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Sample records for purity rutin fatty

  1. Scalable preparation of high purity rutin fatty acid esters following enzymatic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into expanded uses of modified flavonoids are often limited by the availability of these high purity compounds. As such, a simple, effective and relatively fast method for isolation of gram quantities of both long and medium chain fatty acid esters of rutin following scaled-up bios...

  2. Optimal recovery of high-purity rutin crystals from the whole plant of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) by extraction, fractionation, and recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Hyung Hwan; Kwon, Ik Boo; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2005-10-01

    Rutin, one of the flavonoids derived from plants, is increasingly in demand in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its various biological and physiological activities including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-hypertension. The whole plant of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a major source of natural rutin. This study developed a low-cost process encompassing the efficient extraction, fractionation, and recrystallization to obtain high-purity rutin from buckwheat, and it could improve the economic utilization of this abundant low-value agricultural product. The sequential separation and purification procedures established in this study involved extraction with 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at 80 degrees C for 1 h followed by elution with water and aqueous ethanols at 20% and 30% (v/v) on a styrene-based resin column, and recrystallization at 4 degrees C for 12 h. These conditions resulted in the recovery of 92% of total rutin with over 95% purity. In the present study, high-purity rutin was obtained from whole buckwheat through low-cost processes, the separation and purification strategy established in this study could provide valuable information to the relevant industries.

  3. Fatty acids, epicatechin-dimethylgallate, and rutin interact with buckwheat starch inhibiting its digestion by amylase: implications for the decrease in glycemic index by buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2010-12-08

    Glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour are lower than those made from wheat flour. To discuss the mechanism of the buckwheat flour-dependent decrease in glycemic indexes, the formation of a starch-iodine complex and amylase-catalyzed digestion of starch were studied using buckwheat flour itself and buckwheat flour from which fatty acids, rutin, and proanthocyanidins including flavan-3-ols had been extracted. Absorbance due to the formation of a starch-iodine complex was larger in extracted than control flour, and starch in extracted flour was more susceptible to pancreatin-induced digestion than starch in control flour. Fatty acids, which were found in the buckwheat flour extract, bound to amylose in the extracted flour, inhibiting its digestion by pancreatin. Rutin and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were also found in the extract, bound to both amylose and amylopectin in the extracted flour, inhibiting their digestion induced by pancreatin. We discussed from these results that the lower glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour were due to binding of fatty acids, rutin, and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were contained in buckwheat flour, to wheat flour starch.

  4. Fatty acid composition of milk from cows fed low purity glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inclusion of low purity glycerin in the diet on the fatty acid composition of milk of crossbred cows. We used 15 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows distributed in three Latin squares 5 x 5, the following treatments: control (no addition of glycerin in the diet; inclusion of 5% glycerin in the diet dry matter; inclusion of 10% glycerol in the diet dry matter; inclusion of 15% glycerol in the diet dry matter, and the inclusion of 20% glycerol in the diet dry matter. The inclusion of glycerin in the diet had no effect (P<0.05 the concentration of butyric acid (C4:0. In contrast, we observed a quadratic effect (P<0.05 on the concentrations of fatty acids caproic C6:0 (= 11.33 the point of maximum, caprylic C8:0 (= 9.50 the point of maximum and capric C10:0 (= 6.66 the point of maximum also short chain fatty acids, following the same trend of milk production. Decreased linearly (P<0.05 concentrations of medium chain fatty acids, fatty acids Lauric C12:0, Myristic C14:0, myristoleic C14:1, pentadecanoic C15:0, Pentadecenoico: C15:1, Palmitic C16:0 and palmitoleic C16:1. Was observed increased linearly (P<0.05 on concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated. In contrast, the concentration of saturated fatty acids decreased linearly (P<0.05. The concentration of fatty acids Omega 6 series showed decreasing linear effect (P<0.05. As for the concentration of Omega 3, there was no effect of adding glycerin. The PUFA SFA-1 ratio showed linear growth (P<0.05 and the ratio n-6 n-3-1 showed a quadratic effect (P<0.05, with of 6.66 the point of maximum. The concentration of conjugated linoleic acid total had increased linearly (P<0.05. It is recommended the inclusion of glycerin in the diet of dairy cows to the level of 20% based on dry matter.

  5. Antioxidant Efficacies of Rutin and Rutin Esters in Bulk Oil and Oil-in-Water Emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    concentrations (25 and 200 µM) was assessed in bulk oil and in an o/w emulsion system without and with iron addition. All evaluated compounds revealed antioxidant effects. However, rutin and BHT were the most efficient antioxidants in bulk oil followed by rutin palmitate, whereas rutin laurate acted as either...... an antioxidant or a prooxidant at low and high concentrations (25 and 200 µM), respectively. In emulsions, rutin and BHT in high concentration (200 µM) were more efficient than rutin esters. Thus, alcylation of rutin with medium chain fatty acids did not improve the antioxidant ability, neither in bulk oil nor...... in o/w emulsion. Interestingly, rutin had stronger antioxidative effect than BHT upon iron addition to the emulsion. Practical application: According to the antioxidant hypothesis the polar paradox more amphiphilic antioxidants should perform as better antioxidants in emulsions than more polar...

  6. Rutin from Ruta graveolens L

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    Dj. Afshar

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative determination of rutin in Ruta Graveolens, L. which is easily cultivated in Iran, is necessary for its economic importance, diversity of specialities and their pharmacological activity in blood vessels disorders. For this purpose, the plant was cultivated in botanical garden of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and rutin was determinated at different stages of plant growth. The extraction was done from the crude plants by ethanol, boiling water and hydroalcoholic solvents. Rutin was subsequently purified by crystalization."nStructure elucidation was confirmed by the U.V spectrum in the presence of shift-producing reagents, and TLC by using different systems, HPLC and HPTLC in the presence of standard."nSugars and their sequence of bonding to genine were known by acidic hydrolysis, sequential hydrolysis and TLC in the presence of standards. For quantitative determinations of rutin two methods were selected i.e. HPLC and colorimetery. In the colorimetrey method, cyanidin reaction was used for color producing and the absorbances of other compounds of extract were eliminated in coincidence with rutin absorption.. In the HPLC method, separation was done on CN- column with mobile phase including dioxan/phosphate bnffer (pH=2.6; 2:8. In the end the results of two methods were compared.

  7. Experimental studies on bioactive potential of rutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-derived phytochemicals are gaining wide popularity owing to their diverse therapeutic potential and less side effects. Rutin is one of the plant-derived flavonoid. Rutin has demonstrated cardio protective, analgesic, and anticancer effects. Aim: The current work was focused to evaluate bioactive potential of rutin. Materials and Methods: Rutin was isolated from tobacco leaves. The structure was confirmed by H 1 NMR spectroscopy. The isolated rutin was studied for possible antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and cytotoxic effects. Results: Results of studies demonstrated that rutin effectively inhibited growth of bacteria and fungi, as well as demonstrated anthelmintic potential. There was a positive response for larvicidal and cytotoxic effects. Conclusion: These studies justify chemotherapeutic potential of rutin.

  8. Absorption and Metabolism Characteristics of Rutin in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal absorption and metabolism characteristics of the potentially beneficial polyphenol rutin were studied by measuring the intracellular accumulation and transport of rutin into Caco-2 cells with the sensitive and reliable analytical method of HPLC-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Rutin and glucuronidated rutin were absorbed differently by the basolateral and apical membranes, and rutin showed differential permeability through the apical and basolateral sides. Approximately 33% of the rutin was metabolized to glucuronidated rutin, and the intracellular concentration of glucuronidated rutin was much lower than that of parent rutin. P-glycoprotein and multidrug-resistant proteins 2 and 3 were involved in the transmembrane transport and intracellular accumulation of rutin by Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that a specific transport system mediates rutin movement across the apical membrane in Caco-2 cells and that metabolic enzymes are important for this process.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF RUTIN-CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPOUNDS

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    Andreia Corciovă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine the potential of beta-cyclodextrin to improve the solubility of rutin and obtain inclusion compounds that were analyzed by different techniques: UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis. The presence of β-cyclodextrin raises the content of rutin in water. The inclusion compounds were prepared by dry mixing, complexation in semisolid and liquid medium in 1:2 molar ratio rutin - β-cyclodextrin. The UV-Vis and IR analysis demonstrated the obtaining of inclusion compounds and the thermal analysis show that these compounds are more stable than the parent substance.

  10. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Wei, Gang; You, Yilin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Dong, Meng; Lin, Jun; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hanlin; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhou, Huiqiao; Ye, Rongcai; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhai, Baiqiang; Huang, Weidong; Liu, Shunai; Xie, Wen; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Xiaomeng; Cui, Chengbi; Li, Donghao; Zhan, Jicheng; Cheng, Jun; Yuan, Zengqiang; Jin, Wanzhu

    2017-01-01

    Increasing energy expenditure through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical approach to treating obesity and diabetes. In this study, rutin, a natural compound extracted from mulberry and a drug used as a capillary stabilizer clinically for many years without any side effects, regulated whole-body energy metabolism by enhancing BAT activity. Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both genetically obese (Db/Db) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Rutin also induced brown-like adipocyte (beige) formation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in both obesity mouse models. Mechanistically, we found that rutin directly bound to and stabilized SIRT1, leading to hypoacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α protein, which stimulated Tfam transactivation and eventually augmented the number of mitochondria and UCP1 activity in BAT. These findings reveal that rutin is a novel small molecule that activates BAT and may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of metabolic disorders.-Yuan, X., Wei, G., You, Y., Huang, Y., Lee, H. J., Dong, M., Lin, J., Hu, T., Zhang, H., Zhang, C., Zhou, H., Ye, R., Qi, X., Zhai, B., Huang, W., Liu, S., Xie, W., Liu, Q., Liu, X., Cui, C., Li, D., Zhan, J., Cheng, J., Yuan, Z., Jin, W. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation. © FASEB.

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of lipophilic rutin and vanillyl esters from fish byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatia, Betty; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Mattiasson, Bo; Mulaa, Francis; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2011-07-13

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of lipophilic phenolic antioxidants was carried out with a concentrate of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), recovered from oil extracted from salmon ( Salmon salar ) byproduct. Vanillyl alcohol and rutin were selected for the esterification reaction, and obtained esters yields were 60 and 30%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the esters were compared with those of commercial butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol using DPPH radical scavenging and thiobarbituric acid assays. In the DPPH assay, rutin esters showed better activity than vanillyl esters, and on the contrary in lipophilic medium, vanillyl esters were found to be superior to rutin esters. In bulk oil system, the antioxidant activities of rutin and vanillyl derivatives were lower than that of BHT and α-tocopherol, but in emulsion, they showed better activity than α-tocopherol. By attaching to natural phenolics, the PUFAs are protected against oxidation, and PUFA improves the hydrophobicity of the phenolic, which could enhance its function in lipid systems.

  12. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    AlSharari, Shakir D.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The li...

  13. Hubungan Pemakaian Fenobarbital Rutin dan Tidak Rutin Pada Anak Kejang Demam dengan Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Fadila; Nadjmir .; Rahmatini .

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakKejang demam akan berulang 62,2% serta memiliki tingkat kejadian epilepsi 2-5%. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan pengobatan yang adekuat untuk mencegah terjadi kejang demam dengan pemberian fenobarbital rutin setiap hari selama 1-2 tahun. Efek samping fenobarbital yaitu hiperaktifitas, iritabilitas. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui hubungan pemakaian fenobarbital rutin dan tidak rutin pada anak kejang demam dengan ADHD. Penelitian ini bersifat analitik observasional dengan desain cross...

  14. Isolation and screening of strains producing high amounts of rutin degrading enzymes from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya-Di; Luo, Qing-Lin; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Wang, De-Zhou; Zhang, Ye-Dong; Shao, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Tang, Yu

    2013-02-01

    The rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) was isolated and purified from tartary buckwheat seeds. The RDE was purified about 11.34-fold and its final yield was 3.5%, which was very low, due to our purification strategy of giving priority to purity over yield. The RDE molecular weight was estimated to be about 60 kDa. When rutin was used as substrate, an optimal enzyme activity was seen at around pH 5.0 and 40 °C. Strains isolation strategy characterized by the use of rutin as sole carbon source in enrichment cultures was used to isolate RDE-producing strains. Then the active strains were identified by morphology characterization and 18s rDNA-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) gene sequencing. Three isolates coded as B3, W2, Y2 were successfully isolated from fusty Fagopyrum tataricum flour cultures. Strain B3 possessed the highest unit activity among these three strains, and its total activity reached up to 171.0 Unit. The active isolate (B3) could be assigned to Penicillium farinosum. When the Penicillium farinosum strains were added to tartary buckwheat flour cultures at pH 5.0, 30 °C after 5 days fermentation, the quercetin production raised up to 1.78 mg/l, almost 5.1 times higher than the fermentation without the above active strains. Hence, a new approach was available to utilize microorganism-aided fermentation for effective quercetin extraction from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSharari, Shakir D; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohamed M; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  16. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir D. AlSharari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2, Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4, Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3, caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21 and Interleukin-3 (IL-3 in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  17. Reduction of rutin loss in buckwheat noodles and their physicochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutin in buckwheat flour is converted into quercetin by rutin-degrading enzymes when water is added. Thus, buckwheat was subjected to hydrothermal treatments for minimizing the rutin loss in buckwheat-based foods by water addition. When native buckwheat flour was mixed with water, the rutin conten...

  18. Firewalls From Double Purity

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The firewall paradox is often presented as arising from double entanglement, but I argue that more generally the paradox is double purity. Near-horizon modes are purified by the interior, in the infalling vacuum. Hence they cannot also be pure alone, or in combination with any third system, as demanded by unitarity. This conflict arises independently of the Page time, for entangled and for pure states. It implies that identifications of Hilbert spaces cannot resolve the paradox. Traditional complementarity requires the unitary identification of infalling matter with a scrambled subsystem of the Hawking radiation. Extending this map to the infalling vacuum overdetermines the out-state. More general complementarity maps ("A=R_B", "ER=EPR") founder when the near-horizon zone is pure. I argue that pure-zone states span the microcanonical ensemble, and that this suffices to make the horizon a special place. I advocate that the ability to detect the horizon locally, rather than the degree or probability of violence...

  19. Rutin attenuates ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cells by increasing aldehyde dehydrogenase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kibbeum; Kim, Sokho; Na, Ji-Young; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Jungkee

    2014-10-01

    Rutin is derived from buckwheat, apples, and black tea. It has been shown to have beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and neurotoxin. Its metabolite, acetaldehyde, is critically toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) metabolizes acetaldehyde into nontoxic acetate. This study examined rutin's effects on ALDH2 activity in hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22 cells). Rutin's protective effects against acetaldehyde-based ethanol neurotoxicity were confirmed. Daidzin, an ALDH2 inhibitor, was used to clarify the mechanisms of rutin's protective effects. Cell viability was significantly increased after rutin treatment. Rutin significantly reversed ethanol-increased Bax, cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activity, and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression in HT22 cells. Interestingly, rutin increased ALDH2 expression, while daidzin reversed this beneficial effect. Thus, this study demonstrates rutin protects HT22 cells against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity by increasing ALDH2 activity.

  20. Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(Ⅱ) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) enhanced by rutin on platinum electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Xu; Zhong Lan Gao; Na Li; Ke An Li

    2007-01-01

    Ru(bpy)32+ electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was applied to determination of rutin. ECL intensity of Ru(bpy)32+could be enhanced in the presence of rutin in basic solution on platinum electrode. At pH 9.9, light emission intensity was found to be linear with rutin in the range of 1-50 μmol/L.

  1. Role of Rutin on Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

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    Azizah Ugusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO, produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, is a major antiatherogenic factor in the blood vessel. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Decreased availability of endothelial NO promotes the progression of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Rutin is a flavonoid with multiple cardiovascular protective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rutin on eNOS and NO production in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. HUVEC were divided into four groups: control; oxidative stress induction with 180 μM H2O2; treatment with 300 μM rutin; and concomitant induction with rutin and H2O2 for 24 hours. HUVEC treated with rutin produced higher amount of NO compared to control (P<0.01. In the oxidative stress-induced HUVEC, rutin successfully induced cells’ NO production (P<0.01. Rutin promoted NO production in HUVEC by inducing eNOS gene expression (P<0.05, eNOS protein synthesis (P<0.01, and eNOS activity (P<0.05. Treatment with rutin also led to increased gene and protein expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in HUVEC. Therefore, upregulation of eNOS expression by rutin may be mediated by bFGF. The results showed that rutin may improve endothelial function by augmenting NO production in human endothelial cells.

  2. Synthesis, Spectral and Thermal Studies of New Rutin Vanadyl Complexes

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    Rodica Olar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexes between oxovanadium (IV cation and flavonoid derivatives were developed recently in order to increase the intestinal absorption and to reduce the toxicity of vanadium compounds. For these reasons, is interesting to investigate the complexation process between flavonoid rutin (Rut and vanadyl cation in order to isolate new complexes. Two new complexes [VO(Rut(H2O2](SO40.5×2H2O and [VO(Rut2]×4H2O have been obtained and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses and several spectroscopic techniques (ESI-MS, IR, UV-Vis, fluorescence. The studies concerning complex formation between vanadyl and rutin (Rut performed in different solutions show the formation of mononuclear complexes with 1:1 and 1:2 metal to ligand stoichiometry.

  3. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Dvorak, E; Hahn, A; Jaskierny, W; Johnson, C; Jostlein, H; Kendziora, C; Lockwitz, S; Pahlka, B; Plunkett, R; Pordes, S; Rebel, B; Schmitt, R; Stancari, M; Tope, T; Voirin, E; Yang, T

    2014-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  4. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  5. Purity homophily in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Johnson, Kate; Hoover, Joe; Sagi, Eyal; Garten, Justin; Parmar, Niki Jitendra; Vaisey, Stephen; Iliev, Rumen; Graham, Jesse

    2016-03-01

    Does sharing moral values encourage people to connect and form communities? The importance of moral homophily (love of same) has been recognized by social scientists, but the types of moral similarities that drive this phenomenon are still unknown. Using both large-scale, observational social-media analyses and behavioral lab experiments, the authors investigated which types of moral similarities influence tie formations. Analysis of a corpus of over 700,000 tweets revealed that the distance between 2 people in a social-network can be predicted based on differences in the moral purity content-but not other moral content-of their messages. The authors replicated this finding by experimentally manipulating perceived moral difference (Study 2) and similarity (Study 3) in the lab and demonstrating that purity differences play a significant role in social distancing. These results indicate that social network processes reflect moral selection, and both online and offline differences in moral purity concerns are particularly predictive of social distance. This research is an attempt to study morality indirectly using an observational big-data study complemented with 2 confirmatory behavioral experiments carried out using traditional social-psychology methodology.

  6. Protective effect of rutin on cognitive impairment caused by phenytoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the co-administration of phenytoin (PHT) and rutin in comparison with PHT and piracetam (PIM) on seizure control, cognitive, and motor functions in mice. Materials and Methods: Increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test was used to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of PHT and PIM on convulsions. Cognitive functions in mice were assessed by a spontaneous alternation in behavior on a plus maze while motor functions were screened using rolling roller apparatus and by counting the number of arms entries on a plus maze. Brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity was also estimated. Statistical Analysis: The expression of data was done as mean ± standard error of the mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study showed that rutin when co-administered with PHT, significantly reversed PHT-induced reduction in spontaneous alternation without altering the efficacy of PHT against ICES, in both acute and chronic studies. Further, it also reversed PHT-induced increase in AChE activity. Conclusion: Rutin alleviated the PHT-induced cognitive impairment without compromising its antiepileptic efficacy. PMID:26729954

  7. Lactobacillus acidophilus-Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fiorella Mazzeo

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus.

  8. Protective effect of rutin on cognitive impairment caused by phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of the co-administration of phenytoin (PHT) and rutin in comparison with PHT and piracetam (PIM) on seizure control, cognitive, and motor functions in mice. Increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test was used to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of PHT and PIM on convulsions. Cognitive functions in mice were assessed by a spontaneous alternation in behavior on a plus maze while motor functions were screened using rolling roller apparatus and by counting the number of arms entries on a plus maze. Brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity was also estimated. The expression of data was done as mean ± standard error of the mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The study showed that rutin when co-administered with PHT, significantly reversed PHT-induced reduction in spontaneous alternation without altering the efficacy of PHT against ICES, in both acute and chronic studies. Further, it also reversed PHT-induced increase in AChE activity. Rutin alleviated the PHT-induced cognitive impairment without compromising its antiepileptic efficacy.

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus-Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Lippolis, Rosa; Sorrentino, Alida; Liberti, Sarah; Fragnito, Federica; Siciliano, Rosa Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus.

  10. Hubungan Pemakaian Fenobarbital Rutin dan Tidak Rutin Pada Anak Kejang Demam dengan Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fadila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKejang demam akan berulang 62,2% serta memiliki tingkat kejadian epilepsi 2-5%. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan pengobatan yang adekuat untuk mencegah terjadi kejang demam dengan pemberian fenobarbital rutin setiap hari selama 1-2 tahun. Efek samping fenobarbital yaitu hiperaktifitas, iritabilitas. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui hubungan pemakaian fenobarbital rutin dan tidak rutin pada anak kejang demam dengan ADHD. Penelitian ini bersifat analitik observasional dengan desain cross sectional yang dilakukan pada 32 orang sampel, terdiri dari 16 penderita kejang demam yang mengonsumsi fenobarbital rutin dan 16 penderita kejang demam yang mengonsumsi fenobarbital tidak rutin. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan wawancara berdasarkan kuisioner SPPAHI dan diolah dengan uji statistik chi-square dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95%. Hasil penelitian didapatkan (1 Anak kejang demam bertempat tinggal di kota Padang yang memakai fenobarbital di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang adalah 134 orang (2 kejadian ADHD lebih banyak terjadi pada anak kejang demam yang rutin memakai fenobarbital dan secara statistik terdapat hubungan yang bermakna (p value<0,05 (3 kejadian ADHD lebih banyak terjadi pada anak kejang demam yang rmemakai fenobarbital >1 tahun dan secara statistik terdapat hubungan yang bermakna (p value<0,05. Dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara pemakaian fenobarbital rutin dan tidak rutin pada anak kejang demam dengan ADHD.Kata kunci: Fenobarbital, kejang demam, ADHDAbstractRecurrent febrile seizures will have a rate of 62.2% and 2-5% incidence of epilepsy. Therefore, it needs adequate treatment to prevent febrile seizures with phenobarbital administration routine every day for 1-2 years. Phenobarbital side effects are hyperactivity, irritability. The purpose of this study to determine the correlation of the use of continous and uncontinous phenobarbital in febrile seizures children with ADHD. This research using

  11. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS), one picomolar (1 pM) of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  12. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS, one picomolar (1 pM of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  13. Microwave Accelerated Transglycosylation of Rutin by Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from Bacillus sp. SK13.002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beilei Pan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rutin was subjected to intermolecular transglycosylation assisted with microwave irradiation using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase produced from Bacillus sp. SK13.002. Compared with the conventional enzymatic method for rutin transglycosylation (without microwave irradiation, microwave-assisted reaction (MAR was much faster and thus more efficient. While the conventional reaction took dozens of hours to reach the highest conversion rate of rutin and yield of transglycosylated rutin, MAR of rutin transglycosylation completed within only 6 min providing almost the same conversion rate of rutin and yield of products consisting of mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-glucosylated rutins. The optimum transglycosylation conditions for microwave irradiation were 40 °C and 60 W with the reaction system consisting mainly of the mixture of 0.3 g rutin (0.49 mmol pre-dissolved in 15 mL methanol, 1.8 g maltodextrin in 15 mL of 0.2 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.5 and CGTase (900 U. Results from this study indicated that MAR could be a potentially useful and economical technique for a faster and more efficient transglycosylation of rutin.

  14. The synthesis of a water-soluble derivative of rutin as an antiradical agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedriali, Carla Aparecida; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchoa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica]. E-mail: capedriali@hotmail.com; Bernusso, Leandra de Cassia; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize a water-soluble derivative of rutin (compound 2) by introducing carboxylate groups on rutin's sugar moiety. The rutin derivative showed an almost 100-fold solubility increase in water. The antiradical capacity of compound 2 was evaluated using the luminol/AAPH system, and the derivative's activity was 1.5 times greater than that of Trolox. Despite the derivative's high solubility in water (log P = -1.13), lipid peroxidation of brain homogenate membranes was very efficiently inhibited (inhibition values were only 19% lower than the inhibition values of rutin). (author)

  15. Growth and rutin production in hairy root cultures of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook-Young; Cho, Soo-In; Park, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Kyung; Choi, Jae-Eul; Park, Sang-Un

    2007-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, and antioxidative properties. To examine in vitro production of rutin, we established a hairy root culture of buckwheat by infecting leaf explants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000, and tested the growth conditions and rutin production rates of these cultures. Ten hairy root clones were established; their growth and rutin production rates ranged from 233 to 312 (mg dry wt per 30 mL flask, and 0.8 to 1.2 (mg/g dry wt), respectively. Clone H8, which had high growth and rutin production rates (312 mg dry wt per 30 mL flask and 1.2 mg/g dry wt, respectively), was selected for further experiments. H8 showed maximal growth and rutin content at 30 days in culture in MS medium. Of four tested culture media, half-strength MS medium was found to induce the highest levels of growth (378 mg dry wt per 30 mL flask) and rutin production (1.4 mg/g dry wt) by clone H8. In contrast, supplementation with auxins (0.1-1 mg/l IAA, IBA and NAA) increased the growth rate, but had no significant effect on rutin production by H8. Collectively, these findings indicate that hairy root cultures of buckwheat culture could be a valuable alternative approach for rutin production.

  16. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between apigenin, rutin and paclitaxel mediated by P-glycoprotein in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Kishore; Priyanka, Leena; Gnananath, K; Babu, P Ravindra; Sujatha, S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of apigenin and rutin on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel after oral administration of paclitaxel with apigenin and rutin to rats. Paclitaxel (40 mg/kg) was administered orally alone and in combination with apigenin and rutin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days. In the single-dose pharmacokinetic study (SDS), blood samples were collected on 1st day whereas on 15th day in the multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study (MDS). The plasma concentrations of paclitaxel were increased dose-dependently in the combination of apigenin and rutin compared to that of paclitaxel control in SDS and MDS (p apigenin and rutin were significantly higher (p apigenin and rutin in the dose-dependent manner. The half-life (t 1/2) was significantly longer than that of the control. Non-everted sacs were filled with paclitaxel 100 μM in the presence and absence of verapamil (50 μM), apigenin, and rutin (50, 100 μM) and incubated at 37 ºC for 60 min. The absorption of paclitaxel was increased in the presence of apigenin, rutin, and verapamil, a typical P-glycoprotein and Cyp3A4 inhibitor. If these results are confirmed in humans in a clinical setting, the paclitaxel dose should be adjusted when it is given concomitantly with apigenin and rutin.

  17. Incorporation of Rutin in Electrospun Pullulan/PVA Nanofibers for Novel UV-Resistant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Qian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the incorporation of rutin into electrospun pullulan and poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA nanofibers to obtain ultraviolet (UV-resistant properties. The effect of weight ratios between pullulan and PVA, and the addition of rutin on the nanofibers’ morphology and diameters were studied and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis was utilized to investigate the interaction between pullulan and PVA, as well as with rutin. The results showed that the inclusion of PVA results in the increase in the fiber’s diameter. The addition of rutin had no obvious effect on the fibers’ average diameters when the content of rutin was less than 7.41%. FTIR results indicated that a hydrogen bond formed between pullulan and PVA, also between these polymers and rutin. Moreover, the addition of rutin could enhance the mechanical properties due to its stiff structure and could decrease the transmittance of UVA and UVB to be fewer than 5%; meanwhile, the value of ultraviolet protection factor (UPF reached more than 40 and 50 when the content of rutin was 4.46% and 5.67%, respectively. Therefore, the electrospun pullulan/PVA/rutin nanofibrous mats showed excellent UV resistance and have potential applications in anti-ultraviolet packaging and dressing materials.

  18. AFLP fingerprinting of tartary buckwheat accessions (Fagopyrum tataricum) displaying rutin content variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Sharma, Sunil K; Rana, Jai C; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2012-09-01

    In light of the economic importance of buckwheat as well as existence of enormous accessions of Fagopyrum species in the Himalayan regions of India, the characterization of tartary buckwheat for rutin content variation vis-à-vis DNA fingerprinting was undertaken so as to identify fingerprint profiles unique to high rutin content accessions. Rutin content analysis in mature seeds of 195 accessions of Fagopyrum tataricum showed a wide range of variation (6 μg/mg to 30 μg/mg D.W.) with most of the accessions (81%) containing 10-16 μg/mg of rutin followed by 14% accessions with significantly higher rutin content (17 μg/mg to 30 μg/mg) and 5% accessions with low rutin content (≤10 μg/mg). AFLP fingerprinting of 18 accessions having high (≥17 μg/mg) and low rutin content (≤10 μg/mg) with 19 EcoRI/MseI primer combinations yielded 136 polymorphic fragments out of total 907. The hierarchical and model-based cluster analyses of AFLP data strongly suggested that the 18 populations of F. tataricum were clustered into two separate groups. The high and low rutin content accessions were clustered into two separate groups based on AFLP fingerprinting. The AFLP fingerprints associated with high rutin content accessions of F. tataricum are expected to be useful for evaluation, conservation and genetic improvement of buckwheat.

  19. Purity assessment of crystalline zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, Rudolf; Welzig, Elvira; Josephs, Ralf D; Kandler, Wolfgang; Pettersson, Hans; MacDonald, Susan; Charlton, Adrian; Brereton, Paul; Hametner, Christian; Berner, Diana; Zöllner, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Commercially available solid zearalenone (ZON) to be used as a certified liquid calibrant (BCR-699) in a project funded by the European Commission within the Standard Measurement and Testing program was characterized and its purity determined. The degree of purity of the ZON was examined by UV spectrophotometer, liquid chromatography (LC) with diode array and fluorescence detection, 1H and 13C-NMR spectrometry, LC-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), ion chromatography (IC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The diagrams obtained from DSC analysis and the UV spectrum showed no detectable impurities. Likewise, no impurities were observed by LC analysis with both diode array and fluorescence detection. IC determination revealed negligible contamination of ZON with chloride of 0.020 +/- 0.005% and nitrate of 0.016 +/- 0.006%. Zearalanone (ZAN) was identified as one of 2 minor (0.2%) impurities by LC/MS/MS. The 1H-NMR measurements revealed an additional peak, which has not been previously reported in the literature. It could be identified as part of the ZON spectrum as the signal arising from the phenolic proton attached to C4'. The manufacturer states an additional contamination with 0.2% methylene chloride, which could be confirmed to an extent of 0.1% by 1H-NMR. Minor impurities, whose structures remain unknown, were discovered at 3.5 and project.

  20. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  1. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation.

  2. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  3. The antioxidative effect of lipophilized rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid in fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Petersen, Lone Kirsten; de Diego, Sara;

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidative effect of phenolipids was evaluated in fish oil enriched milk emulsions as a model for a complex food system. Two different phenolipids modified from dihydrocaffeic acid (with C8 or C18:1) and rutin (with C12 or C16) were evaluated. Both dihydrocaffeate esters and rutin laurate...... showed significantly better antioxidant properties in milk emulsion compared with the original phenolics. However, rutin palmitate only performed slightly better as antioxidant than rutin. The results with rutin indicated that a cut‐off effect exists in relation to the alkyl chain length with respect...... to the almost similar antioxidant effect of the two phenolipids. However, there was a tendency towards octyl dihydrocaffeate being slightly more efficient than oleyl dihydrocaffeate. Practical application: The finding that phenolipids are better antioxidants in milk emulsions than the original phenolic acid...

  4. Antioxidant properties of modified rutin esters by DPPH, reducing power, iron chelation and human low density lipoprotein assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2010-01-01

    rutin compounds exhibited decreased reducing power and metal chelating abilities as compared to rutin. Conversely, investigations on the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) revealed that rutin laurate was most effective in inhibiting oxidation by prolonging LDL lag time for an in vitro...

  5. Higher peroxidase activity, leaf nutrient contents and carbon isotope composition changes in Arabidopsis thaliana are related to rutin stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M Iftikhar; Reigosa, Manuel J

    2014-09-15

    Rutin, a plant secondary metabolite that is used in cosmetics and food additive and has known medicinal properties, protects plants from UV-B radiation and diseases. Rutin has been suggested to have potential in weed management, but its mode of action at physiological level is unknown. Here, we report the biochemical, physiological and oxidative response of Arabidopsis thaliana to rutin at micromolar concentrations. It was found that fresh weight; leaf mineral contents (nitrogen, sodium, potassium, copper and aluminum) were decreased following 1 week exposure to rutin. Arabidopsis roots generate significant amounts of reactive oxygen species after rutin treatment, consequently increasing membrane lipid peroxidation, decreasing leaf Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+) contents and losing root viability. Carbon isotope composition in A. thaliana leaves was less negative after rutin application than the control. Carbon isotope discrimination values were decreased following rutin treatment, with the highest reduction compared to the control at 750μM rutin. Rutin also inhibited the ratio of CO2 from leaf to air (ci/ca) at all concentrations. Total protein contents in A. thaliana leaves were decreased following rutin treatment. It was concluded carbon isotope discrimination coincided with protein degradation, increase lipid peroxidation and a decrease in ci/ca values may be the primary action site of rutin. The present results suggest that rutin possesses allelopathic potential and could be used as a candidate to develop environment friendly natural herbicide.

  6. Rutin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy by lowering plasma glucose and decreasing oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ruifeng; Yang, Wenqing; Xue, Qiang; Gao, Liang; Huo, Junli; Ren, Dongqing; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-15

    Rutin exhibits antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which makes rutin an attractive candidate for diabetic complications. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. After induction of diabetic neuropathy, rutin (5mg/kg, 25mg/kg and 50mg/kg) were daily given to the diabetic rats for 2 weeks. At the end of rutin administration, rutin produced a significant inhibition of mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, as well as partial restoration of nerve conduction velocities in diabetic rats. Furthermore, rutin significantly increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities in sciatic nerves and decreased caspase-3 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRG). In addition, rutin significantly decreased plasma glucose, attenuated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Further studies showed that rutin significantly increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) level, up-regulated the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in DRG. The evidences suggest the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Additionally, insulin (2 IU) and BG-12 (15mg/kg) were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Insulin achieved lower plasma glucose and BG-12 achieved comparable Nrf2 expression than/to rutin (50mg/kg), respectively. In contrast, the beneficial effect of insulin and BG-12 was inferior to that of rutin (50mg/kg), suggesting that both lowered plasma glucose and Nrf2 signaling contribute to the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, rutin produces significant protection in diabetic neuropathy, which makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

  7. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of rutin by its inhibitory effect on the oxidation of amaranth by potassium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhao; Du, Lingyun; Yao, Xingjun; Niu, Xueli; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2005-01-01

    A novel kinetic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of rutin. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of rutin on the oxidation reaction of amaranth by potassium periodate in acidic media at 100 degrees C. The linear range for the determination of rutin is 0.02 - 0.50 microg/ml, and the detection limit is 0.014 microg/ml. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of rutin in medicine of rutin tablet and traditional Chinese medicine.

  8. Subcritical Water Induced Complexation of Soy Protein and Rutin: Improved Interfacial Properties and Emulsion Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Qi, Jun-Ru; Hou, Jun-Jie

    2016-09-01

    Rutin is a common dietary flavonoid with important antioxidant and pharmacological activities. However, its application in the food industry is limited mainly because of its poor water solubility. The subcritical water (SW) treatment provides an efficient technique to solubilize and achieve the enrichment of rutin in soy protein isolate (SPI) by inducing their complexation. The physicochemical, interfacial, and emulsifying properties of the complex were investigated and compared to the mixtures. SW treatment had much enhanced rutin-combined capacity of SPI than that of conventional method, ascribing to the well-contacted for higher water solubility of rutin with stronger collision-induced hydrophobic interactions. Compared to the mixtures of rutin with proteins, the complex exhibited an excellent surface activity and improved the physical and oxidative stability of its stabilized emulsions. This improving effect could be attributed to the targeted accumulation of rutin at the oil-water interface accompanied by the adsorption of SPI resulting in the thicker interfacial layer, as evidenced by higher interfacial protein and rutin concentrations. This study provides a novel strategy for the design and enrichment of nanovehicle providing water-insoluble hydrophobic polyphenols for interfacial delivery in food emulsified systems.

  9. Nanostructured Systems Containing Rutin: In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Photostability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The improvement of the rutin photostability and its prolonged in vitro antioxidant activity were studied by means of its association with nanostructured aqueous dispersions. Rutin-loaded nanocapsules and rutin-loaded nanoemulsion showed mean particle size of 124.30 ± 2.06 and 124.17 ± 1.79, respectively, polydispersity index below 0.20, negative zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency close to 100%. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by the formation of free radical ·OH after the exposure of hydrogen peroxide to a UV irradiation system. Rutin-loaded nanostructures showed lower rutin decay rates [(6.1 ± 0.6 10−3 and (5.1 ± 0.4 10−3 for nanocapsules and nanoemulsion, respectively] compared to the ethanolic solution [(35.0 ± 3.7 10−3 min−1] and exposed solution [(40.1 ± 1.7 10−3 min−1] as well as compared to exposed nanostructured dispersions [(19.5 ± 0.5 10−3 and (26.6 ± 2.6 10−3, for nanocapsules and nanoemulsion, respectively]. The presence of the polymeric layer in nanocapsules was fundamental to obtain a prolonged antioxidant activity, even if the mathematical modeling of the in vitro release profiles showed high adsorption of rutin to the particle/droplet surface for both formulations. Rutin-loaded nanostructures represent alternatives to the development of innovative nanomedicines.

  10. Rutin inhibits proliferation, attenuates superoxide production and decreases adhesion and migration of human cancerous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Pagano, Alessandra; Mousslim, Mohamed; Ammari, Youssef; Kovacic, Hervé; Luis, José

    2016-12-01

    Lung and colorectal cancer are the principal causes of death in the world. Rutin, an active flavonoid compound, is known for possessing a wide range of biological activities. In this study, we examined the effect of rutin on the viability, superoxide anion production, adhesion and migration of human lung (A549) and colon (HT29 and Caco-2) cancer cell lines. In order to control the harmlessness of the tested concentrations of rutin, the viability of cancer cell lines was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. ROS generation was measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence detecting superoxide ions. To investigate the effect of rutin on the behavior of human lung and colon cancer cell lines, we performed adhesion assays, using various purified extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Finally, in vitro cell migration assays were explored using modified Boyden chambers. The viability of cancerous cells was inhibited by rutin. It also significantly attenuated the superoxide production in HT29 cells. In addition, rutin affected adhesion and migration of A549 and HT29 cell. These findings indicate that rutin, a natural molecule, might have potential as anticancer agent against lung and colorectal carcinogenesis.

  11. MCM-41 as a useful vector for rutin topical formulations: synthesis, characterization and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlier, Gloria; Gastaldi, Lucia; Sapino, Simona; Miletto, Ivana; Bottinelli, Emanuela; Chirio, Daniela; Ugazio, Elena

    2013-11-30

    Rutin, the glycoside of quercetin, could be used in topical preparations because of its antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, but its employ in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products is limited by poor physico-chemical stability. These issues were addressed by preparing, characterizing and testing rutin inclusion complexes with MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The effect of surface functionalization with aminopropyl groups (NH₂-MCM-41) on the molecules properties was studied. The organic/inorganic interaction was confirmed by many techniques. In particular, the high inclusion of rutin in the pores of NH₂-MCM-41 was assessed by XRD, TGA, gas-volumetric analysis (BET), while FTIR spectroscopy allowed to analyse with great detail the molecular interaction with the inorganic surface. Rutin was stabilized against UV degradation, mostly by its inclusion in NH₂-MCM-41. Ex vivo studies showed a greater accumulation in porcine skin in the case of rutin complexed with NH₂-MCM-41. Not only antioxidant properties of rutin were maintained after immobilization but, with aminopropyl silica, the metal-chelating activity increased noticeably. The immobilization of rutin in aminopropyl silica resulted in better performance in terms of activity and photostability, suggesting the importance of functionalization in stabilizing organic molecules within silica pores.

  12. Enhancement of rutin production in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with its endophytic fungal elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianglin; Xiang, Dabing; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Yuehua; Zhao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural bioactive flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examines the effects of endophytic fungi on rutin production in the hairy root cultures of F. tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the hairy roots, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors efficiently stimulated the hairy root growth and rutin biosynthesis, and the stimulation effect was mainly dependent on the mycelia elicitor species, as well as its treatment dose. Two endophytic fungal isolates Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened as promising candidates for promoting F. tataricum hairy root growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS) of endophyte Fat9 (200 mg/L), and PS of endophyte Fat15 (100 mg/L) to the hairy root cultures on day 25, the rutin yield was increased to 45.9 mg/L and 47.2 mg/L, respectively. That was about 3.1- to 3.2-fold in comparison with the control level of 14.6 mg/L. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of rutin resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia PS treatments. This may be an efficient strategy for enhancing rutin production in F. tataricum hairy root culture provided with its endophytic mycelia elicitors.

  13. Anticancer Effect of Rutin Isolated from the Methanolic Extract of Triticum aestivum Straw in Mice

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    Savita Dixit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rutin is the bioactive flavanoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a anthracene (DMBA and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentration of (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight continued three times weekly for 16th weeks. The development of skin carcinogenesis was assessed by histopathological analysis. Reductions in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen due to rutin treatment. Average latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen treated control. Rutin produced significant decrease in the activity of serum enzyme serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin when compared with the control. They significantly increased the levels of enzyme involved in oxidative stress glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxidase in the control group was significantly inhibited by rutin administration. The results from the present study suggest the chemopreventive effect of rutin in DMBA and croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice and one of the probable reasons would be its antioxidant potential.

  14. The role of calcium in intracellular pathways of rutin in rat pancreatic islets: potential insulin secretagogue effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Virginia D; Frederico, Marisa J S; Postal, Bárbara G; Mendes, Camila P; Cazarolli, Luisa H; Silva, Fátima R M B

    2013-02-28

    Rutin is a flavonol glycoside with multiple biological activities and it has been demonstrated that rutin modulates glucose homeostasis. In pancreatic β-cell, an increase in intracellular calcium concentration triggers exocytosis and thus insulin secretion. The aim of the study reported herein was to investigate the effect of rutin associated intracellular pathways on Ca(2+) uptake in isolated rat pancreatic islets. We focused on the acute effects of rutin on in vivo insulin secretion and the in vitro cellular signaling of pancreatic islets related to this effect. The results show that rutin significantly increased glucose-induced insulin secretion in an in vivo treatment. Moreover, it was demonstrated that rutin stimulated Ca(2+) uptake after 10 min of incubation compared with the respective control group. The involvement of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (L-VDCCs) was evidenced using nifedipine, while the use of glibenclamide and diazoxide demonstrated that the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are not involved in the rutin action in pancreatic islets. In conclusion, rutin diminish glycemia, potentiate insulin secretion in vivo and significantly stimulates Ca(2+) uptake in rat pancreatic islets. A novel cellular mechanism of action of rutin in Ca(2+) uptake on pancreatic β-cells was elucidated. Rutin modulates Ca(2+) uptake in pancreatic islets by opening L-VDCCs, alter intracellular Ca(2+), PLC and PKC signaling pathways, characterizing KATP channel-independent pathways. These findings highlight rutin, a dietary adjuvant, as a potential insulin secretagogue contributing to glucose homeostasis.

  15. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) as a source of dietary rutin and quercitrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabjan, Nina; Rode, Janko; Kosir, Iztok Joze; Wang, Zhuanhua; Zhang, Zheng; Kreft, Ivan

    2003-10-22

    Two samples of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) from China and one from Luxembourg were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to reveal the possibilities of growing tartary buckwheat herb as a possible source of rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin. The content of rutin was determined as up to 3% dry weight (DW) in tartary buckwheat herb. Quercitrin values were in the range of 0.01-0.05% DW. Only traces of quercetin were detected in just some of the samples. Tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin (about 0.8-1.7% DW) than common buckwheat seeds (0.01% DW). Rutin and quercetin content in seeds depends on variety and growing conditions. Tartary buckwheat seeds contained traces of quercitrin and quercetin, which were not found in common buckwheat seeds.

  16. Rutin has anti-asthmatic effects in an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2017; 16 (6): 1337-1347 ... Conclusion: Rutin effectively suppresses OVA-induced asthma and improves airway function by suppressing ..... Djukanovic R, Roche WR, Wilson JW, Beasley CR,.

  17. Preparation of High Purity Amorphous Boron Powder

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    K.V. Tilekar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous boron powder of high purity (92-94 % with a particle size of l-2 mm is preferred as a fuel for fuel-rich propellants for integrated rocket ramjets and for igniter formulations. Thispaper describes the studies on process optimisation of two processes, ie, oxidative roasting of boron (roasting boron in air and roasting boron with zinc in an inert medium for preparing high purity boron. Experimental studies reveal that roasting boron with zinc at optimised process conditions yields boron of purity more than 93 per cent, whereas oxidative roasting method yields boron of purity - 92 per cent. Oxidative roasting has comparative edge over the other processes owing to its ease of scale-up and simplicity

  18. Recent progress in simultaneous estimation of rutin, quercetin and liquiritin in Cocculus hirsutus by HPTLC

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    V. Patil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Rutin, quercetin and liquiritin arepolyphenol flavonoids which have shown anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antiulcer, antiallergic, antidiabetic, antiviral and antioxidant activities. They are found in many herbal plants, one of them is Cocculus hirsutus.  The objective of this research was to develop and validate a new, accurate, precise and economic HPTLC method for simultaneous estimation of rutin, quercetin and liquiritin in ethanol extract of Cocculus hirsutus leaves. Methods: The simultaneous estimation of rutin, quercetin and liquiritin has been done by HPTLC on silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate using n- butanol: acetic acid: water: formic acid (7:1:1:0.25 as the mobile phase and was quantified by densitometric scanning at 254 nm. The method was validated as well. Results: Rutin, quercetin and liquiritin were satisfactorily resolved with Rf values of 0.47±0.03, 0.63 ±0.03 and 0.82±0.02, respectively. The linearity was found to be 1500-4000, 500-3000 and 100-700 ng per spot for rutin, quercetin and liquiritin, respectively. The inter-day RSD values were always less than 2, accuracy was 99.25% ±5% for rutin, 99.29% ±5% for quercetin, and 94.04 ±6% for liquiritin. The LOD was found to be 310.234, 346.8421 and 11.5571 ng per spot and LOQ was found to be 940.1032, 451.037 and 35.0213 ng per spot for rutin, quercetin and liquiritin, respectively. Conclusion: The statistically validated results indicated that the proposed new method has good accuracy and precision. Thus this new HPTLC method could be successfully applied for simultaneous determination of rutin, quercetin and liquiritin in herbal plants and their product.

  19. Novel reduction of Cr(VI) from wastewater using a naturally derived microcapsule loaded with rutin-Cr(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yun; Jiang, Meng; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Shejiang

    2015-03-21

    The harmfulness of carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is dramatically decreased when Cr(VI) is reduced to trivalent chromium (Cr(III)). Rutin, a natural flavonoid, exhibits excellent antioxidant activity by coordinating metal ions. In this study, a complex containing rutin and Cr(III) (rutin-Cr(III)) was synthesized and characterized. The rutin-Cr(III) complex was much easier to reduce than rutin. The reduction of the rutin-Cr(III) complex was highly pH-dependent, with 90% of the Cr(VI) being reduced to Cr(III) in 2h under optimal conditions. A biodegradable, sustained-release system encapsulating the rutin-Cr(III) complex in a alginate-chitosan microcapsule (rutin-Cr(III) ACMS) was also evaluated, and the reduction of Cr(VI) was assessed. This study also demonstrated that low-pH solutions increased the reduction rate of Cr(VI). The environmentally friendly microcapsules can reduce Cr(VI) for prolonged periods of time and can easily biodegrade after releasing the rutin-Cr(III) complex. Given the excellent performance of rutin-Cr(III) ACMS, the microcapsule system represents an effective system for the remediation of Cr(VI) pollution.

  20. Advances in Higher Purity Bi Sample Handling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Qing-zhang; HE; Ming; DONG; Ke-jun; SHEN; Hong-tao; YIN; Xin-yi; WU; Shao-yong; DOU; Liang; WANG; Xiao-ming; YANG; Xu-ran; XU; Yong-ning; LAN; Xiao-xi; PANG; Fang-fang; CAI; Li; JIANG; Shan

    2013-01-01

    Whether the decay rate of a radionuclide can be influenced by its external environment has always been a hot topic in nuclear science.Higher purity sample is very critical for the half-life measurements.Because using higher purity(6N)Bi metal instead of(4N)Bi target,in 210Po production to reduce the impact of radioactive impurity.The annealing process was performed to remove the damage in the lattice

  1. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abd Nikfarjam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neutrophils represent the front line of human defense against infections. Immediately after stimulation, neutrophilic enzymes are activated and produce toxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO and myeloperoxidase (MPO. These mediators can be toxic not only to infectious agents but also to host tissues. Because flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of rutin on stimulus-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α productions and MPO activity in human neutrophils were investigated. Methods: Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation coupled with dextran T500 sedimentation. The cell preparations containing > 98% granulocytes were determined by morphological examination through Giemsa staining. Neutrophils were cultured in complete Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium, pre-incubated with or without rutin (25 μM for 45 minutes, and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Then, the TNF-α, NO and MPO productions were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Griess Reagent, and MPO assay kits, respectively. Also, the viability of human neutrophils was assessed using tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT, and neutrophils were treated with various concentrations of rutin (1 - 100 μM, after which MTT was appended and incubated at 37ºC for 4 hour. Results: Rutin at concentrations up to 100 μM did not affect neutrophil viability during the 4-hour incubation period. Rutin significantly decreased the NO and TNF-α productions in human peripheral blood neutrophils compared to PMA-control cells (P < 0.001. Also, MPO activity was significantly reduced by rutin (P < 0.001. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, rutin had an anti-inflammatory effect

  2. Rutin increases neural crest stem cell survival against damage caused by aflatoxin B1

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    Jader Nones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p1 The neural crest (NC corresponds to a collection of multipotent and oligopotent progenitors endowed with both neural and mesenchymal potential. The derivatives of the NC at the trunk level include neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, smooth muscle cells and some endocrine cells. The present work investigated, for the first time, the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and the flavonoid rutin on the survival and proliferation of NC and NC-derived melanocytes. Quail NC cell cultures were treated with AFB1 (30 μM and/or rutin (20 μM for 6 days. Cell viability was assessed by MTT and trypan blue analyses and cell proliferation by BrdU staining. Melanocytes were identified by immunocytochemistry against the melanocyte-specific cellular marker MelEM. The AFB1 treatment decreased both NC cell viability and proliferation. The total number of MelEM-positive cells was also reduced after this treatment, an effect partially prevented by the addition of rutin. On the other hand, rutin added alone did not influence the NC cell population. Our results demonstrated that rutin increases the survival of the NC after damage caused by AFB1. However, additional studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in AFB1 and rutin interactions.

  3. Sensitive detection of rutin based on {beta}-cyclodextrin-chemically reduced graphene/Nafion composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kunping; Wei Jinping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > {beta}-CD-graphene composite obtained via a simple sonication-induced assembly. > Accelerating electron transfer on electrode to amplify the electrochemical signal. > A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for rutin detection. > Good selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of rutin in real samples. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on chemically reduced graphene (CRG) was developed for the sensitive detection of rutin. To construct the base of the sensor, a novel composite was initially fabricated and used as the substrate material by combining CRG and {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) via a simple sonication-induced assembly. Due to the high rutin-loading capacity on the electrode surface and the upstanding electric conductivity of graphene, the electrochemical response of the fabricated sensor was greatly enhanced and displayed excellent analytical performance for rutin detection from 6.0 x 10{sup -9} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} with a low detection limit of 2.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} at 3{sigma}. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical sensor also exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility and could be used for the detection of rutin in real samples. Therefore, the present work offers a new way to broaden the analytical applications of graphene in pharmaceutical analysis.

  4. Anti-thrombotic effect of rutin isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Dae-Won; Park, Se-Eun; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Ki-Man; Kim, Kyung-Je; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung

    2015-08-01

    Dendropanax morbifera H. Lev. is well known in Korean traditional medicine for improvement of blood circulation. In this study, rutin, a bioflavonoid having anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activities was isolated from a traditional medicinal plant, D. morbifera H. Lev. The chemical characteristics of rutin was studied to be quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-β-d-glucopyranoside using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR). Turbidity and fibrin clotting studies revealed that rutin reduces fibrin clot in concentration dependent manner. Rutin was found to prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and closure time (CT). Furthermore, it decreased the activity of pro-coagulant protein, thrombin. In vivo study showed that rutin exerted a significant protective effect against collagen and epinephrine (or thrombin) induced acute thromboembolism in mice. These results suggest that rutin has a potent to be an anti-thrombotic agent for cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Formulation and Development of a Validated UV-Spectrophotometric Analytical Method of Rutin Tablet

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    Murad N. Abualhasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutin is available in some foods, fruits, and vegetables. It has various beneficial medical effects making it useful in the treatment of various diseases. Rutin is available in different oral dosage forms such as tablets or capsules, widely available in the market. Rutin and many herbal medicines lack quality control due to unavailability of analytical methods. In this study, we formulated rutin tablet and studied its stability using a simple developed analytical method. The dissolution profile of our formulated tablet was also inspected. The results showed that our developed method was linear (R2=0.999, precise (% RSD = 0.026, and accurate (% recovery = 98.55–103.34. The formulated rutin tablet was stable under accelerated conditions as well as room temperature for 150 days (% assay > 91.69. The dissolution profile over 45 minutes of our formulated tablet showed a better dissolution (26.5% compared with the internationally marketed Rutin® tablet (18.5%. This study can serve as a guideline to companies that manufacture herbal products to improve their formulated herbs and apply validated analytical methods to check the quality of their product.

  6. Extractability of Rutin in Herbal Tea Preparations of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

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    Solomon Habtemariam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera. It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis, which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4% when the leaves (1 g were boiled in water (200 mL. For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses.

  7. Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Zine, Sandeep Prabhakar; Chaskar, Pratip Kashinath; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves’ ethanolic extract by analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin. PMID:25002804

  8. Rutin, quercetin, and free amino acid analysis in buckwheat (Fagopyrum) seeds from different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, C Z; Feng, M L; Hao, X L; Zhong, Q M; Tong, L G; Wang, Z H

    2015-12-29

    In this study, five common buckwheats and nine tartary buckwheats grown at different locations were analyzed for the contents of rutin, quercetin, and amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The rutin content was higher than quercetin in buckwheat seeds. Rutin content was in the range from 0.05 (0.05 g per 100 g dry seeds) to 1.35% of buckwheat seeds. Quercetin content varied from 0.01 to 0.17% and in some common buckwheats it was even difficult to detect. Comparatively, tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin and quercetin than common buckwheat seeds. Meanwhile, the bran has higher rutin content than the farina in tartary buckwheat seeds, with a respective content of 0.45 to 1.19% and 0.14 to 0.67%. It was found that amino acid contents were around 1.79 to 12.65% (farina) and 5.74 to 7.89% (bran) in common buckwheats, and 1.73 to 5.63% (farina) and 2.64 to 16.78% (bran) in tartary buckwheat seeds. The highest total rutin content was found to be 1.35% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Sichuan, China. The highest total amounts of amino acid were detected to be 20.13% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Changzhi, Shanxi Province (China). Our results suggested that food products made of whole-buckwheat flour are healthier than those made of fine white flour.

