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Sample records for purity rutin fatty

  1. Scalable preparation of high purity rutin fatty acid esters following enzymatic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into expanded uses of modified flavonoids are often limited by the availability of these high purity compounds. As such, a simple, effective and relatively fast method for isolation of gram quantities of both long and medium chain fatty acid esters of rutin following scaled......-up biosynthesis reactions was established. Acylation reactions of rutin and palmitic or lauric acids were efficient in systems containing dried acetone and molecular sieves, yielding from 70–77% bioconversion after 96 h. Thereafter, high purity isolates (>97%) were easily obtained in significant quantities...

  2. Lipase mediated synthesis of rutin fatty ester: Study of its process parameters and solvent polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisali, C; Belur, Prasanna D; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2017-10-01

    Lipophilization of antioxidants is recognized as an effective strategy to enhance solubility and thus effectiveness in lipid based food. In this study, an effort was made to optimize rutin fatty ester synthesis in two different solvent systems to understand the influence of reaction system hydrophobicity on the optimum conditions using immobilised Candida antartica lipase. Under unoptimized conditions, 52.14% and 13.02% conversion was achieved in acetone and tert-butanol solvent systems, respectively. Among all the process parameters, water activity of the system was found to show highest influence on the conversion in each reaction system. In the presence of molecular sieves, the ester production increased to 62.9% in tert-butanol system, unlike acetone system. Under optimal conditions, conversion increased to 60.74% and 65.73% in acetone and tert-butanol system, respectively. This study shows, maintaining optimal water activity is crucial in reaction systems having polar solvents compared to more non-polar solvents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Peigang; Dube, Marc A.; Tremblay, Andre Y.

    2008-01-01

    High-purity fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was produced from different lipids, such as soybean oil, canola oil, a hydrogenated palm oil/palm oil blend, yellow grease, and brown grease, combined with methanol using a continuous membrane reactor. The membrane reactor combines reaction and separation in a single unit, provides continuous mixing of raw materials, and maintains a high molar ratio of methanol to lipid in the reaction loop while maintaining two phases during the reaction. It was demonstrated that the membrane reactor can be operated using a very broad range of feedstocks at highly similar operating conditions to produce FAME. The total glycerine and free glycerine contents of the FAME produced were below the ASTM D6751 standard after a single reaction step. Under essentially the same reaction conditions, a conventional batch reaction was not able to achieve the same degree of FAME purity. The effect of the fatty acid composition of the lipid feedstocks on the FAME purity was also shown. It was demonstrated that, due to the fatty acid composition, FAME from virgin soybean oil and virgin canola oil was produced in the membrane reactor within ASTM specifications even without a water washing step

  4. Rutin from Ruta graveolens L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dj. Afshar

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative determination of rutin in Ruta Graveolens, L. which is easily cultivated in Iran, is necessary for its economic importance, diversity of specialities and their pharmacological activity in blood vessels disorders. For this purpose, the plant was cultivated in botanical garden of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and rutin was determinated at different stages of plant growth. The extraction was done from the crude plants by ethanol, boiling water and hydroalcoholic solvents. Rutin was subsequently purified by crystalization."nStructure elucidation was confirmed by the U.V spectrum in the presence of shift-producing reagents, and TLC by using different systems, HPLC and HPTLC in the presence of standard."nSugars and their sequence of bonding to genine were known by acidic hydrolysis, sequential hydrolysis and TLC in the presence of standards. For quantitative determinations of rutin two methods were selected i.e. HPLC and colorimetery. In the colorimetrey method, cyanidin reaction was used for color producing and the absorbances of other compounds of extract were eliminated in coincidence with rutin absorption.. In the HPLC method, separation was done on CN- column with mobile phase including dioxan/phosphate bnffer (pH=2.6; 2:8. In the end the results of two methods were compared.

  5. Antioxidant properties of modified rutin esters by DPPH, reducing power, iron chelation and human low density lipoprotein assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    system. With regards to in vivo considerations, a pre-treatment step confirmed that the ester bond linking rutin and acyl moieties was most susceptible to hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, while rutin itself was not degraded. Thus, acylation of rutin with medium or long chain fatty acids may result......Practical limitations exist regarding the effectiveness of flavonoids as antioxidants in many food systems, possibly due to their poor solubility and miscibility in lipidic environments. Current strategies to improve these properties include enzymatically acylating flavonoids with lipophilic...... rutin compounds exhibited decreased reducing power and metal chelating abilities as compared to rutin. Conversely, investigations on the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) revealed that rutin laurate was most effective in inhibiting oxidation by prolonging LDL lag time for an in vitro...

  6. Fluorescence and phosphorescence of rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarev, Stanislav L., E-mail: bondarev@imaph.bas-net.by [Minsk State Higher Radioengineering College, 220005 Minsk (Belarus); Knyukshto, Valeri N. [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 220072 Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-10-15

    Rutin is one of the most promising flavonoid from a pharmacological and biochemical point of view. Here we have explored its spectroscopic and photophysical properties at room temperature and 77 K using steady-state absorption-luminescence methods and pulse spectroscopy equipment. By excitation into the absorption band 1 of rutin in methanol at room temperature the normal Stokes' shifted fluorescence with a maximum at 415 nm and quantum yield of 2×10{sup −4} was revealed. However, by excitation into the bands 2 and 3 any emission wasn’t observed. At 77 K in ethanol glass we have observed fluorescence at 410 nm and phosphorescence at 540 nm for the first time. As a result the adequate energetic scheme including the lowest electronic excited singlet at 26000 cm{sup −1} and triplet at 19600 cm{sup −1} states was proposed. -- Highlights: • Rutin fluorescence and phosphorescence at 77 K were revealed for the first time. • Room temperature fluorescence is determined by maximum at 415 nm and yield of 2×10{sup −4}. • Violation of Vavilov–Kasha rule by excitation into the absorption bands 2 and 3. • Fluorescence and phosphorescence in rutin are caused by the allowed π, π{sup (⁎)} transitions.

  7. In vitro evaluation of rutin and rutin hydrate as potential radiation countermeasure agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, Himanshu; Sharma, Kulbhushan; Kallepalli, Simhachalam; Raina, Sheetal; Agrawala, Paban Kumar

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage is one of the major consequences of radiation exposure onto the biological systems. A series of compounds including flavanoids were found to render DNA protection against radiation damage. In this study we elucidated the potential of rutin and rutin hydrate to protect plasmid DNA against damage induced by irradiation. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were performed to assess the antiradical potential of rutin and rutin hydrate. Absorption measurements were performed to assess binding parameters of rutin and rutin hydrate with CT-DNA. DNA plasmid relaxation assay was performed to compare the radioprotective potential rutin and rutin hydrate against gamma irradiation mediated oxidative damage of pET28 (plasmid DNA). DPPH· assay indicated fast reaction kinetics for rutin and rutin hydrate however antiradical parameter in terms of EC50 suggested better scavenging capacity for rutin hydrate compared to rutin. Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay further suggested that both the compounds displayed significant reduction in hydroxyl radicals. Absorption binding study with CT-DNA suggested that rutin hydrate has better binding constant value (Ka=8.257x10 4 M -1 ) compared to Ka= 1.834x10 4 M -1 for rutin. Plasmid relaxation study demonstrated that plasmid DNA remains predominantly in the super-coiled form in the presence of both rutin and rutin hydrate after exposure to 100 Gy of γ-radiation. The mechanistic studies suggested that binding and scavenging capacity of rutin hydrate and rutin contributes towards DNA radioprotection. This study may be helpful in devising potent radioprotector molecules helpful for the radiotherapy treatment. (author)

  8. Antioxidant Efficacies of Rutin and Rutin Esters in Bulk Oil and Oil-in-Water Emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    concentrations (25 and 200 µM) was assessed in bulk oil and in an o/w emulsion system without and with iron addition. All evaluated compounds revealed antioxidant effects. However, rutin and BHT were the most efficient antioxidants in bulk oil followed by rutin palmitate, whereas rutin laurate acted as either......The use of flavonoids as antioxidants in food formulations is limited due to their solubility and thereby their localization in the food products. However, enzymatic alkylation of flavonoids with lipophilic moieties alters their lipophilicity and thereby partitioning within different phases...... in a food product. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative efficiency of two derivatives of rutin, namely rutin laurate (C12:0) and rutin palmitate (C16:0) compared with their parent compound rutin and with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Their efficiency as antioxidants at two different...

  9. Amelioration of High Cholesterol Diet Caused Lipids Accumulation in Hepatic Cells by Rutin and Ascorbic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz M. Aleisa

    2013-01-01

    Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has become a very common metabolic disorder. It refers to a group of conditions where excess fats are deposited in hepatic cells. Several approaches have been considered for the management of NAFLD including dietary changes, which were reported to suppress hepatic lipids accumulation in previous studies. The present study was designed to investigate the possible synergistic effects of Rutin (RT) and Ascorbic Acid (AA) against lipids accumulation in he...

  10. Hormetic efficacy of rutin to promote longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Chitnis, Atith; Talekar, Aishwarya; Mulay, Prajakta; Makkar, Manyata; James, Joel; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2017-06-01

    Hormetins are compounds that mediate hormesis by being beneficial at low doses but detrimental at high doses. Recent studies have highlighted that many compounds that extended lifespan in model organisms did so by mediating hormesis. Rutin is a glycosylate conjugate of quercetin and rutinose and is abundant in citrus fruits and buckwheat seeds. Rutin possess ROS scavenging, anti-cancer, cardio-protective, skin-regenerative and neuro-protective properties. Drosophila melanogaster is an attractive model organism for longevity studies owing to its homology of organ and cellular-pathways with mammals. In this study, we aimed to understand the effect of rutin on extending longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female flies were administered with a range of rutin doses (100-800 µM) to analyse whether rutin mediated lifespan-extension by hormesis. Effect of rutin on physiological parameters like food intake, fecundity, climbing activity, development and resistance to various stresses was also studied. Lifespan assays showed that rutin at 200 and 400 µM significantly extended median lifespan in both male and female flies beyond which flies exhibited drastically reduced longevity. Increase in survival at 400 µM was associated with reduced food intake and fecundity. Flies exhibited improved climbing capability with both 200 and 400 µM rutin. Flies fed with 100 and 200 µM rutin exhibited enhanced survival upon exposure to oxidative stress with 400 µM rutin exhibiting no improvement in median lifespan following oxidative stress. Analysis of endogenous peroxide upon treatment with rutin (100-400 µM) with or without 5% H 2 O 2 showed elevated levels of endogenous peroxide with 400 µM rutin whereas no increase in hydrogen peroxide level was observed with rutin at 100 and 200 µM. Finally, gene expression studies in male flies revealed that rutin treatment at 200 and/or 400 µM elevated transcript levels of dFoxO, MnSod, Cat, dTsc1, dTsc2, Thor, dAtg1, d

  11. Isolation and screening of strains producing high amounts of rutin degrading enzymes from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya-Di; Luo, Qing-Lin; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Wang, De-Zhou; Zhang, Ye-Dong; Shao, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Tang, Yu

    2013-02-01

    The rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) was isolated and purified from tartary buckwheat seeds. The RDE was purified about 11.34-fold and its final yield was 3.5%, which was very low, due to our purification strategy of giving priority to purity over yield. The RDE molecular weight was estimated to be about 60 kDa. When rutin was used as substrate, an optimal enzyme activity was seen at around pH 5.0 and 40 °C. Strains isolation strategy characterized by the use of rutin as sole carbon source in enrichment cultures was used to isolate RDE-producing strains. Then the active strains were identified by morphology characterization and 18s rDNA-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) gene sequencing. Three isolates coded as B3, W2, Y2 were successfully isolated from fusty Fagopyrum tataricum flour cultures. Strain B3 possessed the highest unit activity among these three strains, and its total activity reached up to 171.0 Unit. The active isolate (B3) could be assigned to Penicillium farinosum. When the Penicillium farinosum strains were added to tartary buckwheat flour cultures at pH 5.0, 30 °C after 5 days fermentation, the quercetin production raised up to 1.78 mg/l, almost 5.1 times higher than the fermentation without the above active strains. Hence, a new approach was available to utilize microorganism-aided fermentation for effective quercetin extraction from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effects of rutin on the redox reactions of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Naihao; Ding, Yun; Yang, Zhen; Gao, Pingzhang

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are widely used to attenuate oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the influence of rutin (quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside) on hemoglobin (Hb)- dependent redox reactions, i.e. oxidative stability of Hb and its cytotoxic ferryl intermediate. It was found that rutin induced generation of H2O2, which in turn oxidized Hb rapidly. Meanwhile, rutin exhibited anti-oxidant effect by effectively reducing ferryl intermediate back to ferric Hb at physiological pH. In comparison with quercetin, rutin had stronger capability on reducing ferryl species while lesser pro-oxidant effect on H2O2 generation, thus it exhibited more protective effect on H2O2-induced Hb oxidation. Circular dichroism spectrum showed no significant change in the secondary structure of Hb after flavonoid addition, while molecular docking revealed different binding modes of quercetin and rutin with Hb. These results might provide new insights into the potential nutritional and physiological implications of rutin and quercetin with redox active heme proteins regarding their ani- and pro-oxidant effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Steam purity in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, J.; Passell, T.

    1982-01-01

    Reports that 2 EPRI studies of PWRs prove that impure steam triggers decay of turbine metals. Reveals that EPRI is attempting to improve steam monitoring and analysis, which are key steps on the way to deciding the most cost-effective degree of steam purity, and to upgrade demineralizing systems, which can then reliably maintain that degree of purity. Points out that 90% of all cracks in turbine disks have occurred at the dry-to-wet transition zone, dubbed the Wilson line. Explains that because even very clean water contains traces of chemical impurities with concentrations in the parts-per-billion range, Crystal River-3's secondary loop was designed with even more purification capability; a deaerator to remove oxygen and prevent oxidation of system metals, and full-flow resin beds to demineralize 100% of the secondary-loop water from the condenser. Concludes that focusing attention on steam and water chemistry can ward off cracking and sludge problems caused by corrosion

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Phyllanthus niruri Extract, Rutin and Quercetin

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    Djaja Rusmana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal metabolism of oxygen and exogenous factors constantly generate free radicals which could be harmful to the human body. Human need antioxidants to provide protection against free radicals, thus plants are a good source of natural antioxidants. Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri has been known to possess several medicinal properties and contain numerous active phytochemical. In this research, we conducted phytochemical screening and antioxidant assay of P. niruri extract along with the compounds rutin and quercetin, which are flavonoids possessing medicinal properties. This study was conducted to determine P. niruri, rutin and quercetin as antioxidant. METHODS: In this study, qualitative phytochemical screening was performed to detect phenol, flavonoid, saponin, tannin, steroid/triterpenoid, terpenoid and alkaloid in P. niruri extract. Antioxidant analysis of P. niruri, rutin and quercetin was conducted using total measured phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH, 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. RESULTS:  The study revealed that P. niruri extract contained saponin, phenol, flavonoid and tannin based on phytochemical screening. In DPPH and ABTS assays quercetin possessed highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.55 and 1.17 μg/ml respectively. Meanwhile, P. niruri extract showed the highest FRAP activity which was 373.95 μM Fe(II/μg extract. Rutin possessed the lowest antioxidant activity in all antioxidant assays. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that P. niruri extract and quercetin have great potential as a natural antioxidant source. KEYWORDS: asntioxidant, phytochemical, Phyllanthus niruri, quercetin, rutin, free radical

  15. Thermodynamic study of quercetin and rutin mixtures with alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Taraba, Anna

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents interactions between quercetin (3,3‧,4‧,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) and its glycoside, rutin with short chain alcohols, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol studied by the surface tension measurements. An attempt was made to investigate the effect of flavonoid and alcohol concentrations as well as temperature on the thermodynamic parameters of alcohols adsorption at the water-air interface that is the standard free enthalpy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption as well as the infinite dilution activity coefficient. The obtained results show that the mixtures of quercetin with methanol and rutin with ethanol are characterized by the best adsorption properties but all studied systems become less structured after adsorption.

  16. Firewalls from double purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2013-10-01

    The firewall paradox is often presented as arising from double entanglement, but I argue that more generally the paradox is double purity. Near-horizon modes are purified by the interior, in the infalling vacuum. Hence, they cannot also be pure alone, or in combination with any third system, as demanded by unitarity. This conflict arises independently of the Page time, for entangled and for pure states. It implies that identifications of Hilbert spaces cannot resolve the paradox. Traditional complementarity requires the unitary identification of infalling matter with a scrambled subsystem of the Hawking radiation. Extending this map to the infalling vacuum overdetermines the out-state. More general complementarity maps (“A=RB,” “ER=EPR”) necessarily fail when the near-horizon zone is pure. I argue that pure-zone states span the microcanonical ensemble, and that this suffices to make the horizon a special place. I advocate that the ability to detect the horizon locally, rather than the degree or probability of violence, is what makes firewalls problematic. Conversely, if the production of matter at the horizon can be dynamically understood and shown to be consistent, then firewalls do not constitute a violation of the equivalence principle.

  17. Flavonoid rutin increases thyroid iodide uptake in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Lima Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO, the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH, and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function.

  18. Lactobacillus acidophilus-Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fiorella Mazzeo

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus.

  19. Protective effect of rutin on cognitive impairment caused by phenytoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the co-administration of phenytoin (PHT) and rutin in comparison with PHT and piracetam (PIM) on seizure control, cognitive, and motor functions in mice. Materials and Methods: Increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test was used to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of PHT and PIM on convulsions. Cognitive functions in mice were assessed by a spontaneous alternation in behavior on a plus maze while motor functions were screened using rolling roller apparatus and by counting the number of arms entries on a plus maze. Brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity was also estimated. Statistical Analysis: The expression of data was done as mean ± standard error of the mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study showed that rutin when co-administered with PHT, significantly reversed PHT-induced reduction in spontaneous alternation without altering the efficacy of PHT against ICES, in both acute and chronic studies. Further, it also reversed PHT-induced increase in AChE activity. Conclusion: Rutin alleviated the PHT-induced cognitive impairment without compromising its antiepileptic efficacy. PMID:26729954

  20. Hubungan Pemakaian Fenobarbital Rutin dan Tidak Rutin Pada Anak Kejang Demam dengan Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

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    Sara Fadila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKejang demam akan berulang 62,2% serta memiliki tingkat kejadian epilepsi 2-5%. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan pengobatan yang adekuat untuk mencegah terjadi kejang demam dengan pemberian fenobarbital rutin setiap hari selama 1-2 tahun. Efek samping fenobarbital yaitu hiperaktifitas, iritabilitas. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui hubungan pemakaian fenobarbital rutin dan tidak rutin pada anak kejang demam dengan ADHD. Penelitian ini bersifat analitik observasional dengan desain cross sectional yang dilakukan pada 32 orang sampel, terdiri dari 16 penderita kejang demam yang mengonsumsi fenobarbital rutin dan 16 penderita kejang demam yang mengonsumsi fenobarbital tidak rutin. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan wawancara berdasarkan kuisioner SPPAHI dan diolah dengan uji statistik chi-square dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95%. Hasil penelitian didapatkan (1 Anak kejang demam bertempat tinggal di kota Padang yang memakai fenobarbital di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang adalah 134 orang (2 kejadian ADHD lebih banyak terjadi pada anak kejang demam yang rutin memakai fenobarbital dan secara statistik terdapat hubungan yang bermakna (p value<0,05 (3 kejadian ADHD lebih banyak terjadi pada anak kejang demam yang rmemakai fenobarbital >1 tahun dan secara statistik terdapat hubungan yang bermakna (p value<0,05. Dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara pemakaian fenobarbital rutin dan tidak rutin pada anak kejang demam dengan ADHD.Kata kunci: Fenobarbital, kejang demam, ADHDAbstractRecurrent febrile seizures will have a rate of 62.2% and 2-5% incidence of epilepsy. Therefore, it needs adequate treatment to prevent febrile seizures with phenobarbital administration routine every day for 1-2 years. Phenobarbital side effects are hyperactivity, irritability. The purpose of this study to determine the correlation of the use of continous and uncontinous phenobarbital in febrile seizures children with ADHD. This research using

  1. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

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    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS, one picomolar (1 pM of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  2. The synthesis of a water-soluble derivative of rutin as an antiradical agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedriali, Carla Aparecida; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchoa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica]. E-mail: capedriali@hotmail.com; Bernusso, Leandra de Cassia; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize a water-soluble derivative of rutin (compound 2) by introducing carboxylate groups on rutin's sugar moiety. The rutin derivative showed an almost 100-fold solubility increase in water. The antiradical capacity of compound 2 was evaluated using the luminol/AAPH system, and the derivative's activity was 1.5 times greater than that of Trolox. Despite the derivative's high solubility in water (log P = -1.13), lipid peroxidation of brain homogenate membranes was very efficiently inhibited (inhibition values were only 19% lower than the inhibition values of rutin). (author)

  3. Incorporation of Rutin in Electrospun Pullulan/PVA Nanofibers for Novel UV-Resistant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yongfang; Qi, Mengjie; Zheng, Laijiu; King, Martin W; Lv, Lihua; Ye, Fang

    2016-06-23

    This study aimed to investigate the incorporation of rutin into electrospun pullulan and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers to obtain ultraviolet (UV)-resistant properties. The effect of weight ratios between pullulan and PVA, and the addition of rutin on the nanofibers' morphology and diameters were studied and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was utilized to investigate the interaction between pullulan and PVA, as well as with rutin. The results showed that the inclusion of PVA results in the increase in the fiber's diameter. The addition of rutin had no obvious effect on the fibers' average diameters when the content of rutin was less than 7.41%. FTIR results indicated that a hydrogen bond formed between pullulan and PVA, also between these polymers and rutin. Moreover, the addition of rutin could enhance the mechanical properties due to its stiff structure and could decrease the transmittance of UVA and UVB to be fewer than 5%; meanwhile, the value of ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) reached more than 40 and 50 when the content of rutin was 4.46% and 5.67%, respectively. Therefore, the electrospun pullulan/PVA/rutin nanofibrous mats showed excellent UV resistance and have potential applications in anti-ultraviolet packaging and dressing materials.

  4. The synthesis of a water-soluble derivative of rutin as an antiradical agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedriali, Carla Aparecida; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchoa; Bernusso, Leandra de Cassia; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize a water-soluble derivative of rutin (compound 2) by introducing carboxylate groups on rutin's sugar moiety. The rutin derivative showed an almost 100-fold solubility increase in water. The antiradical capacity of compound 2 was evaluated using the luminol/AAPH system, and the derivative's activity was 1.5 times greater than that of Trolox. Despite the derivative's high solubility in water (log P = -1.13), lipid peroxidation of brain homogenate membranes was very efficiently inhibited (inhibition values were only 19% lower than the inhibition values of rutin). (author)

  5. Boronic acid based imprinted electrochemical sensor for rutin recognition and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Qi; Zhong, Min; Kan, Xianwen

    2016-10-21

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and boronic acid based molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) were successively modified on a glassy carbon electrode surface to fabricate a novel electrochemical sensor for rutin recognition and detection. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) was chosen as a monomer for the electropolymerization of MIP film in the presence of rutin. In addition to the imprinted cavities in MIP film to complement the template molecule in shape and functional groups, the high affinity between the boronic acid group of APBA and vicinal diols of rutin also enhanced the selectivity of the sensor, which made the sensor display a good selectivity to rutin. Moreover, the modified MWNTs improved the sensitivity of the sensor for rutin detection. The mole ratios of rutin and APBA, electropolymerized scan cycles and rates, and pH value of the detection solution were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the sensor was used to detect rutin in a linear range from 4.0 × 10 -7 to 1.0 × 10 -5 mol L -1 with a detection limit of 1.1 × 10 -7 mol L -1 . The sensor has also been applied to assay rutin in tablets with satisfactory results.

  6. Rutin protects against cognitive deficits and brain damage in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jie; Zhou, Qiong; Du, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Miao; Zhang, Zhuo; Xi, Ye; Li, Zhuyi; Miao, Jianting

    2014-08-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a critical causative factor for the development of cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, which involves many pathophysiological processes. Consequently, inhibition of several pathophysiological pathways is an attractive therapeutic strategy for this disorder. Rutin, a biologically active flavonoid, protects the brain against several insults through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cognitive deficits and brain damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains unknown. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of rutin on cognitive impairments and the potential mechanisms underlying its action in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. We used Sprague-Dawley rats with permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), a well-established model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. After rutin treatment for 12 weeks, the neuroprotective effect of rutin in rats was evaluated by behavioural tests, biochemical and histopathological analyses. BCCAO rats showed marked cognitive deficits, which were improved by rutin treatment. Moreover, BCCAO rats exhibited central cholinergic dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammatory responses and neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, compared with sham-operated rats. All these effects were significantly alleviated by treatment with rutin. Our results provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of rutin and suggest that rutin has multi-targeted therapeutical potential on cognitive deficits associated with conditions with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion such as vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Antioxidant Mechanism of Rutin on Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are involved in the pathologic process of pulmonary arterial hypertension as either mediators or inducers. Rutin is a type of flavonoid which exhibits significant scavenging properties on oxygen radicals both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we proposed that rutin attenuated hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC proliferation by scavenging ROS. Immunofluorescence data showed that rutin decreased the production of ROS, which was mainly generated through mitochondria and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4 in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs. Western blot results provided further evidence on rutin increasing expression of Nox4 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α. Moreover, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry indicated that proliferation of PASMCs triggered by hypoxia was also repressed by rutin. However, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a scavenger of ROS, abolished or diminished the capability of rutin in repressing hypoxia-induced cell proliferation. These data suggest that rutin shows a potential benefit against the development of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting ROS, subsequently preventing hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation.

  8. Antioxidant mechanism of Rutin on hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Qiu, Yanli; Mao, Min; Lv, Jinying; Zhang, Lixin; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Xia; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2014-11-18

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathologic process of pulmonary arterial hypertension as either mediators or inducers. Rutin is a type of flavonoid which exhibits significant scavenging properties on oxygen radicals both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we proposed that rutin attenuated hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation by scavenging ROS. Immunofluorescence data showed that rutin decreased the production of ROS, which was mainly generated through mitochondria and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). Western blot results provided further evidence on rutin increasing expression of Nox4 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Moreover, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry indicated that proliferation of PASMCs triggered by hypoxia was also repressed by rutin. However, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a scavenger of ROS, abolished or diminished the capability of rutin in repressing hypoxia-induced cell proliferation. These data suggest that rutin shows a potential benefit against the development of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting ROS, subsequently preventing hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation.

  9. Neuro-protective effect of rutin against Cisplatin-induced neurotoxic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Mashal M; Alanazi, Wael A; Alshammari, Musaad A; Alotaibi, Moureq Rashed; Alhoshani, Ali R; Al-Rejaie, Salim Salah; Hafez, Mohamed M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A

    2017-09-29

    Cisplatin is widely used chemotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment with limited uses due to its neurotoxic side effect. The aim of this study was to determine the potential preventive effects of rutin on the brain of cisplatin- neurotoxic rat model. Forty rats were divided into four groups. Group-1 (control group) was intra-peritoneal (IP) injected with 2.5 ml/kg saline. Group-2 (rutin group) was orally administrated 30 mg/kg rutin dissolved in water for 14 days. Group-3 (cisplatin group) was IP received 5 mg/kg cisplatin single dose. Group-4 (rutin and cisplatin group) was orally administrated 30 mg/kg rutin dissolved in water for 14 days with a single dose of 5 mg/kg cisplatin IP on day ten. Brain tissues from frontal cortex was used to extract RNA, the gene expression levels of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), PON-2, PON-3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was investigated by Real-time PCR. Cisplatin significantly decreased the expression levels of PON-1, PON-3, PPAR-δ and GPX whereas significantly increased PON-2 expression levels. Co-administration of Rutin prevented the cisplatin-induced toxicity by restoring the alteration in the studied genes to normal values as in the control group. This study showed that Rutin has neuroprotective effect and reduces cisplatin- neurotoxicity with possible mechanism via the antioxidant pathway.

  10. Direct detection of rutin-degrading isozymes with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Deng, Dandan; Zhang, Xuebin; Zhang, Haina; Wang, Cong; Chen, Peng

    2013-12-15

    Rutin-degrading enzymes (RDEs) specifically hydrolyze the glycosidic linkages of rutin, producing quercetin and rutinose. Here we report a reliable and sensitive polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and staining method for the detection of RDE isozymes, which is based on the aqueous solubility difference between rutin and quercetin, as well as the ultraviolet absorbance of quercetin. With this novel method, we achieved a detection limit of 12 ng with 107 U of RDE activity, enabling us to detect at least five RDE isozymes in tartary buckwheat seeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  12. Production of high purity radiothallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebowitz, E.; Greene, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    The method of producing high-purity thallium-201 for use as a myocardial scanning agent comprises the steps of irradiating a thallium target with protons to give the reaction 203 Tl(p,3n) 201 Pb, separating in ion exchange columns the lead from the thallium isotopes, permitting the lead to decay, and then purifying the thallium solution and converting the thallium present to thallous form in which it can be used

  13. Preparation, characterisation and antioxidant activities of rutin-loaded zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangling; Han, Yue

    2018-01-01

    Novel rutin-loaded zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles (ZP) with antioxidant activity in aqueous medium were investigated. The results showed that the sodium caseinate concentrations, dosages of rutin and ethanol volume fractions significantly affected the zein nanoparticles' characteristics. Concerning the antioxidant properties, the highest values of rutin loaded ZP obtained using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging and 2 and 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) decolourisation assays were 52.7% and 71.2%, respectively, and the total antioxidant capacity was 0.40 nmol g-1. The results suggest that zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles can be used as a new nano carrier system for rutin or other water insoluble active ingredients.

  14. Ameliorative effects of rutin against metabolic, biochemical and hormonal disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sarwat; Munir, Faryal; Razak, Suhail; Mehboob, Anam; Ain, Qurat Ul; Ullah, Hizb; Afsar, Tayyaba; Shaheen, Ghazala; Almajwal, Ali

    2016-12-07

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. The study was commenced to assess the favorable effects of Rutin against metabolic, biochemical, histological, and androgenic aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered letrozole (1 mg/kg) per orally (p.o) for a period of 21 days for the induction of PCOS, followed by dose of rutin (100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, p.o) for 15 days using 0.5% w/v CMC as vehicle. Metformin was also given as a standard control to one of the rat groups. Serum estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, serum lipid parameters, CRP and glucose levels were evaluated. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was tested using superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione per-oxidase and reactive-oxygen species level. Rutin flavonoid had a dose-dependent effect on androgenic levels depicting more recovery in the rutin-I treated group, while rutin-II treated groups showed better antioxidant and lipid profiles as compared with PCOS groups. A decrease in the value of C reactive protein (CRP) and a restoration in the proportion of estrous phase smears were observed in the rutin treated groups. Histopathological examination of ovary revealed a significant decrease in the number of cystic follicles in post treated groups. The effects observed with rutin were moderately similar to that with standard metformin, a widely used treatment drug for PCOS. The study provides evidence for the potential ameliorative effects of rutin against clinical and biochemical features of PCOS.

  15. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abd Nikfarjam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neutrophils represent the front line of human defense against infections. Immediately after stimulation, neutrophilic enzymes are activated and produce toxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO and myeloperoxidase (MPO. These mediators can be toxic not only to infectious agents but also to host tissues. Because flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of rutin on stimulus-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α productions and MPO activity in human neutrophils were investigated. Methods: Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation coupled with dextran T500 sedimentation. The cell preparations containing > 98% granulocytes were determined by morphological examination through Giemsa staining. Neutrophils were cultured in complete Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium, pre-incubated with or without rutin (25 μM for 45 minutes, and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Then, the TNF-α, NO and MPO productions were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Griess Reagent, and MPO assay kits, respectively. Also, the viability of human neutrophils was assessed using tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT, and neutrophils were treated with various concentrations of rutin (1 - 100 μM, after which MTT was appended and incubated at 37ºC for 4 hour. Results: Rutin at concentrations up to 100 μM did not affect neutrophil viability during the 4-hour incubation period. Rutin significantly decreased the NO and TNF-α productions in human peripheral blood neutrophils compared to PMA-control cells (P < 0.001. Also, MPO activity was significantly reduced by rutin (P < 0.001. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, rutin had an anti-inflammatory effect

  16. Sensitive detection of rutin based on {beta}-cyclodextrin-chemically reduced graphene/Nafion composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kunping; Wei Jinping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > {beta}-CD-graphene composite obtained via a simple sonication-induced assembly. > Accelerating electron transfer on electrode to amplify the electrochemical signal. > A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for rutin detection. > Good selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of rutin in real samples. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on chemically reduced graphene (CRG) was developed for the sensitive detection of rutin. To construct the base of the sensor, a novel composite was initially fabricated and used as the substrate material by combining CRG and {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) via a simple sonication-induced assembly. Due to the high rutin-loading capacity on the electrode surface and the upstanding electric conductivity of graphene, the electrochemical response of the fabricated sensor was greatly enhanced and displayed excellent analytical performance for rutin detection from 6.0 x 10{sup -9} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} with a low detection limit of 2.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} at 3{sigma}. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical sensor also exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility and could be used for the detection of rutin in real samples. Therefore, the present work offers a new way to broaden the analytical applications of graphene in pharmaceutical analysis.

  17. Increase of rutin antioxidant activity by generating Maillard reaction products with lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; He, Ting; Yi, Ting; Yang, Ji-Ping; He, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Rutin exists in medicinal herbs, fruits, vegetables, and a number of plant-derived sources. Dietary sources containing rutin are considered beneficial because of their potential protective roles in multiple diseases related to oxidative stresses. In the present study, the change and antioxidation activity of rutin in Maillard reaction with lysine through a heating process were investigated. There is release of glucose and rhamnose that interact with lysine to give Maillard reaction products (MRPs), while rutin is converted to less-polar quercetin and a small quantity of isoquercitrin. Because of their high cell-membrane permeability, the rutin-lysine MRPs increase the free radical-scavenging activity in HepG2 cells, showing cellular antioxidant activity against Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress higher than that of rutin. Furthermore, the MRPs significantly increased the Cu/Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity and Cu/Zn SOD gene expression of HepG2 cells, consequently enhancing antioxidation activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brown adipose tissue activation by rutin ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Ye, Rongcai; Zhou, Huiqiao; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Dong, Meng; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lim, Wonchung; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrinopathy that is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary. However, there is a lack of effective treatment for PCOS at present because the pathologic cause of PCOS has not been elucidated. Although it has been known that brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates PCOS by activating endogenous BAT, BAT transplantation is not applicable in clinic. Therefore, BAT activation with natural compound could be an effective treatment strategy for PCOS patients. Here, we found that 3 weeks of rutin (a novel compound for BAT activation) treatment increased BAT activation, thereby it improved thermogenesis and systemic insulin sensitivity in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. In addition, the expression levels of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes such as P450C17, aromatase, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD and STAR were up-regulated in rutin-treated PCOS rat. Furthermore, acyclicity and the serum level of luteinizing hormone were normalized, and a large number of mature ovulated follicle with a reduction of cystic formation were observed in PCOS rat after rutin treatment. Finally, rutin treatment surprisingly improved fertility and birth defect in PCOS rat. Collectively, our results indicate that rutin treatment significantly improves systemic insulin resistance and ovarian malfunction in PCOS, and our findings in this study provide a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS by activating BAT with rutin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biotransformation of rutin to isoquercitrin using recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase from Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; Xie, Tao; Li, Gu-Cai; Tuo, Yi; Xiang, Yu-Ting

    2015-06-01

    To biotransform rutin into isoquercitrin. A α-L-rhamnosidase from Bifidobacterium breve was produced by using Escherichia coli BL21 for biotransformation of rutin to isoquercitrin. The enzyme was purified by Ni(2+)-NTA chromatography to yield a soluble protein with a specific activity of 56 U protein mg(-1). The maximum enzyme activities were at pH 6.5, 55 °C, 20 mM rutin, and 1.2 U enzyme ml(-1). Under optimal conditions, the half-life of the enzyme was 96 h. The K m and V max values were 2.2 mM, 56.4 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 2.1 mM, 57.5 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) using pNP-Rha and rutin as substrates, respectively. The kinetic behavior indicated that the recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase has good catalytic performance for producing isoquercitrin. 20 mM rutin was biotransformed into 18.25 and 19.87 mM isoquercitrin after 60 and 240 min. The specific biotransformation of rutin to isoquercitrin using recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase from B. breve is a feasible method for use in industrial processes.

  20. Extractability of Rutin in Herbal Tea Preparations of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera. It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis, which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4% when the leaves (1 g were boiled in water (200 mL. For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses.

  1. Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Zine, Sandeep Prabhakar; Chaskar, Pratip Kashinath; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves’ ethanolic extract by analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin. PMID:25002804

  2. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  3. Oxidative Stability in Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Quercetin or Rutin Under Iron Catalysis or Riboflavin Photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, BoRa; Ka, HaeJung; Kwon, YongJun; Choi, HyungSeok; Kim, Sunghwa; Kim, Jisu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of quercetin and rutin on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were tested under riboflavin (RF) photosensitization in the presence or absence of FeCl 2 . The degree of oxidation in O/W emulsions was determined by headspace oxygen content, conjugated dienes, and lipid hydroperoxides. Quercetin chelated more metal than did rutin in iron catalyzed O/W emulsions. Generally, 0.1 mM quercetin and rutin was oxidative while 0.5 and 1.0 mM quercetin and rutin was antioxidative in O/W emulsions under RF photosensitization. Depending on the analysis method, the antioxidants had different strengths. The antioxidative or oxidative properties of quercetin and rutin vary in O/W emulsions and depend the quercetin and rutin concentrations and oxidative forces like transition metals, RF photosensitization, or a combination thereof. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Purified rutin and rutin-rich asparagus attenuates disease severity and tissue damage following dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Krista A; Lu, Jenifer T; Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Wu, Wenqing; Zhang, Claire; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong; Robinson, Lindsay E; Wood, Geoffrey A; Wolyn, David J

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of cooked whole asparagus (ASP) versus its equivalent level of purified flavonoid glycoside, rutin (RUT), on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and subsequent colitis recovery in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed an AIN-93G basal diet (BD), or BD supplemented with 2% cooked ASP or 0.025% RUT for 2 wks prior to and during colitis induction with 2% DSS in water for 7 days, followed by 5 days colitis recovery. In colitic mice, both ASP and RUT upregulated mediators of improved barrier integrity and enhanced mucosal injury repair (e.g. Muc1, IL-22, Rho-A, Rac1, and Reg3γ), increased the proportion of mouse survival, and improved disease activity index. RUT had the greatest effect in attenuating DSS-induced colonic damage indicated by increased crypt and goblet cell restitution, reduced colonic myeloperoxidase, as well as attenuated DSS-induced microbial dysbiosis (reduced Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides, and increased unassigned Clostridales, Oscillospira, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium). These findings demonstrate that dietary cooked ASP and its flavonoid glycoside, RUT, may be useful in attenuating colitis severity by modulating the colonic microenvironment resulting in reduced colonic inflammation, promotion of colonic mucosal injury repair, and attenuation of colitis-associated microbial dysbiosis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huan; Wang, Yuzhi; Kong, Jinhuan; Nie, Chan; Yuan, Ya

    2010-12-15

    An ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) method has been developed for the effective extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants including Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Bail. (S. chinensis) and Flos Sophorae. A series of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anions were investigated. The results indicated that the characteristics of anions have remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of rutin and among the investigated ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br) aqueous solution was the best. In addition, the ILMAE procedures for the two kinds of medicinal herbs were also optimized by means of a series of single factor experiments and an L(9) (3(4)) orthogonal design. Compared with the optimal ionic liquid-based heating extraction (ILHE), marinated extraction (ILME), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE), the optimized approach of ILMAE gained higher extraction efficiency which is 4.879 mg/g in S. chinensis with RSD 1.33% and 171.82 mg/g in Flos Sophorae with RSD 1.47% within the shortest extraction time. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was employed for the analysis of rutin in Chinese medicinal plants. Under the optimum conditions, the average recoveries of rutin from S. chinensis and Flos Sophorae were 101.23% and 99.62% with RSD lower than 3%, respectively. The developed approach is linear at concentrations from 42 to 252 mg L(-1) of rutin solution, with the regression coefficient (r) at 0.99917. Moreover, the extraction mechanism of ILMAE and the microstructures and chemical structures of the two researched samples before and after extraction were also investigated. With the help of LC-MS, it was future demonstrated that the two researched herbs do contain active ingredient of rutin and ionic liquids would not influence the structure of rutin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rutin and rutin-conjugated gold nanoparticles ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis in rats through inhibition of NF-κB and iNOS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Anum; Kunwar, Bimal; Mazhar, Maryam; Faizi, Shaheen; Ahmed, Dania; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Simjee, Shabana U

    2018-04-18

    Numerous studies have suggested that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important mediators of inflammatory response in human and animal models of arthritis. Besides, oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxide (PO) are also major contributors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over expression of these inflammatory mediators leads to the extracellular matrix degradation, and excessive cartilage and bone resorption, ultimately leading to the irreversible damage to joints. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-arthritic mechanism of bioflavonoids, rutin and rutin-conjugated gold nanoparticles (R-AuNPs) by determining their role in the modulation of NF-κB and iNOS expression in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of rats. Arthritis was induced by the subcutaneous administration of bovine type II collagen. Treatment was started with rutin, indomethacin + rutin (I + R) and R-AuNPs on the day of CIA induction. The severity of arthritis was determined by measuring the arthritic score on alternate days until mean arthritic score of 4 was observed. The NO and PO levels were also analyzed in serum samples. NF-κB and iNOS expression levels were determined in spleen tissue samples by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Marked reduction in the arthritic score as well as in the NO and PO levels was observed in the treated groups. A significant downregulation in the NF-κB and iNOS expression levels was also observed in the treatment groups compared to the arthritic control group. Collectively, the findings suggest potential clinical role of rutin and R-AuNPs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  9. Concentration of Rutin Model Solutions from Their Mixtures with Glucose Using Ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid S. Saleh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Separation of polyphenolic phytochemical compounds from their mixtures with sugars is necessary to produce an added-value sugar-reduced extract with high biological activity from fruit juice processing industry waste streams. The separation characteristics of a binary mixture of rutin and glucose using a Pellicon-2 regenerated cellulose ultrafiltration membrane with an area of 0.1 m2 having nominal MWCO of 1,000 Da were investigated, to demonstrate the separation of phenolic compounds from sugars. The effects of the operating variables–transmembrane pressure, feed solution temperature and pH, initial feed concentration and feed flow rate–on the permeate flux and enrichment of rutin, were determined. The permeate flux increased with the increase in transmembrane pressure up to a certain limit and after that the flux remained more or less constant. The optimum transmembrane pressure was within 4–5 bar. The flux increased with the increase in feed solution temperature because of reduced feed viscosity, and better solubility. The concentration of rutin was optimum at lower temperature (30ºC, with an enrichment factor of 1.3. The effect of pH on permeate flux was less obvious. Lowering the feed solution pH increased the retention of rutin and the optimum separation was obtained within pH 3–4. The permeate flux decreased with the increase in feed concentration of rutin (concentration range 0.1–0.5 g/L. The enrichment of rutin was significant in the glucose concentration range 0.35–0.5 g/L. The feed flow rate had a significant effect on the flux and separation characteristics. Higher cross-flow through the membrane reduced the fouling by providing a shear force to sweep away deposited materials from the membrane surface. At high feed flow rate, more rutin was retained by the membrane with less sugar permeating through. The optimum feed flow rate was 1.5 L/min. For the separation of rutin (in the retentate and glucose (in the permeate, the

  10. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  11. Disgust and the moralization of purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberg, E J; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Cohen, Adam B

    2009-12-01

    Guided by appraisal-based models of the influence of emotion upon judgment, we propose that disgust moralizes--that is, amplifies the moral significance of--protecting the purity of the body and soul. Three studies documented that state and trait disgust, but not other negative emotions, moralize the purity moral domain but not the moral domains of justice or harm/care. In Study 1, integral feelings of disgust, but not integral anger, predicted stronger moral condemnation of behaviors violating purity. In Study 2, experimentally induced disgust, compared with induced sadness, increased condemnation of behaviors violating purity and increased approval of behaviors upholding purity. In Study 3, trait disgust, but not trait anger or trait fear, predicted stronger condemnation of purity violations and greater approval of behaviors upholding purity. We found that, confirming the domain specificity of the disgust-purity association, disgust was unrelated to moral judgments about justice (Studies 1 and 2) or harm/care (Study 3). Finally, across studies, individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely than individuals of higher SES to moralize purity but not justice or harm/care.

