for Distal-less/Dlx, Hox5, Hox7, and Hox9/10 homeobox genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred based on the predicted 60 amino acid homeodomain, using amino acid (AA) and nucleotide (NT) models as well as the recently developed codon substitution models of sequence evolution. The resulting phylogenetic trees were mostly congruent with the consensus species-tree, grouping these newly identified genes with those isolated from other Asteroidea. This analysis also allowed a preliminary comparison of the performance of codon models with that of NT and AA evolutionary models in the inference of homeobox phylogeny. We found that, overall, the NT models displayed low reliability in recovering major clades at the Superphylum/Phylum level, and that codon models were slightly more dependable than AA models. Remarkably, in the majority of cases, codon substitution models seemed to outperform both AA and NT models at both the Class level and homeobox paralogy-group level of classification.

  7. Anti-scourability of purple soil on hillslopes with different land uses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jianhui; LIU; Gangcai; NI; Shijun; ZHU; Bo; GE; Fanglong

    2003-01-01

    A large-scale flume (40 cm×10 cm×10 cm) was used to determine soil anti-scourability of 4 different land uses of purple soil in hilly areas of Sichuan, China under artificial removal of vegetation to examine the effects of land uses on sediment production by runoff. The results showed that soil anti-scourability declined with the increase of slope gradients in the form of power function, but there was a significant difference in the effects of slope gradients on anti-scourability between different land uses. The ratio of the mean values of soil anti-scourability was 1︰2.2︰2.5︰3.6 for forest land, new waste pasture, old waste pasture, crop land respectively, indicating that forest and grass use can significantly improve soil anti-scourability. Compared with the observations from the runoff plots located at the same sites in this region, an inconsistent result was found between anti-scourability and anti-erodibility in hilly areas of Sichuan. Essential causes of the differences in soil anti-scourability were further discussed based on analyzing the influence of inherent soil characteristics induced by different land uses on soil anti-scourability.

  8. DECOLORIZATION OF BROMOCRESOL PURPLE (BCP PHOTOINDUCED BY A Fe (III OXYHYDROXYDE (GOETHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S BELATTAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the decolorization of bromocresol purple (BCP using Fe (III oxyhydroxide (Goethite as an inducer. The mixture dye- Goethite in dark condition and ambient temperature, shows a reaction between the dye and the Fe (III oxyhydroxide. Indeed, the tracking of the reaction using UV-visible spectrophotometry showed a low decrease in the principal band of the dye. This reveal the existence of an interaction between the substrate and the Goethite whitch is important in acidic medium. The irradiation at 365 nm of mixture Goethite-BCP (1g.L-1- 10-4 M leads to a transformation of substrate. The decrease of the band at 432nm and the presence of an isosbestic point at 508 nm support the transformation of BCP.  The substrate kinetics disappearances are improved in acidic medium. The addition of hydrogen peroxide (5.10-3 mol.L-1 in a suspension of Goethite, accelerate significantly the rate of disappearance of the dye. Natural radiation tests showed that the degradation was faster than artificial one at 365 nm. Studies on mineralization using COD method certify that this method, compatible with the environment, may be considered in the treatment of wastewater.

  9. Characterisation of the LH2 spectral variants produced by the photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Picken, Nichola; Honkanen, Suvi; Kelly, Sharon; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Blankenship, Robert E; Shimizu, Yuuki; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; Cogdell, Richard J

    2014-11-01

    This study systematically investigated the different types of LH2 produced by Allochromatium (Alc.) vinosum, a photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium, in response to variations in growth conditions. Three different spectral forms of LH2 were isolated and purified, the B800-820, B800-840 and B800-850 LH2 types, all of which exhibit an unusual split 800 peak in their low temperature absorption spectra. However, it is likely that more forms are also present. Relatively more B800-820 and B800-840 are produced under low light conditions, while relatively more B800-850 is produced under high light conditions. Polypeptide compositions of the three different LH2 types were determined by a combination of HPLC and TOF/MS. The B800-820, B800-840 and B800-850 LH2 types all have a heterogeneous polypeptide composition, containing multiple types of both α and β polypeptides, and differ in their precise polypeptide composition. They all have a mixed carotenoid composition, containing carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin series. In all cases the most abundant carotenoid is rhodopin; however, there is a shift towards carotenoids with a higher conjugation number in LH2 complexes produced under low light conditions. CD spectroscopy, together with the polypeptide analysis, demonstrates that these Alc. vinosum LH2 complexes are more closely related to the LH2 complex from Phs. molischianum than they are to the LH2 complexes from Rps. acidophila.

  10. Viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of purple-rice drinks following ultrahigh pressure and pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how pressure (500, 600 MPa/20 min) altered the viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of germinated and non-germinated purple-rice drinks in comparison with pasteurization. Accordingly, color parameters, storage and loss moduli, anthocyanin content, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic compounds and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylthydrazyl (DPPH) capacity of the processed drinks were determined. The finding showed that germinated and pressurized rice drink had lower Browning Index than the non-germinated and pasteurized rice drink. The plots of storage and loss moduli for processed rice drinks indicated that time of pressurization had greater impact on gel structural modification than the level of pressure used. The phytochemicals, including total phenolics, and DPPH capacity in pressurized rice drinks retained higher quantity than those in pasteurized drink, despite less treatment effects on anthocyanin. On the contrary, both γ-oryzanol and GABA were found in high amounts in germinated rice drink with little variation among processing effects.

  11. Using genetically modified tomato crop plants with purple leaves for absolute weed/crop classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lati, Ran N; Filin, Sagi; Aly, Radi; Lande, Tal; Levin, Ilan; Eizenberg, Hanan

    2014-07-01

    Weed/crop classification is considered the main problem in developing precise weed-management methodologies, because both crops and weeds share similar hues. Great effort has been invested in the development of classification models, most based on expensive sensors and complicated algorithms. However, satisfactory results are not consistently obtained due to imaging conditions in the field. We report on an innovative approach that combines advances in genetic engineering and robust image-processing methods to detect weeds and distinguish them from crop plants by manipulating the crop's leaf color. We demonstrate this on genetically modified tomato (germplasm AN-113) which expresses a purple leaf color. An autonomous weed/crop classification is performed using an invariant-hue transformation that is applied to images acquired by a standard consumer camera (visible wavelength) and handles variations in illumination intensities. The integration of these methodologies is simple and effective, and classification results were accurate and stable under a wide range of imaging conditions. Using this approach, we simplify the most complicated stage in image-based weed/crop classification models. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Lipid composition of integral purple membrane by 1H and 31P NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Christian; Kessler, Brigitte; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    2005-08-01

    In the purple membrane (PM) of halobacteria, lipids stabilize the trimeric arrangement of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) molecules and mediate the packing of the trimers in a regular crystalline arrangement. To date, the identification and quantification of these lipids has been based either on lipid extraction procedures or structural models. By directly solubilizing PMs from Halobacterium salinarum in aqueous detergent solutions (SDS or Triton X-100), we avoided any separation or modification steps that might modify the lipid composition or even the lipid molecules themselves. Our analysis of integral PM preparations should resolve partially conflicting literature data on the lipid composition of the PM. Using 31P and 1H NMR of detergent-solubilized but otherwise untreated samples, we found two glycolipids and 6.4 +/- 0.1 phospholipids per BR molecule, 4.4 +/- 0.1 of the latter being the phosphatidylglycerophosphate methyl ester. The only glycolipid detected was S-TGD-1. For an additional glycolipid, glycocardiolipin, that was recently identified in lipid extracts, we show that it was produced mainly during the lipid extraction procedure but also was partially dependent on the preparation of the PM suspensions.

  13. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szantoi, Zoltan; Chappelka, Arthur H; Muntifering, Russell B; Somers, Greg L

    2007-11-01

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O3) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O3 in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O3 interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O3 effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent.

  14. Comparison of Yield and Content of Anthocyanin of Purple Corn of Different Combining Types%紫玉米不同组配方式的花青素含量及产量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史振声; 贾森

    2012-01-01

    以18个玉米自交系组配成的16个紫玉米杂交组合为试验材料,研究不同组配方式配制的紫玉米籽粒、穗轴、苞叶、雄穗花青素含量及花青素产量.结果表明:(1)不同组配方式的紫玉米籽粒花青素含量、籽粒产量及籽粒花青素产量差异均较大.深紫玉米×深紫玉米,花青素含量最高;深紫非糯玉米×糯玉米,籽粒产量最高;深紫玉米×深紫玉米,籽粒花青素产量最高.(2)深紫玉米×深紫玉米,穗轴花青素含量、花青素产量最高;非紫苞叶×深紫苞叶,紫玉米苞叶花青素含量、花青素产量最高;非紫雄穗×深紫雄穗,紫玉米雄穗花青素含量、花青素产量最高.(3)穗轴花青素含量与籽粒花青素含量呈极显著正相关;雄穗花青素含量与苞叶花青素含量呈极显著正相关.(4)紫玉米花青素总产量(籽粒、稳轴、苞叶、雄穗)为:深紫×深紫>深紫×浅紫>非紫×深紫>浅紫×非紫;籽粒花青素产量对总花青素产量贡献最大.%Content and yield of anthocyanin in grain, cob, bract and tassel of purple corn of different combining types were studied using 16 purple corn hybrids grouped by 18 maize inbred lines. The results showed that;l. Differences of content of grain anthocyanin, grain yield and grain anthocyanin yield of purple corn of different combining types were all great. Content of anthocyanin of Deep Purple corn × Deep Purple corn was the highest; grain yield of Deep Purple non-waxy corn × waxy corn was the highest; yield of grain anthocyanin of Deep Purple corn × Deep Purple corn was the highest. 2. Yield and content of cob anthocyanin of Deep Purple corn x Deep Purple corn were both the highest; content and yield of bract anthocyanin of Purple non-bract corn x Deep Purple bract corn were both the highest; content and yield of tassel anthocyanin of Purple non-tassel corn × Deep Purple tassel corn were both the highest. 3. Content of cob and grain

  15. Unusual phenolic compounds contribute to ecophysiological performance in the purple-colored green alga zygogonium ericetorum (zygnematophyceae, streptophyta) from a high-alpine habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Siegfried; Remias, Daniel; Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    The filamentous green alga Zygogonium ericetorum (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) was collected in a high-alpine rivulet in Tyrol, Austria. Two different morphotypes of this alga were found: a purple morph with a visible purple vacuolar content and a green morph lacking this coloration. These morphotypes were compared with respect to their secondary metabolites, ultrastructure, and ecophysiological properties. Colorimetric tests with aqueous extracts of the purple morph indicated the presence of soluble compounds such as phenolics and hydrolyzable tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography-screening showed that Z. ericetorum contained several large phenolic peaks with absorption maxima at ∼280 nm and sometimes with minor maxima at ∼380 nm. Such compounds are uncommon for freshwater green microalgae, and could contribute to protect the organism against increased UV and visible (VIS) irradiation. The purple Z. ericetorum contained larger amounts (per dry weight) of the putative phenolic substances than the green morph; exposure to irradiation may be a key factor for accumulation of these phenolic compounds. Transmission electron microscopy of the purple morph showed massive vacuolization with homogenous medium electron-dense content in the cell periphery, which possibly contains the secondary compounds. In contrast, the green morph had smaller, electron-translucent vacuoles. The ecophysiological data on photosynthesis and desiccation tolerance indicated that increasing photon fluence densities led to much higher relative electron transport rates (rETR) in the purple than in the green morph. These data suggest that the secondary metabolites in the purple morph are important for light acclimation in high-alpine habitats. However, the green morph recovered better after 4 d of rehydration following desiccation stress.

  16. Anodic and cathodic microbial communities in single chamber microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghio, Matteo; Gandolfi, Isabella; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Franzetti, Andrea; Guerrini, Edoardo; Cristiani, Pierangela

    2015-01-25

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a rapidly growing technology for energy production from wastewater and biomasses. In a MFC, a microbial biofilm oxidizes organic matter and transfers electrons from reduced compounds to an anode as the electron acceptor by extracellular electron transfer (EET). The aim of this work was to characterize the microbial communities operating in a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell (SCMFC) fed with acetate and inoculated with a biogas digestate in order to gain more insight into anodic and cathodic EET. Taxonomic characterization of the communities was carried out by Illumina sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Microorganisms belonging to Geovibrio genus and purple non-sulfur (PNS) bacteria were found to be dominant in the anodic biofilm. The alkaliphilic genus Nitrincola and anaerobic microorganisms belonging to Porphyromonadaceae family were the most abundant bacteria in the cathodic biofilm.

  17. 葡萄皮紫色素的稳定性研究%Extraction and Stability of the Purple Pigment in Grape Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective The extraction and stability of Purple pigment in Grape Skin were studied. Methods The Grape Skin was taken as raw material with the 80%ethanol extracted Grape skin purple pigment, and its stability had been done more through research. Results The purple pigment is purple cream, fragrant air, not dissolve in chloroform, hardly dissolve in acetone, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, dissolve in methanol, ethanol, easy to dissolve in water;The stability of this purple pigment was good when pH is within 3.0~6.0;Fe3+, Cu2+, Fe2+on the purple is known as a certain impact, Ba2+, Mn2+, Ca2+, K+has little effect to the purple pigment;The stability of the purple pigment got worse under the light;the pur-ple pigment did not react too much to the preservative;purple pigment removal capacity than Vc weak DPPH free radical. Conclusion Purple pigment in the grape skin during the actual production application should pay attention to adjust pH, dark storage, avoid to use of iron containers;preservatives on the purple pigment of no significant impact;purple pigment has some antioxidant activity.%目的 探讨葡萄皮紫色素的提取及其稳定性.方法 以葡萄皮为原料,采用80%乙醇提取葡萄皮紫色素,并对其稳定性做较深入研究.结果 葡萄皮紫色素为紫色膏状,气芳香,不溶于氯仿,难溶于丙酮、乙醚、乙酸乙酯,溶于甲醇、乙醇,易溶于水;在pH值=3~6时,葡萄皮紫色素稳定性好;Fe3+、Cu2+、Fe2+对紫色素有一定影响,Ba2+、Mn2+、Ca2+、K+对紫色素影响不大;光对紫色素有降解作用;防腐剂对紫色素稳定性影响不显著;紫色素清除DPPH自由基能力比维生素C弱.结论 葡萄皮紫色素在实际生产过程中应注意调节pH值,避光贮存,避免使用铁制容器;防腐剂对紫色素无显著影响;紫色素具有一定的抗氧化性.

  18. Bacteria-surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuson, Hannah H; Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-05-14

    The interaction of bacteria with surfaces has important implications in a range of areas, including bioenergy, biofouling, biofilm formation, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes in the expression of genes that influence cell morphology and behavior, including genes essential for motility and surface attachment. Despite the attention that these phenotypes have garnered, the bacterial systems used for sensing and responding to surfaces are still not well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complement studies of the physiology of bacteria in contact with surfaces. Recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering are poised to guide future investigations in this area. This review summarizes recent studies on bacteria-surface interactions, discusses mechanisms of surface sensing and consequences of cell attachment, provides an overview of surfaces that have been used in bacterial studies, and highlights unanswered questions in this field.