  9. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huan; Wang, Yuzhi; Kong, Jinhuan; Nie, Chan; Yuan, Ya

    2010-12-15

    An ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) method has been developed for the effective extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants including Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Bail. (S. chinensis) and Flos Sophorae. A series of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anions were investigated. The results indicated that the characteristics of anions have remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of rutin and among the investigated ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br) aqueous solution was the best. In addition, the ILMAE procedures for the two kinds of medicinal herbs were also optimized by means of a series of single factor experiments and an L(9) (3(4)) orthogonal design. Compared with the optimal ionic liquid-based heating extraction (ILHE), marinated extraction (ILME), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE), the optimized approach of ILMAE gained higher extraction efficiency which is 4.879 mg/g in S. chinensis with RSD 1.33% and 171.82 mg/g in Flos Sophorae with RSD 1.47% within the shortest extraction time. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was employed for the analysis of rutin in Chinese medicinal plants. Under the optimum conditions, the average recoveries of rutin from S. chinensis and Flos Sophorae were 101.23% and 99.62% with RSD lower than 3%, respectively. The developed approach is linear at concentrations from 42 to 252 mg L(-1) of rutin solution, with the regression coefficient (r) at 0.99917. Moreover, the extraction mechanism of ILMAE and the microstructures and chemical structures of the two researched samples before and after extraction were also investigated. With the help of LC-MS, it was future demonstrated that the two researched herbs do contain active ingredient of rutin and ionic liquids would not influence the structure of rutin.

  10. Protective effects of rutin against potassium bromate induced nephrotoxicity in rats

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    Khan Rahmat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, was investigated for its protective effects against the KBrO3 induced renal injuries in rat. Methods Group I was control (untreated, group II was given saline 0.5 ml/kg bw (0.9% NaCl, group III was administered KBrO3 (20 mg/kg bw intragastric twice a week for four weeks. Rutin was administered to group VI (50 mg/kg bw and Group V (70 mg/kg bw along with KBrO3 (20 mg/kg bw while group VI was given rutin (70 mg/kg bw alone twice a week for four weeks. Protective effects of rutin on KBrO3-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were determined for biochemical parameter of urine, and serum, various antioxidant enzymes, DNA and histopathological damages in kidneys. Results The level of urinary red blood cells, leucocytes count, specific gravity, urea, creatinine and urobilinogen was increased (P3. Marked histopathological lesions, elevated DNA fragmentation and AgNORs count in renal tissues was determined. Activity of antioxidant enzymes; catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione contents were decreased (P3 treatment in kidneys. DNA ladder assay was intimately related with the DNA fragmentation assay. Telomerase activity was found positive in the KBrO3 treated kidneys. Treatment with rutin effectively ameliorated the alterations in the studied parameters of rat. Rutin administration alone to rats did not exhibit any significant change in any of the parameters studied. Conclusion These results suggest that rutin works as an antioxidant in vivo by scavenging reactive oxygen species and this serves to prevent oxidative renal damage in rat treated with KBrO3.

  11. Protective effect of rutin on impairment of cognitive functions of due to antiepileptic drugs on zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    The severity of adverse reactions due to antiepileptics is observed during initiation and early treatment in which impairment of cognitive effects are common. Since long time, herbal medicine is a natural remedy to treat neural symptoms. Phytochemicals have been proven to be potent neuro-protective agents. Rutin, a bioflavonoid is established to be nootropic in many studies. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect of rutin in zebrafish against the side effects produced by AEDs. Seizures were induced in zebrafish by phenylenetetrazole. Rutin pretreatment (50 mg/kg, single injection, i.p.) was done before commencement of the study. Behavioral studies were performed as: latency to move high in the tank, locomotion effects, color effect, shoal cohesion, light/dark test on Zebrafish. Treatment with rutin reverted the locomotor behavior to normal. Treatment with AEDs caused fishes to move in all regions while, in case of treatment with rutin, the response reverted to normal. Treatment with AEDs altered swimming behavior of zebrafish, however, rutin showed a positive effect over this behavior. Treatment with AEDs resulted in restricted movement of zebrafish to the dark zone. Treatment with rutin caused increased latency of zebrafish to move in the light compartment. Similarly, time spent in the light compartment by zebrafish treated with rutin was significantly (P < 0.01) higher as compared to zebrafish treated with AEDs. The results suggest a protective role of rutin on cognition impaired by AEDs.

  12. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimisation of integrated biodiesel production. Part I. A study of the biodiesel purity and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Gemma; Martínez, Mercedes; Aracil, José

    2007-07-01

    This study consists of the development and optimisation of the potassium hydroxide-catalysed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from sunflower oil. A factorial design of experiments and a central composite design have been used. The variables chosen were temperature, initial catalyst concentration by weight of sunflower oil and the methanol:vegetable oil molar ratio, while the responses were biodiesel purity and yield. The initial catalyst concentration is the most important factor, having a positive influence on biodiesel purity, but a negative one on biodiesel yield. Temperature has a significant positive effect on biodiesel purity and a significant negative influence on biodiesel yield. The methanol:vegetable oil molar ratio is only significant for the biodiesel purity, having a positive influence. Second-order models were obtained to predict biodiesel purity and yield as a function of these variables. The best conditions are 25 degrees C, a 1.3%wt for the catalyst concentration and a 6:1 methanol:sunflower oil molar ratio.

  14. Concentration of Rutin Model Solutions from Their Mixtures with Glucose Using Ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid S. Saleh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Separation of polyphenolic phytochemical compounds from their mixtures with sugars is necessary to produce an added-value sugar-reduced extract with high biological activity from fruit juice processing industry waste streams. The separation characteristics of a binary mixture of rutin and glucose using a Pellicon-2 regenerated cellulose ultrafiltration membrane with an area of 0.1 m2 having nominal MWCO of 1,000 Da were investigated, to demonstrate the separation of phenolic compounds from sugars. The effects of the operating variables–transmembrane pressure, feed solution temperature and pH, initial feed concentration and feed flow rate–on the permeate flux and enrichment of rutin, were determined. The permeate flux increased with the increase in transmembrane pressure up to a certain limit and after that the flux remained more or less constant. The optimum transmembrane pressure was within 4–5 bar. The flux increased with the increase in feed solution temperature because of reduced feed viscosity, and better solubility. The concentration of rutin was optimum at lower temperature (30ºC, with an enrichment factor of 1.3. The effect of pH on permeate flux was less obvious. Lowering the feed solution pH increased the retention of rutin and the optimum separation was obtained within pH 3–4. The permeate flux decreased with the increase in feed concentration of rutin (concentration range 0.1–0.5 g/L. The enrichment of rutin was significant in the glucose concentration range 0.35–0.5 g/L. The feed flow rate had a significant effect on the flux and separation characteristics. Higher cross-flow through the membrane reduced the fouling by providing a shear force to sweep away deposited materials from the membrane surface. At high feed flow rate, more rutin was retained by the membrane with less sugar permeating through. The optimum feed flow rate was 1.5 L/min. For the separation of rutin (in the retentate and glucose (in the permeate, the

  15. Concentration of rutin model solutions from their mixtures with glucose using ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Swallow; Hossain, Md M; Saleh, Zaid S

    2010-02-09

    Separation of polyphenolic phytochemical compounds from their mixtures with sugars is necessary to produce an added-value sugar-reduced extract with high biological activity from fruit juice processing industry waste streams. The separation characteristics of a binary mixture of rutin and glucose using a Pellicon-2 regenerated cellulose ultrafiltration membrane with an area of 0.1 m(2) having nominal MWCO of 1,000 Da were investigated, to demonstrate the separation of phenolic compounds from sugars. The effects of the operating variables-transmembrane pressure, feed solution temperature and pH, initial feed concentration and feed flow rate-on the permeate flux and enrichment of rutin, were determined. The permeate flux increased with the increase in transmembrane pressure up to a certain limit and after that the flux remained more or less constant. The optimum transmembrane pressure was within 4-5 bar. The flux increased with the increase in feed solution temperature because of reduced feed viscosity, and better solubility. The concentration of rutin was optimum at lower temperature (30 degrees C), with an enrichment factor of 1.3. The effect of pH on permeate flux was less obvious. Lowering the feed solution pH increased the retention of rutin and the optimum separation was obtained within pH 3-4. The permeate flux decreased with the increase in feed concentration of rutin (concentration range 0.1-0.5 g/L). The enrichment of rutin was significant in the glucose concentration range 0.35-0.5 g/L. The feed flow rate had a significant effect on the flux and separation characteristics. Higher cross-flow through the membrane reduced the fouling by providing a shear force to sweep away deposited materials from the membrane surface. At high feed flow rate, more rutin was retained by the membrane with less sugar permeating through. The optimum feed flow rate was 1.5 L/min. For the separation of rutin (in the retentate) and glucose (in the permeate), the best results were

  16. Differential hepatoprotective mechanisms of rutin and quercetin in CCl4-intoxicated BALB/cN mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert DOMITROVI(C); Hrvoje JAKOVAC; Vanja VASILJEV MARCHESI; Sanda VLADIMIR-KNE(Z)EVI(C); Olga CVIJANOVI(C); (Z)arko TADI(C); (Z)eljko ROMI(C); Dario RAHELI(C)

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of quercetin-rutinoside (rutin) and its aglycone quercetin against CCl4-induced liver damage in mice.Methods:BALB/cN mice were intraperitoneally administered rutin (10,50,and 150 mg/kg) or quercetin (50 mg/kg) once daily for 5 consecutive days,followed by the intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in olive oil (2 mL/kg,10% v/v).The animals were sacrificed 24 h later.Blood was collected for measuring the activities of ALT and AST,and the liver was excised for assessing Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity,GSH and protein concentrations and also for immunoblotting.Portions of the livers were used for histology and immunohistochemistry. Results:Pretreatment with rutin and,to a lesser extent,with quercetin significantly reduced the activity of plasma transaminases and improved the histological signs of acute liver damage in CCl4-intoxicated mice.Quercetin prevented the decrease in Cu/Zn SOD activity in CCl4-intoxicated mice more potently than rutin.However,it was less effective in the suppression of nitrotyrosine formation.Quercetin and,to a lesser extent,rutin attenuated the inflammation in the liver by down-regulating the CCl4-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2).The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was more potently suppressed by rutin than by quercetin.Treatment with both flavonoids significantly increased NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) expression in injured livers,although quercetin was less effective than rutin at an equivalent dose.Quercetin more potently suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) than rutin.Conclusion:Rutin exerts stronger protection against nitrosative stress and hepatocellular damage but has weaker antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities and antifibrotic potential than quercetin,which may be attributed to the presence of a

  17. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of Rutin-zinc(II) flavonoid -metal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Norma Estefania Andrades; Novak, Estela Maria; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Velosa, Adélia Segin; Pereira, Regina Mara Silva

    2015-09-01

    Synthesis of compounds analogous to natural products from secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, is a promising source of novel drugs. Rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) is a natural flavone, which has, in its chemical structure, different sites for coordination with transition metals and the complexation with these metals enhances its biological properties. Rutin-zinc(II), a flavonoid-metal complex, was synthesized and characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, elemental analysis and (1)H NMR. The antioxidant and antitumor activities, as well as the cytotoxicity and in vivo toxicity of this complex were evaluated and compared with the free rutin. Rutin-zinc(II) has not shown any cytotoxicity against normal cells (fibroblasts and HUVECs) or toxicity in BALB/c mice, but has shown antioxidant activity in vitro and cytotoxicity against leukemia (KG1, K562 and Jurkat), multiple myeloma (RPMI8226) and melanoma (B16F10 and SK-Mel-28) cell lines in vitro. In Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model, Rutin-zinc(II) modulated the mitochondrial membrane potential and the expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, angiogenesis and apoptosis.

  18. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  19. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Severino Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods : The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA and maceration dynamic (MD showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin.

  20. Electrochemical Behavior and Determination of Rutin on Modified Carbon Paste Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Macikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of ionic liquid (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide, IL/CPE and iron phthalocyanine (IP/CPE modified carbon paste electrodes in electroanalytical determinations of rutin were evaluated and compared to the performance of unmodified carbon paste electrode (CPE. Cyclic voltammetry (CV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV, and amperometry were used for rutin analysis. The best current responses of rutin were obtained at pH 4.0 for all tested techniques. IL/CPE electrode was found to perform best with DPAdSV technique, where a detection limit (LOD as low as 5 nmol L-1 of rutin was found. On the other hand, IP/CPE showed itself to be an optimum choice for DPV technique, where LOD of 80 nmol L-1 was obtained. Analytical applicability of newly prepared electrodes was demonstrated on determination of rutin in the model samples and the extracts of buckwheat seeds. To find an optimum method for buckwheat seeds extraction, a boiling water extraction (BWE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, pressurized solvent extraction (PSE, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were tested.

  1. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DETERMINATION OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF RUTIN-PHOSPHOLIPID COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Jain et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rutin belongs to a class of plant secondary metabolites called flavonoids. Rutin is believed to be a vital nourishing supplement as it is able to make the capillaries stronger. But when administered orally it shows poor absorption because of less lipophilicity. To overcome this limitation, the present study was aimed to develop Rutin- phospholipid complex in different ratio to improve the lipophilic properties of rutin. The prepared complex was evaluated for physicochemical properties and in-vitro DPPH radical’s scavenging activity. The physicochemical properties of the complex were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV, infrared spectroscopy (IR and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The results showed that rutin-phospholipid in the complex were joined and did not form a new compound. Results of DPPH radical are scavenging activity revealed that among all ratios of complex, 1:3 next to this 1:2 followed by 1:1. The study was concluded that the free radical scavenging activity was observed in concentration dependent manner.

  2. Study of inducibility and mechanism of phase 2 enzymes by quercetin and rutin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Liang; HU Xiao-wei; YAO Ji-hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective The increasing recognition of the role for oxidative stress in hepatic disorders has led to extensive investigation on the protection by exogenous antioxidants against hepatic injury. In this study, we choose two typical polyphenol, quercetin and rutin, to investigate the mechanism of induction of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in human HepG2 cells. Methods The HepG2 cells were treated with various concentrations of quercetin and rutin for 6 h and 24 h. The activities of NAD (P) H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in HepG2 cells were measured by 2, 6-dichloroindophenol reduction method. The content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined with the method of chemical colorimetry. The protein expressions of NQO1 and NF-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2) in HepG2 cells were detected by Western blotting. Results Incubation of HepG2 cells with quercetin and rutin resulted in a marked concentration- and time-dependent induction of a number of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes, including NQO1, SOD. Quercetin and rutin treatment of HepG2 cells also caused increase in protein expressions of NQO1 and Nrf2. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a series of phase 2 enzymes in HepG2 cells can be induced by quercetin and rutin in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion by upregulation the protein expression of nrf2.

  3. Protective effect of rutin on humoral and cell mediated immunity in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Saluja, Ajay K

    2017-08-01

    Diet and dietary intake can persuade the development, safeguard and proper functioning of immune system. Ruin, an important bioflavonoid, is abundantly found in various foodstuffs. Rutin has been acknowledged for its protective and beneficial effects on various aspects of the biological system. The present study was aimed to examine the effect of rutin on the regulation of the immune response in experimental animal models. Effect of rutin of cellular immunity was determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, carbon clearance assay, leucocyte mobilization test, and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, whereas humoral immunity was analyzed by the haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre assay. Rutin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) evoked a significant increase in antibody titre in the haemagglutination test, increased immunoglobulin levels, and enhanced the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. It also significantly restored the functioning of leucocytes in cyclophosphamide treated rats and augmented phagocytic index in the carbon clearance assay. The outcomes from the present study indicate that rutin possesses sufficient potential for increasing immune activity by cellular and humoral mediated mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Shape rheocasting of high purity aluminium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, UA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated experimentally that using the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Rheo Casting System and high pressure die casting it is possible to semi-solid process and cast into a shape high purity aluminium without a...

  5. Pristine Purity : New Political Parties in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucardie, Anthonie

    2007-01-01

    Success sells better than failure; hence new parties receive very little attention from political scientists as long as they remain marginal and fail to win seats in Parliament. Yet in the margins of the party system, they may maintain the pristine purity of political principles and ideas better tha

  6. Estimating purity in terms of correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Prosen, T; Znidaric, M; Prosen, Tomaz; Seligman, Thomas H.; Znidaric, Marko

    2003-01-01

    We prove a rigorous inequality estimating the purity of a reduced density matrix of a composite quantum system in terms of cross-correlation of the same state and an arbitrary product state. Various immediate applications of our result are proposed, in particular concerning Gaussian wave-packet propagation under classically regular dynamics.

  7. Synthesis of rutin and chrome and its auxiliary function of the blood sugar reduction%芦丁铬的合成及其辅助降血糖作用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建东; 王建中; 孟阿会; 赵珊; 刘洁媛; 陈思玉; 马国刚

    2011-01-01

    The optimum process parameters were added anhydrous sodium carbonate, after rutin dissolved in ethanol, after 80min added chromium chloride,The reaction time was 240min,temperature was 70℃, stirring speed was 2100r/min. The synthetic technology of chromium and rutin was optimized by orthogonal experimental design method. It was verified by infrared spectroscopy that had generated a combination of chromium and rutin. The combination of rutin and chromium was detected in X-ray diffraction spectroscopy,found that contains a lot of NaCl,and then purified it. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer(ICP-AES)measurement of chromium content to know the purity of the purified chromium turin increased 6 times. ICP-AES method measured the mass fraction of chromium that was 3.8% ,the combination of rutin and chromium on streptozotocin(STZ) -induced Wistar rat model of high blood sugar had a supplementary role in lowering blood sugar,through animal experiments.%通过正交实验优化了芦丁铬的合成工艺,得到的最佳工艺参数为:芦丁溶于无水乙醇后加入无水碳酸钠反应80min,加入三氯化铬继续反应240min,温度70℃,搅拌速度2100r/min.采用红外光谱验证了有芦丁铬生成,X-衍射光谱法对合成的芦丁铬进行了检测,发现含有大量NaCl,然后进行了纯化,经电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱仪(ICP-AES)测铬的质量分数可知,纯化后芦丁铬纯度提高了6倍以上.ICP-AES法测得铬的质量分数为3.8%,通过动物实验发现芦丁铬对链脲霉素(STZ)诱导的Wistar大鼠高血糖模型有一定的辅助降血糖作用.

  8. Quantification of protodioscin and rutin in asparagus shoots by LC/MS and HPLC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingfu; Tadmor, Yaakov; Wu, Qing-Li; Chin, Chee-Kok; Garrison, Stephen A; Simon, James E

    2003-10-01

    A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method with selected ion monitoring was developed and validated to analyze the contents of protodioscin and rutin in asparagus. The distribution of rutin and protodioscin within the shoots was found to vary by location, with the tissue closest to the rhizome found to be a rich source of protodioscin, at an average level of 0.025% tissue fresh weight in the three tested lines, while the upper youngest shoot tissue contained the highest amount of rutin at levels of 0.03-0.06% tissue fresh weight. The lower portions of the asparagus shoots that are discarded during grading and processing should instead be considered a promising source of a new value-added nutraceutical product.

  9. Extraction of rutin from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentumMoench) seeds and determination by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, S; Knapp, M; Kreft, I

    1999-11-01

    The content of the flavonoid rutin was determined in different milling fractions of buckwheat seeds and in buckwheat stems, leaves, and flowers. The extraction was performed by using a solvent containing 60% of ethanol and 5% of ammonia in water. The extracts were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (running buffer of 50 mM borate (pH 9.3), 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate; determination at 380 nm). In bran fractions the concentration of rutin was 131-476 ppm, and in flour fractions 19-168 ppm. On average, about 300, 1000, and 46000 ppm of rutin were found in leaves, stems, and flowers, respectively. The results indicate that buckwheat could be an important nutritional source of flavonoids, especially in countries with a low mean daily flavonoid intake.

  10. Proteomic analysis of rutin-induced secreted proteins from Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Martha L; Kiernan, Urban A; Francisco, Wilson A

    2004-03-01

    Few studies have been conducted to identify the extracellular proteins and enzymes secreted by filamentous fungi, particularly with respect to dispensable metabolic pathways. Proteomic analysis has proven to be the most powerful method for identification of proteins in complex mixtures and is suitable for the study of the alteration of protein expression under different environmental conditions. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus can degrade the flavonoid rutin as the only source of carbon via an extracellular enzyme system. In this study, a proteomic analysis was used to differentiate and identify the extracellular rutin-induced and non-induced proteins secreted by A. flavus. The secreted proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. While 15 rutin-induced proteins and 7 non-induced proteins were identified, more than 90 protein spots remain unidentified, indicating that these proteins are either novel proteins or proteins that have not yet been sequenced.

  11. Ameliorative antimalarial effects of the combination of rutin and swertiamarin on malarial parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Shitlani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ameliorate the antimalarial activity via the combination of rutin (flavonoid and swertiamarin (glycoside. Methods: The antimalarial effects were assessed by in vitro and in vivo methodology. In vitro antiplasmodial activity was assessed by using Plasmodium falciparum cultured media and determined the IC 50 value of individual drugs and their combinations. In in vivo methodology, antimalarial effects of rutin, swertiamarin (200–280 mg/kg/day, p.o. and their combination in 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 ratios were investigated early and established malaria infections using Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Chloroquine phosphate (5 mg/kg/day, p.o. was used as the standard drug. Results: IC 50 values of the rutin and swertiamarin via in vitro study revealed (9.50 ± 0.29 µg/ mL and (8.17 ± 0.17 µg/mL respectively. Whereas, the combination in 1:1 ratio [IC50 of (5.51 ± 0.18 µg/mL] showed better antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. In vivo results showed that rutin and swertiamarin had chemosuppressant effects in a dose-dependent manner, whereas, combination in 1:1 ratio possessed potential antimalarial activity similar to chloroquine phosphate. The drug interaction between rutin and swertiamarin revealed the synergistic effect on 1:1 ratio and additive effect on 1:2 and 2:1 ratios. Conclusions: The results of the in vitro and in vivo study clearly indicate that the combination (1:1 of rutin and swertiamarin showed potential antimalarial activity rather than an individual of each and their combinations 1:2 and 2:1.

  12. Rutin as a Mediator of Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling Pathways Interactions in Fibroblasts Altered by UVA and UVB Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybałtowska-Kawałko, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured. Results. Rutin reduced UV-induced proinflammatory response and ROS generation and enhanced the activity/levels of antioxidants (SOD, GSH-Px, vitamin E, GSH, and Trx). Rutin also normalized UV-induced Nrf2 expression. Its biological activity prevented changes in the levels of the lipid mediators: MDA, 4-HNE, and endocannabinoids, as well as the endocannabinoid receptors CB1/2, VR1, and GPR55 expression. Furthermore, rutin prevented the protein modifications (tyrosine derivatives formation in particular) and decreased the levels of the proapoptotic markers—caspase-3 and cytochrome c. Conclusion. Rutin prevents UV-induced inflammation and redox imbalance at protein and transcriptional level which favors lipid, protein, and DNA protection. In consequence rutin regulates endocannabinoid system and apoptotic balance. PMID:28168010

  13. Rutin as a Mediator of Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling Pathways Interactions in Fibroblasts Altered by UVA and UVB Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gęgotek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured. Results. Rutin reduced UV-induced proinflammatory response and ROS generation and enhanced the activity/levels of antioxidants (SOD, GSH-Px, vitamin E, GSH, and Trx. Rutin also normalized UV-induced Nrf2 expression. Its biological activity prevented changes in the levels of the lipid mediators: MDA, 4-HNE, and endocannabinoids, as well as the endocannabinoid receptors CB1/2, VR1, and GPR55 expression. Furthermore, rutin prevented the protein modifications (tyrosine derivatives formation in particular and decreased the levels of the proapoptotic markers—caspase-3 and cytochrome c. Conclusion. Rutin prevents UV-induced inflammation and redox imbalance at protein and transcriptional level which favors lipid, protein, and DNA protection. In consequence rutin regulates endocannabinoid system and apoptotic balance.

  14. Chromatographic Detection of Rutin in the Aromatic and Semi Aromatic Romanian Autochthonous Musts Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengyel Ecaterina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present essay is the detection of the phenolic rutin compound, a phenolic compound with antioxidant properties, in musts coming from autochthonous variety. The detection and quantification of the rutin has been carried out through chromatographic methods HPLC, resulting the identification in three must variety, Sauvignon blanc (SB, Feteasca regala (FR, Pinot noir (PN, coming from Recas vineyard. The obtained values have been situated between 1.828 ng/l for Feteasca Regala and 200.945 mg/L for Sauvignon blanc.

  15. Regiospecific synthesis of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Paulo; Santos, Juliane M. dos; D' Oca, Marcelo G. M.; Piovesan, Luciana A., E-mail: lpiovesan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (UFRS), RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos; Kuhn, Bruna L.; Moreira, Dayse N.; Flores, Alex F.C.; Martins, Marcos A.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-11-15

    A series of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters was synthesized by the cyclo condensation of respective fatty hydrazides with 4-alkoxy- 1,1,1-trial omethyl-3-alquen-2-ones. Efficient and regiospecific cyclizations catalyzed by BF{sub 3}-MeOH gave the desired products in good to excellent yields and at high purity. (author)

  16. Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartary buckwheat bran, a by-product of buckwheat flour production was utilized as a source of rutin, and the extracted rutin-enriched material (REM) was used to fortify wheat-based foods of which rheological and antioxidant properties were characterized. REM contained a high content of rutin (29.6 ...

  17. Nonlinear control of high purity distillation columns

    OpenAIRE

    Groebel, Markus; Allgöwer, Frank; Storz, Markus; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    1994-01-01

    Two simple models of distillation columns are studied to investigate their suitability for the practical use with exact I/O-linearization. An extension of exact I/O-linearization, the asymptotically exact I/O-linearization is applied to the control of a high purity distillation column, using one of these models to derive the static state feedback law. Simulation studies demonstrate the advantage of asymptotically exact I/O-linearization versus classical exact I/O-linearization techniques. Exp...

  18. Purity of targets prepared on Cu substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méens, A.; Rossini, I.; Sens, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    The purity of several elemental self-supporting targets usually prepared by evaporation onto soluble Cu substrates has been studied. The targets were analysed by Rutherford backscattering and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Because of the high percentage of Cu observed in some Si targets, further measurements, including transmission electron microscopy, have been performed on Si targets deposited by e-gun bombardment onto Cu and ion-beam sputtering onto betaine.

  19. Expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes vis-à-vis rutin content variation in different growth stages of Fagopyrum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Sharma, Sunil K; Rana, Jai C; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2011-11-15

    Buckwheat is one of the field crops with the highest concentration of rutin, an important flavonoid of medicinal value. Two species of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum and Fagopyrum tataricum, are the major sources of rutin. Seeds of latter contain 40-50× higher rutin compared to the former. The physiological and molecular bases of rutin content variation between Fagopyrum species are not known. The current study investigated the differences in rutin content in seeds and in other tissues and growth stages of two Fagopyrum species, and also correlated those differences with the expression of flavonoid pathway genes. The analysis of rutin content dynamics at different growth stages, S1-S9 (from seed germination to mature seed formation) of Fagopyrum species revealed that rutin content was higher during seedling stages of F. tataricum (3.5 to 4.6-fold) compared to F. esculentum and then increased exponentially from stages S3 to S6 (different leaf maturing stages and inflorescence) of F. esculentum, whereas it fluctuated in F. tataricum. The rutin content was highest in the inflorescence stage (S6) of both species, with a relatively higher biosynthesis and accumulation during post-flowering stages of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. The expression of flavonoid pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, in different growth stages vis-à-vis rutin content variation showed differential expression for four genes, PAL, CHS, CHI and FLS with the amounts of transcripts relatively higher in F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum, thereby, correlating these genes with the biosynthesis and accumulation of rutin. The expression of PAL was highest, 7.69 and 8.96-fold in Stages 2 (seedling stage) and 9 (fully developed seeds) of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum, respectively. The expression of the CHS gene correlated with the rutin content because it was highest in the flowers (S6) and fully developed seeds (S9) of both Fagopyrum species, with relatively higher transcript amounts

  20. Rutin has therapeutic effect on septic arthritis caused by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongmoon

    2009-02-01

    As of late, numerous reports have demonstrated the multiple biological activities of polyphenolic flavonoids. Amongst these reports, some indicate that the flavonoids play an important role in inflammation therapy. In this present study, we investigated the effect of rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, on septic arthritis due to Candida albicans, a major etiological agent that causes fungal arthritis. To induce septic arthritis, an emulsified mixture of C. albicans cell wall and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CACW/CFA) was injected into BALB/c mice via hind footpad route once a day, everyday, for three days. In order to determine the effect of rutin, twenty-four hours after the final injection, mice having the swollen footpad were given the flavonoid (1 mg/dose/mouse) intraperitoneally every other day for three times. The footpad-edema was measured for a period of 17 days. Results showed that the rutin treatment reduced app. 45% of the edema at the peak day (day 11) of septic arthritis (Parthritis caused by C. albicans. Ultimately, it can be suggested that the dual effects of rutin, anti-arthritic and anti-candidal may be helpful as an all-in-one treatment for septic arthritis.

  1. Simultaneous determination of rutin and ascorbic acid mixture in their pure forms and combined dosage form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Tamer Z.

    2016-12-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and rutin in pure forms and pharmaceutical dosage form. HPLC separation was performed on Phenomenex C18 analytical column with 0.1% v/v acetic acid in water and acetonitrile (75:25, v/v), as mobile phase. The separation was done at ambient temperature with flow rate of 1 mL·min- 1 in isocratic mode. HPLC measurements were carried out using ultraviolet detection wavelength at 257 nm. The average retention times were 2.72 and 7.00 min for ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. The calibration plots were constructed over the concentration range of 5.0-30.0 for ascorbic acid and 10.0-60.0 μg·mL- 1 for rutin. The limits of detection were 1.06 and 1.89 μg·mL- 1 and limits of quantification were 3.54 and 6.31 μg·mL- 1 for ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. The proposed HPLC-UV method was successfully applied for determination of ascorbic acid in its tablets and for simultaneous determination of the studied drugs in their laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulation. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference method show an excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in respect to accuracy and precision.

  2. In vitro catabolism of rutin by human fecal bacteria and the antioxidant capacity of its catabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Indu B; Mullen, William; Lean, Michael E J; Edwards, Christine A; Crozier, Alan

    2009-10-15

    The role of colonic microflora in the breakdown of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) was investigated. An in vitro fermentation model was used and (i) 28 micromol of rutin and (ii) 55 micromol of quercetin plus 18 x 10(6) dpm of [4-(14)C]quercetin (60 nmol) were incubated with fresh fecal samples from three human volunteers, in the presence and absence of glucose. The accumulation of quercetin during in vitro fermentation demonstrated that deglycosylation is the initial step in the breakdown of rutin. The subsequent degradation of quercetin was dependent upon the interindividual composition of the bacterial microflora and was directed predominantly toward the production of either hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives or hydroxybenzoic acids. Possible catabolic pathways for these conversions are proposed. The presence of glucose as a carbon source stimulated the growth and production of bacterial microflora responsible for both the deglycosylation of rutin and the catabolism of quercetin. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid accumulated in large amounts in the fecal samples and was found to possess significant reducing power and free radical scavenging activity. This catabolite may play a key role in the overall antioxidant capacity of the colonic lumen after the ingestion of quercetin-rich foods.

  3. Development of an antioxidant biomaterial by promoting the deglycosylation of rutin to isoquercetin and quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Zúñiga, Johana M; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda; Peralta, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Wilson, Ana María; Robles-Burgueño, M Refugio; Auras, Rafael; Gámez-Meza, Nohemí

    2016-08-01

    Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercetin) and quercetin have shown antioxidant, cytoprotective, vasoprotective, antiproliferative and antiinflammatory properties. The aim of this work was to determine the conversion of rutin to isoquercetin and quercetin during the production of poly(l-lactic acid) films with potential to deliver these flavonoids toward tissues, pharmaceuticals or food matrices. Three poly(l-lactic acid) formulations with 17.7, 39.6 and 39.1mg/g of rutin were prepared by the extrusion process. Processing temperatures (130-165°C) promoted the deglycosylation of rutin to produce isoquercetin and subsequently quercetin, identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The effect of the process on the antioxidant activity of the films was determined by measuring the capacity to scavenge 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals. The material with the highest proportion of quercetin showed the highest antioxidant activity which could be used to produce delivering devices of the flavonoids to tissues, pharmaceuticals or food matrices.

  4. Rutin increases critical wavelength of systems containing a single UV filter and with good skin compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, D A; de Oliveira, C A; da Costa, M S; Tokunaga, V K; Mota, J P; Rosado, C; Consiglieri, V O; Kaneko, T M; Velasco, M V R; Baby, A R

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for sunburns, skin cancer, photoaging, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The awareness on preventing these deleterious effects made the use of anti-UVB formulations an important part of population habits; however, despite the availability of several antioxidants capable of ROS scavenging, the pharmaceutical market lacks products associating UV filters with natural compounds of proven efficacy. Here, we investigated the effect of rutin, a flavonoid with antioxidant activity, associated with UVB filters in dermocosmetic preparations. Formulations were assessed through its antioxidant activity, in vitro photoprotective effectiveness, photostability, and in vivo skin tolerance (hydration, transepidermal water loss, and erythema). Samples containing rutin were compatible with the human skin and presented a pronounced antioxidant potential, with scavenging activity values 75% higher than the ones containing only UVB filters. Although rutin could not prevent the sunscreens photodegradation post-irradiation, the bioactive compound significantly increased the formulations critical wavelengths, showing a photoprotective gain, especially in the UVA range. In conclusion, the absorption in the UVA range, coupled with ROS scavenging potential, proved the positive effect of rutin applied to anti-UVB formulations, making this bioactive compound a promising candidate for photoprotection improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Studies on the Interaction between Rutin and DNA in the Absence and Presence of β-Cyclodextrin by Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG, Gong-Jun(杨功俊); XU, Jing-Juan(徐静娟); CHEN, Hong-Yuan(陈洪渊); LENG, Zong-Zhou(冷宗周)

    2004-01-01

    The interactions between rutin or the inclusion complex of rutin-β-cyclodextrin and DNA were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The apparent binding constant of rutin with DNA is found to be 2.9×104 L/mol. The results showed that the benzopyranic-4-one plane of rutin mainly intercalated into DNA in the absence of β-cyclodextrin, while the catecholic portion of rutin was located in the double helix of DNA in the presence of β-cyclodextrin.

  6. Dietary supplementation with rutin has pro-/anti-inflammatory effects in the liver of juvenile GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Zhao, Zhixiang; Fan, Limin; Meng, Shunlong; Song, Chao; Qiu, Liping; Xu, Pao; Chen, Jiazhang

    2017-05-01

    Dietary supplementation with rutin may have some pharmacological qualities including anti-inflammatory effects. Kupffer cell activation resulted in increased transcription of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the pro- and anti-inflammatory activities in juvenile freshwater tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in response to 0.1 or 0.3 g/kg dietary supplementation of rutin. Results showed that hepatic IgM, anti-inflammatory-cytokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly decreased in groups treated with high doses of rutin. Hepatic IgM and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IFN-γ) transcripts were significantly decreased, whereas the transcripts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β were significantly decreased, whereas IL-8 was significantly increased. The number of Kupffer cells in rutin-treated groups was significantly decreased, and scanning electron micrographs showed that rutin enriched the number of gut microvilli and secretion pits. With the phenomena of cell apoptosis occurred in the rutin groups, the present study demonstrated that optimum levels of rutin may be beneficial but excessive level may cause liver impairment, which may be absorbed by the gut and then transported to the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  8. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  9. Pulse radiolysis study on the mechanisms of reactions of CCl3OO· radical with quercetin, rutin and epigallocatechin gallate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms of reactions between CCl3OO· radical and quercetin, rutin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been studied using pulse radiolytic technique. It is suggested that the electron transfer reaction is the main reaction between CCl3OO· radical and rutin, EGCG, but there are two main pathways for the reaction of CCl3OO· radical with quercetin, one is the electron transfer reaction, the other is addition reaction. The reaction rate constants were determined. It is proved that quercetin and rutin are better CCl3OO· radical scavengers than EGCG.

  10. A xenon gas purity monitor for EXO

    CERN Document Server

    Dobi, A; Herrin, S; Odian, A; Prescott, C Y; Rowson, P C; Ackerman, N; Aharmin, B; Auger, M; Barbeau, P S; Barry, K; Benitez-Medina, C; Breidenbach, M; Cook, S; Counts, I; Daniels, T; DeVoe, R; Dolinski, M J; Donato, K; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Green, M; Hagemann, C; Hall, K; Hallman, D; Hargrove, C; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K; Lacey, J; Leonard, D S; LePort, F; Mackay, D; MacLellan, R; Mong, B; Diez, M Montero; Muller, A R; Neilson, R; Niner, E; O'Sullivan, K; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Pushkin, K; Rollin, E; Sinclair, D; Slutsky, S; Stekhanov, V; Twelker, K; Voskanian, N; Vuilleumier, J -L; Wichoski, U; Wodin, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the design, operation, and calibration of two versions of a xenon gas purity monitor (GPM) developed for the EXO double beta decay program. The devices are sensitive to concentrations of oxygen well below 1 ppb at an ambient gas pressure of one atmosphere or more. The theory of operation of the GPM is discussed along with the interactions of oxygen and other impurities with the GPM's tungsten filament. Lab tests and experiences in commissioning the EXO-200 double beta decay experiment are described. These devices can also be used on other noble gases.

  11. Surface purity control during XMASS detector refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: kenkou@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Kamioka observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, the University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan); Kavl Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The XMASS project aims at detecting dark matter, pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, and neutrino less double beta decay using large volume of pure liquid xenon. The first physics target of the XMASS project is to detect dark matter with 835 kg liquid xenon. After the commissioning runs, XMASS detector was refurbished to minimize the background contribution mainly from PMT sealing material and we restarted data taking in November 2013. We report how we control surface purity, especially how we prevent radon daughter accumulation on the detector copper surface, during XMASS detector refurbishment. The result and future plan of XMASS are also reported.

  12. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shengjuan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bergen, Werner G. [Program in Cellular and Molecular Biosciences/Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Hausman, Gary J. [Animal Science Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2771 (United States); Zan, Linsen, E-mail: zanls@yahoo.com.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Dodson, Michael V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  13. Ultra-high purity arsenic for MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, R.G.L. (Johnson Matthey PLC, Royston (UK)); Emeny, M.T.; Whitehouse, C.R.; Lee, D. (Royal Signals and Radar Ets., Great Malvern (UK))

    1990-11-01

    A requirement for high purity elemental arsenic for use in compound semiconductors has become well established. The capabilities of molecular beam epitaxy as a fabrication technique are best exploited if the arsenic used has particular additional features. Prominent among these are a uniform distribution of impurities at levels down to 10 ppb, and a geometrically uniform distribution of material in the charge used. Once material such as this, of 7N purity or better, emerges from its processing, a major vulernability is from recontamination. Prevention of this is a further important requirement. Detailed examination of possible process strategies has led to an approach targeted on the manufacture of solid arsenic ''charges'' especially suited for MBE application. Factors involved are reviewed. An outline of the consequent production operation is described, based on vapour phase and laser processing. Continuous long-term reproducibility is achieved. Analysis of the product by glow discharge mass spectrometry with state-of-the-art sensitivity is used for qualification of the product and process. Results from this and supplementary techniques which have been used are presented. The utilisation of this material for GaAs has been widely tested successfully. The outcome of some of that work is shown. (orig.).

  14. Multielement trace determination in high purity advanced ceramics and high purity metals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Matschat; H-J Heinrich; M Czerwensky; S Kuxenko; H Kipphardt

    2005-07-01

    In the field of advanced ceramics two CRMs were developed in the last few years by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, one for silicon nitride and one for silicon carbide. Besides their application by industry they are appropriate to be used for the validation of special methods used for trace determination in accordance with high purity materials. This is demonstrated, for example, on ultrapure silicon carbide which was analysed by solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SS ET AAS). BAM is also certifying primary pure reference materials used as the National Standards for inorganic analysis in Germany. The crucial point of this project is the certification of the total purity of high purity materials, each representing one element of the periodic table. A variety of different analytical methods was necessary to determine the trace contents of metallic and non-metallic impurities from almost the whole periodic table in the high purity materials. The primary CRMs of copper, iron and molybdenum are used as examples to demonstrate the modus operandi, analytical effects observed by using high resolution ICP mass spectrometry (HR ICP–MS) and the results.

  15. Therapeutic effect of ozone and rutin on adriamycin-induced testicular toxicity in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, E A; Salem, N A; Hellstrom, W J

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the cytoprotective effects of rutin, ozone and their combination on adriamycin (ADR)-induced testicular toxicity, 50 male albino rats were classified into five groups of ten animals each as follows: placebo group; ADR group; ADR + rutin group; ADR + ozone group and ADR + rutin + ozone group. Sperm functions, testosterone (T), luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testicular enzymes, oxidant/antioxidant status, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant proteins-1 and leukotriene B4 were determined. After ADR injection, a decline in sperm functions was observed. FSH and LH levels were increased, T level and testicular enzymes were decreased, significant enhancement in oxidative stress with subsequent depletion in antioxidants was detected and inflammatory markers were significantly elevated. Treatment with rutin and/or ozone, however, improved the aforementioned parameters. Ozone therapy alone almost completely reversed the toxic effects of ADR and restored all parameters to normal levels.

  16. The Antioxidant Effects of the Flavonoids Rutin and Quercetin Inhibit Oxaliplatin-Induced Chronic Painful Peripheral Neuropathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Pereira, Anamaria Falcão; Nogueira, Ricardo Braz; Rolim, Flávio Esmeraldo; Brito, Gerly AC; Wong, Deysi Viviana T; Lima-Júnior, Roberto CP; de Albuquerque Ribeiro, Ronaldo; Vale, Mariana Lima

    2013-01-01

    .... A spinal target is also suggested in its mechanism of action. The flavonoids rutin and quercetin have been described as cell-protecting agents because of their antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory actions...

  17. Alkali metal salts of rutin - Synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-VIS), antioxidant and antimicrobial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonowicz, M; Kamińska, I; Kalinowska, M; Lewandowski, W

    2015-12-05

    In this work several metal salts of rutin with lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium were synthesized. Their molecular structures were discussed on the basis of spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-VIS) studies. Optimized geometrical structure of rutin was calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G(∗∗) method and sodium salt of rutin were calculated by B3LYP/LanL2DZ method. Metal chelation change the biological properties of ligand therefore the antioxidant (FRAP and DPPH) and antimicrobial activities (toward Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of alkali metal salts were evaluated and compared with the biological properties of rutin.

  18. Neurohormetic responses of quercetin and rutin in a cell line over-expressing the amyloid precursor protein (APPswe cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Aragón, Sagrario; Jiménez-Aliaga, Karim Lizeth; Benedí, Juana; Bermejo-Bescós, Paloma

    2016-11-15

    Plant secondary metabolites may induce adaptive cellular stress-responses in a variety of cells including neurons at the sub-toxic doses ingested by humans. Such 'neurohormesis' phenomenon, activated by flavonoids such as quercetin or rutin, may involve cell responses driven by modulation of signaling pathways which are responsible for its neuroprotective effects. We attempt to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the neurohormetic responses to quercetin and rutin exposure, in a SH-SY5Y cell line which stably overexpresses the amyloid precursor protein (APP) Swedish mutation, based on a biphasic concentration-response relationship for cell viability. We examined the impact of both natural compounds, at concentrations in its hormetic range on the following cell parameters: chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome system; PARP-1 protein levels and expression and caspase activation; APP processing; and the main endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Proteasome activities following quercetin or rutin treatment were significantly augmented in comparison with non-treated cells. Activity of caspase-3 was significantly attenuated by treatment with quercetin or rutin. Modest increased levels of PARP-1 protein and mRNA transcripts were observed in relation to the mild increase of proteasome activity. Significant reductions of the full-length APP and sAPP protein and APP mRNA levels were related to significant enhancements of α-secretase ADAM-10 protein and mRNA transcripts and significant increases of BACE processing in cells exposed to rutin. Furthermore, quercetin or rutin treatment displayed an overall increase of the four antioxidant enzymes. The upregulation of the proteasome activity observed upon quercetin or rutin treatment could be afforded by a mild increased of PARP-1. Consequently, targeting the proteasome by quercetin or rutin to enhance its activity in a mild manner could avoid caspase activation. Moreover, it is likely that APP processing of cells upon

  19. 芦丁锗的抗氧化能力观察%Antioxidant activity of rutin-Ge(Ⅳ) complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟巍; 郑赛飞; 王素红; 翟广玉

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察芦丁锗的抗氧化能力.方法:将芦丁与氧化锗在碱性条件下反应生成芦丁锗,用DPPH自由基清除实验检测芦丁锗的抗氧化能力.结果:芦丁与锗形成芦丁锗配合物后,共轭体系增大,紫外光谱红移,清除自由基能力增强,芦丁锗与芦丁清除DPPH自由基的EC50分别是55.84 mg/L和58.95 mg/L.结论:芦丁锗比芦丁的氧化能力增大,可以用作自由基清除剂.%Aim : To detect the antioxidant activity of rutin-Ge( IV ) complex. Methods: Rutin-Ge( IV ) was obtained from rutin and germanium dioxide under the catalysis of alkali. The antioxidant activity of rutin-Ge( IV ) complex was evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging activity. RGSUltS:The UV spectra of the complex was shifted to the long-wavelength region with the extension of the conjugated system. The scavenging activity of the complex( EC50 =55. 84 mg/L ) was better than rutin( EC50 =58.95 mg/L ). Conclusion : The antioxidant activity of rutin-Ge( IV ) is better than rutin, and rutin-Ge ( IV ) could be a novel free radical scavenger.

  20. Comparative analysis of flavonoids and polar metabolite profiling of Tanno-original and Tanno-high rutin buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Soo-Yun; Zhao, Shicheng; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2014-03-26

    Rutin is an important indicator for evaluating the quality of buckwheat. In this study, flavonoid biosynthesis was compared between two common cultivars (an original and a high-rutin line) of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Transcriptional levels of the main flavonoid biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time PCR, and main flavonoid metabolites were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); levels of gene expression varied among organs of the two cultivars. Significantly higher transcription levels of most flavonoid biosynthetic genes, except FeFLS1, were detected in stems of the high-rutin line than in stems of the original line. FeCHI and FeFLS2 genes also showed higher expression levels in seeds of the high-rutin cultivar. In contrast, FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeCHS, FeF3H, FeF3'H, FeFLS2, and FeDFR were highly detected in the roots of the original line. The HPLC results indicated 1.73-, 1.62-, and 1.77-fold higher accumulation of rutin (the primary flavonoid compound) in leaves, stems, and mature seeds of the high-rutin cultivar (24.86, 1.46, and 1.36 μg/mg, respectively) compared with the original cultivar (14.40, 0.90, and 0.77 μg/mg, respectively). A total of 46 metabolites were identified from seeds by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA could clearly differentiate the original and high-rutin cultivars. Our results indicate that the high-rutin cultivar could be an excellent alternative for buckwheat culture, and we provide useful information for obtaining this cultivar.

  1. Fast repair of purine deoxynucleotide radical cations by rutin and quercetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨阳; 石益民; 王文锋; 贾忠建; 姚思德; 范波涛; 郑荣梁

    2001-01-01

    Repair effects of rutin and quercetin on purine deoxynucleotide radical cations were studied using pulse radiolysis technique. On electron pulse irradiation of N2 saturated deoxynucleotide aqueous solution containing 20 mmol/L K2S2O8, 200 mmol/L t-BuOH and rutin or quercetin, the transient absorption spectra of the deoxynucleotide radical cations decayed quickly. At the same time, the spectra of flavonoid phenoxyl radicals formed within several dozen microseconds. The results indicated that deoxynucleotide radical cations can be repaired by flavonoids. The rate constants of the repair reactions were 3.8×108-4.4×108 mol-1·L·s-1 and 1.3×108-1.8×108 mol-1·L·s-1 for dAMP and dGMP radical cations, respectively.

  2. The pharmacokinetic study of rutin in rat plasma based on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified sensor$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Zhang a; Yu-Qiang Gou b; Xia Gao a; Rui-Bin Bai a; Wen-Xia Chen a; Bo-Lu Sun a; Fang-Di Hu a; n; Wang-Hong Zhao c

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical method based on a directly electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) film coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for the rapid and convenient determination of rutin in plasma. ERGO was modified on the surface of GCE by one-step electro-deposition method. Electrochemical behavior of rutin on ERGO/GCE indicated that rutin underwent a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process and the electrochemical parameters such as charge transfer coefficient (α), electron transfer number (n) and electrode reaction standard rate constant (ks) were 0.53, 2 and 3.4 s?1, respectively. The electrochemical sensor for rutin in plasma provided a wide linear response range of 4.70 ? 10 ? 7 ? 1.25 ? 10 ? 5 M with the detection limit (s/n ¼ 3) of 1.84 ? 10 ? 8 M. The assay was success-fully used to the pharmacokinetic study of rutin. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as elimination rate half-life (t1/2), area under curve (AUC), and plasma clearance (CL) were calculated to be 3.345 7 0.647 min, 5750 7 656.0 mg min/mL, and 5.891 7 0.458 mL/min/kg, respectively. The proposed method utilized a small sample volume of 10μL and had no complicated sample pretreatment (without deproteinization), which was simple, eco-friendly, and time-and cost-efficient for rutin pharmacokinetic studies.

  3. Influence of urea, isopropanol, and propylene glycol on rutin in vitro release from cosmetic semisolid systems estimated by factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Andre Rolim; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Pinto, Claudineia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valeria Robles

    2009-03-01

    Rutin, one of the major flavonoids found in an assortment of plants, was reported to act as a sun protection factor booster with high anti-UVA defense, antioxidant, antiaging, and anticellulite, by improvement of the cutaneous microcirculation. This research work aimed at evaluating the rutin in vitro release from semisolid systems, in vertical diffusion cells, containing urea, isopropanol and propylene glycol, associated or not, according to the factorial design with two levels with center point. Urea (alone and in association with isopropanol and propylene glycol) and isopropanol (alone and in association with propylene glycol) influenced significant and negatively rutin liberation in diverse parameters: flux (microg/cm(2).h); apparent permeability coefficient (cm/h); rutin amount released (microg/cm(2)); and liberation enhancement factor. In accordance with the results, the presence of propylene glycol 5.0% (wt/wt) presented statistically favorable to promote rutin release from this semisolid system with flux = 105.12 +/- 8.59 microg/cm(2).h; apparent permeability coefficient = 7.01 +/- 0.572 cm/h; rutin amount released = 648.80 +/- 53.01 microg/cm(2); and liberation enhancement factor = 1.21 +/- 0.07.

  4. Switchgrass water extracts: extraction, separation and biological activity of rutin and quercitrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppugundla, Nirmal; Engelberth, Abigail; Vandhana Ravindranath, Sathya; Clausen, Edgar C; Lay, Jackson O; Gidden, Jennifer; Carrier, Danielle Julie

    2009-09-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has recently received significant attention as a possible feedstock for the production of liquid fuels such as ethanol. In addition, switchgrass may also be a source of valuable co-products, such as antioxidants, and our laboratory recently reported that switchgrass contains policosanols and alpha-tocopherol. Motivation for this work began when a switchgrass sample was extracted with water at 50 degrees C and was then tested for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation inhibition activity using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay. The TBARS results showed that the switchgrass water extracts inhibited LDL oxidation by as much as 70% in comparison to the control. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to identify the compounds that were responsible for LDL oxidation inhibition activity as flavonoids: quercitrin (quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) and rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside). To maximize flavonoid concentrations, switchgrass was then extracted with water and 60% methanol at different temperatures. The 60% methanol treatment resulted in higher rutin and quercitrin yields when compared to water-only extraction; however, the use of this solvent would not be practical with current biorefinery technology. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was then used to purify rutin and quercitrin from the switchgrass water extract, which were then tested via the TBARS assay and shown to exhibit lipid peroxidation inhibition activity similar to that obtained with pure flavonoid standards. This is the first report on the presence of rutin and quercitrin in switchgrass. The results support the extraction of viable coproducts from switchgrass prior to conversion to liquid fuel.

  5. Dyeing Studies with Eucalyptus, Quercetin, Rutin, and Tannin: A Research on Effect of Ferrous Sulfate Mordant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes from Eucalyptus leaf extract, quercetin, rutin, and tannin were applied to silk fabric by pad-batch and pad-dry techniques under different conditions. Ferrous sulfate was used as a mordant. The dyeing properties were evaluated by measuring K/S and CIELAB values. In addition, the different fastness properties were evaluated. The effect of dyes at different concentration levels with respect to their colour strength was also studied.

  6. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G; Hausman, Gary J; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-04-12

    Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  7. Workshop on Preserving High Purity Uranium-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Giaquinto, Joseph [ORNL; Canaan, R Douglas {Doug} [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    A workshop was held on at the MARC X conference to provide a forum for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only a small portion of the U.S. holdings of separated 233U is being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233U (>97% pure) still are destined to be downblended which will permanently destroy their potential value for many other applications. It is not likely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein.

  8. Tissue distribution comparison between healthy and fatty liver rats after oral administration of hawthorn leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jingjing; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Lu, Dongrui; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-05-01

    Hawthorn leaves, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, have been widely used for treating cardiovascular and fatty liver diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic basis treating fatty liver disease by comparing the tissue distribution of six compounds of hawthorn leaf extract (HLE) in fatty liver rats and healthy rats after oral administration at first day, half month and one month, separately. Therefore, a sensitive and specific HPLC method with internal standard was developed and validated to determine chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4''-O-glucoside, vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin and hyperoside in the tissues including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach and intestine. The results indicated that the six compounds in HLE presented some bioactivity in treating rat fatty liver as the concentrations of the six compounds varied significantly in inter- and intragroup comparisons (healthy and/or fatty liver group).

  9. DETERMINATION OF RUTIN IN LEAVES OF SALIX TRIANDRA USING THE METHOD OF PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Sannikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop new methods of identification and quantitative determination of rutin in the leaves of Salix triandra L. with thin-layer chromatography. The digital processing of the chromatograms was performed using «Sorbfil Videodensitometer» computer program (Krasnodar. For the chromatography analysis we used plates «Sorbfil» PTSH-P-A-UV, mobile phase: n-butanol-glacial acetic acid-water (4:1:1, detecting reagent – ammonia vapors. The rutin is detected as yellow spots with Rf 0.64±0.02. The detection limit is 0.5 μg/μl. The regression equation has the form: S=4.75×103 m. With the use of this method we found that the composition of rutin in leaves of Salix triandra was in the range 1.81±0.06% on the air-dry raw material (relative standard deviation RSD%=2.5%; the measurement error E=3.12%. The method is sensitive, linear, has a small error, and does not require expensive equipment.

  10. Adsorption of rutin with a novel β-cyclodextrin polymer adsorbent: thermodynamic and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2012-11-06

    The adsorption properties toward rutin of a cyclodextrin polymer adsorbent CroCD-TuC 3 have been studied. The adsorption capacity is reduced as temperature and pH of solution rises, but increases with the increase of solvent polarity. Compared with Sephadex™ G-15 dextran gel beads, CroCD-TuC 3 shows dramatically higher isosteric enthalpy due to a significant contribution of rutin/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex formation in CroCD-TuC 3 skeleton. A highlight in our study is that the pore diffusion model has been employed to describe the mass transfer inside the adsorbent pores. It reveals that the diffusion inside the pores is the rate-restricting step in the whole adsorption process. The effective pore diffusivity of rutin in CroCD-TuC 3 calculated is much lower than the diffusivity in diluted solution. The pore diffusion model is an available tool to investigate the profile of mass transfer inside the pores, and provides an effective method to describe adsorption kinetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrafast synthesis of isoquercitrin by enzymatic hydrolysis of rutin in a continuous-flow microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoquercitrin is a rare flavonol glycoside with a wide range of biological activities and is a key synthetic intermediate for the production of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin. In order to establish an ultrafast bioprocess for obtaining isoquercitrin, a novel continuous flow biosynthesis of isoquercitrin using the hesperidinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of rutin in a glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microreactor was first carried out. Using the developed microchannel reactor (200μm width, 50μm depth, and 2 m length with one T-shaped inlet and one outlet, the maximum yield of isoquercitrin (98.6% was achieved in a short time (40 min under the following optimum conditions: rutin concentration at 1 g L-1, hesperidinase concentration at 0.1 g mL-1, reaction temperature at 40°C, and a flow rate at 2 μL min-1. The activation energy value Ea of the enzymatic reaction was 4.61 kJ mol-1, and the reaction rate and volumetric productivity were approximately 16.1-fold and 30% higher, respectively, than those in the batch reactor. Thus, the use of a continuous-flow microreactor for the enzymatic hydrolysis of rutin is an efficient and simple approach to achieve a relative high yield of isoquercitrin.