  12. Proteomic analysis of rutin-induced secreted proteins from Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Martha L; Kiernan, Urban A; Francisco, Wilson A

    2004-03-01

    Few studies have been conducted to identify the extracellular proteins and enzymes secreted by filamentous fungi, particularly with respect to dispensable metabolic pathways. Proteomic analysis has proven to be the most powerful method for identification of proteins in complex mixtures and is suitable for the study of the alteration of protein expression under different environmental conditions. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus can degrade the flavonoid rutin as the only source of carbon via an extracellular enzyme system. In this study, a proteomic analysis was used to differentiate and identify the extracellular rutin-induced and non-induced proteins secreted by A. flavus. The secreted proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. While 15 rutin-induced proteins and 7 non-induced proteins were identified, more than 90 protein spots remain unidentified, indicating that these proteins are either novel proteins or proteins that have not yet been sequenced.

  13. Ameliorative effects of rutin on hepatic encephalopathy-induced by thioacetamide or gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Somaya Z; El-Marakby, Seham M; Moawed, Fatma S M

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a syndrome resulting from acute or chronic liver failure. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of rutin on thioacetamide (TAA) or γ-radiation-induced HE model. Animals were received with TAA (200mg/kg, i.p.) twice weekly for four weeks or exposed to 6Gy of γ-radiation to induce HE then groups orally treated with rutin (50mg/kg b.wt.) for four weeks. At the end of experiment, blood, liver and brain samples were collected to assess biochemical and biophysical markers as well histopathological investigations. TAA or γ-radiation exposed rats experienced increases in serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP and ammonia level. Also an alteration in relative permeability and conductivity of erythrocytes was observed. Furthermore, cytokines levels and AChE activity were induced whereas the activities of HO-1 and neurotransmitters contents were depleted. TAA or γ-radiation caused distortion of hepatic and brain architecture as shown by histopathological examination. Treatment with rutin resulted in improvement in liver function by the decline in serum AST and ALT activities and reduction in serum ammonia level. In addition, the administration of rutin significantly modulated the alteration in cytokines levels and neurotransmitters content. Histopathological examinations of liver and brain tissues showed that administration of rutin has attenuate TAA or radiation-induced damage and improve tissue architecture. Consequently, rutin has been a powerful hepatoprotective effect to combat hepatic encephalopathy associated hyperammonemia and its consequential damage in liver and brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ameliorative antimalarial effects of the combination of rutin and swertiamarin on malarial parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Shitlani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ameliorate the antimalarial activity via the combination of rutin (flavonoid and swertiamarin (glycoside. Methods: The antimalarial effects were assessed by in vitro and in vivo methodology. In vitro antiplasmodial activity was assessed by using Plasmodium falciparum cultured media and determined the IC 50 value of individual drugs and their combinations. In in vivo methodology, antimalarial effects of rutin, swertiamarin (200–280 mg/kg/day, p.o. and their combination in 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 ratios were investigated early and established malaria infections using Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Chloroquine phosphate (5 mg/kg/day, p.o. was used as the standard drug. Results: IC 50 values of the rutin and swertiamarin via in vitro study revealed (9.50 ± 0.29 µg/ mL and (8.17 ± 0.17 µg/mL respectively. Whereas, the combination in 1:1 ratio [IC50 of (5.51 ± 0.18 µg/mL] showed better antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. In vivo results showed that rutin and swertiamarin had chemosuppressant effects in a dose-dependent manner, whereas, combination in 1:1 ratio possessed potential antimalarial activity similar to chloroquine phosphate. The drug interaction between rutin and swertiamarin revealed the synergistic effect on 1:1 ratio and additive effect on 1:2 and 2:1 ratios. Conclusions: The results of the in vitro and in vivo study clearly indicate that the combination (1:1 of rutin and swertiamarin showed potential antimalarial activity rather than an individual of each and their combinations 1:2 and 2:1.

  15. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  16. Rutin as a Mediator of Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling Pathways Interactions in Fibroblasts Altered by UVA and UVB Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gęgotek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured. Results. Rutin reduced UV-induced proinflammatory response and ROS generation and enhanced the activity/levels of antioxidants (SOD, GSH-Px, vitamin E, GSH, and Trx. Rutin also normalized UV-induced Nrf2 expression. Its biological activity prevented changes in the levels of the lipid mediators: MDA, 4-HNE, and endocannabinoids, as well as the endocannabinoid receptors CB1/2, VR1, and GPR55 expression. Furthermore, rutin prevented the protein modifications (tyrosine derivatives formation in particular and decreased the levels of the proapoptotic markers—caspase-3 and cytochrome c. Conclusion. Rutin prevents UV-induced inflammation and redox imbalance at protein and transcriptional level which favors lipid, protein, and DNA protection. In consequence rutin regulates endocannabinoid system and apoptotic balance.

  17. Thermal conductivity of high purity vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical resistivity of four high-purity vanadium samples were measured over the temperature range 5 to 300 0 K. The highest purity sample had a resistance ratio (rho 273 /rho 4 . 2 ) of 1524. The highest purity sample had a thermal conductivity maximum of 920 W/mK at 9 0 K and had a thermal conductivity of 35 W/mK at room temperature. At low temperatures, the thermal resistivity was limited by the scattering of electrons by impurities and phonons. The thermal resistivity of vanadium departed from Matthiessen's rule at low temperatures. The electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of high purity vanadium showed no anomalous behavior above 130 0 K. The intrinsic electrical resistivity at low temperatures was due primarily to interband scattering of electrons. The Seebeck coefficient was positive from 10 to 240 0 K and had a maximum which was dependent upon sample purity

  18. The effect of rutin on lipid profile and liver function enzymes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... However, there was a significant (p<0.05) inc compared to diabetic control. Furthermore, serum liver .... orange, grapefruit, lemon and lime) and apple; berries such as mulberry, ash tree fruits and ... Glibenclamide and alloxan were purchased from. Sigma chemical Company St. Louis U.S.A. Rutin was.

  19. Rutin has anti-asthmatic effects in an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of the flavonoid rutin in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mouse ... protection in asthmatic mice, via downregulation of inflammatory ..... cytokine production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells stimulated with ... Increased nuclear factor kappaB activity in milk cells of.

  20. Complex of rutin with β-cyclodextrin as potential delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Paczkowska

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain and characterize an RU-β-CD complex in the context of investigating the possibility of changes in the solubility, stability, antioxidative and microbiological activity as well as permeability of complexated rutin as against its free form. The formation of the RU-β-CD complex via a co-grinding technique was confirmed by using DSC, SEM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, and its geometry was assessed through molecular modeling. It was found that the stability and solubility of the so-obtained complex were greater compared to the free form; however, a slight decrease was observed inits antibacterial potency. An examination of changes in the EPR spectra of thecomplex excluded any reducing effect of complexation on the antioxidative activity of rutin. Considering the prospect of preformulation studies involving RU-β-CD complexes, of significance is also the observed possibility of prolongedly releasing rutin from the complex at a constant level over along period of 20 h, and the fact that twice as much complexated rutin was able topermeate compared to its free form.

  1. Contribution to the study of rutin stability in the achenes of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová Pexová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 258, aug (2018), s. 314-320 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : hexane * lyophilisation * methanol * quercetin * rutin-degradating enzyme * temperature Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  2. Rutin increases critical wavelength of systems containing a single UV filter and with good skin compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, D A; de Oliveira, C A; da Costa, M S; Tokunaga, V K; Mota, J P; Rosado, C; Consiglieri, V O; Kaneko, T M; Velasco, M V R; Baby, A R

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for sunburns, skin cancer, photoaging, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The awareness on preventing these deleterious effects made the use of anti-UVB formulations an important part of population habits; however, despite the availability of several antioxidants capable of ROS scavenging, the pharmaceutical market lacks products associating UV filters with natural compounds of proven efficacy. Here, we investigated the effect of rutin, a flavonoid with antioxidant activity, associated with UVB filters in dermocosmetic preparations. Formulations were assessed through its antioxidant activity, in vitro photoprotective effectiveness, photostability, and in vivo skin tolerance (hydration, transepidermal water loss, and erythema). Samples containing rutin were compatible with the human skin and presented a pronounced antioxidant potential, with scavenging activity values 75% higher than the ones containing only UVB filters. Although rutin could not prevent the sunscreens photodegradation post-irradiation, the bioactive compound significantly increased the formulations critical wavelengths, showing a photoprotective gain, especially in the UVA range. In conclusion, the absorption in the UVA range, coupled with ROS scavenging potential, proved the positive effect of rutin applied to anti-UVB formulations, making this bioactive compound a promising candidate for photoprotection improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Simultaneous determination of rutin and ascorbic acid in a sequential injection lab-at-valve system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shwaiyat, Mohammed Khair E A; Miekh, Yuliia V; Denisenko, Tatyana A; Vishnikin, Andriy B; Andruch, Vasil; Bazel, Yaroslav R

    2018-02-05

    A green, simple, accurate and highly sensitive sequential injection lab-at-valve procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (Asc) and rutin using 18-molybdo-2-phosphate Wells-Dawson heteropoly anion (18-MPA). The method is based on the dependence of the reaction rate between 18-MPA and reducing agents on the solution pH. Only Asc is capable of interacting with 18-MPA at pH 4.7, while at pH 7.4 the reaction with both Asc and rutin proceeds simultaneously. In order to improve the precision and sensitivity of the analysis, to minimize reagent consumption and to remove the Schlieren effect, the manifold for the sequential injection analysis was supplemented with external reaction chamber, and the reaction mixture was segmented. By the reduction of 18-MPA with reducing agents one- and two-electron heteropoly blues are formed. The fraction of one-electron heteropoly blue increases at low concentrations of the reducer. Measurement of the absorbance at a wavelength corresponding to the isobestic point allows strictly linear calibration graphs to be obtained. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration ranges of 0.3-24mgL -1 and 0.2-14mgL -1 with detection limits of 0.13mgL -1 and 0.09mgL -1 for rutin and Asc, respectively. The determination of rutin was possible in the presence of up to a 20-fold molar excess of Asc. The method was applied to the determination of Asc and rutin in ascorutin tablets with acceptable accuracy and precision (1-2%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of radiochemical purity using gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The concepts of chromatography, gas chromatography, activity, radiochemical impurity are defined; the procedure of the application of gas chromatography for detecting radiochemical purity of substances is standardized. (E.F.)

  5. Cutaneous biocompatible rutin-loaded gelatin-based nanoparticles increase the SPF of the association of UVA and UVB filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Camila Areias de; Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Graziola, Fabiana; Chacra, Nádia Araci Bou; Araújo, Gabriel Lima Barros de; Flórido, Ana Catarina; Mota, Joana; Rosado, Catarina; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Baby, André Rolim

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of natural ingredients, such as rutin, can offer improvements in sun protection effectiveness. This strategy can provide enhanced flavonoid content and produces an improved bioactive compound with new physical and functional characteristics. As an alternative to common synthetic-based sunscreens, rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were designed and associated with ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA (EHDP), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in sunscreen formulations. The purpose of this study was to develop rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles and characterize their physicochemical, thermal, functional and safety properties. Rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles increased antioxidant activity by 74% relative to free-rutin (FR) solution. Also, this new ingredient upgraded the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) by 48%, indicating its potential as a raw material for bioactive sunscreens. The safety profile indicated that GNPs and glutaraldehyde (GTA) decreased HaCaT cell viability in a concentration/time-dependent manner. However, both blank nanoparticles (B-NC) and rutin-loaded nanoparticles (R-NC) had good performance on skin compatibility tests. These results functionally characterized rutin-loaded nanoparticles as a safe SPF enhancer in sunscreens, especially in association with UV filters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  7. Isolation of fucoxanthin and fatty acids analysis of Padina australis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fucoxanthin has been successfully isolated from species of Malaysian brown seaweed, namely Padina australis. The purity of the fucoxanthin is >98% as indicated by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. This seaweed also contains a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Thirteen fatty acids were ...

  8. Ameliorating role of rutin on oxidative stress induced by iron overload in hepatic tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, Samy Ali Hussein; Azab, Mohammed El-Said; El-Shall, Soheir Kamal

    2014-08-01

    Iron is an essential element that participates in several metabolic activities of cells; however, excess iron is a major cause of iron-induced oxidative stress and several human diseases. Natural flavonoids, as rutin, are well-known antioxidants and could be efficient protective agents. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective influence of rutin supplementation to improve rat antioxidant systems against IOL-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided to three equal groups. The first group, the control, the second group, iron overload group, the third group was used as iron overload+rutin group. Rats received six doses of ferric hydroxide polymaltose (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) as one dose every two days, by intraperitoneal injections (IP) and administrated rutin (50 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) as one daily oral dose until the sacrificed day. Blood samples for serum separation and liver tissue specimens were collected three times, after three, four and five weeks from the onset of the experiment. Serum iron profiles total iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), transferrin (Tf) and Transferrin Saturation% (TS%)}, ferritin, albumin, total Protein, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were determined. Moreover, total iron in the liver, L-malondialdehyde (L-MDA), glutathione (GSH), Nitric Oxide (NO) and Total Nucleic Acid (TNA) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were also determined. The obtained results revealed that, iron overload (IOL) resulted in significant increase in serum iron, TIBC, Tf, TS% and ferritin levels and AST and ALT activities and also increased liver iron, L-MDA and NO levels. Meanwhile, it decreased serum UIBC, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, albumin, total protein and liver GSH, TNA levels and Gpx, CAT

  9. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on isoquercetin production from rutin by commercial α-L-rhamnosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Yeon; Yeom, Soo-Jin; Park, Chang-Su; Kim, Yeong-Su

    2016-10-01

    To optimize conversion of rutin to isoquercetin by commercial α-L-rhamnosidase using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). The de-rhamnosylation activity of α-L-rhamnosidase for isoquercetin production was maximal at pH 6.0 and 50 °C using HHP (150 MPa). The enzyme showed high specificity for rutin. The specific activity for rutin at HHP was 1.5-fold higher than that at atmospheric pressure. The enzyme completely hydrolysed 20 mM rutin in tartary buckwheat extract after 2 h at HHP, with a productivity of 10 mM h(-1). The productivity and conversion were 2.2- and 1.5-fold higher at HHP than at atmospheric pressure, respectively. This is the first report concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis of isoquercetin in tartary buckwheat at HHP.

  10. Rutin, a flavonoid and principal component of saussurea involucrata, attenuates physical fatigue in a forced swimming mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kang-Yi; Yu, Chao Yuan; Chen, Yue-Wen; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chen, Chun-Ting; Wu, Hsueh-Fu; Chen, Yi-Lin Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antifatigue effects of rutin, a flavonoid extracted from the ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata. Mice were subjected to a weight-loaded forced swim test (WFST) on alternate days for 3 wk. Rutin was administered orally to the mice for 7 days in dosages of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight, and several biomarkers of physical fatigue were evaluated: swimming time, change in body weight, lipid peroxidation, lactic acid (LA), glycogen, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). On Day 7, the rutin-treated mice had a 3-fold longer exhaustive swimming time than the control mice, as well as significantly reduced blood LA concentrations. The 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight rutin-supplemented groups displayed 11.2%, 22.5%, and 37.7% reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, respectively, in brain and muscle tissues compared with the control exercised group. Our results indicated that the administration of rutin protected the mice against the depletion of SOD and GPx activities significantly. Following 7 days of rutin treatment, we sacrificed the mice and analyzed their soleus muscle and brain for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator (PGC-1α) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression. We observed that rutin treatment increased PGC-1α and SIRT1 mRNA and protein expression. The changes in these markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were associated with increased maximal endurance capacity. The application of 2D gel electrophoresis to analyze the rutin-responsive protein profiles in the WFST mouse brain further revealed the upregulation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1, myelin basic protein, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) alpha, and TPI, indicating that rutin might inhibit anxiety through the upregulation of the expression of anxiety-associated proteins. Western blot analysis of MAPK expression further confirmed the antianxiety effects

  11. The Influence of Mg(II and Ca(II Ions on Rutin Autoxidation in Weakly Alkaline Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Slavoljub C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside is one of the most abundant bioflavonoids with various biological and pharmacological activities. Considering the ubiquitous presence of Mg(II and Ca(II ions in biological systems we decided to investigate their influence on the autoxidation of rutin in weakly alkaline aqueous solutions. Changes in UV-Vis spectra recorded during the rutin autoxidation in aqueous solution at pH 8.4 revealed that this process was very slow in the absence of metal ions. The presence of Mg(II and, especially Ca(II ion, increased the transformation rate of rutin. UV-Vis spectra recorded after prolonged autoxidation indicated the formation of humic acidlike products in the presence of Mg(II and Ca(II ions. Four new compounds formed during the initial stage of rutin autoxidation in the presence of Mg(II and Ca(II ions were detected by HPLCDAD. Based on the analysis of their DAD UV-Vis spectra and comparison of their retention times with the retention time value for rutin, we concluded that the initial rutin transformation products were formed by the water addition on double bond in ring C and hydroxylation of ring B. A very small decrease of the initial rutin concentration (4% was observed by HPLC-DAD in the absence of metal ions for the period of 90 minutes. However, rutin concentration decrease was much larger in the presence of Mg(II and Ca(II ions (14% and 24%, respectively. The more pronounced effect of Ca(II ion on the rutin autoxidation may be explained by the stronger binding of Mg(II ion to rutin and thus greater stabilizing effect on reaction intermediates caused by its higher ionic potential (charge/ionic radius ratio in comparison to Ca(II ion. The results of this study may contribute to the better understanding of interactions of Mg(II and Ca(II ions with natural phenolic antioxidants which are important for their various biological activities.

  12. The antioxidative effect of lipophilized rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid in fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Petersen, Lone Kirsten; de Diego, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidative effect of phenolipids was evaluated in fish oil enriched milk emulsions as a model for a complex food system. Two different phenolipids modified from dihydrocaffeic acid (with C8 or C18:1) and rutin (with C12 or C16) were evaluated. Both dihydrocaffeate esters and rutin laurate...... provides new knowledge that can be used to develop new antioxidant strategies to protect foods against lipid oxidation. However, the results indicate that both optimization of alkyl chain length for each type of phenolic, and optimization for each type of emulsion will be necessary in order to get the best...... oxidative stability of an emulsion with these phenolipids. Use of efficient antioxidants may lower the amount of antioxidant needed to protect against lipid oxidation and may in addition decrease the costs....

  13. Effect of thermal treatment on rutin content in selected buckwheat products using calcium as an internal tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Krejzová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC was used for rutin (quercetin-3-rutinoside determination in selected buckwheat products (whole meal flour, broken seeds, seed hulls, herbs and baked cereal breads. The effect of various thermal procedures on content of rutin was evaluated using calcium as an internal tracker to correct changes in mass and composition of the buckwheat products. These factors are very seldom taken into account. The results show non-significant changes in rutin levels obtained in whole meal flour and broken seed samples after thermal treatment up to 150°C. Higher temperature already caused sudden fall in the observed rutin concentrations. The evaporation of some volatile compounds and degradation products can decrease the mass of the samples and formally increase the content of rutin (35.5 ±4.7 mg per 100 g for whole meal flour and 10.2 ±0.4 mg per100 g for broken seeds at 150°C. Serious decrease of rutin contents at elevated temperatures (>150°C can be explained by its degradation (by breaking off the C-C bond in quercetin-3-rutinoside moiety and/or evaporation (24.3 ±1.4 mg per 100 g for whole meal flour and 3.06 ±0.3 mg per100 g for broken seeds at 180°C. In case of baked cereal breads the level of rutin changed in dependence on the ratio between buckwheat and corn flour. Longer time leaching and higher temperature implicate higher rutin content in infusions prepared from buckwheat seed hulls and herbs.

  14. The stability of rutin and chlorogenic acid during the processing of black elder (Sambucus nigra) inflorescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dadáková, E.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Chmelová, Š.; Šerá, Božena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2011), s. 327-334 ISSN 0139-3006 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/05/2546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : black elder * Sambucus nigra L * rutin * chlorogenic acid * high-performance liquid chromatography * micellar electrokinetic chromatography Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.444, year: 2011

  15. Dyeing Studies with Eucalyptus, Quercetin, Rutin, and Tannin: A Research on Effect of Ferrous Sulfate Mordant

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit; Charoon Klaichoi; Nattadon Rungruangkitkrai; Nattaya Punrattanasin; Kamolkan Sriharuksa; Monthon Nakpathom

    2013-01-01

    Natural dyes from Eucalyptus leaf extract, quercetin, rutin, and tannin were applied to silk fabric by pad-batch and pad-dry techniques under different conditions. Ferrous sulfate was used as a mordant. The dyeing properties were evaluated by measuring K/S and CIELAB values. In addition, the different fastness properties were evaluated. The effect of dyes at different concentration levels with respect to their colour strength was also studied.

  16. Regiospecific synthesis of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Paulo; Santos, Juliane M. dos; D' Oca, Marcelo G. M.; Piovesan, Luciana A., E-mail: lpiovesan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (UFRS), RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos; Kuhn, Bruna L.; Moreira, Dayse N.; Flores, Alex F.C.; Martins, Marcos A.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-11-15

    A series of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters was synthesized by the cyclo condensation of respective fatty hydrazides with 4-alkoxy- 1,1,1-trial omethyl-3-alquen-2-ones. Efficient and regiospecific cyclizations catalyzed by BF{sub 3}-MeOH gave the desired products in good to excellent yields and at high purity. (author)

  17. Preparation of high-purity cerium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Daniela Moraes; Silva Queiroz, Carlos Alberto da; Santos Mucillo, Eliana Navarro dos

    1995-01-01

    The preparation of high-purity cerium nitrate has been carried out Cerium oxide has been prepared by fractioned precipitation and ionic exchange techniques, using a concentrate with approximately 85% of cerium oxide from NUCLEMON as raw material. Five sequential ion-exchange columns with a retention capacity of 170 g each have been used. The ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as eluent. The cerium content has been determined by gravimetry and iodometry techniques. The resulting cerium oxide has a purity > 99%. This material was transformed in cerium nitrate to be used as precursor for the preparation of Zirconia-ceria ceramics by the coprecipitation technique. (author)

  18. Biological, chemical and in silico fingerprints of Dianthus calocephalus Boiss.: A novel source for rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Sengul; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Picot-Allain, Carene M N; Unuvar, Hamiyet; Mollica, Adriano; Georgiev, Milen I; Zengin, Gokhan; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi

    2018-03-01

    Extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) from Dianthus calocephalus Boiss. prepared by different extraction techniques (maceration, Soxhlet, and ultrasonication) were studied for possible inhibitory action against key enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetyl cholinesterase, butyryl cholinesterase, and tyrosinase). Antioxidant potential was established using a battery of assays and phenolic compounds profiled by RP-HPLC. Binding pose of tyrosinase with rutin was studied by means of molecular docking. Methanol extracts showed the highest phenolic (39.35-40.25 mgGAE/g) content and rich in rutin (61.38-72.07 mg/g extract). Ethyl acetate extracts of D. calocephalus were potent inhibitors of acetyl (1.45-1.48 mgGALAE/g) and butyryl (2.44-2.74 mgGALAE/g) cholinesterases. Docking studies showed that rutin interacts with the side chains of the key amino acid residues and to the copper atom found at the active site of tyrosinase. Methanol extracts showed highest antioxidant capacity. D. calocephalus showed interesting biological properties that could be further studied to manage diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and hyperpigmentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside content in Fragaria vesca, F. viridis and F. moschata in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Edita; Jakstas, Valdas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2013-01-01

    In Lithuania, two species of the genus Fragaria L. (Rosaceae), F. vesca L. and F. viridis Weston, occur naturally in the wild and two others, F. moschata Weston and F. × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier are found escaped from cultivation. The main objective of this study was to establish the variation pattern in the content of chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside in leaves and fruits of the native Lithuanian species. In this work, the chemical polymorphisms of different Fragaria species were studied by growing plants side by side under the same cultivated field conditions. F. vesca fruits had the highest rutin (1.38 ± 0.19 mg g(-1) DM), hyperoside (0.69 ± 0.10 mg g(-1) DM) and chlorogenic acid (2.25 ± 0.34 mg g(-1) DM) content, followed by F. viridis and F. moschata. Our results showed that the leaves should be taken into account as important rutin and hyperoside contributors for strawberries.

  20. Microwave-assisted extraction of rutin and quercetin from the stalks of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Yi; Su, Ping; Guo, Zhenku

    2009-01-01

    Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) has been used as one of traditional Chinese medicines for several thousand years. Conventional methods for the extraction of rutin and quercetin from E. alatus, including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction and heat reflux extraction are characterised by long extraction times and consumption of large amounts of solvents. To develop a simple and rapid method for the extraction of rutin and quercetin from the stalks of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. MAE experiments were performed with a multimode microwave extraction system. The experimental variables that affect the MAE process, such as the concentration of ethanol solution, extractant volume, microwave power and extraction time were optimised. Yields were determined by HPLC. The results were compared with that obtained by classical Soxhlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). From the optimised conditions for MAE of rutin and quercetin it can be concluded that the solvent is 50% ethanol (v/v) solution, the extractant volume is 40 mL, microwave power is 170 W and irradiation time is 6 min. Compared with Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic extraction, microwave extraction is a rapid method with a higher yield and lower solvent consumption. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  1. DETERMINATION OF RUTIN IN LEAVES OF SALIX TRIANDRA USING THE METHOD OF PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Sannikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop new methods of identification and quantitative determination of rutin in the leaves of Salix triandra L. with thin-layer chromatography. The digital processing of the chromatograms was performed using «Sorbfil Videodensitometer» computer program (Krasnodar. For the chromatography analysis we used plates «Sorbfil» PTSH-P-A-UV, mobile phase: n-butanol-glacial acetic acid-water (4:1:1, detecting reagent – ammonia vapors. The rutin is detected as yellow spots with Rf 0.64±0.02. The detection limit is 0.5 μg/μl. The regression equation has the form: S=4.75×103 m. With the use of this method we found that the composition of rutin in leaves of Salix triandra was in the range 1.81±0.06% on the air-dry raw material (relative standard deviation RSD%=2.5%; the measurement error E=3.12%. The method is sensitive, linear, has a small error, and does not require expensive equipment.

  2. Spectral Purity Enhancement via Polyphase Multipath Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2004-01-01

    The central question of this paper is: can we enhance the spectral purity of nonlinear circuits by using polyphase multipath circuits? The basic idea behind polyphase multipath circuits is to split the nonlinear circuits into two or more paths and exploit phase differences between these paths to

  3. Low-cost high purity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.

  4. Purity of targets prepared on Cu substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méens, A.; Rossini, I.; Sens, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    The purity of several elemental self-supporting targets usually prepared by evaporation onto soluble Cu substrates has been studied. The targets were analysed by Rutherford backscattering and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Because of the high percentage of Cu observed in some Si targets, further measurements, including transmission electron microscopy, have been performed on Si targets deposited by e-gun bombardment onto Cu and ion-beam sputtering onto betaine.

  5. Imaging Scanner Usage in Radiochemical Purity Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhafizah Othman; Yahaya Talib; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Imaging Scanner model BIOSCAN AR-2000 has been used in the radiochemical purity test for the product of Mo-99/ Tc-99m generator. Result from this test was produced directly where the percentage of pertechnetate was calculated based on width peak area by thin layer chromatography. This paperwork will explain the function, procedure, calibration of the instrument and discussed the advantages compared to the previous method. (author)

  6. High purity radioactive beams at the bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Chatterjee, A.; Tobias, C.A.

    1979-03-01

    Peripheral nuclear fragmentation reactions of primary Bevalac heavy ion beams are used to produce secondary beams of radioactive nuclei. The large cross section and small deflection of the projectile fragments lead to high production and delivery efficiency for these beams. Dispersive beam transport allows good separation and purification of the desired secondary beams. 11 C and 19 Ne beams of high purity and good intensity (almost 0.2% of the primary beam current) are presently being used for biomedical experiments

  7. Identification of Flavonoids (Quercetin, Gallic acid and Rutin from Catharanthus roseus Plant Parts using Deep Eutectic Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Nisar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green technology is the most important topic in the pharmaceutical field because it reduces the cost of medicines and minimizes the environmental impact of the field and is better for human health and safety. Green chemistry emphasizes that the solvent should be nontoxic, safe, cheap, green, readily available, recyclable, and biodegradable. Deep eutectic solvents, a new type of green solvent, have some renowned properties—for instance, high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, low cost, biodegradability, and high viscosity. In this study, deep eutectic solvents made up of choline chloride-glycerol (1:2 were used for the extraction and isolation of flavonoid (rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin from Catharanthus roseus plant parts, flower petal, leaves, stem, and root. The amounts of rutin and quercetin in flower petal are 29.46 and 6.51%, respectively, whereas, rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin amounts in leaves are 25.16, 8.57, and 10.47%, respectively. In stem the amounts of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin are 13.02, 5.89, and 7.47%, respectively. In root, only quercetin has been obtained that is 13.49%. The HPLC is an analytical method, which was found to be an excellent technique for determination of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin using deep eutectic solvent extraction from plant parts of Catharanthus roseus.

  8. Effect of rutin on virus inactivation by AMT in combination with ultraviolet-A irradiation in platelet concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshiko; Abe, Hideki; Ikebuchi, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Sadayoshi [Hokkaido Red Cross Blood Center, Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Treatment with psoralens and ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation have been found to be effective for virus sterilization of platelet concentrates (PCs). We report here a virus inactivation method using a combination of psoralen derivative 4'-aminomethyl-4,5', 8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT) and UVA irradiation (AMT/UVA). Further, we also investigated the effect of rutin, a radical scavenger, on the inactivation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a model virus administered in PCs and platelet functions were investigated. Spiked VSV (about 5log{sub 10}) in PCs was inactivated by a combination of AMT (50 {mu}g/ml) and 5.2 J/cm{sup 2} UVA irradiation in the absence of rutin. To obtain equivalent levels of VSV kill in the presence of 0.35 mM rutin, treatment with 13.0 J/cm{sup 2} of UVA irradiation with AMT was performed. When PCs were treated under each condition in which 5log{sub 10} VSV was inactivated by AMT/UVA with or without rutin, platelet aggregation function was maintained for more than 80% of untreated platelets. These findings indicate that the presence of rutin during AMT/UVA treatment conferred no beneficial effect. In addition, overnight storage of PCs with AMT induced 40% loss of platelet aggregation in response to 10{mu}M ADP. The findings suggest that UVA irradiation is required immediately after the addition of AMT. (author)

  9. Exogenous application of rutin and gallic acid regulate antioxidants and alleviate reactive oxygen generation in Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2017-04-01

    The effect of rutin and gallic acid on growth, phytochemical and defense gene activation of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) was investigated. The seeds of rice were primed with different concentrations of rutin and gallic acid (10-60 µg mL -1 ) to explicate the effect on germination on water agar plates. Further, to study the effect of most effective concentrations of gallic acid (60 µg mL -1 ) and rutin (50 µg mL -1 ), greenhouse pot experiment was set up to determine the changes in growth, antioxidant and defense parameters. The results revealed more pronounced effect of gallic acid on total chlorophyll and carotenoids as well as on total flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activities. Gene expression analysis of OsWRKY71, PAL, CHS and LOX genes involved in strengthening the plant defense further validated the results obtained from the biochemical analysis. Microscopic analysis also confirmed reduction in total reactive oxygen species, free radicals like H 2 O 2 and O 2 - by exogenous application of gallic acid and rutin. The data obtained thus suggest that both gallic acid and rutin can affect the growth and physiology of rice plants and therefore can be used to develop effective plant growth promoters and as substitute of biofertilizers for maximizing their use in field conditions.

  10. Preparation and electrochemical application of rutin biosensor for differential pulse voltammetric determination of NADH in the presence of acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMID R. ZARE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic behavior of reduced nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide (NADH was studied at the surface of a rutin biosensor, using various electrochemical methods. According to the results, the rutin biosensor had a strongly electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of NADH with the overpotential being decreased by about 450 mV as compared to the process at a bare glassy carbon electrode, GCE. This value is significantly greater than the value of 220 mV that was reported for rutin embedded in a lipid-cast film. The kinetic parameters of the electron transfer coefficient, a, and the heterogeneous charge transfer rate constant, kh, for the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at the rutin biosensor were estimated. Furthermore, the linear dynamic range; sensitivity and limit of detection for NADH were evaluated using the differential pulse voltammetry method. The advantages of this biosensor for the determination of NADH are excellent catalytic activity and reproducibility, good detection limit and high exchange current density. The rutin biosensor could separate the oxidation peak potentials of NADH and acetaminophen present in the same solution while at a bare GCE, the peak potentials were indistinguishable.

  11. High-purity germanium crystal growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    The germanium crystals used for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors are required to have a purity and crystalline perfection which is unsurpassed by any other solid material. These crystals should not have a net electrically active impurity concentration greater than 10 10 cm - 3 and be essentially free of charge trapping defects. Such perfect crystals of germanium can be grown only because of the highly favorable chemical and physical properties of this element. However, ten years of laboratory scale and commercial experience has still not made the production of such crystals routine. The origin and control of many impurities and electrically active defect complexes is now fairly well understood but regular production is often interrupted for long periods due to the difficulty of achieving the required high purity or to charge trapping in detectors made from crystals seemingly grown under the required conditions. The compromises involved in the selection of zone refining and crystal grower parts and ambients is discussed and the difficulty in controlling the purity of key elements in the process is emphasized. The consequences of growing in a hydrogen ambient are discussed in detail and it is shown how complexes of neutral defects produce electrically active centers

  12. Method of high purity silane preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Belov, Eugene P.; Gerlivanov, Vadim G.; Zadde, Vitali V.; Kleschevnikova, Solomonida I.; Korneev, Nikolai N.; Lebedev, Eugene N.; Pinov, Akhsarbek B.; Ryabenko, Eugene A.; Strebkov, Dmitry S.; Chernyshev, Eugene A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for the preparation of high purity silane, suitable for forming thin layer silicon structures in various semiconductor devices and high purity poly- and single crystal silicon for a variety of applications, is provided. Synthesis of high-purity silane starts with a temperature assisted reaction of metallurgical silicon with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. Alcoxysilanes formed in the silicon-alcohol reaction are separated from other products and purified. Simultaneous reduction and oxidation of alcoxysilanes produces gaseous silane and liquid secondary products, including, active part of a catalyst, tetra-alcoxysilanes, and impurity compounds having silicon-hydrogen bonds. Silane is purified by an impurity adsorption technique. Unreacted alcohol is extracted and returned to the reaction with silicon. Concentrated mixture of alcoxysilanes undergoes simultaneous oxidation and reduction in the presence of a catalyst at the temperature -20.degree. C. to +40.degree. C. during 1 to 50 hours. Tetra-alcoxysilane extracted from liquid products of simultaneous oxidation and reduction reaction is directed to a complete hydrolysis. Complete hydrolysis of tetra-alcoxysilane results in formation of industrial silica sol and alcohol. Alcohol is dehydrated by tetra-alcoxysilane and returned to the reaction with silicon.

  13. Protective effects of Rutin against methanol induced acute toxic optic neuropathy: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Gamze Taşlı

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the effects of Rutin on methanol induced optic neuropathy and compare the results with the effects of ethanol. METHODS: Totally 30 rats were divided into 5 groups, with 6 rats in each group as follows: healthy controls (C, methotrexate (MTX, methotrexate+methanol (MTM, methotrexate+methanol+ethanol (MTME and methotrexate+ methanol+Rutin (MTMR. In all rabbits except those of the control group, MTX, diluted in sterile serum physiologic, 0.3 mg/kg per oral was applied for 7d by the aid of a tube. After this procedure to the rats of MTM, MTME and MTMR groups, 20% methanol with a dose of 3 g/kg per oral was given by the aid of a tube. In MTME group, 4h after the application of methanol, 20% ethanol was applied by the same way with a dose of 0.5 g/kg. On the other hand, in MTMR group 4h after the application of methanol, Rutin, which was dissolved in distilled water, was applied by the same way with a dose of 50 mg/kg. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in tissue 8- hydroxy-2 deoxyguanine (8-OHdG, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO. glutathione peroxidase (tGSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels between groups (P<0.001. In MTMR group tissue 8-OHdG, IL-1β, MDA, and MPO levels were similar with the healthy controls but significantly different than the other groups. In histopathological evaluations, in MTX group there was moderate focal destruction, hemorrhage and decrease in number of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes; in MTM group there was severe destruction and edema with decrease in number of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes; in MTME group there was mild hemorrhage, mild edema, mildly dilated blood vessels with congestion while in MTMR group, optic nerve tissue was resembling the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Rutin may prevent methanol-induced optic neuropathy via anti-inflammatory effects and decreasing the oxidative stress. New treatment

  14. Electrochemical detection of rutin with a carbon ionic liquid electrode modified by Nafion, graphene oxide and ionic liquid composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.; Xiang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, H.; Liu, S.; Sun, W.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a carbon ionic liquid electrode modified with a composite made from Nafion, graphene oxide and ionic liquid, and its application to the sensitive determination of rutin. The modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It shows excellent cyclic voltammetric and differential pulse voltammetric performance due to the presence of nanoscale graphene oxide and the ionic liquid, and their interaction. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of rutin appears at pH 3.0, and the reduction peak current is linearly related to its concentration in the range from 0.08 μM to 0.1 mM with a detection limit of 0.016 μM (at 3σ). The modified electrode displays excellent selectivity and good stability, and was successfully applied to the determination of rutin in tablets with good recovery. (author)

  15. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways.

  16. Analysis of the Purity of Cetrimide by Titrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Rasmussen, Claus/Dallerup; Nielsen, Hans/Boye

    2006-01-01

    . Titration by perchloric acid showed a 99.69 ± 0.05 % purity of cetrimide and titration by silver nitrate showed a 99.85% ± 0.05 % purity while the traditional assay method predicted a purity of only 97.1 ± 0.4. It was found that the discrepancy could be identified as differences in selectivity during...

  17. The pharmacokinetic study of rutin in rat plasma based on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical method based on a directly electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO film coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE was developed for the rapid and convenient determination of rutin in plasma. ERGO was modified on the surface of GCE by one-step electro-deposition method. Electrochemical behavior of rutin on ERGO/GCE indicated that rutin underwent a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process and the electrochemical parameters such as charge transfer coefficient (α, electron transfer number (n and electrode reaction standard rate constant (ks were 0.53, 2 and 3.4 s−1, respectively. The electrochemical sensor for rutin in plasma provided a wide linear response range of 4.70×10−7−1.25×10−5 M with the detection limit (s/n=3 of 1.84×10−8 M. The assay was successfully used to the pharmacokinetic study of rutin. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as elimination rate half-life (t1/2, area under curve (AUC, and plasma clearance (CL were calculated to be 3.345±0.647 min, 5750±656.0 µg min/mL, and 5.891±0.458 mL/min/kg, respectively. The proposed method utilized a small sample volume of 10 μL and had no complicated sample pretreatment (without deproteinization, which was simple, eco-friendly, and time- and cost-efficient for rutin pharmacokinetic studies.

  18. Synergistic antioxidant action of vitamin E and rutin SNEDDS in ameliorating oxidative stress in a Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shrestha; Narang, Jasjeet K; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-09-16

    Oxidative stress is the leading cause in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Rutin is a naturally occurring strong antioxidant molecule with wide therapeutic applications. It suffers from the problem of low oral bioavailability which is due to its poor aqueous solubility. In order to increase the solubility self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rutin were prepared. The oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected based on solubility/miscibility studies. Optimization was done by a three-factor, four-level (34) Box-Behnken design. The independent factors were oil, surfactant and co-surfactant concentration and the dependent variables were globule size, self-emulsification time, % transmittance and cumulative percentage of drug release. The optimized SNEDDS formulation (RSE6) was evaluated for various release studies. Antioxidant activity was assessed by various in vitro tests such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assay. Oxidative stress models which had Parkinson's-type symptoms were used to determine the antioxidant potential of rutin SNEDDS in vivo. Permeation was assessed through confocal laser scanning microscopy. An optimized SNEDDS formulation consisting of Sefsol + vitamin E-Solutol HS 15-Transcutol P at proportions of 25:35:17.5 (w/w) was prepared and characterized. The globule size and polydispersity index of the optimized formulation was found to be 16.08 ± 0.02 nm and 0.124 ± 0.01, respectively. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in the percentage of drug release was achieved in the case of the optimized formulation as compared to rutin suspension. Pharmacokinetic study showed a 2.3-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability. The optimized formulation had significant in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. Rutin SNEDDS have been successfully prepared and they can serve as an effective tool in enhancing the oral bioavailability and efficacy of rutin, thus helping in ameliorating oxidative stress in

  19. Development of biosensors containing laccase and imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid for the determination of rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Ana Cristina [Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Biossensores, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Migowski, Pedro; Dupont, Jairton [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Laboratorio de Catalise Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cruz Vieira, Iolanda, E-mail: iolanda@qmc.ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Biossensores, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2009-04-20

    Biosensors based on hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) derived from the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup -} = Tf{sub 2}N{sup -}] anion associated with three different imidazolium cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMI.Tf{sub 2}N), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium (DMI.Tf{sub 2}N) and 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium (TDMI.Tf{sub 2}N), along with laccase from Aspergillus oryzae, were constructed and optimized for determination of rutin. The laccase catalyzes the oxidation of rutin to the corresponding o-quinone, which is electrochemically reduced back to rutin. The best performance was obtained with 50:20:15:15% (w/w/w/w) as the graphite powder:laccase:Nujol:ILs composition in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} acetate buffer solution (pH 5.0). The parameters for the square-wave voltammetry experiments and scanning electron microscopy images of the biosensors were studied. Under the selected conditions, the cathodic peak current increased linearly in the rutin concentration ranges of 4.77 x 10{sup -6} to 4.62 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}, 5.84 x 10{sup -6} to 5.36 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} and 5.84 x 10{sup -6} to 5.36 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} using the (I) BMI.Tf{sub 2}N-laccase, (II) DMI.Tf{sub 2}N-laccase and (III) TDMI.Tf{sub 2}N-laccase, respectively. The rutin contents of commercial samples of pharmaceuticals were successfully determined by the biosensors and the results compared well with those obtained using the official method. The studies on rutin recovery from these samples gave values of 96.9-104.6%.