  19. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

    1982-01-01

    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  20. Mycophagous soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnick, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Soil microorganisms evolved several strategies to compete for limited nutrients in soil. Bacteria of the genus Collimonas developed a way to exploit fungi as a source of organic nutrients. This strategy has been termed “mycophagy&r

  1. Nano-structure of the cristobalite and tridymite stacking sequences in the common purple opal from the Gevrekseydi deposit, Seyitömer-Kütahya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Hatipoğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The strata that include the fine purple opal formations examined in this paper from the magmagenetic hydrothermal dis solutions. The opals are locally known as Gevrekseydi purple opals. These opal-bearing strata are deposited in volcanic lavas and tuffs in the Seyitömer-Kütahya region of western Turkey. The purple opals are common-type and attractive gem-quality, and they are sold on the worldwide gem markets. We conducted mineralogical investigations to clarify their silica building components, measure their nano-size, and determine their origins. The opals are an opal-CT (opal-cristobalite/tridymite- type silica polymorph with the variable number of cristobalite and tridymite layers. The cristobalite and tridymite stacking sequences were evaluated in terms of maturation, crystallite size, and genesis of the opaline silica material. These sequences are modelled using X-ray diffraction patterns. The relationship between the crystallite size and full width at half maximum values of the Gevrekseydi purple opals were also examined using X-ray diffraction patterns. The crystallite sizes were found to be L=17 nm for the main opal-CT peak (4.09 Å, L=23 nm for the shoulder opal-CT peak (4.29 Å, and L=27 nm for the opal-CT/C peak (2.51 Å. Given the relationship between the crystallite size and maturation of opal-CT, the Gevrekseydi volcanic common purple opals are most likely in a stage of early to mid maturation

  2. Spatial and temporal sensitivity of purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B.P.; Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) are commonly used in toxicity tests on the west coast for permit monitoring and other applications. They have variable spawning seasons that usually peak in the winter months, but recent work suggests sea urchins can be kept in spawning condition year-round. In this study adult broodstock sea urchins were kept in spawning condition in the laboratory. The gametes from these animals were used in fertilization and larval development experiments designed to assess temporal variability in response to zinc sulfate over a year-long period. The results of these tests were compared to concurrent experiments using gametes from a wild population. Similar tests were conducted comparing urchins from three geographically isolated groups on the west coast. Fertilization tests for the temporal study produced variable EC50`s ranging from 4.1 mg/l to > 100 {micro}g/l zinc. Urchins demonstrated decreased sensitivity during summer months with lab animals showing a more dramatic trend. Larval development tests resulted in EC50`s averaging 107.4 {+-} 21.9 {micro}g/l zinc for laboratory urchins and 97.2 {+-} 19.2 {micro}g/l zinc for wild urchins. Interpopulation larval development results were not significantly different. EC50`s were 133.0 {+-} 19.2 {micro}g/l for Newport, Oregon urchins, 116.1 {+-} 16.8 {micro}g/l for Carmel, California, and 94.3 {+-} 28.8 {micro}g/l for San Diego, California. Similar variability was encountered in the interpopulation fertilization tests. Methods to reduce fertilization test variability have been investigated, and will be discussed in terms of sperm to egg ratios and sperm collection techniques.

  3. [Dynamic characteristics of phosphorus in purple paddy soil and its environmental Impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-ping; Shi, Xiao-jun

    2008-02-01

    The dynamic characteristics of phosphorus (P) in the surface water and runoff of paddy field with different P fertilizing treatments were investigated using the field experiment under the independent irrigation system as well as its environmental impact. The results showed that the concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in the surface water increased as the fertilizing amounts enhanced and reached the peak values after 24 h for all treatments in range of 0.928-3.824 mg/L. And the fluctuation of TP concentration in surface water was drastic during the first 30 days with the average contents of 0.259-1.433 mg/L which exceeded the critic values of eutrophication. Therefore, the field managements such as inter-tillage and drainage should be avoided during the time. After 40 days, the TP concentration declined slowly and then came to stabilization with low values after 60 days. The contents of different P forms in the runoff water increased with the improved amounts of precipitation and fertilizing and above 50% was dissolved phosphorus (DP). The DP was the dominant one in the P loss of the purple paddy soil and the loss load changed between 0.358 and 2.579 kg/hm2. Additionally, the P loss more easily occurred for the treatment of utilizing the cattle manure than that of straw, approximately 40% of loss load higher. Both the loss load and apparent P loss ratio evidently declined with the treatment of fertilizer combined with straw, suggesting that it was the better measure for reducing the P loss in the paddy field.

  4. Distribution and Transformation of Native and Added Ni Fractions in Purple Soils from Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUCONG

    1996-01-01

    The distribution and transformation of added and native Ni in purple soils were investigated with both sequential extraction procedure and isotopic tracer technique.The distribution of added and native Ni was greatly dependent on soil properties.Low soil pH was favorable for soluble plus exchangeable(EX) Fraction,while Fe/Mn oxides and clay for Fe/Mn oxide bound(OX) and residual(RES) fractions.The added Ni,however,has not yet reached the distribution equilibrium up to the 150th day after incubation.This was reflected in the fact that the proportion of EX fraction from added Ni was 150%-600% as much as that of native Ni,while that of RES fraction was only about 80%,Once entering soil,the applied soluble Ni was rapidly transformed into other fractions,but the organic complexe (OM) fraction of added Ni was relatively stable during incubation.The carbonate bound(CAB)fraction showed a progressive increase and attained a peak value after 0-14d of incubation and thereafter decreased gradually.The occurrence time of this peak advanced as initial soil pH increased.but the peak would disappear when initial soil pH was higher than 7.5(or containing free CaCO3).The transformation processes of the EX,OX and RES fractions could be described by Elovich and two-constant rate equations,and the rate were positively correlated with soil pH,CEC and clay.These finding could explain why there are differences in ecological and environmental effects of Ni in different soils and at various intervals.

  5. Morphological and physiological responses of lowland purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) to flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Rolly G.; Baltazar, Aurora M.; Merca, Florinia E.; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Johnson, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is a major weed of upland crops and vegetables. Recently, a flood-tolerant ecotype evolved as a serious weed in lowland rice. This study attempted to establish the putative growth and physiological features that led to this shift in adaptation. Methodology Tubers of upland C. rotundus (ULCR) and lowland C. rotundus (LLCR) ecotypes were collected from their native habitats and maintained under the respective growth conditions in a greenhouse. Five experiments were conducted to assess the variation between the two ecotypes in germination, growth and tuber morphology when grown in their native or ‘switched’ conditions. Carbohydrate storage and mobilization, and variation in anaerobic respiration under hypoxia were compared. Principal results Tubers of LLCR were larger than those of ULCR, with higher carbohydrate content, and larger tubers developed with increasing floodwater depth. Stems of LLCR had larger diameter and proportionally larger air spaces than those of ULCR: a method of aerating submerged plant parts. The LLCR ecotype can also mobilize and use carbohydrate reserves under hypoxia, and it maintained relatively lower and steadier activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as a measure of sustained anaerobic respiration. In contrast, ADH activity in ULCR increased faster upon a shift to hypoxia and then sharply decreased, suggesting depletion of available soluble sugar substrates. The LLCR ecotype also maintained lower lactate dehydrogenase activity under flooded conditions, which could reduce chances of cellular acidosis. Conclusions These adaptive traits in the LLCR ecotype were expressed constitutively, but some of them, such as tuber growth and aerenchyma development, are enhanced with stress severity. The LLCR ecotype attained numerous adaptive traits that could have evolved as a consequence of natural evolution or repeated management practices, and alternative strategies are necessary because

  6. Investigation of Detector Behaviour At High Count Rates for the Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, R. J.; McCullough, E. M.; Jalali, A.; Hartery, S.; Farhani, G.; Argall, P.; Argall, S.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature measurements in the middle and upper atmosphere are an important complement to similar measurements in the lower atmosphere. Even modest size Rayleigh-scatter lidars are capable of high quality measurements of temperature in the stratosphere (above 25 km) and lower mesosphere. The most commonly reported uncertainty, that due to counting statistics, is well understood and affects temperatures at the greatest heights (i.e. lowest signal rates). Counting statistics have a lesser effect on temperatures at the lower range of measurements, where the photocount rate is larger. However, if a lidar's dynamic range is increased by combining analog and digital counting profiles into a 'glued' profile, the gluing introduces a systematic uncertainty. In this presentation we will show the effect of the uncertainty due to gluing on our temperature measurements. The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL), located at the The University of Western Ontario's Echo Base Field Station near London, Canada, has undergone considerable modifications to its transmitter (now a Litron Nd:YAG laser outputting 1 J/pulse at 532 nm with a repetition rate of 30 Hz) as well as to its data acquisition system. The PCL has retained its 2.6 m diameter liquid mercury mirror, giving the system a large power-aperture product. Such a large throughput requires simultaneous analog-digital detection to obtain Rayleigh-scatter temperatures from 25 to above 100 km. The analog and digital profiles must be combined into a single continuous profile, a process called gluing. Several excellent methods for gluing profiles have been presented, but prior to now systematic uncertainties due to the procedure have not been quantified. We will present a detailed characterization of the analog and digital counting channels, using a variety of tests which will show the effect of the gluing procedure on the retrieved temperature.

  7. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K; Holm, Preben B; Welinder, Karen G; Jørgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-07-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains.

  8. 紫淮山凝胶软糖的研制%Development of Purple Yam Gel Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 梁远毅; 许晓婷

    2014-01-01

    以新鲜紫淮山,白砂糖,葡萄糖为主要原料,通过对凝胶剂的复配及紫淮山软糖生产工艺的研究,得出制取紫淮山软糖的最佳配方为:紫淮山浆10%,凝胶剂5%(琼脂∶明胶=2∶1,质量比)白砂糖25%,葡萄糖10%;确定在50℃条件下干燥2 h后继续在45℃条件下干燥22 h,得到的紫淮山软糖质地柔软、组织细腻、口感滑润,保留了紫淮山特有的风味及营养价值。%Panocha was developed using fresh purple yam,white sugar and glucose as maimaterials,and gelata mix and the processing technology were studied in this paper.The best formula was purple yam slurry 10%,gel 5%(agar and gelatin than 2∶1),White sugar 25%glucose 10%;Determinating to dry for 2 h in 50℃conditions and dry for 22 h at the conditions of 45 ℃. The gel candy was soft,delicate tissue,smooth taste,retaining the unique flavor of the purple yam and the nutritional value.

  9. WATER EXTRACT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO TUBERS REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE 0F HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED BY NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE JAWI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Compliance of hypertensive patients to take medication is one of many determinant factors to achieve successful treatment. Side effects and the expensive price of drugs are the causes of the incompliance of patients taking the medication. Utilization of herbal medicine is a new hope to resolve the issue. Purple sweet potato tuber is a plant part that expected has beneficial effect in lowering blood pressure because it contains anthocyanins which are antioxidants and can preserve endothelial function. To prove these hypothesis, a study was conducted with randomized control group pre and post-test design. The  study was done on 20 adult male Wistar rats that were divided into two groups of 10 rats.  Both groups of rats were made hypertensive by administering high doses of NaCl. Control group of rats given only NaCl alone for 14 days. Treatment group were given NaCl and water extract of purple sweet potato tuber with a dose of 4 cc per day for 14 days. Before treatment and during treatment, blood pressure were taken everyday with special sphygmomanometer. The results indicate a significant difference in blood pressure between the control group with treatment (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in blood pressure compared to the control group (P=0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of purple sweet potato tuber water extract may lower high blood pressure of rats induced by NaCl.

  10. [Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Speciation of Pb in Purple Soil and Soil Solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-15

    Lead (Pb) in purple soil was selected as the research target, using one-step extraction method with 0.01 mol · L⁻¹ sodium nitrate as the background electrolyte to study the release effect of citric acid (CA), tartaric acid (TA) and acetic acid (AC) with different concentrations. Sequential extraction and geochemical model (Visual Minteq v3.0) were applied to analyze and predict the speciation of Pb in soil solid phase and soil solution phase. Then the ebvironmental implications and risks of low-molecule weight organic acid (LMWOA) on soil Pb were analyzed. The results indicated that all three types of LMWOA increased the desorption capacity of Pb in purple soil, and the effect followed the descending order of CA > TA > AC. After the action of LMWOAs, the exchangeable Pb increased; the carbonate-bound Pb and Fe-Mn oxide bound Pb dropped in soil solid phase. Organic bound Pb was the main speciation in soil solution phase, accounting for 45.16%-75.05%. The following speciation of Pb in soil solution was free Pb, accounting for 22.71%-50.25%. For CA and TA treatments, free Pb ions and inorganic bound Pb in soil solution increased with increasing LMWOAs concentration, while organic bound Pb suffered a decrease in this process. An opposite trend for AC treatment was observed compared with CA and TA treatments. Overall, LMWOAs boosted the bioavailability of Pb in purple soil and had a potential risk to contaminate underground water. Among the three LMWOAs in this study, CA had the largest potential to activate soil Pb.

  11. The red, purple and blue modifications of polymeric unsymmetrical hydroxyalkadiynyl-N-arylcarbamate derivatives in Langmuir-Schaefer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, Alexander, E-mail: alexanderalekseev@yandex.ru [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Ihalainen, Petri, E-mail: petri.ihalainen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku FI-20500 (Finland); Ivanov, Artem [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Domnin, Ivan [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, Vera; Orekhov, Anton [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Lemmetyinen, Helge; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere FI-33101 (Finland); Peltonen, Jouko [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku FI-20500 (Finland); Vyaz' min, Sergey [Laboratory of Nanobiotechnologies, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    Solid topochemical photopolymerization (STP) of Langmuir-Schaefer films of a new class of unsymmetrical diynes, containing N-arylcarbamate groups in the hydrophobic part and hydroxymethylene groups in the hydrophilic part of the molecules was examined. In addition, the monomeric Langmuir monolayer formation was studied by Brewster angle microscopy and the surface morphology of monomer and polymer films on solid substrates were studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Three phases of polydiacetylene (PDA) (red, purple and blue) were observed after UV-light polymerization of above-mentioned films of alcohol diacetylene (DA) derivatives. The substitution of MeO group in the aryl ring substituent by hydrogen atom and the variation of the methylene group number in the hydrophobic part from 5 to 6 changed significantly the result of STP: instead of blue phase PDA observed for diynes with MeO group, the red phase PDA was observed for DA with H-atom from the very beginning of diyne film UV irradiation. For two other diynilic N-arylcarbamates of identical chemical structures except of the substituents in the aryl ring of hydrophobic parts of the molecules, no changes in the efficiency of polymerization or the position and shape of absorption bands were observed. This indicated the formation of the purple phase PDA. For these molecules, the number of methylene groups in hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of the molecules was 9 and 2, respectively. - Highlights: • STP reaction of diacetylenes in LS films depends on number and ratio of CH{sub 2} groups. • Three phases of polydiacetylene (red, purple and blue) were observed in LS films. • Structural organization of the monomer film determines the type of polymer phase.

  12. Effect of organic matter and calcium carbonate on behaviors of cadmium adsorption-desorption on/from purple paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiulan; Jiang, Tao; Du, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Batch experiments and sequential extraction analysis were employed to investigate the effects of soil organic matter and CaCO3 on the adsorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd(2+)) onto and from two purple paddy soils, an acidic purple paddy soil (APPS) and a calcareous purple paddy soil (CPPS). The Cd(2+) adsorption isotherms on both soils could be well-described by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. CPPS had a higher capacity and a stronger affinity for Cd(2+) adsorption compared with APPS. The adsorption process of Cd(2+) on APPS was dominated by electrostatic attractions, whereas the adsorption mechanism varied depending on the Cd(2+) concentrations in equilibrium solutions on CPPS. At low equilibrium concentrations, the adsorption process was primarily specific adsorption, but nonspecific adsorption dominated at high equilibrium concentrations. Removal of organic matter decreased the amount of Cd(2+) adsorption on both of the soils, slightly affected the Cd(2+) desorption rate and exchangeable Cd (EXC-Cd) in APPS and increased the desorption rate and EXC-Cd in CPPS, suggesting that the effect of organic matter on Cd(2+) adsorption-desorption depends on the soils. CPPS and APPS containing CaCO3 exhibited higher adsorption amounts but lower desorption rates and lower proportions of EXC-Cd than those of their corresponding soils without CaCO3, demonstrating that CaCO3 played an important role in Cd(2+) specific adsorption on soil. The changes in the thermodynamic parameters, including free energy (ΔG(0)), enthalpy (ΔH(0)) and entropy (ΔS(0)), as evaluated by the Van't Hoff equations, indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process with the primary interaction forces of dipole interactions and hydrogen bonds on APPS, whereas both physical and chemical interactions dominated the adsorption on CPPS.