  12. Rutin-Nickel Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, and DNA Cleavage Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aun; Bano, Shumaila; Xu, Xiuquan; Zhang, Rong Xian; Khalid, Haider; Iqbal, Furqan Muhammad; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-12-17

    The rutin-nickel (II) complex (RN) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy, IR, mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR, TG-DSC, SEM, and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal/ligand) of the complex. An antioxidant study of rutin and its metal complex against DPPH radical showed that the complex has more radical scavenging activity than free rutin. The interaction of complex RN with DNA was determined using fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that RN can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide (EB), and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form (SC) to nicked circular form (NC), and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was a hydrolytic cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of the complex to cleave DNA.

  13. Hydrolysis of the Rutinose-Conjugates Flavonoids Rutin and Hesperidin by the Gut Microbiota and Bifidobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Amaretti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Flavonols and flavanones are polyphenols exerting many healthy biological activities. They are often glycosylated by rutinose, which hampers absorption in the small intestine. Therefore they require the gut microbiota to release the aglycone and enable colonic absorption. The role of the gut microbiota and bifidobacteria in the release of the aglycones from two major rutinosides, hesperidin and rutin, was investigated. In bioconversion experiments, the microbiota removed rutinose from both rutin and hesperidin, even though complete hydrolysis was not obtained. To investigate whether bifidobacteria can participate to the hydrolysis of rutinosides, 33 strains were screened. Rutin was resistant to hydrolysis by all the strains. Among six tested species, mostly Bifidobacterium catenulatum and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenultum were able to hydrolyze hesperidin, by means of a cell-associated activity. This result is in agreement with the presence of a putative α-l-rhamnosidase in the genome of B. pseudocatenulatum, while most of the available genome sequences of bifidobacteria aside from this species do not bear this sequence. Even though B. pseudocatenulatum may contribute to the release of the aglycone from certain rutinose-conjugated polyphenols, such as hesperidin, it remains to be clarified whether this species may exert a role in affecting the bioavailability of the rutinoside in vivo.

  14. Distribution of Vitamin E, squalene, epicatechin, and rutin in common buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinova, Jana; Triska, Jan; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    2006-07-26

    Buckwheat leaves and young parts of the plant are consumed in some countries as a vegetable. Green flour, obtained by milling of the dried plants, is used as a natural food colorant. The distribution of vitamin E, squalene, epicatechin, and rutin (as the most important antioxidants) within buckwheat plants, as well as changes of their content within leaves during the growing season, were determined by GC-MS and HPLC analyses. alpha-Tocopherol was found as the main component of vitamin E in all parts of the plant; epicatechin and squalene were also detected. For the use of buckwheat as an antioxidant source in the human diet, the most suitable part of the plants seems to be the leaves and the flowers at the stage of full flowering due to the considerable amounts of rutin and epicatechin. alpha-Tocopherol content correlates positively with temperature, drought, and duration of solar radiation. Certain differences appear among varieties of buckwheat, especially in their squalene and rutin contents.

  15. Conditions for strictly purity-decreasing quantum Markovian dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidar, D.A. [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Chemistry Department and Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, Ont., M5S 3H6 (Canada)], E-mail: lidar@usc.edu; Shabani, A. [Physics Department and Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, Ont., M5S 1A7 (Canada); Alicki, R. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk (Poland)

    2006-03-06

    The purity, Tr({rho} {sup 2}), measures how pure or mixed a quantum state {rho} is. It is well known that quantum dynamical semigroups that preserve the identity operator (which we refer to as unital) are strictly purity-decreasing transformations. Here, we provide an almost complete characterization of the class of strictly purity-decreasing quantum dynamical semigroups. We show that in the case of finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, a dynamical semigroup is strictly purity-decreasing if and only if it is unital, while in the infinite dimensional case, unitality is only sufficient.

  16. Antihyperglycemic Activity of the Leaves from Annona cherimola Miller and Rutin on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Solares-Pascasio, Jesús Iván; Ordoñez-Razo, R. M.; Velazquez, Claudia; Barbosa, Elizabeth; García-Hernández, Normand; Mendez-Luna, David; Correa-Basurto, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola, known as “chirimoya” has been reported in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: The aims of the present study were to validate and assess the traditional use of A. cherimola as an antidiabetic agent. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract from A. cherimola (300 mg/kg, EEAc), subsequent fractions (100 mg/kg), and rutin (30 mg/kg) were studied on alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic (AITD) and normoglycemic rats. In addition, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT) were performed in normoglycemic rats. Molecular docking technique was used to conduct the computational study. Results: Bioassay-guided fractionation of EEAc afforded as major antihyperglycemic compound, rutin. EEAc attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in acute test using AITD rats (331.5 mg/dL) carrying the glycemic levels to 149.2 mg/dL. Rutin after 2 h, attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in an acute assay using AITD rats such as EEAc, with maximum effect (150.0 mg/dL) being seen at 4 h. The antihyperglycemic activities of EEAc and rutin were comparable with acarbose (151.3 mg/dL). In the subchronic assay on AITD rats, the EEAc and rutin showed a reduction of the blood glucose levels since the 1st week of treatment, reaching levels similar to normoglycemic state (116.9 mg/kg) that stayed constant for the rest of the assay. OGTT and OSTT showed that EEAc and rutin significantly lowered blood glucose levels in normoglycemic rats at 2 h after a glucose or sucrose load such as acarbose. Computational molecular docking showed that rutin interacted with four amino acids residues in the enzyme α-glucosidase. Conclusion: The results suggest that rutin an α-glucosidase inhibitor was responsible in part of the antihyperglycemic activity of A. cherimola. Its in vivo antihyperglycemic activity is in good agreement with the traditional use of A. cherimola for the treatment of diabetes. SUMMARY The ethanol extract

  17. Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... inside liver cells. Just consuming a high-fat diet does not result in fatty liver. Rarely, fat ...

  18. Fashion Brand Purity and Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hui Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of prior empirical research and case studies used qualitative methodology to discuss the fashion brand dilution resulting from consumer base extension from the target group(s to the nontarget groups and its impacts. From a different perspective, this paper establishes a dynamic brand dilution and performance model, demonstrating how dynamic changes of sales volumes involving the two consumer groups affect the degree of brand dilution and the performance of the brand. We incorporate the factor “brand purity” to the model as a quantitative measure of brand dilution level that affects firm annual revenue and profit change comprehensively in iteration. Our model suggests that fashion brands, especially luxury brands, can be easily diluted under the pressure of firm growth, and the brands suffer the significant negative impact on their revenues and profit. While increasing sales volume can aggravate the negative consequences, brand purity can be increased through limiting the consumer base to the target group only.

  19. Dynamic shear deformation in high purity Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Mike F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The forced shear test specimen, first developed by Meyer et al. [Meyer L. et al., Critical Adiabatic Shear Strength of Low Alloyed Steel Under Compressive Loading, Metallurgical Applications of Shock Wave and High Strain Rate Phenomena (Marcel Decker, 1986), 657; Hartmann K. et al., Metallurgical Effects on Impact Loaded Materials, Shock Waves and High Strain rate Phenomena in Metals (Plenum, 1981), 325-337.], has been utilized in a number of studies. While the geometry of this specimen does not allow for the microstructure to exactly define the location of shear band formation and the overall mechanical response of a specimen is highly sensitive to the geometry utilized, the forced shear specimen is useful for characterizing the influence of parameters such as strain rate, temperature, strain, and load on the microstructural evolution within a shear band. Additionally, many studies have utilized this geometry to advance the understanding of shear band development. In this study, by varying the geometry, specifically the ratio of the inner hole to the outer hat diameter, the dynamic shear localization response of high purity Fe was examined. Post mortem characterization was performed to quantify the width of the localizations and examine the microstructural and textural evolution of shear deformation in a bcc metal. Increased instability in mechanical response is strongly linked with development of enhanced intergranular misorientations, high angle boundaries, and classical shear textures characterized through orientation distribution functions.

  20. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy...

  1. Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on purity measurements.

  2. Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-02-27

    We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on measurements of purity.

  3. Analysis of the Purity of Cetrimide by Titrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Rasmussen, Claus/Dallerup; Nielsen, Hans/Boye

    2006-01-01

    The purity of cetrimide, trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), that is an important preservative of many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, was determined by three independent methods of titration. Traditionally, cetrimide was analysed by an assay method of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph....... Eur.), which showed consistently a low purity of cetrimide with large standard deviations associated, however. A systematic 3% bias of the Ph. Eur. assay method was identified by comparing the result with results of two alternative methods of titration that exhibited high precision and high accuracy....... Titration by perchloric acid showed a 99.69 ± 0.05 % purity of cetrimide and titration by silver nitrate showed a 99.85% ± 0.05 % purity while the traditional assay method predicted a purity of only 97.1 ± 0.4. It was found that the discrepancy could be identified as differences in selectivity during...

  4. Production of ultrahigh purity copper using waste copper nitrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Kim, D S

    2003-04-25

    The production of ultrahigh purity copper (99.9999%) by electrolysis in the presence of a cementation barrier has been attempted employing a waste nitric copper etching solution as the electrolyte. The amount of copper deposited on the cathode increased almost linearly with electrolysis time and the purity of copper was observed to increase as the electrolyte concentration was increased. At some point, however, as the electrolyte concentration increased, the purity of copper decreased slightly. As the total surface area of cementation barrier increased, the purity of product increased. The electrolyte temperature should be maintained below 35 degrees C in the range of investigated electrolysis conditions to obtain the ultrahigh purity copper. Considering that several industrial waste solutions contain valuable metallic components the result of present study may support a claim that electrowinning is a very desirable process for their treatment and recovery.

  5. Identification of Flavonoids (Quercetin, Gallic acid and Rutin from Catharanthus roseus Plant Parts using Deep Eutectic Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Nisar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green technology is the most important topic in the pharmaceutical field because it reduces the cost of medicines and minimizes the environmental impact of the field and is better for human health and safety. Green chemistry emphasizes that the solvent should be nontoxic, safe, cheap, green, readily available, recyclable, and biodegradable. Deep eutectic solvents, a new type of green solvent, have some renowned properties—for instance, high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, low cost, biodegradability, and high viscosity. In this study, deep eutectic solvents made up of choline chloride-glycerol (1:2 were used for the extraction and isolation of flavonoid (rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin from Catharanthus roseus plant parts, flower petal, leaves, stem, and root. The amounts of rutin and quercetin in flower petal are 29.46 and 6.51%, respectively, whereas, rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin amounts in leaves are 25.16, 8.57, and 10.47%, respectively. In stem the amounts of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin are 13.02, 5.89, and 7.47%, respectively. In root, only quercetin has been obtained that is 13.49%. The HPLC is an analytical method, which was found to be an excellent technique for determination of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin using deep eutectic solvent extraction from plant parts of Catharanthus roseus.

  6. Rutin restores adenosine deaminase activity in serum and the liver and improves biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. CHIELLE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT denosine deaminase (ADA is a critical control point in the regulation of adenosine levels. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a polyphenolic flavonoid, rutin, on the activity of ADA in serum, the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n=6 for the following treatments: control; diabetic (streptozotocin 55 mg/kg; diabetic with rutin (100 mg/kg/day; diabetic with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg/day. After 30 days, ADA activity and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The ADA activity in the serum was significantly elevated in the diabetic group compared to the control group (p<0.01. The treatment with rutin prevented the increase in ADA activity in the STZ-induced rats when compared to control group. Our data showed that rutin reduced glucose, LDL levels, and hepatic enzymes in comparison with the control group. These results demonstrate that the increase of ADA activity observed in diabetic rats may be an important indicator of the immunopathogenesis of hyperglycemic disorders and suggest that rutin is important for regulating the enzymatic activities associated with immune, hyperglycemic, and inflammatory response in diabetes mellitus.

  7. Development of a biosensor based on gilo peroxidase immobilized on chitosan chemically crosslinked with epichlorohydrin for determination of rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwirtes de Oliveira, Inês Rosane W; Fernandes, Suellen Cadorin; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz

    2006-05-01

    A new reagentless biosensor for the square-wave voltammetric determination of rutin in pharmaceutical formulations was developed by immobilization of gilo (Solanum gilo) crude extract in chitosan matrix. The gilo tissue acts as a source of peroxidase. The highest biosensor performance was obtained after immobilization of the peroxidase in chemically crosslinked chitosan with epichlorohydrin and glutaraldehyde that was incorporated in a carbon paste electrode. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide this enzyme catalyses the oxidation of rutin to quinone and the electrochemical reduction of the product was obtained at a fixed potential of +124 mV versus Ag/AgCl (3.0 M KCl). The performance and factors influencing the resulting biosensor were studied in detail. The bioelectrode exhibited a linear response for rutin concentrations from 3.4x10(-7) to 7.2x10(-6) M (r=0.9998) and the recovery of rutin from the samples ranged from 96.2 to 102.4%. The detection and quantification limits were 2.0x10(-8) and 6.3x10(-8) M, respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 1.0% for solutions containing 3.4x10(-7) to 7.2x10(-6) M rutin in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0 (n=10). The lifetime of this biosensor was 8 months (at least 500 determinations).

  8. Application of a Cu-chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotube film-modified electrode for the sensitive determination of rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2016-01-15

    A new sensitive electrochemical sensor, a glassy carbon electrode modified with chemically cross-linked copper-complexed chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE), for rutin analysis was constructed. Experimental investigations of the influence of several parameters showed that the rutin can effectively accumulate on the surface of the Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE, which accumulation caused a pair of well-defined redox peaks in the electrochemical signal when measurements were carried out in Britton-Robinson buffer solution (pH 3, 0.04 M). The surface of the Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry analysis. In a rutin concentration range of 0.05-100 μM and under optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of rutin and its concentration was obtained with a detection limit of 0.01 μM. The Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE showed good selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Moreover, the sensor was used to determine the presence of rutin in fruits with satisfactory results.

  9. Effect of rutin on virus inactivation by AMT in combination with ultraviolet-A irradiation in platelet concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshiko; Abe, Hideki; Ikebuchi, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Sadayoshi [Hokkaido Red Cross Blood Center, Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Treatment with psoralens and ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation have been found to be effective for virus sterilization of platelet concentrates (PCs). We report here a virus inactivation method using a combination of psoralen derivative 4'-aminomethyl-4,5', 8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT) and UVA irradiation (AMT/UVA). Further, we also investigated the effect of rutin, a radical scavenger, on the inactivation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a model virus administered in PCs and platelet functions were investigated. Spiked VSV (about 5log{sub 10}) in PCs was inactivated by a combination of AMT (50 {mu}g/ml) and 5.2 J/cm{sup 2} UVA irradiation in the absence of rutin. To obtain equivalent levels of VSV kill in the presence of 0.35 mM rutin, treatment with 13.0 J/cm{sup 2} of UVA irradiation with AMT was performed. When PCs were treated under each condition in which 5log{sub 10} VSV was inactivated by AMT/UVA with or without rutin, platelet aggregation function was maintained for more than 80% of untreated platelets. These findings indicate that the presence of rutin during AMT/UVA treatment conferred no beneficial effect. In addition, overnight storage of PCs with AMT induced 40% loss of platelet aggregation in response to 10{mu}M ADP. The findings suggest that UVA irradiation is required immediately after the addition of AMT. (author)

  10. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway.

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    Wei Yang

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1.

  11. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1.

  12. Preparation and electrochemical application of rutin biosensor for differential pulse voltammetric determination of NADH in the presence of acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMID R. ZARE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic behavior of reduced nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide (NADH was studied at the surface of a rutin biosensor, using various electrochemical methods. According to the results, the rutin biosensor had a strongly electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of NADH with the overpotential being decreased by about 450 mV as compared to the process at a bare glassy carbon electrode, GCE. This value is significantly greater than the value of 220 mV that was reported for rutin embedded in a lipid-cast film. The kinetic parameters of the electron transfer coefficient, a, and the heterogeneous charge transfer rate constant, kh, for the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at the rutin biosensor were estimated. Furthermore, the linear dynamic range; sensitivity and limit of detection for NADH were evaluated using the differential pulse voltammetry method. The advantages of this biosensor for the determination of NADH are excellent catalytic activity and reproducibility, good detection limit and high exchange current density. The rutin biosensor could separate the oxidation peak potentials of NADH and acetaminophen present in the same solution while at a bare GCE, the peak potentials were indistinguishable.

  13. Detrimental effect of rutin on Anticarsia gemmatalis Efeito prejudicial de rutina em Anticarsia gemmatalis

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    Clara Beatriz Hoffmann-Campo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and nutritional effect of rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinosídeo on Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lep.: Noctuidae, a major soybean defoliator in Brazil, was evaluated from the third instar to pupation. Rutin is one of the flavonol glycosides identified in the leaves of the wild soybean PI 227687. Larval weight and amount of ingested food decreased as rutin concentration in the diet increase. An interactive effect between feeding time and diet (treatment was observed on insect growth; when larvae fed on pure-diet, feeding time elongation resulted in heavier pupae. Differently, the weight of larvae fed on rutin-diet remained almost stable, in spite of eating for longer. A. gemmatalis growth was negatively influenced by rutin-diet not only by feeding deterrence but also by post-ingestive effect on insect growth, since after adjustment of pupal weight by the amount of ingested food (covariate, the effect of diet remained significant. Rutin negatively influenced A. gemmatalis growth as result of pre-ingestive effect, indicated by reduction in food consumption, and post-ingestive effect, indicated by lower conversion of ingested food into body mass and food assimilation.O efeito de dieta contendo rutina (quercetina 3-O-rutinosídeo no comportamento e na nutrição do principal desfolhador da soja, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lep.: Noctuidae foi avaliado do terceiro ínstar até a formação da pupa. Rutina é um dos flavonóis glicosídicos identificados em folhas da soja selvagem PI 227687. O peso das lagartas e o consumo decresceram com o aumento na concentração de rutina na dieta. Houve interação entre o tempo de alimentação e a dieta no crescimento do inseto; lagartas alimentadas com dieta pura, cujo tempo de alimentação prolongou-se, originaram pupas mais pesadas. O peso das pupas alimentadas com dieta contendo rutina permaneceu estável, apesar do maior tempo de alimentação. Rutina afetou negativamente o crescimento do inseto

  14. Modulatory effects of rutin on biochemical and hematological parameters in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Kanashiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit several pharmacological properties, mainly in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we observed that rutin, a known glycosylated flavonoid isolated from Dimorphandra mollis, had a lowering effect on plasma triglyceride levels of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters, but did not change total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Moreover, high-fat or rutin supplemented diets showed no immunotoxic effects, since no significant changes were observed on total white blood cells, granulocytes and mononuclear cells, as well as on the neutrophil apoptosis degree, when compared to untreated animals. Therefore, rutin seems to be a selective and non-toxic modulator of hypercholesterolemia, which can be promising for the development of new drugs.Os flavonóides possuem diversas propriedades farmacológicas, principalmente nas doenças cardiovasculares e inflamatórias. No presente estudo, observamos que a rutina, um conhecido flavonóide glicosilado isolado da Dimorphandra mollis, diminuiu o nível de triglicerídeos plasmáticos em hamsters Golden Syrian hipercolesterolêmicos sem alterar os níveis de colesterol total e colesterol HDL. Além disso, observamos que dietas hipercolesterolêmicas ou suplementadas com rutina não apresentaram efeito imunotóxico, uma vez que nenhuma alteração significativa foi observada nos leucócitos totais, granulócitos e células mononucleares, bem como no grau de neutrófilos em apoptose, quando comparado com animais não tratados. Portanto, a rutina parece ser um modulador seletivo e não tóxico da hipercolesterolemia, o que pode ser promissor para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos.

  15. Quercetin and rutin as potential sunscreen agents: determination of efficacy by an in vitro method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquenet, Benjamin; Couteau, Céline; Paparis, Eva; Coiffard, Laurence J M

    2008-06-01

    Given that flavonoids are known for their ultraviolet (UV)B photoprotective properties in plants that contain them, we chose to study quercetin (1) and rutin (2) as agents that could potentially be used in sunscreen products. These two substances proved to behave in similar ways. When incorporated in oil-in-water emulsions, at a concentration of 10% (w/w), 1 and 2 give sun protection factor (SPF) values similar to that of homosalate, a standard substance. These two flavonoids also provided a non-negligible level of photoprotection in the UVA range. When used in association with titanium dioxide, the SPF obtained was around 30.

  16. Effects of various asparagus production methods on rutin and protodioscin contents in spears and cladophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Satoru; Kitazawa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Tomoo; Suzuki, Takashi; Chiji, Hideyuki; Nishihara, Eiji; Shinohara, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between various cultivation conditions and the amounts of the rutin (RT) and protodioscin (PD) in asparagus spears. Green and white spears were grown in open culture and under two different blanching conditions. Although RT was detected only in the green spears, PD was detected mainly in white spears produced by covering with soil. The RT and PD contents of cladophylls grown in an open field and in a closed cultivation system were also investigated, and the closed system resulted in cladophylls with low RT and high PD, unlike the open field.

  17. State-independent purity and fidelity of quantum operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Zhen; Zong, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-04-01

    The purity and fidelity of quantum operations are of great importance in characterizing the quality of quantum operations. The currently available definitions of the purity and fidelity of quantum operations are based on the average over all possible input pure quantum states, i.e. they are state-dependent (SD). In this paper, without resorting to quantum states, we define the state-independent (SI) purity and fidelity of a general quantum operation (evolution) in virtue of a new density matrix formalism for quantum operations, which is extended from the quantum state level to quantum operation level. The SI purity and fidelity gain more intrinsic physical properties of quantum operations than state-dependent ones, such as the purity of a one-qubit amplitude damping channel (with damping rate 1) is 1/2, which is in line with the fact that the channel is still a nonunitary operation described by two Kraus operators rather than a unitary one. But the state-dependent Haar average purity is 1 in this case. So the SI purity and fidelity proposed here can help the experimentalists to exactly quantify the implementation quality of an operation. As a byproduct, a new measure of the operator entanglement is proposed for a quantum evolution (unitary or nonunitary) in terms of the linear entropy of its density matrix on the orthonormal operator bases (OOBs) in Hilbert-Schmidt space.

  18. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways.

  19. Influence of rutin and ascorbic acid in colour, plum anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity stability in model juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Herrero, J A; Frutos, M J

    2015-04-15

    Model juices at pH 3.7 were prepared with different combinations of ascorbic acid, rutin (quercetin 3-rutinoside) and concentrated anthocyanin extract of plums (cv. Black Gold). The anthocyanins in the concentrated extract were cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, in a proportion of 76% and 24% respectively. The model juices were stored during 17 weeks in darkness at 20 °C. The colour stability was improved by the presence of rutin and strongly damaged by the ascorbic acid. The fortification of anthocyanin model juices with ascorbic acid originated the degradation of most of anthocyanins. However, anthocyanins improved ascorbic acid stability during storage. The copigmentation of anthocyanin and rutin showed a beneficial effect on colour stability from the 5 weeks of storage. In model juices prepared exclusively with purified plum extract a high correlation (R(2)=0.881) between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity was found.

  20. Rutin Increases Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis with AMPK Activation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sangjin; Lee, Mak-Soon; Chang, Eugene; Shin, Yoonjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha

    2015-09-22

    Decreased mitochondrial number and dysfunction in skeletal muscle are associated with obesity and the progression of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The specific aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of rutin on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Supplementation with rutin reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass, despite equivalent energy intake (p increased mitochondrial size and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content as well as gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), transcription factor A (Tfam), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase, sirtulin1 (SIRT1) in skeletal muscle (p increased muscle adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by 40% (p muscle mitochondria and AMPK activation in the rutin-mediated beneficial effect on obesity.

  1. Development of biosensors containing laccase and imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid for the determination of rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Ana Cristina [Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Biossensores, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Migowski, Pedro; Dupont, Jairton [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Laboratorio de Catalise Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cruz Vieira, Iolanda, E-mail: iolanda@qmc.ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Biossensores, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2009-04-20

    Biosensors based on hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) derived from the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup -} = Tf{sub 2}N{sup -}] anion associated with three different imidazolium cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMI.Tf{sub 2}N), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium (DMI.Tf{sub 2}N) and 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium (TDMI.Tf{sub 2}N), along with laccase from Aspergillus oryzae, were constructed and optimized for determination of rutin. The laccase catalyzes the oxidation of rutin to the corresponding o-quinone, which is electrochemically reduced back to rutin. The best performance was obtained with 50:20:15:15% (w/w/w/w) as the graphite powder:laccase:Nujol:ILs composition in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} acetate buffer solution (pH 5.0). The parameters for the square-wave voltammetry experiments and scanning electron microscopy images of the biosensors were studied. Under the selected conditions, the cathodic peak current increased linearly in the rutin concentration ranges of 4.77 x 10{sup -6} to 4.62 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}, 5.84 x 10{sup -6} to 5.36 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} and 5.84 x 10{sup -6} to 5.36 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} using the (I) BMI.Tf{sub 2}N-laccase, (II) DMI.Tf{sub 2}N-laccase and (III) TDMI.Tf{sub 2}N-laccase, respectively. The rutin contents of commercial samples of pharmaceuticals were successfully determined by the biosensors and the results compared well with those obtained using the official method. The studies on rutin recovery from these samples gave values of 96.9-104.6%.

  2. The pharmacokinetic study of rutin in rat plasma based on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical method based on a directly electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO film coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE was developed for the rapid and convenient determination of rutin in plasma. ERGO was modified on the surface of GCE by one-step electro-deposition method. Electrochemical behavior of rutin on ERGO/GCE indicated that rutin underwent a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process and the electrochemical parameters such as charge transfer coefficient (α, electron transfer number (n and electrode reaction standard rate constant (ks were 0.53, 2 and 3.4 s−1, respectively. The electrochemical sensor for rutin in plasma provided a wide linear response range of 4.70×10−7−1.25×10−5 M with the detection limit (s/n=3 of 1.84×10−8 M. The assay was successfully used to the pharmacokinetic study of rutin. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as elimination rate half-life (t1/2, area under curve (AUC, and plasma clearance (CL were calculated to be 3.345±0.647 min, 5750±656.0 µg min/mL, and 5.891±0.458 mL/min/kg, respectively. The proposed method utilized a small sample volume of 10 μL and had no complicated sample pretreatment (without deproteinization, which was simple, eco-friendly, and time- and cost-efficient for rutin pharmacokinetic studies.

  3. Do different casein concentrations increase the adverse effect of rutin on the biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Mariana C; Boiça, Arlindo L; de Oliveira, Maria C N; da Graça, José P; da Silva, Débora M; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B

    2010-01-01

    The flavonoid rutin is recognized as playing an important role in the protection of plants against lepidopterans. Bioassays with this compound are generally carried out using artificial diets. Proteins of high energy value, such as casein, are important ingredients of insect artificial diets as a source of essential amino acids. However, such proteins can generally increase the allelochemical activity. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of rutin on larvae of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner by incorporating this allelochemical into diets with different concentrations of casein. Three casein concentrations (0, 7 g, or 14 g) combined with none, 0.65%, or 1.30% of rutin were added to the rearing diet and offered to the larvae from hatching to pupation. Rutin negatively affected larval development, the amount of food consumed, and pupal weight of A. gemmatalis. These negative effects were clearly seen in insects fed on diets with 7 g of casein to which any concentration of rutin was added. The effects of rutin when added to the diets without casein were stronger than in diets containing a suitable amount of casein (14 g). The greater negative effects of rutin in diets containing suboptimal concentrations of casein indicate that casein can increase the effects of rutin only when the diets are nutritionally unsuitable for insect development.

  4. Correlation of Rutin Accumulation with 3-O-Glucosyl Transferase and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Activities During the Ripening of Tomato Fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, J.; Matros, A.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Mock, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at

  5. Effect of pregnancy and tobacco smoke on the antioxidant activity of rutin in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Ewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a source of free radicals and causes oxidative stress in smokers' tissues. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of rutin on the total antioxidant status (TAS) in pregnant and non-pregnant rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. TAS in brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and plasma were measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) radical-cation decolorization assay. In pregnant rats, a diversified distribution of endogenous antioxidants was found in comparison to the matched non-pregnant animals. In pregnant rats, TAS was higher in plasma (by 33%) and kidney (by 76%), and lower in brain (by 48%) and liver (by 50%) compared with non-pregnant rats. Generally (except liver), exposure to tobacco smoke caused an increase in the antioxidative status of pregnant compared to non-pregnant animals (by 29, 16, 18 and 87% in plasma, brain, lung and kidney, respectively). Overall, rutin had little (plasma, non-pregnant rats) or a no protective effect in the examined tissues.

  6. Rutin and quercetin, bioactive compounds from tartary buckwheat, prevent liver inflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Shen, Siou-Ru; Lai, Ying-Jang; Wu, She-Ching

    2013-04-30

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a healthy and nutritionally important food item. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of 75% ethanol extracts from tartary buckwheat (EEB) against ethanol- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. EEB were administered to C57BL/6 mice (ethanol induction) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (CCl(4) induction) for 4 and 8 consecutive weeks, respectively. The major active compounds, rutin and quercetin, were also administered to ethanol- and CCl(4)-induced animals. EEB inhibited increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the ethanol- and CCl(4)-induced animals; similar effects were found after rutin and quercetin administration. Moreover, EEB elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities, including those of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and inhibited the levels of hepatic inflammation in the ethanol- and CCl(4)-treated animals. This study suggests that EEB exerts hepatoprotection via promoting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties against oxidative liver damage.

  7. STUDIES ON THE THERMOLYSIS OF RUTIN%芸香甙热裂解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永宽; 孔宁川; 曾晓鹰; 杨伟祖; 李聪; 汪汉卿

    2002-01-01

    在500℃和770℃两种温度下,采用热解直接进样的方式,研究了烟草中主要的多酚类化合物--芸香甙的热裂解产物.分别鉴定出了24个和23个裂解化合物.通过比较和分析这两种温度下的裂解产物发现,芸香甙可以裂解产生大量具有香味的产物.不同温度下的热裂解产物中,其中有16个热裂解产物是相同的,但它们的相对含量却不一样.%At two different temperatures,rutin,the major polyphenols in tobacco,was studied on its thermoly-sis with a pyrolyser connected directly to a gas chromatograph. And 24 compounds and 23 compounds havebeen identified as thermolysis products at 500℃ and 770℃, respectively. Comparison and analysis of the ther-molytic products produced from rutin at two different temperatures indicated that fairly large proportions ofaromas would be produced and influence the flavor of tobacco smoke. Among these thermolytic products, thereare 16 same compounds. But relative contents are not same.

  8. Identification of quercitin and rutin from propolis ethanolic extract (EEP of Timis county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA RAMONA HEGHEDUS MINDRU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper were studied the possibilities of some flavonoides (quercetin and rutin identification from the propolis ethanolic extract (EEP, depending on the harvesting region from the west of Romania (Timis county, the obtained results were compared to those obtained for similar products in literature (Hungary, Czechia, China, Slovenia. Representative samples were collected from three different regions of Timis county (Lugoj 1, Lugoj 2 and Faget. The identification of quercitin and rutin from propolis ethanolic extracts (EEP was realized with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For separation and quantification the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP, I used the high performance liquid chromatography. Quantification was performed on the basis of the calibration curve obtained for pure quercitine. I used the HPLC Hewelett Packard apparatus Agilent 1100 type with UV detection, with the following characteristics: column: Nucleosil C18; 5µm dimension for stationary phase particles; column dimension: 150 x 4,6mm x mm; eluent acetonytrile:water = 1:1, eluent flow: 1 mL/min; wave length: 365 nm; temperature 30°C; injected volume: μL.

  9. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9 mg/100 g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (Pbuckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination.

  10. Differential Diode Laser Sensor for High-Purity Oxygen Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A compact portable sensor for determining the purity of oxygen concentrations near 100 percent is proposed based on differential absorption of two beams from a diode...

  11. Highly Accurate Sensor for High-Purity Oxygen Determination Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this STTR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) and the University of Wisconsin (UW) propose to develop a highly-accurate sensor for high-purity oxygen determination....

  12. Determination of Purity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    An exercise is presented which demonstrates the determination of sample purity by differential scanning calorimetry. Data and references are provided to enable the exercise to be carried out as a dry-lab experiment. (BB)

  13. Determination of Purity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    An exercise is presented which demonstrates the determination of sample purity by differential scanning calorimetry. Data and references are provided to enable the exercise to be carried out as a dry-lab experiment. (BB)

  14. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity: protective effect of rutin on p53, CYP2E1 and the antioxidative status in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rahmat A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rutin is a polyphenolic natural flavonoid which possesses antioxidant and anticancer activity. In the present study the hepatoprotective effect of rutin was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver injuries in rats. Methods and materials 24 Sprague–Dawley male rats were equally divided into 4 groups for the assessment of hepatoprotective potential of rutin. Rats of group I (control received only vehicles; 1 ml/kg bw of saline (0.85% and olive oil (3 ml/kg and had free access to food and water. Rats of group II, III and IV were treated with CCl4 (30% in olive oil, 3 ml/kg bw via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for four weeks. The rutin at the doses of 50 and 70 mg/kg were administered intragastrically after 48 h of CCl4 treatment to group III and IV, respectively. Protective effect of rutin on serum enzyme level, lipid profile, activities of antioxidant enzymes and molecular markers were calculated in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. Results Rutin showed significant protection with the depletion of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT in serum as was raised by the induction of CCl4. Concentration of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoproteins was increased while high-density lipoprotein was decreased with rutin in a dose dependent manner. Activity level of endogenous liver antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione reductase (GSR and glutathione (GSH contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (TBARS was decreased dose dependently with rutin. Moreover, increase in DNA fragmentation and oxo8dG damages while decrease in p53 and CYP 2E1 expression induced with CCl4 was restored with the treatment of rutin. Conclusion From these results, it is suggested that rutin possesses

  15. Delta Doping High Purity CCDs and CMOS for LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Elliott, S. Tom; Bebek, Chris; Holland, Steve; Kolbe, Bill

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing delta doping high purity CCD's and CMOS for LSST is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of JPL s versatile back-surface process for CCDs and CMOS; 2) Application to SNAP and ORION missions; 3) Delta doping as a back-surface electrode for fully depleted LBNL CCDs; 4) Delta doping high purity CCDs for SNAP and ORION; 5) JPL CMP thinning process development; and 6) Antireflection coating process development.

  16. A TNFR2-Agonist Facilitates High Purity Expansion of Human Low Purity Treg Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui He

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Treg are important for immune homeostasis and are considered of great interest for immunotherapy. The paucity of Treg numbers requires the need for ex vivo expansion. Although therapeutic Treg flow-sorting is feasible, most centers aiming at Treg-based therapy focus on magnetic bead isolation of CD4+CD25+ Treg using a good manufacturing practice compliant closed system that achieves lower levels of cell purity. Polyclonal Treg expansion protocols commonly use anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody (mAb stimulation in the presence of rhIL-2, with or without rapamycin. However, the resultant Treg population is often heterogeneous and pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFNγ and IL-17A can be produced. Hence, it is crucial to search for expansion protocols that not only maximize ex vivo Treg proliferative rates, but also maintain Treg stability and preserve their suppressive function. Here, we show that ex vivo expansion of low purity magnetic bead isolated Treg in the presence of a TNFR2 agonist mAb (TNFR2-agonist together with rapamycin, results in a homogenous stable suppressive Treg population that expresses FOXP3 and Helios, shows low expression of CD127 and hypo-methylation of the FOXP3 gene. These cells reveal a low IL-17A and IFNγ producing potential and hardly express the chemokine receptors CCR6, CCR7 and CXCR3. Restimulation of cells in a pro-inflammatory environment did not break the stability of this Treg population. In a preclinical humanized mouse model, the TNFR2-agonist plus rapamycin expanded Treg suppressed inflammation in vivo. Importantly, this Treg expansion protocol enables the use of less pure, but more easily obtainable cell fractions, as similar outcomes were observed using either FACS-sorted or MACS-isolated Treg. Therefore, this protocol is of great interest for the ex vivo expansion of Treg for clinical immunotherapy.

  17. A TNFR2-Agonist Facilitates High Purity Expansion of Human Low Purity Treg Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuehui; Landman, Sija; Bauland, Stijn C G; van den Dolder, Juliette; Koenen, Hans J P M; Joosten, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) are important for immune homeostasis and are considered of great interest for immunotherapy. The paucity of Treg numbers requires the need for ex vivo expansion. Although therapeutic Treg flow-sorting is feasible, most centers aiming at Treg-based therapy focus on magnetic bead isolation of CD4+CD25+ Treg using a good manufacturing practice compliant closed system that achieves lower levels of cell purity. Polyclonal Treg expansion protocols commonly use anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody (mAb) stimulation in the presence of rhIL-2, with or without rapamycin. However, the resultant Treg population is often heterogeneous and pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFNγ and IL-17A can be produced. Hence, it is crucial to search for expansion protocols that not only maximize ex vivo Treg proliferative rates, but also maintain Treg stability and preserve their suppressive function. Here, we show that ex vivo expansion of low purity magnetic bead isolated Treg in the presence of a TNFR2 agonist mAb (TNFR2-agonist) together with rapamycin, results in a homogenous stable suppressive Treg population that expresses FOXP3 and Helios, shows low expression of CD127 and hypo-methylation of the FOXP3 gene. These cells reveal a low IL-17A and IFNγ producing potential and hardly express the chemokine receptors CCR6, CCR7 and CXCR3. Restimulation of cells in a pro-inflammatory environment did not break the stability of this Treg population. In a preclinical humanized mouse model, the TNFR2-agonist plus rapamycin expanded Treg suppressed inflammation in vivo. Importantly, this Treg expansion protocol enables the use of less pure, but more easily obtainable cell fractions, as similar outcomes were observed using either FACS-sorted or MACS-isolated Treg. Therefore, this protocol is of great interest for the ex vivo expansion of Treg for clinical immunotherapy.

  18. Evaluation of purity with its uncertainty value in high purity lead stick by conventional and electro-gravimetric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nahar; SINGH, Niranjan; Tripathy, S Swarupa; Soni, Daya; Singh, Khem; GUPTA Prabhat K

    2013-01-01

    Background A conventional gravimetry and electro-gravimetry study has been carried out for the precise and accurate purity determination of lead (Pb) in high purity lead stick and for preparation of reference standard. Reference materials are standards containing a known amount of an analyte and provide a reference value to determine unknown concentrations or to calibrate analytical instruments. A stock solution of approximate 2 kg has been prepared after dissolving approximate 2 g of Pb stic...

  19. FLUORESCENCE QUENCHING MECHANISM OF RUTIN TO RHODAMINE 6G AND THE DETERMINATION OF RUTIN IN TABLETS%芦丁对罗丹明6G的荧光猝灭机理研究及其含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓慧; 吕庆銮; 王怀友

    2011-01-01

    根据Stem - Volmer方程和罗丹明6G吸收光谱的变化研究了芦丁对其荧光猝灭的类型及机理,结果表明,芦丁与罗丹明6G作用,形成一种稳定的复合物,而发生荧光静态猝灭,求得复合物的结合常数K=5.55×105L/mol,结合点数n=1.26.芦丁含量在0.92~137.8μg/mL范围内与F0/F成正比,检出限为0.90μg/mL.据此建立了一种灵敏、简便、快速测定芦丁的新方法,并用于芦丁片剂中芦丁含量的测定.%The quenching mechanism and type of Rutin to Rhodamine 6G was studied based on the Stem - Volmer plot and the change of UV - Vis absorption spectrum of Rhodamine 6G. The result showed that Rutin reacted with Rhodamine 6G to form a stable complex so as to fluorescence static quenching process. The binding constant K(5.55 x 105 L/mol) and the number of binding sites n( 1.26) were obtained. A linear relationship was obtained between Fg/F and the concentration of Rutin in the range of 0.92 - 137.8 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.90 μg/mL. A simple, rapid and precise method for determining Rutin was established based on the fluorescence quenching principle. According to the method, the result obtained for the determination of Rutin in tablet samples accorded with that determined by UV - Vis spectrophotometry.

  20. Determination of rutin in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengchun; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hao; Lin, Baoli; Wang, Shuanghu; Hu, Guoxin

    2015-04-01

    A sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for the determination of rutin in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of tolbutamide as internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used as sample preparation. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm particle size), using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase with gradient elution, delivered at a flow-rate of 0.4 mL/min. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a XEVO TQD mass spectrometer coupled with an electro-spray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode. The MRM transitions of m/z 610.91→302.98 and m/z 271.2→155.1 were used to quantify for rutin and tolbutamide, respectively. This assay method has been fully validated in terms of specificity, linearity, recovery and matrix effect, accuracy, precision and stability. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration ranges of 25-2000 ng/mL for rutin. Only 3 min was needed for an analytical run. This developed method was successfully used for determination of rutin in rat plasma for pharmacokinetic study.

  1. Rutin, a flavonoid phytochemical, ameliorates certain behavioral and electrophysiological alterations and general toxicity of oral arsenic in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárközi, Kitti; Papp, András; Máté, Zsuzsanna; Horváth, Edina; Paulik, Edit; Szabó, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Arsenic affects large populations and attacks, among others, the nervous system. Waterborne or occupational exposure causes electrophysiological alterations and motor disturbances in humans, and analogous effects were found in animals. Certain phytochemicals may be protective against As-caused damages. In the present study it was investigated whether the flavonoid rutin, applied via the drinking water (2 g/L), ameliorates the effects of arsenic given by gavage (10 mg/kg b.w., in form of NaAsO2) on open field motility, evoked cortical and peripheral electrophysiological activity, and body weight gain in adult male Wistar rats. Body weight gain was significantly reduced from the 4th week of the 6 weeks arsenic treatment and this effect was largely abolished by rutin in the combination treatment group. Rats treated by arsenic alone showed decreased open field motility; latency of the cortical evoked potentials increased and peripheral nerve conduction velocity decreased. These functional alterations were also counteracted by co-administration of rutin, and both the antioxidant and the chelating activity of rutin might have contributed to the ameliorative effect. These results are apparently novel and support the potential role of natural agents in preserving human health in a contaminated environment.

  2. [Determination of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in Althaea rosea (L) Gavan for Uyghur medicine by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhetaer, Tu'erhong; Resalat, Yimin; Chu, Ganghui; Yin, Xuebo; Munira, Abudukeremu

    2015-12-01

    Uyghur medicine is one important part of the national medicine system. Uyghur medicine modernization, namely the study of effective components with modern technologies, is the only way for the scientification, standardization, and industrialization of Uyghur medicine. Here we developed a selective extraction method for rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in Althaea rosea (L) Gavan. The three active species were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with HC-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and the mobile phase of CH3OH-0.4% H3PO4 (50 :50, v/v). Rutin, quercetin and kaempferol were baseline separated with each other and the interference species with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and column temperature of 30 degrees C. Under the optimal conditions, linear correlation were obtained in the mass concentration range of 12.5-150 μg/mL (r = 0.999 8) for rutin, 12.5-125 μg/mL (r = 0.999 9) for quercetin, and 12.5-125 μg/mL (r = 0.998 8) for kaempferol. The recoveries (n = 5) of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol were 100.25% ( RSD = 1.1%), 97.60% ( RSD = 0.47%) and 97.75% (RSD = 0.71%), respectively. The method can be used to determine the contents of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in Althaea rosea (L) Gavan and provide the guidance for the analysis of the flavonoids in other Uyghur medicines.

  3. Au@AuPt nanoparticles embedded in B-doped graphene: A superior electrocatalyst for determination of rutin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianlan; Yang, Guangming; Feng, Shaoping; Shi, Ling; Huang, Zhaolong; Pan, Haibo; Liu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    A hydrothermal approach was used to prepare B-doped graphene with B2O3 as reductant and boron source. Results reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully embedded into graphene with a high content of a total B species (2.85 at.%). Then, B-doped graphene was exfoliated further into monolayer nanosheet by impregnating Au@AuPt core-shell nanoparticles (Au@AuPt NPs) because boron atom creates a net positive charge, which facilitates Au@AuPt NPs adsorption to form Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped graphene hybrid nanocatalysts. After that, the Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped hybrid suspension was dropped on glassy carbon electrode for sensing rutin. In this way, the dispersed carboxyl units of B-doped graphene can form hydrogen bonding with the phenolic hydroxyl groups of rutin, making rutin enrich easily on modified electrode surface to enhance the electrochemical response. At the same time, its electrochemical mechanism on the modified electrode was elucidated using cyclic voltammetry. It was found that its electrochemical behavior on modified electrode surface was a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process, and the charge transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer number (n) were 0.296 and 2, respectively. This electrochemical sensor for rutin provided a wide linear response range of 2.00 × 10-9-4.00 × 10-6 M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2.84 × 10-10 M. The proposed method was applied successfully to selective determination of rutin in Tablets with acceptable recovery range (97.23-101.65%).

  4. Rutin attenuates H2O2-induced oxidation damage and apoptosis in Leydig cells by activating PI3K/Akt signal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianhua; Wang, Heng; Liu, Bei; Shi, Wenhao; Shi, Juanzi; Zhang, Zhou; Xing, Junping

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a primary factor in the pathology of male infertility. The strong antioxidative capacity of rutin has been proven by numerous studies, but a protective role in the context of male reproduction remains to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of rutin in protecting male reproductive function and the potential underlying mechanism, H2O2-induced Leydig cells were used as a cell model of oxidation damage. Our findings showed that rutin at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40μmol/L remarkably increased cell survival rate of H2O2-induced Leydig cells to 70.1%, 86.8%, and 80.3% respectively. Next, rutin with concentrations of 10, 20, and 40μmol/L decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels but increased the levels of glutathione (GSH) and testosterone in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were remarkably increased by rutin treatment with concentrations of 20 and 40μmol/L, but glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was notably decreased. Moreover, rutin with concentrations of 10, 20, and 40μmol/L increased Bcl-2 protein levels but decreased protein levels of Bax and caspase-3. Furthermore, 20μmol/L rutin significantly abrogated the decrease in levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated serine/threonine kinase (p-AKT) induced by H2O2. Pretreatment with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, antagonized protective action of 20μmol/L rutin against H2O2-induced cell activities, intracellular oxidant, testosterone, antioxidant enzyme activities, and the apoptosis related protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that rutin attenuates H2O2-induced oxidation damage and apoptosis in Leydig cells by activating PI3K/Akt signal pathways, providing a promising strategy to decrease oxidative stress associated with male infertility.

  5. High purity tellurium production using dry refining processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Munirathnam; D S Prasad; J V Rao; T L Prakash

    2005-07-01

    Tellurium (99.95 at.% purity) is purified using dry processes such as selective vapourization and zone melting in a thoroughly etched and cleaned quartz boat, under continuous flow of hydrogen (H2) gas. The tellurium ingot was quadruple zone refined (QZR) under continuous flow of H2 gas. Thus, the purified tellurium of ultra high purity (UHP) grade is analysed for 60 impurity elements in the periodic table using glow discharge mass spectrometer (GDMS). The sum of all elemental impurities indicate that the purity of tellurium as 7N (99.99999 at.%). The total content of gas and gas forming impurities like O, N and C are found to be within acceptable limits for opto-electronic applications.

  6. Random Bures mixed states and the distribution of their purity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Osipov, V; Sommers, H-J [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Zyczkowski, K, E-mail: Vladimir.Al.Osipov@gmail.co, E-mail: H.J.Sommers@uni-due.d, E-mail: karol@cft.edu.p [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2010-02-05

    Ensembles of random density matrices determined by various probability measures are analysed. A simple and efficient algorithm to generate at random density matrices distributed according to the Bures measure is proposed. This procedure may serve as an initial step in performing the Bayesian approach to quantum state estimation based on the Bures prior. We study the distribution of purity of random mixed states. The moments of the distribution of purity are determined for quantum states generated with respect to the Bures measure. This calculation serves as an exemplary application of the 'deform-and-study' approach in the theory of integrable systems leading to one of Painleves transcendents.

  7. Measures of quantum state purity and classical degree of polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Gamel, Omar

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-known mathematical similarity between two-dimensional classical polarization optics and two-level quantum systems, where the Poincare and Bloch spheres are identical mathematical structures. This analogy implies that the classical degree of polarization and quantum purity are in fact the same quantity. We make extensive use of this analogy to analyze various measures of polarization for higher dimensions proposed in the literature, in particular the N = 3 case, illustrating interesting relationships that emerge as well as the advantages of each measure. We also propose a different class of measures of entanglement based on the purity of subsystems.

  8. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colosimo, S.J., E-mail: sjc@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Unsworth, C. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array.

  9. Synergistic antioxidant action of vitamin E and rutin SNEDDS in ameliorating oxidative stress in a Parkinson’s disease model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shrestha; Narang, Jasjeet K.; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-09-01

    Purpose. Oxidative stress is the leading cause in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Rutin is a naturally occurring strong antioxidant molecule with wide therapeutic applications. It suffers from the problem of low oral bioavailability which is due to its poor aqueous solubility. Methods. In order to increase the solubility self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rutin were prepared. The oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected based on solubility/miscibility studies. Optimization was done by a three-factor, four-level (34) Box-Behnken design. The independent factors were oil, surfactant and co-surfactant concentration and the dependent variables were globule size, self-emulsification time, % transmittance and cumulative percentage of drug release. The optimized SNEDDS formulation (RSE6) was evaluated for various release studies. Antioxidant activity was assessed by various in vitro tests such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assay. Oxidative stress models which had Parkinson’s-type symptoms were used to determine the antioxidant potential of rutin SNEDDS in vivo. Permeation was assessed through confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results. An optimized SNEDDS formulation consisting of Sefsol + vitamin E-Solutol HS 15-Transcutol P at proportions of 25:35:17.5 (w/w) was prepared and characterized. The globule size and polydispersity index of the optimized formulation was found to be 16.08 ± 0.02 nm and 0.124 ± 0.01, respectively. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in the percentage of drug release was achieved in the case of the optimized formulation as compared to rutin suspension. Pharmacokinetic study showed a 2.3-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability. The optimized formulation had significant in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. Conclusion. Rutin SNEDDS have been successfully prepared and they can serve as an effective tool in enhancing the oral bioavailability and efficacy of rutin, thus helping

  10. Strengthening Purity: Moral Purity as a Mediator of Direct and Extended Cross-Group Friendships on Sexual Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzali, Loris; Brambilla, Marco; Giovannini, Dino; Paolo Colucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated whether enhanced perceptions of moral purity drive the effects of intergroup cross-group friendships on the intentions to interact with homosexuals. High-school students (N = 639) reported their direct and extended cross-group friendships with homosexuals as well as their beliefs regarding the moral character of the sexual minority. Participants further reported their desire to interact with homosexuals in the future. Results showed that both face-to-face encounters and extended contact with homosexuals increased their perceived moral purity, which in turn fostered more positive behavioral intentions. Results further revealed the specific role of moral purity in this sense, as differential perceptions along other moral domains (autonomy and community) had no mediation effects on behavioral tendencies toward homosexuals. The importance of these findings for improving intergroup relations is discussed, together with the importance of integrating research on intergroup contact and morality.

  11. The n-Butanol Fraction and Rutin from Tartary Buckwheat Improve Cognition and Memory in an In Vivo Model of Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Gu; Cho, Sunghun; Yoon, Young-Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Sanghyun

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the beneficial effects of the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from tartary buckwheat (TB) on learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD). Learning and memory were assessed using the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Animals administered Aβ showed impaired cognition and memory, which were alleviated by oral administration of an n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB. Similarly, Aβ-induced increases in nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys were attenuated by treatment with n-butanol fraction and rutin from TB in addition to antioxidant effects observed in control (nonAβ-treated) animals. The results of the present study suggest that the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB are protective against and have possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of AD.

  12. Low cost routes to high purity silicon and derivatives thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, Richard M; Krug, David James; Marchal, Julien Claudius; Mccolm, Andrew Stewart

    2013-07-02

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing an agricultural waste product having amorphous silica, carbon, and impurities; extracting from the agricultural waste product an amount of the impurities; changing the ratio of carbon to silica; and reducing the silica to a high purity silicon (e.g., to photovoltaic silicon).

  13. Purity Evaluation of Bulk Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Wang, J.; Liang, J.; Hornbostel, B.; Cech, J.; Roth, S.

    2005-09-01

    We report on our experience using a preliminary protocol for quality control of bulk single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) materials produced by the electric arc-discharge and laser ablation method. The first step in the characterization of the bulk material is mechanical homogenization. Quantitative evaluation of purity has been performed using a previously reported procedure based on solution phase near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results confirm that this method is reliable in determining the nanotube content in the arc-discharge sample containing carbonaceous impurities (amorphous carbon and graphitic particles). However, the application of this method to laser ablation samples gives a relative purity value over 100 %. The possible reason for that might be different extinction coefficient meaning different oscillator strength of the laser ablation tubes. At the present time, a 100 % pure reference sample of laser ablation SWNT is not available, so we chose to adopt the sample showing the highest purity as a new reference sample for a quantitative purity evaluation of laser ablation materials. The graphitic part of the carbonaceous impurities has been estimated using X-ray diffraction of 1:1 mixture of nanotube material and C60 as an internal reference. To evaluate the metallic impurities in the as prepared and homogenized carbon nanotube soot inductive coupled plasma (ICP) has been used.

  14. Estimation of purity in terms of correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosen, Tomaž; Seligman, Thomas H.; Žnidarič, Marko

    2003-06-01

    We prove a rigorous inequality that estimates the purity of a reduced density matrix of a composite quantum system in terms of cross correlation of the same state and an arbitrary product state. Various immediate applications of our result are proposed, in particular, concerning Gaussian wave-packet propagation under classically regular dynamics.

  15. Analysis of the Purity of Cetrimide by Titrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Rasmussen, Claus/Dallerup; Nielsen, Hans/Boye

    2006-01-01

    The purity of cetrimide, trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), that is an important preservative of many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, was determined by three independent methods of titration. Traditionally, cetrimide was analysed by an assay method of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph...

  16. Comparative Study on Rutin Content in Branches and Leaves of Sophora Japonica L.%国槐槐枝及槐叶中芦丁含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊维政; 金燕飞; 姜家书; 石磊; 张春霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 为获得优质药材,充分利用槐枝和槐叶,扩大芦丁资源提供参考依据.方法 按照 2010年版槐花项下含量测定方法,测定槐枝不同部位及槐叶中芦丁的含量.结果 不同生长年限的槐枝,嫩枝中芦丁含量最高;槐枝的不同部位中,枝皮的含量最高,木质部中也含有芦丁;不同植株槐叶中芦丁含量不同.结论 该研究揭示了不同生长年限槐枝、槐枝不同部位以及槐叶中芦丁含量的差异,为获得优质药材和芦丁的开发提供了参考依据.%Objective To provide the theoretic reference for obtaining high quality medical materials, making full use of Sophora japonica L. Branches and leaves and expanding the resources of rutin. Methods According to the Chinese Pharmacopeia (edition 2010, Vol I), the rutin content in different parts of Sophora japonica L. Branches and leaves was determined. Results Among the branches with different growth years, the rutin content was the highest in young branches. Among the different parts of branches, the rutin content was the highest in skin of branch. Xylem also contained rutin. The leaves in different plants had different contents of rutin. Conclusion The result revealed the diversity of the rutin content in different growth years of branches, different parts of branches and leaves, which provides the reference basis for choosing the best medicinal materials and developing rutin.