  20. Development of biosensors containing laccase and imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid for the determination of rutin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzoi, Ana Cristina; Migowski, Pedro; Dupont, Jairton; Cruz Vieira, Iolanda

    2009-01-01

    Biosensors based on hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) derived from the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [(CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N - = Tf 2 N - ] anion associated with three different imidazolium cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMI.Tf 2 N), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium (DMI.Tf 2 N) and 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium (TDMI.Tf 2 N), along with laccase from Aspergillus oryzae, were constructed and optimized for determination of rutin. The laccase catalyzes the oxidation of rutin to the corresponding o-quinone, which is electrochemically reduced back to rutin. The best performance was obtained with 50:20:15:15% (w/w/w/w) as the graphite powder:laccase:Nujol:ILs composition in 0.1 mol L -1 acetate buffer solution (pH 5.0). The parameters for the square-wave voltammetry experiments and scanning electron microscopy images of the biosensors were studied. Under the selected conditions, the cathodic peak current increased linearly in the rutin concentration ranges of 4.77 x 10 -6 to 4.62 x 10 -5 mol L -1 , 5.84 x 10 -6 to 5.36 x 10 -5 mol L -1 and 5.84 x 10 -6 to 5.36 x 10 -5 mol L -1 using the (I) BMI.Tf 2 N-laccase, (II) DMI.Tf 2 N-laccase and (III) TDMI.Tf 2 N-laccase, respectively. The rutin contents of commercial samples of pharmaceuticals were successfully determined by the biosensors and the results compared well with those obtained using the official method. The studies on rutin recovery from these samples gave values of 96.9-104.6%.

  1. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shufang; Yang Jinghe; Wu Xia; Wang Fei; Wang Feng; Jia Zhen

    2006-01-01

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y 3+ ), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10 -9 -1.0x10 -5 g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10 -8 -1.0x10 -5 g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10 -7 -2.0x10 -5 g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10 -9 , 9.8x10 -9 and 2.1x10 -8 g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied

  2. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Feng [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-15

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y{sup 3+}), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10{sup -8}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10{sup -7}-2.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10{sup -9}, 9.8x10{sup -9} and 2.1x10{sup -8}g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  3. [Purification, characterization and partial primary structure analysis of rutin-degrading enzyme in tartary buckwheat seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuwei; Li, Jie; Yuan, Yong; Gu, Jijuan; Chen, Peng

    2017-05-25

    Rutin-degrading enzymes (RDE) can degrade rutin into poorly water soluble compound, quercetin, and cause the bitter taste in tartary buckwheat. In the present study RDE from Yu 6-21 tartary buckwheat seeds was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl Sepharose CL-4B, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-150. Purified RDE showed single band with molecular weight of 66 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature of RDE were 5.0 and 50 ℃ respectively. The Km was 0.27 mmol/L, and the Vmax was 39.68 U/mg. The RDE activity could be inhibited by Cu²⁺, Zn²⁺, Mn²⁺ and EDTA, and showed tolerance to 50% methanol (V/V). The N terminal sequence (TVSRSSFPDGFLFGL) was obtained by Edman degradation method and 15 internal peptide sequences were determined by MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry). These results established the foundations for identification of the candidate gene of RDE via transcriptome data and further studying RDE biological function.

  4. Au@AuPt nanoparticles embedded in B-doped graphene: A superior electrocatalyst for determination of rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xianlan; Yang, Guangming; Feng, Shaoping; Shi, Ling; Huang, Zhaolong [School of Science, Honghe University (China); Key Laboratory of Natural Pharamaceutical & Chemical Biology of Yunnan Province Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China); Pan, Haibo [Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: liuwei4728@126.com [School of Science, Honghe University (China); Key Laboratory of Natural Pharamaceutical & Chemical Biology of Yunnan Province Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The formation of B-doped graphene (BG) with high content of a total B species use hydrothermal method with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} as reducing agent and boron source. • BG was exfoliated into monolayer nanosheet impregnated by Au@AuPt NPs because B atom creates a net positive charge to facilitate NPs adsorption. • The dispersed carboxyl units of BG can form hydrogen bonding with the phenolic hydroxyl groups of rutin, making more rutin participate in reaction. • Au@AuPt NPs can form charge accumulation or valence change on prominent part of the surface, improving the catalytic effect to rutin. • More electroactive sites were generated by doping B atoms into graphene structures, which act as multidimensional electron transport pathways. - Abstract: A hydrothermal approach was used to prepare B-doped graphene with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} as reductant and boron source. Results reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully embedded into graphene with a high content of a total B species (2.85 at.%). Then, B-doped graphene was exfoliated further into monolayer nanosheet by impregnating Au@AuPt core-shell nanoparticles (Au@AuPt NPs) because boron atom creates a net positive charge, which facilitates Au@AuPt NPs adsorption to form Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped graphene hybrid nanocatalysts. After that, the Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped hybrid suspension was dropped on glassy carbon electrode for sensing rutin. In this way, the dispersed carboxyl units of B-doped graphene can form hydrogen bonding with the phenolic hydroxyl groups of rutin, making rutin enrich easily on modified electrode surface to enhance the electrochemical response. At the same time, its electrochemical mechanism on the modified electrode was elucidated using cyclic voltammetry. It was found that its electrochemical behavior on modified electrode surface was a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process, and the charge transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer number (n) were 0.296 and 2, respectively

  5. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  6. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA and thermal analysis.

  7. Preserving high-purity 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, Alan; Giaquinto, Joe; Canaan, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The MARC X Conference hosted a workshop for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233 U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only small portions of the U.S. holdings of separated 233 U are being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233 U (>97 % pure) still are destined to be disposed, and it is unlikely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein. (author)

  8. Rutin improves spatial memory in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice by reducing Aβ oligomer level and attenuating oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Xin; Wang, Shao-Wei; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Su, Ya-Jing; Wang, Teng; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Zhang, He; Wang, Yu-Jiong; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Aβ aggregation is closely associated with neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuronal inflammation. The soluble Aβ oligomers are believed to be the most neurotoxic form among all forms of Aβ aggregates. We have previously reported a polyphenol compound rutin that could inhibit Aβ aggregation and cytotoxicity, attenuate oxidative stress, and decrease the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. In the current study, we investigated the effect of rutin on APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Results demonstrated that orally administered rutin significantly attenuated memory deficits in AD transgenic mice, decreased oligomeric Aβ level, increased super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, reduced GSSG and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, downregulated microgliosis and astrocytosis, and decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in the brain. These results indicated that rutin is a promising agent for AD treatment because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and reducing Aβ oligomer activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Almost purity for overconvergent Witt vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran

    2015-01-01

     . Here, we use almost purity to lift the finite étale extension of R[p−1]R[p−1] to a finite étale extension of rings of overconvergent Witt vectors. The point is that no hypothesis of p-adic completeness is needed; this result thus points towards potential global analogues of p  -adic Hodge theory....... As an illustration, we construct (φ,Γ)(φ,Γ)-modules associated with Artin Motives over QQ. The (φ,Γ)(φ,Γ)-modules we construct are defined over a base ring which seems well-suited to generalization to a more global setting; we plan to pursue such generalizations in later work....

  10. Neutron activation analysis of high purity substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.

    1987-01-01

    Peculiarities of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) of high purity substances are considered. Simultaneous determination of a wide series of elements, high sensitivity (the lower bound of determined contents 10 -9 -10 -10 %), high selectivity and accuracy (Sr=0.10-0.15, and may be decreased up to 0.001), possibility of analysis of the samples from several micrograms to hundreds of grams, simplicity of calibration may be thought NAA advantages. Questions of accounting of NAA systematic errors associated with the neutron flux screening by the analysed matrix and with production of radionuclides of determined elements from accompanying elements according to concurrent nuclear reactions, as well as accounting of errors due to self-absorption of recorded radiation by compact samples, are considered

  11. Neutron activation analysis of high purity tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.; Verevkin, G.V.; Obrazovskij, E.G.; Shatskaya, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    A scheme of neutron activation analysis of high purity tellurium is developed. Weighed amount of Te (0.5 g) is irradiated for 20-40 hr in the flux of 2x10 13 neutron/(cm 2 xs). After decomposition of the sample impurities of gold and palladium are determined by the extraction with organic sulphides. Tellurium separation from the remaining impurities is carried out by the extraction with monothiobenzoic acid from weakly acidic HCl solutions in the presence of iodide-ions, suppressing silver extraction. Remaining impurity elements in the refined product are determined γ-spectrometrically. The method allows to determine 34 impurities with determination limits 10 -6 -10 -11 g

  12. Helium gas purity monitor based on low frequency acoustic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Jacob, S.; Karunanithi, R.; Karthikeyan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Monitoring gas purity is an important aspect of gas recovery stations where air is usually one of the major impurities. Purity monitors of Katherometric type are commercially available for this purpose. Alternatively, we discuss here a helium gas purity monitor based on acoustic resonance of a cavity at audio frequencies. It measures the purity by monitoring the resonant frequency of a cylindrical cavity filled with the gas under test and excited by conventional telephone transducers fixed at the ends. The use of the latter simplifies the design considerably. The paper discusses the details of the resonant cavity and the electronic circuit along with temperature compensation. The unit has been calibrated with helium gas of known purities. The unit has a response time of the order of 10 minutes and measures the gas purity to an accuracy of 0.02%. The unit has been installed in our helium recovery system and is found to perform satisfactorily.

  13. 104 evaluation of microbiological purity of some brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Microbiological purity, tetracycline, contaminants, bacterial load, fungal load, microbiological ... Just like food substances, pharmaceutical products .... Malaysia. Chlortetracycline a. Mar. 2005. Mar. 2008. Ghana b. Aug. 2005. Aug.

  14. Uncertainty estimates of purity measurements based on current information: toward a "live validation" of purity methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Izydor; Kelner, Drew; Jiang, Xinzhao Grace; Huang, Gang; Wypych, Jette; Zhang, Xin; Gastwirt, Jessica; Chen, Kenneth; Fodor, Szilan; Hapuarachchi, Suminda; Meriage, Dave; Ye, Frank; Poppe, Leszek; Szpankowski, Wojciech

    2012-12-01

    To predict precision and other performance characteristics of chromatographic purity methods, which represent the most widely used form of analysis in the biopharmaceutical industry. We have conducted a comprehensive survey of purity methods, and show that all performance characteristics fall within narrow measurement ranges. This observation was used to develop a model called Uncertainty Based on Current Information (UBCI), which expresses these performance characteristics as a function of the signal and noise levels, hardware specifications, and software settings. We applied the UCBI model to assess the uncertainty of purity measurements, and compared the results to those from conventional qualification. We demonstrated that the UBCI model is suitable to dynamically assess method performance characteristics, based on information extracted from individual chromatograms. The model provides an opportunity for streamlining qualification and validation studies by implementing a "live validation" of test results utilizing UBCI as a concurrent assessment of measurement uncertainty. Therefore, UBCI can potentially mitigate the challenges associated with laborious conventional method validation and facilitates the introduction of more advanced analytical technologies during the method lifecycle.

  15. Fashion Brand Purity and Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hui Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of prior empirical research and case studies used qualitative methodology to discuss the fashion brand dilution resulting from consumer base extension from the target group(s to the nontarget groups and its impacts. From a different perspective, this paper establishes a dynamic brand dilution and performance model, demonstrating how dynamic changes of sales volumes involving the two consumer groups affect the degree of brand dilution and the performance of the brand. We incorporate the factor “brand purity” to the model as a quantitative measure of brand dilution level that affects firm annual revenue and profit change comprehensively in iteration. Our model suggests that fashion brands, especially luxury brands, can be easily diluted under the pressure of firm growth, and the brands suffer the significant negative impact on their revenues and profit. While increasing sales volume can aggravate the negative consequences, brand purity can be increased through limiting the consumer base to the target group only.

  16. Growth of high purity semiconductor epitaxial layers by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    semiconductor materials in high purity form by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique. Various possible sources of impurities in such ... reference to the growth of GaAs layers. The technique of growing very high purity layers ... the inner walls of the gas lines and (e) the containers for storing, handling and cleaning of the mate-.

  17. Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-02-27

    We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on measurements of purity.

  18. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water...

  19. The n-Butanol Fraction and Rutin from Tartary Buckwheat Improve Cognition and Memory in an In Vivo Model of Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Gu; Cho, Sunghun; Yoon, Young-Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Sanghyun

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the beneficial effects of the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from tartary buckwheat (TB) on learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD). Learning and memory were assessed using the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Animals administered Aβ showed impaired cognition and memory, which were alleviated by oral administration of an n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB. Similarly, Aβ-induced increases in nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys were attenuated by treatment with n-butanol fraction and rutin from TB in addition to antioxidant effects observed in control (nonAβ-treated) animals. The results of the present study suggest that the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB are protective against and have possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of AD.

  20. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przygodzka Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs, and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produced with or without dough fermentation step. The inhibitory effect against AGEs formation was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO systems. The antioxidant capacity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl- -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and cyclic voltammetry (CV, rutin and D-chiro-inositol contents by HPLC and total phenolics (TPC by spectrophotometric assays. The study showed the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage. The results of the inhibitory activity were highly correlated in two applied model systems. Enrichment of rye-buckwheat ginger cakes with rutin improved their antioxidant properties. The correlation studies showed that the inhibitory effects of rye-buckwheat ginger cakes produced with dough fermentation step and enhanced with rutin against formation of AGEs were highly correlated with TPC, rutin and D-chiro-inositol contents, and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the effect of rutin enrichment was clearly seen in cakes obtained with dough fermentation step, even the inhibitory activity was slightly lower as compared to the cakes produced without dough fermentation.

  1. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Przygodzka Małgorzata; Zieliński Henryk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produc...

  2. Quantification of Quercetin and Rutin from Benincasa hispida Seeds and Carissa Congesta Roots by High-performance Thin Layer Chromatography and High-performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2016-01-01

    In Indian Ayurvedic system, Benincasa hispida (BH) and Carissa congesta (CC) are well-known plants used for major and minor ailments. BH has been regarded as Kushmanda, whereas CC has been used in immune-related disorders of the human system. Quercetin and rutin identified from the vast plethora of plant extracts have proved to possess ethnopharmacological relevance. In present studies, we have determined quercetin and rutin in terms of percentage in BH seeds and CC roots by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After extraction and phytochemical screening, the extracts were subjected to quantification for the presence of quercetin and rutin by HPTLC and HPLC. HPTLC showed quercetin as 44.60, 27.13% and rutin as 32.00, 36.31% w/w, whereas HPLC revealed quercetin as 34.00, 35.00% and rutin as 21.99, 45.03% w/v in BH and CC extracts, respectively. The BH and CC extracts have elucidated peaks that were corresponding with standard peaks on undertaking chromatographic studies. Quercetin and rutin are isolated from BH seeds and CC roots by High Performance. Thin Layer Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. HPTLC revealed presence of quercetin as 44.60, 27.13 % and rutin as 32.00, 36.31 % w/w. HPLC revealed presence of quercetin as 34.00, 35.00 % and rutin as 21.99, 45.03 % w/v. Abbreviation Used: HPTLC: High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography; HPLC: High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, UV: Ultraviolet, CC: Carissa congesta, BH: Benincasa hispida.

  3. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption.

  4. Quantification of Quercetin and Rutin from Benincasa hispida Seeds and Carissa Congesta Roots by High-performance Thin Layer Chromatography and High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In Indian Ayurvedic system, Benincasa hispida (BH) and Carissa congesta (CC) are well-known plants used for major and minor ailments. BH has been regarded as Kushmanda, whereas CC has been used in immune-related disorders of the human system. Quercetin and rutin identified from the vast plethora of plant extracts have proved to possess ethnopharmacological relevance. Materials and Methods: In present studies, we have determined quercetin and rutin in terms of percentage in BH seeds and CC roots by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After extraction and phytochemical screening, the extracts were subjected to quantification for the presence of quercetin and rutin by HPTLC and HPLC. Results: HPTLC showed quercetin as 44.60, 27.13% and rutin as 32.00, 36.31% w/w, whereas HPLC revealed quercetin as 34.00, 35.00% and rutin as 21.99, 45.03% w/v in BH and CC extracts, respectively. Conclusion: The BH and CC extracts have elucidated peaks that were corresponding with standard peaks on undertaking chromatographic studies. SUMMARY Quercetin and rutin are isolated from BH seeds and CC roots by High Performance. Thin Layer Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. HPTLC revealed presence of quercetin as 44.60, 27.13 % and rutin as 32.00, 36.31 % w/w. HPLC revealed presence of quercetin as 34.00, 35.00 % and rutin as 21.99, 45.03 % w/v. Abbreviation Used: HPTLC: High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography; HPLC: High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, UV: Ultraviolet, CC: Carissa congesta, BH: Benincasa hispida PMID:26941534

  5. [The effect of the combined use of mineral water and rutin on the function of the adrenal cortex and pancreatic islet apparatus (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushina, N D; Kozhevnikov, S A; Makarov, V A; Vergeĭchik, E N; Kartazaeva, V A; Liubchik, V E

    1997-01-01

    Before modelling of experimental ulcer according to I. S. Zavodskaia the animals (157 male Wistar rats) were given for 24 days mineral water Essentuki N 17 and rutin in a dose 20 or 40 mg. Those given 20 mg of rutin in combination with mineral water demonstrated a higher rise in blood concentrations of hydrocortisone, insulin and thyroxine. Gastric mucosa and levels of serum alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-globulins and albumins were less damaged.

  6. Characterization of 6-mercaptopurine binding to bovine serum albumin and its displacement from the binding sites by quercetin and rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehteshami, Mehdi [Nutrition Research Center, School of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulzadeh, Farzaneh [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahboob, Soltanali [Nutrition Research Center, School of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza, E-mail: rashidi@tbzmed.ac.ir [Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Binding of a drug to the serum albumins as major serum transport proteins can be influenced by other ligands leading to alteration of its pharmacological properties. In the present study, binding characteristics of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) together with its displacement from its binding site by quercetin and rutin have been investigated by the spectroscopic method. According to the binding parameters, a static quenching component in overall dynamic quenching process is operative in the interaction between 6-MP and BSA. The binding of 6-MP to BSA occurred spontaneously due to entropy-driven hydrophobic interactions. The synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy study revealed that the secondary structure of BSA is changed in the presence of 6-MP and both Tyr and Trp residues participate in the interaction between 6-MP and BSA with the later one being more dominant. The binding constant value of 6-MP-BSA in the presence of quercetin and rutin increased. 6-MP was displaced by ibuprofen indicating that the binding site of 6-MP on albumin is site II. Therefore, the change of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of 6-MP by quercetin and rutin through alteration of binding capacity of 6-MP to the serum albumin cannot be ruled out. In addition, the displacement study showed that 6-MP is located in site II of BSA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Participation of both Tyr and particularly Trp residues in the interaction between 6-MP and BSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Involvement of a static quenching component in an overall dynamic quenching process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ability of quercetin and rutin to change the binding constants of 6-MP-BSA complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding of 6-MP to BSA through entropy-driven hydrophobic interactions.

  7. Enzymatic oxidation of rutin by horseradish peroxidase: kinetic mechanism and identification of a dimeric product by LC-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Sasa; Vojinovic, Katarina; Milenkovic, Sanja; Smelcerovic, Andrija; Lamshoeft, Marc; Petronijevic, Zivomir

    2013-12-15

    Flavonoid oxidation is important issue in food processing and quality. The kinetic mechanism of enzymatic oxidation of rutin by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied. Rutin oxidation reaction was followed by recording of spectral changes over the time at 360 nm. The studied oxidation is mostly enzymatic and less part non-enzymatic. The reaction with HRP has a higher rate compared with the reaction without of HRP, whereby is part of non-enzymatic reaction about 10% of the total reaction. Kinetic parameters were determined from graphics of linear Michaelis-Menten equation, and it was found that investigated reactions of rutin oxidation by HRP take place in a ping-pong kinetic mechanism. High resolution HPLC-MS analysis of the mixture of oxidized products of rutin revealed the presence of rutin dimer. Because of widely distribution of rutin as well as presence of peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide in fresh foods identification of this enzymatic modification product can be beneficial for foods quality and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposite as an adsorbent for the enrichment and determination of rutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Gaeeni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In our study, graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposite (GO/TiO2 was prepared and used for the enrichment of rutin from real samples for the first time. Materials and Methods: The synthesized GO/TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and FT-IR spectra.  The enrichment process is fast and highly efficient. The factors including contact time, pH, and amount of GO/TiO2 affecting the adsorption process were studied. Results: The maximum adsorption capacity for ciprofloxacin was calculated to be 59.5 mg/g according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The method yielded a linear calibration curve in the concentration ranges from 15 to 200 μg/L for the rutin with regression coefficients (r2 of 0.9990. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3 and limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10 were found to be 8 μg/Land 28 μg/L, respectively. Both the intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSDs were < 10% . Conclusion :The developed approach offered wide linear range, and good reproducibility. Owing to the diverse structures and unique characteristic, GO/TiO2 possesses great potential in the enrichment and analysis of trace rutin in real aqueous samples.

  9. Chemotherapeutic Impact Of Natural Antioxidant Flavonoids Gallic Acid Rutin Quercetin And Mannitol On Pathogenic Microbes And Their Synergistic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Ghosh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that natural flavonoids with antioxidants and can influence the response to chemotherapy as well as the development of adverse side effects that results from treatment with antineoplastic agents and Its prevalence over Multi drug resistant bacterial strain revived interest on Flavonoids. Synergistic effect is defined as passive interaction arises when two agents combine and together they exert an inhibitory effect that is greater than the sum of individual effect The new Synergistic therapy so that antioxidant are more effective in combination on multi drug resistant bacterial strain. Interaction between natural antioxidants and topoisomerase enzyme can be seen through Quercetin as a potent antimicrobial compound alone and in combination with other natural antioxidant like rutin. MICMBC result show antibacterial activity of the flavonoids were enhanced when used in combination against Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Bacillus subtilis Klebsiella pneumonae Escherichia coli as the test bacteria. The combination of rutin and quercetin rutin and gallic acid mannitol and gallic acid were much more effective than either flavonoid alone. Furthermore Its gave a good relation between these antioxidant compound and antimicrobial activity. Flavonoids as a chemotherapeutic agent and its Synergistic effect can be solution for various microbial disease conditions.

  10. Effects of combinations of curcumin, linalool, rutin, safranal, and thymoquinone on glucose/serum deprivation-induced cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Alinejad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several phytochemical agents have been known to exhibit a neuroprotective effect. Among them, curcumin, linalool, rutin, safranal, and thymoquinonewere widely investigated and neuroprotective activity of each of them was shown by several studies. This work was planned to investigate whether different combinations of them could induce better neuroprotective effect against glucose/serum deprivation (GSD-induced cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were cultivated for 8 h in GSD condition in both the absence and presence of curcumin, linalool, rutin, safranal, thymoquinone, or combinations of them. At the end of the experiment, the cell viability was determined using MTT assay. Results: The cells cultured in GSD condition showed a significant decrease in viability (28±1% as compared with those cultured in standard condition (100±2%. In the presence of curcumin (10 µg/ml, linalool (16 µg/ml, rutin (200 µg/ml, safranal (50 µg/ml, and thymoquinone (1 µg/ml, the cell viability increased to 69±3.4% (p

  11. High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Quantification of Rosmarinic Acid and Rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been established for simultaneous analysis of rosmarinic acid and rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq. A methanol extract of ASMq was used for quantification. The compounds were separated on silica gel H thin layer plate with ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water 15 : 1 : 1 : 1.5 (v/v as a developer, trichloroethanol as the color reagent. The plates were scanned at 365 nm. The linear calibration data of rosmarinic acid and rutin were in the range of 0.0508 to 0.2540 μg (r=0.9964, 0.2707 to 1.35354 μg (r=0.9981, respectively. The recovery rate of rosmarinic acid was 99.17% (RSD = 2.92% and rutin was 95.24% (RSD = 2.38%. The method enables rapid screening, precise, selective, and sensitive quantification for pharmaceutical analysis.

  12. Protective effect of rutin in comparison to silymarin against induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasi Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of rutin (RTN in comparison to silymarin (SLM against acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats (n=24 of 3 months age were equally divided into four groups. Group 1 served as normal control. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the remaining three groups with administration of 500 mg/kg po APAP from day 1-3. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were subsequently administered orally with distilled water, 25 mg/kg of SLM, and 20 mg/kg of RTN, respectively, for 11 days. The mean body weights and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity were estimated on day 0, 4 (confirmation of toxicity, and 15 (at the end of treatment. Hematological parameters were evaluated on day 4 and 15. Antioxidant profile and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases were assessed at the end of the experiment. Liver tissues were subjected to histopathology and transmission electron microscopy after the sacrifice on day 15. Results: Antioxidant profile, ATPases, and hematological and sero-biochemical parameters were significantly altered, and histopathological changes were noticed in the liver of toxic control group. These changes were reversed in groups 3 and 4 that were administered with SLM and RTN, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation enunciated that SLM has potent hepatoprotective activity though the RTN was found superior in restoring the pathological alterations in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats.

  13. Rutin (quercetin rutinoside) induced protein-energy malnutrition in chronic kidney disease, but quercetin acted beneficially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2013-07-31

    Nutraceutically, much of the literature has indicated that an aglycon and its related glycoside would act similarly. However, controversial reports are accumulating. We hypothesize that rutin (RT) and quercetin (QT) pharmacodynamically could act differently. To confirm this, doxorubicin (DR) (8.5 mg/kg) was used to induce rat chronic kidney disease (CKD) and then treated with QT and RT (each 70 mg/kg body weight per day) for 13 weeks. QT exhibited better body weight gaining effect (420 ± 45) vs RT, 350 ± 57 g/rat (p protein-energy malnutrition". RT stimulated serum creatinine (sCr) production to reach 6.0 ± 0.9 mg/dL (p < 0.001). QT did not alter the sCr level. RT but not QT induced uremia and hypercreatininemia. DR significantly downregulated Bcl-2, but highly upregulated Bax, Bad, and cleaved caspase-3, implicating the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. DR damaged DNA, but QT completely rescued such an effect and recovered renal amyloidosis and collagen deposition. Conclusively, RT and QT act differently, and RT is inferior to QT with respect to treating CKD.

  14. Properties of gelatin-based films incorporated with chitosan-coated microparticles charged with rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Ilyes; Bittante, Ana Mônica Quinta Barbosa; Lourenço, Rodrigo Vinicius; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was development an active film based on gelatin incorporated with antioxidant, rutin carried into microparticles. The complexation between oppositely charged lecithin and chitosan was applied to prepare the chitosan-coated microparticles. The generated microparticles had an average size of 520±4nm and a span of 0.3 were formulated by a rotor-stator homogenize at the homogenization speed 10,000rpm. Composite films were prepared by incorporating chitosan-coated microparticles, at various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1% (based on the weight of the gelatin powder)) in the gelatin-based films. For the prepared films, the results showed that obtained physicochemical, water vapor barrier, and mechanical were compared with native gelatin film with a slight decrease for chitosan concentration higher than 0.5%. The microstructure studies done by scanning electron microscopes, revealed different micropores embedded with oil resulting from the incorporation of the microparticles into the gelatin matrix. Moreover, the calorimetric results were comparable to those of gelatin control film with T g value 45°C and increased crystallinity percentage with increasing incorporation of microparticles. This original concept of composite biodegradable films may thus be a good alternative to incorporate liposoluble active compounds to design an active packaging with good properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gelatin-based microspheres crosslinked with glutaraldehyde and rutin oriented to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Graziola

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Glutaraldehyde (GTA has been extensively used as a gelatin crosslinking agent, however, new natural ones have been suggested as more biocompatible. Polyphenols are possible candidates and the flavonols, such as rutin (RUT, also exhibit potential synergism with sunscreens and antioxidant agents used in cosmetics. In this work, gelatin microspheres (M0 were obtained and crosslinked with GTA 10 mM (MG or RUT 10 mM (MR, dissolved in acetone:NaOH 0,01M (70:30 v/v. MG exhibited crosslinking extent of 54.4%. Gelatin, M0, MG and MR did not elicit any signs of skin damage, regarding the formation of erythema, the barrier function disruption and negative interference in the stratum corneum hydration. Oily dispersions containing M0, MG or MR, isolated or combined with benzophenone-3 or octyl methoxycinnamate, suggested that the microspheres, at a 5.0% w/w, had no additional chemical or physical photoprotective effect in vitro. Crosslinking with RUT had occurred, but in a lower degree than GTA. Microspheres had not improved sun protection parameters, although, non-treated gelatin interfered positively with the SPF for both UV filters. The in vivo studies demonstrated that these materials had very good skin compatibility.

  16. Production of high purity granular metals: cadmium, zinc, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A. P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium, zinc and lead are constituent components of many semiconductor compounds. The obtained high purity distillates and ingots are large-size elements, which is not always convenient to use, and thus require additional grinding, which does not always allow maintaining the purity of the original materials. For the growth of semiconductor and scintillation single crystals it is advisable to use "friable" granular high-purity distillates, which can be processed without the risk of contamination. For example, the European low-background experiment LUCIFER required more than 20 kg of high-purity granulated zinc, which was agreed to be supplied by NSC KIPT. This task was then extended to cadmium and lead. Motivated by these tasks, the authors of this paper propose complex processes of deep refining of cadmium, zinc and lead by vacuum distillation. A device producing granules has been developed. The process of granulation of high-purity metals is explored. The purity of produced granules for cadmium and zinc is >99,9999, and >99,9995% for lead granules. To prevent oxidation of metal granules during exposition to air, chemical methods of surface passivation were used. Organic solvent based on dimethylformamide used as a coolant improves the resistance of granules to atmospheric corrosion during the granulation of high purity Cd, Zn and Pb.

  17. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lity of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope pro- gramme. Selection ... and blockages detection in buried pipelines are rendered ..... from reputed international suppliers with analysis report.

  18. High-Purity Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Chemical interaction of chalcogenides and some impurities (CS 2, TeO2 ) with the quartz glass at high temperature leads to the thin layers formation...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO1 1523 TITLE: High-Purity Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides...Materials Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2001, p. 341 - 349 HIGH-PURITY GLASSES BASED ON ARSENIC CHALCOGENIDES M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S

  19. Purity and surface roughness of vacuum deposited aluminium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, N G; Arsenio, T P [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Patnaik, B K [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Assuncao, F C.R.; de Souza, A M [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    1975-04-01

    The authors studied the purity, surface roughness and grain size of vacuum-deposited aluminium films, using an intermetallic crucible and a continuous feed of pure aluminium wire. The grain size and roughness were studied by electron difraction, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope. Purity was determined by X-ray fluorescence produced by proton bombardment in the Van de Graaff accelerator and by X-ray and optical emission spectrometry.

  20. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  1. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  2. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  3. Analysis of the relationship between Chalcone Isomerase gene expression level and rutin production in Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najid, Najihah Mohd; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Zainal, Zamri

    2016-11-01

    Ficus deltoidea (moraceae) is a herbal plant with medicinal values. Previous studies reported that the F. deltoidea contains a high level of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids. A cDNA encodes for chalcone isomerase was identified from F. deltoidea, designated as FdCHI, which involved in the isomerization of naringenin chalcone to naringenin. Naringenin is a key branch point for the synthesis of rutin, which is believed involved in defense mechanism in the plant. Therefore, we hypothesized that there might be a direct relationship between FdCHI expression level and rutin production in leaves of F. deltoidea var. deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia (FDA). Our result showed that expression level of FdCHI in leaves FDD was greater than FDA. Analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that rutin was only detected in FDA leaves. Based on the results between FdCHI expression and rutin production, this study concluded that there is no relationship between FdCHI expression and rutin production in leaves of FDA and FDD.

  4. Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system in hippocampus are involved in the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced learning and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Chun-Hai; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in mice. This study focused on the role of synaptophysin, growth-associated protein 43 and the action of the dopaminergic system in mechanisms associated with rutin protection and trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment. Cognitive learning and memory was measured by Morris Water Maze. The expression of synaptophysin and growth-associated protein 43 in hippocampus was analyzed by western blot. The concentrations of dopamine, homovanillic acid, and dihyroxyphenylacetic acid in hippocampus were detected using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Trimethyltin-induced spatial learning impairment showed a dose-dependent mode. Synaptophysin but not growth-associated protein 43 was decreased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. The concentration of dopamine decreased, while homovanillic acid increased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. Mice pretreated with 20 mg/kg of rutin for 7 consecutive days exhibited improved water maze performance. Moreover, rutin pretreatment reversed the decrease of synaptophysin expression and dopamine alteration. These results suggest that rutin may protect against spatial memory impairment induced by trimethyltin. Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system may be involved in trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in hippocampus.

  5. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects.

  6. [The effects of the combined use of mineral water with ascorbic acid and rutin experimentally and clinically].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushina, N D; Kartazaeva, V A; Botvineva, L A; Kozhevnikov, S A

    2000-01-01

    Effects of a single and course intake of glucose, ascorbic acid and rutin in combination with mineral water Essentuki N17 on blood levels of glucose, hydrocortisone, ACTH, insulin were studied in 336 Wistar male rats. 80 patients with diabetes mellitus type I and II received a course of ascorutin and mineral water. Mineral water proved able to reduce a hyperglycemic effect of vitamins. A course of mineral water and ascorutin promotes improvement of carbohydrate, lipid metabolism, elevates plasma content of ascorbic acid, diminishes the need in sugar-reducing drugs.

  7. Effect of phosphorus on hot ductility of high purity iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, K.; Liu, C.M.; Ichikawa, M..; Suenaga, H.; Tanino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Tensile tests on high purity Fe-P alloys with 0, 0.05 and 0.1 mass%P were carried out at temperatures between 300 K and 1073 K to clarify the intrinsic effect of phosphorus on the mechanical properties of iron at elevated temperatures. Microstructures of as-quenched, interrupted and ruptured specimens were observed. Experimental results show that the addition of phosphorus causes a remarkable increase in proof stress of high purity iron at 300 K, but the increase in proof stress by phosphorus decreases with increasing test temperature. The strengthening effect of phosphorus reduces to zero at 1073 K. High purity iron and Fe-P alloys rupture at almost 100% reduction in area at the whole test temperatures. However, Fe-P alloys show much larger elongation at test temperatures above 773 K than high purity iron. The increased elongation of high purity iron by addition of phosphorus was shown to be related to the effect of phosphorus on dynamic recovery and recrystallization of iron as its intrinsic effect. (orig.)

  8. Thermal and electrical conductivities of high purity tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of three high purity tantalum samples have been measured as functions of temperature over a temperature range of 5K to 65K. Sample purities ranged up to a resistivity ratio of 1714. The highest purity sample had a residual resistivity of .76 x 10 -10 OMEGA-m. The intrinsic resistivity varied as T 3 . 9 from 10K to 31K. The thermal conductivity of the purest sample had a maximum of 840 W/mK at 9.8K. The intrinsic thermal resistivity varied as T 2 . 4 from 10K to 35K. At low temperatures electrons were scattered primarily by impurities and by phonons with both interband and intraband transitions observed. The electrical and thermal resistivity is departed from Matthiessen's rule at low temperatures

  9. Purity and adulterant analysis of crack seizures in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, André R; Carvalho, Virginia M; Carvalho, Débora G; Diaz, Ernesto; Bustillos, Jose Oscar William Vega; Spinosa, Helenice de S; Chasin, Alice A M

    2014-10-01

    Cocaine represents a serious problem to society. Smoked cocaine is very addictive and it is frequently associated with violence and health issues. Knowledge of the purity and adulterants present in seized cocaine, as well as variations in drug characteristics are useful to identify drug source and estimate health impact. No data are available regarding smoked cocaine composition in most countries, and the smoked form is increasing in the Brazilian market. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the current knowledge on the status of crack cocaine seized samples on the illicit market by the police of São Paulo. Thus, 404 samples obtained from street seizures conducted by the police were examined. The specimens were macroscopically characterized by color, form, odor, purity, and adulterant type, as well as smoke composition. Samples were screened for cocaine using modified Scott test and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) technique. Analyses of purity and adulterants were performed with gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Additionally, smoke composition was analyzed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS), after samples burning. Samples showed different colors and forms, the majority of which is yellow (74.0%) or white (20.0%). Samples free of adulterants represented 76.3% of the total. Mean purity of the analyzed drug was 71.3%. Crack cocaine presented no correlations between macroscopic characteristics and purity. Smoke analysis showed compounds found also in the degradation of diesel and gasoline. Therefore, the drug marketed as crack cocaine in São Paulo has similar characteristics to coca paste. High purity can represent a greater risk of dependency and smoke compounds are possibly worsening drug health impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effects of several plant polyphenols against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by X-rays. Comparative study versus diosmin and rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M; Rosa, B [Radiology and Physical Medicine Department of Furfural Espanol S.A., Murcia (Spain); Castillo, J; Benavente-Garcia, O; Lorente, J [Research and Development Department of Furfural Espanol S.A., Murcia (Spain); Vicente, V [Pathology Department of Furfural Espanol S.A., Murcia (Spain); Canteras, M [Biostatistical Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    Protective effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed (GSE), Citrus spp. fruits (CE) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf (OL) extracts, the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) against chromosomal damage induced by X-rays were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity. The reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse exposed to X-rays was examined. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE {approx} CE > rutin {approx} DMSO {approx} OL > diosmin. These results suggest a correlation between the antioxidant and anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic extracts. (author)

  11. Protective effects of several plant polyphenols against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by X-rays. Comparative study versus diosmin and rutin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Rosa, B.; Castillo, J.; Benavente-Garcia, O.; Lorente, J.; Vicente, V.; Canteras, M.

    2001-01-01

    Protective effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed (GSE), Citrus spp. fruits (CE) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf (OL) extracts, the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) against chromosomal damage induced by X-rays were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity. The reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse exposed to X-rays was examined. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE ∼ CE > rutin ∼ DMSO ∼ OL > diosmin. These results suggest a correlation between the antioxidant and anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic extracts. (author)

  12. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colosimo, S.J.; Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S.; Lazarus, I.H.; Nolan, P.J.; Simpson, J.; Unsworth, C.

    2015-01-01

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array

  13. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colosimo, S.J., E-mail: sjc@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Unsworth, C. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array.

  14. High-purity aluminium creep under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, V.I.; Lyafer, E.I.; Tokij, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the rate of steady-state creep of high-purity aluminium was investigated. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure inhibits the creep. The activation volume of the creep is independent of the direction in the range of (4.7-6.2) kg/mm 2 and of the pressure in the range of (1-7.8000) atm. It is concluded that self-diffusion does not control the creep of high-purity aluminium at room temperature in the investigated stress and pressure range

  15. Development of high purity niobium material for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Koichi; Sakita, Kohei; Suzuki, Takafusa; Saito, Kenji; Noguchi, Shuichi.

    1993-01-01

    For the superconducting niobium cavities, issues of thermal quench and field emission have to be solved to achieve a high field gradient (>25MV/m) for TESLA (TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator). In order to overcome the quench, upgrading of thermal conductivity of niobium material at the low temperature is very important. On the reduction of the field emission not only dust particles but also defect, impurity and inhomogeneity should be considered. Therefore development of high purity niobium material is very important to solve these issues. This paper describes the our latest R and D for high purity niobium material. (author)

  16. Strengthening Purity: Moral Purity as a Mediator of Direct and Extended Cross-Group Friendships on Sexual Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzali, Loris; Brambilla, Marco; Giovannini, Dino; Paolo Colucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated whether enhanced perceptions of moral purity drive the effects of intergroup cross-group friendships on the intentions to interact with homosexuals. High-school students (N = 639) reported their direct and extended cross-group friendships with homosexuals as well as their beliefs regarding the moral character of the sexual minority. Participants further reported their desire to interact with homosexuals in the future. Results showed that both face-to-face encounters and extended contact with homosexuals increased their perceived moral purity, which in turn fostered more positive behavioral intentions. Results further revealed the specific role of moral purity in this sense, as differential perceptions along other moral domains (autonomy and community) had no mediation effects on behavioral tendencies toward homosexuals. The importance of these findings for improving intergroup relations is discussed, together with the importance of integrating research on intergroup contact and morality.