  13. Purple urine bag syndrome: Case report from a nursing home resident with a false alarm of urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Faisal, A H; Shathiskumar, G; Nurul Izah, A

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS), as the name implies produces purplish discoloration of the urine. It is commonly observed among elderly women with constipation, and individuals with long term catheter in the setting of urinary tract infection (UTI). From the literature research, there were no publications on PUBS in Malaysia; however we believe that it is underreported. We present a unique case of this rare condition occurring in a 68-year-old man, a nursing home resident on long term urinary catheter. The urine cleared after hydration, antibiotic therapy and replacement of the catheter.

  14. Is Your ATM Dispensing Bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162067.html Is Your ATM Dispensing Bacteria? Study in New York City found most of ... keypads in New York City were covered in bacteria, researchers reported, with most of the microbes coming ...

  15. Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; FANG Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives,textiles, pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria,including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  16. Genomics of oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Margaret J

    2003-01-01

    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators' ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbiology research community has benefited through projects for oral bacteria and their non-oral-pathogen relatives. This review describes features of several oral bacterial genomes, and emphasizes the themes of species relationships, comparative genomics, and lateral gene transfer. Genomics is having a broad impact on basic research in microbial pathogenesis, and will lead to new approaches in clinical research and therapeutics. The oral microbiota is a unique community especially suited for new challenges to sequence the metagenomes of microbial consortia, and the genomes of uncultivable bacteria.

  17. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  18. South-Seeking Magnetic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschvink, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria, originally discovered by Blakemore (1975), are by far the most convincing and abundant example of magnetically sensitive organisms in existence. Their magnetite crystals passively align the bacteria with the earth's magnetic field like a 3-dimensional compass (Frankel et al. 1979). These microaerophilic bacteria normally live in the soupy, oxygen-poor mud/water transition zone in many freshwater and marine environments. If the mud is disturbed so that the bacteria are ...

  19. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B.; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the fre...

  20. Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Deng, Xiaoxiao; Park, Kun-Young; Qiu, Lihua; Pang, Liang

    2013-02-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice.

  1. 紫甘薯乳酸菌饮料工艺技术研究%Study on the Technology of Purple Sweet Potato Yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄和升; 王海平

    2015-01-01

    以紫甘薯和鲜乳为主要原料,研制紫甘薯活性乳酸菌饮料。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定紫甘薯乳酸菌饮料的最佳工艺条件为:发酵时间6.5 h、柠檬酸的添加量0.4%、白砂糖添加量8%、紫甘薯添加量20%,所得产品质地均匀,口感细腻,酸甜可口,具有紫甘薯的香味和浓郁的乳酸菌发酵的奶香味,理化指标和微生物指标均符合国家标准GB 16321-2003《乳酸菌饮料卫生标准》。%Purple sweet potato lactobacillus drink was made by making use of fresh milk and purple sweet potato. On the basis of single factor experiments ,process Condition was optimizated through a orthogonal experiments.Results showed that the optimal process parameters were as follows:fermentation time 6.5 h , citric acid 0.4%,sugar 8%,purple sweet potato20%.Purple sweet potato lactobacillus drink has refreshing taste , pure flavor, sweet and sour taste, of lactobacillus drink and purple sweet potat. The quality of purple sweet potato lactobacillus drink was in accordance with GB 16321-2003.

  2. Pepsin homologues in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman Alex

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidase family A1, to which pepsin belongs, had been assumed to be restricted to eukaryotes. The tertiary structure of pepsin shows two lobes with similar folds and it has been suggested that the gene has arisen from an ancient duplication and fusion event. The only sequence similarity between the lobes is restricted to the motif around the active site aspartate and a hydrophobic-hydrophobic-Gly motif. Together, these contribute to an essential structural feature known as a psi-loop. There is one such psi-loop in each lobe, and so each lobe presents an active Asp. The human immunodeficiency virus peptidase, retropepsin, from peptidase family A2 also has a similar fold but consists of one lobe only and has to dimerize to be active. All known members of family A1 show the bilobed structure, but it is unclear if the ancestor of family A1 was similar to an A2 peptidase, or if the ancestral retropepsin was derived from a half-pepsin gene. The presence of a pepsin homologue in a prokaryote might give insights into the evolution of the pepsin family. Results Homologues of the aspartic peptidase pepsin have been found in the completed genomic sequences from seven species of bacteria. The bacterial homologues, unlike those from eukaryotes, do not possess signal peptides, and would therefore be intracellular acting at neutral pH. The bacterial homologues have Thr218 replaced by Asp, a change which in renin has been shown to confer activity at neutral pH. No pepsin homologues could be detected in any archaean genome. Conclusion The peptidase family A1 is found in some species of bacteria as well as eukaryotes. The bacterial homologues fall into two groups, one from oceanic bacteria and one from plant symbionts. The bacterial homologues are all predicted to be intracellular proteins, unlike the eukaryotic enzymes. The bacterial homologues are bilobed like pepsin, implying that if no horizontal gene transfer has occurred the duplication

  3. PEMANFAATAN UBI JALAR UNGU (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir SEBAGAI PENGGANTI SEBAGIAN TEPUNG TERIGU DAN SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN PADA ROTI TAWAR [Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir as a Partial Subtitute of Wheat flour and Source of Antioxidant on Plain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir is potential for functional food, especially as antioxidant source due to its purple color and other nutrient content. The objective of this research was to produce plain bread containing antioxidant by partial substitution of wheat flour with purple sweet potato flour. The result showed that the best plain bread was produced by a maximum substitution of 20% purple sweet potato flour to wheat flour. The hedonic characteristics of the resulting bread including aroma, taste, and texture were not significantly different from bread without substitution. Nevertheless, the crust was harder and darker. Addition of 1.0% GMS emulsifier and reduction of purple potato flour to 15% increased the score of softness, hedonic texture, acceptance level, as well as the volume of the bread. The substituted bread had antioxidant activity of 55833.78 ppm DPPH as shown by the IC50 value and contained 4.30% of dietary fiber.

  4. Research advances on natural purple corm pigment%天然黑玉米色素研究与应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金亭

    2013-01-01

    Purple corn pigment is anthocyanins,a kind of natural pigment from the purple corm plant,purple corm cob and purple seed,which is a kind of safety,not poisonous edible. It clearly had antioxidant activity,anti–tumor,anti–aging,reducing blood pressure,regulating blood lipids and blood glucose level and so on. The purple corm pigment was extracted in acid solvent,containing 9 anthocyanins at least and the main active components of red pigment was anthocyanins–3–glucoside. Purple corn pigment is a type of existing natural food additives,and can be used to color for food, medicine,cosmetics,dyes and other industries.Based on the latest research results of home and abroad in recent 10 years,the extraction process,the chemical constitution,the physic–chemical property,the biological active functions,and application of purple corm pigment were summarized. This information may lead to a reference value in depth study,the comprehensive development and application of the purple corm pigment.%  黑玉米色素是从黑色玉米植株、玉米芯和玉米籽粒中提取花青苷,是一种安全、无毒天然食用色素;黑玉米色素呈有良好抗氧化活性,并具抗肿瘤、延缓衰老、降血压、调节血脂、降血糖等功能。黑玉米色素以酸性溶剂提取,其至少含有9种花色苷,主要活性物质为花青素–3–葡萄糖苷;黑玉米色素作为天然食品添加剂,可用于食品、药品、化妆品、染色剂等。该文综述黑玉米色素化学结构、理化性质、提取工艺及应用价值,对加强该色素深入研究和开发利用具有一定参考价值。

  5. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  6. Stark absorption spectroscopy on the carotenoids bound to B800-820 and B800-850 type LH2 complexes from a purple photosynthetic bacterium, Phaeospirillum molischianum strain DSM120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Tomoko; Qian, Pu; Hunter, C Neil; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-04-15

    Stark absorption spectroscopy was applied to clarify the structural differences between carotenoids bound to the B800-820 and B800-850 LH2 complexes from a purple photosynthetic bacterium Phaeospirillum (Phs.) molischianum DSM120. The former complex is produced when the bacteria are grown under stressed conditions of low temperature and dim light. These two LH2 complexes bind carotenoids with similar composition, 10% lycopene and 80% rhodopin, each with the same number of conjugated CC double bonds (n=11). Quantitative classical and semi-quantum chemical analyses of Stark absorption spectra recorded in the carotenoid absorption region reveal that the absolute values of the difference dipole moments |Δμ| have substantial differences (2 [D/f]) for carotenoids bound to either B800-820 or B800-850 complexes. The origin of this striking difference in the |Δμ| values was analyzed using the X-ray crystal structure of the B800-850 LH2 complex from Phs. molischianum DSM119. Semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations predict structural deformations of the major carotenoid, rhodopin, bound within the B800-820 complex. We propose that simultaneous rotations around neighboring CC and CC bonds account for the differences in the 2 [D/f] of the |Δμ| value. The plausible position of the rotation is postulated to be located around C21-C24 bonds of rhodopin.

  7. Alleviation of Copper Toictiy to Maize by Phosphours Fertilizer in Purple Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZHENGYIN; CHENYUCHENG

    1997-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of phosphours fertilizer in inhibiting the copper toxicity to maizce(Zea mays L.) in neutral purple soil.Results indicated that the growth of the shoot and roots of maize plant was obviously reduced by copper and the height and biomass were significantly negatively correlated to the application levels of copper(r=-0.899**--0.994**) at no P and low P(100 mg kg-1).However,the maize biomass was relatively increased and the high Cu(100 and 200 mg kg-1) induced toxicity of maize was greatly alleviated in all treatments with medium P( 300mg kg-1) and high P (500mg kg-1). to maintain the normal growth of miaze plant(≥3.68 g pot-1),the critical application rates of phosphours fertilizer shouled be 160,210,300 and 500 mg P kg-1 at 10,50,100 and 200mg Cu kg-1 levels of the soil,respectively,The increases in polyphenol oxdase and catalase activities in maize leaf and dehydrogenase activity in roots by phosphorus fertilizer were in the order of medium P>high P>low P>no P.Activites of polyphenol oxidase an catalase were significantly positively correlated to the application levels of copper(r=0.892**-0.924**),whereas that of edhydrogenase was just rvers(r=-0.966**) at no P.Medium and high P represed the influence of copper on activities of three enzymes.Phosphorus fertilizer reduced the copper concentrations of maize roots and leaf and the change ranges of the P/Cu ratio of miaze roots and the P/Cu,N/Cu and K/Cu ratios of maize leaf ,The three ratios of maize leaf were 253±71.5 ,2643±839 and 1133±440 at normal growth of maize plant. respectively,Soil avaiable Cu could be markedly cut down by application of phosphours fertilizer ,especiallly at hight phosphorus level.

  8. Extending and Merging the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatologies Using the Inversion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Ali; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    Rayleigh and Raman scatter measurements from The University of Western Ontario Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) have been used to develop temperature climatologies for the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere using data from 1994 to 2013 (Rayleigh system) and from 1999 to 2013 (vibrational Raman system). Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the methods by Hauchecorne and Chanin (1980; henceforth HC) and Khanna et al. (2012). Argall and Sica (2007) used the HC method to compute a climatology of the PCL measurements from 1994 to 2004 for 35 to 110 km, while Iserhienrhien et al. (2013) applied the same technique from 1999 to 2007 for 10 to 35 km. Khanna et al. (2012) used the inversion technique to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles and found that it had advantages over the HC method. This paper presents an extension of the PCL climatologies created by Argall and Sica (2007) and Iserhienrhien et al. (2013). Both the inversion and HC methods were used to form the Rayleigh climatology, while only the latter was adopted for the Raman climatology. Then, two different approaches were used to merge the climatologies from 10 to 110 km. Among four different functional identities, a trigonometric hyperbolic relation results in the best choice for merging temperature profiles between the Raman and Low level Rayleigh channels, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.9 K for merging temperatures. Also, error function produces best result with uncertainty of 0.7 K between the Low Level Rayleigh and High Level Rayleigh channels. The results show that the temperature climatologies produced by the HC method when using a seed pressure are comparable to the climatologies produced by the inversion method. The Rayleigh extended climatology is slightly warmer below 80 km and slightly colder above 80 km. There are no significant differences in temperature between the extended and the previous Raman channel climatologies. Through out

  9. Extending and Merging the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatologies Using the Inversion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh and Raman scatter measurements from The University of Western Ontario Purple Crow Lidar (PCL have been used to develop temperature climatologies for the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere using data from 1994 to 2013 (Rayleigh system and from 1999 to 2013 (vibrational Raman system. Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the methods by Hauchecorne and Chanin (1980; henceforth HC and Khanna et al. (2012. Argall and Sica (2007 used the HC method to compute a climatology of the PCL measurements from 1994 to 2004 for 35 to 110 km, while Iserhienrhien et al. (2013 applied the same technique from 1999 to 2007 for 10 to 35 km. Khanna et al. (2012 used the inversion technique to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles and found that it had advantages over the HC method. This paper presents an extension of the PCL climatologies created by Argall and Sica (2007 and Iserhienrhien et al. (2013. Both the inversion and HC methods were used to form the Rayleigh climatology, while only the latter was adopted for the Raman climatology. Then, two different approaches were used to merge the climatologies from 10 to 110 km. Among four different functional identities, a trigonometric hyperbolic relation results in the best choice for merging temperature profiles between the Raman and Low level Rayleigh channels, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.9 K for merging temperatures. Also, error function produces best result with uncertainty of 0.7 K between the Low Level Rayleigh and High Level Rayleigh channels. The results show that the temperature climatologies produced by the HC method when using a seed pressure are comparable to the climatologies produced by the inversion method. The Rayleigh extended climatology is slightly warmer below 80 km and slightly colder above 80 km. There are no significant differences in temperature between the extended and the previous Raman channel climatologies

  10. 紫薯电热加温育苗技术%Seedling Technology of Purple Sweet Potato using Electric Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈相波; 张萍; 魏伟; 龚礼萍; 欧阳昌东

    2014-01-01

    紫薯发芽难、发芽慢,造成紫薯种植中低产、低效。采用电热加温育苗,提早紫薯播种育苗,可有效解决薯块发芽难问题,提高紫薯发芽率以及育苗产率。早播促早发,早发促早栽,早栽促丰产、高效。%It was difficult for purple sweet potato to germinate and sprout quickly which caused the low output and efficiency in its plantation. The application of seedling technology by electric heating solved the problem effectively, which could speed up the process of sprouting for purple sweet potato seeds, and could improve its sprouting rate and seedling rate. In a word, early sowing shortened the sprouting time, then the seeding can be planted early to ensure the high yield and efficiency.