  17. Development of a rapid HPLC-UV method for simultaneous quantification of protodioscin and rutin in white and green asparagus spears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-01-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears are rich in bioactive compounds such as protodioscin, a saponin, and rutin, a flavonoid. Protodioscin and rutin are routinely quantified separately, and an approach permitting simultaneous measurement would significantly improve speed of analysis. We have optimized an extraction procedure and modified a method of high-performance liquid chromatography by coupling to an ultraviolet detector to simultaneously analyze protodioscin and rutin in asparagus extracts. An acidic ethanol solvent was more efficient than methanol, acetonitrile, or water in coextraction of protodioscin and rutin. Protodioscin and rutin were detected at 210 nm, with retention times of 12.6 min and 7.9 min, respectively. The method was validated by high linear correlations between 3.13 and 1000.0 μg/mL for protodioscin (r(2)= 0.9999), and between 0.3 and 1087.5 μg/mL for rutin (r(2)= 0.9997). The limit(s) of detection and quantification for protodioscin were 1.6 μg/mL and 3.13 μg/mL, respectively, and for rutin 0.2 μg/mL and 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. White asparagus spears and the crown of the plants were revealed to be rich sources of protodioscin and contained 2.59 to 10.4 mg/g dry weight. Green asparagus spears, particularly the upper portion, were rich in rutin and contained between 1.51 and 7.29 mg/g dry weight.

  18. Quantification of Quercetin and Rutin from Benincasa hispida Seeds and Carissa Congesta Roots by High-performance Thin Layer Chromatography and High-performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2016-01-01

    In Indian Ayurvedic system, Benincasa hispida (BH) and Carissa congesta (CC) are well-known plants used for major and minor ailments. BH has been regarded as Kushmanda, whereas CC has been used in immune-related disorders of the human system. Quercetin and rutin identified from the vast plethora of plant extracts have proved to possess ethnopharmacological relevance. In present studies, we have determined quercetin and rutin in terms of percentage in BH seeds and CC roots by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After extraction and phytochemical screening, the extracts were subjected to quantification for the presence of quercetin and rutin by HPTLC and HPLC. HPTLC showed quercetin as 44.60, 27.13% and rutin as 32.00, 36.31% w/w, whereas HPLC revealed quercetin as 34.00, 35.00% and rutin as 21.99, 45.03% w/v in BH and CC extracts, respectively. The BH and CC extracts have elucidated peaks that were corresponding with standard peaks on undertaking chromatographic studies. Quercetin and rutin are isolated from BH seeds and CC roots by High Performance. Thin Layer Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. HPTLC revealed presence of quercetin as 44.60, 27.13 % and rutin as 32.00, 36.31 % w/w. HPLC revealed presence of quercetin as 34.00, 35.00 % and rutin as 21.99, 45.03 % w/v. Abbreviation Used: HPTLC: High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography; HPLC: High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, UV: Ultraviolet, CC: Carissa congesta, BH: Benincasa hispida.

  19. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of Veliten (rutine, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auteri, A; Pasqui, A L; Bruni, F; Di Renzo, M; Bova, G; Chiarion, C; Delchambre, J

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of Veliten in 12 patients affected by chronic venous insufficiency. In particular, the pharmacokinetics of two components of Veliten, namely rutine and alpha-tocopherol, were considered, while with respect to pharmacodynamics, studies were made of venous function, haemocoagulative and fibrinolytic balance, and haemorheological parameters. Correlation between such changes and plasma drug levels was also evaluated. We found a significant increase of venous tone, venous capacity and venous distension after drug intake, as well as a significant activation of fibrinolysis (globally evaluated with euglobulin lysis time), related to a slight increase of plasminogen tissue activator. These changes appeared concomitantly with maximal plasma levels of rutine. We did not find any modifications of coagulative and haemorheological parameters.

  20. Influence of rutin, FeSO4, Tween 80, aspartate and complex vitamins on synthesis of fungal exopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Zhang, Hong; Fam, Hala

    2013-02-15

    The influence of several components on exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and antioxidative activity (TEAC, Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) as well as their effects on the morphological development and cell viability of Phellinus sp. P0988 was determined. Rutin, FeSO(4), Tween 80 and complex vitamins were found to impose a stronger influence on EPS production and TEAC compared to their effects on the mycelia growth of Phellinus sp. P0988. The relative effects of these components on EPS activity were found to be different from that on EPS yield. Rutin and aspartate significantly affected EPS TEAC (PTween 80 significantly influenced EPS production (P<0.05). These results yielded the optimum culture medium composition, with an EPS yield and TEAC of 6.2±0.2 g/L and 5.5±0.1 mM, respectively.

  1. Mesoporous NiCo2O4-decorated reduced graphene oxide as a novel platform for electrochemical determination of rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shiqiang; Li, Li; Ding, Yaping; Zhang, Jiangjiang; Yang, Hua; Wang, Yingzi

    2017-03-01

    The glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with mesoporous NiCo2O4-decorated reduced graphene oxide (NiCo2O4/rGO) was first applied for the electrochemical determination of rutin. The synthesized NiCo2O4 and NiCo2O4/rGO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The sensor not only showed a satisfactory linear range (0.1-150μM) and detection limit (0.01μM) but also exhibited the good anti-interference abilities, low price, high stability, as well as favorable precision and accuracy. The present work is meaningful to expand functionalized graphene composites to sensor fields and promote the development of rutin sensors.

  2. Enzymatic oxidation of rutin by horseradish peroxidase: kinetic mechanism and identification of a dimeric product by LC-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Sasa; Vojinovic, Katarina; Milenkovic, Sanja; Smelcerovic, Andrija; Lamshoeft, Marc; Petronijevic, Zivomir

    2013-12-15

    Flavonoid oxidation is important issue in food processing and quality. The kinetic mechanism of enzymatic oxidation of rutin by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied. Rutin oxidation reaction was followed by recording of spectral changes over the time at 360 nm. The studied oxidation is mostly enzymatic and less part non-enzymatic. The reaction with HRP has a higher rate compared with the reaction without of HRP, whereby is part of non-enzymatic reaction about 10% of the total reaction. Kinetic parameters were determined from graphics of linear Michaelis-Menten equation, and it was found that investigated reactions of rutin oxidation by HRP take place in a ping-pong kinetic mechanism. High resolution HPLC-MS analysis of the mixture of oxidized products of rutin revealed the presence of rutin dimer. Because of widely distribution of rutin as well as presence of peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide in fresh foods identification of this enzymatic modification product can be beneficial for foods quality and safety.

  3. Rutin from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille protects human dopaminergic cells against rotenone induced cell injury through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Eun; Sapkota, Kumar; Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young Hoi; Kim, Ki Man; Kim, Kyung Je; Oh, Ha-Na; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung

    2014-04-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae) is well known in Korean traditional medicine for a variety of diseases. Rotenone is a commonly used neurotoxin to produce in vivo and in vitro Parkinson's disease models. This study was designed to elucidate the processes underlying neuroprotection of rutin, a bioflavonoid isolated from D. morbifera Leveille in cellular models of rotenone-induced toxicity. We found that rutin significantly decreased rotenone-induced generation of reactive oxygen species levels in SH-SY5Y cells. Rutin protected the increased level of intracellular Ca(2+) and depleted level of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by rotenone. Furthermore, it prevented the decreased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 caused by rotenone treatment. Additionally, rutin protected SH-SY5Y cells from rotenone-induced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. We also observed that rutin repressed rotenone-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. These results suggest that rutin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  4. Determination of rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danila, Ana-Maria; Kotani, Akira; Hakamata, Hideki; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2007-02-21

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour and seeds by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Chromatography was performed using an octadecylsilica column, acetonitrile-water-formic acid (13:87:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase, and an applied potential at +0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl. We found that Japanese buckwheat flour contains rutin (12.7 mg/100 g), catechin (3.30 mg/100 g), epicatechin (20.5 mg/100 g), and epicatechin gallate (1.27 mg/100 g). The relative standard deviations for rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate peak heights were less than 0.86% (n = 5). The detection limit of rutin was 0.86 ng/mL. Moreover, the present method was applied to the distribution analysis of these compounds in buckwheat seed. The embryo proper and cotyledons of a mature buckwheat seed contained rutin with the highest concentration as compared to other parts. This method is useful in determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat with a small amount of sample for quality control in the food industry.

  5. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  6. The redox thermodynamics and kinetics of flavonoid rutin adsorbed at glassy carbon electrodes by stripping square wave voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Catunda, Francisco Eduardo; Araujo, Marcelo Francisco de [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 KM 07, 23890-000, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Granero, Adrian Marcelo; Arevalo, Fernando Javier [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisico-Quimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Agencia Postal No 3 - (5800), Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 KM 07, 23890-000, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Zon, Maria Alicia, E-mail: azon@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisico-Quimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Agencia Postal No 3 - (5800), Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Fernandez, Hector, E-mail: hfernandez@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisico-Quimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Agencia Postal No 3 - (5800), Rio Cuarto (Argentina)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > Adsorptive accumulation of rutin is studied at glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. > The Frumkin adsorption isotherm described the specific interaction. > Gibbs free energy of adsorption and the interaction parameter were determined. > Thermodynamics and kinetics of the surface redox process were characterized by SWV. > Detection limit for rutin was 2 x 10{sup -8} mol dm{sup -3} (12 ppb). - Abstract: The adsorptive accumulation of rutin (RU) at glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in 10% ethanol + 90% 1 mol dm{sup -3} HClO{sub 4} aqueous solution is studied by using cyclic (CV) and square wave (SWV) voltammetries. The Frumkin adsorption isotherm best described the specific interaction of rutin with carbon electrodes. By fitting the experimental data, values of -31.9 kJ mol{sup -1} and 0.54 {+-} 0.02 were obtained for the Gibbs free energy of adsorption and the interaction parameter, respectively. SWV fully characterized the thermodynamics and kinetics of the surface redox process, using a combination of the 'quasi-reversible maximum' and the 'splitting of SW peaks' methods. Average values of 0.644 {+-} 0.003 V and 0.44 {+-} 0.02 were obtained for the formal potential and the anodic transfer coefficient, respectively. Moreover, a formal rate constant of 6.1 x 10{sup 2} s{sup -1} was obtained. SWV was also employed to generate calibration curves. The lowest concentration of RU experimentally measured for a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1 was 2 x 10{sup -8} mol dm{sup -3} (12 ppb).

  7. Characterization of 6-mercaptopurine binding to bovine serum albumin and its displacement from the binding sites by quercetin and rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehteshami, Mehdi [Nutrition Research Center, School of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulzadeh, Farzaneh [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahboob, Soltanali [Nutrition Research Center, School of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza, E-mail: rashidi@tbzmed.ac.ir [Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Binding of a drug to the serum albumins as major serum transport proteins can be influenced by other ligands leading to alteration of its pharmacological properties. In the present study, binding characteristics of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) together with its displacement from its binding site by quercetin and rutin have been investigated by the spectroscopic method. According to the binding parameters, a static quenching component in overall dynamic quenching process is operative in the interaction between 6-MP and BSA. The binding of 6-MP to BSA occurred spontaneously due to entropy-driven hydrophobic interactions. The synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy study revealed that the secondary structure of BSA is changed in the presence of 6-MP and both Tyr and Trp residues participate in the interaction between 6-MP and BSA with the later one being more dominant. The binding constant value of 6-MP-BSA in the presence of quercetin and rutin increased. 6-MP was displaced by ibuprofen indicating that the binding site of 6-MP on albumin is site II. Therefore, the change of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of 6-MP by quercetin and rutin through alteration of binding capacity of 6-MP to the serum albumin cannot be ruled out. In addition, the displacement study showed that 6-MP is located in site II of BSA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Participation of both Tyr and particularly Trp residues in the interaction between 6-MP and BSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Involvement of a static quenching component in an overall dynamic quenching process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ability of quercetin and rutin to change the binding constants of 6-MP-BSA complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding of 6-MP to BSA through entropy-driven hydrophobic interactions.

  8. Synthesis of graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposite as an adsorbent for the enrichment and determination of rutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Gaeeni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In our study, graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposite (GO/TiO2 was prepared and used for the enrichment of rutin from real samples for the first time. Materials and Methods: The synthesized GO/TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and FT-IR spectra.  The enrichment process is fast and highly efficient. The factors including contact time, pH, and amount of GO/TiO2 affecting the adsorption process were studied. Results: The maximum adsorption capacity for ciprofloxacin was calculated to be 59.5 mg/g according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The method yielded a linear calibration curve in the concentration ranges from 15 to 200 μg/L for the rutin with regression coefficients (r2 of 0.9990. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3 and limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10 were found to be 8 μg/Land 28 μg/L, respectively. Both the intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSDs were < 10% . Conclusion :The developed approach offered wide linear range, and good reproducibility. Owing to the diverse structures and unique characteristic, GO/TiO2 possesses great potential in the enrichment and analysis of trace rutin in real aqueous samples.

  9. Comparative study on the inclusion behaviour of cyclodextrin derivatives with venoruton and rutin by thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiliang; Shuang, Shaomin; Wang, Xiaoping; Dong, Chuan; Pan, Jinghao; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2004-10-01

    The interaction of rutin and venoruton (troxerutin), with alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin (CD), hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M-beta-CD) was investigated by reversed-phase thin layer chromatography on polyamide plates. A mobile phase consisted of NH(4)OH; NH(4)Cl buffer solution containing various CD concentrations (pH = 9.7, 20 degrees C) was used as mobile phase. The equilibrium constants (K(f)) and the retention factor (R(f)) were determined and used to study the inclusion process. The in fluence of CDs on the solubility of rutin and venoruton was characterized by R(M) values and the increasing hydrophilicity of drugs. The results show that the inclusion capacity of cyclodextrins follows the order HP-beta-CD > M-beta-CD > beta-CD > gamma-CD, and rutin is more easily included by the studied cyclodextrins than venoruton. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters (Delta H, Delta S) for the formation of complexes were obtained from the van't Hoff equation, displaying the enthalpy-entropy compensation effect.

  10. High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Quantification of Rosmarinic Acid and Rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been established for simultaneous analysis of rosmarinic acid and rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq. A methanol extract of ASMq was used for quantification. The compounds were separated on silica gel H thin layer plate with ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water 15 : 1 : 1 : 1.5 (v/v as a developer, trichloroethanol as the color reagent. The plates were scanned at 365 nm. The linear calibration data of rosmarinic acid and rutin were in the range of 0.0508 to 0.2540 μg (r=0.9964, 0.2707 to 1.35354 μg (r=0.9981, respectively. The recovery rate of rosmarinic acid was 99.17% (RSD = 2.92% and rutin was 95.24% (RSD = 2.38%. The method enables rapid screening, precise, selective, and sensitive quantification for pharmaceutical analysis.

  11. Chemotherapeutic Impact Of Natural Antioxidant Flavonoids Gallic Acid Rutin Quercetin And Mannitol On Pathogenic Microbes And Their Synergistic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Ghosh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that natural flavonoids with antioxidants and can influence the response to chemotherapy as well as the development of adverse side effects that results from treatment with antineoplastic agents and Its prevalence over Multi drug resistant bacterial strain revived interest on Flavonoids. Synergistic effect is defined as passive interaction arises when two agents combine and together they exert an inhibitory effect that is greater than the sum of individual effect The new Synergistic therapy so that antioxidant are more effective in combination on multi drug resistant bacterial strain. Interaction between natural antioxidants and topoisomerase enzyme can be seen through Quercetin as a potent antimicrobial compound alone and in combination with other natural antioxidant like rutin. MICMBC result show antibacterial activity of the flavonoids were enhanced when used in combination against Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Bacillus subtilis Klebsiella pneumonae Escherichia coli as the test bacteria. The combination of rutin and quercetin rutin and gallic acid mannitol and gallic acid were much more effective than either flavonoid alone. Furthermore Its gave a good relation between these antioxidant compound and antimicrobial activity. Flavonoids as a chemotherapeutic agent and its Synergistic effect can be solution for various microbial disease conditions.

  12. A process for high yield and scaleable recovery of high purity eicosapentaenoic acid esters from microalgae and fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belarbi; Molina; Chisti

    2000-04-01

    A low expense process is developed for recovering esterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from microalgae and fish oil. Over 70% of the EPA content in the esterified crude extract of microalgae were recovered at purities exceeding 90%. The recovery scheme utilizes either wet or freeze-dried algal biomass. The process consists of only three main steps: 1) simultaneous extraction and transesterification of the algal biomass; 2) argentated silica gel column chromatography of the crude extract; and 3) removal of pigments by a second column chromatographic step. Argentated silica gel chromatography recovered about 70% of the EPA ester present in the crude fatty ester mixture of fish oil, but at a reduced purity ( approximately 83% pure) compared to the microalgal derived EPA. The optimal loading of the fatty ester mixture on the chromatographic support was about 3% (w/w) but loadings up to 4% did not affect the resolution significantly. The process was scaled up by a factor of nearly 320 by increasing the diameter of the chromatography columns. The elution velocity remained constant. Compared to the green alga Monodus subterraneus, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum had important advantages as a potential commercial producer of EPA. For a microalgal EPA process to be competitive with fish oil derived EPA, P. tricornutum biomass (2.5% w/w EPA) needs to be obtained at less than $4/kg. If the EPA content in the alga are increased to 3.5%, the biomass may command a somewhat higher price. The quality of microalgal EPA compares favorably with that of the fish oil product. Compared to free fatty acid, EPA ester is more stable in storage. Shelf-life is extended by storing in hexane. The silver contamination in the final purified EPA was negligibly small (<210 ppb).

  13. Rutin- and selenium-attenuated cadmium-induced testicular pathophysiology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarikwu, S O; Iserhienrhien, B O; Badejo, T A

    2013-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to cause oxidative damage in the testes of rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of rutin (RUT, 30 mg/kg) and selenium (Se, 0.15 ppm) alone or in combination against Cd (200 ppm)-induced lipid peroxidation, steroidogenesis and changes in antioxidant defence system in the rat testes. The obtained results showed that Cd increased lipid peroxidation and abnormal sperm count and decreased plasma testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and testicular steroidogenic enzymes: 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17β-HSD activities as well as epididymal sperm counts and motility, while RUT and Se treatment reversed this change to control values. Acute intoxication with Cd was also followed by significantly decreased activity of the antioxidant defence system (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)). Treatment with RUT and Se reversed Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant defence system and significantly prevented Cd-induced testes damage and depletion of plasma and testicular Se levels. RUT and Se appear not to have more profound effects than their separate effects against Cd-induced testicular toxicity, although Se was more potent than RUT in the recovery of testosterone levels. These results suggest that both RUT and Se do not have synergistic role against Cd-induced testicular injury.

  14. Protective effect of rutin in comparison to silymarin against induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasi Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of rutin (RTN in comparison to silymarin (SLM against acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats (n=24 of 3 months age were equally divided into four groups. Group 1 served as normal control. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the remaining three groups with administration of 500 mg/kg po APAP from day 1-3. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were subsequently administered orally with distilled water, 25 mg/kg of SLM, and 20 mg/kg of RTN, respectively, for 11 days. The mean body weights and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity were estimated on day 0, 4 (confirmation of toxicity, and 15 (at the end of treatment. Hematological parameters were evaluated on day 4 and 15. Antioxidant profile and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases were assessed at the end of the experiment. Liver tissues were subjected to histopathology and transmission electron microscopy after the sacrifice on day 15. Results: Antioxidant profile, ATPases, and hematological and sero-biochemical parameters were significantly altered, and histopathological changes were noticed in the liver of toxic control group. These changes were reversed in groups 3 and 4 that were administered with SLM and RTN, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation enunciated that SLM has potent hepatoprotective activity though the RTN was found superior in restoring the pathological alterations in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats.

  15. 催化分光光度法测定芦丁%Catalytic Spectrophotometric Determination of Rutin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕

    2011-01-01

    In 5. 5×10-3mol·L-1 NaOH medium and heated in a water bath at 70℃ for 10 min, the oxidative color-fading of arsenazo( IlI) by potassium periodate was remarkably catalyzed by the presence of rutin. Based on these facts, a catalytic spectrophotometric method for determination of rutin was proposed. The absorption maxima of the catalytic reaction and non-catalytic reaction were found same at the wavelength of 590 nm. Linear relationship between the values of decrease in absorbance (AA) and mass concentration of rutin was obtained in the range of 0. 03--2.0 mg·L-1. Detection limit (3S/N) found was 0. 017 mg ·L-1. The present method was used in the analysis of sample of rutin tablets, rutin tablets, giving value of RSD (n=6) of 2. 2%. Test for recovery was performed by standard addition method, results of average recoverv obtained was 99.3 %.%在5.5×10-3mol·L-1氢氧化钠介质中,70℃水浴加热10min的条件下,芦丁对高碘酸钾氧化偶氮胂Ⅲ褪色反应有明显的催化作用,据此提出了催化分光光度法测定芦丁的方法。非催化和催化体系的最大吸收波长均为590nm,芦丁的质量浓度在0.03~2.0mg·L-1范围内与△A呈线性关系,检出限(3S/N)为0.017mg·L-1。方法在用于芦丁片中芦丁含量的测定,测定值的相对标缝偏差(n=6)为2.2%。加标回收率平均值为99.3%。

  16. Recrystallization behavior of high purity aluminum at 300 ℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yu-xuan; ZHANG Xin-ming; YE Ling-ying; LUO Zhi-hui

    2006-01-01

    The recrystallization behavior of 98.5% cold rolled high purity aluminum foils annealed at 300 ℃ was investigated, and the evolution of the microstructures was followed by electron back scattered diffraction(EBSD). The results show that the recrystallization process of the high purity aluminum foils at 300 ℃ is a mixture of discontinuous- and continuous-recrystallization.The orientations of the recrystallization nuclei include not only the cube orientation, but also other orientations such as some near deformation texture components which are the results of strong recovery process. However, such continuously recrystallized grains are usually associated with relatively high free energy, so they would be consumed by the discontinuously-recrystallized grains (cube-oriented grains) in subsequent annealing. On the other hand, the pattern quality index of recrystallized grains shows dependence on the crystal orientation which might introduce some errors into evaluating volume fraction of recrystallization by integrating pattern quality index of EBSD.

  17. Effects of Completeness and Purity on Cluster Dark Energy Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Aguena, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The statistical properties of galaxy clusters can only be used for cosmological purposes if observational effects related to cluster detection are accurately characterized. These effects include the selection function associated to cluster finder algorithms and survey strategy. The importance of the selection becomes apparent when different cluster finders are applied to the same galaxy catalog, producing different cluster samples. We consider parametrized functional forms for the observable-mass relation, its scatter as well as the completeness and purity of cluster samples, and study how prior knowledge on these function parameters affects dark energy constraints derived from cluster statistics. Under the assumption that completeness and purity reach 50 % at masses around 10^{13.5} Msun/h, we find that self-calibration of selection parameters in current and upcoming cluster surveys is possible, while still allowing for competitive dark energy constraints. We consider a fiducial survey with specifications si...

  18. Entanglement, Purity, and Information Entropies in Continuous Variable Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    Quantum entanglement of pure states of a bipartite system is defined as the amount of local or marginal ({\\em i.e.}referring to the subsystems) entropy. For mixed states this identification vanishes, since the global loss of information about the state makes it impossible to distinguish between quantum and classical correlations. Here we show how the joint knowledge of the global and marginal degrees of information of a quantum state, quantified by the purities or in general by information entropies, provides an accurate characterization of its entanglement. In particular, for Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, we classify the entanglement of two--mode states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness, comparing the different roles played by the purity and the generalized $p-$entropies in quantifying the mixedness and bounding the entanglement. We prove the existence of strict upper and lower bounds on the entanglement and the existence of extremally (maximally and minimally) entang...

  19. Characterization of low-purity clays for geopolymer binder formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Mohsen, Q.; El-maghraby, A.

    2014-06-01

    The production of geopolymer binders from low-purity clays was investigated. Three low-purity clays were calcined at 750°C for 4 h. The calcined clays were chemically activated by the alkaline solutions of NaOH and Na2SiO3. The compressive strength was measured as a function of curing time at room temperature and 85°C. The results were compared with those of a pure kaolin sample. An amorphous aluminosilicate polymer was formed in all binders at both processing temperatures. The results show that, the mechanical properties depend on the type and amount of active aluminum silicates in the starting clay material, the impurities, and the processing temperature.

  20. Characterization of low-purity clays for geopolymer binder formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasser Y.Mostafa; Q.Mohsen; A.El-maghraby

    2014-01-01

    The production of geopolymer binders from low-purity clays was investigated. Three low-purity clays were calcined at 750°C for 4 h. The calcined clays were chemically activated by the alkaline solutions of NaOH and Na2SiO3. The compressive strength was measured as a function of curing time at room temperature and 85°C. The results were compared with those of a pure kaolin sample. An amorphous aluminosilicate polymer was formed in all binders at both processing temperatures. The results show that, the mechanical properties depend on the type and amount of active aluminum silicates in the starting clay material, the impurities, and the processing temperature.

  1. Electrophoresis for the analysis of heparin purity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca; Suwan, Jiraporn; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    The adulteration of raw heparin with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in 2007-2008 produced a global crisis resulting in extensive revisions to the pharmacopeia monographs and prompting the FDA to recommend the development of additional methods for the analysis of heparin purity. As a consequence, a wide variety of innovative analytical approaches have been developed for the quality assurance and purity of unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. This review discusses recent developments in electrophoresis techniques available for the sensitive separation, detection, and partial structural characterization of heparin contaminants. In particular, this review summarizes recent publications on heparin quality and related impurity analysis using electrophoretic separations such as capillary electrophoresis (CE) of intact polysaccharides and hexosamines derived from their acidic hydrolysis, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the separation of heparin samples without and in the presence of its relatively specific depolymerization process with nitrous acid treatment.

  2. Tainting the soul: purity concerns predict moral judgments of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Joshua; Kelemen, Deborah; Young, Liane

    2014-02-01

    Moral violations are typically defined as actions that harm others. However, suicide is considered immoral even though the perpetrator is also the victim. To determine whether concerns about purity rather than harm predict moral condemnation of suicide, we presented American adults with obituaries describing suicide or homicide victims. While harm was the only variable predicting moral judgments of homicide, perceived harm (toward others, the self, or God) did not significantly account for variance in moral judgments of suicide. Instead, regardless of political and religious views and contrary to explicit beliefs about their own moral judgments, participants were more likely to morally condemn suicide if they (i) believed suicide tainted the victims' souls, (ii) reported greater concerns about purity in an independent questionnaire, (iii) experienced more disgust in response to the obituaries, or (iv) reported greater trait disgust. Thus, suicide is deemed immoral to the extent that it is considered impure.

  3. Inference of conversion and purity for ETBE reactive distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yu-Chu

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive distillation (RD, an unconventional and attractive technique, has been applied in fuel ether production. A typical application of RD is the synthesis of the widely used methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE. RD has also been found to have potential to produce high quality ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE, a potential alternative to MTBE. A RD process integrates conventional reaction and separation into a single unit, resulting in extra complexity and dual process objectives, i.e. maximization of reactant conversion and purity of products. The conversion and the purity are thus important variables to be controlled in RD of ETBE. Unfortunately, both of them are not economically and reliably available for closed-loop control. This study aims to develop an effective method to infer the conversion and the purity from multiple temperature measurements that are easily available on-line and in real time. Nonlinear inferential models are recommended for ETBE synthesis with a ten-stage pilot scale RD column. The models are two-variable third-order regressive models, in which the temperature measurements of the reboiler and the bottom reactive section are employed. Experimental design, model identification, and model testing are also investigated.

  4. Cyclodextrin polymer/Fe3O4 nanocomposites as solid phase extraction material coupled with UV-vis spectrometry for the analysis of rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Aiqin; Ping, Wenhui; Wang, Jue; Zhu, Xiashi

    2014-03-25

    In this paper, carboxymethyl-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin polymer modified magnetic particles Fe3O4 (CM-HP-β-CDCP-MNPs) were prepared and applied to magnetic solid phase extraction of rutin combined with UV-visible spectrometry detection. The synthesized magnetic particles were characterized by element analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Several variables affecting the extraction and desorption of rutin such as pH, the amount of adsorbent, the type and volume of eluent, extraction and desorption time, and temperature were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was 67.0 mg g(-1) for rutin with the equilibrium time of 30 min at room temperature, and the adsorbent could be reused for 10 times. A calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05-8.00 μg mL(-1) with a relative standard deviation of 2.9% (n=5, c=4.0 μg mL(-1)). The limit of detection was 7.0 ng mL(-1). The interaction mechanism between the adsorbent and rutin was also studied. Feasibility of this method was validated by the analysis of rutin tablets and lotus plumule. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rutin, a Flavonoid That Is a Main Component of Saussurea involucrata, Attenuates the Senescence Effect in D-Galactose Aging Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chen Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saussurea involucrata (Kar. et Kir., known as the snow lotus, grows in the Tian Shan and A’er Tai areas of China. It has recently been reported that the ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2 can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. This study investigated the protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2 or rutin, a flavonoid extracted from ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2, on D-galactose- (D-gal- induced brain injury in mice. Administering SI-2 or rutin (30 mg/kg/d and 30 mg/kg/d for 6 weeks, concomitant with D-gal injection, significantly increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and decreased the MDA level in plasma. Furthermore, the result showed that the percentages of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP in the D-gal-treated mice were much higher than those in the control. Pretreatment using SI-2 or rutin decreased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 via downregulation of NF-kappaB, resulting in a decrease in lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, our results also showed that oral administration of rutin to these mice significantly improved behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and these results suggest that SI-2 or rutin exerts potent antiaging effects on D-gal in mice via antioxidative mechanisms.

  6. Cyclodextrin polymer/Fe3O4 nanocomposites as solid phase extraction material coupled with UV-vis spectrometry for the analysis of rutin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Aiqin; Ping, Wenhui; Wang, Jue; Zhu, Xiashi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, carboxymethyl-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin polymer modified magnetic particles Fe3O4 (CM-HP-β-CDCP-MNPs) were prepared and applied to magnetic solid phase extraction of rutin combined with UV-visible spectrometry detection. The synthesized magnetic particles were characterized by element analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Several variables affecting the extraction and desorption of rutin such as pH, the amount of adsorbent, the type and volume of eluent, extraction and desorption time, and temperature were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was 67.0 mg g-1 for rutin with the equilibrium time of 30 min at room temperature, and the adsorbent could be reused for 10 times. A calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05-8.00 μg mL-1 with a relative standard deviation of 2.9% (n = 5, c = 4.0 μg mL-1). The limit of detection was 7.0 ng mL-1. The interaction mechanism between the adsorbent and rutin was also studied. Feasibility of this method was validated by the analysis of rutin tablets and lotus plumule.

  7. Correlation of rutin accumulation with 3-O-glucosyl transferase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities during the ripening of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanoglu, Esra; Beekwilder, Jules; Matros, Andrea; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Mock, Hans Peter

    2012-12-01

    In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at different development stages (green, breaker, turning, pink, red, and deep red) were divided into flesh and peel fractions. In each sample, both the content of rutin and the enzymatic activities for PAL and 3-GT were recorded. The highest activities of PAL were recorded in the peel of turning fruit (3,000 μkat/mg fresh weight). In fruit flesh, maximal activity was observed in red fruit (917.3 μkat/mg). For both tissues, PAL activity strongly decreased at the final (deep red) fruit stage. The activity of 3-GT in peel peaked in the turning fruit stage (50.7 pkat/mg), while in flesh maximal activity (33.4 pkat/mg) was observed in green fruit, which rapidly declined at the turning stage. Higher levels of rutin were detected in the tomato peel compared to the flesh part with the highest level being found at the green stage. The relation of PAL and 3-GT activities to rutin content is also evaluated.

  8. Electrochemical characterization of in situ functionalized gold organosulfur self-assembled monolayer with conducting polymer and carbon nanotubes for determination of rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Majid; Farahpour, Mona; Ardaki, Masoomeh Sayyar

    2018-01-01

    In this study, attempts were made to present a sensitive strategy for determining rutin. To reach the goal of the study, a poly(sulfosalicylic acid) film was electropolymerized on a gold electrode, which was modified by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole self-assembled monolayer and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PSSA/CNTs/MBT/Au). The proposed sensor was characterized by different techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting sensor displayed electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of rutin which is attributed to the presence of the PSSA/MWCNTs nanocomposite. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of 1.8nmolL(-1) and two linear calibration ranges of 0.01-0.8 and 0.8-10.0µmolL(-1) were obtained for rutin determination at the PSSA/CNTs/MBT/Au electrode. The proposed modified electrode was successfully applied for the determination of rutin in orange, red apple, red onion, strawberry, oat and salvia samples. The obtained results suggest that the proposed electrode has several advantages, such as high stability, repeatability and good reproducibility and it can be used for a sensitive, selective and rapid determination of rutin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Analysis of the relationship between Chalcone Isomerase gene expression level and rutin production in Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najid, Najihah Mohd; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Zainal, Zamri

    2016-11-01

    Ficus deltoidea (moraceae) is a herbal plant with medicinal values. Previous studies reported that the F. deltoidea contains a high level of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids. A cDNA encodes for chalcone isomerase was identified from F. deltoidea, designated as FdCHI, which involved in the isomerization of naringenin chalcone to naringenin. Naringenin is a key branch point for the synthesis of rutin, which is believed involved in defense mechanism in the plant. Therefore, we hypothesized that there might be a direct relationship between FdCHI expression level and rutin production in leaves of F. deltoidea var. deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia (FDA). Our result showed that expression level of FdCHI in leaves FDD was greater than FDA. Analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that rutin was only detected in FDA leaves. Based on the results between FdCHI expression and rutin production, this study concluded that there is no relationship between FdCHI expression and rutin production in leaves of FDA and FDD.

  10. High-purity biodiesel production from microalgae and added-value lipid extraction: a new process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, M; Giroir-Fendler, A; Faucheux, N; Heitz, M

    2015-01-01

    A new process was tested in order to produce and purify biodiesel from microalgae lipids and to recover unsaponifiable (added-value) lipids. This process is a two-step biodiesel production including a saponification reaction step followed by an esterification reaction step. The process includes a recovery of the unsaponified lipids between both reaction steps. Among the conditions tested, the following conditions were found to be the best: temperature for both steps (90 °C), saponification time (30 min), esterification time (30 min), sulfuric acid/potassium hydroxide (1.21, w/w), and methanol-lipid ratio (13.3 mL/g). Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield and the biodiesel purity were, respectively, 32% (g FAME/g lipid) and 77% (g FAME/g biodiesel). This study also showed that the two-step biodiesel process allows a FAME mass composition rich in palmitate (27.9-29.4 wt%), palmitoleate (24.9-26.0 wt%), elaidate (14.8-15.2 wt%), and myristate (12.1-13.0 wt%).

  11. Study on the in vitro antibacterial effects of rutin%芸香苷的体外抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚萍; 葛新; 董小青; 陈虹

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the antibacterial effects of rutin on pathogenic strains and provide theoretical data for application. Methods: Rutin was extracted by alkali - solution and acid - isolation from the barks of Sophora japonica Linn, then further purified. The broth microdilution was used to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the tested strains. The skin simulation and antibacterial effects on the natural bacteria of skin were observed. Results: The purified extract contained 95.2% of rutin. The MICs of rutin solution for Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were 0.5 g/L, 0.5 g/L, 1.0 g/L, 0.25 g/L, and 0.25 g/L, respectively. 2.0 g/L of rutin showed no simulations to the rat skin, and reduced the natural bacteria of forearm skin of volunteers from 244 cfu/cm2 to 16 cfu/cm2 after smeared for 2 min. Conclusion: Rutin had obvious inhibitory effects on bacterial vegetative form, especially on Gram positive bacteria.%目的:观察芸香苷对常见致病菌体外抑制效果,为实际应用研究提供依据.方法:采用碱溶酸沉法从槐树皮中提取芸香苷并进一步纯化,采用微量稀释法对精制芸香苷进行实验室抑菌试验,并检测其皮肤刺激性与皮肤抗菌效果.结果:精制芸香苷有效成分含量95.2%,其溶液对大肠杆菌和福氏志贺菌MIC值为0.5 g/L,对奇异变形杆菌MIC值为1.0 g/L,对金黄色葡萄球菌和表皮葡萄球菌的MIC值为0.25 g/L.2.0 g/L精制芸香苷溶液对大鼠皮肤无刺激性,涂擦人体前臂皮肤作用2min,可使皮肤上自然菌由处理前的244 cfu/cm2降低到16 cfu/cm2.结论:芸香苷对细菌繁殖体有明显抑菌作用,对革兰阳性菌抑制作用强于革兰阴性菌.

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  13. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...

  14. General Situation and Prospect of Research on Rutin%芦丁的研究概况及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙全江; 杨韬

    2002-01-01

    @@ 芦丁(Rutin)又名芸香苷,是一种从植物中提取的黄酮类化合物,具有多方面的生物活性,并且价廉易得.芦丁的临床应用效果肯定,副作用少,近年来对芦丁的研究范围较广,并达到一定的深度.本文就其研究概况综述如下.

  15. The GALATEA test-facility for High Purity Germanium Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abt, I; Doenmez, B; Garbini, L; Irlbeck, S; Majorovits, B; Palermo, M; Schulz, O; Seitz, H; Stelzer, F

    2014-01-01

    GALATEA is a test facility designed to investigate bulk and surface effects in high purity germanium detectors. A vacuum tank houses an infrared screened volume with a cooled detector inside. A system of three stages allows an almost complete scan of the detector. The main feature of GALATEA is that there is no material between source and detector. This allows the usage of alpha and beta sources as well as of a laser beam to study surface effects. A 19-fold segmented true-coaxial germanium detector was used for commissioning.

  16. The GALATEA test-facility for high purity germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Dönmez, B.; Garbini, L.; Irlbeck, S.; Majorovits, B.; Palermo, M.; Schulz, O.; Seitz, H.; Stelzer, F.

    2015-05-01

    GALATEA is a test facility designed to investigate bulk and surface effects in high purity germanium detectors. A vacuum tank houses a cold volume with the detector inside. A system of three precision motorized stages allows an almost complete scan of the detector. The main feature of GALATEA is that there is no material between source and detector. This allows the usage of alpha and beta sources to study surface effects. A 19-fold segmented true-coaxial germanium detector was used for commissioning. A first analysis of data obtained with an alpha source is presented here.

  17. The GALATEA test-facility for high purity germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Dönmez, B.; Garbini, L.; Irlbeck, S.; Majorovits, B.; Palermo, M., E-mail: palermo@mpp.mpg.de; Schulz, O.; Seitz, H.; Stelzer, F.

    2015-05-11

    GALATEA is a test facility designed to investigate bulk and surface effects in high purity germanium detectors. A vacuum tank houses a cold volume with the detector inside. A system of three precision motorized stages allows an almost complete scan of the detector. The main feature of GALATEA is that there is no material between source and detector. This allows the usage of alpha and beta sources to study surface effects. A 19-fold segmented true-coaxial germanium detector was used for commissioning. A first analysis of data obtained with an alpha source is presented here.

  18. Improved methods to determine radionuclidic purity of F-18 compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Micheelsen, Mille Ankerstjerne; Jensen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Current revisions of monographs for F-18 pharmaceuticals in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) (Ph. Eur., 2011) call for a radionuclidic purity (RNP) of or better than 99.9%. However, the current method is not sufficient nor effective for testing this required RNP level. We present a theoretical...... model leading to a practical procedure for a simple test of RNP for F-18 compounds that tells whether or not the sample is pure with a statistical confidence of 97.5% (P=0.975). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Competitive growth of high purity aluminum grains in directional solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jiao; SHU Da; WANG De-lin; SUN Bao-de; CHEN Gang

    2006-01-01

    A self-made directional solidification setup was used to prepare high purity aluminum ingots of 100mm in diameter. The morphology of the growth interface was detected by SEM and AFM, and the grain lattice orientation was detected by XRD. The results indicate that the grains suffer competitive growth under any conditions in experiments. The lattice orientation of the preferred grains is determined by the flow field above the solid-liquid interface. The horizontal lattice position does not change during the growth process. However, the lattice orientation in the growth direction varies with the growth velocity and approaches to [100]gradually during the growth process.

  20. Xenon purity analysis for EXO-200 via mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dobi, A; Slutsky, S; Yen, Y -R; Aharmin, B; Auger, M; Barbeau, P S; Benitez-Medina, C; Breidenbach, M; Cleveland, B; Conley, R; Cook, J; Cook, S; Counts, I; Craddock, W; Daniels, T; Davis, C G; Davis, J; deVoe, R; Dixit, M; Dolinski, M J; Donato, K; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Fierlinger, P; Franco, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Green, C; Hagemann, C; Hall, K; Hallman, D; Hargrove, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Hodgson, J; Juget, F; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K; Leonard, D S; Lutter, G; Mackay, D; MacLellan, R; Marino, M; Mong, B; Díez, M Montero; Morgan, P; Müller, A R; Neilson, R; Odian, A; O'Sullivan, K; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Pushkin, K; Rivas, A; Rollin, E; Rowson, P C; Sabourov, A; Sinclair, D; Skarpaas, K; Stekhanov, V; Strickland, V; Swift, M; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Vuilleumier, J -M; Weber, M; Wichoski, U; Wodin, J; Wright, J D; Yang, L

    2011-01-01

    We describe purity measurements of the natural and enriched xenon stockpiles used by the EXO-200 double beta decay experiment based on a mass spectrometry technique. The sensitivity of the spectrometer is enhanced by several orders of magnitude by the presence of a liquid nitrogen cold trap, and many impurity species of interest can be detected at the level of one part-per-billion or better. We have used the technique to screen the EXO-200 xenon before, during, and after its use in our detector, and these measurements have proven useful. This is the first application of the cold trap mass spectrometry technique to an operating physics experiment.

  1. Textures in high purity aluminum foils and AA3004 sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖亚庆; 张新明; 唐建国; 邓运来; 陈志永

    2003-01-01

    The simulation of rolling texture with "minimum shear principle" and the strengthening of cube recrystallization texture by inhomogeneous rolling, low strain deformation and multistage annealing, of the formation and evolution of texture in high purity Al were presented. The plastic anisotropy of crystalline materials were also summarized, including determination of the co-yield surfaces and condition of slipping as well as mechanical twinning, prediction of plastic anisotropy of deep drawing with modified Tuckers method, evolution of earing behavior of Al alloy sheets for deep drawing with CMTP approach, and construction of texture balance design and some technologies to suppress plastic anisotropy in practical production.

  2. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  3. Preparation and Dissolution Characteristics Investigation of Rutin Solid Dispersions%芦丁固体分散体的制备及其溶出特性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 马晓兰; 吴洋; 孙涛; 戴贵东

    2013-01-01

    目的:制备芦丁固体分散体,比较不同载体对芦丁固体分散体体外溶出度的影响.方法:采用溶剂法制备固体分散体并考察其体外溶出度;考察不同载体对芦丁溶出度的影响,以差示热分析药物在载体中的存在状态.结果:载体种类和用量对芦丁溶出影响显著,其中PVPK30作为载体时溶出效果最佳,芦丁以微晶无定形分散于载体中.结论:溶剂法制得固体分散体中芦丁的溶出度和溶出速率均显著提高.%Objective: To prepare rutin solid dispersions ( RSD ) , and compare influence of different carriers on in vitro dissolution of it. Method; RSD was prepared by solvent method and its in vitro dissolution was tested. Influence of different carriers on drug dissolution was evaluated. Differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC ) was used to examine presence state of rutin in carrier. Result; Types and amount of carriers had significant influence on rutin dissolution, PVPK30 was chosen as optimum carrier, DSC showed that rutin dispersed in PVPK30 with amorphous and microcrystalline. Conclusion: Rutin dissolution and dissolution rate of these prepared rutin-PVPK30 solid dispersions were significantly improved.

  4. Determination of rutin by flow injection chemiluminescence method using the reaction of luminol and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) with the aid of response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Li, Haiyun; Li, Ziyuan; Hao, Zaibin; Li, Jianping

    2010-01-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of rutin was reported. The proposed method was based on the enhanced effect of rutin on the chemiluminescence intensity of luminol and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) reaction in NaOH medium. The variables of reaction system, such as luminol concentration, potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) concentration and NaOH concentration, were optimized with the aid of response surface methodology. For the responses prediction, a second-order polynomial model (SOPM) was applied. The optimal conditions for determination of rutin estimated by the model equation were as follows: NaOH concentration of 0.13 mol/L luminol concentration of 0.94 × 10(-6)  mol/L, and K(3) Fe(CN)(6) concentration of 1.09 × 10(-4)  mol/L. The theoretical increased ratio of CL intensity (IRI) predicted and actual IRI for 0.05 mg/L rutin under the above conditions were 99.40 and 99.74%, respectively. The SOPM model proved to be powerful for navigating the design space. Under the above optimum conditions, the increased IRI was linearly related to the concentration of rutin in the range from 0.008 to 0.100 mg/L with the regression equation IRI = 1948.20c + 5.24 (r = 0.9994) and in the range from 0.100 to 1.000 mg/L with the regression equation IRI = 1362.50 c + 61.94 (r = 0.9996). The detection limit (3σ) was of 1.95 × 10(-3)  mg/L. The sampling frequency of this method was 72/h. The method was used directly to determine rutin in tablets. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Content Determination of Rutin in Rutin Tablets by Luminol-potassium Hypermanganate Chemiluminescence Method%鲁米诺-高锰酸钾化学发光法测定芦丁片中芦丁的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白瑞霞; 宋素异

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a novel, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of rutin. METHODS: Rutin was found to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) signal of luminol-potassium hypermanganate system in alkaline medium. Based on flow injection (FI), a new FI-CL method was developed for the determination of rutin. The concentrations of reagents were lu-minol (2.0×10-5 mol/L), potassium hypermanganate (8.0xl0~5 mol/L), sodium hydrate (0.05 mol/L); the flow rates of pumps were set at 2.12 ml/min (P1) and 3.45 ml/min (P2) with negative high voltage of 600 V and sampling time of 15 s. RESULTS: The linear range of rutin was 2.0×l0-9-2.0×l0-7 g/ml (r=0.999 1)with average recovery of 101.57% (RSD=1.69,n=3). The detection limit was 8.3×l0-10 g/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The method is convenient, rapid and sensitive, and can provide a new method for the quality control and product detection of rutin.%目的:建立一种快速、灵敏地测定芦丁含量的新方法.方法:利用在碱性条件下,芦丁对鲁米诺-高锰酸钾体系有强烈的增强作用的原理,结合流动注射技术,建立了流动注射化学发光法检测芦丁的新方法;反应试剂的浓度分别为:鲁米诺(2.0×10-5mol/L)、高锰酸钾(8.0× 10-5 mol/L)、氢氧化钠溶液(0.05 mol/L),主泵(P1)、副泵(P2)流速分别为2.12、3.45 ml/min,光电倍增管负高压为600V,采样时间为15s.结果:芦丁的检测质量浓度线性范围为2.0×10-9~2.0×10-7 g/ml(r=0.999 1),检出限为8.3×10-10g/ml,平均加样回收率为101.57%,RSD= 1.69%(n=3).结论:该方法简单、快速、灵敏性高,为芦丁药物的质量控制和体内分析提供了一种新的检测方法.

  6. A 99 percent purity molecular sieve oxygen generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Molecular sieve oxygen generating systems (MSOGS) have become the accepted method for the production of breathable oxygen on military aircraft. These systems separate oxygen for aircraft engine bleed air by application of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology. Oxygen is concentrated by preferential adsorption in nitrogen in a zeolite molecular sieve. However, the inability of current zeolite molecular sieves to discriminate between oxygen and argon results in an oxygen purity limitations of 93-95 percent (both oxygen and argon concentrate). The goal was to develop a new PSA process capable of exceeding the present oxygen purity limitations. A novel molecular sieve oxygen concentrator was developed which is capable of generating oxygen concentrations of up to 99.7 percent directly from air. The process is comprised of four absorbent beds, two containing a zeolite molecular sieve and two containing a carbon molecular sieve. This new process may find use in aircraft and medical breathing systems, and industrial air separation systems. The commercial potential of the process is currently being evaluated.

  7. Purity and Enrichment of Laser-Microdissected Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Brown

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to microdissect individual cells from the nervous system has enormous potential, as it can allow for the study of gene expression in phenotypically identified cells. However, if the resultant gene expression profiles are to be accurately ascribed, it is necessary to determine the extent of contamination by nontarget cells in the microdissected sample. Here, we show that midbrain dopamine neurons can be laser-microdissected to a high degree of enrichment and purity. The average enrichment for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH gene expression in the microdissected sample relative to midbrain sections was approximately 200-fold. For the dopamine transporter (DAT and the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (Vmat2, average enrichments were approximately 100- and 60-fold, respectively. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad65 expression, a marker for GABAergic neurons, was several hundredfold lower than dopamine neuron-specific genes. Glial cell and glutamatergic neuron gene expression were not detected in microdissected samples. Additionally, SN and VTA dopamine neurons had significantly different expression levels of dopamine neuron-specific genes, which likely reflects functional differences between the two cell groups. This study demonstrates that it is possible to laser-microdissect dopamine neurons to a high degree of cell purity. Therefore gene expression profiles can be precisely attributed to the targeted microdissected cells.

  8. Laser heating method for estimation of carbon nanotube purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, S. V.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Lobach, A. S.; Konov, V. I.

    A new method of a carbon nanotube purity estimation has been developed on the basis of Raman spectroscopy. The spectra of carbon soot containing different amounts of nanotubes were registered under heating from a probing laser beam with a step-by-step increased power density. The material temperature in the laser spot was estimated from a position of the tangential Raman mode demonstrating a linear thermal shift (-0.012 cm-1/K) from the position 1592 cm-1 (at room temperature). The rate of the material temperature rise versus the laser power density (determining the slope of a corresponding graph) appeared to correlate strongly with the nanotube content in the soot. The influence of the experimental conditions on the slope value has been excluded via a simultaneous measurement of a reference sample with a high nanotube content (95 vol.%). After the calibration (done by a comparison of the Raman and the transmission electron microscopy data for the nanotube percentage in the same samples) the Raman-based method is able to provide a quantitative purity estimation for any nanotube-containing material.

  9. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro, E-mail: Gustavo.abdo@cbmm.com.br; Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria, E-mail: Clovis@cbmm.com.br; Guimarães, Rogério Contato, E-mail: Rogerio.guimaraes@cbmm.com.br; Ribas, Rogério Marques, E-mail: Rogerio.ribas@cbmm.com.br; Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins, E-mail: Alaercio.vieira@cbmm.com.b; Menezes, Andréia Duarte, E-mail: Amenezes@cbmm.com.br; Fridman, Daniel Pallos, E-mail: Daniel.fridman@cbmm.com.br; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos, E-mail: Edmundo@cbmm.com.br [CBMM – Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração Córrego da Mata, s/n Araxá, Minas Gerais 38183-903 Brazil (Brazil)

    2015-12-04

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM’s position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM’s ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency – SRF – cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world’s largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient.

  10. HPLC法测定30个荞麦品种芦丁含量的研究%Researched on Rutin Contents among 30 Buckwheat Cultivars by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彬; 韩渊怀; 黄可盛; 路阳; 侯思宇

    2013-01-01

    采用快速高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定30个荞麦品种不同组织中的芦丁含量,为开发利用荞麦的药用价值提供科学依据.色谱条件为:安捷伦C18柱(150 mm× 4.6 mm,5μm),柱温30℃,流动相甲醇:水(V/V)为46:54,流速1 mL/min,进样量5μL,检测波长257 nm.结果表明,苦荞花、叶和茎的平均芦丁含量高于甜荞,各器官芦丁含量大小依次为花>叶>茎.该方法灵敏、可靠、重现率好,为进一步选育高芦丁含量的养麦品种以及将其用于医药工业的提取奠定了基础.%HPLC was used to determine rutin content rapidly in buckwheat. Thirty cultivars of buckwheat in different tissues flowers, leaves, stems were measured to provide valuable data for development and utilization of buckwheat. The optimum chro-matograph parameters were as follow: column as Agilent C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 Jim), mobile phase as methanol : water (46 : 54, V/V), flow rate of the mobile phase 1.0 mL/min, detection wavelength 257 nm, column temperature 30℃, and the linear range was around 50~400 μg/mL. The results showed that the average rutin content in F. Tartaricum contains significant higher rutin than in F. Esculentum. The highest rutin content (60.91 mg/g) was found in flowers from Xi-nong 9940, and the rutin content in flower is higher than in leaves and stems. The proposed method showed a higher accuracy, reliablity and precision, which could be used for rutin quality control of buckwheat. Our work provided a new strategy to measure rutin content and a foundation for high rutin content buckwheat breeding.

  11. RP-HPLC测定桑椹中芦丁的含量%Determination of Rutin in Morus alba by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿旦; 马雯芳; 甄汉深; 丘琴; 韦良宏; 唐霞丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:优化桑椹中芦丁的提取条件并建立芦丁的HPLC测定方法.方法:采用单因素考察法优化桑椹中芦丁的提取条件,采用HPLC法测定芦丁的含量,色谱柱为Agilent Zobax C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),以乙腈-0.1%磷酸(19:81)为流动相,流速1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长360 nm,柱温30℃.结果:芦丁最佳提取条件为料液比1:25,50%乙醇回流60min,芦丁在0.1~2.0μg有良好线性关系(r=0.999 9).平均回收率为102.4%,RSD 1.8%(n=6).结论:该方法简便、准确、可靠,可作为桑椹中芦丁含量测定的方法.%Objective:Optimize the extract condition of rutin in Morus alba to establish a quantification method for rutin. Method: Single-factor analysis was applied to optimize the extract condition of rutin in Morus alba HPLC was used in the determination of rutin on C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) with a mixture of acetonitrile-0. 1% phosphoric acid (19:81 ) as a mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1. Rutin was detected at 360 nm, column temperature was 30 ℃. Result: The optimal extract condition was the solid-to-liquid ratio 1: 25, 50% ethanol refluxed for 60 min. The linearity of rutin was in the range of 0. 1-2.0 μg. The average recovery rate of rutin was 102.4% with RSD 1.8% (n =6). Conclusion: The determination method was simple,accurate and reliable, it could be used as the determination method of rutin in Morus alba.

  12. Preparation of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes hybrid film modified electrode, and its application to amperometric sensing of rutin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uling Yang; Gang Li; Meifang Hu; Lingbo Qu

    2014-07-01

    Through a facile electrochemical method, we prepared an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and characterized it by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) The experimental results demonstrated that ERGO-MWNTs/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward rutin as evidenced by the significant enhancement of redox peak currents in comparison with a bare GCE, ERGO/GCE and MWNTs/GCE. This method has been applied for the direct determination of rutin in real samples with satisfactory results.

  13. Sensitive amperometric determination of methimazole based on the electrocatalytic effect of rutin/multi-walled carbon nanotube film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorraji, Parisa S; Jalali, Fahimeh

    2015-02-01

    Electrochemical deposition was used to prepare a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and the glycosidic compound, rutin (R/MWCNTs/GCE). Cyclic voltammetry of the modified electrode in aqueous solution (pH8) showed a pair of well-defined, stable and reversible redox peaks with surface confined characteristics. The catechol moiety of rutin produced the voltammetric peaks via a 2 electron, 2 proton mechanism in the range of 0.0-0.4V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The transfer coefficient (α), heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks), and surface concentration (Γ) for R/MWCNTs/GCE were calculated by using the cyclic voltammetric data. The modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity toward oxidation of methimazole. Fixed-potential amperometry was used for sub-micromolar determination of methimazole at pH8. Linear dependence of anodic current to methimazole concentration was obtained in the range of 0.1-26μM of the drug with a limit of detection at 18nM. The modified electrode retained its initial response for at least 2weeks if stored in dry ambient conditions. The electrode was used for the amperometric determination of methimazole in formulations and spiked blood serum samples, successfully.