  17. Evaluation of purity with its uncertainty value in high purity lead stick by conventional and electro-gravimetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nahar; Singh, Niranjan; Tripathy, S Swarupa; Soni, Daya; Singh, Khem; Gupta, Prabhat K

    2013-06-26

    A conventional gravimetry and electro-gravimetry study has been carried out for the precise and accurate purity determination of lead (Pb) in high purity lead stick and for preparation of reference standard. Reference materials are standards containing a known amount of an analyte and provide a reference value to determine unknown concentrations or to calibrate analytical instruments. A stock solution of approximate 2 kg has been prepared after dissolving approximate 2 g of Pb stick in 5% ultra pure nitric acid. From the stock solution five replicates of approximate 50 g have been taken for determination of purity by each method. The Pb has been determined as PbSO4 by conventional gravimetry, as PbO2 by electro gravimetry. The percentage purity of the metallic Pb was calculated accordingly from PbSO4 and PbO2. On the basis of experimental observations it has been concluded that by conventional gravimetry and electro-gravimetry the purity of Pb was found to be 99.98 ± 0.24 and 99.97 ± 0.27 g/100 g and on the basis of Pb purity the concentration of reference standard solutions were found to be 1000.88 ± 2.44 and 1000.81 ± 2.68 mg kg-1 respectively with 95% confidence level (k = 2). The uncertainty evaluation has also been carried out in Pb determination following EURACHEM/GUM guidelines. The final analytical results quantifying uncertainty fulfills this requirement and gives a measure of the confidence level of the concerned laboratory. Gravimetry is the most reliable technique in comparison to titremetry and instrumental method and the results of gravimetry are directly traceable to SI unit. Gravimetric analysis, if methods are followed carefully, provides for exceedingly precise analysis. In classical gravimetry the major uncertainties are due to repeatability but in electro-gravimetry several other factors also affect the final results.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis-based assessment of nanobody affinity and purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haselberg, Rob; Oliveira, Sabrina; van der Meel, Roy; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-01-01

    Drug purity and affinity are essential attributes during development and production of therapeutic proteins. In this work, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to determine both the affinity and composition of the biotechnologically produced "nanobody" EGa1, the binding fragment of a

  19. Construction, assembling and operation of an equipment for sodium purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becquart, E.T.; Botbol, J.; Echenique, P.N.; Fruchtenicht, F.W.; Gil, D.A.; Perillo, P.; Vardich, R.N.; Vigo, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the production of high purity metallic sodium for bench-scale, research studies. A stainless steel equipment was built and assembled, including high vacuum, heating and cooling systems. It was satisfactorily operated in two successive steps, filtration and vacuum distillation, with a good yield. (Author). 5 refs., 5 figs

  20. Monitoring the Microbial Purity of the Treated Water and Dialysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canaud Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysate purity has become a major concern in recent years since it has been proven that contamination of dialysate is able to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines, putatively implicated in the development of dialysis related pathology. In order to reduce this risk, it is advised to use ultrapure dialysate as a new standard of dialysate purity. Ultrapure dialysate preparation may be easily achieved with modern water treatment technologies. The reliable production of ultrapure dialysate requires several prerequisites: use of ultrapure water, use of clean electrolytic concentrates, implementation of ultrafilters in the dialysate pathway to ensure cold sterilization of the fresh dialysate. The regular supply with such high-grade purity dialysate relies on predefined microbiological monitoring of the chain using adequate and sensitive methods, and hygienic handling including frequent disinfection to reduce the level of contamination and to prevent biofilm formation. Reliability of this process requires compliance with a very strict quality assurance process. In this paper, we summarized the principles of the dialysate purity monitoring and the criteria used for surveillance in order to establish good antimicrobial practices in dialysis.

  1. High purity in steels as a criterion for materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, H.

    1995-01-01

    This summarizing report discusses the materials and application prospects for higher purity in steels, which will make possible further advances in materials behaviour and workability. Improvements in purity and homogeneity permit in particular more rational production of thin foils and wire, one-piece shaping of complicated bodywork components and the drawing, wall-ironing and flanging of two-piece beverage cans. Welded designs in plant and mechanical engineering can be fabricated with less effort and less weight. Difficult component geometries and shaping processes can be more easily mastered. Steels with optimized fracture toughness can be exposed to more extreme loads at even lower temperatures: applications worthy of mention include offshore engineering and large-diameter linepipes for use in arctic regions and at great underwater depths. Liquefied-gas transport vessels can be made more resistant to brittle rupture. The bending fatigue strength and service-life of valve-spring and rolling-bearing steels can be significantly increased. High-purity surfaces on piston rods and cylinders guarantee reliability in hydraulic systems, and high-purity calendering rolls permit defect-free embossing of paper surfaces. (orig.)

  2. High purity hydrogen production system by the PSA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    In a process developed by Nippon Steel, coke oven gas is compressed and purified of tarry matter, sulphur compounds and gum-formers by adsorption. It is then passed through a three-tower pressure-swing adsorption system to recover hydrogen whose purity can be selected in the range 99 to 99.999%. A composite adsorption agent is used.

  3. High purity liquid phase epitaxial gallium arsenide nuclear radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.

    1991-11-01

    Surface barrier radiation detector made from high purity liquid phase epitaxial gallium arsenide wafers have been operated as X- and γ-ray detectors at various operating temperatures. Low energy isotopes are resolved including 241 Am at 40 deg C. and the higher gamma energies of 235 U at -80 deg C. 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  4. Purity of potassium iodide necessary for its use in phasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, B R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1981-08-16

    The purity requirements in KI crystals are discussed necessary to have longer lifetimes of phonons for its use in phasers. The main contribution to the phonon scattering at low temperatures arises from the scattering by natural isotopes (/sup 39/K, /sup 40/K, /sup 41/K, /sup 127/I).

  5. Surface passivation of high purity granular metals: zinc, cadmium, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirozhenko L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the high purity metals (99.9999%, such as zinc, cadmium, and lead, which are widely used as initial components in growing semiconductor and scintillation crystals (CdTe, CdZnTe, ZnSe, (Cd, Zn, Pb WO4, (Cd, Zn, Pb MoO4 et al., it is very important to ensure reliable protection of the surface from oxidation and adsorption of impurities from the atmosphere. The specific features of surface passivation of high purity cadmium, lead and zinc are not sufficiently studied and require specific methodologies for further studies. The use of organic solutions in the schemes of chemical passivation of the investigated metals avoids hydrolysis of the obtained protective films. The use of organic solvents with pure cation and anion composition as the washing liquid prevents chemisorption of ions present in the conventionally used distilled water. This keeps the original purity of the granular metals. Novel compositions of etchants and etching scheme providing simultaneous polishing and passivation of high purity granular Zn, Cd and Pb are developed. Chemical passivation allows storing metals in the normal atmospheric conditions for more than half a year for Zn and Cd and up to 30 days for Pb without changing the state of the surface. The use of the glycerol-DMF solution in the processes for obtaining Pb granules provides self-passivation of metal surfaces and eliminates the additional chemical processing while maintaining the quality of corrosion protection.

  6. Purity Evaluation of Bulk Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Hornbostel, B.; Cech, J.; Roth, S.; Wang, J.; Liang, J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on our experience using a preliminary protocol for quality control of bulk single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) materials produced by the electric arc-discharge and laser ablation method. The first step in the characterization of the bulk material is mechanical homogenization. Quantitative evaluation of purity has been performed using a previously reported procedure based on solution phase near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results confirm that this method is reliable in determining the nanotube content in the arc-discharge sample containing carbonaceous impurities (amorphous carbon and graphitic particles). However, the application of this method to laser ablation samples gives a relative purity value over 100 %. The possible reason for that might be different extinction coefficient meaning different oscillator strength of the laser ablation tubes. At the present time, a 100 % pure reference sample of laser ablation SWNT is not available, so we chose to adopt the sample showing the highest purity as a new reference sample for a quantitative purity evaluation of laser ablation materials. The graphitic part of the carbonaceous impurities has been estimated using X-ray diffraction of 1:1 mixture of nanotube material and C60 as an internal reference. To evaluate the metallic impurities in the as prepared and homogenized carbon nanotube soot inductive coupled plasma (ICP) has been used

  7. Pressure-assisted sintering of high purity barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Cruijsem, S.; Varst, van der P.G.T.; With, de G.; Bortzmeyer, D.; Boussuge, M.; Chartier, Th.; Hausonne, J.M.; Mocellin, A.; Rousset, A.; Thevenot, F.

    1997-01-01

    The dielectric behaviour of High Purity Barium titanate (HPB) ceramics is strongly dependent on the grain size and porosity. For applications, control of grain size and porosity is required. Pressure-assisted sintering techniques at relatively low temperatures meet these requirements. In this study,

  8. Isolation of high purity americium metal via distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Leah N.; King, James A.; Fielding, Randall S.; Lessing, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Pure americium metal is a crucial component for the fabrication of transmutation fuels. Unfortunately, americium in pure metal form is not available; however, a number of mixed metals and mixed oxides that include americium are available. In this manuscript a method is described to obtain high purity americium metal from a mixture of americium and neptunium metals with lead impurity via distillation.

  9. Improved methods to determine radionuclidic purity of F-18 compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Micheelsen, Mille Ankerstjerne; Jensen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Current revisions of monographs for F-18 pharmaceuticals in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) (Ph. Eur., 2011) call for a radionuclidic purity (RNP) of or better than 99.9%. However, the current method is not sufficient nor effective for testing this required RNP level. We present a theoretical...

  10. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was

  11. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Alkhamees, Osama Abdelrahman; Aleisa, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Alroujayee, Abdulaziz S

    2012-03-16

    An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male

  12. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rejaie Salim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins

  13. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds ...

  14. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  15. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  16. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Renah Boanerges de Queiroz; da Costa, Cristovão Alves; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna; Junior, Sergio Duvoisin

    2013-07-01

    Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth.

  17. Event timing in high purity germanium coaxial detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ibiary, M.Y.

    1979-08-01

    The timing of gamma ray radiation in systems using high purity coaxial germanium detectors is analyzed and compared to that of systems using Ge(Li) detectors. The analysis takes into account the effect of the residual impurities on the electric field distribution, and hence on the rate of rise of the electrical pulses delivered to the timing module. Conditions under which the electric field distribution could lead to an improvement in timing performance, are identified. The results of the analysis confirm the experimental results published elsewhere and when compared with those for Ge(Li) detectors, which usually operate under conditions of charge carrier velocity saturation, confirm that high purity germanium detectors need not have inferior timing characteristics. A chart is given to provide a quantitative basis on which the trade off between the radius of the detector and its time resolution may be made

  18. Policosanol extraction from beeswax and improvement of the purity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisaipet Anakhaorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policosanol is a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic long chain alcohols (20-36 carbon atoms. It has been use in pharmaceutical composition and food supplements. This research aimed to isolate and improve the purity of policosanol extracted from beeswax. Triglycerides and other impurities were eliminated from beeswax by refluxing with hexane followed by isopropanol. The purified beeswax was hydrolyzed by refluxing with 1 M ethanolic NaOH for 2 hours. Purification of policosanol was performed by extracting the hydrolyzed product with acetone at 50-60 °C for 3 hours and it was stored at 4 °C for precipitation. The precipitate was refluxed with heptanes followed by washing with hot water. The heptanes layer was kept for policosanol precipitation at 4 °C. The purity of policosanol was confirmed by TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The yield of purified policosanol was 13.23-13.89 %.

  19. The Research about Preparation of High Purity Hexachlorodisilane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ye; Zhao, Xiong; Yan, Dazhou; Zhao, Yu; Guo, Shuhu; Wang, Lei; Yang, Dian

    2017-12-01

    This article demonstrated a technology for producing high purity hexachlorodisilane what is one raw material of Semiconductor industry, which using the method of combination adsorption with rectification, whose material was from polysilicon residues of polysilicon company. This technology could remove most high boiling points chloro-silicane impurities and metal impurities effectively. The purity of Si2Cl6 produced by this technology can be up to 99.9%, the content of metal impurities can be low at 4ppb, which can meet the requirement of industy using completely. The technology extends the routes of Si2Cl6 in localization, having the advantages of simple process, continuous operation, and large capacity and so on.

  20. Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

    1981-10-01

    High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10 15 cm -3 has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium β-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H 2 with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10 7 cm -3 and are estimated to contain 10 8 H atoms each

  1. High purity zirconium obtainment through the iodine compounds transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolcich, J.C.; Zuzek, E.; Dutrus, S.M.; Corso, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental method and the equipment designed, constructed and actually applied for the high purity zirconium obtainment from a zirconium sponge of the nuclear type. The mechanism of purification is based on the impure metal attack with gaseous iodine (at 200 deg C) to obtain zirconium tetra iodine as main product which is then transformed into a pure zirconium base (at 1000-1300 deg C), precipitating the metallic zirconium and releasing the gaseous iodine. From the first experiences carried out, pure zirconium has been obtained from an initial filament of 0.5 mm of diameter as well as wires up to 2.5 mm of diameter. This work presents the results from the studies and analysis made to characterize the material obtained. Finally, the refining methods to which the zirconium produced may be submitted so as to optimize the final purity are discussed. (Author)

  2. Recovery of high-purity hydrogen from COG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiyama, Y

    1982-01-01

    A general account of the latest trends in the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas (COG), the article being based on both Japanese and overseas literature: 1) Deep-freeze separation: impurities are liquefied and removed. This method make use of the fact that hydrogen is hard to liquefy. 2) The PSA method: high-purity hydrogen is recovered by the adsorption of other constituents at high pressures. This technique makes use of the fact that the adsorption capacity of an adsorbent varies with the partial pressure of the substances being adsorbed. 3) Membrane separation: a permeation separation method that uses a functional polymer separation membrane, and that depends on the fact that hydrogen has a low molecular weight in comparison with the other constituents. (19 refs.) (In Japanese)

  3. Electrophoresis for the analysis of heparin purity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca; Suwan, Jiraporn; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    The adulteration of raw heparin with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in 2007-2008 produced a global crisis resulting in extensive revisions to the pharmacopeia monographs and prompting the FDA to recommend the development of additional methods for the analysis of heparin purity. As a consequence, a wide variety of innovative analytical approaches have been developed for the quality assurance and purity of unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. This review discusses recent developments in electrophoresis techniques available for the sensitive separation, detection, and partial structural characterization of heparin contaminants. In particular, this review summarizes recent publications on heparin quality and related impurity analysis using electrophoretic separations such as capillary electrophoresis (CE) of intact polysaccharides and hexosamines derived from their acidic hydrolysis, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the separation of heparin samples without and in the presence of its relatively specific depolymerization process with nitrous acid treatment. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Preparation of high-purity zirconium dioxide from baddeleyite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskobojnikov, N.B.; Skiba, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    Interaction of baddeleyite concentrate with calcium oxide and calcium chloride in the process of caking is studied. The influence of grain size on calcium zirconate formation is tested. Conditions for cake leaching by hydrochloric acid and zirconium(4) oxychloride purification from calcium and silicon compounds by recrystallization are reported. Zirconium dioxide corresponding to specifications (6-2 special purity) is obtained with a high (more than 90%) chemical yield. 9 refs., 1 tab

  5. Demands made on high-purity copper for special purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettges, D.

    1977-01-01

    The properties (electrical resistivity, residual impurities) of high-purity copper produced on a technical scale are reported as well as its practical applications. The paper discusses a high-oxygen copper (SV) with low residual resistivity at low temperatures and an oxygen-free (hydrogen-stable) copper (BE electronic) with low gas content. The SV quality has been specially developed for use as stabilizer in superconductors while the BE quality is used in high and ultrahigh vacuum. (GSC) [de

  6. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  7. Synthesis of High Purity Nonsymmetric Dialkylphosphinic Acid Extractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlian; Xie, Meiying; Liu, Xinyu; Xu, Shengming

    2017-10-19

    We present the synthesis of (2,3-dimethylbutyl)(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid as an example to demonstrate a method for the synthesis of high purity nonsymmetric dialkylphosphinic acid extractants. Low toxic sodium hypophosphite was chosen as the phosphorus source to react with olefin A (2,3-dimethyl-1-butene) to generate a monoalkylphosphinic acid intermediate. Amantadine was adopted to remove the dialkylphosphinic acid byproduct, as only the monoalkylphosphinic acid can react with amantadine to form an amantadine∙mono-alkylphosphinic acid salt, while the dialkylphosphinic acid cannot react with amantadine due to its large steric hindrance. The purified monoalkylphosphinic acid was then reacted with olefin B (diisobutylene) to yield nonsymmetric dialkylphosphinic acid (NSDAPA). The unreacted monoalkylphosphinic acid can be easily removed by a simple base-acid post-treatment and other organic impurities can be separated out through the precipitation of the cobalt salt. The structure of the (2,3-dimethylbutyl)(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was confirmed by 31 P NMR, 1 H NMR, ESI-MS, and FT-IR. The purity was determined by a potentiometric titration method, and the results indicate that the purity can exceed 96%.

  8. Spectroscopic Determination of Trace Contaminants in High Purity Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen used for extravehicular activities (EVA) must be free of contaminants because a difference in a few tenths of a percent of argon or nitrogen content can mean significant reduction in available EVA time. These inert gases build up in the extravehicular mobility unit because they are not metabolized or scrubbed from the atmosphere. Measurement of oxygen purity above 99.5% is problematic, and currently only complex instruments such as gas chromatographs or mass spectrometers are used for these determinations. Because liquid oxygen boil-off from the space shuttle will no longer be available to supply oxygen for EVA use, other concepts are being developed to produce and validate high purity oxygen from cabin air aboard the International Space Station. A prototype optical emission technique capable of detecting argon and nitrogen below 0.1% in oxygen was developed at White Sands Test Facility. This instrument uses a glow discharge in reduced pressure gas to produce atomic emission from the species present. Because the atomic emission lines from oxygen, nitrogen, and argon are discrete and in many cases well-separated, trace amounts of argon and nitrogen can be detected in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. This is a straightforward, direct measurement of the target contaminants and may lend itself to a device capable of on-orbit verification of oxygen purity. System design and optimized measurement parameters are presented.

  9. On the purity assessment of solid sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botasini, Santiago; Méndez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Since sodium borohydride has become extensively used as chemical hydrogen storage material in fuel cells, many techniques have been proposed to assess the purity of this substance. However, all of them are developed in aqueous media, where the reagent is unstable. In addition, its hygroscopic nature was difficults in any attempt to make precise quantifications. The present work compares three different methods, namely, voltammetric, titrimetric, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to assess the purity of sodium borohydride, using an expired and a new sodium borohydride samples as references. Our results show that only the FTIR measurements provide a simple and semi-quantitative means to assess the purity of sodium borohydride due to the fact that it is the only one that measures the sample in the solid state. A comparison between the experimental data and theoretical calculation reveals the identification of the absorption bands at 1437 cm-1 of sodium metaborate and 2291 cm-1 of sodium borohydride which represent a good fingerprint for the qualitative assessment of the sample quality.

  10. 7 CFR 201.51b - Purity procedures for coated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.51b Purity...). Use of fine mesh sieves is recommended for this procedure, and stirring or shaking the coated units...

  11. Diagnosis of fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Shuichi; Nagamine, Takeaki; Takagi, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic values of various ultrasonographic findings were evaluated from fatty infiltration ratio calculated by liver specimens in 42 patients. The ratio of the CT number of liver to those of spleen were also compared with fatty infiltration ratio in 11 patients. Fatty bandless sign one plus (perirenal bright echo between the liver and the right kidney is masked partially) or more and the fatty score 3 (it is calculated by several ultrasonographic findings) and the less than 0.90 of the ratio of CT number of liver to those of spleen were useful for diagnosis of fatty liver, the sensitivity was 100%, 87.5%, 85.7% and the accuracy was 78.1%, 81.8%, 81.8% respectively. It was considered that these criteria were suitable in screening study of fatty liver. (author)

  12. High purity neodymium acetate from mixed rare earth carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da Silva; Rocha, Soraya M. Rizzo da; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Lobo, Raquel M.; Seneda, Jose A.; Pedreira, Walter dos R.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for obtaining high purity neodymium acetate is discussed. The raw material in the form rare earth carbonate is produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography technique with a strong cationic resin, proper to water treatment, and without the use of retention ions was used for the fractionating of the rare earth elements (REE). In this way, it was possible to obtain 99.9% pure Nd 2 O 3 in yields greater than or equal 80%, with the elution of the REE using ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution in pH controlled. The complex of EDTA-neodymium was transformed into neodymium oxide, which was subsequently dissolved in acetic acid to obtain the neodymium acetates. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the neodymium content during the process and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the neodymium acetates. The typical neodymium acetates obtained contain the followings contaminants in μg g -1 : Sc(5.1); Y (0.9); La (1.0); Ce (6.1); Pr (34,4); Sm (12.8); Eu (1.1); Gd (15.4); Tb (29.3); Dy (5.2), Ho(7.4); Er (14.6); Tm (0.3); Yb (2.5); Lu (1.0). The high purity neodymium acetates obtained from this procedure have been applied, replacing the imported product, in research and development area on rare earth catalysts. (author)

  13. Polarimetric purity and the concept of degree of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, José J.; Norrman, Andreas; Friberg, Ari T.; Setälä, Tero

    2018-02-01

    The concept of degree of polarization for electromagnetic waves, in its general three-dimensional version, is revisited in the light of the implications of the recent findings on the structure of polarimetric purity and of the existence of nonregular states of polarization [J. J. Gil et al., Phys Rev. A 95, 053856 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.053856]. From the analysis of the characteristic decomposition of a polarization matrix R into an incoherent convex combination of (1) a pure state Rp, (2) a middle state Rm given by an equiprobable mixture of two eigenstates of R, and (3) a fully unpolarized state Ru -3 D, it is found that, in general, Rm exhibits nonzero circular and linear degrees of polarization. Therefore, the degrees of linear and circular polarization of R cannot always be assigned to the single totally polarized component Rp. It is shown that the parameter P3 D proposed formerly by Samson [J. C. Samson, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 34, 403 (1973), 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1973.tb02404.x] takes into account, in a proper and objective form, all the contributions to polarimetric purity, namely, the contributions to the linear and circular degrees of polarization of R as well as to the stability of the plane containing its polarization ellipse. Consequently, P3 D constitutes a natural representative of the degree of polarimetric purity. Some implications for the common convention for the concept of two-dimensional degree of polarization are also analyzed and discussed.

  14. Process for the production of high purity deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrathoon, R.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the electrolysis of heavy water which results in the production of high purity deuterium without periodic replenishment of the electrolyte with additional deuterated compounds is defined. Electrolysis is effected through the use of an inexpensive cation-action permselective membrane which is essentially a solid polymer electrolyte and which is capable of automatically separating the evolved deuterium and oxygen gas. This cation-active permselective membrane does not introduce any intrinsic impurities or tritium contamination in the generated deuterium gas, does not require periodic revitalization with deuterated compounds or other chemical compounds, and is characterized by an unusually high electrical efficiency

  15. Shock loading influence on mechanical behavior of high purity iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buy, Francois; Voltz, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the analysis of shock wave effects for high purity iron. The method developed is based on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of as received and shocked material. Shock effect is generated through plate impact tests performed in the range of 4 GPa to 39 GPa on a single stage light gas gun or a powder gun. Therefore, as-received and impacted materials are characterized. A formalism proposed by J.R.Klepaczko and based on physical relations has been adopted to describe stress strain curves

  16. Neutron activation analysis of high-purity zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhamberdyeva, A.A.; Usmanova, M.M.; Gil'bert, Eh.N.; Ivanov, I.M.; Yankovskaya, T.A.; Kholyavko, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    The methods of neutron activation analysis of high-purity zinc with preliminary separation of the zinc base using extraction by trialkylbenzylammonium rhodanide in carbon tetrachloride from 0.5-2.0 M nitric acid solutions is developed. Only rhenium is quantitatively extracted together with zinc. Gold, iridium and molybdenum are extracted to 50-60%, and selenium - to 20%. The Na, K, La, Cr, Sc, Co, Cs, Rb, Fe, Zr, Sn, Te, As, Cd, Hf, W, Sb, Sm impurities remain in the aqueous phase. The methods permits to determine the impurities above with detection limits from 1x10 -6 to 4x10 -11 g

  17. The ion-exchange obtaining of high purity samarium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzyska, W.; Soltysiak, I.; Cygan, J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of lactic acid - EDTA mixture as an eluent for the obtaining of high purity samarium oxide was studied. The studies were carried out at room temperature on cation exchange resin Wofatit KPS X 8. The best results were obtained for lactic acid (0,26 mol/dm 3 ) - EDTA (0,013 mol/dm 3 ) mixture at pH 3,3. As the result of 57% samarium concentrate elution with column load 1:3 and flow rate 0,4 cm/min, over 99% pure samarium oxide with 73% yield has been obtained. The yield of spectrally pure Sm 2 O 3 exceeded 45%. (author)

  18. Release characteristics of tritium from high-purity lithium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Rates of tritium release from neutronirradiated lithium oxide were determined from isothermal release experiments. High-purity, monocrystalline lithium oxide was purged ex-reactor with helium and helium-hydrogen gas streams. Overall release was found to be controlled by solid-phase diffusion, and was predominantly in the form of condensible species. The result of an independent concentration profile analysis at 923 K was in agreement with the gas release diffusion coefficient. Sweeping the Li 2 O with hydrogen-containing gas was found to enhance tritium removal during the early stage of each run

  19. Initial Stages of Recrystallization in Aluminum of Commercial Purity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Bay, Bent

    1979-01-01

    In commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct, the formation and growth of recrystallization nuclei were studied by techniques such asin-situ annealing in a high voltage electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (370...... by the FeAl3 particles present in the commercial aluminum as impurities. The nucleation temperatures determined by high voltage electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy decrease markedly when the initial grain size is decreased both after 50 and 90 pct cold rolling; a less pronounced...

  20. Amplitude dependent damping in single crystalline high purity molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelada-Lambri, G.I; Lambri, O.A; Garcia, J.A; Lomer, J.N

    2004-01-01

    Amplitude dependent damping measurements were performed on high purity single crystalline molybdenum at several different constant temperatures between room temperature and 1273K. The employed samples were single crystals with the orientation, having a residual resistivity ratio of about 8000. Previously to the amplitude dependent damping tests, the samples were subjected to different thermomechanical histories. Amplitude dependent damping effects appear only during the first heating run in temperature where the samples have the thermomechanical state of the deformation process at room temperature. In the subsequent run-ups in temperature, i.e, after subsequent annealings, amplitude dependent damping effects were not detected (au)

  1. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Persano

    2016-01-01

    ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States) nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ ...

  2. COMPARATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF QUERCETIN AND RUTIN IN TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L. FRUITS FROM DIFFERENT SEASONAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL POPULATIONS OF SOUTH INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Reddy Yanala* and D. Sathyanarayana

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present research work was comparative and quantitative determination of quercetin and rutin in Tribulus terrestirs fruits from different geographical regions and seasons by using HPLC. The Tribulus terrestris fruit samples collected from three different geographical regions of south India in June and December months. In the current HPLC analysis flavonoids in Tribulus terrestris Linn fruits were quantified at 360 nm with help of peak area by comparing to a calibration cur...

  3. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Alkhamees, Osama Abdelrahman; Aleisa, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Alroujayee, Abdulaziz S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of thi...

  4. Antidepressant-like effect of rutin isolated from the ethanolic extract from Schinus molle L. in mice: evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniele G; Bettio, Luis E B; Cunha, Mauricio P; Santos, Adair R S; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2008-06-10

    We have recently shown that the hexanic extract from leaves of Schinus molle produces antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test in mice. This study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract from aerial part of S. molle in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice, two predictive models of depression. Moreover, we investigated the antidepressant potential of rutin, a flavonoid isolated from the ethanolic extract of this plant and the influence of the pretreatment with the inhibitors of serotonin or noradrenaline synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA) and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT), respectively in the antidepressant-like effect of this flavonoid. The administration of the ethanolic extract produced a reduction in the immobility time in the tail suspension test (dose range 600-1000 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test. It also produced a reduction in the ambulation in the open-field test in mice not previously habituated to the arena, but no effect in the locomotor activity in mice previously habituated to the open-field. The administration of rutin reduced the immobility time in the tail suspension test (0.3-3 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test, without producing alteration in the locomotor activity. In addition, pretreatment of mice with PCPA (100 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 consecutive days) or AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the anti-immobility effect of rutin (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) in the tail suspension test. The results firstly indicated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract of S. molle in the tail suspension test may be dependent on the presence of rutin that likely exerts its antidepressant-like effect by increasing the availability of serotonin and noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft.

  5. Nanomolar detection of rutin based on adsorptive stripping analysis at single-sided heated graphite cylindrical electrodes with direct current heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sun, Jian-Jun; Zhang, De-Feng; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Nie, Fa-Hui; Qiu, He-Yuan; Chen, Guo-Nan [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, 523 Gong Ye Road, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2008-09-20

    A single-sided heated graphite cylindrical electrode (ss-HGCE) was designed. Compared to previous alternative current (AC) heating, much simpler and cheaper direct current (DC) heating supplier was adopted for the first time to perform adsorptive accumulation of rutin at ss-HGCE at elevated electrode temperature. This offers great promise for low cost, miniaturization and high compatibility with portability. The square wave voltammetry (SWV) stripping peak current was enhanced with increasing the electrode temperature only during preconcentration step. This enhancement was contributed to the forced thermal convection induced by heating the electrode rather than the bulk solution, which is able to improve mass transfer and facilitate adsorption hence enhance stripping response. A detection limit of 1.0 x 10{sup -9} M (S/N = 3) could be obtained at an electrode temperature of 48 C during 5 min accumulation, one magnitude lower than that at 28 C (room temperature). This is the lowest value at carbon-based electrodes for rutin determination as we know. Such novel method was also successfully used to determine rutin in pharmaceutical tablets. (author)

  6. New method to enhance the extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica using a novel ultrasonic extraction system by determining optimum ultrasonic frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianqing; Qu, Baida; Liu, Da; Zheng, Naiqin

    2015-11-01

    A new method has been proposed for enhancing extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica, in which a novel ultrasonic extraction system has been developed to perform the determination of optimum ultrasonic frequency by a two-step procedure. This study has systematically investigated the influence of a continuous frequency range of 20-92 kHz on rutin yields. The effects of different operating conditions on rutin yields have also been studied in detail such as solvent concentration, solvent to solid ratio, ultrasound power, temperature and particle size. A higher extraction yield was obtained at the ultrasonic frequency of 60-62 kHz which was little affected under other extraction conditions. Comparative studies between existing methods and the present method were done to verify the effectiveness of this method. Results indicated that the new extraction method gave a higher extraction yield compared with existing ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and soxhlet extraction (SE). Thus, the potential use of this method may be promising for extraction of natural materials on an industrial scale in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chlorogenic Acid and Rutin Play a Major Role in the In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Activity of Morus alba Leaf Extract on Type II Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi, Attila; Martins, Ana; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Seres, Adrienn; Zupkó, István

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of the white mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) are used worldwide in traditional medicine as anti-diabetics. Various constituents of mulberry leaves, such as iminosugars (i.e. 1-deoxynojirimicin), flavonoids and related compounds, polysaccharides, glycopeptides and ecdysteroids, have been reported to exert anti-diabetic activity, but knowledge about their contribution to the overall activity is limited. The objective of the present work was to determine the in vivo anti-diabetic activity of an extract of mulberry leaves (MA), and to examine to what extent three major constituents, chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin, might contribute to the observed activity. Quantities of the three constituents of interest in the extract were determined by using HPLC-DAD. Activity was determined by using a type II diabetic rat model. After 11 days of per os administration of 250 or 750 mg/kg of MA or the corresponding amounts of each individual compound, a dose dependent decrease of non-fasting blood glucose levels were found for MA, chlorogenic acid and rutin, but not for isoquercitrin. Based on our results, chlorogenic acid and rutin might account for as much as half the observed anti-diabetic activity of MA, hence they can be considered as excellent markers for the quality control of mulberry products. PMID:23185641

  8. delta 13C analyses of vegetable oil fatty acid components, determined by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry, after saponification or regiospecific hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, S E; Evershed, R P; Rossell, J B

    1998-05-01

    The delta 13C values of the major fatty acids of several different commercially important vegetable oils were measured by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The delta 13C values obtained were found to fall into two distinct groups, representing the C3 and C4 plants classes from which the oils were derived. The delta 13C values of the oils were measured by continuous flow elemental isotope ratio mass spectrometry and were found to be similar to their fatty acids, with slight differences between individual fatty acids. Investigations were then made into the influence on the delta 13C values of fatty acids of the position occupied on the glycerol backbone. Pancreatic lipase was employed to selectively hydrolyse fatty acids from the 1- and 3-positions with the progress of the reaction being followed by high-temperature gas chromatography in order to determine the optimum incubation time. The 2-monoacylglycerols were then isolated by thin-layer chromatography and fatty acid methyl esters prepared. The delta 13C values obtained indicate that fatty acids from any position on the glycerol backbone are isotopically identical. Thus, whilst quantification of fatty acid composition at the 2-position and measurement of delta 13C values of oils and their major fatty acids are useful criteria in edible oil purity assessment, measurement of delta 13C values of fatty acids from the 2-position does not assist with oil purity assignments.

  9. High purity samarium oxide from mixed rare earth carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da S.; Seneda, Jose A.; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Pedreira Filho, Walter dos R.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for the production of highly pure samarium oxides is discussed. The raw material, which was used in the form of rare earth carbonates was produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography was performed using a strong cationic resin that is typically employed in water treatment processes to fractionate rare earth elements (REE) without the use of retention ions. Under these conditions, 99.9% pure Sm 2 O 3 was eluted using the ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at a controlled pH. The EDTA-samarium complex was separated from EDTA and then precipitated as oxalate and fired to samarium oxide. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the samarium content during the proposed process, and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the samarium oxide. Typical samarium oxide obtained from the proposed procedure contained the following contaminants in micrograms per gram: Sc (20.90); Y (11.80); La (8.4); Ce (4.3); Pr (2.5); Nd (5.1); Eu (94); Gd (114); Tb (3.6); Dy (2.5), Ho (2.3); Er (3.0); Tm (2.3); Yb (38,2); Lu (25.6). The high-purity samarium oxides produced in the present study can be used as an alternative to imported products in research and development applications. (author)

  10. Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

  11. Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

    2011-10-01

    The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

  12. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro; Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria; Guimarães, Rogério Contato; Ribas, Rogério Marques; Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins; Menezes, Andréia Duarte; Fridman, Daniel Pallos; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

    2015-01-01

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM’s position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM’s ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency – SRF – cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world’s largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient

  13. A Cultural Look at Moral Purity: Wiping the Face Clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike W. S. eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morality is associated with bodily purity in the custom of many societies. Does that imply moral purity is a universal psychological phenomenon? Empirically, it has never been examined, as all prior experimental data came from Western samples. Theoretically, we suggest the answer is not so straightforward—it depends on the kind of universality under consideration. Combining perspectives from cultural psychology and embodiment, we predict a culture-specific form of moral purification. Specifically, given East Asians’ emphasis on the face as a representation of public self-image, we hypothesize that facial purification should have particularly potent moral effects in a face culture. Data show that face-cleaning (but not hands-cleaning reduces guilt and regret most effectively against a salient East Asian cultural background. It frees East Asians from guilt-driven prosocial behavior. In the wake of their immorality, they find a face-cleaning product especially appealing and spontaneously choose to wipe their face clean. These patterns highlight both culturally variable and universal aspects of moral purification. They further suggest an organizing principle that informs the vigorous debate between embodied and amodal perspectives.

  14. Facile preparation of molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode for rutin sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lite; Yang, Juan; Xu, Bingjie; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel molecularly imprinted composite film modified electrode was presented for rutin (RT) detection. The modified electrode was fabricated by electropolymerization of pyrrole on a graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite (G-MWCNTs) coated glassy carbon electrode in the presence of RT. The netlike G-MWCNTs composite, prepared by in situ hydrothermal process, had high conductivity and electrocatalytic activity. At the resulting MIP/G-MWCNTs/GCE electrode RT could produce a sensitive anodic peak in pH 1.87 Britton-Robinson buffer solution. The factors affecting the electrochemical behavior and response of RT on the modified electrode were carefully investigated and optimized. Under the selected conditions, the linear response range of RT was 0.01-1.0μmolL -1 and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 5.0nmolL -1 . The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of RT in buckwheat tea and orange juice samples, and the recoveries for standards added were 93.4-105%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts including wood ash and the importance of enhancing byproduct glycerol purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uprety, Bijaya K.; Chaiwong, Wittavat; Ewelike, Chinomnso; Rakshit, Sudip K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of biodiesel production using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. • Comparative study of CaO and CaO supported on alumina for biodiesel production. • Tradeoff between biodiesel conversion rate and purity. • Ash from birch bark and wood pellet industry explored as a potential catalyst. - Abstract: Transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with methanol in the presence of catalysts produces fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerol as a co-product. This study was focused on a comparative study of the transesterification of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD palm oil) using a heterogeneous catalysts CaO with and without γ-alumina (γ-Al_2O_3) as a support. The results were also compared to that using sodium hydroxide (NaOH), which is a homogenous catalyst. Parameters like the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction time and reaction temperature that affect methyl ester and glycerol formation were analyzed and the optimum conditions were determined. The FAME and glycerol content (96.75% and 92.73% respectively) obtained using CaO were lower in purity compared to that using CaO/Al_2O_3 (97.66% and 96.36% respectively). In the second phase of our work, wood ash from two different sources (birch bark & flyash from a biomass based power plant), which were calcined at 800 °C were studied for their potential use as a cheap renewable alternative heterogeneous catalyst. Both the wood ash samples were found to have good potential for use in such production process, but needs to be optimized further to obtain biodiesel which meets fuel biodiesel specifications. Both CaO and CaO supported on alumina produces FAME to levels that meet the fuel specifications required for blending with diesel. However, the latter produces a purer form of byproduct glycerol that can be easily converted to value added products, without the need for purification. On this basis the supported catalyst is

  16. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  18. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high-purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.; Riehm, M.P.; Thompson, D.A.; Smeltzer, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. Using multilayer permeation theory the effects of surface oxide were eliminated and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 =6.7x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =28.4 kJ/mol. For the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 =8.0x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =35.1 kJ/mol. (orig.)

  19. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.

    1990-05-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. A multilayer permeation theory was used in order to eliminate the surface oxide effects and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium were determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 = 6.7 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 28.4 [KJ/mol]; and for the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 = 8.0 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 35.1 [KJ/mol

  20. Preparation of high purity yttrium single crystals by electrotransport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.T.; Nikiforova, T.V.; Ionov, A.M.; Pustovit, A.N.; Sikharulidse, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining yttrium crystals of high purity by the method of solid state electrotransport (SSE) was investigated in the present work. The behaviour of low contents of iron, aluminium, silicon, tantalum, copper, silver and vanadium as metallic impurities was studied using mass spectrometry. It is shown that all the impurities investigated, except copper, migrate to the anode. During electrotransfer a purification with respect to these impurities by a factor of 4 - 6 is obtained. It is proposed that the diffusion coefficients of the metallic impurities investigated are anomalously high and that the behaviour of the impurities during SSE in adapters necessitates further investigation. By using a three-stage process with intermediate removal of the anode end yttrium single crystals with a resistance ratio rho 293 /rhosub(4.2)=570 were produced. (Auth.)

  1. TIGRESS highly-segmented high-purity germanium clover detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scraggs, H. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Hackman, G.; Smith, M. B.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Boston, A. J.; Bricault, P.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Cowan, N.; Cronkhite, G.; Cunningham, E. S.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Leslie, J. R.; Martin, J.-P.; Morris, D.; Morton, A. C.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.; Zimmerman, L.

    2005-05-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) will consist of twelve units of four high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals in a common cryostat. The outer contacts of each crystal will be divided into four quadrants and two lateral segments for a total of eight outer contacts. The performance of a prototype HPGe four-crystal unit has been investigated. Integrated noise spectra for all contacts were measured. Energy resolutions, relative efficiencies for both individual crystals and for the entire unit, and peak-to-total ratios were measured with point-like sources. Position-dependent performance was measured by moving a collimated source across the face of the detector.

  2. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Persano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ by the American ‘New Womanism’, individualizing and de-feminizing the act of sexual liberation. All this in a continuous play of actions and reactions, sometimes paradoxical, weaving together suffragism and anti-suffragism, contestation of the conjugal complementarity and the never overcome temptations of hetero or self-control.

  3. A study of Cirus heavy water system isotopic purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Shibu; Sahu, A.K.; Unni, V.K.P.; Pant, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cirus uses heavy water as moderator and helium as cover gas. Approximately one tonne of heavy water was added to the system every year for routine make up. Isotopic purity (IP) of this water used for addition was always higher than that of the system. Though this should increase IP of heavy water in the system, it has remained almost at the same level, over the years. A study was carried out to estimate the extent of improvement in IP of heavy water in the system that should have occurred because of this and other factors in last 30 years. Reasons for non-occurrence of such an improvement were explored. Ion exchange resins used for purification of heavy water and air ingress into helium cover gas system appear to be the principal sources of entry of light water into heavy water system. (author)

  4. Precipitation of hydrides in high purity niobium after different treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkov, F.; Romanenko, A.; Trenikhina, Y.; Grassellino, A.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation of lossy non-superconducting niobium hydrides represents a known problem for high purity niobium in superconducting applications. Using cryogenic optical and laser confocal scanning microscopy we have directly observed surface precipitation and evolution of niobium hydrides in samples after different treatments used for superconducting RF cavities for particle acceleration. Precipitation is shown to occur throughout the sample volume, and the growth of hydrides is well described by the fast diffusion-controlled process in which almost all hydrogen is precipitated at $T=140$~K within $\\sim30$~min. 120$^{\\circ}$C baking and mechanical deformation are found to affect hydride precipitation through their influence on the number of nucleation and trapping centers.

  5. Investigation of sulphides in iron alloys of high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyjadlowski, T.

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the morphology and composition of sulphides in iron alloys with respect to metal composition and to the nature of impurities. In order to understand the specific action of each addition on inclusion morphology, this work has started with high-purity alloys (binary alloys and then ternary alloys). The author studied whether solubility variations would entail either intergranular or intragranular or hybrid iron sulphide precipitation. He examined whether sulphide morphology is depending on thermal treatment, and whether equilibrium precipitates were different in terms of morphology and composition at high and room temperature. He studied the influence of addition elements on sulphide morphology and composition, an important issue as some elements may reduce brittleness. These elements are classified in terms of affinity with sulphur

  6. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia, E-mail: claudiamartinezalonso30@gmail.com [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico); Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000 (Mexico); Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, MéxicoD.F., 04510 (Mexico); Mayén-Hernández, S.A. [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin, E-mail: hzh@ier.unam.mx [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods.

  7. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia; Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U.; Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida; Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y.; Mayén-Hernández, S.A.; Hu, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb_2S_3 were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb_2S_3 can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb_2S_3 were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb_2S_3 with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb_2S_3 obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb_2S_3 microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb_2S_3 microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb_2S_3 nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb_2S_3 nanorods.

  8. Purity of Gaussian states: Measurement schemes and time evolution in noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Matteo G.A.; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Serafini, Alessio; De Siena, Silvio

    2003-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the purity for Gaussian states of single-mode continuous variable systems. We prove the connection of purity to observable quantities for these states, and show that the joint measurement of two conjugate quadratures is necessary and sufficient to determine the purity at any time. The statistical reliability and the range of applicability of the proposed measurement scheme are tested by means of Monte Carlo simulated experiments. We then consider the dynamics of purity in noisy channels. We derive an evolution equation for the purity of general Gaussian states both in thermal and in squeezed thermal baths. We show that purity is maximized at any given time for an initial coherent state evolving in a thermal bath, or for an initial squeezed state evolving in a squeezed thermal bath whose asymptotic squeezing is orthogonal to that of the input state

  9. Entanglement and purity of two-mode Gaussian states in noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio; Paris, Matteo G.A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the evolution of purity, entanglement, and total correlations of general two-mode continuous variable Gaussian states in arbitrary uncorrelated Gaussian environments. The time evolution of purity, von Neumann entropy, logarithmic negativity, and mutual information is analyzed for a wide range of initial conditions. In general, we find that a local squeezing of the bath leads to a faster degradation of purity and entanglement, while it can help to preserve the mutual information between the modes

  10. Generation of fatty acids by an acyl esterase in the bioluminescent system of Photobacterium phosphoreum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, L.M.; Rodriguez, A.; Meighen, E.