  11. Low-concentration, continuous brachial plexus block in the management of Purple Glove Syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Verghese T

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Purple Glove Syndrome is a devastating complication of intravenous phenytoin administration. Adequate analgesia and preservation of limb movement for physiotherapy are the two essential components of management. Case presentation A 26-year-old Tamil woman from India developed Purple Glove Syndrome after intravenous administration of phenytoin. She was managed conservatively by limb elevation, physiotherapy and oral antibiotics. A 20G intravenous cannula was inserted into the sheath of her brachial plexus and a continuous infusion of bupivacaine at a low concentration (0.1% with fentanyl (2 μg/ml at a rate of 1 to 2 ml/hr was given. She had adequate analgesia with preserved motor function which helped in physiotherapy and functional recovery of the hand in a month. Conclusion A continuous blockade of the brachial plexus with a low concentration of bupivacaine and fentanyl helps to alleviate the vasospasm and the pain while preserving the motor function for the patient to perform active movements of the finger and hand.

  12. The combined extract of purple waxy corn and ginger prevents cataractogenesis and retinopathy in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiraphatthanavong, Paphaphat; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee; Lertrat, Kamol; Suriharn, Bhalang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the crucial roles of oxidative stress and aldose reductase on diabetic complications and the protective effect against diabetic eye complication of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG) together with the synergistic effect concept, we aimed to determine anticataract and antiretinopathy effects of the combined extract of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG). The streptozotocin diabetics with the blood glucose levels >250 mg·dL(-1) were orally given the extract at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg·BW(-1) for 10 weeks. Then, lens opacity and histopathology of retina were determined. The changes of MDA together with the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and AR in lens were also determined using biochemical assays. All doses of PWCG decreased lens opacity, MDA, and AR in the lens of diabetic rats. The elevation of CAT and GPx activities was also observed. The antiretinopathy property of the combined extract was also confirmed by the increased number of neurons in ganglion cell layer and thickness of total retina and retinal nuclear layer in diabetic rats. PWCG is the potential functional food to protect against diabetic cataract and retinopathy. However, further studies concerning toxicity and clinical trial are still essential.

  13. A novel method: ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Chinese purple yam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Zong, Aizhen; Xu, Tongcheng; Zhan, Ping; Liu, Lina; Qiu, Bin; Liu, Wei; Jia, Min; Du, Fangling; Tian, Honglei

    2017-08-24

    Chinese purple yam is famous for therapeutic and nutritional values in lowering blood glucose, blood pressure and even preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases. However, traditional extraction techniques for the functional polyphenolic compounds mostly utilise unfriendly organic solvent and easily cause degradation of polyphenols. In this study, a novel ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction (IL-UAE) technique was utilised to obtain polyphenols. The optimal extraction condition included: solid-liquid ratio (0.05 g/mL), ionic liquid concentration (1.05 M), extraction temperature (67°C) and ultrasonic time (37 min). The maximum free radical scavenging activity (86.21%) and total antioxidant activity (2.21 mM) were achieved and matched well with the predicted values, superior to that of the extract from regular ethanol-based UAE. IL-UAE could be a rapid and green technique for efficient extraction of polyphenols from purple yam with low solvent consumption and few structural deterioration, exhibiting application potential in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from purple sweet potato using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Guan, Qingyan; Guo, Ying; He, Jingren; Liu, Gang; Li, Shuyi; Barba, Francisco J.; Jaffrin, Michel Y.

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of valuable components (anthocyanins and phenolics) from purple sweet potatoes using water as a solvent. The Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing extraction responses of anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption. Conditions to obtain maximal anthocyanin extraction yield, maximal phenolic extraction yield, and minimal specific energy consumption were different; an overall desirability function was used to search for overall optimal conditions: extraction temperature of 68ºC, ultrasonic treatment time of 52 min, and a liquid/solid ratio of 20. The optimized anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption were 4.91 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, 3.24 mg g-1 fresh weight, and 2.07 kWh g-1, respectively, with a desirability of 0.99. This study indicates that ultrasound-assisted extraction should contribute to a green process for valorization of purple sweet potatoes.

  15. Mechanisms of purple moor-grass (Molinia caerulea) encroachment in dry heathland ecosystems with chronic nitrogen inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Uta, E-mail: uta.friedrich@leuphana.de [Institute of Ecology, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany); Oheimb, Goddert von, E-mail: vonoheimb@uni-lueneburg.de [Institute of Ecology, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany); Dziedek, Christoph, E-mail: dziedek@leuphana.de [Institute of Ecology, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany); Kriebitzsch, Wolf-Ulrich, E-mail: wolf.kriebitzsch@vti.bund.de [Institute for World Forestry, Johann Heinrich von Thuenen Institute (vTI), Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Leuschnerstrasse 91, 21031 Hamburg (Germany); Selbmann, Katharina, E-mail: katharina_selbmann@web.de [Institute of Ecology, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany); Haerdtle, Werner, E-mail: haerdtle@uni-lueneburg.de [Institute of Ecology, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We analysed growth strategies (biomass allocation, nutrient sequestration and allocation) of heather (Calluna vulgaris) and purple moor-grass (Molinia caerulea) seedlings in monocultures and mixtures in relation to N, P, and N + P fertilisation in a greenhouse experiment in order to simulate a heath's pioneer phase under high airborne nitrogen (N) loads. N fertilisation increased the total biomass of both species in monocultures. In mixtures, M. caerulea sequestered about 65% of the N applied, while C. vulgaris suffered from N shortage (halving of the total biomass). Thus, in mixtures only M. caerulea will benefit from airborne N loads, and competition will become increasingly asymmetric with increasing N availability. Our results demonstrate that the heath's pioneer phase is the crucial tipping point at which the competitive vigour of M. caerulea (high belowground allocation, efficient use of belowground resources, shortened reproductive cycles) induces a shift to dominance of grasses under increased N availability. - Highlights: > M. caerulea seedlings sequestered about 65% of the N applied in mixtures. > M. caerulea seedlings stronger respond to N fertilisation than older plants do. > C. vulgaris seedlings halved their biomass in mixtures as a result of N shortage. > In mixtures, only M. caerulea will benefit from airborne N loads. - The present study indicates that the heath's pioneer phase is the crucial tipping point at which a shift to dominance of purple moor-grass occurs under increased N availability.

  16. Bacteria counting method based on polyaniline/bacteria thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihua, Li; Xuetao, Hu; Jiyong, Shi; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Xucheng, Zhou; Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Holmes, Mel; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-07-15

    A simple and rapid bacteria counting method based on polyaniline (PANI)/bacteria thin film was proposed. Since the negative effects of immobilized bacteria on the deposition of PANI on glass carbon electrode (GCE), PANI/bacteria thin films containing decreased amount of PANI would be obtained when increasing the bacteria concentration. The prepared PANI/bacteria film was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique to provide quantitative index for the determination of the bacteria count, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed to further investigate the difference in the PANI/bacteria films. Good linear relationship of the peak currents of the CVs and the log total count of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) could be established using the equation Y=-30.413X+272.560 (R(2)=0.982) over the range of 5.3×10(4) to 5.3×10(8)CFUmL(-1), which also showed acceptable stability, reproducibility and switchable ability. The proposed method was feasible for simple and rapid counting of bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Investigation and Lifetime Estimating on Non-sulfurized Chlorinate Polyethylene Waterproof Roll Material%非硫化型氯化聚乙烯(CPE)防水卷材耐热老化性能研究及寿命估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹本飞; 苑会林; 杨晋娜; 王新星; 牛萍

    2011-01-01

    This article was to research the thermal aging performance effect of Chlorcosane , Carbon black and Light quality magnesia on the Non-sulfurized chlorinate polyethylene waterproof roll material. Stretcher, TGA and Fourier transformation infrared spectrum were used to test the sample and the lifetime of the best compounding was estimated by thermal gravity analysis(TGA). The result showed that migration of plasticizer was the major factor of heat deterioration, The optimal ratio of chlorinate polyethylene was 15phr; Light quality MgO did nothing to heat stabilizer performance, and lowered the ageing-resistant performance of chlorinate polyethylene. Carbon black had the aging-resistant performance to some extent. By way of Doyle and Zsako' integral method of dynamic TG method, its heat degradation dynamic mechanism was got, and the formula was selected to analyse thermal degradation dynamically , calculate the dynamic parameters such as degradation activation energy E and frequency factor A,and the relation equation between temperature and lifetime was deduced. Due to the experimental data, its life cycie was estimated to be about 59 years.%为了研究阻燃增塑剂氯化石蜡、增强剂炭黑N330、轻质氧化镁对CPE防水卷材热老化性能的影响规律,对老化前后的试样进行拉伸、热重分析(TGA)和红外光谱分析等测试,并运用非等温动态热重分析法对最优配方的防水卷材进行寿命估算.结果表明:增塑剂迁移是CPE防水卷材热老化的主要因素,氯化石蜡的最佳用量是15份;轻质氧化镁在非硫化热塑性橡胶中没有热稳定的作用,反而降低了防水卷材耐热老化性能;炭黑N330具有防热老化的作用;运用动态热重法的Doyle和Zsako'积分法判断其老化反应机理并计算出反应活化能E和频率因子A等动力学参数,进而计算出卷材使用寿命与温度的关系.由实验数据估算,CPE防水卷材的使用寿命在59年左右.

  18. [Formation of 55-kDa Fragments under Impaired Coordination Bonds and Hydrophobic Interactions in Peripheral Light-Harvesting Complexes Isolated from Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solov'ev, A A; Erokhin, Y E

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography was used to assess the relative size of intact and diphenylamine-treated (DPA, with suppressed carotenoid synthesis) peripheral light-harvesting complexes (LH2 complexes) of the sulfurbacterium Allochromatium minutissimum. Both LH2 complexes were nonamers and had the same elution volume V(e), coinciding with that for the LH2 complex of Rhodoblastus acidophilus (strain 10050). Their molecular mass was 150 kDa. Bot pheophytinization of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) at low pH and treatment with the detergent LDAO, affecting the hydrophobic interactions between the neighboring protomers, result in the fragmentation of the ring of the isolated LH2 complexes and formation of 55-kDa fragments with molecular masses corresponding to one-third of the initial value. Fragmentation caused by both pheophytinization and detergent treatment was much more rapid in DPA-treated LH2 complexes than in the intact ones. The 55-kDa fragments formed at low pH values contained monomeric bacteriopheophytin, while the fragments of a similar molecular mass formed at pH 8.0 in the presence of the detergent contained monomeric BChl. The observed fragmentation was hypothesized to reflect the inherent C3 symmetry of the LH2 complexes, with the preliminarily assembled trimers used as building blocks.

  19. Preferential incorporation of coloured-carotenoids occurs in the LH2 complexes from non-sulphur purple bacteria under carotenoid-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Andrew; Henry, Sarah; Takaichi, Shinichi; Robert, Bruno; Cogdell, Richard J

    2005-11-01

    The effect of growing Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) acidophila and Rps. palustris in the presence of different concentrations of the carotenoid (Car) biosynthetic inhibitor diphenylamine (DPA) has been investigated. Growth with sub-maximal concentrations of DPA induces Car limitation. The exact response to DPA is species dependent. However, both Rps. acidophila and Rps. palustris respond by preferentially incorporating the limiting amount of coloured Cars into their LH2 complexes at the expense of the RC-LH1 complexes. As inhibition by DPA becomes more severe there is an increase in the percentage of Cars with reduced numbers of conjugated C=C bonds. The effect of this changed Car composition on the structure and function of the antenna complexes has been investigated using absorption, fluorescence, CD and Raman spectroscopies. The results show that although the presence of Car molecules is important for the stability of the LH2 complexes that the overall native structure can be maintained by the presence of many different Cars.

  20. Brotes germinados y bacterias

    OpenAIRE

    García Olmedo, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Ante la confusión y el revuelo asociados al último incidente causado por una cepa de la bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) en Alemania, tal vez no esté de más esta carta para recordar y actualizar escritos míos anteriores aparecidos en Revista de Libros sobre los riesgos alimentarios en general y sobre los peligros de dicho microorganismo en particular. 1 . Aunque es cierto que la proporción de cepas peligrosas de E. coli es quizás inferior a la de delincuentes entre los humanos, exi...

  1. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-03-15

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny.

  2. Chemical communication in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suravajhala, Srinivasa Sandeep; Saini, Deepak; Nott, Prabhu

    Luminescence in Vibrio fischeri is a model for quorum-sensing-gene-regulation in bacteria. We study luminescence response of V. fischeri to both internal and external cues at the single cell and population level. Experiments with ES114, a wild-type strain, and ainS mutant show that luminescence induction in cultures is not always proportional to cell-density and there is always a basal level of luminescence. At any given concentration of the exogenously added signals, C6-HSL and C8-HSL, luminescence per cell reaches a maximum during the exponential phase and decreases thereafter. We hypothesize that (1) C6-HSL production and LuxR activity are not proportional to cell-density, and (2) there is a shift in equilibrium from C6-HSL to C8-HSL during the later stages of growth of the culture. RT-PCR analysis of luxI and luxR shows that the expression of these genes is maximum corresponding to the highest level of luminescence. The shift in equilibrium is shown by studying competitive binding of C6-HSL and C8-HSL to LuxR. We argue that luminescence is a unicellular behaviour, and an intensive property like per cell luminescence is more important than gross luminescence of the population in understanding response of bacteria to chemical signalling. Funding from the Department of Science and Technology, India is acknowledged.

  3. Replication Restart in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Bénédicte; Sandler, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    In bacteria, replication forks assembled at a replication origin travel to the terminus, often a few megabases away. They may encounter obstacles that trigger replisome disassembly, rendering replication restart from abandoned forks crucial for cell viability. During the past 25 years, the genes that encode replication restart proteins have been identified and genetically characterized. In parallel, the enzymes were purified and analyzed in vitro, where they can catalyze replication initiation in a sequence-independent manner from fork-like DNA structures. This work also revealed a close link between replication and homologous recombination, as replication restart from recombination intermediates is an essential step of DNA double-strand break repair in bacteria and, conversely, arrested replication forks can be acted upon by recombination proteins and converted into various recombination substrates. In this review, we summarize this intense period of research that led to the characterization of the ubiquitous replication restart protein PriA and its partners, to the definition of several replication restart pathways in vivo, and to the description of tight links between replication and homologous recombination, responsible for the importance of replication restart in the maintenance of genome stability. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. 牛蒡紫山药发酵香肠的研究%Study on sausage fermented with burdock and purple yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2014-01-01

    Burdock and purple yam were added into fermented sausage to develop burdock purple yam fermented sausage. Through response surface analysis, the optimum main raw material ratio of bur-dock purple yam fermented sausage was defined ( compare with pork quality 100%) . The result showed that burdock, purple yam and soybean protein isolate was 4. 0%, 8. 0% and 9. 4%, respectively.%在发酵香肠中添加牛蒡及紫山药等原料研制牛蒡紫山药发酵香肠。利用响应面分析实验的方法优化并选择了牛蒡紫山药发酵香肠的主要原料配比(以猪肉质量为100%计)为∶牛蒡粉4.0%,紫山药粉8.0%,大豆分离蛋白9.4%。

  5. 紫木节高岭土选矿试验研究%Experimental Research of Mineral Processing on Purple Kibushi Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌燕; 张格; 王琪; 陆康

    2015-01-01

    内蒙古鄂尔多斯煤系高岭土,因含有较多腐殖质、炭质而呈紫褐色,又称紫木节高岭土。以鄂尔多斯紫木节高岭土为研究对象,对其进行除铁增白试验研究。采用“捣浆-磁选-漂白”工艺流程,可使高岭土煅烧白度由59.49%提高到85.87%,Fe2O3含量从1.38%降到0.74%,达到搪瓷工业一级高岭土(TT-1)的标准。%Inner Mongolia Erdos coal kaolin, because it contains more humus and carbonaceous which make it show the purple-brown, it also called purple kibushi kaolin. The Erdos purple kibushi kaolin was determined as the object of study, and it’s iron removal and bleaching experiments were studied. The use of “chopped-magnetic-bleaching” process, allows Erdos purple kibushi kaolincalcined whiteness increase from 59.49% to 85.87%, the content of Fe2O3 down from 1.38%to 0.74%, and it reaches the ifrst standard of enamel industry.