  14. In situ antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of naturally occurring caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rutin, using food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Petrović, Jovana; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Kukić-Marković, Jelena; Petrović, Silvana

    2013-10-01

    Three pure compounds that naturally occur in plants were of particular interest to our study regarding the possibility of using them as food preservatives: p-coumaric acid (found in peanuts, tomatoes, carrots, garlic, wine, vinegar, etc.), caffeic acid (found in argan oil, oats, wheat, rice and olive oil) and rutin (found in asparagus, citrus fruits, berries, apple, apricot, asparagus, beef and beer). In the following study we investigated in situ antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three pure compounds, namely caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rutin, naturally occurring in plants. Two food systems were used in order to obtain information on how these compounds react in actual food systems rather than microbiological media. The results indicated good antioxidant activity in in situ food systems. For tested phenolic compounds it was further shown that they successively inhibited the development of the isolated food contaminant Staphylococcus aureus in chicken soup. Panelist found that organoleptic characteristics of chicken soup and pork meat improved after treatment with phenolics. Our findings alone, along with the potential use of phenolic compounds that are widespread in nature, may imply their potential use as preservatives in the food industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Electrochemistry behavior of adrenalin, serotonin and ascorbic acid at novel poly rutin modified paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Guan-Ping [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China)]. E-mail: jgp@hfut.edu.cn; Chen, Qun-Zhi [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China); Ding, Yan-Feng [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China); He, Jian-Bo [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2007-02-01

    A novel poly rutin (Ru) modified paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode (WGE) was fabricated by electrochemical method. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), infrared spectra (IR), in situ UV-spectroelectrochemical and electrochemical techniques proved the immobilization of rutin on WGE. Ru undergoes electrochemical oxidation in two ways related to the two catechol hydroxyl groups and the other two hydroxyl groups; the former not only carries out a two-electron two-proton reversible reaction, but also produces unstable phenoxy radicals which readily polymerize to strongly adhere to WGE surface companying Ru monomer embeded and adsorbed in the film (Ru/WGE). The Ru/WGE displayed strong catalytic function for the oxidation of adrenalin (EP), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid (AA) and resolved the overlap voltammetric response of EP and AA into two well-defined voltammetric peaks of about 172 mV with DPV. A linear response in the range of 3.0-90.0 {mu}M with detection limit (s/n = 3) of 8.0 x 10{sup -7} M for EP was obtained in coexistence of AA (0.01 mM)

  16. Nicotiflorin, rutin and chlorogenic acid: phenylpropanoids involved differently in quantitative resistance of potato tubers to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Alexander; Marnet, Nathalie; Andrivon, Didier; Val, Florence

    2012-08-01

    Physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying quantitative resistance of plants to pathogens are still poorly understood, but could depend upon differences in the intensity or timing of general defense responses. This may be the case for the biosynthesis of phenolics which are known to increase after elicitation by pathogens. We thus tested the hypothesis that differences in quantitative resistance were related to differential induction of phenolics by pathogen-derived elicitors. Five potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum, L.) spanning a range of quantitative resistance were treated with a concentrated culture filtrate (CCF) of Phytophthora infestans or purified lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Pectobacterium atrosepticum. The kinetic of phenolics accumulation was followed and a set of typical phenolics was identified: chlorogenic acid, phenolamides and flavonols including rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and nicotiflorin (kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside). Our results showed that CCF but not LPS induced differential accumulation of major phenolics among cultivars. Total phenolics were related with resistance to P. atrosepticum but not to P. infestans. However, nicotiflorin was inversely related with resistance to both pathogens. Rutin, but not nicotiflorin, inhibited pathogen growth in vitro at physiological concentrations. These data therefore suggest that (i) several phenolics are candidate markers for quantitative resistance in potato, (ii) some of these are pathogen specific although they are produced by a general defense pathway, (iii) resistance marker molecules do not necessarily have antimicrobial activity, and (iv) the final content of these target molecules-either constitutive or induced-is a better predictor of resistance than their inducibility by pathogen elicitors.

  17. Characteristics of GRIFFIN high-purity germanium clover detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, U.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Chester, A.; Domingo, T.; Dunlop, R.; Hackman, G.; Rand, E. T.; Smith, J. K.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Voss, P.; Williams, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei, GRIFFIN, is a new experimental facility for radioactive decay studies at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory. The performance of the 16 high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover detectors that will make up the GRIFFIN spectrometer is reported. The energy resolution, efficiency, timing resolution, crosstalk and preamplifier properties of each crystal were measured using a combination of analog and digital data acquisition techniques. The absolute efficiency and add-back factors are determined for the energy range of 80-3450 keV. The detectors show excellent performance with an average over all 64 crystals of a FWHM energy resolution of 1.89(6) keV and relative efficiency with respect to a 3 in . × 3 in . NaI detector of 41(1)% at 1.3 MeV.

  18. Initial Stages of Recrystallization in Aluminum of Commercial Purity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Bay, Bent

    1979-01-01

    In commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct, the formation and growth of recrystallization nuclei were studied by techniques such asin-situ annealing in a high voltage electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (370...... and 19 microns) and the degree of deformation (50 and 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling). It was found that the initial grain boundaries and high angle boundaries within the original grains are preferential sites for recrystallization nuclei, and that the effect of such sites is enhanced...... temperature decrease is obtained by increasing the degree of deformation. The size of the recrystallization nuclei, the recrystallization temperature and the recrystallized grain size are reported for the four sample states, and finally the structural and kinetic observations are discussed...

  19. Development of high purity niobium used in SRF accelerating cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Niobium is widely used in SRF(Superconducting Radio Frequency)cavities due to its excellent superconductivity and workability.With the continuous development of technology,higher demands of material are raised.One of the key issues is that RRR(Residual Resistance Ratio)of the Nb material should be more than 300.which requires that the Nb ingot have even higher RRR.This article introduces the development and the experimental results of high purity niobium in OTIC in Ningxia(Ningxia Orient Tantalum Industry Co.Ltd.),and the test results of the single cell TESLA(Tera Electron volt energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator)shaped cavity manufactured by Peking University using Nb material from OTIC.

  20. Sugar Cube Purity: Capacitive Sensing and Image Processing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumitha, S.; Rajath, R.; Venkatanathan, N.; Raajan, N. R.; Sridharan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Several methods have been implemented to find out if impurity is present in sugar cubes or powders so far. Several high end imaging techniques with X-ray scanners have been used to check the quality of the sugar. In this present study, without disturbing the physical nature of sugar, we have simply used the dielectric property analysis to check the purity of the sugar. This method can detect even infinitesimal amounts of impurity present in sugar with good accuracy. The positional accuracy is derived using artificial neural networks, which is been trained with various capacitance values when the impurity is present and gives the details on the change in capacitance value as the impurity position changes.

  1. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Persano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ by the American ‘New Womanism’, individualizing and de-feminizing the act of sexual liberation. All this in a continuous play of actions and reactions, sometimes paradoxical, weaving together suffragism and anti-suffragism, contestation of the conjugal complementarity and the never overcome temptations of hetero or self-control.

  2. Cube orientation in hot rolled high purity aluminum plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平; 毛卫民

    2003-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and orientation mapping in EBSD measurement were applied to obtain information ofdeformation and recrystallization with the emphasis on the cube orientation in hot rolled high purity aluminumplates. It is shown that cube orientations are retained to a large extent during hot rolling. Some deformed cubegrains are found to have experienced large extent of recovery according to their Kikuchi band contrasts. The de-formed cube-oriented grains in hot rolled plates are in an unfavorite growth condition with respect to their neighbor-ing grain orientations for the subsequent annealing. The reasons for the phenomena observed, as well as the influ-ence of hot rolling process on subsequent cold rolling and final annealing were discussed.

  3. High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W; Eliyahu, D; Ilchenko, V S; Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2015-08-11

    Femtosecond laser-based generation of radio frequency signals has produced astonishing improvements in achievable spectral purity, one of the basic features characterizing the performance of an radio frequency oscillator. Kerr frequency combs hold promise for transforming these lab-scale oscillators to chip-scale level. In this work we demonstrate a miniature 10 GHz radio frequency photonic oscillator characterized with phase noise better than -60 dBc Hz(-1) at 10 Hz, -90 dBc Hz(-1) at 100 Hz and -170 dBc Hz(-1) at 10 MHz. The frequency stability of this device, as represented by Allan deviation measurements, is at the level of 10(-10) at 1-100 s integration time-orders of magnitude better than existing radio frequency photonic devices of similar size, weight and power consumption.

  4. HIGH-PURITY WATER PRODUCTION BY RO/EDI SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Electrodeionization(EDI),also known as continuous deionization(CDI)and packed-cell electrodialysis,is a novel hybrid separation process combining ion-exchange resin with ion-exchange membrane in one unit.The EDI process was discovered in the 1950's[1,2]in laboratory,the first commercial apparatus for the production of high-purity water was available in 1987[3].Now the EDI technology has been found and will be continuously found its great applications in many engineering fields. In EDI,the dilute compartments are filled with mixed-bed ion-exchange resins,which enhance the transport to the membranes under the force of a direct current.The ion transport is almost entire through the ion-exchange resins and is not effected through the water.Under certain conditions,water-splitting reaction occurs in the dilute chambers and then the relative high concentrations of H+ and OH- are able to regenerate the resins continuously, With the unique “electroregeneration",the EDI unit can be considered as a mixed-bed ion-exchange column with continuous regeneration.and therefore is capable of deep deionization.Comparing with electrodialysis and ion exchange respectively,EDI has put up much superiority in water desalination. In our experiments,the processes for production of high-purity water from tap water are consisted of pretreatment (with ultrafiltration,active carbon and 10 μm-filtration),RO and EDI.

  5. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia, E-mail: claudiamartinezalonso30@gmail.com [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico); Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000 (Mexico); Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, MéxicoD.F., 04510 (Mexico); Mayén-Hernández, S.A. [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin, E-mail: hzh@ier.unam.mx [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods.

  6. Low purity glycerin supplementation in grazing cattle: bioeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evani Souza de Oliveira Strada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the dry matter intake, digestibility of diet components, performance, feed conversion, carcass characteristics and economics aspects of inclusion with low purity glycerin supplementation on cattle finished on pasture with Brachiaria decumbens. We used 35 male cattle bulls, predominantly Nellore, with initial body weight of 428.0 ± 32.11 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and seven replications. Treatments consisted of glycerin inclusion levels (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% in the dry matter (DM. The animals were weighed every 28 days to assess the weight gain (ADG and adjust the diet. At the end of the experiment the animals were weighed to obtain the average final body weight (BWF and slaughtered to evaluate the carcass yield (HCY and carcass traits. The economic analysis was conducted in relation to weight gain in kilos, in order to verify the feasibility of the use of diets with five levels of glycerin, without considering other fixed and operational costs. Increased linearly (P <0.05 levels of glycerin on the intake and digestibility of ether extract and ADG. Linear effect (P <0.05 on the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (CDFDN, crude protein (CDCP and feed conversion (FC. No effects were observed (P <0.05 the inclusion of glycerin on carcass traits evaluated. The inclusion of glycerin reduced the cost of production of meat at sign when the price of this ingredient represented up to 70% of the price of corn. Glycerin low purity can be included in the diet of cattle uncastrated finishing the pasture with improved performance and ncreased economic benefits.

  7. Purity of Gaussian states: measurement schemes and time-evolution in noisy channels

    CERN Document Server

    Paris, M A G; Serafini, A; De Siena, S

    2003-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the purity for Gaussian states of single-mode continuous variable systems. We prove the connection of purity to observable quantities for these states, and show that the joint measurement of two conjugate quadratures is necessary and sufficient to determine the purity at any time. The statistical reliability and the range of applicability of the proposed measurement scheme is tested by means of Monte Carlo simulated experiments. We then consider the dynamics of purity in noisy channels. We derive an evolution equation for the purity of general Gaussian states both in thermal and squeezed thermal baths. We show that purity is maximized at any given time for an initial coherent state evolving in a thermal bath, or for an initial squeezed state evolving in a squeezed thermal bath whose asymptotic squeezing is orthogonal to that of the input state.

  8. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC.

  9. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayapandi Pandy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40 mg/mL, scopoletin (1–200 μg/mL, and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6 μg/mL dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100 mg/mL showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (60 mg/mL. However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5 mg/mL and rutin hydrate (0.5–5 mg/mL per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC.

  10. 芦丁与DNA相互作用的电化学研究%Electrochemical Studies of Interaction Between DNA and Rutin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包晓玉; 陈建国; 陈欣; 党元林

    2001-01-01

    研究了芦丁与DNA在pH5.72条件下相互作用的电化学行为。DNA的存在能导致芦丁氧化还原峰电流降低,峰电位基本不变。通过测定DNA引入前后的一些电化学参数,推测芦丁与DNA在该条件下结合生成了一种非电活性的超分子化合物。针对该类型体系,推导出了一系列的方程,求得该超分子化合物的组成为1∶1,结合常数β=2.49×105mol-1.L。%The electrochemical behavior of interaction of rutin with DNA wasstudied by cyclic voltammetry. When DNA was added in the rutin solution, both reduction and oxidation peak currents of rutin decreased with no change in the peak potentials. The electrochemical parameters such as charge transfer coefficient α and standard electron transfer rate constant ks in the absent and present of DNA were estimated. An electrochemical inactive supramolecular complex DNA-rutin was formed. The equilibrium constant for this complex is calculated to be 2.49×105 mol-1.L.

  11. Exploration of a ternary deep eutectic solvent of methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide/chalcone/formic acid for the selective recognition of rutin and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wanwan; Tang, Baokun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-08-01

    Methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide/chalcone/formic acid, a green ternary deep eutectic solvent, was applied as a functional monomer and dummy template simultaneously in the synthesis of a new molecularly imprinted polymer. Ternary deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymers are used as a solid-phase extraction sorbent in the separation and purification of rutin and quercetin from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were applied to characterize the deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized using different molar ratios of chalcone. The static and competitive adsorption tests were performed to examine the recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers to rutin and quercetin. The ternary deep eutectic solvent consisting of formic acid/chalcone/methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (1:0.05:0.5) had the best molecular recognition effect. After optimization of the washing solvents (methanol/water, 1:9) and eluting solvents (acetonitrile/acetic acid, 9:1), a reliable analytical method was developed for strong recognition towards rutin and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae with satisfactory extraction recoveries (rutin: 92.48%, quercetin: 94.23%). Overall, the chalcone ternary deep eutectic solvent-based molecularly imprinted polymer coupled with solid-phase extraction is an effective method for the selective purification of multiple bioactive compounds in complex samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Entanglement and purity of two-mode Gaussian states in noisy channels

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, A; Paris, M G A; De Siena, S; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Siena, Silvio De

    2004-01-01

    We study the evolution of purity, entanglement and total correlations of general two--mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems in arbitrary uncorrelated Gaussian environments. The time evolution of purity, Von Neumann entropy, logarithmic negativity and mutual information is analyzed for a wide range of initial conditions. In general, we find that a local squeezing of the bath leads to a faster degradation of purity and entanglement, while it can help to preserve the mutual information between the modes.

  13. The Status Quo and Development Trend of High-purity Gold Sputtering Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Anheng; XIE Hongchao; ZHU Yong

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to manufacturers and markets of sputtering targets as well as the manufacturing technology thereof.Then,it analyzes the application of high-purity gold sputtering targets in the fields of integrated circuit,information storage,flat panel display,etc.Based on the above,the article analyzes the processing development trend for the high-purity gold sputtering targets in aspects of ultra-high purity,manufacturing technology,analysis and testing technologies.

  14. delta 13C analyses of vegetable oil fatty acid components, determined by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry, after saponification or regiospecific hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, S E; Evershed, R P; Rossell, J B

    1998-05-01

    The delta 13C values of the major fatty acids of several different commercially important vegetable oils were measured by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The delta 13C values obtained were found to fall into two distinct groups, representing the C3 and C4 plants classes from which the oils were derived. The delta 13C values of the oils were measured by continuous flow elemental isotope ratio mass spectrometry and were found to be similar to their fatty acids, with slight differences between individual fatty acids. Investigations were then made into the influence on the delta 13C values of fatty acids of the position occupied on the glycerol backbone. Pancreatic lipase was employed to selectively hydrolyse fatty acids from the 1- and 3-positions with the progress of the reaction being followed by high-temperature gas chromatography in order to determine the optimum incubation time. The 2-monoacylglycerols were then isolated by thin-layer chromatography and fatty acid methyl esters prepared. The delta 13C values obtained indicate that fatty acids from any position on the glycerol backbone are isotopically identical. Thus, whilst quantification of fatty acid composition at the 2-position and measurement of delta 13C values of oils and their major fatty acids are useful criteria in edible oil purity assessment, measurement of delta 13C values of fatty acids from the 2-position does not assist with oil purity assignments.

  15. Effect of Hydrophilic Diluents on the Degradation Kinetics of Rutin%亲水性稀释剂对芦丁降解动力学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚倩; 郭晓强; 颜军; 何钢; 张宇; 苟小军

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究3种常用亲水性稀释剂在固态和溶液状态下对芦丁降解动力学的影响.方法:将芦丁分别与亲水性稀释剂配伍,制成溶液态或固态的混合物,在40、60℃下定时取样并测定芦丁含量,用降解动力学方程对不同芦丁溶液的浓度-时间数据进行拟合.结果:在固态下,使用乳糖或混合稀释剂可显著提高芦丁稳定性,但甘露醇和蔗糖与芦丁配伍加速了药物的降解;在溶液状态下,3种辅料的加入均提高了芦丁的稳定性,大部分溶液的降解过程符合一级动力学方程.结论:在固态和溶液状态下,亲水性辅料对芦丁稳定性有不同的影响.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of three hydrophilic diluents on the degradation kinetics of rutin in solid and solution state. METHODS: Rutin was mixed with hydrophilic diluents to prepare the solution and solid mixtures. They were exposed to 40 ℃ and 60 ℃, respectively. The contents of rutin were determined at certain intervals. The c-t data of the different rutin solutions were fitted by the degradation kinetic equations. RESULTS: In solid state, lactose and the mixed diluents significantly increased the stability of rutin, while mannitol and sucrose accelerated the degradation of the compound. In solution state, the stability of rutin was increased with the addition of the three hydrophilic diluents and most of degradation processes were accordant with the first order kinetic equation. CONCLUSION: In solid and solution state, the effect of the hydrophilic diluents on the stability of rutin is different.

  16. Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP showed complexity of rutin biosynthesis and accumulation in seeds of a nutraceutical food crop (Fagopyrum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nidhi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buckwheat, consisting of two cultivated species Fagopyrum tataricum and F. esculentum, is the richest source of flavonoid rutin. Vegetative tissues of both the Fagopyrum species contain almost similar amount of rutin; however, rutin content in seed of F. tataricum are ~50 folds of that in seed of F. esculentum. In order to understand the molecular basis of high rutin content in F. tataricum, differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP has been utilized to decipher what genetic factors in addition to flavonoid structural genes contribute to high rutin content of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. Results Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP in seed maturing stages (inflorescence to seed maturation with 32 primer combinations generated total of 509 transcript fragments (TDFs. 167 TDFs were then eluted, cloned and sequenced from F. tataricum and F. esculentum. Categorization of TDFs on the basis of their presence/absence (qualitative variation or differences in the amount of expression (quantitative variation between both the Fagopyrum species showed that majority of variants are quantitative (64%. The TDFs represented genes controlling different biological processes such as basic and secondary metabolism (33%, regulation (18%, signal transduction (14%, transportation (13%, cellular organization (10%, and photosynthesis & energy (4%. Most of the TDFs except belonging to cellular metabolism showed relatively higher transcript abundance in F. tataricum over F. esculentum. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine TDFs representing genes involved in regulation, metabolism, signaling and transport of secondary metabolites showed that all the tested nine TDFs (Ubiquitin protein ligase, ABC transporter, sugar transporter except MYB 118 showed significantly higher expression in early seed formation stage (S7 of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. qRT-PCR results were found to be consistent with the c

  17. The Relationship Between Decomposition of Rutin and Heated Temperature%芦丁分解速度与加热温度的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇新

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the relationship between the decomposition rate of rutin and the heating tempreature. Method: Rutin monomers were heated from 120 °C to 250 °C for 30 min, according to internal temperature was 10 °C , separately. The content of rutin, quercetin in the heated samples were determined by HPLC. Result: The content of rutin and quercetin were not change singnicantly from 120 °C to 170 °C. The content of rutin was reduced significantly from 180°C to 200 °C and the content of quercetin was increased significantly. The contents of the two compounds were all reduced. Conclusion: When the heated temperature between 180°C to 200°C , rutin partially decomposed into quercetin. Over 210°C , rutin wasall damaged.%分析芦丁分解速度与加热温度的相关性.方法 在120~250℃每间隔10℃对芦丁单体分别加热30 min,得到14份受热样品,采用高效液相色谱法测定这些受热样品中的芦丁、槲皮素的含量.结果 在120~150℃加热,芦丁含量无显著性变化;160℃~ 200℃加热,芦丁开始分解,槲皮素含量升高,且随着温度升高,分解速度增快,槲皮素含量也越高.210~250℃加热,芦丁、槲皮素含量均降低.结论 芦丁在160℃以前几无分解,而在160~200℃部分分解产生槲皮素,而在210℃后加热,芦丁被破坏.

  18. 桑叶中芦丁含量的动态变化研究%Study on the dynamic change of rutin content in mulberry leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正; 沈华; 李蕾; 郦红岩

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究不同时期桑叶中芦丁的含量。方法 Kromasil C18柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm);流动相:甲醇-0.5%磷酸水溶液(梯度洗脱),检测波长:358 nm;柱温:30℃;结果芦丁在0.1262~2.02μg范围内有良好的线性关系,r=0.9999,平均回收率为97.88%,桑叶中芦丁含量最高在霜降前后。结论初步表明了桑叶中芦丁含量随季节变化的规律。%Objective To study the content of rutin in different period of mulberry leaf. Methods The Kromasil C18 column(4. 6 mm × 250 mm,5μm)was used,and mobile phase was composed of methanol-0. 5% phosphoric acid solution ( gradient elution),Detection wavelength was at 358 nm,the column temperature was at 30℃. Results The linear range of rutin was 0. 126 2~2. 02 μg( r=0. 999 9). The average recovery of rutin was 97. 88%,the highest content of rutin in mul-berry leaves before and after the frost. Conclusion Preliminary results suggested that rules of rutin in mulberry leaves sea-sonal changes.

  19. Study on Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Rutin-germanium%芦丁锗的合成、表征及生物活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟广玉; 渠文涛; 朱玮; 闫影影; 王素红; 王敬萍

    2013-01-01

    Rutin-germanium was synthesized from rutin and germanium in the alkaline solution and the chelation position was characterized by UV ,IR and H NMR. The number of the crystal water and the content of germanium in the complex were determined using thermal analysis. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium blue ( MTT) experiments on the human cervicalca-ncer Hela cell,lung cancer SPC-A-1 cells and human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells proved that rutin-germanium had no anti-tumor activity. DPPH radical scavenging experiments showed that the radical scavenging capacity of rutin-germanium was stronger than rutin.%芦丁在碱溶液中,与氧化锗反应生成芦丁锗;通过UV、IR、1H NMR,确定了锗离子与芦丁的螯合位置;通过差热分析,确定了配合物中结晶水的数量和锗的含量;通过四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法和抗氧化性实验,测定了芦丁锗的生物活性.结果显示:芦丁锗对人子宫颈癌Hela细胞、肺癌SPC-A-1细胞及人食管癌EC9706细胞均没有抗肿瘤活性;清除DPPH自由基实验显示,芦丁锗较芦丁具有更强的清除自由基能力.

  20. [Effects of rutin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver of rats fed diets with different level of fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, I V; Trusov, N V; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Lashneva, N V; Kravchenko, L V; Tutel'ian, V A

    2014-01-01

    The study has been carried out on 6 groups of male Wistar rats, which received semi-synthetic diets within 28 days. Rats of 1st and 4th group received fat-free diet, 2nid.and 5th - diet containing standard amount of fat (10% by weight, 26% by caloric content; lard/sunflower oil - 1/1); 3rd and 6th group - a high-fat diet (30% by weight, 56% by caloric content). During the last 14 days of the experiment rats received rutin in the dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. AOA, MDA level and the activity of paraoxonase I have been evaluated in blood serum. In rat liver along with the parameters of the antioxidant status (MDA level, activity of paraoxonase 1, quinone reductase, heme oxygenase-1) the activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A1, CYP2B1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and glutathione transferase) and the activity of lysosomal enzymes (arylsulfatase A and B, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase) have been investigated. Elevation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes and XME in liver with the increase of diet fat content has been-noted. Rutin admihistration had no effect onparamete6rs of antioxidant status and decreased unsedimentable activity of lysosomal enzymes that did not depend on fat content in the diet. Rutin receiving increased the activity of all studied XME in rats fed standard diet, but practically did not effect on their activity in rats fed by fat-free and high-fat diets. Thus, rutin in pharmacological dose has no effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes that doesn't depend on the level of fat in the diet, while the decrease or increase of diet fat content modulates (weakens) the influence of rutin on the XME activity.

  1. Radiochemical purity of Mo and Tc solution obtained after irradiation and dissolution of Mo-100-enriched and ultra-high-purity natural Mo disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Four irradiations of ultra-high-purity natural Mo targets and one irradiation using 97.4% Mo-100-enriched material were performed. The purpose of these irradiations was to determine whether the presence of Sn stabilizer in the H2O2 used for the dissolution of sintered Mo disks can affect the radiochemical purity of the final K2MoO4 in 5M KOH solution. Results from radiochemical purity tests performed using thin-layer paper chromatography show that even 2– 3× excess of Sn-stabilized H2O2 typically used for dissolution of sintered Mo disks did not affect the radiochemical purity of the final product.

  2. Study on the Interaction of Sm(Ⅲ)Complexes of Rutin with Serum Albumin%芦丁钐配合物与血清白蛋白的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦绣; 李梅; 宋玉民; 柳召刚; 胡艳宏

    2009-01-01

    在生理pH值条件下,用荧光光谱法(FS)研究了芦丁钐配合物(rutin-Sm)与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)和人血清白蛋白(HSA)之间的结合反应.探讨了rutin-Sm对BSA和HSA的荧光猝灭过程的猝灭机理,以Lineweaver-Burk双倒数方程分别计算了不同温度下rutin-Sm与BSA和HSA的结合常数(KLB)和热力学参数,并判断rutin-Sm与BSA和HSA结合的作用力类型;实验结果表明:rutin-Sm与BSA和HSA结合形成复合物,导致BSA(HSA)内源性荧光猝灭是由于分子内的非辐射能量转移而引起的静态猝灭;以Lineweaver-Burk方程计算rutin-Sm与HSA和BSA的结合常数KLB分别为:rutin-Sm-HSA,295 K:6.830×105L·mol-1;310 K:4.665×105L·mol-1;rutin-Sm-BSA,295 K:6.540×105L·mol-1;310 K:3.265×105L·mol-1;芦丁钐配合物与BSA之间的作用力主要为范德华力、氧键;而与HSA之间的作用力主要为静电引力.同时用同步荧光光谱法探讨了rutin-Sm对BSA和HSA构象的影响.进一步证明芦丁钐配合物在体内能够被血清白蛋白存储和转运.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Methods Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Results Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Conclusions Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth. PMID:23815879

  4. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Renah Boanerges de Queiroz; da Costa, Cristovão Alves; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna; Junior, Sergio Duvoisin

    2013-07-01

    Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth.

  5. Simultaneous determination of catechins, rutin, and gallic acid in Cistus species extracts by HPLC with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagati, Natale Alfredo; Salerno, Loredana; Attaguile, Giuseppina; Savoca, Francesca; Ronsisvalle, Giuseppe

    2008-02-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method using a diode array detector (DAD) is developed for the simultaneous analysis of five major catechins: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-gallocatechin (GCT), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and the phenolic plant metabolites gallic acid (GA) and rutin (RT) in lyophilized extracts of Cistus species. The optimal analytical conditions are investigated to obtain the best resolution and the highest UV sensitivity for the quantitative detection of catechins. The optimized conditions (acetonitrile-phosphate buffer 50 mM, pH 2.5, gradient elution system on a C18 reversed-phase column with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV absorbance at 210 nm) allowed a specific and repeatable separation of the studied analytes to be achieved. All compounds are successfully separated within 32 min. Calibration curves are linear in the 2-50 microg/mL range for GCT, C, and EGCG and in the 5-50 microg/mL range for GA, EGC, EC, and RT. The limit of detection values ranged from 0.24 to 0.74 microg/mL. The limit of quantitation limit values ranged from 0.77 to 1.94 microg/mL. The validated method is applied to the determination of the specific phytochemical markers GA, GCT, C, and RT in Cistus incanus and Cistus monspeliensis lyophilised extracts. The recovery values ranged between 78.7% and 98.2%. The described HPLC method appears suitable for the differentiation and determination of the most common catechins together with the glycoside rutin and the phenolic compound gallic acid and can be considered an effective and alternative procedure for the analyses of this important class of natural compounds.

  6. Fe3+、Al3+与芦丁在CTMAB-OP中的显色反应研究%Study on the Color Reaction of Fe3+、 Al3+ to Rutin in CTMAB-OP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金顺; 董晓宁; 王小芳; 朱巧军

    2002-01-01

    用芦丁(Rutin)作配合剂,在CTMAB-OP混合表面活性剂中分别与Fe3+、Al3+反应,结果表明铝离子的显色反应与单一表面活性剂CTMAB反应相似,铁离子由不反应变为可反应.Fe3+-Rutin-CTMAB-OP体系的配合物组成的摩尔比为Fe3+:Rutin=1:2.

  7. Fragmentation study of rutin, a naturally occurring flavone glycoside cationized with different alkali metal ions, using post-source decay matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéki, S; Deák, G; Zsuga, M

    2001-12-01

    A post-source decay matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (PSD-MALDI-MS) study of rutin, a naturally occurring flavone glycoside cationized with different alkali metal ions, is reported. The fragmentations of rutin were performed by selecting the [R + Cat]+ peaks for PSD, where R represents a rutin molecule and Cat an alkali metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+). The PSD-MALDI mass spectra showed, depending on Cat, different fragmentation patterns with respect to both the quality and quantity of the fragment ions formed. The intensity of fragmentation decreased in the order Li+ > Na+ > K+. The fragmentation mechanism and an explanation for the observed differences are suggested.

  8. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  9. Analytical challenges in characterization of high purity materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K L Ramakumar

    2005-07-01

    Available analytical literature reveals that it is possible to identify a lot of procedures to carry out any determination using a plethora of analytical techniques. The fundamental analytical requirements for realizing the desired and acceptable information from a chemical analysis are representative nature of the sample, precision, accuracy, selectivity and sensitivity. These decide, to a larger extent, the selection of the most appropriate methodology in order to obtain chemical information from a system. A number of analytical methodologies are being used in the author’s laboratory for carrying out trace elemental analysis as a part of chemical quality control. Quite a good number of analytical challenges with specific reference to the characterization of high purity materials of relevance to nuclear technology were addressed and methodologies were developed for trace elemental analysis of both metallic and non-metallic constituents. A brief review of these analytical challenges and the analytical methodologies developed and also the future needs of analytical chemist are presented in this paper.

  10. Observing bulk diamond spin coherence in high-purity nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Helena S.; Kara, Dhiren M.; Atatüre, Mete

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond are attractive for research straddling quantum information science, nanoscale magnetometry and thermometry. Whereas ultrapure bulk diamond NVs sustain the longest spin coherence times among optically accessible spins, nanodiamond NVs exhibit persistently poor spin coherence. Here we introduce high-purity nanodiamonds accommodating record-long NV coherence times, >60 μs, observed through universal dynamical decoupling. We show that the main contribution to decoherence comes from nearby nitrogen impurities rather than surface states. We protect the NV spin free precession, essential to d.c. magnetometry, by driving solely these impurities into the motional narrowing regime. This extends the NV free induction decay time from 440 ns, longer than that in type Ib bulk diamond, to 1.27 μs, which is comparable to that in type IIa (impurity-free) diamond. These properties allow the simultaneous exploitation of both high sensitivity and nanometre resolution in diamond-based emergent quantum technologies.

  11. An optimized protocol for the production of high purity maltose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehete, P N; Shah, N K; Ramamurthy, V; Kothari, R M

    1992-07-01

    An economical protocol, which is simple, rapid and reproducible for the production of maltose by enzymatic hydrolysis of tapioca starch, has been optimized. The protocol involves liquefaction of 35% (w/w) tapioca starch by bacterial α-amylase at 78±2°C to 3 to 5% (w/w) reducing sugars, followed by maximal (85±3% w/w maltose equivalent) saccharification with barley β-amylase and pullulanase at 50°C for 24 to 30 h. The post-saccharification recovery protocol comprised decolourization by charcoal, de-dextrinization by denatured spirit precipitation, de-ionization by passage through cation and anion exchangers and dehydration by vacuum drying. A white crystalline maltose powder was obtained with specifications comparable to commercial high purity maltose. The protocol yields at least 60% (w/w) recovery of maltose and is suitable for use by the pharmaceutical industry. The protocol is unique in that it utilizes cheap and easily hydrolysed tapioca starch, leaves no mother liquor, enabling higher recovery of maltose, and allows almost quantitative recovery of limit maltodextrins, a value-added marketable by-product.

  12. Progressive band processing of fast iterative pixel purity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Chang, Chein-I.

    2016-05-01

    Fast Iterative Pixel Purity Index (FIPPI) was previously developed to address two major issues arising in PPI which are the use of skewers whose number must be determined by a priori and inconsistent final results which cannot be reproduced. Recently, a new concept has been developed for hyperspectral data communication according to Band SeQuential (BSQ) acquisition format in such a way that bands can be collected band by band. By virtue of BSQ users are able to develop Progressive Band Processing (PBP) for hyperspectral imaging algorithms so that data analysts can observe progressive profiles of inter-band changes among bands. Its advantages have been justified in several applications, anomaly detection, constrained energy minimization, automatic target generation process, orthogonal subspace projection, PPI, etc. This paper further extends PBP to FIPPI. The idea to implement PBP-FIPPI is to use two loops specified by skewers and bands to process FIPPI. Depending upon which one is implemented in the outer loop two different versions of PBP-FIPPI can be designed. When the outer loop is iterated band by band, it is called to be called Progressive Band Processing of FIPPI (PBP-FIPPI). When the outer loop is iterated by growing skewers, it is called Progressive Skewer Processing of FIPPI (PSP-FIPPI). Interestingly, both versions provide different insights into the design of FIPPI but produce close results.

  13. Power and Purity: Nature as Resource in a Troubled Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gremaud, Ann-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses representations of nature as brand and resource in current Icelandic society. This is done through an interdisciplinary approach consisting of concepts from the discipline of cultural geography and the analytical methodologies of visual cultural, imagology, discourse and brand analysis used to highlight key narratives in images and written sources. The article discusses how ideas of purity are used in branding strategies and what they mean in Iceland today e.g. as a part of the emerging regional consciousness of ‘Arctic Iceland.’ The current overlapping crises of the economy, the environment and the collective self-image in Iceland have fostered critical representations of the past, present and future of the relationship between humans and the environment. Thus utilitarian environmental policies and shallow ecology is treated critically in contemporary Icelandic art, as is the question of what constitutes pollution. Such internal conflicts of interest are analysed to show critical perspectives on the dominant narratives about Icelandic nature and society that are communicated to the outside world through nation branding.

  14. Chemical purity and toxicology of pigments used in tattoo inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Henrik; Lewe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The safety of tattoo inks has obviously increased in Europe since the existence of European Union Resolution ResAP(2008)1, which resulted in the improved quality control of pigment raw materials due to the definition of impurity limits that manufacturers can refer to. High-performance pigments are mostly used in tattoo inks, and these pigments are supposed to be chemically inert and offer high light fastness and low migration in solvents. However, these pigments were not developed or produced for applications involving long-term stay in the dermis or contact with bodily fluids. Therefore, these pigments often do not comply with the purity limits of the resolution; however, it is required that every distributed tattoo ink does not contain aromatic amines and not exceed the limits of heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Current toxicity studies of pigments underline that no ecotoxicological threat to human health or to the environment should be expected. However, the pigment as well as its impurities and coating materials must be considered. In order to evaluate the safety of pigments according to their impurities, two different validated sample preparation methods are necessary: (1) simulation of their long-term stay in the bodily fluid of the dermis and (2) simulation of cleavage due to laser removal or ultraviolet exposure. The development of standardized, validated and well-adapted methods for this application has to be part of prospective efforts. Concerning legislation, it might be appropriate that the first regulative approaches be based on those of cosmetics.

  15. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also......, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods...

  16. Animal Sex: Purity Education and the Naturalization of the Abstinence Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Christabelle

    2010-01-01

    An early-twentieth-century movement for social purity in England, Canada and the United States aimed to eradicate prostitution, the double standard of sexual morals and their dreaded corollary, the venereal diseases. Social purists suggested that "purity education" for children was the best pedagogical prophylaxis against such…

  17. 7 CFR 201.51b - Purity procedures for coated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purity procedures for coated seed. 201.51b Section 201... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.51b...

  18. 7 CFR 201.51a - Special procedures for purity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures for purity analysis. 201.51a... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act §...

  19. The use of differential scanning calorimetry for the purity verification of pharmaceutical reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathkar, S; Kumar, S; Bystol, A; Olawoore, K; Min, D; Markovich, R; Rustum, A

    2009-04-05

    Reference standards are routinely used in pharmaceutical industry to determine strength, content, and the quality of drug products, active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), preservatives, antioxidants and excipients. Traditionally, chromatographic techniques such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography (GC) in conjunction with other analytical techniques have been used to determine the purity and strength of a specific lot of a compound for the purpose of qualifying the lot to use as a reference standard. The assigned purity of the reference standard for a wide variety of compounds can be verified using an absolute method such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In this paper, purity of 16 reference standards was determined by DSC and the results were then compared to the purity values that were obtained using HPLC and other analytical techniques. The results indicate that the purity obtained from DSC analysis is comparable to the chromatographic purity for organic compounds that are at least 98% pure. Use of DSC for purity determination is not appropriate if a compound lacks sharp melting point, decomposes in the defined temperature range or exhibits other thermal event(s) which interfere with the melting point of the compound. The use of DSC as an alternative and or complementary method to verify the purity of a compound as part of the pharmaceutical reference standard certification process is discussed.

  20. Animal Sex: Purity Education and the Naturalization of the Abstinence Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Christabelle

    2010-01-01

    An early-twentieth-century movement for social purity in England, Canada and the United States aimed to eradicate prostitution, the double standard of sexual morals and their dreaded corollary, the venereal diseases. Social purists suggested that "purity education" for children was the best pedagogical prophylaxis against such…

  1. Prognostic Relevance of Tumor Purity and TERT Promoter Mutations on MGMT Promoter Methylation in Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze Heuling, Eva; Knab, Felix; Radke, Josefine; Eskilsson, Eskil; Martinez-Ledesma, Emmanuel; Koch, Arend; Czabanka, Marcus; Dieterich, Christoph; Verhaak, Roel G; Harms, Christoph; Euskirchen, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    Promoter methylation status of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme, is a critical biomarker in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as treatment decisions and clinical trial inclusion rely on its accurate assessment. However, interpretation of results is complicated by poor inter-assay reproducibility as well as weak a correlation between methylation status and expression levels of MGMT. The present study systematically investigates the influence of tumor purity on tissue subjected to MGMT analysis. A quantitative, allele-specific real-time PCR (qAS-PCR) assay was developed to determine genotype and mutant allele frequency of telomerase promoter (pTERT) mutations as a direct measure of tumor purity. We studied tumor purity, pTERT mutation by Sanger sequencing, MGMT methylation by pyrosequencing, IDH1 mutation status, and clinical parameters in a cohort of high-grade gliomas (n=97). The qAS-PCR reliably predicted pTERT genotype and tumor purity compared with independent methods. Tumor purity positively and significantly correlated with the extent of methylation in MGMT methylated GBMs. Extent of MGMT methylation differed significantly with respect to pTERT mutation hotspot (C228T vs. C250T). Interestingly, frontal lobe tumors showed greater tumor purity than those in other locations. Above all, tumor purity was identified as an independent prognostic factor in GBM. In conclusion, we determined mutual associations of tumor purity with MGMT methylation and pTERT mutations and found that the extent of MGMT methylation reflects tumor purity. In turn, tumor purity is prognostic in IDH1 wildtype GBM.

  2. Determination of Rutin of Fagopyrum and its Commodities%荞麦和商品苦荞茶中芦丁含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳菲; 彭镰心; 丁玲; 李艳丹; 左旭; 刘圆; 赵钢

    2012-01-01

    采用RP-HPLC法测定不同种荞麦、不同商品苦荞茶中芦丁的含量.以回流法提取,采用DIKMA diamonsil (4.6 mm×250mm,5 μm)色谱柱,流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸水,柱温20℃,流速为1 mL/min,检测波长为255 nm,在该色谱条件下,芦丁分离效果好,线性范围为0.003976~0.5964 mg/mL (r=0.9999).平均回收率为96.93% (n=6),RSD为2.72%.结果表明:苦荞中芦丁含量远远高于甜荞;不同生产地的苦荞茶中芦丁含量差异较大,可能与原料产地及制作工艺不同有关;不同类型苦荞茶商品中以全胚茶中芦丁含量最高.%A high-performance liquid chromatography method was established for the determination of rutin of buckwheat and its commodities. The extraction method was heat reflux, and rutin was separated on DIKMA diamonsil (4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was 20℃ and the detection wavelength was set at 255 nm. The results indicated that rutin was basically isolated. The linear ranges was of 0.003976-0.5964 mg/mL (r=0.9999). The average recoveries was 96.93 % (n=6) with a RSD of 2.72 %. The results showed that the concentration of rutin of F. tataricum (L. ) Gaertn. was more higher than that of F. esculentum Moench,. The concentration of rutin of different producing area and preparation technique of buckwheat tea was also significantly different and the highest concentration of rutin was found in the whole embryo tea.

  3. Study on GIS Based Ecological Zonation of Buckwheat Rutin Content%基于GIS的荞麦芦丁含量生态区划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美臣; 牛波; 杨武德

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the correlation of buckwheat rutin content and meteorological factors were analyzed and combining with the geographical distribution information the major meteorological factors influencing rutin content were screened. The ecological zonation was evaluated using the ArcGIS spatial analysis technique. The results showed that the effect of varieties and ecological factors on rutin content was obvious, and temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours were the main ecological factors. The rutin content had positive correlation with rain fall in August and growing period sunshine hours and had the negative correlation with the mean temperature of middle ten days in August and the days of T > 30 t in July. Jinzhong city was divided into high, mid and low rutin content three planting zones using GIS, and the zonation was largely in line with the actual condition. The results could provide a reference for determining bases and regionalization, large-scale planting the high rutin content of buckwheat in Shanxi.%分析了荞麦芦丁含量与气象因子的关系,结合荞麦地理分布信息,筛选出影响芦丁含量的主要气象因子,利用Arc GIS软件的空间分析功能,对荞麦芦丁含量进行生态区划,并进行评述.结果表明,品种和生态区域对芦丁含量具有明显的影响,而温度、降水、日照时数是影响芦丁含量的主要生态因子.芦丁含量与8月上旬均温、7月大于30℃天数具有负相关性,与8月降水量、生育期日照时数具有正相关性.利用GIS对芦丁含量进行区划,将晋中市分为3个区,即高、中、低芦丁含量荞麦种植区,与实际状况基本符合.研究结果可为高芦丁含量养麦生产基地的确定和区域化、规模化种植提供参考.

  4. 芦丁脂质体的制备与药物包封率的测定%Preparation of rutin liposome and determination of its entrapment efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉; 卢艳风; 郑兴; 刘运美; 刘刚; 唐国涛

    2012-01-01

    The rutin liposome with high encapsulation efficiencies,uniform particle size and good stability was prepared by film dispersion method, and a method for determination of content and entrapment efficiency of rutin liposome was established. Evaluating encapsulation efficiency was as the main index, the preparation technology was optimized by the orthogonal experiment. The content of rutin and encapsulation efficiencies were determined by RT-HPLC. Results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of rutin liposome prepared by the film dispersion method was 66.50% with increasing significantly solubility and stability of drugs. Rutin was well-separated with peaks of the adjuvants and had a good linear relation in the range from 4 to 40μ/L (r = 0. 999 2, n = 5 ). The average recovery was 99. 0%. The method of RT-HPLC was applicable for determination of content and entrapment efficiency of rutin liposome.%采用薄膜分散法,制备包封率高、粒径均匀、稳定性好的芦丁脂质体,并建立芦丁脂质体中芦丁含量和包封率的测定方法.以包封率为主要指标,通过正交设计优化芦丁脂质体的制备工艺,同时采用反相高效液相色谱法进行芦丁含量和包封率测定.结果表明,薄膜分散法制备的脂质体平均包封率为66.50%,外观均匀、稳定性良好.建立的反相高效液相色谱法能将芦丁与辅料分离良好,芦丁浓度在4~40 μg/L范围内与峰面积呈现良好的线性关系(r=0.9992,n=5),平均回收率为99.0%,可用于测定芦丁脂质体的药物含量与包封率.

  5. Generation of fatty acids by an acyl esterase in the bioluminescent system of Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, L.M.; Rodriguez, A.; Meighen, E.

    1984-08-25

    The fatty acid reductase complex from Photobacterium phosphoreum has been discovered to have a long chain ester hydrolase activity associated with the 34K protein component of the complex. This protein has been resolved from the other components (50K and 58K) of the fatty acid reductase complex with a purity of > 95% and found to catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA primarily to thiol acceptors with a low level of transfer to glycerol and water. Addition of the 50K protein of the complex caused a dramatic change in specificity increasing the transfer to oxygen acceptors. The acyl-CoA hydrolase activity increased almost 10-fold, and hence free fatty acids can be generated by the 34K protein when it is present in the fatty acid reductase complex. Hydrolysis of acyl-S-mercaptoethanol and acyl-1-glycerol and the ATP-dependent reduction of the released fatty acids to aldehyde for the luminescent reaction were also demonstrated for the reconstituted fatty acid reductase complex, raising the possibility that the immediate source of fatty acids for this reaction in vivo could be the membrane lipids and/or the fatty acid synthetase system.

  6. Reaction parameters for the synthesis of N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazides from oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norashikin; Azizul Hasan, Zafarizal Aldrin; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Ahmad, Mansor; Zin Wan Yunus, Wan Md

    2015-01-01

    Hydrazide derivatives have been synthesized from methyl esters, hydrazones and vegetable oils. They are important due to their diverse applications in pharmaceutical products, detergents as well as in oil and gas industries. The chemical synthesis of fatty hydrazides is well-established; however, only a few publications described the synthesis of fatty hydrazide derivatives, particularly, when produced from refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein. Here, the synthesis and characterization of N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazides are reported. The N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazides was successfully synthesized from fatty hydrazides and dimethyl sulfate in the presence of potassium hydroxide with the molar ratio of 1:1:1, 6 hours reaction time and 80℃ reaction temperature in ethanol. The product yield and purity were 22% and 89%, respectively. The fatty hydrazides used were synthesized from refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein with hydrazine monohydrate at pH 12 by enzymatic route. Fourier transform infrared, gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazides. Proton NMR confirmed the product obtained were N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazides.

  7. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  8. External cultic tradition and internal ethical purity in Matthew 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Matthew 15:1–20, Jesus responds to the accusation made by the Pharisees and the scribes that his disciples do not observe the tradition of hand-washing (οὐ γὰρ νίπτονται τὰς χεῖραςὅταν ἄρτον ἐσθίωσιν, because they do not wash their hands before they eat bread. In this story of dispute, two ideas are interwoven, namely the locus of impurity (external or internal and the manmade tradition of the elders (ἡ παράδοσις τῶν πρεσβυτέρων versus the Word of God (ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ. The Pharisees are depicted as obsessed with external manmade rules to ensure purity, whilst Jesus is concerned with inner purity based on God’s Word. In this article, the story is interpreted on two levels. The first level describes the dispute between Jesus and the Pharisees. The second level explores the tension the Matthean community experienced in their encounter with Pharisean Judaism of their day – the Judaism of the dual Torah. The question is which aspect of the Torah is challenged by Matthew’s Jesus, and what he considers to be the true meaning of the Law. It seems that Matthew uses this story to define and maintain the identity and values of his community over and against that of the Pharisees and their successors. Devices that Matthew uses to define the identity and required morality for his community, are identified. Such devices demonstrate how a community’s values can influence the identity and ethics of a society.In Matteus 15:1–20 reageer Jesus op die aantyging van die Fariseërs en skrifgeleerdes dat sy dissipels nie die handewas-tradisie eerbiedig nie. In hierdie verhaal van dispuut word twee idees vervleg: eerstens dié van die locus van onreinheid, en tweedens dié van mensgemaakte tradisies teenoor die Woord van God. Die Fariseërs word voorgestel as mense wat obsessiefis oor mensgemaakte reëls wat reinheid verseker, terwyl Jesus op innerlike reinheid

  9. Spectroscopic Determination of Trace Contaminants in High-Purity Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen used for extravehicular activities (EVAs) must be free of contaminants because a difference in a few tenths of a percent of argon or nitrogen content can mean significant reduction in available EVA time. These inert gases build up in the extravehicular mobility unit because they are not metabolized or scrubbed from the atmosphere. A prototype optical emission technique capable of detecting argon and nitrogen below 0.1% in oxygen has been developed. This instrument uses a glow discharge in reduced-pressure gas to produce atomic emission from the species present. Because the atomic emission lines from oxygen, nitrogen, and argon are discrete, and in many cases well-separated, trace amounts of argon and nitrogen can be detected in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. This is a straightforward, direct measurement of the target contaminants, and may lend itself to a device capable of on-orbit verification of oxygen purity. A glow discharge is a plasma formed in a low-pressure (1 to 10 Torr) gas cell between two electrodes. Depending on the configuration, voltages ranging from 200 V and above are required to sustain the discharge. In the discharge region, the gas is ionized and a certain population is in the excited state. Light is produced by the transitions from the excited states formed in the plasma to the ground state. The spectrum consists of discrete, narrow emission lines for the atomic species, and broader peaks that may appear as a manifold for molecular species such as O2 and N2, the wavelengths and intensities of which are a characteristic of each atom. The oxygen emission is dominated by two peaks at 777 and 844 nm.

  10. Determination of Rutin in Ginkgo Leaves in Different Collect Times by PR-HPLC%反相高效液相色谱法测定不同采集期银杏叶中芦丁的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁全平; 侯冬岩; 回瑞华; 郭华; 姜显光

    2011-01-01

    To determine the contents of Rutin in Ginkgo Leaves is extracted by Ultrasonic wave with ethanol as Leaves in different collect times, the Rutin in Ginkgo extraction solvent, and the contents are determined by HPLC. The contents of Rutin in Ginkgo Leaves in May, June, July, August, September, October are 7.28,2.96, 1.87,2.13,2.70,2.66 mg/g respectively. The content of Rutin in Ginkgo Leaves in May is highest.%为测定不同采集期银杏叶中芦丁的含量,以乙醇为溶剂,采用超声波法提取样品中的芦丁,利用高效液相色谱法测定其含量,结果表明5月份银杏初叶芦丁含量最高.

  11. 槐米中芦丁的提取及抗氧化活性研究%Rutin Extraction from Sophara Japonica and It Antioxidant Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪军; 胡晓稳; 王佩; 李丹丹

    2015-01-01

    To further the development and utilization rutin from sophara japonica , rutin crude extract was obtained using alkaline acid sinking method. Scavenging activities of rutin from sophara japonica on Fe 3+reducing power,·OH, O2-·and ABTS radicals using Prussian blue, Salicylic acid, Fenton reaction and ABTS methods were investigated. The results showed that, compared with VC, rutin from sophara japonica had stronger scavenging ability on Fe3+ reducing power and ·OH radicals, also it had weaker effects on O2-·and ABTS radicals at 0.2 mg/mL-1.0 mg/mL concentrations.%为了进一步开发利用来自槐米中的芦丁,采用碱提酸沉法获得芦丁粗提物,并通过普鲁士蓝法、水杨酸法、邻苯三酚法和ABTS法分别探讨了槐米中芦丁提取物对Fe3+的还原能力,以及对·OH、O2-·和ABTS自由基的清除能力。结果表明:与VC相比,槐米中芦丁提取物在质量浓度为0.2 mg/mL~1.0 mg/mL时的还原能力和对·OH自由基的清除能力较强;对O2-·和ABTS自由基的清除能力较弱。

  12. The leaf extract of Mallotus japonicus and its major active constituent, rutin,suppressed on melanin production in murine B16F1 melanoma简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junsei; Taira; Eito; Tsuchida; Masatsugu; Uehara; Natsuko; Ohhama; Wakana; Ohmine; Takayuki; Ogi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find anti-melanogenesis materials used in whitening cosmetics.Methods: The ethanolic leaf extract of Mallotus japonicus(M. japonicus) having an anti-melanogenesis activity was separated by a sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Each fraction was measured for its tyrosinase inhibitory activity together with its polyphenol content using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The anti-melanogenesis activity of the active fractions was determined by the melanin content in the murine B16F1 melanoma. The active fractions were put together due to similar constituents, and then separated by high performance liquid chromatography using a C-18 ODS column. The major antimelanogenesis compound was identified using1 H and13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.Results: The ethanolic leaf extract of M. japonicus showed an anti-tyrosinase activity with a high polyphenol content, resulting in suppression of melanin production in the B16F1 melanoma. The extract was separated and the active compound was identical as rutin based on the1 H,13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis data. In addition, the rutin treatment with cells reduced the melanin content in a concentration dependent manner without any cell toxicity. The leaf extract of M. japonicus containing rutin would be useful in whitening cosmetics for protection from UV-light exposure to be limiting the accumulation of melanin in skin.Conclusions: The leaf extract of M. japonicus and/or rutin isolated from the extract as a key whitening agent would be useful as a whitening cosmetic material for protecting against disorder skin due to melanin accumulation.

  13. The leaf extract ofMallotus japonicus and its major active constituent, rutin, suppressed on melanin production in murine B16F1 melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junsei Taira; Eito Tsuchida; Masatsugu Uehara; Natsuko Ohhama; Wakana Ohmine; Takayuki Ogi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To find anti-melanogenesis materials used in whitening cosmetics. Methods: The ethanolic leaf extract ofMallotus japonicus (M. japonicus) having an anti-melanogenesis activity was separated by a sephadexLH-20 chromatography. Each fraction was measured for its tyrosinase inhibitory activity together with its polyphenol content using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The anti-melanogenesis activity of the active fractions was determined by the melanin content in the murine B16F1 melanoma. The active fractions were put together due to similar constituents, and then separated by high performance liquid chromatography using a C-18 ODS column. The major anti-melanogenesis compound was identified using 1Hand13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The ethanolic leaf extract ofM. japonicus showed an anti-tyrosinase activity with a high polyphenol content, resulting in suppression of melanin production in the B16F1 melanoma. The extract was separated and the active compound was identical as rutin based on the1H,13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis data. In addition, the rutin treatment with cells reduced the melanin content in a concentration dependent manner without any cell toxicity. The leaf extract ofM. japonicus containing rutin would be useful in whitening cosmetics for protection from UV-light exposure to be limiting the accumulation of melanin in skin. Conclusions: The leaf extract ofM. japonicus and/or rutin isolated from the extract as a key whitening agent would be useful as a whitening cosmetic material for protecting against disorder skin due to melanin accumulation.

  14. Antidepressant-like effect of rutin isolated from the ethanolic extract from Schinus molle L. in mice: evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniele G; Bettio, Luis E B; Cunha, Mauricio P; Santos, Adair R S; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2008-06-10

    We have recently shown that the hexanic extract from leaves of Schinus molle produces antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test in mice. This study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract from aerial part of S. molle in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice, two predictive models of depression. Moreover, we investigated the antidepressant potential of rutin, a flavonoid isolated from the ethanolic extract of this plant and the influence of the pretreatment with the inhibitors of serotonin or noradrenaline synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA) and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT), respectively in the antidepressant-like effect of this flavonoid. The administration of the ethanolic extract produced a reduction in the immobility time in the tail suspension test (dose range 600-1000 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test. It also produced a reduction in the ambulation in the open-field test in mice not previously habituated to the arena, but no effect in the locomotor activity in mice previously habituated to the open-field. The administration of rutin reduced the immobility time in the tail suspension test (0.3-3 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test, without producing alteration in the locomotor activity. In addition, pretreatment of mice with PCPA (100 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 consecutive days) or AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the anti-immobility effect of rutin (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) in the tail suspension test. The results firstly indicated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract of S. molle in the tail suspension test may be dependent on the presence of rutin that likely exerts its antidepressant-like effect by increasing the availability of serotonin and noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft.