    1984-01-01

    The fatty acid reductase complex from Photobacterium phosphoreum has been discovered to have a long chain ester hydrolase activity associated with the 34K protein component of the complex. This protein has been resolved from the other components (50K and 58K) of the fatty acid reductase complex with a purity of > 95% and found to catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA primarily to thiol acceptors with a low level of transfer to glycerol and water. Addition of the 50K protein of the complex caused a dramatic change in specificity increasing the transfer to oxygen acceptors. The acyl-CoA hydrolase activity increased almost 10-fold, and hence free fatty acids can be generated by the 34K protein when it is present in the fatty acid reductase complex. Hydrolysis of acyl-S-mercaptoethanol and acyl-1-glycerol and the ATP-dependent reduction of the released fatty acids to aldehyde for the luminescent reaction were also demonstrated for the reconstituted fatty acid reductase complex, raising the possibility that the immediate source of fatty acids for this reaction in vivo could be the membrane lipids and/or the fatty acid synthetase system

  11. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Medeiros de Freitas

    Full Text Available Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL. The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65. High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source

  12. Analytical monitoring of systems for the production of high-purity, desalinated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunert, I.

    1988-01-01

    The purity requirements to be met by high-purity water currently push the most sensitive analytical methods to their utmost limits of sensitivity. The required degree of purity of the water at present can only be achieved by application of membrane processes, and pre-purification of the feedwater to a quality corresponding to that of the raw water source. The contribution in hand discusses the analytical monitoring of the raw water treatment plant, the water treatment prior to the treatment by reverse osmosis, monitoring and control of the modules for reverse osmosis, and the monitoring of high-purity water production for the microelectronics industry. (orig./RB) [de

  13. Radiochemical purity of Mo and Tc solution obtained after irradiation and dissolution of Mo-100-enriched and ultra-high-purity natural Mo disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Four irradiations of ultra-high-purity natural Mo targets and one irradiation using 97.4% Mo-100-enriched material were performed. The purpose of these irradiations was to determine whether the presence of Sn stabilizer in the H2O2 used for the dissolution of sintered Mo disks can affect the radiochemical purity of the final K2MoO4 in 5M KOH solution. Results from radiochemical purity tests performed using thin-layer paper chromatography show that even 2– 3× excess of Sn-stabilized H2O2 typically used for dissolution of sintered Mo disks did not affect the radiochemical purity of the final product.

  14. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  15. Automation of the Characterization of High Purity Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Charles ``Chip''

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a rare hypothesized process that may yield valuable insight into the fundamental properties of the neutrino. Currently there are several experiments trying to observe this process, including the Majorana DEMONSTRAOR experiment, which uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to generate and search for these events. Because the event happens internally, it is essential to have the lowest background possible. This is done through passive detector shielding, as well as event discrimination techniques that distinguish between multi-site events characteristic of gamma-radiation, and single-site events characteristic of neutrinoless double beta decay. Before fielding such an experiment, the radiation response of the detectors must be characterized. A robotic arm is being tested for future calibration of HPGe detectors. The arm will hold a source at locations relative to the crystal while data is acquired. Several radioactive sources of varying energy levels will be used to determine the characteristics of the crystal. In this poster, I will present our work with the robot, as well as the characterization of data we took with an underground HPGe detector at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, NM (2013). Neutrinoless double beta decay is a rare hypothesized process that may yield valuable insight into the fundamental properties of the neutrino. Currently there are several experiments trying to observe this process, including the Majorana DEMONSTRAOR experiment, which uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to generate and search for these events. Because the event happens internally, it is essential to have the lowest background possible. This is done through passive detector shielding, as well as event discrimination techniques that distinguish between multi-site events characteristic of gamma-radiation, and single-site events characteristic of neutrinoless double beta decay. Before fielding such an experiment, the radiation response of

  16. Metabolism of rutin and poncirin by human intestinal microbiota and cloning of their metabolizing α-L-rhamnosidase from Bifidobacterium dentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Seo-Hyeon; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Shim, Juwon; Hong, Sung-Woon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To understand the metabolism of flavonoid rhamnoglycosides by human intestinal microbiota, we measured the metabolic activity of rutin and poncirin (distributed in many functional foods and herbal medicine) by 100 human stool specimens. The average α-Lrhamnosidase activities on the p-nitrophenyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and poncirin subtrates were 0.10 ± 0.07, 0.25 ± 0.08, and 0.15 ± 0.09 pmol/min/mg, respectively. To investigate the enzymatic properties, α-L-rhamnosidase-producing bacteria were isolated from the specimens, and the α-L-rhamnosidase gene was cloned from a selected organism, Bifidobacterium dentium, and expressed in E. coli. The cloned α-L-rhamnosidase gene contained a 2,673 bp sequcence encoding 890 amino acid residues. The cloned gene was expressed using the pET 26b(+) vector in E. coli BL21, and the expressed enzyme was purified using Ni(2+)-NTA and Q-HP column chromatography. The specific activity of the purified α-L-rhamnosidase was 23.3 μmol/min/mg. Of the tested natural product constituents, the cloned α-L-rhamnosidase hydrolyzed rutin most potently, followed by poncirin, naringin, and ginsenoside Re. However, it was unable to hydrolyze quercitrin. This is the first report describing the cloning, expression, and characterization of α-L-rhamnosidase, a flavonoid rhamnoglycosidemetabolizing enzyme, from bifidobacteria. Based on these findings, the α-L-rhamnosidase of intestinal bacteria such as B. dentium seem to be more effective in hydrolyzing (1-->6) bonds than (1-->2) bonds of rhamnoglycosides, and may play an important role in the metabolism and pharmacological effect of rhamnoglycosides.

  17. Extraction and Purification of Quercitrin, Hyperoside, Rutin, and Afzelin from Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim Leaves Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fengyuan; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Dongmei; Deng, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based on ethanol/NaH2 PO4 was developed for the extraction and purification of quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim leaves. These 4 flavonoids were 1st extracted from dried Z. bungeanum leaves using a 60% ethanol solution and subsequently added to the ATPS for further purification. The partition behavior of the 4 flavonoids in ATPS was investigated. The optimal ATPS conditions were: 29% (w/w) NaH2 PO4 , 25% (w/w) ethanol concentration, 1% (w/w) added amount of leaf extracts, no pH adjustment, and repeated 1 h extractions at 25 °C. Under the optimal conditions for the 10 g ATPS, the absolute recovery of quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin reached 90.3%, 83.5%, 92.3%, and 89.1%, respectively. Compared to the 60% ethanol extracts, the content of quercitrin (44.8 mg/g), hyperoside (65.6 mg/g), rutin (56.4 mg/g), and afzelin (6.84 mg/g) in the extracts increased by 49.9%, 38.8%, 45.6%, and 36.8% respectively. The extracts after ATPS also exhibited stronger antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl IC50 value (10.5 μg/mL) decreased by 41.8%, and the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt value (966 μmol Trolox/g) and ferric reducing power value (619 μmol Trolox/g) increased by 29.8% and 53.7%, respectively. Furthermore, scale-up experiments indicated that a larger scale experiment was feasible for the purification of the 4 flavonoids. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. The determination of boron in aluminium of high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E.B.T.; Holan, H.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the investigations that led to the development of chemical methods for the determination of boron within the range 0,25 to 1,0 p.p.m. in aluminium of high purity. Methods were developed that incorporated fluorimetry, directly in solutions containing aluminium and after separation of boron by liquid-liquid extraction into 2-ethyl-1,3 hexanediol. A published spectrophotometric method, involving extraction of the BF 4 sup(-) complex with methylene blue into dichloroethane, was modified for application to alluminium samples. Details of this modified procedure and the fluorimetric-extraction procedure are appended. The precision of the methylene-blue method is about 6 percent relative and is recommended for precision and speed in preference to others. Separation of boron by distillation and spectrophotometric determination with curcumin gave low values in comparison with those obtained by the other methods. Agreement between the boron values obtained on the samples tested was good for the fluorimetric and methylene-blue spectrophotometric methods

  19. Dynamical recrystallization of high purity austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavard, L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize the performance of structural materials. The elementary mechanisms (strain hardening and dynamical regeneration, germination and growth of new grains) occurring during the hot working of metals and low pile defect energy alloys have been studied for austenitic stainless steels. In particular, the influence of the main experimental parameters (temperature, deformation velocity, initial grain size, impurities amount, deformation way) on the process of discontinuous dynamical recrystallization has been studied. Alloys with composition equal to those of the industrial stainless steel-304L have been fabricated from ultra-pure iron, chromium and nickel. Tests carried out in hot compression and torsion in order to cover a wide range of deformations, deformation velocities and temperatures for two very different deformation ways have allowed to determine the rheological characteristics (sensitivity to the deformation velocity, apparent activation energy) of materials as well as to characterize their microstructural deformations by optical metallography and electron back-scattered diffraction. The influence of the initial grain size and the influence of the purity of the material on the dynamical recrystallization kinetics have been determined. An analytical model for the determination of the apparent mobility of grain boundaries, a semi-analytical model for the dynamical recrystallization and at last an analytical model for the stationary state of dynamical recrystallization are proposed as well as a new criteria for the transition between the refinement state and the state of grain growth. (O.M.)

  20. Hot flow of a commercial-purity copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, V. G.; El Wahabi, M.; Cabrera, J. M.; Riera, L. M.; Prado, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study is to model the flow curve at high temperature of a commercial-purity copper which contains 297 ppm of phosphorus. For this purpose a theoretical model is applied to derive a constitutive equation that reliably predicts the behaviour at higher strain rates than experimentally tested. The test temperature range was from 873 K to 1223 K in increments of 50 K, using six true strain rates at every temperature, which span from 0.3 s''-1 to 0.001 s''-1. The hot flow tests were performed on a copper with a relatively large grain size (637 μm) but of similar scale to pertinent industrial processes. This metal presents two antagonistic phenomena during the hot working: strain hardening and softening by dynamic restoration, which in turns can be divided into dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization. A quantification of the mentioned mechanisms is done through the use of physically based constitutive equations. (Author) 20 refs

  1. Static strain-aging in commercial purity alpha titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, J.R.; Reed-Hill, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Static strain-aging was investigated in commercial purity α-Ti, containing 0.41 at. percent of oxygen as the principal interstitial impurity. 17 μM grain size specimens, prestrained to 0.02 strain at a nominal strain-rate of 3.3 x 10 -4 s -1 , were aged in situ between 555 and 630 0 K for lengths of time between 150 and 2.55 x 10 5 seconds. Both the upper and lower yield point increments were employed as measures of the aging progress. Under the stated conditions, the static strain-aging response of the titanium appeared to consist of four stages, of which only Stages 1 and 2 were considered in this work. Stage 1 corresponded to a Haasen and Kelly type of yield point, while Stage 2, after correcting for the time-independent yield point increment of Stage 1, conformed to Cottrell aging, i.e., the increase in flow stress after aging followed a t/sup 2 / 3 / behavior. The activation energy deduced for the process is in good agreement with that for the diffusion of oxygen in titanium

  2. Electron beam welding of high-purity copper accelerator cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delis, K.; Haas, H.; Schlebusch, P.; Sigismund, E.

    1986-01-01

    The operating conditions of accelerator cells require high thermal conductivity, low gas release in the ultrahigh vacuum, low content of low-melting metals and an extremely good surface quality. In order to meet these requirements, high-purity copper (OFHC, Grade 1, according to ASTM B 170-82 and extra specifications) is used as structural material. The prefabricated components of the accelerator cells (noses, jackets, flanges) are joined by electron beam welding, the weld seam being assessed on the basis of the same criteria as the base material. The welding procedures required depend, first, on the material and, secondly, on the geometries involved. Therefore experimental welds were made first on standardized specimens in order to study the behaviour of the material during electron beam welding and the influence of parameter variations. The welded joints of the cell design were planned on the basis of these results. Seam configuration, welding procedures and the parameters were optimized on components of original geometry. The experiments have shown that high-quality joints of this grade of copper can be produced by the electron beam welding process, if careful planning and preparation of the seams and adequate containment of the welding pool are assured. (orig.)

  3. Power and Purity: Nature as Resource in a Troubled Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gremaud, Ann-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses representations of nature as brand and resource in current Icelandic society. This is done through an interdisciplinary approach consisting of concepts from the discipline of cultural geography and the analytical methodologies of visual cultural, imagology, discourse and brand analysis used to highlight key narratives in images and written sources. The article discusses how ideas of purity are used in branding strategies and what they mean in Iceland today e.g. as a part of the emerging regional consciousness of ‘Arctic Iceland.’ The current overlapping crises of the economy, the environment and the collective self-image in Iceland have fostered critical representations of the past, present and future of the relationship between humans and the environment. Thus utilitarian environmental policies and shallow ecology is treated critically in contemporary Icelandic art, as is the question of what constitutes pollution. Such internal conflicts of interest are analysed to show critical perspectives on the dominant narratives about Icelandic nature and society that are communicated to the outside world through nation branding.

  4. Thermal conductivity of uranium: effects of purity and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandenaw, T.A.

    1975-10-01

    Thermal conductivity curves for polycrystalline uranium are presented for the temperature range below 373 0 K. The curves are for specimens prepared by different fabrication procedures from material of known purity and hardness. Included is a curve for U/2wt percent Mo alloy. Different mechanisms appear to be influencing the thermal conductivity behavior of uranium in well-defined temperature regions: below 37 to 43 0 K, approximately 40 to approximately 80 0 K, 80 to approximately 280 0 K, and from 280 0 K to the α → β transformation temperature. Mechanisms responsible for results in one temperature region continue to exert a strong influence in the next higher temperature region. Impurities and initial microstructure seem to influence results at any starting temperature. Evidence is presented for the possibility of imperfection ordering in uranium between approximately 40 and approximately 280 0 K. It is postulated that the type of ordering is capable with a martensite-like behavior and that all physical property results depend on the extent of a modification of the α-phase on cooling below approximately 280 0 K

  5. Spall behaviors of high purity copper under sweeping detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyanggroup@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); National Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Material Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhi-qiang, Peng; Xing-zhi, Chen [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Material Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhao-liang, Guo; Tie-gang, Tang; Hai-bo, Hu [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Qing-ming, Zhang [National Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-10

    Suites of sweeping detonation experiments were conducted to assess the spall behavior of high purity copper samples with different heat treatment histories. Incipient spall samples were obtained at different sweeping detonation condition. Metallographic and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) analyses were performed on the soft-recovered samples. The effects of grain boundaries, grain size, crystal orientation and loading direction on the spall behaviors were discussed. Spall plane branching was found in the main spall plane of the damage samples. For similar microstructure, the area of voids increase with the increase of shock stress, and the coalescence of voids also become more obvious. Results from EBSD analysis show that the grain sizes were decreased and the grains were elongated along the direction of the plate width. Triple junctions composed of two or more general high angle boundaries are the preferred locations for intergranular damage. Voids prefer to nucleate in the grain boundaries composed of grain with high Taylor Factor (TF) than other grains. The damage areas in the grains with high TF are more severe. Boundaries close to perpendicular to the loading direction are more susceptible to void nucleation than the boundaries close to parallel to the loading direction, but the difference of voids nucleated in these two boundaries is less significant than the results obtained by plate impact experiment. It would be caused by the obliquity between the shock loading direction and the plate normal.

  6. High-power laser diodes with high polarization purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Yanson, Dan; Peleg, Ophir; Blonder, Moshe; Rappaport, Noam; Klumel, Genady

    2017-02-01

    Fiber-coupled laser diode modules employ power scaling of single emitters for fiber laser pumping. To this end, techniques such as geometrical, spectral and polarization beam combining (PBC) are used. For PBC, linear polarization with high degree of purity is important, as any non-perfectly polarized light leads to losses and heating. Furthermore, PBC is typically performed in a collimated portion of the beams, which also cancels the angular dependence of the PBC element, e.g., beam-splitter. However, we discovered that single emitters have variable degrees of polarization, which depends both on the operating current and far-field divergence. We present data to show angle-resolved polarization measurements that correlate with the ignition of high-order modes in the slow-axis emission of the emitter. We demonstrate that the ultimate laser brightness includes not only the standard parameters such as power, emitting area and beam divergence, but also the degree of polarization (DoP), which is a strong function of the latter. Improved slow-axis divergence, therefore, contributes not only to high brightness but also high beam combining efficiency through polarization.

  7. Improvement in fuel utilization in pressurized heavy water reactors due to increased heavy water purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), the reactivity of the reactor and, consequently, the discharge burnup of the fuel depend on the isotopic purity of the heavy water used in the reactor. The optimal purity of heavy water used in PHWRs, in turn, depends on the cost of fabricated uranium fuel and on the incremental cost incurred in improving the heavy water purity. The physics and economics aspects of the desirability of increasing the heavy water purity in PHWRs in India were first examined in 1978. With the cost data available at that time, it was found that improving the heavy water purity from 99.80% to 99.95% was economically attractive. The same problem is reinvestigated with current cost data. Even now, there is sufficient incentive to improve the isotopic purity of heavy water used in PHWRs. Admittedly, the economic advantage that can be derived depends on the cost of the fabricated fuel. Nevertheless, irrespective of the economics, there is also a fairly substantial saving in natural uranium. That the increase in the heavy water purity is to be maintained only in the low-pressure moderator system, and not in the high-pressure coolant system, makes the option of achieving higher fuel burnup with higher heavy water purity feasible

  8. Animal Sex: Purity Education and the Naturalization of the Abstinence Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Christabelle

    2010-01-01

    An early-twentieth-century movement for social purity in England, Canada and the United States aimed to eradicate prostitution, the double standard of sexual morals and their dreaded corollary, the venereal diseases. Social purists suggested that "purity education" for children was the best pedagogical prophylaxis against such…

  9. Perspectives of data-driven LPV modeling of high-purity distillation columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachnas, A.A.; Toth, R.; Mesbah, A.; Ludlage, J.H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract—This paper investigates data-driven, Linear- Parameter-Varying (LPV) modeling of a high-purity distillation column. Two LPV modeling approaches are studied: a local approach, corresponding to the interpolation of Linear Time- Invariant (LTI) models identified at steady-state purity levels,

  10. The analytical of radiochemical purity of tumor receptor imaging agent 99Tcm-octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xufu; Zuo Shuyao; Shao Wenbo; Wang Guoming; Sun Jianwen; Zhang Qin

    2003-01-01

    The radiochemical purity of tumor receptor imaging agent 99 Tc m -octreotide is measured by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and two systems of chromatography combining method of silver stain. The results show that the radiochemical purity of 98 Tc m -octreotide measured by both methods are effective and correct. It can separate 99 Tc m -octreotide from other radioactive compositions correctly and effectively

  11. Differential scanning calorimetry method for purity determination: A case study on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestens, V.; Zeleny, R.; Auclair, G.; Held, A.; Roebben, G.; Linsinger, T.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Purity assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol by DSC. → DSC results compared with traditional purity methods. → Different methods give different results, multiple method approach recommended. → DSC sensitive to impurities that have similar structures as main component. - Abstract: In this study the validity and suitability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the purity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol has been investigated. The study materials were two candidate certified reference materials (CRMs), 6-methylchrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, and two different batches of commercially available highly pure chloramphenicol. The DSC results were compared with those obtained by other methods, namely gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, liquid chromatography with diode array detection, and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The purity results obtained by these different analytical methods confirm the well-known challenges of comparing results of different method-defined measurands. In comparison with other methods, DSC has a much narrower working range. This limits the applicability of DSC as purity determination method, for instance during the assignment of the purity value of a CRM. Nevertheless, this study showed that DSC can be a powerful technique to detect impurities that are structurally very similar to the main purity component. From this point of view, and because of its good repeatability, DSC can be considered as a valuable technique to investigate the homogeneity and stability of candidate purity CRMs.

  12. Rutin protects against neuronal damage in vitro and ameliorates doxorubicin-induced memory deficits in vivo in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingayya GV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Pawan G Nayak, Anoop Kishore, Rekha Shenoy, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Nandakumar Krishnadas Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors’ quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32 cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cell viability assay (3-[4,5 dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, neurite growth assay, detection of apoptosis by (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS assay, and flowcytometric analysis were carried out to assess neuroprotective potential against DOX. An in vivo study was conducted for assessing protective effect of RUT against memory deficit associated with DOX-induced chemobrain using object recognition task (ORT. Locomotion was assessed using open field test. Serum biochemistry, acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress markers in hippocampus, and frontal cortex were assessed. Histopathological analysis of major organ systems was also carried out. Prior exposure to RUT at 100 µM protected IMR32 cells from DOX (1 µM neurotoxicity. DOX exposure resulted in increased cellular death, apoptosis, and intracellular ROS generation with inhibition of neurite growth in differentiated IMR32 cells, which was significantly ameliorated by RUT. Cognitive dysfunction was induced in Wistar rats by administering ten cycles of DOX (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, once in 5 days, as we observed

  13. Isolation of a furan fatty acid from Hevea brasiliensis latex employing the combined use of pH-zone-refining and conventional countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Michael; Ulms, Kerstin; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Furan fatty acids are valuable and bioactive minor fatty acids that usually contribute chromatography. A first run using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography provided 48.4 mg of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from 210 mg latex extract in a purity of 95%. The purity was increased to 99% by means of one second run in conventional countercurrent chromatography mode. The Structure and purity of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. External cultic tradition and internal ethical purity in Matthew 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Matthew 15:1–20, Jesus responds to the accusation made by the Pharisees and the scribes that his disciples do not observe the tradition of hand-washing (οὐ γὰρ νίπτονται τὰς χεῖραςὅταν ἄρτον ἐσθίωσιν, because they do not wash their hands before they eat bread. In this story of dispute, two ideas are interwoven, namely the locus of impurity (external or internal and the manmade tradition of the elders (ἡ παράδοσις τῶν πρεσβυτέρων versus the Word of God (ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ. The Pharisees are depicted as obsessed with external manmade rules to ensure purity, whilst Jesus is concerned with inner purity based on God’s Word. In this article, the story is interpreted on two levels. The first level describes the dispute between Jesus and the Pharisees. The second level explores the tension the Matthean community experienced in their encounter with Pharisean Judaism of their day – the Judaism of the dual Torah. The question is which aspect of the Torah is challenged by Matthew’s Jesus, and what he considers to be the true meaning of the Law. It seems that Matthew uses this story to define and maintain the identity and values of his community over and against that of the Pharisees and their successors. Devices that Matthew uses to define the identity and required morality for his community, are identified. Such devices demonstrate how a community’s values can influence the identity and ethics of a society. In Matteus 15:1–20 reageer Jesus op die aantyging van die Fariseërs en skrifgeleerdes dat sy dissipels nie die handewas-tradisie eerbiedig nie. In hierdie verhaal van dispuut word twee idees vervleg: eerstens dié van die locus van onreinheid, en tweedens dié van mensgemaakte tradisies teenoor die Woord van God. Die Fariseërs word voorgestel as mense wat obsessiefis oor mensgemaakte reëls wat reinheid verseker, terwyl Jesus op innerlike reinheid

  15. Computer Based Optimisation Rutines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the need for optimisation methods for the laser cutting process has been identified as three different situations. Demands on the optimisation methods for these situations are presented, and one method for each situation is suggested. The adaptation and implementation of the methods...

  16. Mesophase Formation Stabilizes High-purity Magic-sized Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Nevers, Douglas R.; Williamson, Curtis B.; Savitzky, Benjamin H; Hadar, Ido; Banin, Uri; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Hanrath, Tobias; Robinson, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    Magic-sized clusters (MSCs) are renowned for their identical size and closed-shell stability that inhibit conventional nanoparticle (NP) growth processes. Though MSCs have been of increasing interest, understanding the reaction pathways toward their nucleation and stabilization is an outstanding issue. In this work, we demonstrate that high concentration synthesis (1000 mM) promotes a well-defined reaction pathway to form high-purity MSCs (>99.9%). The MSCs are resistant to typical growth and dissolution processes. Based on insights from in-situ X-ray scattering analysis, we attribute this stability to the accompanying production of a large, hexagonal organic-inorganic mesophase (>100 nm grain size) that arrests growth of the MSCs and prevents NP growth. At intermediate concentrations (500 mM), the MSC mesophase forms, but is unstable, resulting in NP growth at the expense of the assemblies. These results provide an alternate explanation for the high stability of MSCs. Whereas the conventional mantra has been that the stability of MSCs derives from the precise arrangement of the inorganic structures (i.e., closed-shell atomic packing), we demonstrate that anisotropic clusters can also be stabilized by self-forming fibrous mesophase assemblies. At lower concentration (<200 mM or >16 acid-to-metal), MSCs are further destabilized and NPs formation dominates that of MSCs. Overall, the high concentration approach intensifies and showcases inherent concentration-dependent surfactant phase behavior that is not accessible in conventional (i.e., dilute) conditions. This work provides not only a robust method to synthesize, stabilize, and study identical MSC products, but also uncovers an underappreciated stabilizing interaction between surfactants and clusters.

  17. Spectroscopic Determination of Trace Contaminants in High-Purity Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen used for extravehicular activities (EVAs) must be free of contaminants because a difference in a few tenths of a percent of argon or nitrogen content can mean significant reduction in available EVA time. These inert gases build up in the extravehicular mobility unit because they are not metabolized or scrubbed from the atmosphere. A prototype optical emission technique capable of detecting argon and nitrogen below 0.1% in oxygen has been developed. This instrument uses a glow discharge in reduced-pressure gas to produce atomic emission from the species present. Because the atomic emission lines from oxygen, nitrogen, and argon are discrete, and in many cases well-separated, trace amounts of argon and nitrogen can be detected in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. This is a straightforward, direct measurement of the target contaminants, and may lend itself to a device capable of on-orbit verification of oxygen purity. A glow discharge is a plasma formed in a low-pressure (1 to 10 Torr) gas cell between two electrodes. Depending on the configuration, voltages ranging from 200 V and above are required to sustain the discharge. In the discharge region, the gas is ionized and a certain population is in the excited state. Light is produced by the transitions from the excited states formed in the plasma to the ground state. The spectrum consists of discrete, narrow emission lines for the atomic species, and broader peaks that may appear as a manifold for molecular species such as O2 and N2, the wavelengths and intensities of which are a characteristic of each atom. The oxygen emission is dominated by two peaks at 777 and 844 nm.

  18. Mesophase Formation Stabilizes High-purity Magic-sized Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Nevers, Douglas R.

    2018-01-27

    Magic-sized clusters (MSCs) are renowned for their identical size and closed-shell stability that inhibit conventional nanoparticle (NP) growth processes. Though MSCs have been of increasing interest, understanding the reaction pathways toward their nucleation and stabilization is an outstanding issue. In this work, we demonstrate that high concentration synthesis (1000 mM) promotes a well-defined reaction pathway to form high-purity MSCs (>99.9%). The MSCs are resistant to typical growth and dissolution processes. Based on insights from in-situ X-ray scattering analysis, we attribute this stability to the accompanying production of a large, hexagonal organic-inorganic mesophase (>100 nm grain size) that arrests growth of the MSCs and prevents NP growth. At intermediate concentrations (500 mM), the MSC mesophase forms, but is unstable, resulting in NP growth at the expense of the assemblies. These results provide an alternate explanation for the high stability of MSCs. Whereas the conventional mantra has been that the stability of MSCs derives from the precise arrangement of the inorganic structures (i.e., closed-shell atomic packing), we demonstrate that anisotropic clusters can also be stabilized by self-forming fibrous mesophase assemblies. At lower concentration (<200 mM or >16 acid-to-metal), MSCs are further destabilized and NPs formation dominates that of MSCs. Overall, the high concentration approach intensifies and showcases inherent concentration-dependent surfactant phase behavior that is not accessible in conventional (i.e., dilute) conditions. This work provides not only a robust method to synthesize, stabilize, and study identical MSC products, but also uncovers an underappreciated stabilizing interaction between surfactants and clusters.

  19. Trace radioactive measurement in foodstuffs using high purity germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morco, Ryan P.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Castaneda, Soledad S.; Almoneda, Rosalina V.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Trace radioactivity in food has been seriously considered sources of potential harm after the accidental radioactive releases in the last decades which led to contamination of the food chain. Countermeasures are being used to reduce the radiological health risk to the population and to ensure that public safety and international commitments are met. Investigation of radioactive traces in foods was carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radionuclides being measured were fission products 1 37Cs and 1 34Cs and naturally occurring 4 0Κ. Gamma-ray measurements were performed using a hybrid gamma-ray counting system with coaxial p-type Tennelec High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector with relative efficiency of 18.4%. Channels were calibrated to energies using a standard check source with 1 37Cs and 6 0Co present. Self-shielding within samples was taken into account by comparing directly with reference standards of similar matrix and geometry. Efficiencies of radionuclides of interests were accounted in calculating the activity concentrations in the samples. Efficiency calibration curve was generated using an in-house validated program called FINDPEAK, a least-square method that fits a polynomial up to sixth-order of equation. Lower Limits of Detection (LLD) obtained for both 1 37Cs and 1 34Cs ranges from 1-6 Bq/Kg depending on the sample matrix. In the last five years, there have been no foodstuffs analyzed exceeded the local and international regulatory limit of 1000Bq/Kg for the summed activities of 1 37Cs and 1 34Cs. (author)

  20. The increased binding affinity of curcumin with human serum albumin in the presence of rutin and baicalin: A potential for drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Mi; Zhang, Jun; Hao, Ai-Jun; Xu, Liang; Wang, Dan; Ji, Hui; Sun, Shi-Jie; Chen, Bo-Qi; Liu, Bin

    2016-02-01

    The impacts of rutin and baicalin on the interaction of curcumin (CU) with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies under imitated physiological conditions. The results showed that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by CU was a simultaneous static and dynamic quenching process, irrespective of the presence or absence of flavonoids. The binding constants between CU and HSA in the absence and presence of rutin and baicalin were 2.268 × 105 M- 1, 3.062 × 105 M- 1, and 3.271 × 105 M- 1, indicating that the binding affinity was increased in the case of two flavonoids. Furthermore, the binding distance determined according to Förster's theory was decreased in the presence of flavonoids. Combined with the fact that flavonoids and CU have the same binding site (site I), it can be concluded that they may simultaneously bind in different regions in site I, and formed a ternary complex of flavonoid-HSA-CU. Meanwhile, the results of fluorescence quenching, CD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra revealed that flavonoids further strengthened the microenvironmental and conformational changes of HSA induced by CU binding. Therefore, it is possible to develop a novel complex involving CU, flavonoid and HSA for CU delivery. The work may provide some valuable information in terms of improving the poor bioavailabiliy of CU.

  1. Establishing comparability and compatibility in the purity assessment of high purity zinc as demonstrated by the CCQM-P149 intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Kipphardt, Heinrich; Richter, Silke; Bremser, Wolfram; del Rocío Arvizu Torres, María; Manzano, Judith Velina Lara; Buzoianu, Mirella; Hill, Sarah; Petrov, Panayot; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Sargent, Mike; Fisicaro, Paola; Labarraque, Guillaume; Zhou, Tao; Turk, Gregory C.; Winchester, Michael; Miura, Tsutomu; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph; Jährling, Reinhard; Rienitz, Olaf; Mariassy, Michal; Hankova, Zuzana; Sobina, Egor; Ivanovich Krylov, Anatoly; Anatolievich Kustikov, Yuri; Vladimirovich Smirnov, Vadim

    2018-04-01

    For the first time, an international comparison was conducted on the determination of the purity of a high purity element. Participants were free to choose any analytical approach appropriate for their institute’s applications and services. The material tested was a high purity zinc, which had earlier been assessed for homogeneity and previously used in CCQM-K72 for the determination of six defined metallic impurities. Either a direct metal assay of the Zn mass fraction was undertaken by EDTA titrimetry, or an indirect approach was used wherein all impurities, or at least the major ones, were determined and their sum subtracted from ideal purity of 100%, or 1 kg kg-1. Impurity assessment techniques included glow discharge mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and carrier gas hot extraction/combustion analysis. Up to 91 elemental impurities covering metals, non-metals and semi-metals/metalloids were quantified. Due to the lack of internal experience or experimental capabilities, some participants contracted external laboratories for specific analytical tasks, mainly for the analysis of non-metals. The reported purity, expressed as zinc mass fraction in the high purity zinc material, showed excellent agreement for all participants, with a relative standard deviation of 0.011%. The calculated reference value, w(Zn)  =  0.999 873 kg kg-1, was assigned an asymmetric combined uncertainty of  +0.000 025 kg kg-1 and  -0.000 028 kg kg-1. Comparability amongst participating metrology institutes is thus demonstrated for the purity determination of high purity metals which have no particular difficulties with their decomposition/dissolution process when solution-based analytical methods are used, or which do not have specific difficulties when direct analysis approaches are used. Nevertheless, further development is required in terms of uncertainty assessment, quantification of non-metals and the determination of purity

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  3. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat ...

  4. Activation analysis of high purity metals and application to study on physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshitake; Hashimoto, Eiji; Matsushita, Rokuji.

    1994-01-01

    In order to determine the true characteristics of matters, the utmost reduction of impurities is indispensable. By the heightening of the purity of aluminum, that of 99.9999% purity has been obtained, but efforts have been exerted to further heighten the purity. For the purpose, it is important to know the behavior of trace impurities during refining, and the quantitative research by neutron activation analysis for various impurities has been carried out. The research on the electron condition of trace impurity atoms in refined aluminum is also important. The band refining of high purity aluminum is explained. By repeating the refining 10 times, the sample of RRR exceeding 30000 was obtained. The impurities contributing to the resistivity are Sc, Ti, V and Cr. Based on the results, the heightening of aluminum purity was attempted by devising the new procedure. As for the electric properties of solute elements in high purity metals, those of transition elements and rare earth elements in aluminum are reported. As the result of measuring the remaining resistance, the sample having the RRR exceeding 45000 after the correction for size effect was done has been obtained. At present, the efforts toward further high purity are continued. (K.I.)

  5. Radioactive preparations. Determination of radiochemical purity by thin-layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The standard sets the data which must be attached to every sample, and the equipment, chemicals and auxiliary substances used in the determination of radiochemical purity of substances by chromatography. Described are preparation of the sample, the procedure of sample deposition, the development, drying and detection of the radioactive preparation. The qualitative and quantitative assessment of the radiochromatogram is described as are the calculation of radiochemical purity and the determination of the reproducibility of measurement of radiochemical purity of radioactive preparations. (E.S.)

  6. Evaluation of measurement uncertainty for purity of a monoterpenic acid by small-scale coulometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norte, L. C.; de Carvalho, E. M.; Tappin, M. R. R.; Borges, P. P.

    2018-03-01

    Purity of the perylic acid (HPe) which is a monoterpenic acid from natural product (NP) with anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties was analyzed by small-scale coulometry (SSC), due to the low availability of HPe on the pharmaceutic market and its high cost. This work aims to present the evaluation of the measurements uncertainty from the purity of HPe by using SSC. Coulometric mean of purity obtained from 5 replicates resulted in 94.23% ± 0.88% (k = 2.06, for an approximately 95% confidence level). These studies aim in the future to develop the production of certified reference materials from NPs.

  7. Corrosion of high purity Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in 13 N boiling nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Joji; Mayuzumi, Masami; Kusanagi, Hideo; Takaku, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion in boiling nitric acid was investigated for high purity Fe-18%Cr-12%Ni alloys and type 304L stainless steels (SS). Owing to very low impurity concentration, the solution treated high purity alloys show almost no intergranular corrosion while the type 304L SS show severe intergranular corrosion. Both in the high purity alloys and type 304L SS, aging treatments ranging from 873 K to 1073 K for 1 h enhance intergranular corrosion. During the aging treatments, impurities should be segregated to the grain boundaries. The corrosion behaviors were discussed from a standpoint of impurity segregation to grain boundaries. This study is of importance for purex reprocessing of spent fuels

  8. The Hydrometallurgical Extraction and Recovery of High-Purity Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, James E.

    2012-06-01

    -bearing inputs, will be described in detail to demonstrate how typical chemical engineering unit process and unit operations have supplanted classic smelting and fire refining techniques. The Kennecott Copper Company, which has operated a hydrometallurgical circuit successfully for the recovery of high-purity silver from the slimes wet chlorination residue, has permitted me to provide some operation information and results using the technology. Both Phelps Dodge and Kennecott should be recognized for their forward-looking attitude in undertaking the conversion of conceptual chemistry into successful, full-scale plants. The process as employed at Phelps Dodge is discussed at length in reference (J.E. Hoffmann and B. Wesstrom: Hydrometallurgy, 1994, vol. 94, pp. 69-105).

  9. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The

  10. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  11. Square-wave voltammetric determination of rutin in pharmaceutical formulations using a carbon composite electrode modified with copper (II phosphate immobilized in polyester resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Heloizy Garcia Freitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A carbon composite electrode modified with copper (II phosphate immobilized in a polyester resin (Cu3(PO42-Poly for the determination of rutin in pharmaceutical samples by square-wave voltammetry is described herein. The modified electrode allows the determination of rutin at a potential (0.20 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L-1 KCl lower than that observed at an unmodified electrode. The peak current was found to be linear to the rutin concentration in the range from 9.9 × 10-8 to 2.5 × 10-6 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 1.2×10-8 mol L-1. The response of the electrode was stable, with no variation in baseline levels within several hours of continuous operation. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX system. The results obtained are precise and accurate. In addition, these results are in agreement with those obtained by the chromatographic method at a 95% confidence level.Descreve-se um eletrodo de carbono modificado com fosfato de cobre (II imobilizado em uma resina de poliéster (Cu3(PO42-Poly para a determinação de rutina em amostras farmacêuticas por voltametria de onda quadrada. O eletrodo modificado permite a determinação de rutina em potencial (0.20 V vs Ag / AgCl (3,0 mol L-1 KCl menor que o observado em um eletrodo não modificado. Verificou-se que a corrente de pico foi linear com a concentração de rutina na faixa de 9,9 × 10-8 a 2,5 × 10-6 mol L-1, com um limite de detecção de 1,2 × 10-8 mol L¹. A resposta do eletrodo foi estável, sem variação significativa dentro de várias horas de operação contínua. A morfologia da superfície do eletrodo modificado foi caracterizada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e pelo sistema de energia dispersiva de raios-X (EDX. Os resultados obtidos foram precisos e exatos. Ademais, estes resultados estão de acordo com aqueles obtidos pelo método cromatográfico a um nível de

  12. [Research on determination of chemical purity of andrographolide by coulometric titration method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Yang, Dezhi; Xu, Lishen; Lv, Yang

    2010-04-01

    The determination of chemical purity of andrographolide by coulometric titration method is studied in this paper. The coulometric titration was carried out in a mixture composed of 4 mol x L(-1) hydrochloric acid and 1 mol x L(-1) potassium bromide solution and 1 mol x L(-1) potassium nitrate solution (1:1). Bromine is electrogenerated at the anode and reacts with the andrographolide. The number of electrons involved in the eleatrode reaction is 2. Purity of andrographolide is 99.76% compared with 99.77% utilizing area normalization method by HPLC. The RSD are 0.33% and 0.02% respectively. The results from two methods are consistent, so the determination of chemical purity of andrographolide by coulometric titration method is scientific and feasible. The method is rapid, simple, convenient, sensitive and accurate. The reference material is not essential in the method. The method is suitable for determination of chemical purity of andrographolide.

  13. Void swelling in fast reactor irradiated high purity binary iron-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, E.A.; Stow, D.A.

    The void swelling characteristics of a series of high purity binary iron-chromium alloys containing 0 - 615 0 C. The void swelling behaviour can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of point defect trapping and precipitation processes involving chromium atoms

  14. Purity Evaluation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goak, Jeung Choon; Kim, Tae Yang; Jung, Jongwan; Seo, Young-Soo; Lee, Naesung; Sok, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the purity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the arc-synthesized SWCNT samples by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The as-produced SWCNT samples were heat-treated in air for 20 h at 275-475°C and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopes and TGA to establish oxidation temperature ranges of SWCNTs and carbonaceous impurities comprising the samples. Based on these oxidation temperature ranges, derivative thermogravimetric curves were deconvoluted, and differentiated peaks were assigned to SWCNTs and carbonaceous impurities. The compositions and the SWCNT purities of the samples were obtained simply by calculating the areal ratios under the deconvoluted curves. TGA studies on purity evaluation and thermal stabilities of SWCNTs and carbonaceous impurities are likely to provide us with a simple route of thermal oxidation purification to acquire high-purity SWCNT samples.

  15. Purity and Defect Characterization of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumitsu Miyata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the purity and defects of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs produced by various synthetic methods including chemical vapor deposition, arc discharge, and laser ablation. The SWCNT samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of SEM images suggested that the G-band Raman intensity serves as an index for the purity. By contrast, the intensity ratio of G-band to D-band (G/D ratio reflects both the purity and the defect density of SWCNTs. The combination of G-band intensity and G/D ratio is useful for a quick, nondestructive evaluation of the purity and defect density of a SWCNT sample.

  16. Confined recrystallization of high-purity aluminium during accumulative roll bonding of aluminium laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekhonin, Paul; Beausir, Benoît; Scharnweber, Juliane; Oertel, Carl-Georg; Hausöl, Tina; Höppel, Heinz Werner; Brokmeier, Heinz-Günter; Skrotzki, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium laminates consisting of high-purity aluminium and commercially pure aluminium have been produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) at ambient temperature for up to 10 cycles. To study the microstructure and texture development of the high-purity aluminium layers with regard to the shrinking layer thickness during ARB, microstructure and texture investigations were carried out by electron backscatter diffraction and neutron and X-ray diffraction, respectively. While the commercially pure aluminium layers develop an ultrafine-grained microstructure, partial discontinuous recrystallization occurs in the high-purity layers. The texture of the high-purity layers mainly consists of Cube and “Tilted Cube” (tilted with respect to the transverse direction) components. The experimental results are discussed with respect to confined recrystallization in the ARB aluminium laminates.