  6. 凝固型紫红薯酸奶制备工艺的研究%Production technology of solidified purple sweet potato yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓锦坚; 刘唤明

    2011-01-01

    The solidified purple sweet potato yogurt was fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the paper using purple sweet potato, defatted milk powder and sugar as raw materials.The optimal fermentation conditions were obtained by single factors and orthogonal experiments as follows: the mass ratio of purple sweet potato to water 2:8, sugar 8%, inoculum 4% and fermentation time 6h.Under these conditions, the solidified purple sweet potato yogurt was rich in anthocyanin.%以紫红薯、脱脂奶粉和白糖为原料,采用保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌发酵研制凝固型紫红薯酸奶.通过单因素试验验和正交试验优化,确定了凝固型紫红薯酸奶的制备工艺.试验表明,最佳紫红薯酸奶发酵条件为紫红薯与水按2:8的质量比、8%白砂糖、接种量4%及发酵时间6h,可生产出富含花青素的凝固型紫红薯酸奶.

  7. On the mechanism of action of soybean lipoxygenase-1. A stopped-flow kinetic study of the formation and conversion of yellow and purple enzyme species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Egmond, M.R.; Fasella, P.M.; Veldink, G.A.; Boldingh, J.

    1977-01-01

    1. The conversion of the native iron-containing lipoxygenase-1 into yellow and purple ferric enzyme species by 13-L-hydroperoxy-9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoic acid (R-13-OOH) was studied by measuring the absorbance changes at 330 nm and 580 nm, respectively in the stopped-flow apparatus. The

  8. Calling patterns of Western purple-faced langurs (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidea: Trachypithecus vetulus nestor) in a degraded human landscape in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschmann, C.; Moore, R.; Nekaris, K.A.I.

    2008-01-01

    The study of calling patterns is a useful non-invasive method for determining population densities and the taxonomic relationships of rare or cryptic animal species. The Western purple-faced langur Trachypithecus vetulus nestor, endemic to Sri Lanka’s lowland rainforests, is severely impacted by for

  9. Influence of cations on the blue to purple transition of bacteriorhodopsin. Comparison of Ca2+ and Hg2+ binding and their effect on the surface potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duñach, M; Seigneuret, M; Rigaud, J L; Padrós, E

    1988-11-25

    We have investigated the effect of Ca2+ and Hg2+ binding on various properties of the blue membrane prepared by deionization of the Halobacterium halobium purple membrane. Binding of radioactive 45Ca2+ and 203Hg2+ was monitored by a filtration technique. Five high and medium affinity sites for Ca2+ and seven low affinity sites for Hg2+ were found per bacteriorhodopsin. Competitive binding was observed only for three Ca2+ and three Hg2+. Visible absorption studies indicated that Ca2+ binding could restore the purple color of bacteriorhodopsin while Hg2+ was inefficient. Hg2- could partially reverse to blue the Ca2+-regenerated purple membrane in parallel with the displacement of three Ca2+. Effects of cation binding on the surface potential of the membrane were measured by Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy using a cationic spin-labeled amphiphile. Cations such as La3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, or Na+ strongly increased (i.e. rendered less negative) the surface potential. An univocal correlation was found between the cation-induced variation of surface potential and the extent of regeneration of the purple color. Hg2+ induced a smaller increase in surface potential than that corresponding to the effective divalent cations. This lower effect appears to be due to binding to sites not related to those of other cations.

  10. Biotechnology application of organic mulch as an alternative to the plastic mulch-methyl bromide system for suppressing purple and yellow nutsedges in tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus (purple and yellow nutsedges, respectively) are among the most serious weed problems in many cropping systems in Florida and other parts of the world. They have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in various horticultural crops. Production systems based o...

  11. Experiment and Application of Baojing Purple Sand from Hunan for Pottery Fabrication%湖南保靖县紫砂陶成瓷试验及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳小胜; 袁勇; 江良; 饶宗旺; 朱俊

    2011-01-01

    对湖南省保靖县的紫砂陶进行了化学成分分析以及瓷坯配方的试验,确定了优化配方。其中利用当地原料(含紫砂陶、镁质粘土)的用量,高达80%,生产出具有热稳定性高、造型新颖、美观且有良好保健作用的紫砂陶制品,从而为湖南保靖县大量开发紫砂陶矿提供了科学依据。%Chemical composition of purple sand from Bojing,Hunan was analyzed,and then the optimized body formula was obtained through experiments.Finally the purple sand pottery products with high thermal stability,novel shapes and good health effects were produced with 80% local materials(including purple sand and magnesia clay),which can provide technological reference for the utilization of purple sand from Baojing,Hunan.

  12. 紫红薯膳食纤维漂白工艺研究%Studies on the Bleaching Technology of Purple Ipomoea batatas Dietary Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少福; 蒋艳; 上官新晨; 沈勇根; 徐嘉琪; 罗娟

    2011-01-01

    为了得到色泽较浅的紫红薯膳食纤维,以样品的白度为指标,采用单因素和正交优化试验对H2O2漂白紫红薯膳食纤维的工艺进行研究.结果表明:将紫红薯膳食纤维用40 g/L H2O2溶液按1:15调成浆,pH值调整为10.0,在60 ℃的水浴中保温处理180 min,样品的白度值达到85.39%.%In order to obtain lighter -color purple lpomoea batatas dietary fiber, taking whiteness of the sample as an indicator, the bleaching technology of the purple lpomoea batatas dietary fibers was researched by H202 method. The optimum technologic parameters of the purple Ipomoea batatas IDF bleaching was obtained with single -factor and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that: 1:15 proportion of purple lpomoea batatas IDF to H2O2 solution, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide was 40 g/L, pH 10, temperature 60 ℃, time 180 min. Its brightness reached 85.39%.

  13. High mature grain phytase activity in the Triticeae has evolved by duplication followed by neofunctionalization of the purple acid phosphatase phytase (PAPhy) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holme, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The phytase activity in food and feedstuffs is an important nutritional parameter. Members of the Triticeae tribe accumulate purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhy) during grain filling. This accumulation elevates mature grain phytase activities (MGPA) up to levels between ~650 FTU/kg for barley...

  14. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubouzet Joseph G

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. Results B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H. The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. Conclusions B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean

  15. 葡萄皮紫色素的稳定性研究%Extraction and Stability of the Purple Pigment in Grape Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective The extraction and stability of purple pigment in grape skin were studied. Methods The grape skin as raw material was extracted with the 80% ethanol, and its stability had been done research. Results The purple pigment is purple cream, not dissolve in chloroform, hardly in acetone, dissolve in methanol, ethanol, easy in water; The stability was good when pH is within 3.0~6.0;Fe3+, Cu2+, Fe2+on the purple is known as a certain impact;The stability got worse under the light;it did not react too much to the preservative;purple pigment removal capacity than Vc weak DPPH. Conclusion Purple pigment during the appli-cation should pay attention to adjust pH, dark storage, avoid to use of iron containers;purple pigment has some antioxidant activity.%目的:研究葡萄皮紫色素的提取及其稳定性。方法以葡萄皮为原料,采用80%乙醇提取,并对其稳定性做较深入研究。结果葡萄皮紫色素为紫色膏状,不溶于氯仿,难溶于丙酮、乙醚、乙酸乙酯,溶于甲醇、乙醇,易溶于水;在pH=3~6时,稳定性好;Fe3+、Cu2+、Fe2+对其有一定影响;光照对紫色素有降解作用;防腐剂对其影响不显著;紫色素清除DPPH的能力比Vc弱。结论葡萄皮紫色素在应用过程中应注意调节pH值,避光贮存,避免使用铁制容器;防腐剂对紫色素无显著影响;紫色素具有一定的抗氧化性。

  16. Immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2007-01-01

    Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are part of the commensal intestinal flora and considered beneficial for health, as they compete with pathogens for adhesion sites in the intestine and ferment otherwise indigestible compounds. Another important property of these so-called probiotic bacteria...... with bacteria, and the cytokine pattern induced by specific bacteria resembled the pattern induced in MoDC, except for TNF-alpha and IL-6, which were induced in response to different bacteria in blood DC/monocytes and monocyte-derived DC. Autologous NK cells produced IFN-gamma when cultured with blood DC......, monocytes and monocyte-derived DC and IL-12-inducing bacteria, whereas only DC induced IFN-gamma production in allogeneic T cells. In vitro-generated DC is a commonly used model of tissue DC, but they differ in certain aspects from intestinal DC, which are in direct contact with the intestinal microbiota...

  17. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...

  18. The 5S ribosomal RNAs of Paracoccus denitrificans and Prochloron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. M.; Salgado, D.; Bonen, L.; Doolittle, W. F.; Stackebrandt, E.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNAs of Paracoccus denitrificans and Prochloron sp. are presented, along with the demonstrated phylogenetic relationships of P. denitrificans with purple nonsulfur bacteria, and of Prochloron with cyanobacteria. Structural findings include the following: (1) helix II in both models is much shorter than in other eubacteria, (2) a base-pair has been deleted from helix IV of P. denitrificans 5S, and (3) Prochloron 5S has the potential to form four base-pairs between residues. Also covered are the differences between pairs of sequences in P. denitrificans, Prochloron, wheat mitochondion, spinach chloroplast, and nine diverse eubacteria. Findings include the observation that Prochloron 5S rRNA is much more similar to the 5S of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans (25 percent difference) than either are to any of the other nine eubacterial 5S rRNAs.

  19. Phosphoribulokinase mediates nitrogenase-induced carbon dioxide fixation gene repression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    In many organisms there is a balance between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. These observations extend to the nitrogen-fixing, nonsulfur purple bacteria, which have the classic family of P(II) regulators that coordinate signals of carbon and nitrogen status to regulate nitrogen metabolism. Curiously, these organisms also possess a reverse mechanism to regulate carbon metabolism based on cellular nitrogen status. In this work, studies in Rhodobacter sphaeroides firmly established that the activity of the enzyme that catalyses nitrogen fixation, nitrogenase, induces a signal that leads to repression of genes encoding enzymes of the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) CO2 fixation pathway. Additionally, genetic and metabolomic experiments revealed that NADH-activated phosphoribulokinase is an intermediate in the signalling pathway. Thus, nitrogenase activity appears to be linked to cbb gene repression through phosphoribulokinase. PMID:26306848

  20. Melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchester, Lucien C; Coto-Montes, Ana; Boga, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is remarkably functionally diverse with actions as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant, circadian rhythm regulator, anti-inflammatory and immunoregulating molecule, and as an oncostatic agent. We hypothesize that the initial and primary function of melatonin in photosynthetic...... cyanobacteria, which appeared on Earth 3.5-3.2 billion years ago, was as an antioxidant. The evolution of melatonin as an antioxidant by this organism was necessary as photosynthesis is associated with the generation of toxic-free radicals. The other secondary functions of melatonin came about much later...... in evolution. We also surmise that mitochondria and chloroplasts may be primary sites of melatonin synthesis in all eukaryotic cells that possess these organelles. This prediction is made on the basis that mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes developed from purple nonsulfur bacteria (which also produce...

  1. Neural network modeling of the light profile in a novel photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Peña, R; Alcaraz-González, V; González-Álvarez, V; Snell-Castro, R; Méndez-Acosta, H O

    2014-06-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was implemented to model the light profile pattern inside a photobioreactor (PBR) that uses a toroidal light arrangement. The PBR uses Tequila vinasses as culture medium and purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris as biocatalyzer. The performance of the ANN was tested for a number of conditions and compared to those obtained by using deterministic models. Both ANN and deterministic models were validated experimentally. In all cases, at low biomass concentration, model predictions yielded determination coefficients greater than 0.9. Nevertheless, ANN yielded the more accurate predictions of the light pattern, at both low and high biomass concentration, when the bioreactor radius, the depth, the rotational speed of the stirrer and the biomass concentration were incorporated in the ANN structure. In comparison, most of the deterministic models failed to correlate the empirical data at high biomass concentration. These results show the usefulness of ANNs in the modeling of the light profile pattern in photobioreactors.

  2. Bacteria transport under unsaturated conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gargiulo, Grazia

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the bacteria transport behaviour in different conditions using an unsaturated porous media. A column based system able to keep the unsaturated conditions was designed and developed to perform the experiments. Two bacteria strains Deinococcus radiodurans and Rhodococcus rhodochrous strongly different in hydrophobicity were employed. During the experiments the bacteria concentration in the outflow was continuously on-line measured and after the experiment the c...

  3. Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutikow, F.M. (All-Union Research Inst. for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms, Moscow, USSR); Bespalova, I.A.; Rebentish, B.A.; Aleksandrushkina, N.N.; Krivisky, A.S.

    1980-10-01

    Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria have been found in 16 out of 88 studied samples (underground waters, pond water, soil, gas and oil installation waters, fermentor cultural fluids, bacterial paste, and rumen of cattle) taken in different geographic zones of the Soviet Union. Altogether, 23 phage strains were isolated. By fine structure, the phages were divided into two types (with very short or long noncontractile tails); by host range and serological properties, they fell into three types. All phages had guanine- and cytosine-rich double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid consisting of common nitrogen bases. By all of the above-mentioned properties, all phages within each of the groups were completely identical to one another, but differed from phages of other groups.

  4. Bacteria, phages and septicemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Gaidelyte

    Full Text Available The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.

  5. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  6. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of an anthocyanin-rich gene, BnaA.PL1, conferring purple leaves in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Zhu, Lixia; Yuan, Gaigai; Heng, Shuangping; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Because of the advantages of anthocyanins, the genetics and breeding of crops rich in anthocyanins has become a hot research topic. However, due to the lack of anthocyanin-related mutants, no regulatory genes have been mapped in Brassica napus. In this study, we first report the characterization of a B. napus line with purple leaves and the fine mapping and candidate screening of the BnaA.PL1 gene. The amount of anthocyanins in the purple leaf line was six times higher than that in a green leaf line. A genetic analysis indicated that the purple character was controlled by an incomplete dominant gene. Through map-based cloning, we localized the BnaA.PL1 gene to a 99-kb region at the end of B. napus chromosome A03. Transcriptional analysis of 11 genes located in the target region revealed that the expression level of only the BnAPR2 gene in seedling leaves decreased from purple to reddish green to green individuals, a finding that was consistent with the measured anthocyanin accumulation levels. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of BnAPR2 showed that the purple individual-derived allele contained 17 variants. Markers co-segregating with BnaA.PL1 were developed from the sequence of BnAPR2 and were validated in the BC4P2 population. These results suggested that BnAPR2, which encodes adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is likely to be a valuable candidate gene. This work may lay the foundation for the marker-assisted selection of B. napus vegetables that are rich in anthocyanins and for an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling anthocyanin accumulation in Brassica.