  15. Production of fatty alcohol from palm oil methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongurai, C.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty alcohol is an important raw material for the production of surfactants, and is currently in demand by markets and has a high potential for growth. Moreover, fatty alcohol can be made from methylester that is produced from fats and natural oil. The production of fatty alcohol involved hydrogenation using the suspension method process and methyl ester in palm oil as the raw material. Copper chromite was used as the catalyst for the hydrogenationreaction and the experiment was proceeded in a close system pressure reaction vessel. The reaction was conducted at approximately 150-250oC, 1100-1700 psig, 2-8% catalyst W/V of methyl ester and reaction timefrom 5-20 hr. After the reaction, the products were analysed to check for percent conversion using gas chromatography (GC. The hydrogenation reaction began at 200oC. The best hydrogenation reaction for theproduction of fatty alcohol occurred at 250oC, 1700 psig, 6% catalyst and reaction time of 20 hr, which gave a purity greater than 97%.

  16. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  17. A modified method for isolating mouse islets of an adequate quality, quantity, and purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiejie; Peng, Baogang; Zhang, Caiyun; Xu, Jiwei; Ma, Yi; Lu, Xinjun

    2017-08-01

    Mouse islets are widely used in diabetes research. Thus an adequate quality, quantity, and purity of islets are needed for high-quality investigations. We performed a combination of filtration and density gradient separation and optimized many steps in the islet isolation procedure, including perfusion, digestion, and purification. Our results show that an increased quality, quantity, and purity of isolated islets can be achieved using these modifications. Moreover, this method can guarantee maximal recovery and purity of the isolated islets and is easy to perform with practice.

  18. Conditional purity and quantum correlation measures in two qubit mixed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebón, L.; Rossignoli, R.; Varga, J. J. M.; Gigena, N.; Canosa, N.; Iemmi, C.; Ledesma, S.

    2016-11-01

    We analyze and show experimental results of the conditional purity, the quantum discord and other related measures of quantum correlation in mixed two-qubit states constructed from a pair of photons in identical polarization states. The considered states are relevant for the description of spin pair states in interacting spin chains in a transverse magnetic field. We derive clean analytical expressions for the conditional local purity and other correlation measures obtained as a result of a remote local projective measurement, which are fully verified by the experimental results. A simple exact expression for the quantum discord of these states in terms of the maximum conditional purity is also derived.

  19. The Hydrometallurgical Extraction and Recovery of High-Purity Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, James E.

    2012-06-01

    -bearing inputs, will be described in detail to demonstrate how typical chemical engineering unit process and unit operations have supplanted classic smelting and fire refining techniques. The Kennecott Copper Company, which has operated a hydrometallurgical circuit successfully for the recovery of high-purity silver from the slimes wet chlorination residue, has permitted me to provide some operation information and results using the technology. Both Phelps Dodge and Kennecott should be recognized for their forward-looking attitude in undertaking the conversion of conceptual chemistry into successful, full-scale plants. The process as employed at Phelps Dodge is discussed at length in reference (J.E. Hoffmann and B. Wesstrom: Hydrometallurgy, 1994, vol. 94, pp. 69-105).

  20. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with thermal efficiency is

  1. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis and rutin and quercetin compositions in the leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhuohong; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Pei; Jing, Pu; Yue, Jin; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2011-04-13

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, also known as jiaogulan, has been shown to have antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Flavonoid is considered a major contributor for these beneficial effects. To obtain chemical patterns of flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum of different genotypes (di- versus tetraploids) and different parts (leaf versus whole plant) of plants, the extraction condition was optimized and a fingerprinting approach was established by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Eight flavonoids were identified, among which rutin and quercetin were quantified. The highest levels of rutin and quercetin were 23.03 and 12.10 mg/g, respectively, observed in the diploid leaf sample 2L3 and 2L2, while the lowest levels of rutin and quercetin were 1.92 and 0.25 mg/g in the tetraploid whole-plant sample 4W3. The chemical patterns were further analyzed by similarity calculation and principal component analysis (PCA). Seven common characteristic peaks were found in all of the tested samples. Flavonoid patterns of tetraploids were significantly different from those of diploids, whereas different parts of plants showed less difference. The flavonoid pattern of the diploid leaf sample was most similar to that of the reference botanical G. pentaphyllum. The combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantification analysis could be used for quality assessment of G. pentaphyllum and its derived nutraceutical products.

  2. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-08-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD.

  3. Rutin ameliorates cisplatin-induced reproductive damage via suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, E H; Kandemir, F M; Özkaraca, M; Ömür, A D; Küçükler, S; Çomaklı, S

    2017-02-01

    Cisplatin (CP) treatment causes damage in the male reproductive system. Rutin (RUT) is a naturally occurring flavonoid glycoside that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate effects of RUT against cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Twenty-one adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The control group received physiological saline with oral gavage during 14 days, and physiological saline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) in 10th days of study. CP Group received physiological saline during 14 days, and 10 mg kg(-1) CP was injected IP in 10th day. RUT + CP group received RUT (150 mg kg(-1) ) during 14 days, and 10 mg kg(-1) CP was injected IP in 10th day. Spermatological parameters (including motility, cauda epididymal sperm density, dead sperm percentage and morphological sperm abnormalities), biochemical (MDA, GSH, GSH-px, SOD and CAT), histological (H&E dye) and immunochemistry evaluations of testicles were evaluated. CP treatment caused damage on some spermatological parameters, increased the oxidative stress and induced testicular degeneration and apoptosis when compared to the control group. However, RUT treatment mitigates these side effects when compared to the CP alone group. IT is concluded that RUT treatment may reduce CP-induced reproductive toxicity as a potential antioxidant compound.

  4. Biological response of hepatomas to an extract of Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) is not mediated by inositols or rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Julianne M; Stringer, Danielle M; Wright, Brenda; Taylor, Carla G; Przybylski, Roman; Zahradka, Peter

    2010-03-10

    Buckwheat contains d-chiro-inositol (D-CI) and myo-inositol (MI), possible insulin-mimetic compounds; thus, this study investigated the insulin-mimetic activities of a buckwheat concentrate (BWC), D-CI, and MI on insulin signal transduction pathways and glucose uptake with H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. BWC stimulated phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular-related kinase (p42/44 ERK) and its downstream target, p70(S6K), on Thr(421). In contrast, D-CI, MI, rutin, or its agylcone form, quercetin, did not activate these signal transduction proteins. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), another target of insulin, was also up-regulated upon BWC treatment. The effects of BWC on glucose uptake were subsequently investigated using H4IIE cells. Insulin and D-CI stimulated glucose uptake, whereas BWC inhibited basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Although results from this work suggest that BWC has insulin-mimetic effects on select protein phosphorylation events in H4IIE cells, D-CI and MI were not the active components responsible for the observed effects. The inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC suggests that buckwheat may affect hepatic glucose metabolism, possibly by inhibiting glucose flux. Furthermore, the fact that D-CI and MI stimulated glucose uptake in H4IIE cells suggests that other compounds are responsible for inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC.

  5. Purity and Defect Characterization of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumitsu Miyata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the purity and defects of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs produced by various synthetic methods including chemical vapor deposition, arc discharge, and laser ablation. The SWCNT samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of SEM images suggested that the G-band Raman intensity serves as an index for the purity. By contrast, the intensity ratio of G-band to D-band (G/D ratio reflects both the purity and the defect density of SWCNTs. The combination of G-band intensity and G/D ratio is useful for a quick, nondestructive evaluation of the purity and defect density of a SWCNT sample.

  6. Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high...

  7. A cleaner two-step synthesis of high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride monomers for flocculant preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Bing-hui; FAN Bin; PENG Xian-jia; LUAN Zhao-kun

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC), high molecular weight PDADMAC should be prepared from high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride(DADMAC) monomers. In this paper, a cleaner method with microwave irradiation and alkali solidification was proposed for preparing high pure DADMAC by selective heating under low temperature, and the prepared high purity DADMAC is characterized using FTIR and atomic absorption spectrometry. The new method provides a solution to the key technical problem of PDADMAC synthesis. Comparing with the conventional methods, the results showed that the advantages of the novel synthesis include: (a) high purity DADMAC is improved from 57% to 71%; (b) reaction time of tertiary amine preparation is shortened from 6 h to 7 min; (c) water instead of acetone was used as reaction medium; (d) toxic by-products,wastewater and waste gas are eliminated. Flocculant made from the synthesized high purity DADMAC monomers was proved more efficient in flocculation tests.

  8. Research on the technological process and methods of the comprehensive pharma-ceutical experiment of rutin tablets%芦丁片剂药学综合性实验的流程及方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 杜红丽; 曾仁韬; 张叶叶; 鲁莹; 蔡国君

    2015-01-01

    目的:以芦丁为模型药物,探讨新药片剂制备及药效学评价的多学科综合性实验流程和方法。方法采用薄层色谱定性鉴别槐米中的芦丁成分;采用高效液相色谱法测定槐米中芦丁含量及芦丁精制品的含量;采用紫外分光光度法测定芦丁片含量;采用离体大鼠胸主动脉环舒张实验考察芦丁的药效;利用粉末直接压片法制备芦丁片剂。结果与结论本实验完成了槐米的质量评价,槐米中芦丁的提取纯化、含量测定,芦丁药效学考察及芦丁片处方工艺研究等内容,提高了实验操作技能,实践了芦丁临床前研究的部分内容。%Objective To imitate the development process of new drugs with rutin as the model and to do multidiscipli-nary experiments of preparation and pharmacodynamics of rutin tablets .Methods Thin-layer chromatography was used to i-dentify rutin in Pagodatree flower bud .High-performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative determination of ru-tin in Pagodatree flower bud and rutin products .The vasodilatation effect of rutin was investigated .The preparation of rutin tablets was completed .Results and Conclusion We completed the identification of Pagodatree flower bud ,extraction and puri-fication of rutin from Pagodatree flower bud ,the assay of rutin ,the pharmaco-dynamics study and the formulation of rutin tab-lets .The experiments helped the postgraduates to be familiar with the research process of new drugs and to improve their ex-perimental operation skills .

  9. Producing High Priests and Princesses: The Father-Daughter Relationship in the Christian Sexual Purity Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gish

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyzes father-daughter purity balls in the context of the contemporary U.S. American conservative Christian sexual purity movement, with an emphasis on taking the self-understanding of those involved in the movement into account. It shows the ways that the idealization of a hierarchical father-daughter relationship both constructs and reflects sexual purity ideals. The Christian sexual purity teachings frame this father-daughter relationship as an essential part of forming the ideal subject, and as reflective of the right order of the kingdom of God. In the logic of sexual purity, a good man is the strong high-priest leader of the household and the ideal girl is princess-like: white, non-poor, attractive, pure, feminine, delicate, and receptive. She is preparing, under her father’s guidance, for heterosexual marriage. Attention to the father-daughter relationship in the sexual purity movement highlights the ways that sexual purity is primarily about subject formation and the ordering of relationships—in families, in the nation, and in the church—and less about the specifics of when particular sexual acts take place or the public health risks that might come from those acts. This exploration also brings into relief the ways that contemporary conservative Christian sexual purity teachings draw from and build on two prominent aspects of contemporary U.S. American popular culture: the important role of the princess figure, and the buying of goods as indispensable to the formation of the subject.

  10. Properties and Performances of High Purity Corundum Bricks for Chemical and Petrochemical Industries in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENRen-pin; LINYu-lian; 等

    1995-01-01

    The properties and performances of high purity corundum bricks for the refractory linings of the gasifiers in the ammonia and ethene synthesis and carbon black reaction furnaces in China are described.The high purity corundum bricks are characterized by high refractoriness,hot strength,dimensional stability and chemical inertness at elevated temperature,Their performances in the gasifiers and carbon black furnaces are very satisfied ,The failure mechansims of the refractory lining are discussed on the basis of the petrographic analysis.

  11. Purity and Danger – researching child protection and welfare in youth sport

    OpenAIRE

    Brackenridge, CH

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on Mary Douglas’ classic social analysis in ‘Purity and Danger’ (1966) I argue that youth sport is a purity system and that pollution of it, through child abuse, breaches the belief system that still attaches to sport. I explore research attitudes and practices in conventional sport science and, in particular, examine the politics of researching a topic that has low perceived performance value. I suggest that the notion of ‘pollution’ has potential for understanding not only the denia...

  12. Effects of Light on Stability and Bacteriostatic Activity of Rutin%光照对芦丁稳定性及抑菌活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丹; 郝再彬; 胡淑田; 张永; 宋福平

    2011-01-01

    黄酮类化合物具有多羟基结构易被氧化,为了解其羟基被氧化后,是否还具有抑菌、抗癌等多种生物学活性,对芦丁光照处理前后的含量、抗氧化活性(清除DPPH和还原能力)、分子结构以及抑菌活性进行了比较研究.结果表明,随着光照时间的延长,芦丁含量和抗氧化活性均呈下降趋势,降解反应属于一级反应,半衰期为187.3 d.结构鉴定表明,光照处理芦丁母核结构没有降解,只是A环5、7-OH和B环3′、4′-OH氢解离,芦丁在溶液中以负离子或自由基形式存在.芦丁氧化前后的浓度与抑菌效果均成良好的量效关系,其相关系数分别为0.933 2和0.933 0.但氧化芦丁的EC50值(15.58 g/L)与对照(6.34g/L)相比差异显著(P<0.01).可见,氧化芦丁的抑菌活性明显降低.这进一步表明,芦丁分子结构的细微改变与体外的抗氧化活性和抑菌活性三者之间的构效关系基本一致.%Flavonoid is susceptible to be oxidized because of its multi-hydroxy structure.In order to observe the effects of oxidization on antibacterial, anti-cancer and other various biological activities, a comparative research was carried out on content, antioxidant activity (DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power), molecular structure and bacteriostatic activity of rutin before and after light treatments.The results showed that content and antioxidant activity of rutin decreased with increase of illumination time.The degradation reaction was a first order reaction with a half-life of 187.3d.Structure identification demonstrated that there was no degradation in parent core structure of rutin after illumination,but the hydrogen of A ring 5, 7-OH and B ring 3', 4'-OH was dissociated and rutin existed in the form of negative ions or free radicals in solution.The concentrations of rutin yielded good dose-effect relationships with the antibacterial effects before and after oxidation, with correlation coefficients of 0

  13. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation...... and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  14. The UV-Vis Spectrum Analysis on the Interaction between Rutin and Human Serum Albumin%芦丁与人血清白蛋白相互作用的紫外可见光谱特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄汉昌; 姜招峰

    2011-01-01

    In order to inveatigate the interaction between rutin and human serum albumin (lISA) ,this article determined the ultraviolt-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrum,circular diachroism and HSA fluorescence spectrum,and further to analyse the difference between the spectra before and after rutin and HSA mixed. The results indicated that rutin shows three particular UV absorption-peak at the wavelength 264.0,285.5 and 354.5 nm and circular diachroism at the wavelength ranges 330 ~300 nm and 300 ~23.0 nm. When rutin interacted with HSA,the UV absorption peak of Rutin will be shifted to long wavelength. However,for the structure of HSA,rutin will change the HSA tertiary structure rather than secondary strcture. The fluoresenee of HSA is also influenced by mtin. The excitation wavelength will be shift towards long wavelength, while emission wavelength will be shift towards short wavelength when HSA interacted with rutin.%本文通过测定芦丁与HSA相互作用前后的紫外可见吸收光谱、圆二色性及人血清白蛋白(HSA)的荧光特性,研究了芦丁与HSA结合作用.结果表明,芦丁在紫外区有三个特征的吸收峰(264.0、285.5及354.5nm)、在330~300nm及300~230nm处显示圆二色性,HSA引起芦丁紫外可见吸收光谱波峰红移;芦丁与HSA相互作用后,不引起HSA二级结构的改变,但对其三级结构有影响,同时对HSA荧光激发及发生光谱最大峰位及幅度有影响.

  15. 芦丁对耐力训练大鼠免疫和抗氧化功能的影响%The Effect of Rutin on Immune and Antioxidative Function of Rats with Endurance Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汶希; 潘华山; 冯毅翀; 刘刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of rutin on immune and antioxidative functionin of rat with endurance trainings.39 male rats were randomly divided into sports group and sports and rutin group.The sports group underwent endurance training with treadmill.The sports and rutin group had taken rutin with endurance training.Index of WBC、LC、T cell(CD3+)、MDA、GSH、SOD、IL-2、IL-6 for two groups were measured.Results GSH、SOD、 IL-2 of the sports and Rutin group were significant higher than those of the control group.MDA、IL-6 of the sports and rutin group were significant lower than those of the control group.conclusion Rutin has antioxidative and immunoregulatory actions.%目的研究芦丁对耐力训练大鼠免疫功能和抗氧化功能的影响.方法将39只wistar雄性大鼠随机分为2组:对照组19只大鼠进行4周耐力训练,在进行耐力训练的同时每两天以双蒸水灌胃;芦丁组20只大鼠在耐力训练的同时补充芦丁,通过灌胃给药,给药量为10mL/kg体重,每天灌胃一次.实验后测定大鼠WBC、LC、T(CD3+)、MDA、GSH、SOD、IL-2、IL-6.结果芦丁组GSH、SOD、IL-2与对照组相比明显升高,而MDA、IL-6明显低于对照组.结论芦丁具有抗氧化功能和调节免疫的作用.

  16. Study on the Interaction between Eu(Ⅲ)Complexes of Rutin with Human Serum Albumin%芦丁铕配合物与人血清白蛋白的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦绣; 李梅; 宋玉民; 柳召刚; 胡艳宏

    2010-01-01

    在模拟动物体生理pH条件下,用荧光光谱法(FS)和电化学法研究了芦丁铕配合物(rutin-Eu)与人血清白蛋白(HSA)的结合反应.探讨了rutin-Eu对HSA的荧光猝灭过程的猝灭机理,以Lineweaver-Burk双倒数方程分别计算了不同温度下rutin-Eu与HSA的结合常数(KLB,295 K:1.540×106 L/mol,310 K:1.265×106L/mol)、结合距离(γ=2.28 nm)和热力学参数(△H=-9.97 kJ/mol;295 K:△S=84.64 J/K,△G=-34.94 kJ/mol;310 K:△S=84.65 J/K;△G=-36.21 kJ/mol),并判断rutin-Eu与HSA结合的作用力类型:同时用圆二色谱及同步荧光光谱法探讨了rutin-Eu对HSA构象的影响.结果表明,rutin-Eu与HSA结合形成复合物,导致HSA内源性荧光猝灭是由于分子内的非辐射能量转移而引起的静态猝灭;它们之间的主要作用力是静电作用力而结合距离γ为2.28nm.同步荧光光谱法和圆二色谱法表明rutin-Eu对HSA的构象有影响,可使HSA的二级结构发生改变.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  18. A Study on Making greens in the Waterside and Management Scheme for Water-Purity Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Yong; Jeong Yoo Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The vegetation area has several kinds of functions to reserve water, remove the toxicity in the water, and provide the habitats for land/water plants and animals. Until now, however, the waterside has been injudiciously developed because it has not been recognized that the waterside is important for the water-purity improvement and water-quantity security. Fortunately, the Government introduced the waterside-zone system to conserve and improve the water-purity of the water-service source in 'the Special All-Out Policy on Water-Purity Control in Han-Riverside Water Source such as Paldang-lake', as a pre cautious measure in November 1998. The making greens in the waterside-zone is a scheme to perform several functions, such as the enhancement of people's psychological safety on water-purity, the offer of water-friendly environment, and the protection of ecosystem as well as the improvement of water-purity. However, the realistic difficulties in making greens in the waterside are expected due to the insufficient pre-research on the management scheme for greens in the waterside. This study is the timely and necessary, which suggests the theoretical system on the greens in the waterside and the making greens in the waterside and the management scheme based on the water-purity improvement. In making greens in the waterside-zone of expanding application to big-4 rivers, the basic scheme of this study is faithfully performed so the goal of indicating the waterside-zone for water pollution preparation must be achieved. The continuous research on the greens in the waterside must be also promoted, such as the detailed scheme on the making greens in the waterside by regional feature, the inspection on the water-purity improvement effect by making greens, and the examination of the pollution purification function by making greens. 32 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  20. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Marcela Medeiros; Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  1. Podophyllotoxin and Rutin Modulates Ionizing Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death in Mice Bone Marrow and Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhinav; Yashavarddhan, M. H.; Kalita, Bhargab; Ranjan, Rajiv; Bajaj, Sania; Prakash, Hridayesh; Gupta, Manju Lata

    2017-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the radioprotective efficacy of G-003M (combination of podophyllotoxin and rutin) against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress and subsequent cell death in mice bone marrow and spleen. Prophylactic administration of G-003M (−1 h) rendered more than 85% survival in mice exposed to 9 Gy (lethal dose) with dose reduction factor of 1.26. G-003M pretreated mice demonstrated significantly reduced level of reactive oxygen species, membrane lipid peroxidation, and retained glutathione level. In the same group, we obtained increased expression of master redox regulator, nuclear factor erythroid-derived like-2 factor (Nrf-2), and its downstream targets (heme oxygenase-1, Nqo-1, glutathione S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase-1). In addition, G-003M preadministration has also shown a significant reduction in Keap-1 level (Nrf-2 inhibitor). Radiation-induced lethality was significantly amended in combination-treated (G-003M) mice as demonstrated by reduced 8-OHdG, annexin V FITC+ cells, and restored mitochondrial membrane potential. Expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was restored in G-003M pretreated group. However, proapoptotic proteins (Puma, Bax, Bak, Caspase-3, and Caspase-7) were significantly declined in this group. Further analysis of immune cells revealed G-003M-mediated restoration of CD3 and CD19 receptor, which was found decreased to significant level following irradiation. Similarly, Gr-1, a marker of granulocytes, was also retained by G-003M administration prior to radiation. Modulatory potential of this formulation (G-003M) can be exploited as a safe and effective countermeasure against radiation-induced lymphohemopoietic injury. PMID:28289414

  2. A Combination of Podophyllotoxin and Rutin Alleviates Radiation-Induced Pneumonitis and Fibrosis through Modulation of Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita; Kalita, Bhargab; Bajaj, Sania; Prakash, Hridayesh; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Manju Lata

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are predominant consequences of radiation exposure, whether planned or accidental. The present study, demonstrates radioprotective potential of a formulation, prepared by combining podophyllotoxin and rutin (G-003M), in mice exposed to 11 Gy thoracic gamma radiation (TGR). Treated mice were observed for survival and other symptomatic features. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/nitric oxide (NO) was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. DNA damage and cell death were assessed in alveolar cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Total protein (TP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)/serum of mice to assess lung vascular permeability. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), cluster of differentiation 45, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitrotyrosine were also estimated in lungs/BALF of differentially treated mice. Our observations revealed 100% survival in G-003M-pretreated mice against 66.50% in 11 Gy TGR exposed. Other symptoms like reduction in graying of hair, weight loss, and breathing rate were also observed in pretreated groups. Significant decline in ROS/NO and cell death in formulation pretreated mice were also observed. Decreased level of TP, LDH, and ALP in BALF/serum samples revealed G-003M-induced inhibition in lung permeability. Level of IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 in the lungs of these mice was found corresponding to control group at 8 weeks posttreatment. On the contrary, these cytokines raised significantly in 11 Gy TGR-exposed mice. Lung pneumonitis and fibrosis were found significantly countered in these mice. The observations revealed that G-003M could regulate immune system by curtailing radiation-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress, which has helped in minimizing radiation-inflicted pneumonitis and

  3. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  4. Hypoxia and fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Satoko; Arai, Takatomo; Kanai, Mai; Goda, Nobuhito

    2014-11-07

    The liver is a central organ that metabolizes excessive nutrients for storage in the form of glycogen and lipids and supplies energy-producing substrates to the peripheral tissues to maintain their function, even under starved conditions. These processes require a considerable amount of oxygen, which causes a steep oxygen gradient throughout the hepatic lobules. Alcohol consumption and/or excessive food intake can alter the hepatic metabolic balance drastically, which can precipitate fatty liver disease, a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, to liver cirrhosis. Altered hepatic metabolism and tissue remodeling in fatty liver disease further disrupt hepatic oxygen homeostasis, resulting in severe liver hypoxia. As master regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) modulate various cellular and organ functions, including erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, metabolic demand, and cell survival, by activating their target genes during fetal development and also in many disease conditions such as cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. In the past decade, it has become clear that HIFs serve as key factors in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver formation. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate lipid metabolism in the development and progression of fatty liver disease.

  5. Diaphragmatic function is enhanced in fatty and diabetic fatty rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Serge; Na, Na; Carillion, Aude; Jiang, Cheng; Beuvin, Maud; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Riou, Bruno; Coirault, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with a decrease in mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) (the "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that obesity may paradoxically improve diaphragmatic function. Methods Diaphragm contractility was prospectively recorded in vitro in adult male Zucker lean (control), fatty, and diabetic fatty rats, at rest, after 12h mechanical ventilation and after fatigue. We analyzed diaphragm morphology, cytokines, and protein expression of the protein kinase signaling pathways. Results Diaphragm active-force (AF) was higher in fatty (96±7mN.mm-2,P = 0.02) but not in diabetic fatty rats (90±17mN.mm-2) when compared with controls (84±8mN.mm-2). Recovery from fatigue was improved in fatty and diabetic fatty groups compared with controls. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction was observed in each group, but AF remained higher in fatty (82±8mN.mm-2,P = 0.03) compared with controls (70±8mN.mm-2). There was neutral lipid droplet accumulation in fatty and diabetic fatty. There were shifts towards a higher cross-sectional-area (CSA) of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC)-2A fibers in fatty and diabetic fatty compared with control rats (P = 0.002 and Pobese rats before and after mechanical ventilation, and is associated with activation of AKT pathway signaling and complex changes in morphology. PMID:28328996

  6. Investigation of active slip systems in high purity single crystal niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Derek

    The superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) community uses high purity niobium to manufacture SRF cavities for a variety of accelerator applications. Cavities are either made from large-grain sheets cut directly from the ingot and formed, or the ingot microstructure is broken down to form polycrystalline sheets or tubes. Reducing the number of costly electron beam welds to assemble the cavities is also desired. A greater understanding of the active slip systems and their relation to subsequent dislocation substructure would be of use in all these areas, to better understand how large grain niobium deforms and to develop more accurate computational models that will aid in the design and use of more cost-effective forming methods. Studies of slip in high-purity niobium suggest that temperature, material purity, and crystal orientation affect which slip systems are active during deformation, though have not examined the somewhat lesser purity niobium used for SRF cavities. As a step toward these goals, two sets of SRF-purity single crystal niobium samples were deformed to 40% strain in tension at room temperature. The first set was cut and welded back together. The second set consisted of deliberately orientated samples that resolved shear stress onto desired slip systems to evaluate different combinations of slip. Determining likely active slip systems was complex, though the evidence suggests that {112} slip may be dominant at yield at room temperature as suggested by theory, though {110} slip could not be ruled out.

  7. The effect of initial purity on the stability of solutions in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Burke, Ioana; Novick, Steven; Lane, Charles A; Hogan, Robin; Torres-Saavedra, Pedro; Hardy, Brian; Ray, Brenda; Lindsay, Melissa; Paulus, Iris; Miller, Luke

    2014-02-01

    Many modern compound-screening technologies are highly miniaturized, resulting in longer-lasting solution stocks in compound management laboratories. As the ages of some stocks stretch into years, it becomes increasingly important to ensure that the DMSO solutions remain of high quality. It can be a burden to check the quality of a large library of compound solutions continuously, and so a study was devised to link the effects of initial compound purity and physicochemical properties of the compounds with the current purity of DMSO solutions. Approximately 5000 compounds with initial purity of at least 80% were examined. Storage conditions were held or observed to be relatively constant and so were eliminated as potential predictors. This allowed the evaluation of the effects of other factors on the stability of solutions, such as initial purity, number of freeze-thaw cycles, age of the solution, and multiple calculated physicochemical parameters. Of all the factors investigated, initial purity was the only one that had a clear effect on stability. None of the other parameters investigated (physicochemical properties, number of freeze-thaw cycles, age of solutions) had a statistically significant effect on stability.

  8. Isolation of high-purity anthocyanin mixtures and monomers from blueberries using combined chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erlei; Yin, Yongguang; Xu, Caina; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-01-31

    Research on the isolation and preparation of anthocyanins has intensified in recent years because of the requirements of quantitative and bioactive analyses. However, simple and effective methods for the scale purification of pure anthocyanins from natural products are rarely reported. In this study, high-purity anthocyanin mixtures and monomers were successfully isolated from wild blueberries using a combination of column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. We established an effective elution system to separate high-purity anthocyanin mixtures with aqueous ethanol containing 0.01% HCl first in an Amberlite XAD-7HP column (ethanol/H2O=35:65) and then in a Sephadex LH-20 column (ethanol/H2O=25:75). Crude anthocyanin extracts were isolated using the Amberlite column, and a purity of 32% was obtained based on UV-vis analysis. Three fractions of anthocyanin mixtures were isolated from the crude extracts using the Sephadex column with purities ranging from 59% to 68%. Three pure monomeric anthocyanins of malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-O-glucoside were also isolated by semi-preparative HPLC and identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The purities of these anthocyanins were determined by analytical HPLC and estimated to be 97.7%, 99.3%, and 95.4%, respectively. The results of this study may help promote the purification of anthocyanins from most blueberry varieties as well as from other plant materials.

  9. Metabolism of rutin and poncirin by human intestinal microbiota and cloning of their metabolizing α-L-rhamnosidase from Bifidobacterium dentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Seo-Hyeon; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Shim, Juwon; Hong, Sung-Woon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To understand the metabolism of flavonoid rhamnoglycosides by human intestinal microbiota, we measured the metabolic activity of rutin and poncirin (distributed in many functional foods and herbal medicine) by 100 human stool specimens. The average α-Lrhamnosidase activities on the p-nitrophenyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and poncirin subtrates were 0.10 ± 0.07, 0.25 ± 0.08, and 0.15 ± 0.09 pmol/min/mg, respectively. To investigate the enzymatic properties, α-L-rhamnosidase-producing bacteria were isolated from the specimens, and the α-L-rhamnosidase gene was cloned from a selected organism, Bifidobacterium dentium, and expressed in E. coli. The cloned α-L-rhamnosidase gene contained a 2,673 bp sequcence encoding 890 amino acid residues. The cloned gene was expressed using the pET 26b(+) vector in E. coli BL21, and the expressed enzyme was purified using Ni(2+)-NTA and Q-HP column chromatography. The specific activity of the purified α-L-rhamnosidase was 23.3 μmol/min/mg. Of the tested natural product constituents, the cloned α-L-rhamnosidase hydrolyzed rutin most potently, followed by poncirin, naringin, and ginsenoside Re. However, it was unable to hydrolyze quercitrin. This is the first report describing the cloning, expression, and characterization of α-L-rhamnosidase, a flavonoid rhamnoglycosidemetabolizing enzyme, from bifidobacteria. Based on these findings, the α-L-rhamnosidase of intestinal bacteria such as B. dentium seem to be more effective in hydrolyzing (1-->6) bonds than (1-->2) bonds of rhamnoglycosides, and may play an important role in the metabolism and pharmacological effect of rhamnoglycosides.

  10. Ionic Liquid-Based Vacuum Microwave-Assisted Extraction Followed by Macroporous Resin Enrichment for the Separation of the Three Glycosides Salicin, Hyperin and Rutin from Populus Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted method was developed for extraction of the thermo- and oxygen-sensitive glycosides salicin, hyperin and rutin from Populus bark due to the strong solvating effects of ionic liquids on plant cell walls. In this study, [C4mim]BF4 solution was selected as the extracting solution for extraction of the target analytes. After optimization by single factor experiments and response surface methodology, the optimum condition parameters were achieved, which included 1.0 M [C4mim]BF4, 2 h soaking time, −0.08 MPa vacuum, 20 min microwave irradiation time, 400 W microwave irradiation power and 25 mL/g liquid/solid ratio. Under the optimum conditions, higher extraction yields of salicin (35.53 mg/g, hyperin (1.32 mg/g and rutin (2.40 mg/g were obtained. Compared with other extraction methods, the developed method provided higher yields of the three target components after a relatively shorter extraction time (20 min. No obvious degradation of the target analytes was observed under the optimum conditions in performed stability studies and the proposed method had a high reproducibility. Meanwhile, after adsorption and desorption on macroporous D101 resin, the target analytes can be effectively separated from the [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid extraction solution and the yields of salicin, hyperin and rutin were 89%, 82% and 84%, respectively. The recovered [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid presented a good extraction effect on the three analytes after recycling five times.

  11. Ionic liquid-based vacuum microwave-assisted extraction followed by macroporous resin enrichment for the separation of the three glycosides salicin, hyperin and rutin from Populus bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengli; Mo, Kailin; Liu, Zhaizhi; Yang, Fengjian; Hou, Kexin; Li, Shuangyang; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2014-07-07

    An effective ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted method was developed for extraction of the thermo- and oxygen-sensitive glycosides salicin, hyperin and rutin from Populus bark due to the strong solvating effects of ionic liquids on plant cell walls. In this study, [C4mim]BF4 solution was selected as the extracting solution for extraction of the target analytes. After optimization by single factor experiments and response surface methodology, the optimum condition parameters were achieved, which included 1.0 M [C4mim]BF4, 2 h soaking time, -0.08 MPa vacuum, 20 min microwave irradiation time, 400 W microwave irradiation power and 25 mL/g liquid/solid ratio. Under the optimum conditions, higher extraction yields of salicin (35.53 mg/g), hyperin (1.32 mg/g) and rutin (2.40 mg/g) were obtained. Compared with other extraction methods, the developed method provided higher yields of the three target components after a relatively shorter extraction time (20 min). No obvious degradation of the target analytes was observed under the optimum conditions in performed stability studies and the proposed method had a high reproducibility. Meanwhile, after adsorption and desorption on macroporous D101 resin, the target analytes can be effectively separated from the [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid extraction solution and the yields of salicin, hyperin and rutin were 89%, 82% and 84%, respectively. The recovered [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid presented a good extraction effect on the three analytes after recycling five times.

  12. Purification of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil using silver-thiolate chromatographic material and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, James T; Aponte, José C; Tarozo, Rafael; Huang, Yongsong

    2013-10-18

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have become increasingly popular in dietary supplements worldwide and global demand for higher purity ω-3 PUFAs in clinical applications has been rising rapidly in the recent years. Traditional methods for isolating ω-3 PUFAs however, generally require multiple, cumbersome steps to obtain high purity (>95%) products. In this study, we report an efficient liquid chromatography method for purifying individual omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), at >95% purity using a silver(I)-mercaptopropyl stationary phase, otherwise known as silver-thiolate chromatographic material (AgTCM). We demonstrate the key variables controlling separation of FAEEs with a silver(I)-thiolate stationary phase and examine important similarities and differences between silver-thiolate and silver-ion chromatography in regards to the separation mechanism taking place. We demonstrate the separation behavior of FAEEs under various conditions such as mobile phase composition, flow rate and sample injection amount. Purification of EPA and DHA was carried out on an analytical and semi-preparative scale and the resulting purity was determined by GC-FID. We report high attainable purity for EPA (>95%) and DHA (>99%) from a single isocratic separation of fish oil FAEEs within 5-10min using a mobile phase of heptane/acetone (95:5, % v/v). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and validation of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for routine identification and purity assessment of high-purity steviol glycoside sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bililign, Tsion; Moore, Jeffrey C; Tan, Shane; Leeks, Allan T

    2014-02-12

    The widespread application of stevia-based sweeteners in food products has resulted in the need for reliable analytical methods for measuring the purity and identity of high-purity steviol glycoside ingredients. The objective of this research was to develop and validate a new reversed-phase separation method capable of separating and quantifying nine steviol glycosides present in typical high-purity stevia extract ingredients. Results of the study established the linearity of the method at a correlation factor of 1.000 for the two major components and other minor components of this food ingredient. Method accuracy values were in the range of 99.1-100.9%. The percent relative standard deviation for six independent assay determinations was 1.0%. The method was determined to be robust for minor changes in column temperature, initial acetonitrile content, flow rate, and wavelength. The validated high-performance liquid chromatography method was found to be suitable to be included by USP as a Food Chemicals Codex compendial standard for steviol glycosides.

  14. Synthesis of high purity monoglycerides from crude glycerol and palm stearin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Chetpattananondh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimum conditions for the glycerolysis of palm stearin and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel process werefound to be a reaction temperature of 200oC with a molar ratio of crude glycerol to palm stearin of 2.5:1, and a reaction timeof 20 minutes. The yield and purity of monoglycerides obtained under these conditions was satisfactory as compared withthe glycerolysis of pure glycerol. To increase the purity of monoglycerides a two-step process, removal of residual glyceroland crystallization, was proposed instead of either vacuum or molecular distillation. Residual glycerol was removed byadding hydrochloric acid followed by washing with hot water. Optimum conditions for crystallization were achieved byusing isooctane as a solvent and a turbine impeller speed of 200 rpm at a crystallization temperature of 35oC. A purity notexceeding 99 percent of monoglycerides was obtained with monopalmitin as the major product.

  15. Impurity distribution in high purity germanium crystal and its impact on the detector performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guojian; Amman, Mark; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming; Irmscher, Klaus; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang

    High-purity germanium crystals were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured by Hall effect and Photo-thermal ionization spectroscopy (PTIS). Amorphous semiconductor contacts were deposited on the germanium crystals to make detectors. Three planar detectors were fabricated from three crystals with different net carrier concentrations (1.7, 7.9 and 10x1010 cm-3). We evaluated the electrical and spectral performance of three detectors. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from 137Cs, 241Am and 60Co sources demonstrate that the detectors have excellent energy resolution. The relationship between the impurities and detector's energy resolution was analyzed. Keywords: High-purity germanium crystal, High-purity germanium detector This work is supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-10ER46709 and the state of South Dakota..

  16. Double Glow Plasma Hydrogen-free Carburizing on Commercial Purity Titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gaohui; PAN Junde; HE Zhiyong; ZHANG Pingze; GAO Yuan; XU Zhong

    2005-01-01

    A carburized layer with special physical and chemical properties was formed on the surface of commercial purity titanium by a double glow plasma hydrogen-free carburizing technique. High-purity netlike solid graphite was used as a raw material and commercial purity titanium was used as the substrate material. Argon gas was used as the working gas. The carburized layer can be obviously observed under a microscope. X-ray diffraction indicates that TiC phase with higher hardness and dissociate state carbon phase was formed in the carburized layer. The glow discharge spectrum (GDS) analysis shows that the carbon concentration distributes gradiently along the depth of carburized layer. The surface hardness of the substrate increases obviously. The hardness distributes gradiently from the surface to inner of carburized layer. The friction coefficient reduces by more than 1/2, the ratio wear rate decreases by above three orders of magnitude. The wear resistance of the substrate material is improved consumedly.

  17. ESR Spectrometer as a Possible Tool for Rapid Analysis of Cane Sugar Purity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kheamrutai Thamaphat; Pichet Limsuwan; Siwaporn Meejoo

    2007-01-01

    A method for quantitative/qualitative determination of eane sugar purity by ESR is devised.Relined sugar,plantation white sugar.soft brown sugar and raw sugar are used as samples in this work.The sucrose radical is produced by pulverization of sugar and it increases as the particle size decreases.Based on pulverization-induced sucrose radical.EsR study demonstrates the effects of sugar purity on characteristic of ESR spectrum.The relationshjp between the sucrose contents and peak area under the ESR spectrum is manifested.It is found that the peak area or sucrose radical concentration increases linearly With the increase of sucrose content.Using the linear regression method.the Sucrose amount can be revealed.This approach is a promising fast and accurate method for sugar purity analysis.

  18. Microstructure Evolution in High Purity Aluminum Single Crystal Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinfang; Dong, Qing; Dai, Yongbing; Xing, Hui; Han, Yanfeng; Ma, Jianbo; Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Jun; Sun, Baode

    2017-01-22

    Aluminum single crystal with 99.999% purity was deformed at room temperature by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to 16 passes. Grain size and misorientation of processed samples were quantitatively characterized by TEM and EBSD. The results show that the refinement efficiency of high purity aluminum single crystal was poor in the initial stage. Extrusion by fewer ECAP passes (n ≤ 8) resulted in only elongated grains containing a large number of subgrains and small misorientations between grains. Stable microstructures of nearly equiaxed grains with high misorientations were obtained by 15 passages, indicating that the initial extremely coarse grains and highly uniform grain orientation are not conducive to the accumulation of strain energy. The initial state of high purity aluminum has a significant effect on the refining efficiency of the ECAP process.

  19. Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhishen; Gan, Jiulin; Heng, Xiaobo; Wu, Yuqing; Li, Qingyu; Qian, Qi; Chen, Dongdan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2015-11-16

    The purity of the synthesized orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) light in the fiber is inversely proportional to channel crosstalk level in the OAM optical fiber communication system. Here the relationship between the fiber structure and the purity is firstly demonstrated in theory. The graded-index optical fiber is proposed and designed for the OAM light propagation with the purity higher than 99.9%. 16 fiber modes (10 OAM modes) have been supported by a specific designed graded-index optical fiber with dispersion less than 35 ps/(km∙nm). Such fiber design has suppressed the intrinsic crosstalk to be lower than -30 dB, and can be potentially used for the long distance OAM optical communication system.

  20. Purity of (28)Si-Enriched Silicon Material Used for the Determination of the Avogadro Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Di Luzio, Marco; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo; Bennett, John W; Stopic, Attila

    2016-07-05

    At present, counting atoms in a one-kilogram sphere made of (28)Si-enriched silicon allows the determination of the Avogadro constant with the 2.0 × 10(-8) relative standard uncertainty required for the realization of the definition of the new kilogram. With the exception of carbon, oxygen, boron, nitrogen, and hydrogen, the claimed uncertainty is based on the postulation that the silicon material used to manufacture the sphere was above a particular level of purity. Two samples of the silicon were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis to collect experimental data to test the purity assumption. The results obtained in two experiments carried out using different research reactor neutron sources are reported. The analysis confirmed that the silicon material was of sufficient purity by quantifying the ultratrace concentration of 12 elements and determining the detection limits of another 54 elements.

  1. [Simultaneously preparation of grams of high purity tyrosol, crenulatin and salidroside from Rhodiola crenulata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Xue-jing; Li, Shi-ping; Zhang, Qiao; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Tyrosol, crenulatin and salidroside are the main active constituents of Rhodiola crenulata, with extensive pharmacological activities. In the study, grams of high purity tyrosol, crenulatin and salidroside were simultaneously separated from R. crenulata by the first time. Firstly, R. crenulata was extracted by 70% alcohol. Then, with the yields of three compounds as the index, the macroporous resin was optimized. At last, grams of high purity tyrosol, crenulatin and salidroside were isolated by D-101 macroporousresin, purified by column chromatography. Detected by HPLC, the purity of three compounds were higher than 98%. This method has the advantages of simple process and operation, less dosage of organic solvent, highly yield and reproducibility, suitable for the simultaneously preparation of tyrosol, crenulatin and salidroside.

  2. Growth of high purity semiconductor epitaxial layers by liquid phase epitaxy and their characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dhar

    2005-07-01

    This paper briefly describes our work and the results on the growth of several III–V epitaxial semiconductor materials in high purity form by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique. Various possible sources of impurities in such growth are listed and step-by-step procedures adopted to reduce them are discussed in particular reference to the growth of GaAs layers. The technique of growing very high purity layers by treating the melt with erbium is described for the growth of InGaAs and GaSb layers.

  3. Multiplicativity of maximal output purities of Gaussian channels under Gaussian inputs

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, A; Wolf, M M

    2005-01-01

    We address the question of the multiplicativity of the maximal p-norm output purities of bosonic Gaussian channels under Gaussian inputs. We focus on general Gaussian channels resulting from the reduction of unitary dynamics in larger Hilbert spaces. It is shown that the maximal output purity of tensor products of single-mode channels under Gaussian inputs is multiplicative for any p>1 for products of arbitrary identical channels as well as for a large class of products of different channels. In the case of p=2 multiplicativity is shown to be true for arbitrary products of generic channels acting on any number of modes.

  4. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is, along with gold and the platinum-group metals, one of the so called precious metals. Because of its comparative scarcity, brilliant white color, malleability and resistance to atmospheric oxidation, silver has been used in the manufacture of coins and jewelry for a long time. Silver has the highest known electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and is used in fabricating printed electrical circuits, and also as a coating for electronic conductors. It is also alloyed with other elements such as nickel or palladium for use in electrical contacts. The most useful silver salt is silver nitrate, a caustic chemical reagent, significant as an antiseptic and as a reagent in analytical chemistry. Pure silver nitrate is an intermediate in the industrial preparation of other silver salts, including the colloidal silver compounds used in medicine and the silver halides incorporated into photographic emulsions. Silver halides become increasingly insoluble in the series: AgCl, AgBr, AgI. All silver salts are sensitive to light and are used in photographic coatings on film and paper. The ZORKA-PHARMA company (Sabac, Serbia specializes in the production of pharmaceutical remedies and lab chemicals. One of its products is chemical silver nitrate (argentum-nitricum (l. Silver nitrate is generally produced by dissolving pure electrolytically refined silver in hot 48% nitric acid. Since the purity of silver nitrate, produced in 2002, was not in compliance with the p.a. level of purity, there was doubt that the electrolytically refined silver was pure. The aim of this research was the gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and silver nitrate, produced industrially and in a laboratory. The purity determination was carried out gravimetrically, by the sedimentation of silver(I ions in the form of insoluble silver salts: AgCl, AgBr and Agi, and volumetrically, according to Mohr and Volhardt. The

  5. Production of High Purity Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Catalytic Decomposition of Methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Bee Hong; Aidawati Azlin Binti Ismail; Mohamed Ezzaham Bin Mohd Mahayuddin; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Sharif Hussein Sharif Zein

    2006-01-01

    Acid-based purification process of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) produced via catalytic decomposition of methane with NiO/TiO2 as a catalyst is described. By combining the oxidation in air and the acid refluxes, the impurities, such as amorphous carbon, carbon nanoparticles, and the NiO/TiO2 catalyst, are eliminated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirm the removal of the impurities. The percentage of the carbon nanotubes purity was analyzed using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Using this process, 99.9 wt% purity of MWNTs was obtained.

  6. Purity calculation method for event samples with two the same particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmin, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of the two dimensional background calculation for an analysis of events with two the same particles observing by a detector of high energy physics. Usual two dimensional integration is replaced by an approximation of a specially constructed one-dimensional function. The value of the signal events is found by the subtraction of the background from the value of all selected events. It allows to calculate the purity value of the selected events sample. The procedure does not require a hypothesis about background and signal shapes. The nice performance of the purity calculation method is shown on Monte Carlo examples of double J/psi samples.

  7. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  8. Dynamics and control designs for internal thermally coupled distillation columns with different purities, Part 1: Open loop dynamic behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The open loop dynamic behaviors of internal thermally coupled distillation column with four different purities (low-,moderate-, high- and very high-purity) are studied. These dynamic behaviors are characterized by strong asymmetric non-linearity, high sensitivity to operation conditions change and distinct inverse response. With the increase of purity, these dynamic behaviors are intensified and become more complex, which easily lead to the mismatch between linear model and plant and also change the relationship between manipulated and controlled variables.

  9. 芦丁铬(Ⅲ)配合物的合成、表征及其抗氧化活性研究%The synthesis, characterization and antioxidant properties of rutin-chromium (Ⅲ) complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武群; 吕华冲; 蔡金艳; 高奥; 周鹏飞; 王平; 王健壮

    2012-01-01

    目的 合成芦丁-铬(Ⅲ)配合物后对其进行表征,并研究其抗氧化活性.方法 以芦丁为先导化合物与微量元素铬合成芦丁-铬(Ⅲ)配合物.通过红外光谱、紫外可见光谱、元素分析、热重分析和原子吸收光谱对配合物进行表征.采用羟自由基(·OH)和超氧自由基(O2-·)模型测定了芦丁和芦丁-铬(Ⅲ)配合物的抗氧化活性.结果与结论 确定芦丁-铬(Ⅲ)配合物中芦丁与铬的摩尔比为1∶1,推测分子式为CrCl2C27H32O18· 7H2O.芦丁-铬(Ⅲ)配合物抗氧化作用比芦丁配体强.%Objective To synthetize and characterize rutin-chromium (Ⅲ) complexes, and detect its antioxidation activities. Methods Rutin was taken as a lead compound, synthesized with trace element chromium and obtained rutin-chromium ( Ⅲ ) complexes. The complexes were confirmed by IR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis and atomic absorption spectrometric. Meanwhile, the antioxidation activities were investigated by hydroxyl radicals ( · OH) and superoxide radicals ( O2-· ). Results and Conclusion The molar ratio between rutin and chromium is 1: 1. The structural formula is inferred as CrCl2C27 H32 O18 · 7H2O. The antioxidation activities results demonstrate that rutin-chromium ( Ⅲ) complexes is stronger than rutin on the antioxidation activities.

  10. Rutin protects against neuronal damage in vitro and ameliorates doxorubicin-induced memory deficits in vivo in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingayya GV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Pawan G Nayak, Anoop Kishore, Rekha Shenoy, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Nandakumar Krishnadas Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors’ quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32 cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cell viability assay (3-[4,5 dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, neurite growth assay, detection of apoptosis by (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS assay, and flowcytometric analysis were carried out to assess neuroprotective potential against DOX. An in vivo study was conducted for assessing protective effect of RUT against memory deficit associated with DOX-induced chemobrain using object recognition task (ORT. Locomotion was assessed using open field test. Serum biochemistry, acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress markers in hippocampus, and frontal cortex were assessed. Histopathological analysis of major organ systems was also carried out. Prior exposure to RUT at 100 µM protected IMR32 cells from DOX (1 µM neurotoxicity. DOX exposure resulted in increased cellular death, apoptosis, and intracellular ROS generation with inhibition of neurite growth in differentiated IMR32 cells, which was significantly ameliorated by RUT. Cognitive dysfunction was induced in Wistar rats by administering ten cycles of DOX (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, once in 5 days, as we observed

  11. Bioavailability of quercetin from its aglycone and its glucorhamnoside rutin in lactating dairy cows after intraduodenal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, A; Ingelmann, C J; Nürnberg, G; Starke, A; Wolffram, S; Metges, C C

    2013-04-01

    Because of their health-promoting properties, flavonoids are used in feed supplements for ruminants, although scientific evidence for their efficacy in vivo is limited. It has been shown recently that bioavailability of quercetin is low after ruminal administration in cows because of degradation by the ruminal microbiota. It is unknown whether quercetin could be absorbed from the small intestine in ruminants if degradation is prevented; therefore, we investigated the bioavailability of quercetin after duodenal administration in 6 German Holstein cows. On 88 ± 3 d in milk, each cow received equivalent doses of quercetin [9, 18, or 27 mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/kg of body weight] either as quercetin aglycone (QA) or as its glucorhamnoside rutin (RU). In addition, 2 control studies with duodenal administration of NaCl solution (0.9%) were conducted per cow to examine concentrations of flavonoids in plasma during regular feeding. Blood samples were collected at defined time intervals over a period of 24h before and after administration of the test compounds. A washout period of 2d was applied between the runs to avoid possible carryover effects. Concentrations of plasma quercetin aglycone and its metabolites isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and kaempferol were measured after treatment with glucuronidase/sulfatase by HPLC with fluorescence detection. After administration of RU, levels of plasma quercetin did not increase above baseline, irrespective of dose administered. After duodenal administration of QA, the plasma concentration of QA and its methylated metabolites clearly increased above baseline. The maximal plasma concentrations of total flavonols (about 2h after application) increased in a dose-dependent manner but showed high interindividual variability (range 368.8 to 983.3 nmol/L at 27 mg of QE/kg of body weight) but peak time did not differ. Preadministration baseline values of total flavonols were reached again 3 to 4h after QA administration. The

  12. Determination of vitamin C and rutin in compound rutin tablets by HPLC with dual-wavelength%双波长高效液相色谱法测定复方芦丁片中维生素C和芦丁的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙银华

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立复方芦丁片中维生素C和芦丁含量的测定方法.方法 采用高效液相色谱法,甲醇-0.05 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾缓冲液[磷酸调节pH=(3.0±0.1)](45:55)为流动相;流速1.0 ml·min-1;检测波长为254 nm和355 nm双波长测定.结果 维生素C在19.392~242.400 mg·L-1范围内呈良好的线性关系,r=1.000 0,平均回收率为99.14%,RSD=0.69%(n=5);芦丁在9.361 3~117.016 5 mg·L-1范围内呈良好的线性关系,r=0.999 6,平均回收率为98.63%,RSD=1.19%(n=5).结论 该方法简便、准确、重复性好,能同时测定复方芦丁片中维生素C和芦丁的含量.%Objective To establish a method for the determination of vitamin C and rutin in compound rutin tablets. Methods The separation was performed on HPLC. The mobile phase was methanol-potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution( 0.05 mol · L-1 )( adjusted pH to 3. 0 ±0. 1 with phosphoric acid )( 45:55 )at a flow rate of 1. 0 ml · Min-1. The detection wavelength was at 254nm and 355nm. Results The linear of vitamin C was in the range of 19. 392 ~ 242. 400 mg · L-1( r = 1. 000 0 ). The average recovery was 99. 14% and RSD was 0. 69% (n=5). The linear of rutin was in the range of 9. 361 3 ~ 117.016 5 mg · L-1( r =0.9996). The average recovery was 98. 63% and RSD was 1. 19% ( n = 5 ). Conclusion The method is convenient, rapid, accurate and reproducible. It can be suitable for the simultaneous determination of vitamin C and rutin in compound rutin tablets.

  13. 苯丙氨酸与UV-C对苦荞芦丁含量影响及相关基因表达分析%Effect of Exogenous L-Phentermine and UV-C on the Accumulation of Rutin Compounds and the Expression of Rutin Biosynthesis Genes in Fagopyrum tartaricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙朝霞; 侯思宇; 杨武德

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to investigate the content of rutin and the expression of the related genes in response to L-phentermine (Phe) and UV-C treatment, and to provide molecular information for high rutin content buckwheat breeding. [Method] Rutin biosynthesis-related genes were cloned from the leaves of F. Tataricum by 3'RACE. Rutin content in leaves under Phe treatment (1, 2 and 4 mg·L-1, 1 to 5 d) was compared with that of untreated buckwheat by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The gene expression level was analyzed by Qrt-PCR. [Result] Three partial CDS of rutin biosynthesis-related genes were cloned. They were chalcone synthase (FtCHS), flavonol synthase-like (FtFLS-like) and flavone 3-hydroxylase (FtF3H). Seedlings were cultured in solution containing Phe (4 mg·L-1) for 1 d, rutin content was two times more than the control (12.55 mg·Gfw-1), reached 26.15 mg·Gfw-1. The higher rutin content (17.36 mg·Gfw-1) was found in leaves at 3 h under UV-C treatment. Differential expression patterns of FtCHS, FtFLS-like and FtF3H were observed in different Phe concentration treatments in leaves of F. Tartaricum. Seedlings were cultured in solution containing Phe (1 mg·L-1) for 4 d, FtCHS expression level was 4.84 fold higher than the control. The higher expression levels of FtF3H and FtFLS-like were observed after 4 and 2 mg·L-1 Phetreatment for 5 d, they were 1.06 and 3.90 fold higher than the control, respectively. UV-C radiation for 1-3 h, the expression of FtCHS, FtFLS-like and FtF3H was higher than control. In particular, the expression level of FtFLS-like at 1 h under UV-C radiation was 127.71 fold higher than the control. [ Conclusion ] Rutin content could be enhanced to a great extent by Phe treatment and UV-C radiation, and gene expression patterns of rutin biosysthesis-related genes were regulated by UV-C radiation. It can be used to analyze the pathway of rutin biosynthesis. Further study should be focused on the

  14. Effects of Rutin and Hesperidin and Their Al(III and Cu(II Complexes on in Vitro Plasma Coagulation Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kuntić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two flavonoids, rutin and hesperidin, were investigated in vitro for anticoagulant activity through coagulation tests: activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, prothrombin time (PT and thrombin time (TT. Only an ethanolic solution of rutin at the concentration of 830 µM prolonged aPTT, while TT and PT were unaffected. In order to evaluate whether the prolongation of aPTT was due to the decrease of coagulation factors, the experiment with deficient plasma was performed, showing the effects on factors VIII and IX. Since pharmacological activity of flavonoids is believed to increase when they are coordinated with metal ions, complexes of these flavonoids with Al(III and Cu(II ions were also tested. The results showed that complexes significantly prolonged aPTT and had no effects on PT and TT. Assay with deficient plasma (plasma having the investigated factor at less then 1% revealed that complexes could bind to the coagulation factors, what may lead to a non-specific inhibition and aPTT prolongation. An effort was made to correlate stability of complexes with their anticoagulant properties.