  17. Rapid qualitative analysis of 2 flavonoids, rutin and silybin, in medical pills by direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) combined with in situ derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Tibor; Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2018-03-01

    Direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) with in situ silylation was used for the rapid analysis of the flavonoids silybin ((2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]dioxin-6-yl]chroman-4-one) and rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside). Three different derivatization reagents, hexamethyldisilazane/trimethylchlorosilane/pyridine (HMDS/TMCS/pyridine), N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide/trimethylchlorosilane/N-trimethylsilyimidazole (BSA/TMCS/TMSI), and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide/trimethylchlorosilane (BSTFA/TMCS), were applied. Silybin and rutin were detected with various degrees of silylation, and the formation of dimers with pyridine and imidazole was also observed. HMDS/TMCS/pyridine was the best choice for the DART-MS analysis of silybin, and BSA/TMCS/TMSI was the most effective for the detection of rutin. The effects of the DART source temperature on desorption, ionization, in-source fragmentation, dimer formation, and hydrolysis of the trimethylsilyl groups were also studied. In addition, the collision-induced dissociation properties of the derivatized silybin and rutin were explored. With our in situ silylation method, the derivatized bioactive compounds in intact medical pills could also be detected by DART-MS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Analysis technique of impurity in high purity deuterium by cryogenic gas-chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Junbo; Gao Liping

    2007-01-01

    A veracious and applicable quantitative analysis method of O 2 , N 2 and H 2 , HD in high purity deuterium by the chromatogram columniation filled with 5A molecular sieve and alumina was researched and constituted at natural temperature and 77 K, respectively. Minimum detecting limit of the present method is (150-200) x 10 -6 for H 2 and HD, and it can meet the need of quantitative analysis of the impurity during high purity deuterium preparation. (authors)

  19. Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made from medium and low-purity niobium ingots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Myneni, Ganapati R

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made of ingot niobium with residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250 have proven to have similar or better performance than fine-grain Nb cavities of the same purity, after standard processing. The high purity requirement contributes to the high cost of the material. As superconducting accelerators operating in continuous-wave typically require cavities to operate at moderate accelerating gradients, using lower purity material could be advantageous not only to reduce cost but also to achieve higher Q 0 -values. In this contribution we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of 1.3–1.5 GHz single-cell cavities made of ingot Nb of medium (RRR = 100–150) and low (RRR = 60) purity from different suppliers. Cavities made of medium-purity ingots routinely achieved peak surface magnetic field values greater than 70 mT with an average Q 0 -value of 2 × 10 10 at 2 K after standard processing treatments. The performances of cavities made of low-purity ingots were affected by significant pitting of the surface after chemical etching. (paper)

  20. Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made from medium and low-purity niobium ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2016-06-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made of ingot niobium with residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250 have proven to have similar or better performance than fine-grain Nb cavities of the same purity, after standard processing. The high purity requirement contributes to the high cost of the material. As superconducting accelerators operating in continuous-wave typically require cavities to operate at moderate accelerating gradients, using lower purity material could be advantageous not only to reduce cost but also to achieve higher Q 0-values. In this contribution we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of 1.3-1.5 GHz single-cell cavities made of ingot Nb of medium (RRR = 100-150) and low (RRR = 60) purity from different suppliers. Cavities made of medium-purity ingots routinely achieved peak surface magnetic field values greater than 70 mT with an average Q 0-value of 2 × 1010 at 2 K after standard processing treatments. The performances of cavities made of low-purity ingots were affected by significant pitting of the surface after chemical etching.

  1. Fabrication of high quality anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) on low purity aluminum—A comparative study with the AAO produced on high purity aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Norek, Małgorzata; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Budner, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoporous alumina was fabricated by anodization in sulfuric acid solution with glycol. • The AAO manufacturing on low- and high-purity Al was compared. • The pores size was ranging between 30 and 50 nm. • No difference in the quality of the AAO fabricated on both Al types was observed. • The current vs. anodization time curves were recorded. -- Abstract: In this work the quality, arrangement, composition, and regularity of nanoporous AAO formed on the low-purity (AA1050) and high-purity aluminum during two-step anodization in a mixture of sulfuric acid solution (0.3 M), water and glycol (3:2, v/v), at various voltages (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 V) and at temperature of −1 °C, are investigated. The electrochemical conditions have allowed to obtain pores with the size ranging from 30 to 50 nm, which are much larger than those usually obtained by anodization in a pure sulfuric acid solution (<20 nm). The mechanism of the AAO growth is discussed. It was found that with the increase of applied anodizing voltage a number of incorporated sulfate ions in the aluminum oxide matrix increases, which was connected with the appearance of an unusual area in the current vs. time curves. On the surface of anodizing low- and high-purity aluminum, the formation of hillocks was observed, which was associated with the sulfate ions incorporation. The sulfate ions are replacing the oxygen atom/atoms in the AAO amorphous crystal structure and, consequently, the AAO template swells, the oxide cracks and uplifts causing the formation of hillocks. The same mechanism occurs for both low- and high-purity aluminum. Nanoporous AAO characterized by a very high regularity, not registered previously for low purity aluminum, was obtained. Furthermore, no significant difference in the regularity ratio between the AAO obtained on low- and high-purity aluminum, was observed. The electrochemical conditions applied in this study can be, thus, used for the fabrication of high quality

  2. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  3. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  4. Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour. Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggit Listyacahyani Sunarwidhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extract s in alloxan - induce d diabetic rats. Metho ds : Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens w ere performed by TLC - densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study . Results: A. i ndica contained 2. 90 ±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica : 112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68 . 74±4 . 83% (preprandial and 73 . 9 1 ±3 . 18% (postprandial. Histolog ical studies indicated that this combination improved the mor ph ology of the islets of Langerhans and β cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated - glucose concentrations . Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens . Combination of both extracts was potential to develo p as a blood glucose - lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  5. Purity-activity relationships of natural products: the case of anti-TB active ursolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Birgit U; Franzblau, Scott G; Chadwick, Lucas R; Lankin, David C; Zhang, Fangqiu; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F

    2008-10-01

    The present study explores the variability of biological responses from the perspective of sample purity and introduces the concept of purity-activity relationships (PARs) in natural product research. The abundant plant triterpene ursolic acid (1) was selected as an exemplary natural product due to the overwhelming number yet inconsistent nature of its approximate 120 reported biological activities, which include anti-TB potential. Nine different samples of ursolic acid with purity certifications were obtained, and their purity was independently assessed by means of quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR). Biological evaluation consisted of determining MICs against two strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and IC50 values in Vero cells. Ab initio structure elucidation provided unequivocal structural confirmation and included an extensive 1H NMR spin system analysis, determination of nearly all J couplings and the complete NOE pattern, and led to the revision of earlier reports. As a net result, a sigmoid PAR profile of 1 was obtained, demonstrating the inverse correlation of purity and anti-TB bioactivity. The results imply that synergistic effects of 1 and its varying impurities are the likely cause of previously reported antimycobacterial potential. Generating PARs is a powerful extension of the routinely performed quantitative correlation of structure and activity ([Q]SAR). Advanced by the use of primary analytical methods such as qHNMR, PARs enable the elucidation of cases like 1 when increasing purity voids biological activity. This underlines the potential of PARs as a tool in drug discovery and synergy research and accentuates the need to routinely combine biological testing with purity assessment.

  6. [Fatty acids in confectionery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniewski, M; Mielniczuk, E; Jacórzyński, B; Pawlicka, M; Balas, J; Filipek, A; Górnicka, M

    2000-01-01

    The content of fat and fatty acids in 144 different confectionery products purchased on the market in Warsaw region during 1997-1999 have been investigated. In examined confectionery products considerable variability of both fat and fatty acids content have been found. The content of fat varied from 6.6% (coconut cookies) up to 40% (chocolate wafers). Saturated fatty acids were present in both cis and trans form. Especially trans fatty acids reach (above 50%) were fats extracted from nut wafers, coconuts wafers.

  7. Study on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by urea complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, B.; Liu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study was done to obtain concentrated unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by urea complexation from soybean derived FAME. Effects of urea-to-FAME ratio, 95% ethanol-to-FAME ratio, crystallization temperature and time on the purification of unsaturated FAME were investigated through single factor experiments. Optimum conditions to obtain maximum FAME yield of NUCF with the purity of unsaturated FAME greater than 98% were established using Box-Behnken design (BBD) method and response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, the FAME yield was 58.08%, and the purity of unsaturated FAME was 98% at a urea-to-FAME ratio of 1.23, 95% ethanol-to-FAME ratio of 7 and crystallization temperature of 0 degree C. Verification results revealed that the predicted values were reasonably close to experimentally observed values of 56.93% and 98.01%. (author)

  8. A High-Purity Alumina for Use in Studies of Shock Loaded Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, David; Neel, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    We report the results of plate impact experiments on a potential new ``standard'' material, Coorstek Plasmapure-UC (99.9% purity) polycrystalline alumina, for use in non-conduction, impact environment, shock loading studies. This work was motivated by a desire to find a 99.9% purity alumina to replace the now unavailable Coors Vistal (99.9%) alumina, as it was hoped the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of the new standard would match the 9-11 GPa value of Vistal. Shock response data, including the HEL, Hugoniot particle velocities, Hugoniot shock velocities, stress vs volume, and release wave speeds, was obtained up to 14 GPa. This data will be compared with Hugoniot curve data for other high purity alumina to contrast differences in the shock response, and is intended to be useful in impedance matching calculations. We will show that the HEL of Plasmapure-UC alumina is 5.5 GPa and speculate on causes for this lower than expected value. We will also explore why the elastic-plastic response for Plasmapure-UC alumina differs from what has been observed from other high purity alumina. The final result of this work is to recommend a well-characterized, lower purity alumina (Coorstek AD-995) as a potential new ``standard'' material.

  9. High-temperature mechanical properties of high-purity 70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, M.; Harima, N.; Takaki, S.; Abiko, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2002-01-16

    An ingot of high-purity 70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy was prepared by high-frequency induction melting in a high-purity argon atmosphere using a cold copper crucible. Its tensile properties such as hot-ductility and tensile strength were measured, and compared with the results for a high-purity 50 mass% Cr-Fe alloy, a high-purity 60 mass% Cr-Fe alloy and a Ni-based super-alloy. The formation of {sigma}-phase was also examined. The purity of a 70Cr-Fe alloy (70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy) ingot is more than 99.98 mass% and the total amount of gaseous impurities (C, N, O, S, H) in the 70Cr-Fe alloy is 69.9 mass ppm. The strength of the 70Cr-Fe alloy is higher than those of the 60Cr-Fe alloy and the 50Cr-Fe alloy at the temperatures between 293 and 1573 K, without decrease in ductility with increasing Cr content. The 70Cr-Fe alloy also possesses excellent high-temperature ductility. The {sigma}-phase was not observed after aging of 3.6 Ms at 873 K. Consequently, the 70Cr-Fe alloy is an excellent alloy as the base of super heat-resistant alloys. (orig.)

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick-Melin, A J; Kalinski, M I; Kelly, K R

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging chronic liver disease and is reported to affect up to 70-80% of overweight and obese individuals. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from simple hepatic steatosis, to a more severe and treatment resistant stage...... that features steatosis plus inflammation, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may in turn progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and sub-acute liver failure. Thus, NAFLD and its subsequent complications create a significant health burden, and currently there is no effective treatment strategy...

  11. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  12. Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhishen; Gan, Jiulin; Heng, Xiaobo; Wu, Yuqing; Li, Qingyu; Qian, Qi; Chen, Dongdan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2015-11-16

    The purity of the synthesized orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) light in the fiber is inversely proportional to channel crosstalk level in the OAM optical fiber communication system. Here the relationship between the fiber structure and the purity is firstly demonstrated in theory. The graded-index optical fiber is proposed and designed for the OAM light propagation with the purity higher than 99.9%. 16 fiber modes (10 OAM modes) have been supported by a specific designed graded-index optical fiber with dispersion less than 35 ps/(km∙nm). Such fiber design has suppressed the intrinsic crosstalk to be lower than -30 dB, and can be potentially used for the long distance OAM optical communication system.

  13. Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L B; Hu, X L; Zhang, D X; Zeng, Beibei; Wang, L S; Yang, S M; Tai, R Z; Fecht, H J; Jiang, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic subtractive color filters through patterning periodic nanostructures on ultrathin Ag films deposited on a glass substrate, exhibiting good durability, simple fabrication, and flexible color tunability, have attracted considerable attention due to their tremendous potential applications. While previous studies have mainly focused on their extraordinary physical mechanisms, color purity, which is another key parameter for high quality imaging applications, has been much less investigated. In this work, we demonstrate that the relative position of nanoholes patterned on ultrathin Ag films can largely affect the color purity of plasmonic subtractive color filters. The calculated results agree reasonably well with the experimental data, revealing that the purity of subtractive colors can be improved by changing the nanohole arrays from square lattice to triangular lattice without reducing transmission at visible frequencies. In addition, underlying mechanisms are clarified by systematically analyzing the dominant valley in transmission spectra. (paper)

  14. Method of determination of radiochemical purity of gallium-67 citrate injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanji

    1985-01-01

    A simple method is used to compare the effect of five developing agents on the radiochemical purity of neutral products of 67 GaCit and on Rsub(f) values. Two preferable developing agents are recommended as suitable for the identification of 67 GaCit injection in its production. The effect of six pH values of different developing agents on radiochemical purity, Rsub(f) and chromatogram are compared for the neutral products. The results of the experiments show that the ascending paper chromatography with 1:2:4 pyridine/ethanol/water and 85:15 methanol/water is preferable for the determination of the radiochemical purity of 67 GaCit. The other developing agents also can be used if there are not any impurities except gallium radioisotopes

  15. Growth and characterization of high-purity SiC single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, G.; Balakrishna, V.; Brandt, C. D.

    2000-04-01

    High-purity SiC single crystals with diameter up to 50 mm have been grown by the physical vapor transport method. Finite element analysis was used for thermal modeling of the crystal growth cavity in order to reduce stress in the grown crystal. Crystals are grown in high-purity growth ambient using purified graphite furniture and high-purity SiC sublimation sources. Undoped crystals up to 50 mm in diameter with micropipe density less than 100 cm -2 have been grown using this method. These undoped crystals exhibit resistivities in the 10 3 Ω cm range and are p-type due to the presence of residual acceptor impurities, mainly boron. Semi-insulating SiC material is obtained by doping the crystal with vanadium. Vanadium has a deep donor level located near the middle of the band gap, which compensates the residual acceptor resulting in semi-insulating behavior.

  16. Tuning for optimal performance in angle control, uniformity, and energy purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, Reuel B.; Olson, Joseph C.; Arevalo, Edwin A.; Downey, Daniel F.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in reducing the sizes of device structures and line widths place increasing demands on the accuracy of dopant placement and the control of dopant motion during activation anneals. Serial process high current ion implantation systems seek to produce beams in which the angles are controlled to high precision avoiding the angles introduced by conical structures used for holding wafers on spinning discs in batch systems. However, ion optical corrections and control of incident beam angle, dose uniformity, high throughput and energy purity often present apparently contradictory requirements in machine design. Data is presented to illustrate that tuning procedures can be used to simultaneously optimize angle purity in both x and y planes as well as control energy purity and dose uniformity

  17. Synthesis of high purity monoglycerides from crude glycerol and palm stearin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Chetpattananondh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimum conditions for the glycerolysis of palm stearin and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel process werefound to be a reaction temperature of 200oC with a molar ratio of crude glycerol to palm stearin of 2.5:1, and a reaction timeof 20 minutes. The yield and purity of monoglycerides obtained under these conditions was satisfactory as compared withthe glycerolysis of pure glycerol. To increase the purity of monoglycerides a two-step process, removal of residual glyceroland crystallization, was proposed instead of either vacuum or molecular distillation. Residual glycerol was removed byadding hydrochloric acid followed by washing with hot water. Optimum conditions for crystallization were achieved byusing isooctane as a solvent and a turbine impeller speed of 200 rpm at a crystallization temperature of 35oC. A purity notexceeding 99 percent of monoglycerides was obtained with monopalmitin as the major product.

  18. Preliminary studies of 99mTc labeled fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yuzhi; Kung, H.F.; Mack, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Radio iodine labelled fatty acid analogs are potential myocardial imaging agents for SPECT. In this paper are reported three new 99m Tc labbeled fatty acid analogs: 9 '9 m Tc-BAT-TDA, 99m Tc-BAT-PDA and 99m Tc-BAT-H x DA. Ligand exchange reaction with 99m Tc stannous glucoheptonate in 50% aqueous ethanol is used for labelling. The yield of reactions is 87%, 70%, 49% respectively. 99m Tc-fatty acid is purified by extraction into chloroform and the purity as determined by reverse phase HPLC is 98%. In order to determine the structure of Tc-BAT-fatty acid, 99 Tc-BAT-PDA is synthesized with 99 Tc ammonium pertechnetate in 50% citric acid buffer (pH=6)/ethanol using stannous chloride as the reducing agent. 99 Tc-BAT-PDA displays the expected Tc=O UV absorption at 420nm and strong peak at 900cm -1 in the FTIR spectrum. Biodistribution studies of three 99m Tc-fatty acid analogs are conducted in rats using 125 I-ω- (p-iodophenyl) -penta-decanoic acid (IPPDA) as internal standard. The initial heart uptake of them is significantly lower than that of 125 I-IPPDA

  19. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is, along with gold and the platinum-group metals, one of the so called precious metals. Because of its comparative scarcity, brilliant white color, malleability and resistance to atmospheric oxidation, silver has been used in the manufacture of coins and jewelry for a long time. Silver has the highest known electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and is used in fabricating printed electrical circuits, and also as a coating for electronic conductors. It is also alloyed with other elements such as nickel or palladium for use in electrical contacts. The most useful silver salt is silver nitrate, a caustic chemical reagent, significant as an antiseptic and as a reagent in analytical chemistry. Pure silver nitrate is an intermediate in the industrial preparation of other silver salts, including the colloidal silver compounds used in medicine and the silver halides incorporated into photographic emulsions. Silver halides become increasingly insoluble in the series: AgCl, AgBr, AgI. All silver salts are sensitive to light and are used in photographic coatings on film and paper. The ZORKA-PHARMA company (Sabac, Serbia specializes in the production of pharmaceutical remedies and lab chemicals. One of its products is chemical silver nitrate (argentum-nitricum (l. Silver nitrate is generally produced by dissolving pure electrolytically refined silver in hot 48% nitric acid. Since the purity of silver nitrate, produced in 2002, was not in compliance with the p.a. level of purity, there was doubt that the electrolytically refined silver was pure. The aim of this research was the gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and silver nitrate, produced industrially and in a laboratory. The purity determination was carried out gravimetrically, by the sedimentation of silver(I ions in the form of insoluble silver salts: AgCl, AgBr and Agi, and volumetrically, according to Mohr and Volhardt. The

  20. Enhanced color purity of blue OLEDs based on well-design structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qianqian; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Qingru; Xia, Shuzhen; Zhang, Bingyuan; Wang, Minghong; Fan, Quli

    2016-09-01

    We have fabricated blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with higher color purity and stability by optimizing the structure of the Glass/ITO/NPB(50 nm)/ BCzVBi (30 nm)/ TPBi (x nm)/Alq3(20 nm)/LiF/Al. The results show that the introducing of hole blocking layer(HBL) TPBi greatly can improve not only the color purity but the color stability, which owe to its higher the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) energy levels of 6.2 eV. We expect our work will be useful to optimizing the blue OLEDs structure to enhancing the color property.

  1. Kit preparation of 153Sm-EDTMP and factors affecting radiochemical purity and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro-Flores, G.; Tendilla, J.I.; Lopez-Gomez, M.A.; Aguilar-Hernandez, F.; Gonzalez-Zavala, M.A.; Parades-Gutierrez, L.; Avila-Ramirez, E.

    1996-01-01

    A fast kit method was developed for the production of 153 Sm-EDTMP in two steps avoiding the use of nitric acid, evaporation and sterilization of the final solution by autoclave. Methods of analysis for the determination of chemical and radiochemical purity in the radiopharmaceutical solution were established. Factors affecting radiochemical purity and stability of the complex as the molar ratio of EDTMP/Sm, concentration of phosphate buffer and neutralization of EDTMP prior kit preparation were also analyzed. The use of this radiopharmaceutical in rabbits and patients showed selective skeletal uptake. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Dependence on liquid temperature and purity of light emission characteristics in single cavitation bubble luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaglia, Mario O; Bonetto, Fabian J [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, CP8400, Rio Negro (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Instituto Balseiro, and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Laboratorio de Cavitacion y Biotecnologia, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, CP8400, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2004-02-15

    We produced single bubbles in water using a visible pulsed laser and studied the characteristics of the light emitted during the bubble collapse time as a function of the water temperature for different water purity values. The water temperature ranged from freezing point (0 deg. C) to near boiling. We measured the luminescence pulse for the mentioned temperature range at various purity values. We also obtained the average bubble lifetime and the average luminescence pulse emitted as a function of water temperature. The main conclusion was that the luminescence can be modified by the water quality and by the water temperature. Maximum luminescence was obtained near the water freezing point.

  3. Dependence on liquid temperature and purity of light emission characteristics in single cavitation bubble luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaglia, Mario O.; Bonetto, Fabian J.

    2004-01-01

    We produced single bubbles in water using a visible pulsed laser and studied the characteristics of the light emitted during the bubble collapse time as a function of the water temperature for different water purity values. The water temperature ranged from freezing point (0 deg. C) to near boiling. We measured the luminescence pulse for the mentioned temperature range at various purity values. We also obtained the average bubble lifetime and the average luminescence pulse emitted as a function of water temperature. The main conclusion was that the luminescence can be modified by the water quality and by the water temperature. Maximum luminescence was obtained near the water freezing point

  4. Preparation of high-purity cerium nitrate; Preparacao de nitrato de cerio de alta pureza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Daniela Moraes; Silva Queiroz, Carlos Alberto da; Santos Mucillo, Eliana Navarro dos [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The preparation of high-purity cerium nitrate has been carried out Cerium oxide has been prepared by fractioned precipitation and ionic exchange techniques, using a concentrate with approximately 85% of cerium oxide from NUCLEMON as raw material. Five sequential ion-exchange columns with a retention capacity of 170 g each have been used. The ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as eluent. The cerium content has been determined by gravimetry and iodometry techniques. The resulting cerium oxide has a purity > 99%. This material was transformed in cerium nitrate to be used as precursor for the preparation of Zirconia-ceria ceramics by the coprecipitation technique. (author) 2 tabs.

  5. Ion-exchange preparation of high-purity vanadium acid from industrial liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajdakhmedov, U.A.; Arslanov, Sh.S.; Vulikh, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The results of investigations on production of special-purity vanadium acid and vanadium oxide directly from process solutions (technical grade liquors) using ionites are presented. Potentiality of thorough purification of vanadium(5) oxide, when producing vanadium acid on the KU-2 cationite with subsequent purification on anionite, is shown. On the basis of the results obtained a principle flowsheet of ion-exchange production of high-purity vanadium(5) oxide from industrial liquors has been developed. 2 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  6. Dissolution of high-purity lead and subsequent crystal growth during the preparation of corrosion coupons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarvey, G.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); McDougall, T.E.; Owen, D.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    High-purity lead discs were prepared using several combinations of polishing, rinsing and ultrasonic treatment. Physical degradation of the lead surface and the premature generation and deposition of oxides on the surface were observed for certain combinations of preparation steps. Ultrasonic treatment of the discs was found to be particularly detrimental as it induced significant crystal growth and, in several instances, deterioration of the polished surface. Simple air drying of freshly rinsed discs also led to oxide formation on the surface after as short a time as 1 min. An effective method for preparing discs from high-purity lead is described. (author)

  7. Dissolution of high-purity lead and subsequent crystal growth during the preparation of corrosion coupons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarvey, G.B.; McDougall, T.E.; Owen, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    High-purity lead discs were prepared using several combinations of polishing, rinsing and ultrasonic treatment. Physical degradation of the lead surface and the premature generation and deposition of oxides on the surface were observed for certain combinations of preparation steps. Ultrasonic treatment of the discs was found to be particularly detrimental as it induced significant crystal growth and, in several instances, deterioration of the polished surface. Simple air drying of freshly rinsed discs also led to oxide formation on the surface after as short a time as 1 min. An effective method for preparing discs from high-purity lead is described. (author)

  8. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of the radiochemical purity of phosphorus-32 and tritium-labeled diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, R.E.; Sheppard, G.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of the radiochemical purity of labeled diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP), based on the irreversible inhibition reaction with the enzyme α-chymotrypsin. The nature of the impurities in commercially available 32 P- and 3 H-labeled DFP is discussed

  10. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Fieke M A; Brandt, Mark J; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally. Across 5 studies (total N = 1,104), we find consistent evidence for the notion that disgust sensitivity relates more strongly to moral condemnation of purity-based transgressions (meta-analytic r = .40) than to moral condemnation of transgressions of any of the other domains (range meta-analytic rs: .07-.27). Our findings are in line with predictions from Moral Foundations Theory, which predicts that personality characteristics like disgust sensitivity make people more sensitive to a certain set of moral issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Statistical distribution of the local purity in a large quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pasquale, A; Pascazio, S; Facchi, P; Giovannetti, V; Parisi, G; Scardicchio, A

    2012-01-01

    The local purity of large many-body quantum systems can be studied by following a statistical mechanical approach based on a random matrix model. Restricting the analysis to the case of global pure states, this method proved to be successful, and a full characterization of the statistical properties of the local purity was obtained by computing the partition function of the problem. Here we generalize these techniques to the case of global mixed states. In this context, by uniformly sampling the phase space of states with assigned global mixedness, we determine the exact expression of the first two moments of the local purity and a general expression for the moments of higher order. This generalizes previous results obtained for globally pure configurations. Furthermore, through the introduction of a partition function for a suitable canonical ensemble, we compute the approximate expression of the first moment of the marginal purity in the high-temperature regime. In the process, we establish a formal connection with the theory of quantum twirling maps that provides an alternative, possibly fruitful, way of performing the calculation. (paper)

  12. High-Purity Fe3S4 Greigite Microcrystals for Magnetic and Electrochemical Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Guowei; Zhang, Baomin; Yu, Feng; Novakova, Alla A.; Krivenkov, Maxim S.; Kiseleva, Tatiana Y.; Chang, Liao; Rao, Jiancun; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Blake, Graeme R.; de Groot, Robert A.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2014-01-01

    High-purity Fe3S4 (greigite) microcrystals with octahedral shape were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method using a surfactant. The as-prepared samples have the inverse spinel structure with high crystallinity. The saturation magnetization (M-s) reaches 3.74 mu(B) at 5 K and 3.51 mu(B) at

  13. Measurement scheme for purity based on two two-body gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, H.; Tanaka, T.; Yuasa, K.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-04-01

    A scheme for measuring the purity of a quantum system with a finite number of levels is presented. The method makes use of two swap gates and hinges only on measurements performed on a reference system, prepared in a certain pure state and coupled with the target system. Neither tomographic methods, with the complete reconstruction of the state, nor interferometric setups are needed.

  14. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool

  15. Effect of microplastic deformation on the electron ultrasonic absorption in high-purity molybdenum monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal'-Val', P.P.; Kaufmann, Kh.-J.

    1983-01-01

    The low temperature (100-6 K) linear absorption of ultrasound (88 kHz) by high purity molybdenum single crystals have been studied. Both unstrained samples and samples sub ected to microplastic deformation (epsilon 0 approximately 10 -4 , during 10 min, at 6 K. A new relaxation peak of absorption at 10 K has been found in strained samples

  16. Variation of low temperature internal friction of microplastic deformation of high purity molybdenum single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal-Val, P.P.; Kaufmann, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Amplitude and temperature spectra of ultrasound absorption in weakly deformed high purity molybdenum single crystals of different orientations were measured. The results were discussed in terms of parameter changes related to quasiparticle or dislocation oscillations, respectively, dislocation point defect interactions as well as defect generation at microplastic deformation. (author)

  17. Tests of ball bearing used in high-temperature and high-purity water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Chengmu; Hao Shouxin.

    1987-01-01

    According to the particular conditions and the operation environments in high-temperature and high-purity water, the test content and the measurement instrumentation for the ball bearing were defined. Through various tests, operational performances of the bearing have preliminarily been understood. It provided some useful information for the engineering application of the bearing

  18. Definition of the generalized criterion of estimation of ecological purity of textile products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintibidze, N.; Valishvili, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of actual problems is the estimation of hygienic and ecological properties of fabrics on the basis of the data on the properties of initial fiber. In the present article, the definition of generalized criterion of the estimation of ecological purity of textile products is discussed. The estimation is based on the International Standard EKO-TEX-100, regulating the contents of inorganic and organic compounds in textile production. The determination of all listed substances is made according to appropriate techniques for each parameter. The quantity of substances is determined and compared with norms. The judgement about ecological purity is made by separate parameters. There is no uniform parameter which could estimate the degree of ecological purity of textile products. For calculating the generalized criterion of estimation of ecological purity of textile products, it is offered to estimate each criterion by the points corresponding to each factor. The textile product is recognized as ecologically pure (environment friendly) if the total estimate is more than 1. (author)

  19. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1.4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E.; Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm 2 by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.)

  20. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, F.M.A.; Brandt, M.J.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2018-01-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority,

  1. Cross Purposes: Love and Purity at a Puerto Rican Protestant High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale-Collazo, James

    2013-01-01

    A "native" Christian ethnographer finds religious education at this church-sponsored school to pursue two distinct, and occasionally conflicting, curricula: "love" and "purity." The curriculum of love draws on what Turner called liminality and communitas in an effort to promote spiritual "encounters with…

  2. State-of-the-art in analytical characterization of high purity solid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Facilities and some results of several spectroscopic methods which have potential applications in the field of analysis of solid high purity substances and which have been elaborated in Russia, will be discussed in this paper. Laser nondispersive atomic fluorescence method with glow discharge cathode sputtering atomiser, ...

  3. Determination of radiochemistry purity and pH of radiopharmaceutical in Northeast nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Wellington; Santos, Poliane; Lima, Fernando de Andrade; Lima, Fabiana Farias de

    2013-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical is a chemical compound associated with a radionuclide, which is selected so that meets the need cf diagnosis and capable of producing quality images. Drugs labeled with 99m Tc radionuclide kits consist of lyophilized, and be handled by the nuclear medicine services (NMS) must pass tests as the resolution of ANVISA (RDC 38) published in 2008. Among these tests are those of radiochemical purity and pH determination. This study evaluated the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals and pH SMN manipulated in the Northeast. The radiochemical purity (RCP) was determined by thin layer chromatography, which were used Whatman ® and silica gel, with dimensions of 1 x 10 cm, as stationary phase, and solvents indicated in the inserts of manufacturers. The chromatographic strips were placed in sealed containers so as not to touch the walls thereof. After the chromatographic run, the tape was cut every centimeter and the activities determined in doses of each calibrator NMS. The pH of the radiopharmaceutical was assessed through the use of universal pH paper (Merck®) and obtained staining compared with its color scale. The results showed (hat 82.6% and 100% of the radiopharmaceuticals of the samples were within the limits recommended by international pharmacopoeias for radiochemical purity and pl-l, respectively. There is then the need to include in routine tests indicated SMN by ANVISA. Well, they can detect possible problems in the marking of radiopharmaceuticals administered to the patient and avoid inappropriate material. (author)

  4. Evaluation of radiochemical purities of some radiopharmaceuticals in Shiraz Namazi teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadeghpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many radiopharmaceuticals, as a special group of drugs, are eventually prepared at the nuclear medicine departments of the hospitals. Therefore, their quality control procedures such as sterility tests, radionuclide, radiochemical and chemical purity should be carried out in the hospitals. In this study, radiochemical purity for more than 300 preparations of three different radiopharmaceutical formulations from commercial kits were tested using instant thin layer chromatography. The formulations 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-MDP and 99mTc-MIBI were obtained from Pars Isotope Co. Several paper chromatographic systems including standard and factory recommended thin layer chromatography systems were used in this study. In addition different equipments for detection of radioactivity in paper chromatography like gamma camera and dose calibrator were used. The results showed that the most observed impurities were hydrolyzed reduced technetium (HR-Tc. There were no significant differences between calculated 99mTc-MIBI radiochemical purities when the radioactive detection device was gamma camera instead of dose calibrator. In case of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-MDP, there were significant differences in detection of HR-Tc. On the contrary, no significant differences in free pertechnetate were observed when package insert procedures for quality control were used instead of those recommended in the references. Finally, we observed that the package insert procedures for quality control can offer higher radiochemical purities.

  5. Effect of Aluminum Purity on the Pore Formation of Porous Anodic Alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok

    2014-01-01

    Anodic alumina oxide (AAO), a self-ordered hexagonal array, has various applications in nanofabrication such as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. In order to obtain highly ordered porous alumina membranes, a two-step anodization or prepatterning of aluminum are mainly conducted with straight electric field. Electric field is the main driving force for pore growth during anodization. However, impurities in aluminum can disturb the direction of the electric field. To confirm this, we anodized two different aluminum foil samples with high purity (99.999%) and relatively low purity (99.8%), and compared the differences in the surface morphologies of the respective aluminum oxide membranes produced in different electric fields. Branched pores observed in porous alumina surface which was anodized in low-purity aluminum and the size; dimensions of the pores were found to be usually smaller than those obtained from high-purity aluminum. Moreover, anodization at high voltage proceeds to a significant level of conversion because of the high speed of the directional electric field. Consequently, anodic alumina membrane of a specific morphology, i. e., meshed pore, was produced

  6. Effect of Aluminum Purity on the Pore Formation of Porous Anodic Alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok [Sookmyung Women' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Anodic alumina oxide (AAO), a self-ordered hexagonal array, has various applications in nanofabrication such as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. In order to obtain highly ordered porous alumina membranes, a two-step anodization or prepatterning of aluminum are mainly conducted with straight electric field. Electric field is the main driving force for pore growth during anodization. However, impurities in aluminum can disturb the direction of the electric field. To confirm this, we anodized two different aluminum foil samples with high purity (99.999%) and relatively low purity (99.8%), and compared the differences in the surface morphologies of the respective aluminum oxide membranes produced in different electric fields. Branched pores observed in porous alumina surface which was anodized in low-purity aluminum and the size; dimensions of the pores were found to be usually smaller than those obtained from high-purity aluminum. Moreover, anodization at high voltage proceeds to a significant level of conversion because of the high speed of the directional electric field. Consequently, anodic alumina membrane of a specific morphology, i. e., meshed pore, was produced.

  7. Fabrication and research of high purity germanium detectors with abrupt and thin diffusion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cabal, A. E.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    1997-01-01

    A different high purity germanium detector's fabrication method is described. A very thin diffusion film with an abrupt change of the type of conductivity is obtained. The fine diffusion layer thickness makes possibly their utilization in experimental systems in which all the data are elaborated directly on the computer. (author) [es

  8. Homochiral Acyl Isocyanates as Diagnostic NMR Probes for the Enantiomeric Purity of Chiral Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. P. Roos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The first reported acyl and sulfonylisocyanates were developed and tested in reactions with chiral alcohols to afford diastereomeric carbamates. NMR analysis of these investigates the chemical shift discrimination that would allow these activated isocyanates to be used as diagnostic probes of enantiomeric purity.

  9. Determination of nanoparticle surface coatings and nanoparticle purity using microscale thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Tyner, Katherine M; Poling, Christopher M; Blacklock, Jenifer L

    2014-02-04

    The use of nanoparticles in some applications (i.e., nanomedical, nanofiltration, or nanoelectronic) requires small samples with well-known purities and composition. In addition, when nanoparticles are introduced into complex environments (e.g., biological fluids), the particles may become coated with matter, such as proteins or lipid layers. Many of today's analytical techniques are not able to address small-scale samples of nanoparticles to determine purity and the presence of surface coatings. Through the use of an elevated-temperature quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method we call microscale thermogravimetric analysis, or μ-TGA, the nanoparticle purity, as well as the presence of any surface coatings of nanomaterials, can be measured. Microscale thermogravimetric analysis is used to determine the presence and amount of surface-bound ligand coverage on gold nanoparticles and confirm the presence of a poly(ethylene glycol) coating on SiO2 nanoparticles. Results are compared to traditional analytical techniques to demonstrate reproducibility and validity of μ-TGA for determining the presence of nanoparticle surface coatings. Carbon nanotube samples are also analyzed and compared to conventional TGA. The results demonstrate μ-TGA is a valid method for quantitative determination of the coatings on nanoparticles, and in some cases, can provide purity and compositional data of the nanoparticles themselves.

  10. Variation of low temperature internal friction of microplastic deformation of high purity molybdenum single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal-Val, P.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur); Kaufmann, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin)

    1984-08-01

    Amplitude and temperature spectra of ultrasound absorption in weakly deformed high purity molybdenum single crystals of different orientations were measured. The results were discussed in terms of parameter changes related to quasiparticle or dislocation oscillations, respectively, dislocation point defect interactions as well as defect generation at microplastic deformation.

  11. Law and Behavioral Sciences: Why We Need Less Purity Rather than More

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mascini (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn his inaugural lecture, Peter Mascini takes issue with the goal of scientific purity in the behavioral study of the law, conceived as the deliberate choice to postulate a limited number of universally applicable behavioral principles. The guiding principle of behavioral sociology

  12. Effect of the microstructure on electrical properties of high-purity germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkopaev, O. I.; Shimanskii, A. F.; Molotkovskaya, N. O.; Kulakovskaya, T. V.

    2013-05-01

    The interrelation between the electrical properties and the microstructure of high-purity germanium crystals has been revealed. The electrical conductivity of polycrystalline samples increases and the life-time of nonequilibrium charge carriers in them decreases with a decrease in the crystallite sizes.

  13. The radiochemical purity of radiotracers as the criterion of their usefulness in investigations of hydrocarbons distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, M.

    1976-01-01

    Among numerous analytic techniques of separation and analysis of radioactive products gas radiochromatography has proved to be particularly suitable. Organic bromides labelled with 82 Br-radionuclide are investigated. The analytic gas chromatographs equipped with appropriately constructed radiochromatographic attachments are used. The results of radiochemical purity determination of radiotracers are compared for various techniques. (author)

  14. Preparation of uranium-plutonium mixed nitride pellets with high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuo; Shiozawa, Ken-ichi; Ohmichi, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    Uranium-plutonium mixed nitride pellets have been prepared in the gloveboxes with high purity Ar gas atmosphere. Carbothermic reduction of the oxides in N 2 -H 2 mixed gas stream was adopted for synthesizing mixed nitride. Sintering was carried out in various conditions and the effect on the pellet characteristics was investigated. (author)

  15. Analytical techniques for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, J.R.; Rockwell, L.J.; Welsh, W.J.

    The evaluation of efficacy of commercially available kits used for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is one aspect of the Radiation Protection Bureau's radiopharmaceutical quality control program. This report describes some of the analytical methodology employed in the program. Many of the tests can be performed rapidly and with a minimum of special equipment, thus enabling the confirmation of radiopharmaceutical purity prior to patient administration

  16. An ICP AES method for determination of dysprosium and terbium in high purity yttrium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupawate, V.H.; Hareendran, K.N.; Roy, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    High purity yttrium finds interesting application in astronavigation, luminescence, nuclear energy and metallurgical industries. Most of these applications require yttrium oxide of highest purity. Consequently there is a need for production of high purity yttrium oxide. Separation and purification of yttrium from other rare earths is a challenging task due to their close chemical properties. Liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange have been widely used in the production of yttrium oxide of highest purity. Determination of impurities, especially other rare earths, in ppm level is required for process development and chemical characterization of the high purity Y 2 O 3 . Many methods have been described in literature. However since the advent of ICP AES much work in this area has been carried out by this technique. This paper describes the work done for determination of dysprosium (Dy) and terbium (Tb) in yttrium oxide using a high resolution sequential ICP AES. Emission spectra of rare earth elements are very complex and due to this complexity it is important to select spectral interference free analyte lines for determination of rare earths in rare earth matrix. For the determination of Dy and Tb in Y 2 O 3 , sensitive lines of Dy and Tb are selected from the instrument wavelength table and spectral interference free emission lines for the determination is selected by scanning around the selected wavelengths using 5 g/L Y solution and 5 mg/L standard solutions of Dy and Tb prepared in 4% nitric acid. It is found 353.170 nm line of Dy and 350.917 nm line Tb is suitable for quantitative determination. The signal to background ratio increases with increase in matrix concentration, i.e. from 1 to 5 mg/L. The optimum forward power is determined and it is found to be 1100W for Dy and 1000W for Tb. The instrument is calibrated using matrix matched standards containing 5g/L of Y matrix. Samples are dissolved in nitric acid and Y concentration is maintained at 5g/L. Two

  17. An aptasensor for voltammetric and impedimetric determination of cocaine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles and using rutin as a redox probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method for the determination of cocaine that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, an ionic liquid, and chitosan. The electrode was made cocaine-responsive by immobilizing a cocaine-specific aptamer and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) on the modified electrode. The use of PtNPs resulted in the acceleration of the electron transfer kinetics of the reduction of the redox probe rutin and enhances sensitivity. The sensor, best operated at a working voltage of 260 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, has a linear response to cocaine in the 1 nM to 11 μM concentration range, and the detection limit is 100 pM (at an S/N ratio of 3). We think this strategy to represent a promising platform for the sensitive and selective determination of cocaine. The sensor is adequately stable and was successfully applied to the determination of cocaine in spiked serum. (author)

  18. [Effect of indole-3-carbinol and rutin on rats' provision by vitamins' A and E with different fat content in its diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kravchenko, L V; Kosheleva, O V; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Effect of indole-3-carbinol (I-3-C) and rutin (R) supplementation on vitamins A and E status of growing Wistar rats, receiving for 6 or 4 week semi-synthetic diets with different levels (1, 11 and 31%) of fat (lard and sunflower oil at a ratio of 1:1) has been studied. The content of vitamin E was 6, 9 and 15 IU, vitamin A - 400 IU in 100 g of ration. Against the various fat content during the last 7 or 14 days of the experiment rats received respectively I-3-C (20 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day) or R (0.4% of the feed weight). Rat tissues were analyzed for vitamins A (retinol and retinyol palmitate) and E (alpha-tocopherol) by HPLC. Reducing fat content in diet from 11 to 1% was associated with significant (pvitamin E in rats, regardless of the fat content in the diet. With excess fat content (31%) in the diet, supplementation of I-3-C and R lowered hepatic RP by 22-52% (pvitamin A concentration in blood plasma by 12% (p=0.024) and in liver by 37% (p=0.002).

  19. Optimization of Ionic Liquid Based Simultaneous Ultrasonic- and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Rutin and Quercetin from Leaves of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (ILs-UMAE method has been proposed for the extraction of rutin (RU, quercetin (QU, from velvetleaf leaves. The influential parameters of the ILs-UMAE were optimized by the single factor and the central composite design (CCD experiments. A 2.00 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim]Br was used as the experimental ionic liquid, extraction temperature 60°C, extraction time 12 min, liquid-solid ratio 32 mL/g, microwave power of 534 W, and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W. Compared to conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE, the RU and QU extraction yields obtained by ILs-UMAE were, respectively, 5.49 mg/g and 0.27 mg/g, which increased, respectively, 2.01-fold and 2.34-fold with the recoveries that were in the range of 97.62–102.36% for RU and 97.33–102.21% for QU with RSDs lower than 3.2% under the optimized UMAE conditions. In addition, the shorter extraction time was used in ILs-UMAE, compared with HRE. Therefore, ILs-UMAE was a rapid and an efficient method for the extraction of RU and QU from the leaves of velvetleaf.