  7. A Historical View of Purple-clay Teapot in a New Era%曙光:新生时期的紫砂壶历史管窥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Since the founding of People’s Republic of China in 1949, the production of purple-clay teapot has been revitalized after a dul period. Shushan Pottery Producers’ Cooperative in Yixing as wel as purple-clay-teapot factories has also been set up. Meanwhile, Wang Yinchun, zhu Kexin, Wu Yungen, Ren Ganting, Gu Jingzhou and Jiang Rong, the master craftsmen of purple-clay teapot, have came into the ceramic factories to hand down their craftsmanship to the younger generations. They served as the backbone of the cause of rejuvenating purple-clay art in a new era. Moreover, some renowned painters and professors have also exerted great influences on the new style of purple-clay teapot.%  新中国建立后,紫砂壶生产在经过一段时期的沉寂与萎缩之后重新获得了生机,并筹建了宜兴蜀山陶业生产合作社,成立了紫砂工厂,这一时期,王寅春,朱可心,吴云根,任淦庭,顾景舟,蒋蓉等七位紫砂老艺人都进入工厂执教授徒,成为推动紫砂艺术在新时期的复兴的中坚力量,同时,一些知名画家、教授的参与也对紫砂壶新风格的产生影响卓著。

  8. 追梦紫砂遗韵——对舞蹈创作与江苏紫砂文化的研究%In Pursuit of the Charm of Purple Ceramic:A Research of Dance Works and Purple Ceramic Culture in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩淑英; 阴晓晓

    2011-01-01

    以紫砂文化中的紫砂壶为契机,从中提炼舞蹈元素,建构一个以紫砂壶为载体的舞蹈,以此表达创作者对江南文化的深刻感悟和独特体会。利用舞蹈,表现塑形、装饰、煅烧和敬茶四个具有鲜明特点的制壶阶段。%Set in a purple ceramic background,dance elements can be derived from the purple ceramic pots and a dance work based on such pots can therefore be created,with which dancers express their profound understanding and unique feelings toward the Southern Yangtze River Culture.The dance work embodies the four stages of making purple ceramic pots,namely molding,decorating,burning and tea-serving.

  9. Spectral effects of LEDs on chlorophyll fluorescence and pigmentation in Phalaenopsis ‘Vivien’ and ‘Purple Star’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of light emitting diode (LED) lighting in greenhouse facilities on growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigmentation in Phalaenopsis 'Vivien' and 'Purple Star' under purpose-built LED arrays yielding c. 200μmolm-2s-1 at plant height for 14h per day and 24/18°Cday....../night temperature, respectively, from January to April 2013. The light treatments were (1) 40% blue in 60% red (40% B/R), (2) 0% blue in 100% red (0% B/R) and (3) white LEDs with 32% blue in white (32% B/W, control), with background daylight under shade screens. The plants were harvested twice for leaf growth...

  10. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties.

  11. Effects of increased pCO2 and geographic origin on purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus calcite elemental composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Hosfelt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (such as Mg and Sr into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore the effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2 on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low to high magnesium calcites. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions along the US west coast (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California. Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg/Ca or Sr/Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 ppm; pH = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD. However, when reared under elevated CO2 (900 ppm; pH = 7.72 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1, skeletal Sr/Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr incorporation under elevated CO2

  12. Temperature-induced dissociation reaction and dynamics of light-harvesting complex Ⅱ isolated from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rps. palustris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Juan; LI XueFeng; LIU Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Steady-state absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and resonance Raman spectroscopy have been used to investigate the thermal stability of LH2 complex isolated from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rps. Palustris. The results show that: 1) upon increasing the temperature, a transition from B800 and B850 to free bacteriochlorophyll (B780) happens; 2) a gradual decrease and disappearance of CD signal in visible region occur; 3) a shift of the frequency, belonging to C=C and C-C stretching vibration, to higher wavenumber takes place. It is suggested that LH2 complex can be dissociated in the presence of B800, B850 and carotenoids simultaneously. Single-exponential fitting on the dynamic decay curves gives the apparent time constants of hundreds of minutes for various pigments.

  13. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. A. Rashid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. The metal ions concentration either essential or non essential, critically affect the biological system of the human body. Here are many factors including the different types of pollution-fertilizer, insecticides, pesticides and other forms of air and water pollution etc.- that effect directly on metal ion concentration in Bougainvillea and indirectly in biological system if used traditionally as medicine.

  14. Root colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus increases growth and secondary metabolism of purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araim, Ghada; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Charest, Christiane

    2009-03-25

    Purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, is an important phytomedicinal species that contains phenolics and alkamides with antipathogenic properties. This study aimed to examine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the physiology and biochemistry of E. purpurea. It was hypothesized that AM colonization enhances the growth and secondary metabolism in E. purpurea. In this regard, a 13-week factorial greenhouse experiment was performed with E. purpurea, inoculated (or not) with the AM fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith. Overall, the results indicated that AM colonization significantly increased the mass of shoots and roots and the concentrations of proteins and most of the phenolics in the roots. Hence, the selected trait of mycorrhiza could play an important role in optimizing the growth of E. purpurea by inducing the production of secondary phytomedicinal metabolites.

  15. Effects of increased pCO2 and geographic origin on purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite elemental composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.; Russell, A. D.; Lenz, E. A.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Young, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (such as Mg and Sr) into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore the effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2) on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low to high magnesium calcites. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions along the US west coast (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California). Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg/Ca or Sr/Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 ppm; pH = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD). However, when reared under elevated CO2 (900 ppm; pH = 7.72 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1), skeletal Sr/Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California) did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr incorporation under elevated CO2 (Sr/Ca = 2

  16. [Plants regeneration from genetically transformed root and callus cultures of periwinkle Vinca minor L. and foxglove purple Digitalis purpurea L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshina, L G; Bulko, O V

    2014-01-01

    Plants regenerated from hairy roots and calluses of foxglove purple and periwinkle have been obtained. It was found that organogenesis in hairy root culture occurs spontaneously on hormone-free medium but with different efficiencies. The frequency of direct shoot formation from root cultures was up to 60% in Digitalis and 3.7% in Vinca. Addition of 1 mg/l BA, 0.1 mg/l NAA and 5% sucrose to B5 medium increased regenerative capacity of Vinca roots up to 19.1%. Regenerated plants showed morphological features typically seen in Ri-transgenic plants. They include growth and plagiotropism of the root system, increased shoot formation, changed leaf morphology and short internodes.

  17. Study on Soil Infiltration Capability and Its Impact Factors of Different Land-use Types in Purple Soil Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin MO; Xiaoyan CHEN; Tao LIU; Yicui YANG; Zhixing LIN; Xiufeng HUANG; Qiliang HUANG; Hui JIAN; Tujin ZHOU; Yunkang SHEN

    2016-01-01

    Soil infiltration capability is the hot spot topic of soil erosion studies and soil physical and chemical properties have great influence on it. A new infiltration method point- source infiltration method was used to precisely evaluate the infiltration capability in different purple soil land- use types. And correlation analysis on soil physical and chemical properties and soil infiltration capability of different land- use types was performed. Results showed that:( i) there is a large difference among soil physical and chemical properties in different land- use types,soil water content,non- capillary porosity,capillary porosity,content of > 0. 25 mm aggregates and organic matter content in the top soil are greater than those in the subsoil;( ii) soil infiltration capability showed differences among different land- use types. Land use showed great effects,in general,the order of decrease on initial infiltration rate and average infiltration rate was: woodland slope > slope farmland >grassland,the order of decrease on steady infiltration rate was: slope farmland > woodland > grassland and the time reaching stable state was:slope farmland > woodland > grassland;( iii) correlation analysis showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between initial infiltration rate and wet sieve MWD value and structural damage rate,and it had a significantly negative correlation with capillary porosity;( iv)steady infiltration rate and non- capillary porosity showed the significantly positive correlation,and it had a significantly negative correlation with the soil bulk density;( v) the average infiltration rate and non- capillary porosity and structural damage rate showed a positive correlation and the correlation coefficient was large and there was a negative correlation between average infiltration rate and soil bulk density and capillary porosity,and the absolute value of correlation coefficient was relatively large. The results of this study can provide the

  18. Research on brewing technique of purple potato vinegar%紫薯醋酿造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林顺; 熊汉国; 涂艳华

    2015-01-01

    Purple potato as raw material was used to produce purple potato vinegar by submerged fermentation after enzymol‐ysis .The results showed that :at 30℃ ,the optimal conditions of alcoholic fermentation was as:initial pH5 ,initial sugar 14% , yeast amount 0 .2 g/(100 ml);the optimal conditions of acetic fermentation was as :initial alcohol content 6% ,acetobacter addi‐tion amount 18% ,volume‐loading 50% .The results had a certain guiding significance for the industrialization of vinegar pro‐duction with potato starch material .%以紫薯为原料,进行酶解处理,再利用液态深层发酵的方法生产紫薯醋,研究了紫薯醋酿造的最佳发酵工艺,结果显示,在温度30℃下,酒精发酵最佳条件为:初始pH5、初始糖度14%、酵母添加量0.2 g/(100 ml);醋酸发酵最佳条件为:初始酒精度为6%、菌种添加量18%、装瓶量50%,对以薯类等淀粉基原料进行醋的工业化生产具有一定指导意义。

  19. The influences of purple sweet potato anthocyanin on the growth characteristics of human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthocyanins have been proven to be beneficial to the eyes. However, information is scarce about the effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, L. anthocyanin (PSPA, a class of anthocyanins derived from purple sweet potato roots, on visual health. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether PSPA could have influences on the growth characteristics (cellular morphology, survival, and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells, which perform essential functions for the visual process. Methods: The RPE cell line D407 was used in the present study. The cytotoxicity of PSPA was assessed by MTT assay. Then, cellular morphology, viability, cell cycle, Ki67expression, and PI3K/MAPK activation of RPE cells treated with PSPA were determined. Results: PSPA exhibited dose-dependent promotion of RPE cell proliferation at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 µg/ml. RPE cells treated with PSPA demonstrated a predominantly polygonal morphology in a mosaic arrangement, and colony-like cells displayed numerous short apical microvilli and typical ultrastructure. PSPA treatment also resulted in a better platform growing status, statistically higher viability, an increase in the S-phase, and more Ki67+ cells. However, neither pAkt nor pERK were detected in either group. Conclusions: We found that PSPA maintained high cell viability, boosted DNA synthesis, and preserved a high percentage of continuously cycling cells to promote cell survival and division without changing cell morphology. This paper lays the foundation for further research about the damage-protective activities of PSPA on RPE cells or human vision.

  20. Multispectroscopic and Isotopic Ratio Analysis To Characterize the Inorganic Binder Used on Pompeian Pink and Purple Lake Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaida, Iker; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; García-Florentino, Cristina; Knuutinen, Ulla; Carrero, Jose Antonio; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Pitarch Martı́, Africa; Castro, Kepa; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-06-21

    Because of the fact that pigments are not ubiquitous in the archeological record, the application of noninvasive analytical methods is a necessity. In this work, pink and purple lake pigments recovered from the excavations of the ancient city of Pompeii (Campania, Italy) and preserved in their original bowls at the Naples National Archaeological Museum (Italy) were analyzed to characterize the composition of their inorganic binders (mordants). In situ preliminary analyses using a hand-held energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (HH-ED-XRF) allowed us to determine the use of an aluminosilicate enriched in Cu and Pb. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and benchtop ED-XRF analyses confirmed these results, while inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) allowed one to determine the concentration of major, minor, and trace elements. The use of other techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Raman and infrared spectroscopies allowed one to characterize the pigments at the molecular level. The high concentration of Cu detected in the pigments (1228-12937 μg g(-1)) could be related to the addition of Cu salts to obtain the desired final hue. The concentrations of Pb (987-2083 μg g(-1)) was also remarkable. Lead isotopic ratio analysis ((206)Pb/(207)Pb) suggested a possible origin related to the leaching of the ancient lead pipes from Pompeii and the subsequent transfer to the buried pigments or to the inorganic binder. Molecular analysis also showed that the binder is composed of an allophane-like clay. Moreover, it was possible to determine that to obtain the final purple hue of a specific pigment, Pompeian blue pigment was also mixed into the dyed clay.

  1. Effects of five southern California macroalgal diets on consumption, growth, and gonad weight, in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera, but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time, and the extent to which urchins can use alternate species of algae or a mixed diet of multiple algal species to maintain fitness when giant kelp is unavailable is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of single and mixed species diets on consumption, growth and gonad weight in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Urchins were fed single species diets consisting of one of four common species of macroalgae (the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica, and the red algae Chondracanthus corymbiferus and Rhodymenia californica (hereafter referred to by genus or a mixed diet containing all four species ad libitum over a 13-week period in a controlled laboratory setting. Urchins fed Chondracanthus, Macrocystis and a mixed diet showed the highest growth (in terms of test diameter, wet weight and jaw length and gonad weight, while urchins fed Pterygophora and Rhodymenia showed the lowest. Urchins consumed their preferred food, Macrocystis, at the highest rate when offered a mixture, but consumed Chondracanthus or Macrocystis at similar rates when the two algae were offered alone. The differences in urchin feeding behavior and growth observed between these diet types suggest the relative availability of the algae tested here could affect urchin populations and their interactions with the algal assemblage. The fact that the performance of urchins fed Chondracanthus was similar or higher than those fed the preferred Macrocystis suggests that the availability of the former could could sustain growth and reproduction of purple sea urchins during times of low Macrocystis abundance as is

  2. Identification of a non-purple tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase: an evolutionary link to Ser/Thr protein phosphatases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hume David A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases (TRAcPs, also known as purple acid phosphatases (PAPs, are a family of binuclear metallohydrolases that have been identified in plants, animals and fungi. The human enzyme is a major histochemical marker for the diagnosis of bone-related diseases. TRAcPs can occur as a small form possessing only the ~35 kDa catalytic domain, or a larger ~55 kDa form possessing both a catalytic domain and an additional N-terminal domain of unknown function. Due to its role in bone resorption the 35 kDa TRAcP has become a promising target for the development of anti-osteoporotic chemotherapeutics. Findings A new human gene product encoding a metallohydrolase distantly related to the ~55 kDa plant TRAcP was identified and characterised. The gene product is found in a number of animal species, and is present in all tissues sampled by the RIKEN mouse transcriptome project. Construction of a homology model illustrated that six of the seven metal-coordinating ligands in the active site are identical to that observed in the TRAcP family. However, the tyrosine ligand associated with the charge transfer transition and purple color of TRAcPs is replaced by a histidine. Conlusion The gene product identified here may represent an evolutionary link between TRAcPs and Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. Its biological function is currently unknown but is unlikely to be associated with bone metabolism.

  3. Runoff, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from purple slope cropland soil under rating fertilization in Three Gorges Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraima, Abdel-Kabirou; He, Binghui; Tian, Taiqiang

    2016-03-01

    Soil erosion along with soil particles and nutrients losses is detrimental to crop production. We carried out a 5-year (2010 to 2014) study to characterize the soil erosion and nitrogen and phosphorus losses caused by rainfall under different fertilizer application levels in order to provide a theoretical evidence for the agricultural production and coordinate land management to improve ecological environment. The experiment took place under rotation cropping, winter wheat-summer maize, on a 15° slope purple soil in Chongqing (China) within the Three Gorges Region (TGR). Four treatments, control (CK) without fertilizer, combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1), chemical fertilization (T2), and chemical fertilizer with increasing fertilization (T3), were designed on experimental runoff plots for a long-term observation aiming to study their effects on soil erosion and nutrients losses. The results showed that fertilization reduced surface runoff and nutrient losses as compared to CK. T1, T2, and T3, compared to CK, reduced runoff volume by 35.7, 29.6, and 16.8 %, respectively and sediment yield by 40.5, 20.9, and 49.6 %, respectively. Regression analysis results indicated that there were significant relationships between soil loss and runoff volume in all treatments. The combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1) treatment highly reduced total nitrogen and total phosphorus losses by 41.2 and 33.33 %, respectively as compared with CK. Through this 5-year experiment, we can conclude that, on the sloping purple soil, the combined application of manure with fertilizer is beneficial for controlling runoff sediments losses and preventing soil erosion.