  15. Optimizing the models for rapid determination of chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin in plant samples by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhiyi; Shan, Ruifeng; Wang, Jiajun; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2014-07-01

    Polyphenols in plant samples have been extensively studied because phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plants and can be used as antioxidants in promoting human health. A method for rapid determination of three phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin) in plant samples using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRDRS) is studied in this work. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. The results show that individual spectral preprocessing and variable selection has no or slight influence on the models, but the combination of the techniques can significantly improve the models. The combination of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) for removing the variant background, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) for correcting the scattering effect and randomization test (RT) for selecting the informative variables was found to be the best way for building the optimal models. For validation of the models, the polyphenol contents in an independent sample set were predicted. The correlation coefficients between the predicted values and the contents determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis are as high as 0.964, 0.948 and 0.934 for chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin, respectively.

  16. Cross Purposes: Love and Purity at a Puerto Rican Protestant High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale-Collazo, James

    2013-01-01

    A "native" Christian ethnographer finds religious education at this church-sponsored school to pursue two distinct, and occasionally conflicting, curricula: "love" and "purity." The curriculum of love draws on what Turner called liminality and communitas in an effort to promote spiritual "encounters with…

  17. Variation of low temperature internal friction of microplastic deformation of high purity molybdenum single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal-Val, P.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur); Kaufmann, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin)

    1984-08-01

    Amplitude and temperature spectra of ultrasound absorption in weakly deformed high purity molybdenum single crystals of different orientations were measured. The results were discussed in terms of parameter changes related to quasiparticle or dislocation oscillations, respectively, dislocation point defect interactions as well as defect generation at microplastic deformation.

  18. Crystallographic Analysis of Nucleation at Hardness Indentations in High-Purity Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chaoling; Zhang, Yubin; Lin, Fengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Nucleation at Vickers hardness indentations has been studied in high-purity aluminum cold-rolled 12 pct. Electron channeling contrast was used to measure the size of the indentations and to detect nuclei, while electron backscattering diffraction was used to determine crystallographic orientations...

  19. Comparison of analytical techniques for purity evaluation of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkis, Mikhail E; Perea, Daniel E; Jung, Richard; Niyogi, Sandip; Haddon, Robert C

    2005-03-16

    We compare popular analytical techniques, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, for the evaluation of the purity of bulk quantities of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Despite their importance as imaging techniques, SEM and TEM are not capable of quantitatively evaluating the purity of typical inhomogeneous bulk SWNT samples because the image frame visualizes less than 1 pg of SWNT material; furthermore, there is no published algorithm to convert such images into numerical data. The TGA technique is capable of measuring the amount of metal catalyst in an SWNT sample, but does not provide an unambiguous separation between the content of SWNTs and carbonaceous impurities. We discuss the utilization of solution-phase near-infrared spectroscopy and solution-phase Raman spectroscopy to quantitatively compare arbitrary samples of bulk SWNT materials of different purities. The primary goal of this paper is to provide the chemical community with a realistic evaluation of current analytical tools for the purity evaluation of a bulk sample of SWNTs. The secondary goal is to draw attention to the growing crisis in the SWNT industry as a result of the lack of quality control and the misleading advertising by suppliers of this material.

  20. Study on Sister Carrie’s Purity from the Society and Her Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yu-xia; Dong Ting-jian

    2014-01-01

    Dreiser’s Sister Carrie often has negative comments, while her pursuit of happiness and ideal with pure faith under the dark social environment deserve study. Her characters shown in the struggle of life and her love affairs has been stated, which proves Carrie’purity in chasing dreams in the dirty society.

  1. Study on Sister Carrie’s Purity from the Society and Her Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yu-xia; Dong; Ting-jian

    2014-01-01

    Dreiser’s Sister Carrie often has negative comments,while her pursuit of happiness and ideal with pure faith under the dark social environment deserve study.Her characters shown in the struggle of life and her love affairs has been stated,which proves Carrie’purity in chasing dreams in the dirty society.

  2. A new method to identify and improve the purity of hybrid rice with herbicide resistant gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGDanian; ZHANGShunqing; XUERui; HUAZhihua; XIEXiaobo; WANGXiaoling

    1998-01-01

    There is a dose relationship between the hybrid rice production and seed purity, Two-line bybrid rice with bigher beterosis is produced through the hybridization between a photothermo sensitive genetic male sterile (GMS) rice line and a paternat variety, But the fertilety of photo-thermo sensitive GMS rice line is not stable because it changes with the total climate.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of High Purity Enriched10B Boric Acid via Anti-Solvent Recrystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫江; 刘天雨; 徐姣

    2016-01-01

    Self-made enriched10B boric acid as raw material was purified by recrystallization. The effects of final crystallization temperature, crystallization time, stirring speed, crystallization frequency and other factors on the purity were investigated. The appropriate operating condition was that the final crystallization temperature and time were 5,℃and 10 h respectively under a low-speed stirring for crystallizing twice, which would make the purity and yield of boric acid reach 99.94% and 95.36%, respectively. Taking this as foundation, recrystallization process was optimized with acetone as anti-solvent, whose amount was the most important index. The boric acid solution was added into acetone and recrystallized under the same condition, and the purity and yield of boric acid would reach 99.98% and 99.61%, respectively. The product detected by XRD was confirmed as boric acid crystal. Main ion concentration in the product was detected by ICP, which basically met the national standard of high purity. Crystal morphology of boric acid was observed by SEM.

  4. Optimization of the gain in Yb3+-doped cubic laser crystals of 99.99% purity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georges Boulon; Yannick Guyot; Akira Yoshikawa

    2009-01-01

    This was an outlook on the prediction of the infrared laser potentiality from concentration dependences of the 2F5/2 experimental decay time in Yb3+-doped solid-state crystals mainly on cubic crystals with 99.99% purity which could be extended to laser ceramics of the same composition.

  5. High-Purity Fe3S4 Greigite Microcrystals for Magnetic and Electrochemical Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Guowei; Zhang, Baomin; Yu, Feng; Novakova, Alla A.; Krivenkov, Maxim S.; Kiseleva, Tatiana Y.; Chang, Liao; Rao, Jiancun; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Blake, Graeme R.; de Groot, Robert A.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2014-01-01

    High-purity Fe3S4 (greigite) microcrystals with octahedral shape were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method using a surfactant. The as-prepared samples have the inverse spinel structure with high crystallinity. The saturation magnetization (M-s) reaches 3.74 mu(B) at 5 K and 3.51 mu(B) at roo

  6. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool.

  7. Cleansing the Superdome: The Paradox of Purity and Post-Katrina Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grano, Daniel A.; Zagacki, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    The reopening of the New Orleans Superdome after Hurricane Katrina on Monday Night Football dramatized problematic rhetorical, visual, and spatial norms of purification rituals bound up in what Burke calls the paradox of purity. Hurricane Katrina was significant as a visually traumatic event in large part because it signified the ghetto as a…

  8. Factors affecting ice crystal purity during freeze concentration process for urine treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Freeze concentration has great potential in treating wastewaters containing soluble pollutions. It is important for freeze concentration process to produce ice crystals with large size and high purity. In this work raw urines of 4660-7914 mg/L in COD,512.71-872.41 mg/L in NH3-N and 22600-28800μs/cm in e lectric conductivity were studied. Urines were frozen by a digital refrigerated circulator bath. Ice crystals were purified by ice-water steep and vacuum filtration. The COD,NH3-N,and electric conductivity levels of the melted ices were measured to reflect ice crystal purity. Effects of coolant temperature, ice crystal shape, initial solution temperature, solution concentration, ice seeding, re-crystallization process and crystallization time on ice crystal purity were analyzed. The results show that an appropriate coolant temperature, suspended ice crystals,an initial solution temperature of about 6 C, introduction of seed ice, addition of re-crystallization process. And crystallization time of less than 30 min are in favor of producing ice crystals with hith purity.Under such conditions, more than 99 percent of inorganic salts, COD and NH3-N sources in raw urine could be removed.

  9. Efficient continuous synthesis of high purity deep eutectic solvents by twin screw extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D E; Wright, L A; James, S L; Abbott, A P

    2016-03-18

    Mechanochemical synthesis has been applied to the rapid synthesis of Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), including Reline 200 (choline chloride : urea, 1 : 2), in a continuous flow methodology by Twin Screw Extrusion (TSE). This gave products in higher purity and with Space Time Yields (STYs), four orders of magnitude greater than for batch methods.

  10. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development.

  11. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy.

  12. Comparison of the purity and vitality of natural killer cells with different isolation kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangchuan; Yu, Guang; Wang, Dongmei; Guo, Shengnan; Shan, Fengping

    2017-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that aid in the protection of the host from infectious diseases and cancer. In vitro studies of NK cells have provided a foundation for developing clinical adoptive NK-cell transferred immunotherapy against human tumors. To elucidate the functions and mechanisms of NK cell populations, it is important to develop an optimal, highly reproducible and reliable isolation method. The present comparative study was performed with four different NK cell isolation kits of magnetic bead labeling made by Miltenyi and Stemcell companies, including positive selection kits [cluster of differentiation (CD)-49b, using the monoclonal antibody DX5) MicroBeads] and negative selection kits. In addition, the viability of NK cells isinterleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent in vitro and thus the concentration of IL-2 is critical for maintaining longer cell viability of NK cells. NK cell purity and viability after culturing, for 24, 48 or 72 h, with or without IL-2 (0, 100, 300 or 500 U/ml) was investigated in the present study. Purity of NK cells varied depending on the purification kit used, despite the same method being applied. Furthermore, more granulocytes were present in purified NK cells using Miltenyi sorting kits, particularly when using the negative selection kit. The main disadvantage of DX5-positive selection using the Stemcell and Miltenyi kits was that a high percentage of CD3ε(+) cells were mixed into the isolated NK cells. Additionally, a significant difference of NK cell purity (P=0.003) was observed while purification was performed using different surface markers. As a consequence, the use of the positive selection kit was modified and subsequently a significantly higher purity (P=0.002) and yield (P=0.004) of NK cells was obtained. Moreover, the purity of NK cells and viability with or without a range of concentrations of IL-2 was compared. Results indicated that with a higher IL-2 concentration, the NK cell purity and viability

  13. Computer Based Optimisation Rutines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the need for optimisation methods for the laser cutting process has been identified as three different situations. Demands on the optimisation methods for these situations are presented, and one method for each situation is suggested. The adaptation and implementation of the methods...

  14. Computer Based Optimisation Rutines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the need for optimisation methods for the laser cutting process has been identified as three different situations. Demands on the optimisation methods for these situations are presented, and one method for each situation is suggested. The adaptation and implementation of the methods...

  15. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs and challenges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Shivarudrappa; K V Vimalnath

    2005-07-01

    Radionuclides have become powerful and indispensable tools in many endeavours of human activities, most importantly in medicine, industry, biology and agriculture, apart from R&D activities. Ready availability of radionuclides in suitable radiochemical form, its facile detection and elegant tracer concepts are responsible for their unprecedented use. Application of radioisotopes in medicine has given birth to a new branch, viz. nuclear medicine, wherein radioisotopes are used extensively in the diagnosis and treatment of variety of diseases including cancer. Artificial transmutation of an element employing thermal neutrons in a reactor or high energy particle accelerators (cyclotrons) are the routes of radioisotope production world over. Availability of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope programme. Selection of stable nuclides in suitable chemical form as targets with desired isotopic and chemical purity are among the important considerations in radioisotope production. Mostly the oxide, carbonate or the metal itself are the preferred target forms for neutron activation in a research reactor. Chemical impurities, particularly from the elements of the same group, put a limitation on the purity of the final radioisotope product. Whereas the isotopic impurities result in the production of undesirable radionuclidic impurities, which affect their effective utilization. Isotope Group, BARC, is in the forefront of radioisotope production and supply in the country, meeting demands for gamut of radioisotope applications indigenously for over four decades now. Radioisotopes such as 131I, 99Mo, 32P, 51Cr, 153Sm, 82Br, 203Hg, 198Au etc are produced in TBq quantities every month and supplied to several users and to Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT). Such a large production programme puts a huge demand on the reliable sources of availability of high purity target materials which are at present mostly met

  16. Preparation and characterization of (10)B boric acid with high purity for nuclear industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijiang; Liu, Tianyu; Xu, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid is often added into coolant as neutron capture agent for pressurized water reactor, whose amount is influenced by its abundance and purity. Therefore, the preparation of enriched (10)B boric acid with high purity is beneficial to nuclear industry. (10)B is also used in developing tumor-specific boronated drugs in boron neutron capture therapy. The boronated drug can be administered to patient intravenously, intratumorally, or deposited at tumor site in surgical excision. Thus, enriched (10)B boric acid is of practical significance in the field of medicine. Self-made boron trifluoride-methanol-complex solution was selected as one of the experimental reagents, and the preparation of (10)B acid was realized by one-step reaction for the complexes with water and calcium chloride. The determination of electrical conductivity in reaction process proves that the optimum reaction time was 16-20 h. Furthermore, the effect of reaction time, ratio of calcium chloride to complex as well as the amount of water on the purity and yield of boric acid was investigated. Finally, the optimum reaction time was 20 h, the optimal solid-liquid ratio (molar ratio) was 3:1, and the amount of water was 1 L of deionized water for each mol of the complex. H2O2 was added in the reaction process to remove Fe(2+). After recrystallization, IR spectra of (10)B boric acid was measured and compared with standard to verify the product of boric acid. The feasibility of the preparation method was determined by the detection of XRD of boric acid. To observe the morphology by polarizing microscope, crystal structure was obtained. The purity of the final product is 99.95 %, and the yield is 96.47 %. The ion concentration of boric acid accords with the national standard of high purity, which was determined by ICP.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...

  18. Antinociceptive properties of the hydroalcoholic extract and the flavonoid rutin obtained from Polygala paniculata L. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Fernanda da R; Gadotti, Vinicius M; Missau, Fabiana C; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Marques, Maria Consuelo A; Dafré, Alcir L; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair R S

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the antinociceptive effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Polygala paniculata in chemical and thermal behavioural models of pain in mice. The antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated in chemical (acetic-acid, formalin, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde and glutamate tests) and thermal (tail-flick and hot-plate test) models of pain or by biting behaviour following intratecal administration of both ionotropic and metabotropic agonists of excitatory amino acids receptors glutamate and cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in mice. When given orally, hydroalcoholic extract (0.001-10 mg/kg), produced potent and dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain. In the formalin test, the hydroalcoholic extract (0.0001-0.1 mg/kg orally) also caused significant inhibition of both the early (neurogenic pain) and the late (inflammatory pain) phases of formalin-induced licking. However, it was more potent and efficacious in relation to the late phase of the formalin test. The capsaicin-induced nociception was also reduced at a dose of only 1.0 mg/kg orally. The hydroalcoholic extract significantly reduced the cinnamaldehyde-induced nociception at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg orally. Moreover, the hydroalcoholic extract (0.001-1.0 mg/kg orally) caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of glutamate-induced pain. However, only rutin, but not phebalosin or aurapten, isolated from P. paniculata, administered intraperitoneally to mice, produced dose-related inhibition of glutamate-induced pain. Furthermore, the hydroalcoholic extract (0.1-100 mg/kg orally) had no effect in the tail-flick test. On the other hand, the hydroalcoholic extract caused a significant increase in the latency to response at a dose of 10 mg/kg orally, in the hot-plate test. The hydroalcoholic extract (0.1 mg/kg orally) antinociception, in the glutamate test, was neither affected by

  19. Pengukuran Komponen Zat Besi pada Laki-Laki Pendonor Darah Rutin di Kabupaten Gunung Kidul Tahun 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Tanamal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorder in the world and this can happen in the routine male blood donors. In people who donate blood on a regular basis are feared to iron deficiency without anemia. Thus a major concern of the donor screening for iron deficiency aiming for blood donors is to stay healthy and continue to donate blood. This study used a cross-sectional design in the male blood donors from Gunung Kidul who donate blood first, fifth and tenth times. Each donation made up of 25 people who were taken blood samples for serum iron (SI, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, transferrin saturation and serum ferritin examination. Results obtained in the first donation, the mean ferritin level was 91.78; the fifth donation increased ferritin levels in the amount of 111.49 and decreased again in the tenth donation donor group 65.28. Results of Kruskal Wallis test showed no significant difference between the mean ferritin levels in the first donation, the fifth and the tenth time (p=0.044. There is a decrease in body iron stores (serum ferritin in the tenth donation while no changes for SI, TIBC and transferrin saturation. The more often one donate blood can cause first stage of iron deficiency which call as iron depletion. Therefore need to be considered dietary or nutritional status and also supplements provided after donor.Keywords : blood donor, iron status, Gunung KidulAbstrakDefisiensi besi adalah salah satu gangguan gizi yang paling umum dan bisa terjadi pada para pendonor darah laki-laki yang rutin. Pada pendonor darah yang sering mendonorkan darah, pada suatu waktu dikhawatirkan dapat terjadi defisiensi besi tanpa anemia. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan hubungan kekerapan donasi dengan penurunan cadangan besi tubuh (feritin serum dan saturasi besi. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain potong lintang pada para pendonor darah laki-laki di Gunung Kidul yang menyumbangkan darahnya pertama, kelima dan

  20. 宁夏枸杞菜中总黄酮和芦丁含量的动态变化研究%Study on Dynamic Changes of Total Flavonoids and Rutin Contents in Ningxia Wolfberry Dish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玺; 马红军; 何薇

    2014-01-01

    Total flavonoids and rutin contents in wolfberry at different growth stages were detected in order to determine the optimum harvest of the wolfberry. UV spectrophotometry was used to determine total flavonoids content, rutin content was determined by HPLC. The results show that flavonoids and rutin contents in wolfberry at different growth stages have significant difference, flavonoids and rutin contents in wolfberry in May and October are high. So the best harvest of wolfberry should be in late May and in late October.%考察不同生长期枸杞菜中总黄酮和芦丁的含量,以确定枸杞菜的最佳采收期。采用紫外分光光度法测定总黄酮的含量,高效液相色谱法测定芦丁的含量。不同月份总黄酮和芦丁的含量具有显著的差异,5月和10月总黄酮和芦丁含量均较高。枸杞菜最佳采收期为春季5月下旬或秋季10月下旬。

  1. Hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers modified by deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids with three templates for the rapid simultaneous purification of rutin, scoparone, and quercetin from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Ahn, Wha Seung; Row, Kyung Ho

    2016-12-01

    Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride and ionic liquids based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers with the monomer γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-methacrylic and three templates (rutin, scoparone, and quercetin). The materials were adopted as solid-phase extraction packing agents, and were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers modified by deep eutectic solvents had high recoveries and a strong recognition of rutin, scoparone, and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae than those modified by ionic liquids. In the procedure of solid-phase extraction, deep eutectic solvents-2-hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers were obtained with the best recoveries with rutin (92.27%), scoparone (87.51%), and quercetin (80.02%), and the actual extraction yields of rutin (5.6 mg/g), scoparone (2.3 mg/g), and quercetin (3.4 mg/g). Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers might offer a novel method for the purification of complex samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. 芦丁、槲皮素对α-淀粉酶抑制活性研究%Research on α-amylase Inhibition Function of Rutin and Quercetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斯慧; 黄琬凌; 陈庆松; 曾里; 曾凡骏

    2012-01-01

    The auxiliary hypoglycemic activity healthy function of rutin and quercetin were discussed throuth inhibiting a-amylase. The result was that rutin and quercetin had a sound effect in inhibiting a-amylase activity. Through the rendering of a-amylase activity inhibit curve, calculate the half inhibiting concentration (IC50) of raw material on α-amylase were identified respectively:rutin was 0.258mg/mL; quercetin was 0.233mg/mL; acrebose was 0.095mg/mL. The order was that acrebose>quercetin>rutin.%以α-淀粉酶为评价指标,探讨了芦丁和槲皮素的辅助降血糖功能.研究结果芦丁和槲皮素对α-淀粉酶抑制均呈阳性,表明芦丁和槲皮素都具有辅助降血糖的功能.芦丁溶液、槲皮素溶液和阿卡波糖对α-淀粉酶的半抑制浓度分别为0.258mg/mL、0.233mg/mL、0.095mg/mL.芦丁、槲皮素、阿卡波糖对α-淀粉酶的抑制作用大小顺序为:阿卡波糖>槲皮素>芦丁.

  3. Square-wave voltammetric determination of rutin in pharmaceutical formulations using a carbon composite electrode modified with copper (II phosphate immobilized in polyester resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Heloizy Garcia Freitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A carbon composite electrode modified with copper (II phosphate immobilized in a polyester resin (Cu3(PO42-Poly for the determination of rutin in pharmaceutical samples by square-wave voltammetry is described herein. The modified electrode allows the determination of rutin at a potential (0.20 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L-1 KCl lower than that observed at an unmodified electrode. The peak current was found to be linear to the rutin concentration in the range from 9.9 × 10-8 to 2.5 × 10-6 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 1.2×10-8 mol L-1. The response of the electrode was stable, with no variation in baseline levels within several hours of continuous operation. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX system. The results obtained are precise and accurate. In addition, these results are in agreement with those obtained by the chromatographic method at a 95% confidence level.Descreve-se um eletrodo de carbono modificado com fosfato de cobre (II imobilizado em uma resina de poliéster (Cu3(PO42-Poly para a determinação de rutina em amostras farmacêuticas por voltametria de onda quadrada. O eletrodo modificado permite a determinação de rutina em potencial (0.20 V vs Ag / AgCl (3,0 mol L-1 KCl menor que o observado em um eletrodo não modificado. Verificou-se que a corrente de pico foi linear com a concentração de rutina na faixa de 9,9 × 10-8 a 2,5 × 10-6 mol L-1, com um limite de detecção de 1,2 × 10-8 mol L¹. A resposta do eletrodo foi estável, sem variação significativa dentro de várias horas de operação contínua. A morfologia da superfície do eletrodo modificado foi caracterizada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e pelo sistema de energia dispersiva de raios-X (EDX. Os resultados obtidos foram precisos e exatos. Ademais, estes resultados estão de acordo com aqueles obtidos pelo método cromatográfico a um nível de

  4. Effect of synthesis atmosphere, wetting, and compaction on the purity of AlB₂

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Michael L. [University of Utah, 122 S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A., E-mail: cutler@ceramatec.com [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425 S. 900 W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    AlB₂ is attractive as an energetic fuel because of its large heat of combustion on a volumetric basis. The formation of AlB₂ from its elements is thermodynamically limited by decomposition into liquid aluminum and α-AlB₁₂ at temperatures approaching 950 °C, and kinetically limited in the reverse reaction, making synthesis of high-purity powders difficult. Minimizing unreacted Al and B makes AlB₂ more resistant to moisture degradation. AlB₂ yield for similarly prepared samples was observed to be significantly higher in He–6% H₂ or vacuum compared to a high-purity Ar atmosphere. Lower AlB₂ yield was generally associated with higher Al₂O₃ content in the reaction products, suggesting that poor Al wetting on oxide surfaces generated by the reaction of Al with B₂O₃ and other sources of oxygen prevented complete reaction. Compaction decreased the amount of oxygen available to the interior of the pellet, and the vacuum and He–6% H₂ environments reduced the amount of oxide impurities in the system, possibly by reducing or subliming them. By optimization of synthesis parameters the purity of AlB₂ was measured as 93 wt%, which was better than the previously reported bulk syntheses. Accounting for unreacted boron is important when using XRD to assess purity since the quantification of secondary phases, such as Al, Al₂O₃, and Al₃BC, allow the amount of boron, which is not easily detected in the scan, to be calculated. - Graphical abstract: Atmosphere and compaction pressure affect AlB₂ purity. Highlights: • Vacuum or He–6% H₂ yielded higher AlB₂ than Ar due to reduced Al₂O₃. • Compaction at 25 MPa prior to heating improved the AlB₂ yield. • XRD can be used to quantify AlB₂ if Al is used to assess the free B content. • Elimination of oxide impurities is the key to making higher purity AlB₂.

  5. BP神经网络优化槐花中芦丁的提取工艺%Optimization of Extraction Technology of Rutin from Sophora japonica Based on BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾祥燕; 赵良忠; 蒋盛岩

    2013-01-01

    为提高槐花加工过程中芦丁的得率,以槐花为原料提取芦丁,采用正交试验设计收集试验数据,利用BP神经网络的自学习能力,通过仿真和评估,优化其提取工艺参数.结果表明:BP神经网络与正交实验方法相结合,能更好的利用已知信息,最佳仿真提取条件为:pH 9.50,乙醇体积分数60%,时间1.45 h,料液比1∶21,运用该提取条件用于实际研究中,测得实际得率为13.51%,试验结果优于正交试验,获得较为理想的目标值.%BP Neural Network (BPNN) combined with orthogonal array design was applied to optimize the extraction technology of rutin from Sophora japonica. The orthogonal testing data was used by applying BPNN. The experimental result showed that BPNN helper to increase the productivity of rutin. The optimized extraction conditions of rutin from Sophora japonica were as follows:pH 9.50,60% as the alcohol concentration, 1.45 h as the extraction time,and 1: 21 as the material/liquid ratio. The experiment was accomplished under optimized extraction conditions. The yield of rutin was 13.51%. In conclusion,BPNN provided a good technical basis for industrialization of the production of rutin.

  6. Fatty acid fragmentation of triacylglycerol isolated from crude nyamplung oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparamarta, Hakun Wirawasista; Anggraini, Desy; Istianingsih, Della; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu; Gunawan, Setiyo

    2017-05-01

    Nyamplung (Calophylluminophyllum) has many benefits ranging from roots, stems, leaves, until seeds. In this seed, C. inophyllum contained significantly high amount of crude oil (70.4%). C. inophyllum oil is known as non edible. Therefore Indonesian people generally only know that seeds can produce oil that can be used for biodiesel. In this work, the fragmentation of fatty acid in triacylglycerols (TAG) was studied. The isolation process was started with separation of non polar lipid fraction (NPLF) from crude C. inophyllum oil via batchwise multistage liquid extraction. TAG was obtained in high purity (99%) and was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). It was found that fatty acids of TAG are palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1c), linoleic acid (C18:2c), and linolenic acid (C18:3c). Moreover, TAG isolated from C. inophyllum oil was promising as edible oil.

  7. [Capillary electrochromatography for chiral separation and purity testing of pharmaceutical drug substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdag, Mária; Takács, Tímea; Szóllósi, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Chiral separation of D,L-Norgestrel was successfully performed by cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrochromatographic (CEC) method. Optimized CEC conditions for purity testing were achieved: Hypersil C-18 packed capillary and 10 mM 2-[N-morpholino]-ethanesulfonic acid buffer (MES) and 40 v/v % methanol as background electrolyte containing 10 mM gamma-cyclodextrin at pH = 5.5. The resolution was found to be strongly dependent on the concentration of chiral selector gamma-cyclodextrin, applied voltage and temperature of the capillary. Our results represent a simple, fast and reproducible method for the separation of D,L-Norgestrel and purity testing of D-Norgestrel. It can be concluded that cyclodextrin modified HPLC, HPCE and CEC offer inexpensive, attractive and reliable chiral separation methods.

  8. Study of corrosion of aluminium alloys of nuclear purity in ordinary water, пart one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of corrosion of aluminum alloys of nuclear purity in ordinary water of the spent fuel storage pool of the RA research reactor at VINČA Institute of Nuclear Sciences has been examined in the frame work of the International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Project "Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum-Clad Spent Fuel in Water" since 2002. The study presented in this paper comprises activities on determination and monitoring of chemical parameters and radio activity of water and sludge in the RA spent fuel storage pool and results of the initial study of corrosion effects obtained by visual examinations of surfaces of various coupons made of aluminum alloys of nuclear purity of the test racks exposed to the pool water for a period from six months to six years.

  9. Supply-side response to declining heroin purity: fentanyl overdose episode in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Katherine; Yildirim, Emel O

    2014-06-01

    The inelastic price demand observations characteristic of illegal drug markets have led to the conclusion that the burden of a negative supply shock would be completely reflected to consumers. This paper argues that the increasing availability of prescription opioids may threaten heroin sellers' profit margin and force them to find alternative methods to compensate buyers in the event of a supply shock. We investigate the 2006 fentanyl overdose episode in New Jersey and argue that the introduction of non-pharmaceutical fentanyl, its spatial distribution, and the timing of overdose deaths may have been related to trends in heroin purity. Using medical examiner data, as well as data from the Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control on retail sales of prescription opioids in a negative binomial specification, we show that month-to-month fluctuations in heroin purity have a significant effect on fentanyl-related overdoses, particularly in those areas where prescription opioids are highly available.

  10. Determination of Trace Elements in High Purity Gold by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hualin; HUANG Kelong; NIE Xidu; FU Liang

    2009-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in high purity gold by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(HR-ICP-MS).Sample were decomposed by aqua regia.To overcome some potentially problematic spectral interference,measurements were acquired in both medium and high resolution modes.The matrix effects due to the presence of excessive HCl and Au were evaluated.The optimum conditions for the determination was tested and discussed.The standard addition method was employed for quantitative analysis.The detection limits range from 0.01 μg/g to 0.28 μg/g depending on the elements.The method is accurate,quick and convenient.It has been applied to the determination of trace elements in high purity gold with satisfactory results.

  11. The European Expression Of Interest For High Purity U-233 Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaquinto, Joseph M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Younkin, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this letter report is to document the response for an Expression of Interest (EOI) sent to the European Safeguards and research and development (R&D) scientific communities for the distribution of small amounts of high purity 233U materials for use in safeguards, nonproliferation, and basic R&D in the nuclear disciplines. The intent for the EOI was to gauge the level of international interest for these materials from government and research institutions with programmatic missions in the nuclear security or nuclear R&D arena. The information contained herein is intended to provide information to assist key decision makers in DOE as to the ultimate disposition path for the high purity materials currently being recovered at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and only those items for which there is no United States (U.S.) sponsor identified.

  12. Out-of-time-ordered correlators and purity in rational conformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputa, Paweł; Numasawa, Tokiro; Veliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we investigate measures of chaos and entanglement in rational conformal field theories in 1 + 1 dimensions. First, we derive a formula for the late time value of the out-of-time-ordered correlators for this class of theories. Our universal result can be expressed as a particular combination of the modular S-matrix elements known as anyon monodromy scalar. Next, in the explicit setup of an SUN Wess-Zumino-Witten model, we compare the late time behavior of the out-of-time-ordered correlators and the purity. Interestingly, in the large-c limit, the purity grows logarithmically as in holographic theories; in contrast, the out-of-time-ordered correlators remain, in general, nonvanishing.

  13. Production of solar grade silicon in an arc furnace using high purity starting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulich, H. A.; Dietze, W.; Eisenbith, K.-H.; Schafer, J.; Schulze, F. W.; Urbach, H.-P.

    Solar cell-grade Si has been produced, using high purity SiO2 and C raw materials, by means of carbothermic reduction. The process involves the production of glass fibers from a melt of ordinary silica sand and glass-forming oxides, whose impurities are then leached out through treatment of the fibers with hot HCl. The high purity carbon is also prepared by treating carbon black with hot HCl. The purified SiO2 and C materials are reacted in an arc surface, yielding Si impurity concentrations corresponding to those of the highly purified materials. A three-phase, 550 kVA-arc furnace was constructed to prepare Si on a large scale.

  14. Radiolabelling, quality control and radiochemical purity assessment of the Octreotide analogue 68Ga DOTA NOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, D; Rizzello, A; Cicoria, G; Lodi, F; Marengo, M; Pancaldi, D; Trespidi, S; Boschi, S

    2008-08-01

    Somatostatin receptors 1-5 are over expressed in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). 68Ga-labelled [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]-1-Nal3-Octreotide (DOTA NOC), a recent synthesized somatostatin analogue, shows high affinity for those receptors. Herein, modifications of a commercial module for the labelling of DOTA NOC with 68Ga, as well as the assessment of time course of the radiochemical purity variation are described. The evaluation of radiochemical stability was done by two different chromatographic methods: reversed-phase radio HPLC and fast TLC analysis. Labelled compound has been found radiochemically stable within 3h from the end of labelling (EOL) and radiochemical purity was always higher than 99%. After 73 labelling sessions the system showed great reproducibility and high radiochemical yield.

  15. Electrolysis Process of High Purity Gold%高纯金的电解工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶跃威

    2014-01-01

    介绍了遂昌金矿有限公司的高纯金电解工艺。实践表明,采用该工艺,在金阳极板含金95%~99%下经过一次金电解,金纯度即可达到99.997%以上。经检测,杂质含量低于高纯金(99.999%)的杂质要求。%The high-purity gold electrolysis process of Suichang Gold Mine Co. Ltd., is introduced. The production practice showed that, the content of gold can reach above 99.997% after only one cycle of electrolysis from the anode plate which contains 95%~99% gold. The test results showed that the impurities accord with the requirement of Chinese national standard of high-purity gold (99.999%).

  16. Characterization of Rod-like High-purity Fluorapatite Nanopowders Obtained by Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sasani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available high purity fluorapatite (FA with rod-like and spherical-like morphology was synthesized via sol-gel method. Chemical characterization of FA powders was done by XRD and FTIR analyses. Crystallite samples were calculated using Scherer method. Morphology of FA powders was investigated with TEM and SEM images. The results revealed that increasing the time of hydrolysis of phosphate sols significantly decreased the gelation time of FA sols. Also, mixing temperature of P and Ca sols affects the gelation time of samples and increasing pH decreases the gelation time of FA sols. Morphological and chemical characterization of samples showed that the FA powders have high purity and rod-like and spherical-like morphology.

  17. High Purity DNA Extraction with a SPE Microfluidic Chip Using KI as the Binding Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing CHEN; Da Fu CUI; Chang Chun LIU

    2006-01-01

    Based on solid phase extraction method, a novel silicon-PDMS-glass microchip for high purity DNA extraction has been developed by using KI as the binding salt. The microfluidic chip fabricated by MEMS technology was composed of a silicon substrate with a coiled channel and a compounded PDMS-glass cover. With this microfluidic chip, the wall of the coiled channel was used as solid phase matrix for binding DNA and DNA was extracted by the fluxion of the binding buffer, washing buffer and elution buffer. KI as a substitute for guanidine, was used successfully as binding salt for purification DNA, obtaining higher purity of genomic DNA and about 13.9 ng DNA from 1 μL rat whole blood in 35 minutes.

  18. Hybrid microfiber-lithium-niobate nanowaveguide structures as high-purity heralded single-photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Philip; Mosley, Peter J.; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Lijian; Gorbach, Andrey V.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a compact, fiber-integrated architecture for photon-pair generation by parametric downconversion with unprecedented flexibility in the properties of the photons produced. Our approach is based on a thin-film lithium niobate nanowaveguide, evanescently coupled to a tapered silica microfiber. We demonstrate how controllable mode hybridization between the fiber and waveguide yields control over the joint spectrum of the photon pairs. We also investigate how independent engineering of the linear and nonlinear properties of the structure can be achieved through the addition of a tapered, proton-exchanged layer to the waveguide. This allows further refinement of the joint spectrum through custom profiling of the effective nonlinearity, drastically improving the purity of the heralded photons. We give details of a source design capable of generating heralded single photons in the telecom wavelength range with purity of at least 0.95, and we provide a feasible fabrication methodology.

  19. Fabrication of novel cryomill for synthesis of high purity metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmal; Biswas, Krishanu

    2015-08-01

    The successful preparation of free standing metal nanoparticles with high purity in bulk quantity is the pre-requisite for any potential application. This is possible by using ball milling at cryogenic temperature. However, the most of ball mills available in the market do not allow preparing high purity metal nanoparticles by this route. In addition, it is not possible to carry out in situ measurements of process parameters as well as diagnostic of the process. In the present investigation, we present a detailed study on the fabrication of a cryomill, which is capable of avoiding contaminations in the product. It also provides in situ measurements and diagnostic of the low temperature milling process. Online monitoring of the milling temperature and observation of ball motion are the important aspects in the newly designed mill. The nanoparticles prepared using this fabricated mill have been found to be free standing and also free from contaminations.

  20. Radiolabelling, quality control and radiochemical purity assessment of the Octreotide analogue {sup 68}Ga DOTA NOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pierro, D.; Rizzello, A. [PET Radiopharmacy-Nuclear Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Bologna, S. Orsolo-Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40318 Bologna (Italy); Cicoria, G. [Medical Physics, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Bologna, S. Orsolo-Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40318 Bologna (Italy); Lodi, F. [PET Radiopharmacy-Nuclear Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Bologna, S. Orsolo-Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40318 Bologna (Italy); Marengo, M.; Pancaldi, D. [Medical Physics, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Bologna, S. Orsolo-Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40318 Bologna (Italy); Trespidi, S. [PET Radiopharmacy-Nuclear Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Bologna, S. Orsolo-Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40318 Bologna (Italy); Boschi, S. [PET Radiopharmacy-Nuclear Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Bologna, S. Orsolo-Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40318 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: stefano.boschi@aosp.bo.it

    2008-08-15

    Somatostatin receptors 1-5 are over expressed in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). {sup 68}Ga-labelled [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]-1-Nal3-Octreotide (DOTA NOC), a recent synthesized somatostatin analogue, shows high affinity for those receptors. Herein, modifications of a commercial module for the labelling of DOTA NOC with {sup 68}Ga, as well as the assessment of time course of the radiochemical purity variation are described. The evaluation of radiochemical stability was done by two different chromatographic methods: reversed-phase radio HPLC and fast TLC analysis. Labelled compound has been found radiochemically stable within 3 h from the end of labelling (EOL) and radiochemical purity was always higher than 99%. After 73 labelling sessions the system showed great reproducibility and high radiochemical yield.

  1. Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Determine the Purity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized in the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, Frank; Colyer, Christa L.

    2001-11-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE), although a powerful analytical tool, has found only limited application in undergraduate laboratory study. In an effort to expose freshman and sophomore chemistry students to this technique, thereby giving them practical instrumental experience early in their careers, we propose to use CE in the analysis of student-synthesized acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). The synthesis of ASA from salicylic acid (SA) is a routine undergraduate laboratory, although students rarely have the opportunity to test the purity of their product. The CE method described herein provides students with a method to test purity and yield of their product and to determine the effect of aging on their sample. CE can accomplish this in a short period of time, with minimal disruption to the regular laboratory curriculum. Optimized separation conditions, limits of detection, and linear range for ASA and SA are also given.

  2. Jesus healing the leper and the Purity Law in the Gospel of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Though, in the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus explicitly states that he did not come to abolish the Law (Mt 5:17–19, in the narrative that follows directly after this Sermon, he apparently neglects purity laws by healing a leper (Mt 8:1–3. As an impure person, the leper was not supposed to come close to Jesus, but Jesus sympathetically reaches out and touches him. Furthermore, no mention is made of Jesus undergoing any purification rites after coming into contact with this man. Once the leper is healed, Jesus instructs him to perform only the third phase of the prescribed purification rite for lepers. Jesus is thus described as having the power and authority to heal the person and to declare him healed. What remains for the leper is to show himself to the priest and to bring the appropriate sacrifice, so that he could be accepted into the society again. In this article it is argued that Jesus, as the Holy One and miracle Healer, is not defiled by coming into contact with the leper. Purity flows from Jesus to heal the leper. As a teacher of the Law, Jesus enacts the true intention of the Law, which is to establish a holy community of believers within the Kingdom of heaven. This healing action forms a step towards the coming of the Kingdom of heaven. Thus, the purity laws find their fulfilment in Jesus. As result of this action, cultic purity transforms into a moral activity for the followers of Jesus.

  3. A Study of the Surface Quality of High Purity Copper after Heat Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M; Atieh, S; Calatroni, S; Riddone, G; Lebet, S; Samoshkin, A

    2011-01-01

    Themanufacturing flow of accelerating structures for the compact linear collider, based on diamond-machined high purity copper components, include several thermal cycles (diffusion bonding, brazing of cooling circuits, baking in vacuum, etc.). The high temperature cycles may be carried out following different schedules and environments (vacuum, reducing hydrogen atmosphere, argon, etc.) and develop peculiar surface topographies which have been the object of extended observations. This study presents and discusses the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy investigations.

  4. RAPD Technique Used to Determine the Purity of Hybrid Hot Pepper Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two hybrid hot pepper varieties Xiangyan 5 and Xiangyan 10, and their parents were analyzed the polymerase chain reaction with MJ /PT 200 Peltrier Themal Cycler and DS 800 White-ultravilot Transilluminator to set up a RAPD system adaptable to the purity determination of the hybrid seeds. Among the 39 random primers, 2 and 4 primers were found to be used effectively in Xiangyan 5 and Xiangyan 10 respectively.

  5. Impurity distribution and reduction behaviour of quartz in the production of high purity silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Martello, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The production of solar grade silicon is based on the use of expensive high purity carbon and quartz feedstock as well as various silicon refining techniques. Impurities in the feedstock materials enter the silicon during the carbothermic reduction of quartz. The knowledge of the impurity distribution/removal in the feedstock and in the carbothermic reduction process is necessary for targeting less pure and cheaper raw materials.The aim of the present study is to investigate the impurity dist...

  6. Breakdown characteristics in DC spark experiments of copper focusing on purity and hardness

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, Kazue; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Santiago-Kern, Ana Rocia; Pasquino, Chiara; Calatroni, Sergio; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The breakdown characteristics related to the differences in purity and hardness were investigated for several types of copper using a DC spark test system. Three types of oxygen-free copper (OFC) materials, usual class 1 OFC 7-nine large-grain copper and 6-nine hot-isotropic-pressed (HIP) copper with/without diamond finish, were tested with the DC spark test system. The measurements of the beta, breakdown fields, and breakdown probability are presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. COMPARISON OF PURITY AND ENTROPY OF K-MEANS CLUSTERING AND FUZZY C MEANS CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Chaitanya Sripada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is one the main area in data mining literature. There are various algorithms for clustering. The evaluation of the performance isdone by validation measures. The external validation measures are used to measure the extent to which cluster labels affirm with theexternally given class labels. The aim of this paper is to compare the for K-means and Fuzzy C means clustering using the Purity andEntropy. The data used for evaluating the external measures is medical data.

  8. Determination of Trace Iron in High Purity Sodium Fluoride by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A method is described for the direct determination of iron in high purity sodium fluoride using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Interferences caused by the matrix are investigated. It is shown that the ashing temperature can be increased to 1 400°C and matrix interferences eliminated, the sensi tivity of iron increased in 1.27 fold by the addition of nickel nitrate. The method is applied to the determina tion of iron in sodium fluoride and satisfactory results are obtained.

  9. Obtaining water with a high degree of purity by using reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Chirilă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the method of reverse osmosis in order to obtain water with a high degree of purity. For this aim, we used the TKA 20-120ECO device. We completed physic-chemical determinations for the water of supply, as well as for the water obtained after the osmosis process. The results that we obtained are relevant and interesting.

  10. Aluminium. II - A review of deformation properties of high purity aluminium and dilute aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic and plastic deformation behavior of high-purity aluminum and of dilute aluminum alloys is reviewed. Reliable property data, including elastic moduli, elastic coefficients, tensile, creep, fatigue, hardness, and impact are presented. Single crystal tensile results are discussed. Rather comprehensive reference lists, containing publications of the past 20 years, are included for each of the above categories. Defect structures and mechanisms responsible for mechanical behavior are presented. Strengthening techniques (alloys, cold work, irradiation, quenching, composites) and recovery are briefly reviewed.

  11. Group-based discrimination in judgments of moral purity-related behaviors: experimental and archival evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masicampo, E J; Barth, Maria; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of individuals' group membership can alter moral judgments of their behavior. We found that such moral judgments were amplified when judgers learned that a person belonged to a group shown to elicit disgust in others. When a person was labeled as obese, a hippie, or "trailer trash," people judged that person's behavior differently than when such descriptors were omitted: Virtuous behaviors were more highly praised, and moral violations were more severely criticized. Such group-based discrimination in moral judgment was specific to the domain of moral purity. Members of disgust-eliciting groups but not members of other minorities were the target of harsh judgments for purity violations (e.g., lewd behavior) but not for other violations (e.g., refusing to help others). The same pattern held true for virtuous behaviors, so that members of disgust-eliciting groups were more highly praised than others but only in the purity domain. Furthermore, group-based discrimination was mediated by feelings of disgust toward the target group but not by other emotions. Last, analysis of New York Police Department officers' encounters with suspected criminals revealed a similar pattern to that found in laboratory experiments. Police officers were increasingly likely to make an arrest or issue a summons as body mass index increased (i.e., as obesity rose) among people suspected of purity crimes (e.g., prostitution) but not of other crimes (e.g., burglary). Thus, moral judgments in the lab and in the real world exhibit patterns of discrimination that are both group and behavior specific.

  12. Simultaneously Recovering High-Purity Chromium and Removing Organic Pollutants from Tannery Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Zong; Yan-Chun Li; Kang Hu

    2016-01-01

    Chromium pollution is a serious issue because of carcinogenic toxicities of the pollutants and low recovery rate of chromium because of the presence of organic, such as protein and fat. In this work, high recovery rate and high purity of the chromium ion were successfully prepared by the way of acid enzyme, flocculant, and Fenton oxidation. The experiments were characterized by TG, TOC, UV-VIS, and SEM. In the work, the tannery waste chrome liquor was used as experimental material. The result...

  13. RESEARCH ON MICROBIOLOGICAL PURITY OF “PHYTOPROST” AND “TAMSULOPROST” SUPPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the tests on microbiological purity of the test samples of "Tamsuloprost" and "Phytoprost" suppositories for the treatment of prostate diseases have shown that no viable cells of fungi were found in the preparations, the number of viable cells of microorganisms is within a norman rate. Studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial preservatives it was found that the test samples meet criterion of the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of High-Purity Metal Fluorides for Photonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Photonics Technol. Lett., 4 446–8 (1992). 8D. F. Anderson, “ Cerium Fluoride – A Scintillator for High-Rate Applica- tions,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys... Cerium Doped Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses, a Possible Alternative for Electromagnetic Calorimetry,” Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 380, 524–36 (1996). 10J...Preparation and Characterization of High-Purity Metal Fluorides for Photonic Applications* Wendy M. Patterson,‡,† Peter C. Stark,§ Thomas M. Yoshida

  15. Purity and decoherence in the theory of a damped harmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isar, A.; Sandulescu, A.; Scheid, W.

    1999-12-01

    For the generalized master equations derived by Karrlein and Grabert for the microscopic model of a damped harmonic oscillator, the conditions for purity of states are written, in particular for different initial conditions and different types of damping, including Ohmic, Drude, and weak coupling cases, and the Agarwal and Weidlich-Haake models. It is shown that the states which remain pure are the squeezed states with variances that are constant in time. For pure states, generalized nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations corresponding to these master equations are also obtained. Then the condition for purity of states of a damped harmonic oscillator is considered in the framework of Lindblad theory for open quantum systems. For a special choice of the environment coefficients, correlated coherent states with constant variances and covariance are shown to be the only states which remain pure all the time during the evolution of the considered system. In Karrlein-Grabert and Lindblad models, as well as in the particular models considered, expressions for the rate of entropy production are written, and it is shown that state which preserve their purity in time are also states which minimize entropy production and, therefore, are the most stable state under evolution in the presence of the environment, and play an important role in the description of decoherence phenomenon.

  16. Chiral purity assay for Flindokalner using tandem mass spectrometry: method development, validation, and benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brandy L; Cooks, R G; Madden, Michelle C; Bair, Michael; Jia, Jingpin; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Miller, Scott A

    2007-04-11

    The present work demonstrates the application and validation of a mass spectrometry method for quantitative chiral purity determination. The particular compound analyzed is Flindokalner, a Bristol-Myers Squibb drug candidate for post-stroke neuroprotection. Chiral quantification of Flindokalner was achieved using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and the kinetic method, a gas phase method used for thermochemical and chiral determinations. The MS/MS method was validated and benchmarked against two separate chromatographic techniques, chiral high performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detection (LC/UV) and achiral high performance liquid chromatography with circular dichroism detection (LC/CD). The chiral purity determination of Flindokalner using MS/MS proved to be rapid (3 min run time for each sample) and to have accuracy and precision comparable to the chiral LC/UV and achiral LC/CD methods. This method represents an alternative to commonly used chromatographic techniques as a means of chiral purity determination and is particularly useful in rapid screening experiments.

  17. Temporal Purity and Quantum Interference of Single Photons from Two Independent Cold Atomic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z. Y.; Chen, J. F.; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source.

  18. [Maize Hybrid Seed Purity Identification Based on Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-xin; Jia, Shi-qiang; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Sheng-yi; Ran, Hang; Yan, Yan-lu; An, Dong

    2015-12-01

    This article explore the feasibility of using Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectroscopy (908.1-1677.2 nm wavelength range) to identify maize hybrid purity, and compare the performance of NIR and NIT spectroscopy. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (OLDA) were used to reduce the dimension of spectra which have been pretreated by first derivative and vector normalization. The hybrid purity identification model of Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 were built by SVM. Models based on NIR spectra obtained correct identification rate as 100% and 90% for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 respectively. But NIR spectra were greatly influenced by the placement of seeds, and there existed significant difference between NIR spectra of embryo and non-embryo side. Models based on NIT spectroscopy yielded correct identification rate as 98% both for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16. NIT spectra of embryo and non-embryo side were highly similar. The results indicate that it is feasible to identify maize hybrid purity based on NIR and NIT spectroscopy, and NIT spectroscopy is more suitable to analyze single seed kernel than NIR spectroscopy.

  19. Effect of high-temperature heat treatment duration on the purity and microstructure of MWCNTs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Srikanth; N Padmavathi; P S R Prasad; P Ghosal; R K Jain; Ch Subrahmanyam

    2016-02-01

    The effect of high-temperature heat treatment on purity and structural changes of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied by subjecting the raw MWCNTs (pristine MWCNTs) to 2600°C for 60 and 120 min. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the effect of heat-treatment duration on the purity and structural changes of MWCNTs. Results show that high-temperature heat treatment can be used to purify MWCNTs with proper optimization of treatment time. It was observed that 60 min heat treatment of raw MWCNTs imparts high purity and structural perfection to MWCNTs, while 120 min heat treatment imparts structural degradation to MWCNTs with collapse of the innermost shells. The present study indicates that metal impurities act as moderators in controlling the degradation of MWCNTs up to certain duration, and once the metal impurities escape completely, further heat treatment degrades the structure of MWCNTs.

  20. Capillary gel electrophoresis for the quantification and purity determination of recombinant proteins in inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-de la Garza, Carlos E; Perdomo-Abúndez, Francisco C; Campos-García, Víctor R; Pérez, Néstor O; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F; Medina-Rivero, Emilio

    2013-09-01

    In this work, a high-resolution CGE method for quantification and purity determination of recombinant proteins was developed, involving a single-component inclusion bodies (IBs) solubilization solution. Different recombinant proteins expressed as IBs were used to show method capabilities, using recombinant interferon-β 1b as the model protein for method validation. Method linearity was verified in the range from 0.05 to 0.40 mg/mL and a determination coefficient (r(2) ) of 0.99 was obtained. The LOQs and LODs were 0.018 and 0.006 mg/mL, respectively. RSD for protein content repeatability test was 2.29%. In addition, RSD for protein purity repeatability test was 4.24%. Method accuracy was higher than 90%. Specificity was confirmed, as the method was able to separate recombinant interferon-β 1b monomer from other aggregates and impurities. Sample content and purity was demonstrated to be stable for up to 48 h. Overall, this method is suitable for the analysis of recombinant proteins in IBs according to the attributes established on the International Conference for Harmonization guidelines. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Analysis of the liquid argon purity in the ICARUS T600 TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoruso, S.; Antonello, M.; Aprili, P.; Arneodo, F.; Badertscher, A.; Baiboussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bekman, B.; Benetti, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bischofberger, M.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Brunetti, R.; Bruzzese, R.; Bueno, A.; Buzzanca, M.; Calligarich, E.; Campanelli, M.; Carbonara, F.; Carpanese, C.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, D.; Chen, D.B.; Chen, Y.; Cieslik, X.; Cline, D.; Cocco, A.G.; Dai, Z.; De Vecchi, C.; Dabrowska, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Dolfini, R.; Ereditato, A.; Felcini, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferri, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galli, S.; Ge, Y.; Gibin, D.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Gil-Botella, I.; Graczyk, K.; Grandi, L.; Guglielmi, A.; He, K.; Holeczek, J.; Huang, X.; Juszczak, C.; Kielczewska, D.; Kisiel, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Laffranchi, M.; Lagoda, J.; Li, Z.; Lu, F.; Ma, J.; Mangano, G.; Markiewicz, M.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Matthey, C.; Mauri, F.; Meng, G.; Messina, M.; Montanari, C.; Muraro, S.; Navas-Concha, S. E-mail: navas@ugr.es; Nurzia, G.; Otwinowski, S.; Ouyang, Q.; Palamara, O.; Pascoli, D.; Periale, L.; Piano Mortari, G.B.; Piazzoli, A.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Polchlopek, W.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rico, J.; Rondio, E.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Santorelli, R.; Scannicchio, D.; Segreto, E.; Seo, Y.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sobczyk, J.; Spinelli, N.; Stepaniak, J.; Szarska, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szleper, M.; Terrani, M.; Velotta, R.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Woo, J.; Xu, G.; Xu, Z.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhen, S.; Zipper, W

    2004-01-01

    The results reported in this paper are based on the analysis of the data recorded with the first half-module of the ICARUS T600 liquid argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC), during a technical run that took place on surface in Pavia (Italy). We include results from the linearity, uniformity and calibration of the electronics, measurements on the electron drift velocity in LAr at different electric fields, as well as the LAr purity achievement of the detector. Two complementary techniques were used to measure the drift electron lifetime inside the active volume: the first, from the data of a purity monitor, gives a measurement localized in space; the second, based on the study of the signals produced by long minimum ionizing tracks crossing the detector, provides a LAr volume averaged value. Both methods yield consistent results over the whole data taking period and are compatible with an uniform LAr purity over the whole volume. The maximal drift electron lifetime value was recorded before the run stop and was about 1.8 ms. From an interpretation of the observed drift electron lifetime as a function of time, we conclude that the adopted technology would allow for drift distances exceeding 3 m.

  2. Purity of SiC powders fabricated by coat-mix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-min Shi; Hong-sheng Zhao; Chun-he Tang

    2009-01-01

    Silicon carbide powders were synthesized by the coat-mix process, with phenolic resin and silicon powders as starting materials.The effects of synthetic conditions, including sintering temperature and the molar ratio of resin-derived carbon to silicon on the composition and the purity of the resultant powders were investigated.The results show that a higher sintering temperature and an appropriate molar ratio of resin-derived carbon to silicon are favorable for producing high purity silicon carbide powders.It is found that the silicon carbide content increases slightly with increasing the sintering temperature during the solid-solid reaction.The temperature gradient plays an important role on this trend.When the sintering temperature is raised up to 1500℃, the formation of silicon carbide is based on the liquid-solid reaction, and high purity (99.8wt%) silicon carbide powders can easily be obtained.It can also be fotmd that the optimum molar ratio of resin-derived carbon to silicon is 1:1.