  20. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  1. [Purity Detection Model Update of Maize Seeds Based on Active Learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin-ya; Huang, Min; Zhu, Qi-bing

    2015-08-01

    Seed purity reflects the degree of seed varieties in typical consistent characteristics, so it is great important to improve the reliability and accuracy of seed purity detection to guarantee the quality of seeds. Hyperspectral imaging can reflect the internal and external characteristics of seeds at the same time, which has been widely used in nondestructive detection of agricultural products. The essence of nondestructive detection of agricultural products using hyperspectral imaging technique is to establish the mathematical model between the spectral information and the quality of agricultural products. Since the spectral information is easily affected by the sample growth environment, the stability and generalization of model would weaken when the test samples harvested from different origin and year. Active learning algorithm was investigated to add representative samples to expand the sample space for the original model, so as to implement the rapid update of the model's ability. Random selection (RS) and Kennard-Stone algorithm (KS) were performed to compare the model update effect with active learning algorithm. The experimental results indicated that in the division of different proportion of sample set (1:1, 3:1, 4:1), the updated purity detection model for maize seeds from 2010 year which was added 40 samples selected by active learning algorithm from 2011 year increased the prediction accuracy for 2011 new samples from 47%, 33.75%, 49% to 98.89%, 98.33%, 98.33%. For the updated purity detection model of 2011 year, its prediction accuracy for 2010 new samples increased by 50.83%, 54.58%, 53.75% to 94.57%, 94.02%, 94.57% after adding 56 new samples from 2010 year. Meanwhile the effect of model updated by active learning algorithm was better than that of RS and KS. Therefore, the update for purity detection model of maize seeds is feasible by active learning algorithm.

  2. The effect of foil purity on morphology of anodized nanoporous ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierzbicka, Ewa; Syrek, Karolina [Department of Physical Chemistry & Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Sulka, Grzegorz D., E-mail: sulka@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry & Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Pisarek, Marcin; Janik-Czachor, Maria [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Anodization of Zr with different purities in an aqueous electrolyte was studied. • The structural parameters of formed anodic oxides were compared. • Effect of Zr foil purity on the hexagonal arrangement of pores and cells in anodic ZrO{sub 2} was investigated. • Current efficiency and rate of anodic oxide formation were estimated. - Abstract: A two-step electrochemical formation of nanoporous zirconium oxide layers on different zirconium foils (purity 99.2% and 99.8%) was investigated. Anodizations were carried out at 20 V in an electrolyte composed of 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.15 M NH{sub 4}F. It was found that the thickness of grown oxide layer, and consequently, the rate of oxide formation depend slightly on the Zr substrate purity. The pore nucleation and anodization process occur easier in the presence of higher concentration of impurities. From top view SEM images, the structural parameters of oxide layers such as pore diameter, interpore distance, pore density, wall thickness and porosity of anodic oxide layers were estimated for both types of used substrates. On the other hand, cell size, intercell distance and cell density were evaluated from the bottom side of anodic oxide layers. A special emphasis was put on the qualitative analysis of hexagonal arrangement of nanopores and cells. The nanopore and cells arrangements in formed oxides were evaluated using various approaches based on Delaunay triangulations, angular distribution functions (ADFs) and pair distribution functions (PDFs). These results were supported by calculations of percentage of defective pores and cells for both types of used Zr substrates. The use of low purity Zr for anodizing does not affect drastically the morphology of formed nanoporous zirconia and offers a promising perspective to reduce production costs and increase availability of this material.

  3. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...

  4. Quantitative analysis of rutin, quercetin, naringenin, and gallic acid by validated RP- and NP-HPTLC methods for quality control of anti-HBV active extract of Guiera senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Perwez; Parvez, Mohammad K; Arbab, Ahmed H; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

    2017-12-01

    Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel (Combretaceae) is a folk medicinal plant used in various metabolic and infectious diseases. In addition to its antiviral activities against herpes and fowlpox, the anti-HBV efficacy is very recently reported. To develop and validate simple, sensitive RP-/NP-HPTLC methods for quantitative determination of biomarkers rutin, quercetin, naringenin, and gallic acid in the anti-HBV active G. senegalensis leaves ethanol-extract. RP-HPTLC (rutin & quercetin; phase- acetonitrile:water, 4:6) and NP-HPTLC (naringenin & gallic acid; phase- toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid, 6:4:0.8) were performed on glass-backed silica gel plates 60F 254 -RP18 and 60F 254 , respectively. The methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. Well-separated and compact spots (R f ) of rutin (0.52 ± 0.006), quercetin (0.23 ± 0.005), naringenin (0.56 ± 0.009) and gallic acid (0.28 ± 0.006) were detected. The regression equations (Y) were 12.434x + 443.49, 10.08x + 216.85, 11.253x + 973.52 and 11.082x + 446.41 whereas the coefficient correlations (r 2 ) were 0.997 ± 0.0004, 0.9982 ± 0.0001, 0.9974 ± 0.0004 and 0.9981 ± 0.0001, respectively. The linearity ranges (ng/spot) were 200-1400 (RP-HPTLC) and 100-1200 (NP-HPTLC). The LOD/LOQ (ng/band) were 33.03/100.1 (rutin), 9.67/29.31 (quercetin), 35.574/107.8 (naringenin), and 12.32/37.35 (gallic acid). Gallic acid (7.01 μg/mg) was the most abundant biomarker compared to rutin (2.42 μg/mg), quercetin (1.53 μg/mg) and naringenin (0.14 μg/mg) in the extract. The validated NP-/RP-HPTLC methods were simple, accurate, and sensitive for separating and quantifying antiviral biomarkers in G. senegalensis, and endorsed its anti-HBV activity. The developed methods could be further employed in the standardization and quality-control of herbal formulations.

  5. Characterization of a high-purity germanium detector for small-animal SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lindsay C; Campbell, Desmond L; Hull, Ethan L; Peterson, Todd E

    2011-09-21

    We present an initial evaluation of a mechanically cooled, high-purity germanium double-sided strip detector as a potential gamma camera for small-animal SPECT. It is 90 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick with two sets of 16 orthogonal strips that have a 4.5 mm width with a 5 mm pitch. We found an energy resolution of 0.96% at 140 keV, an intrinsic efficiency of 43.3% at 122 keV and a FWHM spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm. We demonstrated depth-of-interaction estimation capability through comparison of pinhole acquisitions with a point source on and off axes. Finally, a flood-corrected flood image exhibited a strip-level uniformity of less than 1%. This high-purity germanium offers many desirable properties for small-animal SPECT.

  6. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  7. Isotopic Abundance and Chemical Purity Analysis of Stable Isotope Deuterium Labeled Sudan I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Yin-ping;LEI Wen;ZHENG Bo;DU Xiao-ning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is important that to analysis of the isotopic abundance and chemical purity of Sudan I-D5, which is the internal standard of isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The isotopic abundance of Sudan I-D5 is detected by “mass cluster” classification method and LC-MS. The repeatability and reproducibility experiments were carried out by using different mass spectrometers and different operators. The RSD was less than 0.1%, so the repeatability and reproducibility were satisfactory. The accuracy and precision of the isotopic abundance analysis method was good with the results of F test and t test. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC had been used for detecting the chemical purity of Sudan I-D5 as external standard method.

  8. The European Expression Of Interest For High Purity U-233 Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaquinto, Joseph M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Younkin, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this letter report is to document the response for an Expression of Interest (EOI) sent to the European Safeguards and research and development (R&D) scientific communities for the distribution of small amounts of high purity 233U materials for use in safeguards, nonproliferation, and basic R&D in the nuclear disciplines. The intent for the EOI was to gauge the level of international interest for these materials from government and research institutions with programmatic missions in the nuclear security or nuclear R&D arena. The information contained herein is intended to provide information to assist key decision makers in DOE as to the ultimate disposition path for the high purity materials currently being recovered at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and only those items for which there is no United States (U.S.) sponsor identified.

  9. Rare earth impurities in high purity lanthanum oxide determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Desai, H.B.; Parthasarathy, R.; Gangadharan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Individual rare earth impurities in high purity La 2 O 3 (≥99.9%) have been determined by NAA after pre-separation of the matrix (La). The separation is carried out on an anion exchanger (Dowex 1x8) using different mixtures of methanol/nitric acid as eluants. The rare earth elements from Dy to Lu are eluted quantitatively using a 10% 1M HNO 3 - 90% methanol mixture, while the light rare earths from Ce to Gd are eluted quantitatively using a 10% 0.05M HNO 3 - 90% methanol mixture. La, which is retained on the column, is eluted using 0.1M HNO 3 . The recoveries of the various rare earth elements have been checked using radiotracers and also by spiking the sample with known amount of elements, and the recoveries are found to be quantitative. Results obtained on a typical high purity lanthanum oxide are reported here. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  10. New vacancy source in ultrahigh-purity aluminium single crystals with a low dislocation density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Shimane Univ., Faculty of Science and Engineering, Matsue, Shimane (Japan); Morikawa, Kimihiko [Hokkaido Univ., Institute for Low Temperature Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kuga, Masanori [Kanazawa Univ., Faculty of Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Okamoto, Hiroyuki [Kanazawa Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Hashimoto, Eiji [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    The vacancy generation process in ultrahigh-purity aluminum single crystals with a low dislocation density was investigated by synchrotron radiation topography using a white X-ray beam. Some straight lines were observed in the topographys taken after temperature rose to 300degC from room temperature, and they were confirmed to be rows of successive small interstitial-type dislocation loops grown as vacancy sources. It was concluded that the thermal generation mechanism of vacancies in ultrahigh-purity aluminum single crystals with a low dislocation density consists of the following two steps. First, small interstitial loops are heterogeneously formed in the crystal lattice; second, these convert to lengthened loops with the development of screw components and finally grow into rows of dislocation loops emitting vacancies into the lattice. (author)

  11. New vacancy source in ultrahigh-purity aluminium single crystals with a low dislocation density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Morikawa, Kimihiko; Kuga, Masanori; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    The vacancy generation process in ultrahigh-purity aluminum single crystals with a low dislocation density was investigated by synchrotron radiation topography using a white X-ray beam. Some straight lines were observed in the topographys taken after temperature rose to 300degC from room temperature, and they were confirmed to be rows of successive small interstitial-type dislocation loops grown as vacancy sources. It was concluded that the thermal generation mechanism of vacancies in ultrahigh-purity aluminum single crystals with a low dislocation density consists of the following two steps. First, small interstitial loops are heterogeneously formed in the crystal lattice; second, these convert to lengthened loops with the development of screw components and finally grow into rows of dislocation loops emitting vacancies into the lattice. (author)

  12. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination

  13. Improved procedure for high purity gaseous peroxyacyl nitrate production: use of heavy lipid solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, J S; Fajer, R; Senum, G I

    1984-01-01

    An improved procedure is described for the production of peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN's) in the gas phase. The method of Nielsen et al. (1982) has been modified to yield PAN's of high purity with no further chromatographic purification required. Extraction of PAN's from the nitration of the peracids is accomplished by use of a heavy lipid solvent (n-tridecane). This solvent's low vapor pressure allows the simple separation and preparation of high purity gaseous PAN's (>98%) as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Using this method infrared integrated band strengths are reported for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) perdeutero-peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN-D/sub 3/) and peroxyproprionyl nitrate (PPN). The method allows facile production of large amounts of gaseous PAN's for smog chamber and laboratory studies, toxicological and health effects research, as well as for calibration of PAN analyses.

  14. Approaches to the accurate characterization of high purity metal fluorides and fluoride glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beary, E. S.; Paulsen, P. J.; Rains, T. C.; Ewing, K. J.; Jaganathan, J.; Aggarwal, I.

    1990-11-01

    The analytical challenges posed by the measurement of trace contaminants in high purity metal fluorides require that innovative chemical preparation procedures be used to enhance existing instrumental techniques. The instrumental techniques used to analyze these difficult matrices must be sensitive enough to detect extremely low levels of trace impurities, and the background interferences derived from the matrix (metal fluoride or glass) must be minimized. A survey of analytical techniques that have the necessary characteristics to analyze these materials will be given. In addition, means of controlling the chemical blank will be presented. Mass and atomic spectrometric techniques will be discussed, specifically graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analytical procedures using GFAAS and ICP-MS have been developed to determine sub ppb (part per billion) levels of contaminants in high purity fluoride materials.

  15. Fabrication of novel cryomill for synthesis of high purity metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmal; Biswas, Krishanu

    2015-08-01

    The successful preparation of free standing metal nanoparticles with high purity in bulk quantity is the pre-requisite for any potential application. This is possible by using ball milling at cryogenic temperature. However, the most of ball mills available in the market do not allow preparing high purity metal nanoparticles by this route. In addition, it is not possible to carry out in situ measurements of process parameters as well as diagnostic of the process. In the present investigation, we present a detailed study on the fabrication of a cryomill, which is capable of avoiding contaminations in the product. It also provides in situ measurements and diagnostic of the low temperature milling process. Online monitoring of the milling temperature and observation of ball motion are the important aspects in the newly designed mill. The nanoparticles prepared using this fabricated mill have been found to be free standing and also free from contaminations.

  16. Study of corrosion of aluminium alloys of nuclear purity in ordinary water, пart one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of corrosion of aluminum alloys of nuclear purity in ordinary water of the spent fuel storage pool of the RA research reactor at VINČA Institute of Nuclear Sciences has been examined in the frame work of the International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Project "Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum-Clad Spent Fuel in Water" since 2002. The study presented in this paper comprises activities on determination and monitoring of chemical parameters and radio activity of water and sludge in the RA spent fuel storage pool and results of the initial study of corrosion effects obtained by visual examinations of surfaces of various coupons made of aluminum alloys of nuclear purity of the test racks exposed to the pool water for a period from six months to six years.

  17. Comparison of Deformation in High-Purity Single/Large Grain and Polycrystalline Niobium Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; Peter Kneisel

    2005-01-01

    The current approach for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is to roll and deep draw sheets of polycrystalline high-purity niobium. Recently, a new technique was developed at Jefferson Laboratory that enables the fabrication of single-crystal high-purity Nb SRF cavities. To better understand the differences between SRF cavities fabricated out of fine-grained polycrystalline sheet in the standard manner and single crystal cavities fabricated by the new technique, two half-cells were produced according to the two different procedures and compared using a variety of analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning laser confocal microscopy, profilometry, and X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic orientations, texture, and residual stresses were determined in the samples before and after forming and this poster presents the results of this ongoing study

  18. Influence of purity level on the mechanical properties of hot isostatically pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odegard, B.C. Jr.

    1979-09-01

    The procurement of a quantity of ultra-pure beryllium powder combined with special handling from powder to billet form resulted in the fabrication of high purity beryllium. The mechanical properties of these billets were contrasted to those of commercial grade billets to determine the influence of impurities and powder processing. The tensile test results show that the strength values are primarily dependent on the grain size in a behavior predictable by the Hall-Petch relationship. Only a fraction of the strength differential can be attributed to metallic impurities in solution. The grain size is controlled by the powder size distribution. The ductility is dominated by both grain size and oxide content. The fine grained, low oxide billets exhibited the highest ductilities. There is evidence to suggest that oxide distribution has a large influence on the ductility. The fracture toughness was highest for the high purity beryllium billets

  19. Some aspects of ICP-AES analysis of high purity rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, P.S.; Biswas, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is a technique capable of giving high sensitivity in trace elemental analysis. While the technique possesses high sensitivity, it lacks high selectivity. Selectivity is important where substances emitting complex spectra are to be analysed for trace elements. Rare earths emit highly complex spectra in a plasma source and the determination of adjacent rare earths in a high purity rare earth matrix, with high sensitivity, is not possible due to the inadequate selectivity of ICP-AES. One approach that has yielded reasonably good spectral selectivity in the high purity rare earth analysis by ICP-AES is by employing a combination of wavelength modulation techniques and high resolution echelle grating. However, it was found that by using a high resolution monochromator senstitivities either comparable to or better than those reported by the wavelength modulation technique could be obtained. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Voltage-controlled colour-tunable microcavity OLEDs with enhanced colour purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Wallace C H; Niu, J H; Li, W L; Chui, P C

    2008-01-01

    The emission spectrum of single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) has been theoretically and experimentally studied. Our results show that by introducing the microcavity structure, the colour purity of not only the destination colour but also the colour-tunable route can be enhanced, while colour purity is still an issue in typical single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable OLEDs. With the consideration of the periodical cycling of resonant wavelength and absorption loss of the metal electrodes, the appropriate change in the thickness of the microcavity structure has been utilized to achieve voltage-controlled red-to-green and red-to-blue colour-tunable OLEDs without adding dyes or other organic materials to the OLEDs

  1. A novel voltammetric sensor based on gold nanoparticles involved in p-aminothiophenol functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Application to the simultaneous determination of quercetin and rutin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Atar, Necip

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The p-MWCNs and AuNPs/p-MWCNs nanocomposites were synthesized. • The prepared nanocomposites were characterized. • The nanocomposites were applied to simultaneous determination of flavanoids. • The developed electrodes showed long-term stability and reproducibility. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes are expected to play a significant role in the design and manufacture of many nano-material devices in the future. Carbon nanotubes exhibit many unique properties which generate strong interests in studying their applications. In addition, certain properties of gold nanoparticles (e.g., conductivity, catalytic and photocatalytic activity) suggest that gold-nanoparticle-functionalized carbon nanotubes may prove applicable in future fabrication of nanodevices. In this study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the mean diameters of 20-25 nm were self-assembled onto the surfaces of p-aminothiophenol functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNs) sheets. The p-MWCNs and AuNPs/p-MWCNs nanocomposites were characterized by reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The simultaneous determination of quercetin (QR) and rutin (RT) was performed by square wave voltammetry (SWV) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with AuNPs/p-MWCNs nanocomposite (AuNPs/p-MWCNs-GCE). QR presented two oxidation steps at E a1 of 270 mV and E a2 of 450 mV and RT presented only one oxidation step at E a of 360 mV at AuNPs/p-MWCNs-GCE. The linearity ranges and the detection limits of QR and RT were 1.0 × 10 −9 - 5.0 × 10 −8 M and 3.3 × 10 −10 . The application of the prepared nanocomposite to the analysis of real sample was also investigated

  2. Rutin reverses radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage and inflammation through the modulation of p38/Nf-Kb and Keap1/Nrf2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, Krishnendu; Khan, Amitava; Biswas, Sushobhan; Das, Ujjal; Sengupta, Aaveri; Dey, Sanjit; Chakraborty, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Rutin (RU), widely known plant polyphenol, possesses wide range of biological activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of RU on radiation (IR)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in murine liver and explored the potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Swiss albino mice were subjected to oral pretreatment of RU (75 mg/kg body weight) for three consecutive days before irradiation (6 Gy). Plethora of biochemical indices were carried out to determine the hepato protective effect of RU. Molecular mechanism of action was also assessed through employing the immunoblot, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence techniques. Hepatoprotective effects of RU were associated with the upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, catalase and GSH) and down regulation of serum toxicity markers (ALT, AST and LDH). Results also demonstrated that RU significantly down regulated the levels of hepatic inflammatory markers like TNF-α, IL-6 and expressions of p38-MAPK, NF-κB, iNOS and COX-2. Histopathological changes further confirmed the biochemical and immunohistochemical results showing that IR caused significant structural damage to liver which were reversed by pretreatment of RU. RU also significantly suppressed the IR-induced activation of Keap1 and modulated the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT. Further, pretreatment with RU augmented the expression of Nrf2 thereby enhancing the activity of downstream phase-2 detoxifying hepatic enzymes (HO-1, NQO-1, GST and Mn-SOD) which altered the IR-induced oxidative imbalance. The present results is evidence based mechanism that RU remained a promising radioprotector in attenuating IR-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and hepatotoxicity through the modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and p38 /NF-κB signaling pathway. (author)

  3. Stealth lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles loaded with rutin for effective brain delivery - comparative study with the gold standard (Tween 80): optimization, characterization and biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Rania A H; Mostafa, Nada M; Kamel, Amany O

    2017-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier is considered the leading physiological obstacle hindering the transport of neurotherapeutics to brain cells. The application of nanotechnology coupled with surfactant coating is one of the efficacious tactics overcoming this barrier. The aim of this study was to develop lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNPs), composed of a polymeric core and a phospholipid shell entangled, for the first time, with PEG-based surfactants (SAA) viz. TPGS or Solutol HS 15 in comparison with the gold standard Tween 80, aiming to enhance brain delivery and escape opsonization. LPHNPs were successfully prepared using modified single-step nanoprecipitation technique, loaded with the flavonoid rutin (RU), extracted from the flowers of Calendula officinalis L., and recently proved as a promising anti-Alzheimer. The effect of the critical process parameters (CPP) viz. PLGA amount, W lecithin /W PLGA ratio, and Tween 80 concentration on critical quality attributes (CQA); entrapment, size and size distribution, was statistically analyzed via design of experiments, and optimized using the desirability function. The optimized CPP were maintained while substituting Tween 80 with other PEG-SAA. All hybrid particles exhibited spherical shape with perceptible lipid shells. The biocompatibility of the prepared NPs was confirmed by hemolysis test. The pharmacokinetic assessments, post-intravenous administration to rats, revealed a significant higher RU bioavailability for NPs relative to drug solution. Biodistribution studies proved non-significant differences in RU accumulation within brain, but altered phagocytic uptake among various LPHNPs. The present study endorses the successful development of LPHNPs using PEG-SAA, and confirms the prospective applicability of TPGS and Solutol in enhancing brain delivery.

  4. In vitro characterization of high purity factor IX concentrates for the treatment of hemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limentani, S A; Gowell, K P; Deitcher, S R

    1995-04-01

    This study employed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and immunoblotting to assess the purity of seven high purity factor IX concentrates: Aimafix (Aima), AlphaNine-SD (Alpha Therapeutic), Factor IX VHP (Biotransfusion), Immunine (Immuno), Mononine (Armour Pharmaceutical), Nanotiv (Kabi Pharmacia), and 9MC (Blood Products Laboratory). The mean specific activity of these products ranged from 68 U factor IX/mg (Aimafix) to 246 U factor IX/mg (Mononine). SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the highest purity product, Mononine, had a single contaminating band under non-reducing conditions. Two additional bands were detected when this product was analyzed under reducing conditions. All other products had multiple contaminating bands that were more apparent under reducing than non-reducing conditions. The immunoblot for factor IX showed a dominant factor IX band for all products. In addition, visible light chain of factor IX was detected for AlphaNine-SD, Factor IX VHP, Immunine, Mononine, Nanotiv, and 9MC, suggesting that the factor IX in these products had undergone partial activation to factor IXa. Another contaminating band was visible at 49,500 for all of the products except 9MC. In addition to this band, high molecular weight contaminants were apparent for some products, most notably AlphaNine-SD. The identity of these bands is unknown. Immunoblotting failed to demonstrate factor VII as a contaminant of any of the high purity products, although factor VIIa could be detected in some lots of Immunine, Nanotiv, and 9MC by a clot-based assay. Factor X contaminated Aimafix, AlphaNine-SD, Factor IX VHP, Immunine, Nanotiv, and 9MC, but activation products of factor X were not detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Obtaining water with a high degree of purity by using reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Chirilă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the method of reverse osmosis in order to obtain water with a high degree of purity. For this aim, we used the TKA 20-120ECO device. We completed physic-chemical determinations for the water of supply, as well as for the water obtained after the osmosis process. The results that we obtained are relevant and interesting.

  6. Aluminium. II - A review of deformation properties of high purity aluminium and dilute aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic and plastic deformation behavior of high-purity aluminum and of dilute aluminum alloys is reviewed. Reliable property data, including elastic moduli, elastic coefficients, tensile, creep, fatigue, hardness, and impact are presented. Single crystal tensile results are discussed. Rather comprehensive reference lists, containing publications of the past 20 years, are included for each of the above categories. Defect structures and mechanisms responsible for mechanical behavior are presented. Strengthening techniques (alloys, cold work, irradiation, quenching, composites) and recovery are briefly reviewed.

  7. Perfomance of a high purity germanium multi-detector telescope for long range particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepe, G.; Protic, D.; Suekoesd, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Frascaria, N.; Gerlic, E.; Hourani, E.; Morlet, M.

    1980-01-01

    A telescope of stacked high purity germanium detectors designed for long range charged particles was tested using medium energy protons. Particle identification and the rejection of the low energy tail could be accomplished on-line allowing the measurement of complex spectra. The efficiency of the detector stack for protons was measured up to 156 MeV incoming energy. The various factors affecting the energy resolution are discussed and their estimated contributions are compared with the experimental results

  8. The element analysis of high purity beryllium by method of laser mass-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virich, V.D.; Kisel', O.V.; Kovtun, K.V.; Pugachev, N.S.; Yakobson, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    The operation is devoted to examination of a possibility of the analysis of element composition pure and high purity model of a beryllium is model by a method of laser mass spectrometry. The advantages of a method in a part of finding of a small amount of admixtures in comparison with other modes of the analysis are exhibited. The possibility of quantitative definition of a content in beryllium samples of gas-making admixtures-C,N,O surveyed

  9. Breakdown characteristics in DC spark experiments of copper focusing on purity and hardness

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, Kazue; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Santiago-Kern, Ana Rocia; Pasquino, Chiara; Calatroni, Sergio; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The breakdown characteristics related to the differences in purity and hardness were investigated for several types of copper using a DC spark test system. Three types of oxygen-free copper (OFC) materials, usual class 1 OFC 7-nine large-grain copper and 6-nine hot-isotropic-pressed (HIP) copper with/without diamond finish, were tested with the DC spark test system. The measurements of the beta, breakdown fields, and breakdown probability are presented and discussed in this paper.

  10. A Study of the Surface Quality of High Purity Copper after Heat Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M; Atieh, S; Calatroni, S; Riddone, G; Lebet, S; Samoshkin, A

    2011-01-01

    Themanufacturing flow of accelerating structures for the compact linear collider, based on diamond-machined high purity copper components, include several thermal cycles (diffusion bonding, brazing of cooling circuits, baking in vacuum, etc.). The high temperature cycles may be carried out following different schedules and environments (vacuum, reducing hydrogen atmosphere, argon, etc.) and develop peculiar surface topographies which have been the object of extended observations. This study presents and discusses the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy investigations.

  11. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1. 4 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (USA)); Ziemba, F.P. (Quantrad Corp. (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm{sup 2} by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.).

  12. Charge collection performance of a segmented planar high-purity germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J. [Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: R.Cooper@liverpool.ac.uk; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Scraggs, D.P. [Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Dobson, J. [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston PR2 9HT (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-01

    High-precision scans of a segmented planar high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector have been performed with a range of finely collimated gamma ray beams allowing the response as a function of gamma ray interaction position to be quantified. This has allowed the development of parametric pulse shape analysis (PSA) techniques and algorithms for the correction of imperfections in performance. In this paper we report on the performance of this detector, designed for use in a positron emission tomography (PET) development system.

  13. RESEARCH ON MICROBIOLOGICAL PURITY OF “PHYTOPROST” AND “TAMSULOPROST” SUPPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the tests on microbiological purity of the test samples of "Tamsuloprost" and "Phytoprost" suppositories for the treatment of prostate diseases have shown that no viable cells of fungi were found in the preparations, the number of viable cells of microorganisms is within a norman rate. Studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial preservatives it was found that the test samples meet criterion of the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine.

  14. A new purity criterion for α- and β-cyclodextrin using partition chromatography on cellulose columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.N.J.J.

    1967-01-01

    In order to check the purity of a- and b-cyclodextrins with respect to each other partition chromatog. on cellulose columns was used (elution with 42:29:29 BuOH-EtOH-H2O, 0.3 atm. air pressure on the solvent reservoir; 75-90 ml./hr. flow rate). Amts. down to 2.5% a-cyclodextrin (I) in b-cyclodextrin

  15. High-purity Cu nanocrystal synthesis by a dynamic decomposition method

    OpenAIRE

    Jian, Xian; Cao, Yu; Chen, Guozhang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Hui; Yin, Liangjun; Luan, Chunhong; Liang, Yinglin; Jiang, Jing; Wu, Sixin; Zeng, Qing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chengui

    2014-01-01

    Cu nanocrystals are applied extensively in several fields, particularly in the microelectron, sensor, and catalysis. The catalytic behavior of Cu nanocrystals depends mainly on the structure and particle size. In this work, formation of high-purity Cu nanocrystals is studied using a common chemical vapor deposition precursor of cupric tartrate. This process is investigated through a combined experimental and computational approach. The decomposition kinetics is researched via differential sca...

  16. Analysis of the radiochemical purity of 18F-FDG by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liguang; Tang Anwu; He Shanzhen; Chen Yulong

    2001-01-01

    The radiochemical purity (RCP) of 18 F-FDG is analyzed by HPLC. Eighty-five percent acetonitrile is used as the eluting solution. Carbon hydrate column is used as separation column. The t R of 18 F - is 6.50 min and 18 F-FDG is 9.00 min. HPLC take less time and has higher sensitivity than TLC for the same sample at the same time. So HPLC excels TLC in analyzing RCP of 18 F-FDG

  17. Martensite. gamma. -->. cap alpha. transformations in various purity Fe-Ni-Mo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitina, I.I.; Rozhkova, A.S. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR))

    1982-06-01

    Kinetics of isothermal and athermal ..gamma.. ..-->.. ..cap alpha.. martensitic transitions in the Fe-25.5% Ni-4.5% Mo alloys with different degree of purity is studied. The determinant role of dislocation blocking by interstitials in stabilization of isothermal martensitic transformation is displayed. Presented are the data permitting to consider that the character of martensitic transition kinetics is determined by the ratio of the process moving force and resistance to microplastic deformation.

  18. Analysis of the strain-aging phenomena in high purity niobium: competition between hardening and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreone, C.; Cizeron, G.; Larere, A.

    1981-01-01

    The strain-aging phenomena in high purity niobium were studied using tensile tests. Four parameters were considered which characterize the yield point, the permanent hardening, the recovery and the apparent yield stress. Five successive steps can be distinguished from the changes in these parameters with changes in the aging temperature. The detailed analysis of the phenomena involved concerns mainly the locking of dislocations by first- and second-type segregations and the opposite effect of reorganization of the dislocation network. (Auth.)

  19. Comparison of different thin layer detection techniques to determine the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammermaier, A.; Reich, E.; Boegl, W.

    1985-01-01

    Ten radiopharmaceuticals frequently used in clinical treatment were examined as to their radiochemical purity by paper and thin layer chromatography or electrophoresis, respectively. It is known that radiochemical impurities may result in an unnecessary exposure of the patients to be examined. Other than determining the radiochemical purity of several radiopharmaceuticals, a comparison of the different measuring methods of distributing activity on radiochromatograms or electropherograms is intended by this study. For this, the activity distribution in the developed radiochromatograms was assessed by four different measuring methods (TLC-linear analyzer, TLC-scanner with NaI(Tl) detector, TLC-scanner with gas flow counter and NaI(Tl) well-typ counter). As shown by the above analysis, only the TLC-linear analyzer and the NaI(Tl) well-typ counter (measurement of chromatograms or electropherograms cut into strips) are generally suitable methods for determining the radiochemical purity of radiochemicals, the TLC-scanner with gas flow counter is usable in most cases, while TLC-scanner with NaI(Tl) detector is yielding unsatisfactory results. (orig.) [de

  20. Ehrenfest dynamics is purity non-preserving: A necessary ingredient for decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J. L.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Cuchí, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the evolution of purity in mixed quantum/classical approaches to electronic nonadiabatic dynamics in the context of the Ehrenfest model. As it is impossible to exactly determine initial conditions for a realistic system, we choose to work in the statistical Ehrenfest formalism that we introduced in Alonso et al. [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 396004 (2011)]. From it, we develop a new framework to determine exactly the change in the purity of the quantum subsystem along with the evolution of a statistical Ehrenfest system. In a simple case, we verify how and to which extent Ehrenfest statistical dynamics makes a system with more than one classical trajectory, and an initial quantum pure state become a quantum mixed one. We prove this numerically showing how the evolution of purity depends on time, on the dimension of the quantum state space D, and on the number of classical trajectories N of the initial distribution. The results in this work open new perspectives for studying decoherence with Ehrenfest dynamics.

  1. JOYO coolant sodium and cover gas purity control database (MK-II core)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Nemoto, Masaaki

    2000-03-01

    The experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' served as the MK-II irradiation bed core for testing fuel and material for FBR development for 15 years from 1982 to 1997. During the MK-II operation, impurities concentrations in the sodium and the argon gas were determined by 67 samples of primary sodium, 81 samples of secondary sodium, 75 samples of primary argon gas, 89 samples of secondary argon gas (the overflow tank) and 89 samples of secondary argon gas (the dump tank). The sodium and the argon gas purity control data were accumulated from in thirty-one duty operations, thirteen special test operations and eight annual inspections. These purity control results and related plant data were compiled into database, which were recorded on CD-ROM for user convenience. Purity control data include concentration of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, iron, nickel and chromium in sodium, concentration of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and helium in argon gas with the reactor condition. (author)

  2. Recovery of high-purity metallic Pd from Pd(II)-sorbed biosorbents by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sung Wook; Lim, Areum; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2013-06-01

    This work reports a direct way to recover metallic palladium with high purity from Pd(II)-sorbed polyethylenimine-modified Corynebacterium glutamicum biosorbent using a combined method of biosorption and incineration. This study is focused on the incineration part which affects the purity of recovered Pd. The incineration temperature and the amount of Pd loaded on the biosorbent were considered as major factors in the incineration process, and their effects were examined. The results showed that both factors significantly affected the enhancement of the recovery efficiency and purity of the recovered Pd. SEM-EDX and XRD analyses were used to confirm that Pd phase existed in the ash. As a result, the recovered Pd was changed from PdO to zero-valent Pd as the incineration temperature was increased from 600 to 900°C. Almost 100% pure metallic Pd was recovered with recovery efficiency above 99.0% under the conditions of 900°C and 136.9 mg/g. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Capillary gel electrophoresis for the quantification and purity determination of recombinant proteins in inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-de la Garza, Carlos E; Perdomo-Abúndez, Francisco C; Campos-García, Víctor R; Pérez, Néstor O; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F; Medina-Rivero, Emilio

    2013-09-01

    In this work, a high-resolution CGE method for quantification and purity determination of recombinant proteins was developed, involving a single-component inclusion bodies (IBs) solubilization solution. Different recombinant proteins expressed as IBs were used to show method capabilities, using recombinant interferon-β 1b as the model protein for method validation. Method linearity was verified in the range from 0.05 to 0.40 mg/mL and a determination coefficient (r(2) ) of 0.99 was obtained. The LOQs and LODs were 0.018 and 0.006 mg/mL, respectively. RSD for protein content repeatability test was 2.29%. In addition, RSD for protein purity repeatability test was 4.24%. Method accuracy was higher than 90%. Specificity was confirmed, as the method was able to separate recombinant interferon-β 1b monomer from other aggregates and impurities. Sample content and purity was demonstrated to be stable for up to 48 h. Overall, this method is suitable for the analysis of recombinant proteins in IBs according to the attributes established on the International Conference for Harmonization guidelines. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Corrosion behavior of high purity Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in trans-passive condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayuzumi, Masami; Ohta, Jyoji; Kako, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of high-purity (99.99%) Fe-Cr-Ni alloys was investigated in 13 N nitric acid with/without Ce 4+ ions to clarify the effect of impurities on the trans-passive corrosion of stainless steel. The following results were obtained. (1) Almost no intergranular corrosion was observed in the high-purity alloys, although the corrosion rate of the matrix region was nearly the same as that of a commercial stainless steel with the same Cr and Ni content. (2) Due to the improved intergranular corrosion resistance, the effect of the purification became significant in the corrosion condition with the grain-separation being predominant. (3) The high-purity alloys showed higher susceptivility to intergranular corrosion with aging treatment between 873 K and 1073 K. Although the sulfuric acid/copper sulfate test suggested the formation of Cr-depleted zones, a grain boundary micro-analysis using a FETEM with an EDX did not reveal any change in Cr content or impurity segregain along the grain boundaries. The mechanism of corrosion enhancement resulting from the aging treatment remains nuclear. (author)

  5. High purity heavy water production: need for total organic carbon determination in process water streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayushi; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Vithal, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, demand for high purity heavy water (99.98% pure) in industries and laboratories has grown by manifold. Its application started in nuclear industry with the design of CANDU reactor, which uses natural uranium as fuel. In this reactor the purest grade of heavy water is used as the moderator and the primary coolant. Diverse industrial applications like fibre optics, medicine, semiconductors etc. use high purity heavy water extensively to achieve better performance of the specific material. In all these applications there is a stringent requirement that the total organic carbon content (TOC) of high purity heavy water should be very low. This is because the presence of TOC can lead to adverse interactions in different applications. To minimize the TOC content in the final product there is a need to monitor and control the TOC content at each and every stage of heavy water production. Hence a simple, rapid and accurate method was developed for the determination of TOC content in process water samples. The paper summarizes the results obtained for the TOC content in the water samples collected from process streams of heavy water production plant. (author)

  6. Influence of moisture and hydrogen purity of the reliability of powerful electric machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigovs'kij, O.V.; Khvalyin, D.Yi.; Mistets'kij, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that today the turbo generators with hydrogen-water cooling system is most unreliable technical equipment of Ukrainian nuclear power plants. On the one hand, hydrogen has several advantages over other coolers; on the other hand, the presence of hydrogen in the turbo generators systems carries the danger of engine rooms of power plants. It is also shown that the water and oxygen are main hazardous impurities in hydrogen, and zone of generator shaft compaction is the most responsible zone with high concentration of water. From the analysis was found that increasing of hydrogen purity reduces the mechanical losses and the change in total losses depending on the hydrogen purity has a linear nature. For example, with an increase the hydrogen purity from 0,1203 to 0,09 the loss in turbo generator rotor can be reduced by nearly 500 kW, which is about 25 % at a pressure of 0,5 MPa. The possibility of using metal hydrides to ensure purity, purification and hydrogen sorption was looked. The most practical value is for such hydrides as LaNi5Hx, FeTiHx, ZrNiHx. The main advantage the metal hydrides method of purification is a significant reduction in the number of purification stages. It was shown that the use of a thermoelectric gas dryer will reduce the total consumption of technological gases, that are removed from nuclear power plants, by 2,3 - 2,4 times due to a decrease in 5,0 - 6,0 times their absolute humidity, and decrease by 5, 0 times the activity of gases due to an increase in their exposure time in the decrease activity installation. All this suggests that the creation a hydrogen humidity monitoring system in the exploited turbo generator will solve the problem of objective control of hydrogen purity with further computerization and accumulation the information. Using a drainage or purification system of hydrogen, reducing the temperature and humidity of the cooling gas, can increase the reliability of operation the turbo generators and significantly

  7. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

  9. Trace elements in high purity materials for advanced technology: contribution of neutron activation analysis and radioanalytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallorini, M.; Pietra, R.; Sabbioni, E.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and radioanalytical techniques have been employed to investigate problems related to trace elements and high purity technology materials. Applications of these techniques are overviewed: semiconductor technology as in the case of As and In ion implantation in high purity silicon; problems related to trace elements impurities in thermometric measurements; coating materials to prevent trace elements contamination in biological sampling and metals release from human prostheses. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 8 tabs

  10. Effects of elastase on fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kazuo; Shimizu, Yoshikazu; Hihara, Masafumi; Ando, Hideki; Nishiyama, Masateru; Tano, Hironobu

    1984-01-01

    Elastase (Elaszym 6T) was administered, in addition to the dietary instruction, to three patients with fatty liver. CT scanning revealed marked improvement in fatty liver. Transaminase levels returned to normal, total cholesterol levels tended to decrease, and HDL-cholesterol levels tended to increase. These results suggest that elastase is effective in the treatment of fatty liver. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. 40 CFR 721.3720 - Fatty amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty amide. 721.3720 Section 721.3720... Fatty amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a fatty amide (PMN P-91-87) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. Recycling of high purity selenium from CIGS solar cell waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Anna M.K., E-mail: anna.gustafsson@chalmers.se; Foreman, Mark R.StJ.; Ekberg, Christian

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new method for recycling of selenium from CIGS solar cell materials is presented. • Separation of selenium as selenium dioxide after heating in oxygen atmosphere. • Complete selenium separation after oxidation of <63 μm particles at 800 °C for 1 h. • After reduction of selenium dioxide the selenium purity was higher than 99.999 wt%. - Abstract: Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is a promising material in thin film solar cell production. To make CIGS solar cells more competitive, both economically and environmentally, in comparison to other energy sources, methods for recycling are needed. In addition to the generally high price of the material, significant amounts of the metals are lost in the manufacturing process. The feasibility of recycling selenium from CIGS through oxidation at elevated temperatures was therefore examined. During oxidation gaseous selenium dioxide was formed and could be separated from the other elements, which remained in solid state. Upon cooling, the selenium dioxide sublimes and can be collected as crystals. After oxidation for 1 h at 800 °C all of the selenium was separated from the CIGS material. Two different reduction methods for reduction of the selenium dioxide to selenium were tested. In the first reduction method an organic molecule was used as the reducing agent in a Riley reaction. In the second reduction method sulphur dioxide gas was used. Both methods resulted in high purity selenium. This proves that the studied selenium separation method could be the first step in a recycling process aimed at the complete separation and recovery of high purity elements from CIGS.

  13. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Sergio Cueto; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es; García Alonso, J. Ignacio, E-mail: jiga@uniovi.es

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: • Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. • Online {sup 13}C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. • Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. • Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online {sup 13}C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of {sup 13}C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 °C provides quantitative oxidation to {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO{sub 2}, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards.

  14. The radiochemical purity of technetium-99m-tin-diethylene-triamino-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, M.; Costerousse, O.; Merlin, L.; Coehn, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The effect on radiochemical purity was studied as a function of the storage period of tin-DTPA solution and of the technetium-complex solution. The quantity of the pertechnetate ions present in the solution is determined by ascending paper chromatography, and an attempt was made to clarify the bond type of technetium by a spectrophotometric method. The tin-DTPA solutions for complexing of the reduced technetium are stable over a period of 8 weeks. The yield of the radiopharmaceutical product is better than 95%. (G.Gy.)

  15. Design of Unconstrained DMC to Improve the Distillate Product Purity of the Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Vinayambika S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the use of unconstrained Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC to control the process transfer function with time delay. The selection of tuning parameter is challenging task in predictive control algorithm. The DMC scheme is designed and it is used here to control the process transfer function, First Order Plant with Dead Time (FOPDT model. Here, one manipulated variable (reflux and one controlled variable (distillate is considered for the implementation. The algorithm significantly controls the reflux to improve the distillate product purity. The simulation is done using MATLAB m-file. Both servo and regulatory responses were obtained. The simulation result validates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Crystallographic Analysis of Nucleation at Hardness Indentations in High-Purity Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chaoling; Zhang, Yubin; Lin, Fengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Nucleation at Vickers hardness indentations has been studied in high-purity aluminum cold-rolled 12 pct. Electron channeling contrast was used to measure the size of the indentations and to detect nuclei, while electron backscattering diffraction was used to determine crystallographic orientations....... It is found that indentations are preferential nucleation sites. The crystallographic orientations of the deformed grains affect the hardness and the nucleation potentials at the indentations. Higher hardness gives increased nucleation probabilities. Orientation relationships between nuclei developed...... they form. Finally, possible nucleation mechanisms are briefly discussed....