  4. Swimming bacteria in liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Zhou, Shuang; Aranson, Igor; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    Dynamics of swimming bacteria can be very complex due to the interaction between the bacteria and the fluid, especially when the suspending fluid is non-Newtonian. Placement of swimming bacteria in lyotropic liquid crystal produces a new class of active materials by combining features of two seemingly incompatible constituents: self-propelled live bacteria and ordered liquid crystals. Here we present fundamentally new phenomena caused by the coupling between direction of bacterial swimming, bacteria-triggered flows and director orientations. Locomotion of bacteria may locally reduce the degree of order in liquid crystal or even trigger nematic-isotropic phase transition. Microscopic flows generated by bacterial flagella disturb director orientation. Emerged birefringence patterns allow direct optical observation and quantitative characterization of flagella dynamics. At high concentration of bacteria we observed the emergence of self-organized periodic texture caused by bacteria swimming. Our work sheds new light on self-organization in hybrid bio-mechanical systems and can lead to valuable biomedical applications. Was supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, under the Contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357.

  5. Ecophysiology of the anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartal, Mustafa Boran

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium to dinitrogen gas with nitrite as the electron acceptor. These bacteria are the key players in the global nitrogen cycle, responsible for the most of nitrogen production in natural ecosystems. The anammox process is also a cost-effecti

  6. Money and transmission of bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gedik, H.; Voss, T.A.; Voss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria

  7. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  8. Engineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Liao

    2012-05-22

    This project is a collaboration with F. R. Tabita of Ohio State. Our major goal is to understand the factors and regulatory mechanisms that influence hydrogen production. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Our part of the project was to develop a modeling technique to investigate the metabolic network in connection to hydrogen production and regulation. Organisms must balance the pathways that generate and consume reducing power in order to maintain redox homeostasis to achieve growth. Maintaining this homeostasis in the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria is a complex feat with many avenues that can lead to balance, as these organisms possess versatile metabolic capabilities including anoxygenic photosynthesis, aerobic or anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. Growth is achieved by using H{sub 2} as an electron donor and CO{sub 2} as a carbon source during photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic growth, where CO{sub 2} is fixed via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Photoheterotrophic growth can also occur when alternative organic carbon compounds are utilized as both the carbon source and electron donor. Regardless of the growth mode, excess reducing equivalents generated as a result of oxidative processes, must be transferred to terminal electron acceptors, thus insuring that redox homeostasis is maintained in the cell. Possible terminal acceptors include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, organic carbon, or various oxyanions. Cells possess regulatory mechanisms to balance the activity of the pathways which supply energy, such as photosynthesis, and those that consume energy, such as CO{sub 2} assimilation or N{sub 2} fixation. The major route for CO{sub 2} assimilation is the CBB

  9. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Purple-leaf Plants in Drought Region%干旱区3种彩叶植物的光合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄红梅; 黄俊华; 李建贵; 石游

    2011-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of three purple-leaf plants were studied in this research, the results would provide scientific guidance for configuring colorful plants in plant landscaping. The portable photosynthetic system LI-6400 (LI-COR company, U. S) was used to measure daily changes and light response curves of three years old purple-leaf lee (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhart f. Atropur-purea Jacq) , purple-leaf dwarf cherry (PrunusXcistena Pissardii) and purple-leaf peach (.Prunus per-sica cv. Atropurpurea). The light compensation point of purple-leaf peach, lee and dwarf cherry were 12, 24, 92 μmol ? M-2 ? S-1, respectively; light saturation point were 1 044, 688, 1 196 μmol ? M-2 ? S-1, respectively. The purple-leaf dwarf cherry showed some characters of heliophilous plants, so, in landscape configuration they should be placed in a upper level of a plants community . The purple-leaf lee and purple-leaf dwarf cherry have a clear photosynthetic "midday depression" around noon, which is mainly caused by the decline of stomatal conductance, while purple leaf peach is limited by non-stomatal factors. The transpiration rates of three tree species belong to the afternoon peak type. Diurnal temperature variation of the ground surface is greater than it in the ground ,and the surface humidity variation is inversely proportional to the diurnal ground surface temperature change.%以3a生紫叶李(Prunus cerasi era Ehrhart f.atropurpurea Jacq)、紫叶矮樱(Prunus×cistena Pis-sardii)、紫叶桃(Prunus persica cv.atropurpurea)为试材,研究3种彩叶植物的光合作用基本生理特征和规律.结果表明,紫叶桃、紫叶李和紫叶矮樱的光补偿点分别为12、24和92 μmol·m-2·s-1;光饱和点分别为1 044、688和1 196 μmol·m-2·s-1;表明紫叶矮樱较为喜阳,在园林绿化配置时应处于群落的上层.紫叶李与紫叶矮樱有明显的光合“午休”现象,主要是由气孔导度下降引起的,紫叶桃

  10. Antioxidant properties of caroot juices and their impact on intestinal and probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in non-dairy probiotic products. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of juice prepared from 15 various cultivars of carrot on the growth of representatives of human intestinal microbiota (Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Escherichia coli and probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Lactobacillus casei 01. Carrot juice was added to liquid medium at a final concentration of 5.0% and their impact on the bacteria number was assessed by measurement of the turbidity after 24 h of culture. The number of cells was expressed as % of positive control (medium without juice addition. Juices prepared from all tested cultivars of carrot inhibited the growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and the strongest inhibitory effect was observed for juices obtained from the 'Kongo F1' cultivar (3.40 ±2.85% of positive control, 'Rumba F1'(4.17 ±2.27% and 'Broker F1' (5.35 ±2.14%. The majority of tested juices also inhibited the growth of E. coli, but those prepared from the 'Niland F1', 'Napa F1', 'Afro F1'and 'Samba F1' cultivars stimulated the growth of this bacterium. The probiotic strains were less sensitive to carrot juice impact than intestinal species, however both stimulation and inhibition could be observed. Juices made from the cultivars 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' acted negatively on the growth of both probiotic strains, while juice from 'Bangor F1' cultivar inhibited L. casei 01 growth, but stimulated the growth of LA-5. The obtained results suggest that 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' cultivars are not suitable as an additive or raw material for the production of probiotic products, because of their inhibitory properties against probiotic strains. Concluding, carrots can be used as raw material for the production of probiotic beverages, however both the cultivar of carrot and the strains of probiotic bacteria used for the production should be selected carefully. The most suitable for production of

  11. Carbon isotope fractionation by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in euxinic Lake Cadagno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posth, N R; Bristow, L A; Cox, R P; Habicht, K S; Danza, F; Tonolla, M; Frigaard, N-U; Canfield, D E

    2017-09-03

    Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria utilize ancient metabolic pathways to link sulfur and iron metabolism to the reduction of CO2 . In meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, both purple sulfur (PSB) and green sulfur anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (GSB) dominate the chemocline community and drive the sulfur cycle. PSB and GSB fix carbon utilizing different enzymatic pathways and these fractionate C-isotopes to different extents. Here, these differences in C-isotope fractionation are used to constrain the relative input of various anoxygenic phototrophs to the bulk community C-isotope signal in the chemocline. We sought to determine whether a distinct isotopic signature of GSB and PSB in the chemocline persists in the settling fraction and in the sediment. To answer these questions, we also sought investigated C-isotope fractionation in the water column, settling material, and sediment of Lake Cadagno, compared these values to C-isotope fractionation of isolated anoxygenic phototroph cultures, and took a mass balance approach to investigate relative contributions to the bulk fractionation signature. We found a large C-isotope fractionation between dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in the Lake Cadagno chemocline. This large fractionation between the DIC and POC was also found in culture experiments carried out with anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria isolated from the lake. In the Lake Cadagno chemocline, anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria controlled the bulk C-isotope fractionation, but the influence of GSB and PSB differed with season. Furthermore, the contribution of PSB and GSB to bulk C-isotope fractionation in the chemocline could be traced in the settling fraction and in the sediment. Taken together with other studies, such as lipid biomarker analyzes and investigations of other stratified lakes, these results offer a firmer understanding of diagenetic influences on bacterial biomass. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of a microbialite-forming microbial mat from a hypersaline lake of the Kiritimati atoll, Central Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Schneider

    Full Text Available On the Kiritimati atoll, several lakes exhibit microbial mat-formation under different hydrochemical conditions. Some of these lakes trigger microbialite formation such as Lake 21, which is an evaporitic, hypersaline lake (salinity of approximately 170‰. Lake 21 is completely covered with a thick multilayered microbial mat. This mat is associated with the formation of decimeter-thick highly porous microbialites, which are composed of aragonite and gypsum crystals. We assessed the bacterial and archaeal community composition and its alteration along the vertical stratification by large-scale analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the nine different mat layers. The surface layers are dominated by aerobic, phototrophic, and halotolerant microbes. The bacterial community of these layers harbored Cyanobacteria (Halothece cluster, which were accompanied with known phototrophic members of the Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria. In deeper anaerobic layers more diverse communities than in the upper layers were present. The deeper layers were dominated by Spirochaetes, sulfate-reducing bacteria (Deltaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi (Anaerolineae and Caldilineae, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales, anaerobic Bacteroidetes (Marinilabiacae, Nitrospirae (OPB95, Planctomycetes and several candidate divisions. The archaeal community, including numerous uncultured taxonomic lineages, generally changed from Euryarchaeota (mainly Halobacteria and Thermoplasmata to uncultured members of the Thaumarchaeota (mainly Marine Benthic Group B with increasing depth.

  13. Unanticipated Geochemical and Microbial Community Structure under Seasonal Ice Cover in a Dilute, Dimictic Arctic Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Ursel M E; Cadieux, Sarah B; Hemmerich, Chris; Pratt, Lisa M; White, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    Despite most lakes in the Arctic being perennially or seasonally frozen for at least 40% of the year, little is known about microbial communities and nutrient cycling under ice cover. We assessed the vertical microbial community distribution and geochemical composition in early spring under ice in a seasonally ice-covered lake in southwest Greenland using amplicon-based sequencing that targeted 16S rRNA genes and using a combination of field and laboratory aqueous geochemical methods. Microbial communities changed consistently with changes in geochemistry. Composition of the abundant members responded strongly to redox conditions, shifting downward from a predominantly heterotrophic aerobic community in the suboxic waters to a heterotrophic anaerobic community in the anoxic waters. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Sporichthyaceae, Comamonadaceae, and the SAR11 Clade had higher relative abundances above the oxycline and OTUs within the genus Methylobacter, the phylum Lentisphaerae, and purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) below the oxycline. Notably, a 13-fold increase in sulfide at the oxycline was reflected in an increase and change in community composition of potential sulfur oxidizers. Purple non-sulfur bacteria were present above the oxycline and green sulfur bacteria and PSB coexisted below the oxycline, however, PSB were most abundant. For the first time we show the importance of PSB as potential sulfur oxidizers in an Arctic dimictic lake.

  14. Commensal ocular bacteria degrade mucins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M; Harris, A; Lumb, R; Powell, K

    2002-12-01

    Antimicrobial activity in tears prevents infection while maintaining a commensal bacterial population. The relation between mucin and commensal bacteria was assessed to determine whether commensals possess mucinolytic activity, how degradation depends on mucin integrity, and whether mucins affect bacterial replication. Bacteria were sampled from healthy eyes and contact lenses from asymptomatic wearers. Intracellular mucins were extracted and purified from cadaver conjunctivas, and surface mucins from extended wear contact lenses. After exposure to bacteria, changes in mucin hydrodynamic volume (proteolytic cleavage) and subunit charge (oligosaccharide degradation) were assayed by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. The effect of mucin on bacterial replication was followed for up to 24 hours from the end of incubation with purified ocular mucins. Ocular bacteria decreased the hydrodynamic volume of intracellular and contact lens adherent mucins, irrespective of glycosylation density. A decrease in mucin sialylation was observed after exposure to commensal bacteria. Subunit charge distributions were generally shifted to lesser negative charge, consistent with loss of charged epitopes. Subunits with high negative charge, observed after digesting lightly adhering contact lens mucins with bacteria, suggest preferential cleavage sites in the mucin molecule. The presence of purified ocular mucin in the medium inhibited bacterial growth. Bacteria in the healthy ocular surface possess mucinolytic activity on both intact and surface processed mucins, targeted to discrete sites in the mucin molecule. Inhibition of bacterial growth by ocular mucins can be seen as part of the mucosal control of microbiota.

  15. Relationship between dark purple tongue and prognosis of patients with myocardial infarction%紫暗舌与心肌梗死患者预后关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铭; 苗立夫; 张瑞麟; 刘云宝; 陈连凤; 雷燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨紫暗舌与心肌梗死患者预后的相关性.方法 运用“中医舌诊图像专家智能分析系统( TY-SX3)”进行紫暗舌的鉴定,心梗后稳定期连续7d出现紫暗舌的患者被纳入紫暗舌组(63例),连续7d均为非紫暗舌的纳入非紫暗舌组(65例),并检测入选病例的心血管预后指标脑钠肽(BNP)和心率震荡(HRT),进行相关性分析.结果 紫暗舌患者的BNP水平明显高于非紫暗舌患者(P<0.05);而紫暗舌患者的HRT明显减弱,与非紫暗舌患者有显著差异(P<0.05).结论 紫暗舌对心肌梗死患者的心血管预后可能具有一定的预测价值.%Objective To investigate the correlation between dark purple tongue and prognosis of patients with myocardial infarction. Methods The dark purple tongue was identified by applying expert intelligent analysis system of TCM tongue imaging (TY-SX3). The patients ( n = 63 ) with dark purple tongue at the stable stage for 7 days after myocardial infarction were enrolled in dark purple tongue group, and those ( n -65 ) without dark purple tongue for 7 days were enrolled in non-dark purple tongue group. The level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) were detected and the correlation between them and patient^ prognosis was analyzed. Results The level of BNP was significantly higher in dark purple tongue group than that in non-dark purple tongue group (P < 0. 05). HRT attenuated significantly in dark purple tongue group than that in non-dark purple tongue group (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Dark purple tongue has a certain predictive value to the prognosis in the patients with myocardial infarction.

  16. Sampling bacteria with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We

  17. Motility of Electric Cable Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces with a highly variable speed of 0.5 ± 0.3 μm s−1 (mean ± standard deviation) and time between reversals of 155 ± 108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed ...

  18. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and

  19. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega

  20. Recent Study Progress in the Extraction and Applications of Natural Pigments from Purple Sweet Potatoes%紫甘薯中天然色素的提取及应用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪达丽; 周楷旋; 卢宝; 舒通盛; 纪漫; 喻寒; 黄卫东

    2015-01-01

    价格低廉的紫甘薯中含有丰富的天然紫红色素,其色泽艳丽,安全无毒,是一种绿色可替换合成色素的食品添加剂,具有广阔的应用前景.本文就紫甘薯色素的提取工艺及应用方面的国内外最新成果和研究情况进行了概述,旨在为紫甘薯色素的提取工艺优化及后续产品的深度开发提供参考.%Purple sweet potatoes, which are cheap just like sweet potatoes, contain rich natural purple pigments. The pigments from purple sweet potatoes are magnificently colorful, safe and non-toxic and green food additive for widespread use of natural food coloring and they could become a more popular natural alternative to synthetic food coloring. The latest research achievements and development situation about the extraction and application of purple sweet potato pigment at home and abroad were summarized to provide reference for developing depth of follow-up products and extraction process'optimization of purple sweet potato pigment. The development of more efficient processes to extra pigment could encourage the creation of a domestic natural food coloring industry, making purple sweet potatoes more affordable.