  3. Influence of microstructural purity on the bending fatigue behavior of VAR-melted superelastic Nitinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launey, Maximilien; Robertson, Scott W; Vien, Lot; Senthilnathan, Karthikeyan; Chintapalli, Prashanth; Pelton, Alan R

    2014-06-01

    The bending fatigue resistance of commercially-available Standard versus High Purity Nitinol was evaluated at 3% mean strain and a range of strain amplitudes with the simple wire Z-specimen geometry. The Standard grade Nitinol demonstrated a 10(7)-cycle fatigue strain limit of 0.50% alternating strain, comparable to results reported elsewhere in the literature. Conversely, the High Purity grade VAR Nitinol demonstrated a 5-fold improvement in fatigue resistance with an impressive 10(7)-cycle fatigue strain limit of 2.5% alternating strain. The High Purity Nitinol has an oxygen+nitrogen content of 60wppm, maximum wrought-material inclusion length of 17µm, and inclusion volume fraction of 0.28%, all substantially less than industry standards. With all processing variables held constant except for inclusion content, it is clear that this marked fatigue superiority is due exclusively to the reduction in both size and area fraction of inclusions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased recovery and improved purity of PHA from recombinant Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Siti Nor Syairah; Iqbal, Nurhezreen Md; Kumar, Sudesh; Al-Ashraf, Amirul

    2013-01-01

    A simple procedure for recovering biodegradable polymer from bacterial cells has been developed using economical and environmentally friendly solvent or chemicals. Recombinant bacterium, Cupriavidus necator harboring pBBR1MCS-C2 plasmid polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene was used for the production of copolymer P(3HB-co-3HHx) from crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). NaOH was chosen in this study as it could give high purity and recovery yield. Increase of NaOH concentration had resulted in an increase of the PHA purity, but the recovery yield had decreased. The greater improvement of PHA purity and recovery were achieved by incubating the freeze-dried cells (10-30 g/L) in NaOH (0.1 M) for 1-3 h at 30°C and polishing using 20% (v/v) of ethanol. The treatment caused negligible degradation of the molecular weight of PHA recovered from the bacterial cells. The present review also highlights other extraction methods to provide greater insights into economical and sustainable recovery of PHA from bacterial cells.

  5. Simple HPLC method for detection of trace ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in high-purity methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yukiko

    2012-03-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC technique was developed for the qualitative determination of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine (ephedrines), used as precursors of clandestine d-methamphetamine hydrochloride of high purity. Good separation of ephedrines from bulk d-methamphetamine was achieved, without any extraction or derivatization procedure on a CAPCELLPACK C18 MGII (250 × 4.6 mm) column. The mobile phase consisted of 50 mM KH2 PO4-acetonitrile (94:6 v/v %) using an isocratic pump system within 20 min for detecting two analytes. One run took about 50 min as it was necessary to wash out overloaded methamphetamine for column conditioning. The analytes were detected by UV absorbance measurement at 210 nm. A sample (20 mg) was simply dissolved in 1 mL of water, and a 50 μL aliquot of the solution was injected into the HPLC. The detection limits for ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in bulk d-methamphetamine were as low as 3 ppm each. This analytical separation technique made it possible to detect ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine in seven samples of high-purity d-methamphetamine hydrochloride seized in Japan. The presence of trace ephedrines in illicit methamphetamine may strongly indicate a synthetic route via ephedrine in methamphetamine profiling. This method is simple and sensitive, requiring only commonly available equipment, and should be useful for high-purity methamphetamine profiling.

  6. Recovery of high-purity metallic Pd from Pd(II)-sorbed biosorbents by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sung Wook; Lim, Areum; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2013-06-01

    This work reports a direct way to recover metallic palladium with high purity from Pd(II)-sorbed polyethylenimine-modified Corynebacterium glutamicum biosorbent using a combined method of biosorption and incineration. This study is focused on the incineration part which affects the purity of recovered Pd. The incineration temperature and the amount of Pd loaded on the biosorbent were considered as major factors in the incineration process, and their effects were examined. The results showed that both factors significantly affected the enhancement of the recovery efficiency and purity of the recovered Pd. SEM-EDX and XRD analyses were used to confirm that Pd phase existed in the ash. As a result, the recovered Pd was changed from PdO to zero-valent Pd as the incineration temperature was increased from 600 to 900°C. Almost 100% pure metallic Pd was recovered with recovery efficiency above 99.0% under the conditions of 900°C and 136.9 mg/g.

  7. Solid phase synthesis of fatty acid modified glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide under thermal and controlled microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid modified glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide was synthesized efficiently on Rink-Amide-MBHA resin by microwave-assisted solid phase method.The method of thermal and controlled microwave irradiation provided impressive enhancements in product yield,selectivity,and reaction rate.The coupling time was dramatically decreased to 6 min,and the desired products were obtained in high yield and purity.

  8. High-frequency drug purity and price series as tools for explaining drug trends and harms in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nick; Caulkins, Jonathan P; Ritter, Alison; Quinn, Catherine; Dietze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine-related harms in Victoria have increased recently in the context of stable or declining use prevalence. We determine how changes in price and purity of methamphetamine compared to other drugs such as heroin may, in part, explain these divergent patterns. Detailed methamphetamine and heroin purchase price data from 2152 participant interviews from the Melbourne Injecting Drug User cohort study were used to generate drug price series for the period January 2009-June 2013. Data on drug purity from 8818 seizures made within Victoria were used to generate drug purity series during the same period. Purity-adjusted price data for methamphetamine and heroin were obtained for the period 2009-13 by combining the two data sets. While the average purity of heroin seizures remained consistent and low, the average purity of powder and of crystal methamphetamine seizures increased from 12% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 10-14%] to 37% (95% CI = 20-54%) and 21% (95% CI = 18-23%) to 64% (95% CI = 60-68%), respectively. Crystal methamphetamine purity was bimodal, with observations generally less than 20% or greater than 70%. The average unadjusted price per gram for heroin decreased from $374 (95% CI = $367-381) to $294 (95% CI = $280-308), powder methamphetamine did not change significantly from $252 (95% CI = $233-271), and crystal methamphetamine increased substantially from $464 (95% CI = $416-511) in 2009 to $795 (95% CI = $737-853) in 2011. This increase was offset by an even greater increase in purity, meaning the average purity-adjusted price per gram declined. Furthermore, pure prices of both methamphetamine forms were similar, whereas their unadjusted prices were not. The pure price of heroin fluctuated with no ongoing trends. Decreases in methamphetamine purity-adjusted price along with the bimodality of crystal methamphetamine purity may account for some of the recent increase in methamphetamine-related harm. For a

  9. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  10. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  11. 高效液相色谱法测定接骨木茎叶果实中芦丁的含量%Content Determination of Rutin in Stems,Leaves,and Fruits of Sambucus williamsii Hance by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡彦武; 关颖丽; 张立威; 王朝辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the content of rutin in fruits,stems,and leaves of Sambucus williamsii Hance,and provide an essential reference for the exploitation and utilization of the resources. Methods The content of rutin was analyzed on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclispse XDB C18 column(150 mmí4. 6 mm,5 μm). The mobile phase was methanol-0. 1%phosphoric acid (4555),the column temperature was set at 25 ℃,the flow rate was 0. 8 mL·min-1,and the detection wavelength was set at 360 nm. Results The linear range of rutin was 0. 105-0. 525 μg (r=0. 999 6),the average recovery was 97. 86%,and RSD was 0. 49%. The content of rutin in stems, leaves, and fruits of Sambucus williamsii Hance was 0. 171, 0. 522, and 0. 165 mg·g-1 ,respectively. Conclusion The stems,leaves and fruits of Sambucus williamsii Hance all contain rutin,but at a significant different content level. The leaves contain the highest level of rutin.%目的:测定接骨木茎、叶、果实等不同部位中芦丁的含量,为接骨木资源的合理开发和综合利用提供依据。方法采用Agilent ZORBAX Eclispse XDB C18(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,甲醇-0.1%磷酸水溶液(4555),柱温25℃,流速为0.8 mL·min-1,检测波长为360 nm。结果芦丁在0.105~0.525μg 范围内呈良好的线性关系( r=0.9996),平均回收率97.86%,RSD=0.49%。测得接骨木茎、叶、果实中芦丁含量分别为0.171,0.522,0.165 mg·g-1。结论接骨木茎、叶、果实中均含有芦丁,但差异较大,以叶中芦丁含量最高。

  12. A Contrast of Chlorogenic Acid and Rutin in Different Parts of Galium verum L.%药用植物莲子菜不同药用部位中芦丁及绿原酸的含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜倩; 汤道权; 刘晓; 黄华强; 丁芬; 贾成成

    2011-01-01

    [目的]采用HPLC-DAD比较蓬子菜不同药用部位中芦丁、绿原酸的含量.[方法]用HPLC-DAD梯度洗脱.比较蓬子莱根、茎、叶、花中芦丁和绿原酸含量.[结果]芦丁、绿原酸质量浓度与峰面积呈良好线性关系,线性范围分别是:芦丁0.0243~1.9500μg,绿原酸0.1325~10.6000μg;芦丁回收率101.02%,绿原酸回收率101.65%;蓬子菜中芦丁和绿原酸的含量花中最高,根中最低.[结论]HPLC-DAD法分离度好、稳定,可作为篷子菜的质量控制方法;芦丁和绿原酸的含量因药用部位的不同存在差异.%[Objective] To compare the content of chlorogenic acid and rutin in the different parts of Galium verum L. by using the HPLC-DAD method. [Method] A HPLC-DAD method was developed for the content determination of rutin and chlorogenic acid in root, stem, leafage and flower from Galium verum L. . [Result] A good linearity was obtained, the linear range were: rutin 0.024 3 - 1.950 0 μg, chlorogenic acid 0. 132 5 - 10.600 0 μg; the average recovery of rutin was 101,02% and the average recovery of chlorogenic acid was 101.65% . The content of rutin and chlorogenic acid was the highest in flowers and the lowest in roots. [ Conclusion] The HPLC-DAD method separation is good, stable and can be used for the quality control of Galium verum L. , the contents of rutin and chlorogenic acid are different in the different parts of Galium verum L..

  13. 两种紫苏烟和普通烟草芦丁含量的测定和比较%Determination and comparision of rutin contents in two kinds of zisu tobaccos and ordinary tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈安飞; 张金桐; 魏治中

    2011-01-01

    In order to find out new raw materials containing rutin, the rutin contents in zisu tobaccos Q and Q-00001 and ordinary tobacco were determined by HPLC. An Apollo C18 column (150mmX4. 6mm, 5jxm) was employed with CH3 OH: 1. 0 % phosphoric acid (60:40, V/V ) as mobile phase, column temperature of 25T), flow rate of 0. 8mL/min, and detection at 392nm. The results showed that in ordinary tobacco the rutin content was 0. 505%, and in zisu tobaccos Q and Q-00001, the rutin contents were 1. 050% and 1. 267%, respectively. The rutin contents in the latter two were twice as much as the former. As zisu tobacco Q-00001 has the highest rutin content, it is a kind of plant worth to be spreaded.%本文采用紫苏烟Q和紫苏烟Q-0000l及普通烟草为材料,通过HPLC法测定并比较其中芦丁的含量,目的是找到提取芦丁的新原料,以便于大面积种植推广.HPLC所采用的色谱柱为Apollo C18柱(150 mm× 4.6mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇:1.0%磷酸(60∶40,V∶V);柱温25℃;流速0.8mL/min,检测波长为392nm.普通烟草中芦丁含量为0.505%,紫苏烟Q和紫苏烟Q-0000l中芦丁含量分别为1.050%和1.267%,后两者芦丁含量为前者的2倍多,其中紫苏烟Q-00001中芦丁含量最高,是一种值得推广种植的用于提取芦丁的新原料.

  14. Study on The Protective Effects and Its Mechanism of Rutin on Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy Rat%芦丁对糖尿病肾病大鼠的保护作用及其机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素琴; 汤玲君; 王艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study rutin's preventive and therapeutic effects on early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats. Methods The DN rats model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Then rats were randomly divied 6 groups: normal group(NS) , DN model group, low dose of rutin group (RL, lOmg/kg) , moderate dose of rutin group (RM, 30mg/kg) , high dose of rutin group (RH, 90mg/kg) , and captopril group (CAP, lOmg/kg). Every group was housed in a SPF environment suitable for breeding specific pathogen -free grade animals for 12 weeks, and they were allowed free access to food and water. Finally the leves of blood glucose (Glu) , urine protein, creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were detected. Renal morphological changes were observed by HE dyeing method. Results The Glu, 24h urine protein,kidney index, BUN, Cr and glomerular morphology of DN rat were all improved significantly after being administrated rutin. Conclusion Rutin has the protective effects on early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats.%目的 研究芦丁对糖尿病肾病(diabetic nephropathy,DN)大鼠的保护作用.方法 采用腹腔注射链脲霉素(streptozotocin,STZ)的方法复制DN大鼠模型,分为正常组(NS组),DN模型组(DN组)、芦丁低剂量治疗组(RL组,10mg/kg)、芦丁中剂量治疗组(RM组,30mg/kg)、芦丁高剂量治疗组(RH组,90mg/kg)、卡托普利对照组(CAP组,剂量为10mg/kg),每组10只,灌胃给药,12周后测定空腹血糖、尿白蛋白、肾脏指数、尿素氮、肌酐、观察肾脏组织形态学改变.结果 芦丁能明显改善糖尿病肾病模型大鼠的血糖(Glu)、24h尿白蛋白、肾脏指数、尿素氮、肌酐以及肾小球组织形态.结论 芦丁对糖尿病肾病大鼠具有好的保护作用.

  15. Can Neutron Beam Components and Radiographic Image Quality be determined by the Use of Beam Purity and Sensitivity Indicators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    In the Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group Test Program beam purity and s e n s i t i v i t y indicators, as prescribed by the ASTM E 545-81 were used together with the NRWG beam purity i n d i c a t o r - f u e l and c a l i b r a t i o n fuel pin. They were radiographed together at neutron...

  16. The relevance of moral norms in distinct relational contexts: Purity versus harm norms regulate self-directed actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, James A; Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to partition the space of morality have focused on the descriptive content of distinct moral domains (e.g., harm versus purity), or alternatively, the relationship between the perpetrator and victim of moral violations. Across three studies, we demonstrate that harm and purity norms are relevant in distinct relational contexts. Moral judgments of purity violations, compared to harm violations, are relatively more sensitive to the negative impact perpetrators have on themselves versus other victims (Study 1). This pattern replicates across a wide array of harm and purity violations varying in severity (Studies 2 and 3). Moreover, while perceptions of harm predict moral judgment consistently across relational contexts, perceptions of purity predict moral judgment more for self-directed actions, where perpetrators violate themselves, compared to dyadic actions, where perpetrators violate other victims (Study 3). Together, these studies reveal how an action's content and its relational context interact to influence moral judgment, providing novel insights into the adaptive functions of harm and purity norms.

  17. High-Purity Nickel Prepared by Electron Beam Melting: Purification Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Shang, Zaiyan; Chen, Ming; He, Jinjiang; Lv, Baoguo; Wang, Xingquan; Xiong, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    A bulk cylindrical high-purity nickel ingot, with purity of more than 99.999 pct (5N) in mass, was obtained from the raw nickel with 99.95 pct (3N5) initial purity by virtue of double electron beam melting (EBM). A chemical analysis was performed by using glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) analysis for all elements in the periodic table except carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which were tested by the high-performance combustion and fusion method. The major impurities B, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, As, Ag, Sb, and Pb showed an excellent removal effect with removal efficiency of more than 85 pct following the double EBMs. Li, Mg, Cl, K, V, Mn, Ga, Ge, Cd, Se, In, Sn, Tl, Au, and Pt were below the detection limit. No significant change in concentration was found for the refractory elements W, Mo, Ta, Nb, and Ir. Be, F, Sc, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Y, Ru, Rh, Pd, Te, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Re, Os, Hg, Bi, Th, and U were not detectable following the purification as compared to the raw nickel. Gaseous impurities, C, N, O, especially for N, was removed sufficiently. Theoretical calculations for removal efficiency of impurity Fe based on the calculated vapor pressure, activity coefficient, and melt temperature were in good agreement with measured results, and the purification mechanism was ascribed to the evaporation of major impurities and subsequently evacuation by repetitive EBM.

  18. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guojian; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming; Irmscher, Klaus; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  19. Process for the production of ultrahigh purity silane with recycle from separation columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Larry M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Tri- and dichlorosilanes formed by hydrogenation in the course of the reaction of metallurgical silicon, hydrogen and recycle silicon tetrachloride are employed as feed into a separation column arrangement of sequential separation columns and redistribution reactors which processes the feed into ultrahigh purity silane and recycle silicon tetrachloride. A slip stream is removed from the bottom of two sequential columns and added to the recycle silicon tetrachloride process stream causing impurities in the slip streams to be subjected to reactions in the hydrogenation step whereby waste materials can be formed and readily separated.

  20. Recovery and recrystallization in commercial purity aluminum cold rolled to an ultrahigh strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, Dorte;

    2013-01-01

    Recovery and recrystallization were studied in commercial purity aluminum cold rolled to an ultrahigh strain (εvM=6.4) and isothermally annealed at 300°C. The deformed material consists of three layers with similar fractions of high-angle boundaries (HABs) and similar lamellar boundary spacings......, pronounced recrystallization in the subsurface layers is delayed, and the recrystallized grain size is larger than in the center. It is concluded that the changes taking place during recovery are very significant in determining the subsequent recrystallization behavior in terms of the final grain size...

  1. [Microbial air purity in hospitals. Operating theatres with air conditioning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulski, Adam; Szczotko, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the influence of air conditioning control for microbial contamination of air inside the operating theatres equipped with correctly working air-conditioning system. This work was based on the results of bacteria and fungi concentration in hospital air obtained since 2001. Assays of microbial air purity conducted on atmospheric air in parallel with indoor air demonstrated that air filters applied in air-conditioning systems worked correctly in every case. To show the problem of fluctuation of bacteria concentration more precisely, every sequences of single results from successive measure series were examined independently.

  2. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B., E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I. [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G.F.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France)

    2015-03-11

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  3. Impurity removal process for high-purity silica production by acid leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzaouia H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In our days obtaining silica sand with very high purity is a primordial stage in photovoltaic industry. The effects of acids on the removal of impurity from silica sand have been studied using leaching acids: mixture composed of HF/HCl/H2O with a volume composition of (1:7:24.The obtained material was characterized using Ultraviolet-Visible absorbance (UV-Vis and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Results of the application of this technique show a significant reduction of the amounts of undesirable impurities present in natural silica (such as Co, Fe, Ca, Al, Mg ….

  4. Indices of atmospheric purity and fluoride pollution pattern in Arvida, Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, F.; Rao, D.N.; Comeau, G.

    1972-01-01

    Indices of atmospheric purity (IAP) of 42 sites located in all directions from the aluminum factory at Arvida and spread out in about 250-km/sup 2/ area, were determined on the basis of phytosociology of epiphytes of Populus balsamifera. These index values ranging from 0 to 103 were arranged into six groups and the investigated area was accordingly delineated into six IAP zones to represent areas with different levels of fluoride pollution. A relative picture of the approximate limits of fluoride contamination in different zones is obtained by the fluoride accumulation in Parmelia sulcata thalli transplanted at various sites in the area.

  5. Cu2ZnSnS4 absorption layers with controlled phase purity

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Ying Su; Chiu -Yen Chiu; Jyh-Ming Ting

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) with controlled phase purity. The precursor was first prepared using sequential electrodeposition of Cu, Zn, and Sn in different orders. The Cu/(Sn+Zn) ratio in each stacking order was also varied. The precursor was subjected to annealing at 200°C and sulfurization at 500°C in a 5%-H2S/Ar atmosphere for the formation of CZTS. The phase evolutions during the electrodeposition and annealing stages, and the final phase formation at...

  6. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P. V., E-mail: kpv@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Vlasov, I. V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Sklyarova, E. A.; Smekalina, T. V. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability.

  7. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P. V.; Vlasov, I. V.; Sklyarova, E. A.; Smekalina, T. V.

    2015-10-01

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability.

  8. High-purity cobalt thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy prepared by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootera, Yasuaki; Shimada, Takuya; Kado, Masaki; Quinsat, Michael; Morise, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Shiho; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    A study of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of high-purity cobalt thin films is described. The Co layer prepared by a thermal CVD technique with a Pt/Ta underlayer and a Pt cap layer shows a saturation magnetization (Ms) of ∼1.8 T and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an anisotropy energy (Ku) of ∼105 J/m3. The cobalt thickness dependence of Ku reveals that the interfacial anisotropy at the Pt/Co interface is most likely the origin of the obtained PMA.

  9. SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTION OF HIGH-PURITY HYDROGEN AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2 FROM SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Denton; Hana Lorethova; Tomasz Wiltowski; Court Moorefield; Parag Kulkarni; Vladimir Zamansky; Ravi Kumar

    2003-12-01

    This final report summarizes the progress made on the program ''Simultaneous Production of High-Purity Hydrogen and Sequestration-Ready CO{sub 2} from Syngas (contract number DE-FG26-99FT40682)'', during October 2000 through September of 2003. GE Energy and Environmental Research (GE-EER) and Southern Illinois University (SIU) at Carbondale conducted the research work for this program. This program addresses improved methods to efficiently produce simultaneous streams of high-purity hydrogen and separated carbon dioxide from synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas may be produced through either gasification of coal or reforming of natural gas. The process of production of H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2} utilizes a dual-bed reactor and regenerator system. The reactor produces hydrogen and the regenerator produces separated CO{sub 2}. The dual-bed system can be operated under either a circulating fluidized-bed configuration or a cyclic fixed-bed configuration. Both configurations were evaluated in this project. The experimental effort was divided into lab-scale work at SIU and bench-scale work at GE-EER. Tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed system demonstrated the process for the conversion of syngas to high purity H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The lab-scale system generated up to 95% H{sub 2} (on a dry basis). Extensive thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions between the syngas and the fluidized solids determined an optimum range of temperature and pressure operation, where the extent of the undesirable reactions is minimum. The cycling of the process between hydrogen generation and oxygen regeneration has been demonstrated. The fluidized solids did not regenerate completely and the hydrogen purity in the reuse cycle dropped to 70% from 95% (on a dry basis). Changes in morphology and particle size may be the most dominant factor affecting the efficiency of the repeated cycling between hydrogen production and oxygen regeneration. The concept of

  10. Preparation of high-purity bismuth by sulphur deleadization in vacuum distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊利芝; 何则强; 刘文萍; 麻成金; 戴永年

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of separation of impurities in refined bismuth and sulphur deleadization with vacuum distillation was studied theoretically. Experimental studies on sulphur deleadization were carried out under vacuum.The influences of amount of sulphur, distillation temperature, vacuum degree and distillation time on deleadization were investigated and an optimal technical condition was achieved. The content of lead in refined bismuth can be decreased from 30 μg/g to 0.21 μg/g, which has reached the level of "5N" high-purity bismuth. Other impurities in refined bismuth can be also removed effectively under certain conditions.

  11. Practical analysis of high purity chemicals--V. Precision silver chloride gravimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K

    1971-09-01

    A reasonably simple gravimetric silver chloride procedure with fairly wide tolerance in conditions is presented in full detail with all critical steps and precautions delineated. The procedure allows the precision determination of chloride by analysts having limited expertise with exacting gravimetric methods, and can be performed with equipment common to nearly all laboratories and without dependence on a standard substance. The elapsed and actual working times for the assessment of a solid sample in triplicate are 65 and 10-12 hr respectively. The application of the procedure to the assay of some high-purity chloride salts and to the standardization of hydrochloric acid solutions is described.

  12. Analysis on contents of rutin and quercetin in tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles%苦荞茶和荞麦面条中芦丁及槲皮素含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪锋; 唐宇; 孙俊秀; 钟志惠

    2013-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法分析苦荞茶和荞麦面条中的芦丁和槲皮素含量.结果表明:造粒型和非造粒型(全麦和全胚)苦荞茶中芦丁和槲皮素的含量(质量分数)具有明显差异,非造粒型苦荞茶中芦丁的质量分数较高(0.518 3%~0.850 6%),槲皮素的质量分数较低(0.0573%~0.252 1%);而造粒型苦荞茶和荞麦面条中槲皮素的质量分数较高(0.481 6%~1.022 2%,0.034 9%~0.072 0%),芦丁的质量分数较低(0.029 7%~0.031 4%,0.008 1%~0.024 4%),这可能是由于荞麦中存在的芦丁降解酶分解芦丁产生槲皮素的缘故.由此可见,并非所有的苦荞茶和荞麦面条都是以芦丁作为主要的黄酮类物质,单纯以芦丁和总黄酮的质量分数来评价荞麦制品的品质是不准确的.%Contents of rutin and quercetin in tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the contents of rutin and quercetin had significant differences between granulated and whole wheat (embryo) tartary buckwheat tea. There was more rutin (0. 518 3% ~0. 850 6%) than quercetin (0. 057 3% ~0.252 1%) in whole wheat (embryo) tartary buckwheat tea. However, in granulated tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles, the content of rutin (0. 029 7% ~0.0314% and 0.008 1%~0. 024 4% respectively) was much less than quercetin (0.481 6%~1. 022 2% and 0. 034 9%~0. 072 0% respectively). One of the possible explanations is the presence and activity of the rutin degrading enzyme. Rutin transformed to quercetin could be caused by this enzyme found in buckwheat. Rutin was not the main flavonoids in all tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles. So, it was inaccurate to evaluate the quality of buckwheat products only by rutin content and total flavonoids content.

  13. 芦丁合铁(Ⅲ)的合成、表征及其与DNA相互作用研究%Synthesis,Characterization of Rutin-Fe(Ⅲ)and Its Interaction with DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艾华; 郭艳华; 张玉敏

    2013-01-01

    以芦丁和硫酸铁为原料在40℃和pH弱酸性条件下合成芦丁合铁配合物,用等摩尔连续变化法和差热分析法确定配合物的组成为Fe(Rutin)2·5H2O;通过UV和IR对配合物的结构进行了表征,该配合物在416 nm处有最大吸收,在620.94 cm-1处出现Fe-O键的特征吸收峰;运用吸收光谱、荧光发射光谱等方法研究了配合物与DNA的作用机制,并计算出键合常数为67.57 mL/mg。实验结果表明,芦丁合铁与DNA以嵌入模式结合。%Rutin combined iron complexes was synthesized with rutin and ferric sulfate at 40℃and pH subacidic conditions. The composition of the complexes of Fe(Rutin)2·5H2O was determined with equimolar continuous variation and differential thermal analysis. Structure of the complexes were characterized by UV and IR. The maximum absorption of the composition was at 416 nm and Fe-O bond characteristic absorption peaks appeared at 620. 94 cm-1. The interaction mechanism of the composition with DNA was studied by the methods of absorption spectrometry and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The bonding constant of rutin-Fe(Ⅲ)to DNA was 67. 57 mL/mg. The exper-imental results indicated that the composition can bind to DNA in embedded mode.

  14. 芦丁在纳米金修饰玻碳电极上的电化学行为及其测定%Electrochemical behavior of rutin at a gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode and its determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚; 杜芳艳; 严彪; 张永杰

    2012-01-01

    采用循环伏安法将纳米金电沉积于玻碳电极表面,制备了纳米金修饰玻碳电极(NG/GCE).在pH3.29的Britton-Robinson(B-R)缓冲溶液中,用循环伏安法研究了芦丁在NG/GCE上的电化学行为.结果表明,NG/GCE对芦丁的氧化还原反应有良好的电催化作用.用方波伏安法测得芦丁的还原峰电流与其浓度在2.0×10-8~2.0×10-6mol/L范围内呈线性关系,检出限为1.0×10-8mol/L(S/N=3).%A gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (NG/GCE) was prepared by electrodepositing. The electrochemical behavior of rutin at the modified electrode was investigated in pH 3. 29 Britton-Robinson ( B-R) buffer solution by cyclic voltammetry. The NG/GCE possessed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the redox of rutin. On square wave voltammetric curves, a linear dependence of the reduction current versus on the rutin concentration was obtained in the range of 2. 0 × 10-8 ~ 2. 0 × 10-6 mol ? L-1 ( r = 0. 9998 ), with a detection limit of 1. 0 × 10 -8mol ? L-1 (S/N = 3). A novel method for the determination of rutin in tablets has been established.

  15. 荧光法研究芦丁-Cu2+/CO2+-BSA的相互作用%Study on the interaction of Rutin-Cu2+/Co2+ -BSA by fluorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐薇; 吴小霞

    2011-01-01

    采用荧光光谱、紫外-可见光谱技术研究了芦丁与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)在金属离子Cu2+/CO2+共存时的相互作用.研究结果表明:有或无金属离子存在时,芦丁对BSA的荧光猝灭作用都是由于生成复合物而引起的静态猝灭;金属离子的存在使芦丁与BSA的表观结合常数KLB增大,且Co使KL)增大得更明显.由热力学参数确定芦丁和BSA分子间的作用力是以疏水作用为主,金属离子的参与不改变芦丁-BSA分子间作用力的类型.%The effects of Cu2+ or Co2+ on the interaction between the rutin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by means of UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by rutin is due to the formation of rutin-BSA complex and quenching mechanism is mainly static quenching. It was discovered that the apparent association constant(KLB) increases in the presence of Cu2 + or Co2 + ,and the effect of Co2 + is stronger. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the main binding force of rutin and BSA was investigated as hydrophobic interaction, and the presence of metals don' t change the type of binding force.

  16. Effekte von Bisphenol A, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallat, Grünem Tee, Quercetin und Rutin auf díe Funktion des männlichen Genitaltrakts in Nagern

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was the endocrine-pharmacological characterization of xeno- and phytoestrogens. We tested Bisphenol A in the Hershberger Assay. Immunohistochemically we found a stimulation of androgen receptors in the rat prostate. Morphologically there was a significant increase of the epithelial height and the luminal area of the prostate gland. Subsequently, we tested quercetin, rutin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and green tea on human prostate cancer cells. Besides quercetin and r...

  17. 反相高效液相色谱法测定玉米须中绿原酸和芦丁的含量%Simultaneous Determination of Chlorogenic Acid and Rutin Contents in Corn Silk by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓明; 赵二劳; 胡芳馨

    2013-01-01

    The content of chlorogenic acid and rutin in corn silk was simultaneously determined by RPHPLC to explore its measuring method.The results showed that the linear range was 0.144~0.864μg (r =0.9994) for chlorogenic acid and 0.281~1.686μg(r =0.9992)for rutin,the average recoveries (n =5) of chlorogenic acid and rutin were 100.8% and 98.6%,respectively.The method is rapid,accurate with good reproducibility,which can be applied in simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid and rutin in corn silk.%为探讨玉米须中绿原酸和芦丁含量的测定方法,采用反相高效液相色谱法同时测定玉米须中绿原酸和芦丁的含量.结果表明:绿原酸、芦丁进样量分别在0.144~0.864μg(r=0.9994)和0.281~1.686μg(r=0.9992)与峰面积呈良好线性关系;平均加标回收率分别为100.8%(n=5)和98.6%(n=5).该方法快速、准确,重现性好,可用于玉米须中绿原酸和芦丁的检测.

  18. High purity NaI(Tl) scintillator to search for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Fushimi, Ken-Ichi; Hazama, Ryuta; Ikeda, Haruo; Inoue, Kunio; Imagawa, Kyoshiro; Kanzaki, Gakuji; Kozlov, Alexandre; Orito, Reiko; Shima, Tatsushi; Takemoto, Yasuhiro; Teraoka, Yuri; Umehara, Saori; Yoshida, Sei

    2016-01-01

    A high purity and large volume NaI(Tl) scintillator was developed to search for cosmic dark matter. The required densities of radioactive impurities (RIs) such as U-chain, Th-chain are less than a few ppt to establish high sensitivity to dark matter. The impurity of RIs were effectively reduced by selecting raw materials of crucible and by performing chemical reduction of lead ion in NaI raw powder. The impurity of $^{226}$Ra was reduced less than 100 $\\mu$Bq/kg in NaI(Tl) crystal. It should be remarked that the impurity of $^{210}$Pb, which is difficult to reduce, is effectively reduced by chemical processing of NaI raw powder down to less than 30 $\\mu$Bq/kg. The expected sensitivity to cosmic dark matter by using 250 kg of the high purity and large volume NaI(Tl) scintillator (PICO-LON; Pure Inorganic Crystal Observatory for LOw-background Neutr(al)ino) is 7$\\times$10$^{-45}$ cm$^{2}$ for 50 GeV$/c^{2}$ WIMPs.

  19. Recovery of high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid in toluene nitration process by rectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Meng, Qingqiang; Shu, Fan; Ye, Zhengfang

    2013-01-01

    Waste sulfuric acid is a byproduct generated from numerous industrial chemical processes. It is essential to remove the impurities and recover the sulfuric acid from the waste acid. In this study the rectification method was introduced to recover high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid generated in toluene nitration process by using rectification column. The waste acid quality before and after rectification were evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, GC/MS, HPLC and other physical and chemical analysis. It was shown that five nitro aromatic compounds in the waste acid were substantially removed and high purity sulfuric acid was also recovered in the rectification process at the same time. The COD was removed by 94% and the chrominance was reduced from 1000° to 1°. The recovered sulfuric acid with the concentration reaching 98.2 wt% had a comparable quality with commercial sulfuric acid and could be recycled back into the toluene nitration process, which could avoid waste of resources and reduce the environmental impact and pollution.

  20. Liquid-purity monitor for the LUX-ZEPLIN dark matter search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalaysay, Aaron; Lux-Zeplin Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment will be the first liquid-xenon (LXe) dark matter search to feature a multi-tonne fiducial target. Drawing on the lessons learned in the LUX and ZEPLIN experiments, this next step will probe dark-matter candidates with unprecedented sensitivity. As these LXe detectors have grown larger, so too has the distance over which ionization electrons (from particle interactions) must be drifted through the liquid. Because of this, even minute levels of electronegative impurities can significantly attenuate the ionization signal, and must therefore be closely monitored. I will present the concept of a liquid-purity monitor which uses new and novel techniques, including state-of-the-art UV LEDs and low-work-function materials, and will measure levels of impurities in LZ's liquid circulation line in real time. This device will provide vital supplemental data to the roughly weekly in-situ purity measurements carried out within the detector's active volume, will greatly improve the resolution of the ionization channel in this detector, and will yield instant feedback in response to changing detector conditions.

  1. Recycling of high purity selenium from CIGS solar cell waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Anna M K; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Ekberg, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is a promising material in thin film solar cell production. To make CIGS solar cells more competitive, both economically and environmentally, in comparison to other energy sources, methods for recycling are needed. In addition to the generally high price of the material, significant amounts of the metals are lost in the manufacturing process. The feasibility of recycling selenium from CIGS through oxidation at elevated temperatures was therefore examined. During oxidation gaseous selenium dioxide was formed and could be separated from the other elements, which remained in solid state. Upon cooling, the selenium dioxide sublimes and can be collected as crystals. After oxidation for 1h at 800°C all of the selenium was separated from the CIGS material. Two different reduction methods for reduction of the selenium dioxide to selenium were tested. In the first reduction method an organic molecule was used as the reducing agent in a Riley reaction. In the second reduction method sulphur dioxide gas was used. Both methods resulted in high purity selenium. This proves that the studied selenium separation method could be the first step in a recycling process aimed at the complete separation and recovery of high purity elements from CIGS.

  2. Derivation of high purity neuronal progenitors from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nistor

    Full Text Available The availability of human neuronal progenitors (hNPs in high purity would greatly facilitate neuronal drug discovery and developmental studies, as well as cell replacement strategies for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions, such as spinal cord injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Here we describe for the first time a method for producing hNPs in large quantity and high purity from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in feeder-free conditions, without the use of exogenous noggin, sonic hedgehog or analogs, rendering the process clinically compliant. The resulting population displays characteristic neuronal-specific markers. When allowed to spontaneously differentiate into neuronal subtypes in vitro, cholinergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic and/or noradrenergic, and medium spiny striatal neurons were observed. When transplanted into the injured spinal cord the hNPs survived, integrated into host tissue, and matured into a variety of neuronal subtypes. Our method of deriving neuronal progenitors from hESCs renders the process amenable to therapeutic and commercial use.

  3. Performance of bare high-purity germanium detectors in liquid argon for the GERDA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Heider, Marik Barnabé; Chkvorets, Oleg; Di Vacri, Assunta; Gusev, Konstantin; Schönert, Stefan; Shirchenko, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, will search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge at the National Gran Sasso Laboratory of the INFN. Bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge will be submerged in liquid argon serving simultaneously as a shield against external radioactivity and as a cooling medium. In GERDA Phase-I, reprocessed enriched-Ge detectors, which were previously operated by the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX collaborations, will be redeployed. Before operating the enriched detectors, tests are performed with non-enriched bare HPGe detectors in the GERDA underground Detector Laboratory to test the Phase-I detector assembly, the detector handling protocols, the refurbishment technology and to study the long-term stability in liquid argon. The leakage currents in liquid argon and liquid nitrogen have been extensively studied under varying gamma irradiation conditions. In total three non-enriched high-purity p-type prototype germanium detectors have been operated successfully. The dete...

  4. Non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter featuring highly efficient transmission and high excitation purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Vivek Raj; Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Duk-Yong

    2014-05-12

    Nanostructure based color filtering has been considered an attractive replacement for current colorant pigmentation in the display technologies, in view of its increased efficiencies, ease of fabrication and eco-friendliness. For such structural filtering, iridescence relevant to its angular dependency, which poses a detrimental barrier to the practical development of high performance display and sensing devices, should be mitigated. We report on a non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter, fabricated in a large area of 76.2 × 25.4 mm(2), taking advantage of a stack of three etalon resonators in dielectric films based on a high-index cavity in amorphous silicon. The proposed filter features a high transmission above 80%, a high excitation purity of 0.93 and non-iridescence over a range of 160°, exhibiting no significant change in the center wavelength, dominant wavelength and excitation purity, which implies no change in hue and saturation of the output color. The proposed structure may find its potential applications to large-scale display and imaging sensor systems.

  5. Fingerprinting of morphine using chromatographic purity profiling and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevska, Jelena; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Petkovska, Rumenka; Kulevanova, Svetlana; Cho, JungHwan; Dimitrovska, Aneta

    2015-05-10

    Chromatographic purity profiling (CPP) is the common name of a group of analytical and chemometric applications for detection, identification and quantitative determination of related substances and other impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and finished dosage forms (FDFs). CPP is used for fingerprinting and discriminating between samples, thus representing a core activity in modern drug analysis. The worldwide demand for morphine and its congeners is tremendous and depends entirely on the supply of natural opiates. The aim of this research was to develop a methodology that enables identification of a source of morphine, thus revealing falsification of the substance. The characteristic and reproducible features of impurity profiles for 28 samples of morphine (6 morphine sulfate, 9 morphine hydrochloride and 13 morphine base) were captured by a new LC/MS method for impurity profiling of morphine. The impurity profile encompasses the related substances specified in relevant Ph.Eur. monographs, as well as the other morphinane like impurities, including the naturally occurring co-extracted alkaloids. Different pattern recognition techniques (unsupervised and supervised) were used to reveal the differentiation features of the morphine fingerprints for classification and authentication purposes. The results described in this research open the possibility of using the chromatographic purity profile combined with multivariate data analysis for fingerprinting of morphine samples.

  6. Device to generate high purity hydroxide solution in-line for ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Hiroto; Higo, Yuji; Ishii, Mizuo; Maruyama, Noboru; Yamazaki, Shigeo

    2016-05-06

    Herein, we report a new device that generates a high-purity hydroxide solution in line. The device's container has three compartments that are isolated from each other by two cation exchange (CE) membranes. In each end of the container, an electrode is installed. The three compartments are filled with ion exchange resins. A bipolar boundary is a composite boundary comprising anion- and cation-exchangers. This device has two bipolar boundaries, which are used to separate the location of hydroxide solution generation from the location where water is electrolyzed. Therefore, it can produce high-purity hydroxide solutions that are free from gases and anionic impurities. The hydroxide solution is generated on the basis of an electrokinetic phenomenon at the surfaces of ion-exchange resins and membranes in an electric field; NaOH concentration can be controlled at rates from 0.01 to 100mM per 1mL/min by adjusting the electrical current (0-200mA) applied to the device. As the generated solution is used as an eluent for a suppressed anion chromatography, the electrical conductivity of the effluent from the suppressor is as low as that of ultra-pure water. Thus, the noise of the base-line electrical conductivity is improved, and so the detection limit of anions on the sub-ng/mL order can be achieved.

  7. Characterization of high purity lycopene from tomato wastes using a new pressurized extraction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviglio, Daniele; Caruso, Tonino; Iannece, Patrizia; Aragòn, Alejandro; Santini, Antonello

    2008-08-13

    In this paper, a method for the extraction of high purity lycopene from tomato wastes is presented. The method is based on a pressurized extraction that uses the Extractor Naviglio, and it is performed in the 0.7-0.9 MPa range. Tomato skin, the byproduct deriving from manufacturing of tomato, in a water dispersion, are used as starting material. Lycopene is transferred, for the effect of the high pressure used, in the form of molecular aggregates into the water as a dispersion, while apolar compounds remain in the matrix. The aggregates are easily purified in a single subsequent step by using methanol, thus, obtaining lycopene at 98% chromatographic purity or higher. A new stationary phase, phenyl-hexyl silicone, and a simple water/acetonitrile gradient were used for HPLC analysis of lycopene. The extract was characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. An average recovery of 2.8 mg lycopene/kg tomato waste can be obtained after 4 hours of extraction and using tap water as the extracting liquid. The recovery percentage was of about 10%. The exhausted tomato byproduct can be easily dried and used in agriculture or as feeding for animals.

  8. Non-iridescent Transmissive Structural Color Filter Featuring Highly Efficient Transmission and High Excitation Purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Vivek Raj; Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Duk-Yong

    2014-05-01

    Nanostructure based color filtering has been considered an attractive replacement for current colorant pigmentation in the display technologies, in view of its increased efficiencies, ease of fabrication and eco-friendliness. For such structural filtering, iridescence relevant to its angular dependency, which poses a detrimental barrier to the practical development of high performance display and sensing devices, should be mitigated. We report on a non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter, fabricated in a large area of 76.2 × 25.4 mm2, taking advantage of a stack of three etalon resonators in dielectric films based on a high-index cavity in amorphous silicon. The proposed filter features a high transmission above 80%, a high excitation purity of 0.93 and non-iridescence over a range of 160°, exhibiting no significant change in the center wavelength, dominant wavelength and excitation purity, which implies no change in hue and saturation of the output color. The proposed structure may find its potential applications to large-scale display and imaging sensor systems.

  9. A solvent-extraction module for cyclotron production of high-purity technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Duatti, Adriano; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Esposito, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of (99m)TcO4(-), in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure. Recovery yields were always >90% of the loaded activity. The final pertechnetate saline solution Na(99m)TcO4, purified using the automated module here described, is within the Pharmacopoeia quality control parameters and is therefore a valid alternative to generator-produced (99m)Tc. The resulting automated module is cost-effective and easily replicable for in-house production of high-purity Tc-99m by cyclotrons.

  10. 超声辅助提取红枣中芦丁的工艺研究%Researches on Ultrasonic-assisted Technology of Extracting Rutin from Zizyphus Jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王筠; 李全良; 刘芳

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted method was adopted to extract rutin from Zizyphus jujube, the effects of ultrasonic treatment temperature, time and solid to liquid ratio on the yield of rutin were studied. According to orthogonal tests, the optimum extraction condition was as follows: volume fraction of ethanol 80%, extraction temperature 60 ℃, ultrasonic treatment time 40 min, solid to liquid ratio 1: 20 (g/g), under which the yield of rutin was 24.2%.%在超声辅助下提取红枣中的芦丁,以芦丁提取率为评价指标考察了超声提取温度、提取时间和料液比等因素对芦丁得率的影响.正交试验结果表明最佳提取工艺:用体积分数95%的乙醇为溶剂时,超声提取温度60℃,时间20min,科液比1:20时,得率最高24.2%.

  11. High-Purity Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: A Key Enabling Material in Emerging Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Jacques; Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Finnie, Paul; Lopinski, Gregory; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2017-09-13

    Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) are emerging as a promising material for high-performance, high-density devices as well as low-cost, large-area macroelectronics produced via additive manufacturing methods such as roll-to-roll printing. Proof-of-concept demonstrations have indicated the potential of sc-SWCNTs for digital electronics, radiofrequency circuits, radiation hard memory, improved sensors, and flexible, stretchable, conformable electronics. Advances toward commercial applications bring numerous opportunities in SWCNT materials development and characterization as well as fabrication processes and printing technologies. Commercialization in electronics will require large quantities of sc-SWCNTs, and the challenge for materials science is the development of scalable synthesis, purification, and enrichment methods. While a few synthesis routes have shown promising results in making near-monochiral SWCNTs, gram quantities are available only for small-diameter sc-SWCNTs, which underperform in transistors. Most synthesis routes yield mixtures of SWCNTs, typically 30% metallic and 70% semiconducting, necessitating the extraction of sc-SWCNTs from their metallic counterparts in high purity using scalable postsynthetic methods. Numerous routes to obtain high-purity sc-SWCNTs from raw soot have been developed, including density-gradient ultracentrifugation, chromatography, aqueous two-phase extraction, and selective DNA or polymer wrapping. By these methods (termed sorting or enrichment), >99% sc-SWCNT content can be achieved. Currently, all of these approaches have drawbacks and limitations with respect to electronics applications, such as excessive dilution, expensive consumables, and high ionic impurity content. Excess amount of dispersant is a common challenge that hinders direct inclusion of sc-SWCNTs into electronic devices. At present, conjugated polymer extraction may represent the most practical route to sc-SWCNTs. By the use of

  12. Optimizing Conditions for the Purification of Omega-3 Fatty Acids from the By-product of Tuna Canning Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the optimization conditions for separation and purification of omega-3 (&omega-3 fatty acids from the by-product of tuna canning processing by urea crystallization. Crystallization reaction conditions of urea inclusion (urea to fatty acid ratio (X1 and crystallization time(X2 were optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM and a model was developed. Optimization results showed a quadratic polynomial regression equation of Y = 24.44X1+5.65X2-8.71XX1 2-0.19X22+1.171X1X2- 12.95. The maximum response was obtained at an urea to fatty acid ratio of 2.99:1 and a crystallization time of 23.64 h and predicted response of 90.44%. Analysis of variance showed that the urea to fatty acid ratio and crystallization time affected the response. Verification under optimal conditions showed that the purity of &omega-3 fatty acids was 89.64% and the enrichment was 2.85 fold. Verification result revealed that the predicted value from this model was reasonably close to the experimentally observed value. The urea crystallization process changed oil quality parameters including oxidation level (peroxide, anisidin, and totox values, Fe, Cu and P concentrations and moisture content and this were mostly due to the saponification process before urea crystallization.

  13. Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008075 Effect of Jiangzhi granules on expression of leptin receptor mRNA, P-JAK2 and P-STAT3 in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. MA Zansong(马赞颂), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Instit Spleen and Stomach Dis, Longhua Hosp. Shanghai TCM Univ, Shanghai 200032.World Chin J Digestol 2007;15(32):3360-3366. Objective To study the effect of Jiangzhi granules on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats, and on the expression of

  14. Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Simultaneous Quantification of Rutin and Chlorogenic Acid in Leaves of Ribes L. Species by Conventional and Chemometric Calibration Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendir, Gülsen; Dinç, Erdal; Güvenç, Ayşegül Köroǧlu

    2015-10-01

    A new ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) using conventional and chemometric calibrations was improved for the simultaneous estimation of chlorogenic acid (CA) and rutin (RUT) in leaves of Ribes L. species (R. rubrum, R. biebersteinii, R. nigrum, R. uva-crispa, R. alpinum, R. orientale, R. multiflorum and R. anatolica). The UPLC separation for CA and RUT in samples were performed on a Waters UPLC BEH phenyl column (100 mm × 1.0 mm i.d., 1.7 μm) and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1 M formic acid buffer, pH = 3.77 (15:85, v/v) containing 1.0 mL triethylamine in 1,000 mL mobile phase. Multi-wavelength UPLC chromatograms of CA and RUT in calibration and plant samples were obtained by the photodiode array (PDA) detection at the wavelength set from 290 to 360 nm with the interval of Δλ = 10 nm. Conventional UPLC-single and chemometric calibrations were subjected to the analysis of the related compounds. By using UPLC data, conventional and chemometric calibrations in the linear concentration range between 2.5 and 40.0 μg/mL for all compounds were applied for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of CA and RUT in plant samples of seven different Ribes species.

  15. Differentiating fatty and non-fatty tissue using photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Leo; Rohling, Robert; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Salcudean, Septimiu; Tang, Shuo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a temporal-domain intensity-based photoacoustic imaging method that can differentiate between fatty and non-fatty tissues. PA pressure intensity is partly dependent on the tissue's speed of sound, which increases as temperature increases in non-fatty tissue and decreases in fatty tissue. Therefore, by introducing a temperature change in the tissue and subsequently monitoring the change of the PA intensity, it is possible to distinguish between the two types of tissue. A commercial ultrasound system with a 128-element 5-14 MHz linear array transducer and a tunable ND:YAG laser were used to produce PA images. Ex-vivo bovine fat and porcine liver tissues were precooled to below 10°C and then warmed to room-temperature over ~1 hour period. A thermocouple monitored the temperature rise while PA images were acquired at 0.5°C intervals. The averaged intensity of the illuminated tissue region at each temperature interval was plotted and linearly fitted. Liver samples showed a mean increase of 2.82 %/°C, whereas bovine fat had a mean decrease of 6.24 %/°C. These results demonstrate that this method has the potential to perform tissue differentiation in the temporal-domain.

  16. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-03-25

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD.

  17. Determination of rutin with L-Cys-CdS nano-fluorescent probe by fluorescence quenching method%L-Cys-CdS纳米荧光探针荧光猝灭法测定芦丁含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于沙蔚; 程伟青; 潘爱萍

    2014-01-01

    建立了以L-Cys-CdS纳米荧光探针测定芦丁含量的荧光分析方法。以L-半胱氨酸为稳定剂,在水溶液中合成了CdS纳米荧光探针,其粒径约为20nm。芦丁对CdS纳米荧光探针有荧光猝灭作用,且其紫外光谱图与变温实验表明其为静态猝灭。考察了酸度、反应时间、干扰物质对该方法的影响。在体系pH为10.5时,该方法的线性范围为2.004~48.096μg·mL-1,r=0.9992,检出限为0.672μg·mL-1,精密度为1.2%。该方法已成功用于复方芦丁片中芦丁的含量测定,与中国药典中的标准方法比较,结果满意。该方法简便,快捷,可用于芦丁含量的测定。%Determination of rutin content by fluorometry was carried out. In this experiment,the Cds nano-fluorescent probe was pre-pared using L-Cys as stabilizer in aqueous solution. Its particle size is about 20 nm. Based on the decrease of fluorescence intensity after L-Cys-CdS reacted with rutin,a new method for the determination of rutin was established. The uv spectra and variable temper-ature experiment showed that the quenching process was static. Some experiment influencing factors were studied such as acidity,re-action time,and interfering substance. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity of system with pH 10. 5 had a good linear relationship with the concentration of rutin in the range of 2. 004~48. 096μg·mL-1(r=0. 9992). The detection limit was 0. 672μg ·mL-1 and the precision was 1. 2%. The method has been applied to the determination of rutin in compound rutin tablets,and com-pared with the standard method( HPLC) ,the results were satisfactory. The method presented here is simple,rapid and can be used for the determination of rutin.

  18. 偏最小二乘-分光光度法同时测定芦丁与槲皮素的方法研究%Simultaneous Determination of Rutin and Quercetin by Partial Least Squares - Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚永辉; 李华; 孙家娟; 王晓玲; 耿薇

    2011-01-01

    The maximum absorption wavelengths of rutin and quercetin are very close and their absorption spectra are seriously overlapping, so it's very difficult to determine individually rutin or quercetin by spectrophotometry without prior separation. In this paper, a partial least squares -spectrophotometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of rutin and quercetin. The absorption spectra of rutin and quercetin mixed standard were studied in the range of 200-500 nm and the absorbance values were recorded every 2 nm. A partial least-squares (PLS) model was built for the simultaneous determination of the contents of rutin and quercetin in the flos sophorae and synthetic sampies. The results indicated that the recoveries of rutin and quercetin in the flos sophorae were in the range of 95.6% -99.8% and 99.8% -99. 9% , respectively, and the recoveries of rutin and quercetin in the synthetic samples were in the range of 97.6% - 102. 1% and 100.2% - 102.2% , respectively. The method showed high accuracy and satisfied precision, and could reduce the effect of noise effectively.%芦丁和槲皮素在紫外区的最大吸收波长接近,吸收光谱严重重叠,普通光度法分析难以实现两者的直接测定.该文通过测定以1∶4甲醇-水为溶剂的芦丁、槲皮素标准混合溶液在200~500 nm波长范围的吸收光谱,采用偏最小二乘法(PLS法)建立校正模型,对样品中的芦丁和槲皮素的含量进行预测,建立了偏最小二乘-分光光度法同时测定芦丁和槲皮素含量的新方法.方法应用于槐米样品中芦丁、槲皮素含量的同时测定,其回收率分别为95.6%~99.8%、99.8%~99.9%;应用于模拟样中芦丁、槲皮素含量的同时测定,两者回收率分别为97.6%~102.1%、100.2%~102.2%.方法显示了较高的准确度和较好的精密度,且能够降低噪声对校正结果的影响.

  19. 离体培养人肠道菌群对芦丁代谢的研究%Study on the metabolism of rutin by human intestinal bacteria in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏飞; 王建壮; 庞小雄; 吕华冲

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过离体实验观察人肠道菌群对芦丁代谢的情况.方法 将人肠道内细菌加入GAM培养基,37℃离体厌氧培养24 h得到肠道菌孵育液,对照组取经灭活的肠道菌孵育液与芦丁37℃厌氧温孵,代谢组取有活性的肠道菌孵育液与芦丁37℃厌氧温孵,采用TLC法和HPLC法对芦丁的肠菌代谢产物进行分析.结果 对照组24h内芦丁水解34.2%;代谢组24 h内芦丁减少98.2%,并最终代谢完全.对照组在48 h内一直有槲皮素出现;代谢组有槲皮素出现,36 h时消失,15 ~21 h时代谢组的槲皮素含量升高,且明显高于对照组.结论 离体培养的人肠道菌群可以对芦丁进行代谢,可能的代谢途径有2种:一种途径是糖苷键断裂转化为槲皮素,槲皮素经代谢转化为其他成分;另一种是不经槲皮素直接转化为其他物质.%Objective To study on the metabolism of rutin by human intestinal bacteria in vitro. Methods Human intestinal bacteria was cultured in the GAM medium in vitro under the anaerobic environment at 37 ℃ condition. Rutin was put into the incubated buffer with inactivated human intestinal bacteria in control group, and with active bacteria in metabolic group. TLC and HPLC were used to analyze rutin and its metabolites. Results In control group,the content of rutin decreased by 34.2% gradually within 24 h,however,in metabolic group,it decreased by 98.2% gradually within 24 h and all rutin was metabolized within 48 h. Quercetin was found in control group within 48 h and it was also found in metabolic group before 36 h. The content of quercetin was significantly higher than control between 15 h and 21 h. Conclusion Rutin was metabolized by intestinal bacteria in vitro, and there may be two possible pathways: rutin was transformated into quercetin through breaking the glycoside bond or other substances independent of quercetin.

  20. 40 CFR 721.3720 - Fatty amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty amide. 721.3720 Section 721.3720... Fatty amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a fatty amide (PMN P-91-87) is subject to reporting under this...