  1. Real-time UV-visible spectroscopy analysis of purple membrane-polyacrylamide film formation taking into account Fano line shapes and scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomariz, María; Blaya, Salvador; Acebal, Pablo; Carretero, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally analyze the formation of thick Purple Membrane (PM) polyacrylamide (PA) films by means of optical spectroscopy by considering the absorption of bacteriorhodopsin and scattering. We have applied semiclassical quantum mechanical techniques for the calculation of absorption spectra by taking into account the Fano effects on the ground state of bacteriorhodopsin. A model of the formation of PM-polyacrylamide films has been proposed based on the growth of polymeric chains around purple membrane. Experimentally, the temporal evolution of the polymerization process of acrylamide has been studied as function of the pH solution, obtaining a good correspondence to the proposed model. Thus, due to the formation of intermediate bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogel, by controlling the polymerization process, an alternative methodology for the synthesis of bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogels can be provided.

  2. Real-time UV-visible spectroscopy analysis of purple membrane-polyacrylamide film formation taking into account Fano line shapes and scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gomariz

    Full Text Available We theoretically and experimentally analyze the formation of thick Purple Membrane (PM polyacrylamide (PA films by means of optical spectroscopy by considering the absorption of bacteriorhodopsin and scattering. We have applied semiclassical quantum mechanical techniques for the calculation of absorption spectra by taking into account the Fano effects on the ground state of bacteriorhodopsin. A model of the formation of PM-polyacrylamide films has been proposed based on the growth of polymeric chains around purple membrane. Experimentally, the temporal evolution of the polymerization process of acrylamide has been studied as function of the pH solution, obtaining a good correspondence to the proposed model. Thus, due to the formation of intermediate bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogel, by controlling the polymerization process, an alternative methodology for the synthesis of bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogels can be provided.

  3. Gluten-free bread with an addition of freeze-dried red and purple potatoes as a source of phenolic compounds in gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumul, Dorota; Ziobro, Rafał; Ivanišová, Eva; Korus, Anna; Árvay, Július; Tóth, Tomáš

    2017-02-01

    The basis for gluten-free diet is often gluten-free bread, which is usually characterized by a low-nutritional value, and lacks any pro-health properties. Only after an introduction of gluten-free raw materials, containing high level of bioactive compounds it would be possible to obtain the product with a pro-health potential. The aim of the study was to analyze the content of bioactive compounds (total phenolic content, phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, anthocyanins and carotenoids) in gluten-free bread prepared with 5% addition of freeze-dried red and purple potatoes as well as to assess their antioxidant potential. Summarizing, among the analyzed gluten-free breads with an addition of freeze-dried red and purple potatoes, the best results could be obtained by using variety Magenta Love (red potato), which provided the highest levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids and also antioxidant and antiradical activity.

  4. Violacein, an indole-derived purple-colored natural pigment produced by Janthinobacterium lividum, inhibits the growth of head and neck carcinoma cell lines both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuelli, Laura; Pantanella, Fabrizio; La Regina, Giuseppe; Benvenuto, Monica; Fantini, Massimo; Mattera, Rosanna; Di Stefano, Enrica; Mattei, Maurizio; Silvestri, Romano; Schippa, Serena; Manzari, Vittorio; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Violacein (VIO; 3-[1,2-dihydro-5-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxo-3H-pyrrol-3-ylidene]-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one), an indole-derived purple-colored pigment, produced by a limited number of Gram-negative bacteria species, including Chromobacterium violaceum and Janthinobacterium lividum, has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer activity, as it interferes with survival transduction signaling pathways in different cancer models. Head and neck carcinoma (HNC) represents the sixth most common and one of the most fatal cancers worldwide. We determined whether VIO was able to inhibit head and neck cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. We provide evidence that VIO treatment of human and mouse head and neck cancer cell lines inhibits cell growth and induces autophagy and apoptosis. In fact, VIO treatment increased PARP-1 cleavage, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the inhibition of ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation, and the expression of light chain 3-II (LC3-II). Moreover, VIO was able to induce p53 degradation, cytoplasmic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) accumulation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. VIO induced a significant increase in ROS production. VIO administration was safe in BALB/c mice and reduced the growth of transplanted salivary gland cancer cells (SALTO) in vivo and prolonged median survival. Taken together, our results indicate that the treatment of head and neck cancer cells with VIO can be useful in inhibiting in vivo and in vitro cancer cell growth. VIO may represent a suitable tool for the local treatment of HNC in combination with standard therapies.

  5. Sewage-pollution indicator bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.

    Spatial distribution and annual cycle of sewage pollution indicator (total coliforms and total fecal coliforms) and human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis) in water and sediment samples in the Mandovi and Zuari...

  6. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  7. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    NEENA GARG

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  8. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  9. Geobiology of Marine Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Coast. Shelf Sci., 45:769-788. [38] Overmann, J. and H. van Gemerden. 2000. Microbial interactions involving sulfur bacteria: implications for the...1998) Organic acids in the rhizosphere : a critical review. Plant and Soil 205: 25-44. J0rgensen BB, Kuenen JG, Cohen Y (1979) Microbial ...my advisor Katrina Edwards for taking a chance on someone who initially knew nothing about magnetotactic bacteria, microbial ecology, or microbiology

  10. A comparative effect of 3 disinfectants on heterotrophic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The disinfection effect of chlorine dioxide, chlorine and their mixture on heterotrophic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in circulating cooling water was studied. The results of the test indicated that high purity chlorine dioxide was the most effective biocide in the 3 disinfectants, and with a dosage of 0.5mg/L, chlorine dioxide could obtain perfect effect. High purity chloride dioxide could have the excellent effect with the pH value of 6 to 10, and could keep it within 72 h. Chlorine and their mixture couldn't reach the effect of chlorine dioxide.

  11. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-06-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to certain tea constituents found in green tea, also contains anthocyanins. The major constituents in the leaves of purple tea are caffeine, theobromine, epigallocatechin (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (GHG). We investigated the efficacy of purple tea extract (PTE) on diet-induced fat accumulation in mice. PTE administration (200 mg/kg) significantly suppressed body weight gain, liver weight, abdominal fat and triglycerides in serum and liver. Protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1A was also enhanced. In olive oil loaded mice, PTE (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (25 mg/kg) suppressed fat absorption. PTE (10 μg/mL) and GHG (10 μg/mL) also enhanced protein expression of CPT1A in HepG2 hepatoma. Moreover, 4-week daily consumption of purple tea drink in humans improved obesity parameters compared to baseline, including body weight (79.9 ± 3.1 kg vs 80.8 ± 3.2, pweight gain by suppression of fat absorption and enhancement of hepatic fat metabolism.

  12. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to ce...

  13. Utility Value and Development Prospect of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato%紫心甘薯的利用价值与开发前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璇; 金素娟; 李占军; 王玉岭

    2012-01-01

    紫心甘薯集营养、保健于一体,近年来在国内外市场上十分走俏,是当前无公害、绿色、有机食品中首推的保健食品。从药用价值和食品加工2个方面,分析了紫心甘薯的开发利用价值与前景,提出进一步开展紫心甘薯利用潜力和相关加工的研究,对增加食品多样性、提高紫心甘薯综合利用率、加快农业产业结构调整升级、增加农民收入等具有长远和重要意义。%Purple-fleshed sweet potato is the main health food of pollution-free,green and organic,and very popular in national and international markets in recent years,which with nutrition and health function.Utility value and development prospect of purple-fleshed sweet potato were analyzed from two aspects of medicinal value and food processing,and the further development of utilization potential and related processing research of purple-fleshed sweet potato were put forward,which had a long-term and important significance for increasing the diversity of food,improving the comprehensive utilization of purple-fleshed sweet potato,speeding up the structural adjustment and upgrade of agricultural industry,increasing the farmers' income.

  14. Alternative expression of vacuolar iron transporter and ferritin genes leads to blue/purple coloration of flowers in tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kazuaki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Tosiaki

    2010-02-01

    Flowers of tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho' have a purple perianth except for the bottom region, which is blue in color even though it has the same anthocyanin, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, as the entire perianth. The development of the blue coloration in the perianth bottom is due to complexation by anthocyanin, flavonol and iron (Fe), as well as a vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1. Although transient expression of TgVit1 in the purple cells led to a color change to light blue, the coloration of the transformed cells did not coincide with the dark blue color of the cells of the perianth bottom. We thought that another factor is required for the blue coloration of the cells of perianth bottom. To examine the effect of ferritin (FER), an Fe storage protein, on blue color development, we cloned an FER gene (TgFER1) and performed expression analyses. TgFER1 transcripts were found in the cells located in the upper region of the petals along with purple color development by anthocyanin and were not found in the blue cells of the perianth bottom. This gene expression is in contrast to that of TgVit1, expressed only in the cells of the perianth bottom. Co-expression of TgVIT1 and TgFER-RNAi, constructed for suppressing endogenous TgFER1 by RNA interference (RNAi), changed the purple petal cells to a dark blue color similar to that of the natural perianth bottom. These results strongly suggest that TgVit1 expression and TgFER1 suppression are critical for the development of blue color in the perianth bottom.

  15. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO,ALESSANDRA C.; FERNANDA MOREIRA; DANIEL GRANATO; ROSSO,NEIVA D.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presen...

  16. Optimization of formula of solidified purple sweet potato andblack sesame yoghurt%凝固型紫甘薯黑芝麻酸奶的配方优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清; 袁呈冰

    2012-01-01

    以紫甘薯和黑芝麻为主要原料,研制凝固型酸奶。在单因素实验的基础上,采用响应曲面法,对紫甘薯黑芝麻酸奶配方参数,即紫甘薯黑芝麻量、接种量、蔗糖用量进行了优化分析。其最佳配方为:黑芝麻粉紫甘薯肉丁用量为1∶4.56,接种量为4.12%,蔗糖用量为7.75%。所制产品为乳白色相间着淡紫色,酸甜适中,不含防腐剂,不添加色素,外观靓丽、味道独特的营养食品。%Purple sweet potato and black sesame were used as raw materials to conduct solidified yoghurt.The formula of purple sweet potato and black sesame yoghurt were optimized by response surface methodology(RSM)based on single factor experiments through evaluating the effects of quantity of purple sweet potato and black sesame content,inoculum and the amount of sucrose.The optimum formula was the quantity of black sesame powder and purple sweet potato pieces 1:4.56,inoculum 4.12%,sucrose 7.75%.Overall product was white and white with lavender,sweet and sour moderate,no preservatives,no added color,and it was a nutrition foodstuff with beautiful appearance and unique taste.

  17. From Serendipity to Rational Design: Tuning the Blue Trigonal Bipyramidal Mn(3+) Chromophore to Violet and Purple through Application of Chemical Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Lorger, Simon; Stalick, Judith K; Sleight, Arthur W; Subramanian, M A

    2016-10-03

    We recently reported that an allowed d-d transition of trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) Mn(3+) is responsible for the bright blue color in the YIn1-xMnxO3 solid solution. The crystal field splitting between a'(dz(2)) and e'(dx(2)-y(2), dxy) energy levels is very sensitive to the apical Mn-O distance. We therefore applied chemical pressure to compress the apical Mn-O distance in YIn1-xMnxO3, move the allowed d-d transition to higher energy, and thereby tune the color from blue to violet/purple. This was accomplished by substituting smaller cations such as Ti(4+)/Zn(2+) and Al(3+) onto the TBP In/Mn site, which yielded novel violet/purple phases. The general formula is YIn1-x-2y-zMnxTiyZnyAlzO3 (x = 0.005-0.2, y = 0.1-0.4, and z ≤ 0.1), where the color darkens with the increasing amount of Mn. Higher y or small additions of Al provide a more reddish hue to the resulting purple colors. Substituting other rare earth cations for Y has little impact on color. Crystal structure analysis by neutron powder diffraction confirms a shorter apical Mn-O distance compared with that in the blue YIn1-xMnxO3. Magnetic susceptibility measurements verify the 3+ oxidation state for Mn. Diffuse reflection spectra were obtained over the wavelength region 200-2500 nm. All samples show excellent near-infrared reflectance comparable to that of commercial TiO2, making them ideal for cool pigment applications such as energy efficient roofs of buildings and cars where reducing solar heat to save energy is desired. In a comparison with commercial purple pigments, such as Co3(PO4)2, our pigments are much more thermally stable and chemically inert, and are neither toxic nor carcinogenic.

  18. Sisterhood in the Formation of Celie’s Woman Selfhood-A Study of Al-ice Walker’s The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽涛

    2014-01-01

    Applying feminist theory, this thesis aims at dissecting the process of the protagonist Celie in Alice Walker ’s The Color Purple, her pursuit of woman subjective selfhood through the perspective of sisterhood. It discusses how Celie manages to get rid of the racial and sexual oppressions, and finally successfully grow from a woman who lacks of self identity to a woman with com-plete subjective selfhood consciousness under the influence of sisterhood from Sophia, Shug, and Nettie.

  19. 紫番薯汁酶解工艺条件研究%Enzyme Hydrolysis Conditions of Purple Sweet Potato Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂薇; 叶盛; 邓放明

    2015-01-01

    This test in order to solve the problem of purple sweet potato starch content high, in the preparation process of purple sweet potato juice, the second method is adopted double enzyme common way to handle it, add alpha amylase and saccharifying enzyme digestion of purple sweet potato starch, and through the single factor and orthogonal test to determine the optimal enzy-matic hydrolysis conditions.The results show that the best effect of purple sweet potato cooking 40 min, adopting 1:6 ratio of mate-rial to water juice, first, under the conditions of alpha amylase 25μ/g, temperature 80℃, pH6.5, enzymatic hydrolysis 50 min. Then,under the condition of saccharifying enzyme 40μ/g, temperature 45℃, pH6.0 ,digestion enzyme solution of 60 min.%为解决紫番薯淀粉含量高的难题,在制备紫番薯汁的工艺过程中,采用二次法双酶共用的处理方式,添加α-淀粉酶和糖化酶酶解紫番薯中的淀粉,并通过单因素和正交试验确定最优的酶解工艺条件.结果表明,紫番薯蒸煮40 min,采用1:6的料水比榨汁,先在α-淀粉酶25 U/g、温度80℃、pH6.5的条件下酶解50 min,然后在糖化酶40 U/g、温度45℃、pH6.0的条件下酶解60 min的酶解效果最佳.

  20. Study of the Stability of Purple Corn Pigment%黑玉米穗轴色素的稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖湘; 王立亚

    2012-01-01

    The effects of pH value, preservatives, metal ions, redox, and food ingredients on the stability of purple corn anthocyanin were studied. And the different color, preservation rate, and degradation mechanism of the purple corn anthocyanin under different pH value were also investigated. The results indicated that: the color of the purple com anthocyanin changed from red to blue with the increase of pH value. The anthocyanin showed high stability when mixed with sodium benzoate or sorbic acid. Different metal ions, different redox, different food ingredients had different influence in absorbance of the purple com anthocyanin, but in varying degrees. The optimum pH value for storage of anthocyanin was 2 to 3 and the anthocyanin degradation followed first-order reaction kinetics.%研究了pH值、防腐剂、金属离子、氧化还原剂、食品原料等因素对黑玉米穗轴色素提取物稳定性的影响,以及不同pH值下黑玉米穗轴色素颜色的差异,保存率及降解机制.结果表明:随着pH值的增大,黑玉米穗轴色素的颜色由红色逐渐变为蓝色.色素对苯甲酸钠和山梨酸的稳定性较好.不同的金属离子、氧化还原剂和食品原料均对黑玉米穗轴色素的吸光值有影响,但是程度不一.40℃下,保存色素的最佳pH值为2~3,色素的降解反应符合一级反应动力学.