  17. Indices of atmospheric purity and fluoride pollution pattern in Arvida, Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, F; Rao, D N; Comeau, G

    1972-01-01

    Indices of atmospheric purity (IAP) of 42 sites located in all directions from the aluminum factory at Arvida and spread out in about 250-km/sup 2/ area, were determined on the basis of phytosociology of epiphytes of Populus balsamifera. These index values ranging from 0 to 103 were arranged into six groups and the investigated area was accordingly delineated into six IAP zones to represent areas with different levels of fluoride pollution. A relative picture of the approximate limits of fluoride contamination in different zones is obtained by the fluoride accumulation in Parmelia sulcata thalli transplanted at various sites in the area.

  18. Obtention of high purity silica from the flotation waste of itabiritic ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Polyana Fabricia Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Banded iron formations are exploited as iron mineral in 'Quadrilatero Ferrifero' of Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil. About half of the amount of extracted material becomes tailings, which are stored in tailing dams or used for filling mining pits. Tens of thousands of tons are generated daily in operating mines in this region, causing concern about the environmental liabilities, and costs to manage the tailing dams. Miners are committed to finding uses for these wastes in other productive chains. This thesis aimed to obtain high purity silica from the flotation tailings of banded iron formations using classical techniques for ore processing, such as particle size classification and magnetic separation, followed by hydrometallurgical leaching, also alkaline fusion and chemical precipitation. The tailings samples was collected in the tailings dam of Peak Mine operated by Vale A.S., in Itabirito – MG. This sample had initially 33.4% by weight SiO 2 , 57.4% wt Fe 2 O 3 and 8.31% wt Al 2 O 3 . After desliming for disposal of the fine particles (-37μm) the composition was 68.0% SiO 2 , 31.4% Fe 2 O 3 and 0.50% Al 2 O 3 . After magnetic separation, the composition was 93.8% SiO 2 , 1.16% Fe 2 O 3 and 3.80% Al 2 O 3 . After acid leaching l or digestion to remove impurities, it was possible to obtain silica with 98% purity. The fusion with sodium hydroxide, followed by alkaline leaching of sodium silicate and silica precipitation gave purities of about 99.5%. Values even higher may be possible with optimization of the parameters of alkaline fusion or by repeating the process from the product with purity of 99.5%. The iron oxide content and the aluminum main contaminants were 0.01% and 0.07%, respectively. Amorphous silica was obtained with high specific surface (322 m 2 /g) and particle size less than 200 nm. Depending on the application, a control should be made for the impurities, such as phosphorus, potassium and boron. (author)

  19. Evaluation of radiochemistry purity and p H of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Wellington; Lima, Fabiana Farias de; Santos, Poliane A.L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Lima, Fabiana Farias de

    2011-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are cellular or molecular structures that have a radionuclide in its composition and they are used for diagnosing or treating diseases. The evaluation of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is essential to produce images with artifacts free, as well as avoid unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Since they are administered in humans is important and necessary that they undergo rigorous quality control. Due to this fact, the norm in ANVISA RDC 38/2008 declaring the mandatory completion of a minimum of tests in routine nuclear medicine services before human administration. (author)

  20. A fundamental self-generated quenching center for lanthanide-doped high-purity solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzel, F.

    2002-01-01

    An intrinsic self-generated quenching center for lanthanide-doped high-purity solids is presented for transitions, which cannot be quenched by cross-relaxation. This center, in fact a cluster-like pair of active centers, is shown to come from a particular multiphonon-assisted energy transfer between them. Being due to the vibronic properties of the host it cannot be suppressed. Its role in lanthanide first excited states self-quenching is analyzed and a simple mathematical expression is derived. This law is compared with experimental results for self-quenching in Er-doped fluorophosphate glasses

  1. Synthesis and characterization of straight and stacked-sheet AlN nanowires with high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, M.; Yang, H.; Li, P.G.; Tang, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale AlN nanowires with hexagonal crystal structure were synthesized by the direct nitridation method at high temperatures. The experimental results indicate that these single-crystalline AlN nanowires have high purity and consist of straight and stacked-sheet nanowires. It is found that straight AlN nanowire grows along [1, 1, -2, 0] direction, whereas the stacked-sheet nanowire with hexagonal cross section is along [0 0 0 1] direction. It is thought that vapor-solid (VS) mechanism should be responsible for the growth of AlN nanowires

  2. [Microbial air purity in hospitals. Operating theatres with air conditioning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulski, Adam; Szczotko, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the influence of air conditioning control for microbial contamination of air inside the operating theatres equipped with correctly working air-conditioning system. This work was based on the results of bacteria and fungi concentration in hospital air obtained since 2001. Assays of microbial air purity conducted on atmospheric air in parallel with indoor air demonstrated that air filters applied in air-conditioning systems worked correctly in every case. To show the problem of fluctuation of bacteria concentration more precisely, every sequences of single results from successive measure series were examined independently.

  3. Damage process of high purity tungsten coatings by hydrogen beam heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Taniguchi, M.; Ezato, K.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Tsunekawa, Y.; Okumiya, M.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the synergistic effects of heat load and hydrogen irradiation, cyclic heat load tests with a hydrogen beam and a comparable electron beam were performed for high purity CVD-tungsten coatings. Surface modification was examined as a function of the peak temperature by changing the heat flux. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis showed that the surface damage caused by the hydrogen beam was more severe than that by the electron beam. In the hydrogen beam case, cracking at the surface occurred at all peak temperatures examined from 300 deg. C to 1600 deg. C. These results indicate that the injected hydrogen induces embrittlement for the CVD-tungsten coating

  4. Analytical techniques for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits. Pt. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.R.; Rockwell, L.J.; Welsh, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The evaluation of efficacy of commercially available kits used for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is one aspect of the Radiation Protection Bureau's radiopharmaceutical quality control program. This report describes some of the analytical methodology employed in the program. The techniques may be of interest to hospital radiopharmacy personnel since many of the tests can be performed rapidly and with a minimum of special equipment, thus enabling the confirmation of radiopharmaceutical purity prior to patient administration. Manufacturers of kits may also be interested in learning of the analytical methods used in the assessment of their products

  5. Amorphous germanium as an electron or hole blocking contact on high-purity germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1976-10-01

    Experiments were performed in an attempt to make thin n + contacts on high-purity germanium by the solid phase/sup 1)/ epitaxial regrowth of arsenic doped amorphous germanium. After cleaning the crystal surface with argon sputtering and trying many combinations of layers, it was not found possible to induce recrystallization below 400 0 C. However, it was found that simple thermally evaporated amorphous Ge made fairly good electron or hole blocking contacts. Excellent spectrometers have been made with amorphous Ge replacing the n + contact. As presently produced, the amorphous Ge contact diodes show a large variation in high-voltage leakage current

  6. Hysec Process: production of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, S

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the development of the Hysec Process by the Kansai Netsukagaku and Mitsubishi Kakoki companies. The process is outlined and its special features noted. The initial development aim was to obtain high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas by means of PSA. To achieve this, ways had to be found for removing the impurities in the coke oven gas and the trace amounts of oxygen which are found in the product hydrogen. The resulting hydrogen is 99.9999% pure. 3 references.

  7. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B., E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I. [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G.F.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France)

    2015-03-11

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  8. Measurement of oxide-layer thickness of internal granules in high-purity aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F.; Mahunka, I.

    1989-01-01

    Charged-particle activation analysis was used for the determination of bulk oxygen concentration in aluminium. High-purity aluminium samples and mixtures containing different amounts of alumina were irradiated by 13 MeV 3 He particles. The aim of the investigation was to determine the oxide-layer thickness on the surface of internal aluminium granules. The measurement was carried out by determining the bulk oxygen concentration in the samples, and calculating the oxide-layer thickness, by using model conditions about the microstructure of the aluminium samples. (author) 5 refs

  9. Properties of structural steels melted out of high-purity charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, V.N.; Sergeeva, T.K.; Kondakova, N.K.; Morozov, V.P.; Madorskij, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative evaluation has been made of impurities, mechanical properties and hydrogen embirittlement parameters for steels type 40Kh and 40KhS produced by electrometallurgical method with the use of direct reduced charge (DR-steels) and melted in an open-hearth furnace. Investigation results have shown that 40Kh and 40KhS Dr-steels have more coarse austenitic grains and experience more complete transformation of martensite into ferritic-pearlitic mixture on tempering. Threshold stresses increase 2.5 times due to purity enhancement at the expense of application of direct reduced charge

  10. Comparison of Response Characteristics of High-Purity Germanium Detectors using Analog Versus Digital Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, S J; Raschke, K

    2004-01-01

    In this article we will discuss some of the results of the response characteristics of High Purity germanium detectors using analog versus digital processing of the signals that are outputted from the detector. The discussion will focus on whether or not there is a significant difference in the response of the detector with digital electronics that it limits the ability of the detection system to get reasonable gamma ray spectrometric results. Particularly, whether or not the performance of the analysis code Pu600 is compromised

  11. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, P. V.; Vlasov, I. V.; Sklyarova, E. A.; Smekalina, T. V.

    2015-01-01

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability

  12. Analytical techniques for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.R.; Rockwell, L.J.; Welsh, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation of efficacy of commercially available kits used for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is one aspect of the Radiation Protection Bureau's radiopharmaceutical quality control program. This report describes some of the analytical methodology employed in the program. The techniques may be of interest to hospital radiopharmacy personnel as many of the tests can be performed rapidly and with a minimum of special equipment, thus enabling the confirmation of radiopharmaceutical purity prior to patient administration. Manufacturers of kits may also be interested in learning of the analytical methods used in the assessment of their products. (auth)

  13. Rapid and accurate determination of radiochemical purity of sup(99m)Tc compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamat, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The wide spread use of sup(99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and limitation of the short half-life of the isotope, is associated with an urgent need for a rapid, simple but accurate method for determining the radiochemical purity of the compound. A short paper chromatographic (KK) or thin layer chromatographic (KLT) method using 95% methanol or 0.9% saline solution as solvents, has solved the problem. With these methods, the amount of free sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in a compound, can be determined in only a few minutes. These methods compare satisfactorily with lengtheir procedures. (author)

  14. μ+ diffusion and trapping in high purity and oxygen-doped Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.A.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Parkin, D.M.; Schillaci, M.E.; Gauster, W.B.; Fiory, A.T.; Kossler, W.J.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Denison, A.B.; Cooke, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented for the temperature dependence of the muon depolarization rate between 10 K and 120 K for three samples of niobium of varying purity. Two samples, each containing approximately 200 ppm substitutional Ta and interstitial concentrations of 10 ppm and 560 ppm (mostly O), respectively, were studied. A third sample containing only 3 ppm Ta and an estimated 10 ppm total interstitial impurities was also measured. The results indicate that even at the lowest temperatures studied the depolarization of the muon is dominated by traps associated with impurities. (Auth.)

  15. Gain limits of a Thick GEM in high-purity Ne, Ar and Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, J; Peskov, V

    2010-01-01

    The dependence of the avalanche charge gain in Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) on the purity of Ne, Ar and Xe filling gases was investigated. The gain, measured with alpha-particles in standard conditions (atmospheric pressure, room temperature), was found to considerably drop in gases purified by non-evaporable getters. On the other hand, small N2 admixtures to noble gases resulted in high reachable gains. The results are of general relevance in the operation of gas-avalanche detectors in noble gases, particularly that of two-phase cryogenic detectors for rare events.

  16. Study on Color Reaction of Rutin with Aluminum(Ⅲ) and Its Application%芸香甙与铝的显色反应研究及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江虹; 胡秋芬; 马莎; 黎永坤; 尹家元

    2001-01-01

    The color reaction of rutin with aluminum(Ⅲ) was studied.In the presence of pH=5.6 buffer solution and CTMAB medium.rutin can reacts with aluminum(Ⅲ) to form a stable 3:1 complex.The malor absorptivity is 4.26×104L*mol-1*cm-1 at 430nm.Beer's law is obeyed in range of 0—400μg/L.This method can be applied to the determination of aluminum in steal with satisfactory results.%研究了芸香甙与铝的显色反应.在pH=5.6 HAc-NaAc缓冲介质中,CTMAB存在下,形成的络合物的λmax=430nm,ε=4.45×104L*mol-1*cm-1,络合物中芸香甙与铝的络合比为3∶1.铝含量在0~400μg/L内符合比尔定律,方法用于钢铁样品中铝含量的测定,结果令人满意.

  17. Reproductive and developmental outcomes, and influence on maternal and offspring tissue mineral concentrations, of (−-epicatechin, (+-catechin, and rutin ingestion prior to, and during pregnancy and lactation in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N.R. Lesser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition can have a significant effect on developmental processes during pregnancy and lactation. While certain flavonoids have been postulated to be beneficial for health, little is known about the effects of ingestion during pregnancy and lactation on the mother and progeny. We report on the effects of maternal consumption of high levels of certain flavonoids on reproductive and developmental outcomes in a mouse model. C57BL/6J female mice were fed a control diet (CT, the CT diet supplemented with 1% or 2% of a mix of epicatechin and catechin (EC1, EC2, or rutin (RU1, RU2 prior to, during pregnancy, and lactation. A subset of dams was killed on gestation day (GD 18.5 to evaluate fetal outcomes and the remainder was allowed to deliver to evaluate offspring. Maternal food intake, body and tissue weight did not differ among groups. The number of resorptions, implantations, litter size, postnatal survival, body weight, and skeletal development were also similar. Alterations in maternal and offspring liver mineral concentrations were observed. The current results indicate that consumption of high amounts of epicatechin, catechin, and rutin during gestation and lactation is not associated with any marked developmental effects, although changes in liver mineral concentrations were noted.

  18. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. The development of an efficient mass balance approach for the purity assignment of organic calibration standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Stephen R; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Chan, Benjamin K H; Dang, Thao; Jones, Kai; Krishnaswami, Maya; Luo, Yawen; Mitchell, Peter S R; Moawad, Michael; Swan, Hilton; Tarrant, Greg J

    2015-10-01

    The purity determination of organic calibration standards using the traditional mass balance approach is described. Demonstrated examples highlight the potential for bias in each measurement and the need to implement an approach that provides a cross-check for each result, affording fit for purpose purity values in a timely and cost-effective manner. Chromatographic techniques such as gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV), combined with mass and NMR spectroscopy, provide a detailed impurity profile allowing an efficient conversion of chromatographic peak areas into relative mass fractions, generally avoiding the need to calibrate each impurity present. For samples analysed by GC-FID, a conservative measurement uncertainty budget is described, including a component to cover potential variations in the response of each unidentified impurity. An alternative approach is also detailed in which extensive purification eliminates the detector response factor issue, facilitating the certification of a super-pure calibration standard which can be used to quantify the main component in less-pure candidate materials. This latter approach is particularly useful when applying HPLC analysis with UV detection. Key to the success of this approach is the application of both qualitative and quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

  20. Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadden, Charles H.; Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi; Hosking, Floyd M.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  1. Supply-side response to declining heroin purity: fentanyl overdose episode in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Katherine; Yildirim, Emel O

    2014-06-01

    The inelastic price demand observations characteristic of illegal drug markets have led to the conclusion that the burden of a negative supply shock would be completely reflected to consumers. This paper argues that the increasing availability of prescription opioids may threaten heroin sellers' profit margin and force them to find alternative methods to compensate buyers in the event of a supply shock. We investigate the 2006 fentanyl overdose episode in New Jersey and argue that the introduction of non-pharmaceutical fentanyl, its spatial distribution, and the timing of overdose deaths may have been related to trends in heroin purity. Using medical examiner data, as well as data from the Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control on retail sales of prescription opioids in a negative binomial specification, we show that month-to-month fluctuations in heroin purity have a significant effect on fentanyl-related overdoses, particularly in those areas where prescription opioids are highly available. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of initial grain size on dynamic recrystallization in high purity austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wahabi, M.; Gavard, L.; Montheillet, F.; Cabrera, J.M.; Prado, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of initial microstructure on discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) has been investigated by using high purity and ultra high purity austenitic stainless steels with various initial grain sizes. After uniaxial compression tests at constant strain rates and various temperatures, the steady state microstructure or the state corresponding to the maximum strain (ε = 1) attained in the test was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy aided with automated electron back scattering diffraction. Recrystallized grain size d rec and twin boundary fraction f TB measurements were carried out. The mechanical behavior was also investigated by comparing experimental stress-strain curves with various initial grain sizes. DDRX kinetics was described by the classical Avrami equation. It was concluded that larger initial grain sizes promoted a delay in the DDRX onset in the two alloys. It was also observed that the softening process progressed faster for smaller initial grain sizes. The effect of initial grain size is larger in the HP material and becomes more pronounced at low temperature

  3. Comparison of the effect of neutron irradiation on high purity vanadium and vanadium oxygen alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, R.J.; Bressers, J.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of neutron damage on the low temperature deformation characteristics of high purity vanadium (R/sub 300K//R/sub 4.2K/ = 1100) was undertaken for two purposes. One purpose was to determine if reducing the purity interstitial content to a lower level would result in a large difference in the effective stress between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The present data along with previously obtained data does indicate that the difference increases as the impurity interstitial content is reduced. The explanation of this observation is based on the rapid increase of the non-irradiated yield stress at 77 0 K due to small increases in the oxygen content; however, the increase of the yield stress of the irradiated samples is much less with the same increase in oxygen content. A second purpose of this investigation was to determine the size and density of observable neutron produced defects as a function of oxygen content by transmission electron microscopy, and to relate the changes in density with changes in the yield stress. It was found that the density decreases and the size increases as the oxygen content decreases. There is qualitative agreement between the increase in yield stress at 300 0 K and the observable defect density. However, the change in the yield stress at 77 0 K due to neutron irradiation cannot be related to defect density and size

  4. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

    1984-05-08

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

  5. Native oxidation of ultra high purity Cu bulk and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, J.; Lim, J.-W.; Hong, S.-H.; Suzuki, S.; Mimura, K.; Isshiki, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of microstructure and purity on the native oxidation of Cu was studied by using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). A high quality copper film prepared by ion beam deposition under a substrate bias voltage of -50 V (IBD Cu film at V s = -50 V) showed an oxidation resistance as high as an ultra high purity copper (UHP Cu) bulk, whereas a Cu film deposited without substrate bias voltage (IBD Cu film at V s = 0 V) showed lower oxidation resistance. The growth of Cu 2 O layer on the UHP Cu bulk and both types of the films obeyed in principle a logarithmic rate law. However, the growth of oxide layer on the IBD Cu films at V s = 0 and -50 V deviated upward from the logarithmic rate law after the exposure time of 320 and 800 h, respectively. The deviation from the logarithmic law is due to the formation of CuO on the Cu 2 O layer after a critical time

  6. Synthesis of high purity rutile nanoparticles from medium-grade Egyptian natural ilmenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Shahien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian magmatic ilmenite is classified as a medium-grade ore. The present work is an attempt to produce a high-quality TiO2 that can be used in several industries from this medium-grade raw material using the mechanical activation, carbothermic reduction, hydrochloric acid leaching and calcination. A mixture from the ilmenite (FeTiO3 and activated carbon was milled for 30 h. This mixture was annealed at 1200 °C for one hour and the product was leached by hydrochloric acid and calcined at 600 °C for two hours. The role of the ball milling was to grind the raw ilmenite to obtain the nano size, and the carbothermic reduction was to reduce all the Fe-Ti phases to a mixture from Fe metal and TiO2. Leaching procedure was carried out to remove all the Fe metal and obtain a high-grade TiO2. After leaching and calcination of the milled and annealed mixture of FeTiO3/C under the optimal conditions, TiO2 nanoparticles with a size of 10–100 nm and purity more than 95% were obtained. The qualifications of the synthesized high purity rutile nanoparticles from the Egyptian natural ilmenite match the conditions of many industrial applications.

  7. Wet routes of high purity BaTiO3 nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liqiu; Liu Liang; Xue Dongfeng; Kang Hongmin; Liu Changhou

    2007-01-01

    High purity BaTiO 3 nanopowders were prepared in wet routes through stearic acid gel (SAG) and acetic acid gel (AAG) techniques, respectively. BaTiO 3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The present results indicate that both methods have a similar reaction process during calcination, while BaTiO 3 crystallites were initially formed at 550 deg. C by SAG and 800 deg. C by AAG. Both methods could produce BaTiO 3 powders with a cubic perovskite structure, while they had different grain size distributions within 25-50 nm for SAG and 50-80 nm for AAG. BaTiO 3 samples prepared by SAG had a lower agglomeration than those by AAG. SAG has shown many distinctive advantages in the preparation of high purity BaTiO 3 nanopowders, without Ba and Ti losses and hazardous wastes

  8. Formation of natural indigo derived from woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) in relation to product purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Macias, Paulina; John, Philip

    2004-12-29

    There is an increasing commercial demand for naturally sourced indigo that meets the purity standards set by the synthetic product. This study concerns the indigo made from leaves of woad (Isatis tinctoria L.), and in particular its interaction with particulate impurities arising from soil and plant materials. Also, a more reliable method using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone has been developed for the spectrophotometric determination of indigo. In a novel application of fluorescence spectroscopy, indoxyl intermediates in indigo formation are shown to be stable for minutes. The main indigo precursor from woad can be adsorbed onto Amberlite XAD16 in conformity with a Langmuir isotherm, but indigo precursors break down on this and other resin beads to yield indigo and red compounds. Indigo made from indoxyl acetate aggregates into particles, the size distribution of which can be modified by the inclusion of a fine dispersion of calcium hydroxide. Bright field microscopy of indigo products made under defined conditions and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis reveal the relationship of indigo with particulate materials. A model illustrating the interaction of indigo with particulate contaminants is developed on the basis of the results obtained, and recommendations are made for improving the purity of natural indigo.

  9. Synthesis of Fe-based amorphous composite coatings with low purity materials by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Qingjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: sduzhu@yahoo.com.cn; Qu Shiyao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang Xinhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zou Zengda [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2007-06-30

    Amorphous composite coatings Fe{sub 38}Ni{sub 30-X}Si{sub 16}B{sub 14}V{sub 2}M {sub X} (X = 0, 1, 2) (M contains Al, Ti, Mo, and C) were prepared with low purity of raw materials by laser cladding. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results show that the coating have an amorphous structure with a few crystalline phase on it. The amorphous phase is the primary phase. The glass forming ability as well as the microhardness of the Fe-based alloy made from low purity raw materials can be much enhanced by adding small amount of multi-components. However, the elements addition has its optimal quantity. When X is equal to 1, the microstructure of the coating contains 97.93% amorphous phase and 2.07% crystalline phase on it. As a result, the microhardness of the coating reaches maximum. With further increasing of the additions, the amorphous phase in the coating lessens instead of augment and the crystalline phase begins to accumulate, which result in the decrease of the microhardness.

  10. On-line sodium and cover as purity monitors gas operating tools at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.F.; Richardson, W.J.; Holmes, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    Plugging temperature indicators, electrochemical oxygen meters and hydrogen diffusion meters are the on-line sodium purity monitors now in use at EBR-II. On-line gas chromatographs are used to monitor helium, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen impurities in the argon cover gases. Monitors for tritium-in-sodium and for hydrocarbons-in-cover gas have been developed and are scheduled for installation in the near future. An important advantage of on-line monitors over the conventional grab-sampling techniques is the speed of response to changing reactor conditions. This helps us to identify the source of the impurity, whether the cause may be transient or constant, and take corrective action as necessary. The oxygen meter is calibrated monthly against oxygen in sodium determined by the vanadium wire equilibration method. The other instruments either do not require calibration or are self-calibrating. The ranges, sensitivity and response times of all of the on-line purity monitors has proven satisfactory under EBR-II operating conditions

  11. Recovery of high purity proteins from polyacrylamide gels using ultraviolet scanning densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, P.; Arkaten, R.; Ribela, M.T.C.P.

    1988-07-01

    We present here a technique for the purification of proteins carried out by a quantitative analytical method used in conjunction with a preparative gel electrophoresis. Both methods employ densitometric ultraviolet scanning of unstained protein bands, a procedure wich is particulary suitable for the purification and recovery of biologically active polypeptides. In short, the purified extracted protein, isolated in a segment cut out from a preparative gel, is recovered by a second (reversed) electrophoresis. We performed the extractions and recoveries of different amounts of two standard proteins (BSA and STI) and a polypeptide hormone (hGH). Our main interest, especially for the hormone is the complete protein recovery with retention of bio and immunoactivity and high purity. For the proteins tested, the mean recovery was of 93 + - 5% obtaining a mean purity of 95 + - 7%. We conclude that the proposed method should have interesting applications, particularly in the obtention of very pure hormones, as are needed for radioligand assays, for radiolabelling and specific antibody raising. We emphasize the simplicity and rapidity of the method (the entire preparative process: first electrophoresis, UV scanning and reversed electrophoresis can be performed in approximately six hours) and its efficiency in recovering pure proteins even on a milligram scale. We thank the support from the IAEA (4299/RB) and FINEP (43.86.0351.00) and CENE (Brazil). (author) [pt

  12. High-purity Cu nanocrystal synthesis by a dynamic decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xian; Cao, Yu; Chen, Guozhang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Hui; Yin, Liangjun; Luan, Chunhong; Liang, Yinglin; Jiang, Jing; Wu, Sixin; Zeng, Qing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chengui

    2014-12-01

    Cu nanocrystals are applied extensively in several fields, particularly in the microelectron, sensor, and catalysis. The catalytic behavior of Cu nanocrystals depends mainly on the structure and particle size. In this work, formation of high-purity Cu nanocrystals is studied using a common chemical vapor deposition precursor of cupric tartrate. This process is investigated through a combined experimental and computational approach. The decomposition kinetics is researched via differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger, and Starink methods. The growth was found to be influenced by the factors of reaction temperature, protective gas, and time. And microstructural and thermal characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Decomposition of cupric tartrate at different temperatures was simulated by density functional theory calculations under the generalized gradient approximation. High crystalline Cu nanocrystals without floccules were obtained from thermal decomposition of cupric tartrate at 271°C for 8 h under Ar. This general approach paves a way to controllable synthesis of Cu nanocrystals with high purity.

  13. Influence of Storage Temperature on Radiochemical Purity of 99mTc-Radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccelli, Licia; Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Cittanti, Corrado; Bertelli, Stefania; Bortolotti, Doretta; Govoni, Elena; Lodi, Luca; Romani, Simona; Zaccaria, Samanta; Zappaterra, Elisa; Farina, Donatella; Rizzo, Carlotta; Giganti, Melchiore; Bartolomei, Mirco

    2018-03-15

    The influence of effective room temperature on the radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals was reported. This study was born from the observation that in the isolators used for the preparation of the 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals the temperatures can be higher than those reported in the commercial illustrative leaflets of the kits. This is due, in particular, to the small size of the work area, the presence of instruments for heating, the continuous activation of air filtration, in addition to the fact that the environment of the isolator used for the 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals preparation and storage is completely isolated and not conditioned. A total of 244 99m Tc-radiopharmaceutical preparations (seven different types) have been tested and the radiochemical purity was checked at the end of preparation and until the expiry time. Moreover, we found that the mean temperature into the isolator was significantly higher than 25 °C, the temperature, in general, required for the preparation and storage of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals. Results confirmed the radiochemical stability of radiopharmaceutical products. However, as required in the field of quality assurance, the impact that different conditions than those required by the manufacturer on the radiopharmaceuticals quality have to be verified before human administration.

  14. A solvent-extraction module for cyclotron production of high-purity technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Duatti, Adriano; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Esposito, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of 99m TcO 4 - , in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure. Recovery yields were always >90% of the loaded activity. The final pertechnetate saline solution Na 99m TcO 4 , purified using the automated module here described, is within the Pharmacopoeia quality control parameters and is therefore a valid alternative to generator-produced 99m Tc. The resulting automated module is cost-effective and easily replicable for in-house production of high-purity Tc-99m by cyclotrons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Streamer knotwilg branching: sudden transition in morphology of positive streamers in high-purity nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijmans, L C J; Clevis, T T J; Nijdam, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2015-01-01

    We describe a peculiar branching phenomenon in positive repetitive streamer discharges in high purity nitrogen. We name it knotwilg branching after the Dutch word for a pollard willow tree. In a knotwilg branching a thick streamer suddenly splits into many thin streamers. Under some conditions this happens for all streamers in a discharge at about the same distance from the high-voltage electrode tip. At this distance, the thick streamers suddenly bend sharply and appear to propagate over a virtual surface surrounding the high-voltage electrode, rather than following the background electric field lines. From these bent thick streamers many, much thinner, streamers emerge that roughly follow the background electric field lines, creating the characteristic knotwilg branching. We have only found this particular morphology in high purity nitrogen at pressures in the range 50 to 200 mbar and for pulse repetition rates above 1 Hz; the experiments were performed for an electrode distance of 16 cm and for fast voltage pulses of 20 or 30 kV. These observations clearly disagree with common knowledge on streamer propagation. We have analyzed the data of several tens of thousands of discharges to clarify the phenomena. We also present some thoughts on how the ionization of the previous discharges could concentrate into some pre-ionization region near the needle electrode and create the knotwilg morphology, but we present no final explanation. (paper)

  16. Validation of the FDG (18F) radiochemical purity assay by thin layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, R.L.C.; Oliveira, M.L.; Nascimento, J.E.; Nascimento, N.C.E.S.

    2013-01-01

    All methodologies utilized in radiopharmaceutical industry should be validated in order to prove that they meet the requirements of analytical applications, ensuring the reliability of the results. At a radiopharmaceutical industry there is one challenge aspect: sometimes it is not possible use a stable standard to perform the validation analysis. In order to overcome this difficulty, the objective of this study was to suggest a validation protocol for these methodologies, based on the recommendations of RE n° 899/Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), and prove its efficiency, performing the radiochemical purity validation test of FDG (18F), by TLC. To obtain the calibration curve, we suggested that the theoretical activity values should be determined using a dose calibrator, simultaneously of each analysis performed by TLC, for 5 hours. The method was linear (R 2 of 0.996), precise (CV% <5%) and accurate (96.85% < accuracy < 102.56%). In relation to the robustness test, our experiments evaluated the influence of the distance travelled by mobile phase, variations at mobile phase concentration and type of chromatographic plate (silica gel on glass or aluminium plates). The detection and quantification limits were determined (321.9 and 1065.6 kBq, respectively). As expected, this methodology was nonspecific, showing a slight spot corresponding to the FDM. The proposed protocol was efficient and the methodology tested was effective to determine the radiochemical purity of FDG (18F), in accordance to the limits recommended by ANVISA. (author)

  17. Preparation of High Purity CdTe for Nuclear Detector: Electrical and Nuclear Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiour, A.; Ayoub, M.; Hamié, A.; Fawaz, A.; Hage-ali, M.

    High purity crystal with controllable electrical properties, however, control of the electrical properties of CdTe has not yet been fully achieved. Using the refined Cd and Te as starting materials, extremely high-purity CdTe single crystals were prepared by the traditional vertical THM. The nature of the defects involved in the transitions was studied by analyzing the position of the energy levels by TSC method. The resolution of 4.2 keV (FWHM) confirms the high quality and stability of the detectors: TSC spectrum was in coherence with detectors spectrum with a horizontal plate between 0.2 and 0.6 eV. The enhancement in resolution of detectors with a full width at half- maximum (less than 0.31 meV), lead to confirm that the combination of vacuum distillation and zone refining was very effective to obtain more purified CdTe single crystals for photovoltaic or nuclear detectors with better physical properties.

  18. Contribution to the study of the conductivity of high purity water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nens, Ch.

    1964-01-01

    In this work a study is made more particularly of two points: the production of high purity water and the estimation of this purity by means of conductivity measurements. As far as water purification is concerned it is observed that the de-ionisation produced by ion exchange resins in mixed beds leads to a water having a lower conductivity than that obtained by distillation. This low conductivity however, measured at the column exit before the water comes into contact with air is not stable. In fact the carbon dioxide in the water gives rise to an equilibrium with production of the ions HCO 3 - , CO 3 -- . These ions are retained during the passage of the water through the resins. They reappear again at the column exit as a result of the displacement of the hydration equilibrium of CO 2 ; because of this the conductivity of the water increases with time. The water obtained by successive distillations does not behave in the same way because no carbon dioxide is present. Distillation is however a costly purification process on an industrial scale, especially if large quantities of water have to be treated. The measurement of these low conductivities is very delicate. The method employed makes use of a direct current and gives reproducible results if care is taken to exclude interfering electric fields by screening the apparatus. (author) [fr

  19. A novel FPGA-based bunch purity monitor system at the APS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norum, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Bunch purity is an important source quality factor for the magnetic resonance experiments at the Advanced Photon Source. Conventional bunch-purity monitors utilizing time-to-amplitude converters are subject to dead time. We present a novel design based on a single field- programmable gate array (FPGA) that continuously processes pulses at the full speed of the detector and front-end electronics. The FPGA provides 7778 single-channel analyzers (six per rf bucket). The starting time and width of each single-channel analyzer window can be set to a resolution of 178 ps. A detector pulse arriving inside the window of a single-channel analyzer is recorded in an associated 32-bit counter. The analyzer makes no contribution to the system dead time. Two channels for each rf bucket count pulses originating from the electrons in the bucket. The other four channels on the early and late side of the bucket provide estimates of the background. A single-chip microcontroller attached to the FPGA acts as an EPICS IOC to make the information in the FPGA available to the EPICS clients.

  20. Continuous esterification for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate using economical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chongkhong, S.; Tongurai, C.; Chetpattananondh, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)

    2009-04-15

    An overflow system for continuous esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) using an economical process was developed using a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Continuous production compared to batch production at the same condition had higher product purity. The optimum condition for the esterification process was a 8.8:1:0.05 molar ratio of methanol to PFAD to sulfuric acid catalyst, 60 min of residence time at 75 C under its own pressure. The free fatty acid (FFA) content in the PFAD was reduced from 93 to less than 1.5%wt by optimum esterification. The esterified product had to be neutralized with 10.24%wt of 3 M sodium hydroxide in water solution at a reaction temperature of 80 C for 20 min to reduce the residual FFA and glycerides. The components and properties of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could meet the standard requirements for biodiesel fuel. Eventually the production costs were calculated to disclose its commercialization. (author)

  1. Biotransformation of Flavonoid Conjugates with Fatty Acids and Evaluations of Their Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Q. Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic conjugation with fatty acids including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs derived from fish oil to three citrus fruit-derived flavonoids: grapefruit extract, naringin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone were investigated. The conversions were achieved over 85% under the catalysis of lipase Novozyme 435 in acetone at 45°C at semi-preparative scale. The conjugates were purified via solvent partition and silica gel chromatography and achieved 90–98% in purity. The NMR analysis of the conjugates confirmed that the fatty acid carbon chain was linked onto the primary –OH group on the glucose moiety of the flavonoids. The purified flavonoid conjugates alongside their original flavonoids were analyzed for antioxidant activities via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay, and anti-peroxidation test via peroxide values measured during a 1-week fish oil storage trial. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF assay was conducted with 1, 10, and 100 μM of naringin and grapefruits and their conjugates, respectively, and total VEGF levels were measured at 24 and 48 h, respectively, using ELISA and dot blot analysis. The results from these functionality experiments demonstrated that flavonoid FA conjugates have at least comparable (if not higher antioxidant activity, anti-peroxidation activity, and anti-angiogenic activity.

  2. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Establishment and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Lizhen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the collection and preservation of blood specimens from patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and the establishment and information management of biobank. MethodsWhole blood samples were collected from 1226 patients who were diagnosed with NAFLD based on B-mode ultrasound and blood tests from October 2009 to October 2013. Biochemical parameters were measured. Plasma and whole-blood genomic DNA was extracted from the samples, and the purity and concentration of DNA were determined. Specimens were preserved in a refrigerator (-80℃. An information management system for NAFLD biobank was established. ResultsSpecimens of 1226 NAFLD patients, including those of 83 twins and 100 families, were collected. The success rate was 100% for extraction of plasma and whole-blood genomic DNA. One hundred DNA samples were randomly selected for testing, and the results showed that the collected specimens met the requirements of following experiments. ConclusionThe NAFLD Biobank has been successfully established in this study. It has the standard information management system and enables the quality control and information management of specimens, laying a solid foundation for further research on NAFLD.

  4. Analysis of Chemical Compositions of 15 Different Cold-Pressed Oils Produced in Turkey: A Case Study of Tocopherol and Fatty Acid Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel U. Celenk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many people tend to prefer natural foods and supplements nowadays. Considering this tendency, this study assessed the most significant in quality and purity parameters tocopherol and fatty acid compositions of cold-pressed oils, namely black cumin, sesame, sunflower, poppy, pomegranate, nettle, pumpkin, grape, safflower, flax, canola seed, wheat germ, peanut, hazelnut, and walnut. This study deals with the sample preparation and validation of tocopherols using an HPLC-FLD method for simultaneous determination of α-β-γ-, and δ-tocopherols, and analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME with using GC-FID. The validated HPLC method was applied for the tocopherols’ analysis and measurement uncertainty was calculated for tocopherols and some fatty acids. The obtained data were evaluated by using principal component analysis to show the relationship between quality parameters and seed oils. Wheat germ, hazelnut, safflower, and sunflower oils have the highest tocopherol contents respectively with a predominance of α-tocopherol. Seed oils’ fatty acid compositions were classified according to proportions of oleic, linoleic, and other fatty acids. This study shows that the evaluated seeds are valuable sources of natural antioxidants and some specific and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The applied method can also be helpful for the industry to obtain quality analysis approach.

  5. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  6. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  7. High-Purity Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: A Key Enabling Material in Emerging Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Jacques; Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Finnie, Paul; Lopinski, Gregory; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2017-10-17

    Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) are emerging as a promising material for high-performance, high-density devices as well as low-cost, large-area macroelectronics produced via additive manufacturing methods such as roll-to-roll printing. Proof-of-concept demonstrations have indicated the potential of sc-SWCNTs for digital electronics, radiofrequency circuits, radiation hard memory, improved sensors, and flexible, stretchable, conformable electronics. Advances toward commercial applications bring numerous opportunities in SWCNT materials development and characterization as well as fabrication processes and printing technologies. Commercialization in electronics will require large quantities of sc-SWCNTs, and the challenge for materials science is the development of scalable synthesis, purification, and enrichment methods. While a few synthesis routes have shown promising results in making near-monochiral SWCNTs, gram quantities are available only for small-diameter sc-SWCNTs, which underperform in transistors. Most synthesis routes yield mixtures of SWCNTs, typically 30% metallic and 70% semiconducting, necessitating the extraction of sc-SWCNTs from their metallic counterparts in high purity using scalable postsynthetic methods. Numerous routes to obtain high-purity sc-SWCNTs from raw soot have been developed, including density-gradient ultracentrifugation, chromatography, aqueous two-phase extraction, and selective DNA or polymer wrapping. By these methods (termed sorting or enrichment), >99% sc-SWCNT content can be achieved. Currently, all of these approaches have drawbacks and limitations with respect to electronics applications, such as excessive dilution, expensive consumables, and high ionic impurity content. Excess amount of dispersant is a common challenge that hinders direct inclusion of sc-SWCNTs into electronic devices. At present, conjugated polymer extraction may represent the most practical route to sc-SWCNTs. By the use of

  8. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadeghian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasing in pediatric age group parallel to the growing prevalence of obesity and overweight all around the world. So changing in life style and   interventions on obesogenic environment is cornerstone of NAFLD therapy in obese children. Some experts recommend that children and adolescents be encouraged to follow a low-fat, low-glycemic-index diet that includes eating a minimum of 5 servings of vegetables and fruits daily, engaging in physical activity for at least 1 hour daily, and minimizing television/computer time to 2 hours daily.  In spite of effectiveness of weight loss and exercise in improvement NAFLD, this goal is very difficult to be achieved and pharmacological approaches have become necessary. Pharmacologic therapies against one or more specific factors and/or molecules involved in the development of NAFLD (i.e., insulin resistance, free fatty acid lipid toxicity, and oxidative stress also might slow the progression of NAFLD to NASH or cirrhosis.  On this basis, insulin sensitizers, antioxidants, cytoprotective agents, and dietary supplementations have been evaluated in pediatric clinical trials but there is no approved pharmacologic therapy for NAFLD or NASH. Not all obese children affected by NAFLD. Diet modification and regular exercise beside to serial medical follow up highly suggested for this group of children. Normal weight and thin children with NAFLD or NASH should be investigated appropriately in a logical manner based on causes of primary liver steatosis in children and treatment of underlying disease can cause improvement fatty liver in these patients.   Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Children; Steatosis; Treatment

  9. Clinical investigation of fatty liver by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsumoto; Takayama, Tetsuo; Sano, Hiroshi; Katada, Naoyuki; Takeichi, Masayuki

    1984-01-01

    CT findings of 56 cases of diffuse fatty infiltration comfirmed by liver biopsy were investigated and compared with those of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. We found that the diagnosis of severe fatty infiltration (fatty liver) can be specifically possible when the ratios of CT values of liver to those of spleen are less than 0.85 and it is reasonable criterion for diagnosis of fatty liver by CT. This criterion was satisfied by 197 studies (2.9%), 169 cases with fatty liver (diffuse: 141 cases, focal: 28 cases) of 6800 CT studies of liver. Obesity, diabetes and alcohol abuse were main causative factors in both diffuse and focal fatty liver. The percentage of cases showing no abnormal results in blood chemistry tests was great compared with the previous report based on liver biopsy. The changes of CT values of liver faithfully reflected the improvement of each causal factor and reciprocal changes were observed between diffuse and focal fatty liver in repeated CT examination. So, CT is useful in estimating the effect of treatment as well as in diagnosis of fatty liver. Focal fatty liver is temporary manifestation during the proscess of development or improvement of fatty liver. (author)

  10. Do fatty acids affect fetal programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaran, Seray; Besler, H Tanju

    2015-08-13

    In this study discussed the primary and regulatory roles of fatty acids, and investigated the affects of fatty acids on metabolic programming. Review of the literature was carried out on three electronic databases to assess the roles of fatty acids in metabolic programming. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined, and the most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. The mother's nutritional environment during fetal period has important effects on long term health. Fatty acids play a primary role in growth and development. Alterations in fatty acid intake in the fetal period may increase the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. Maternal fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and lactation are passed to the fetus and the newborn via the placenta and breast milk, respectively. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during the fetal period change the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, which can cause structural and functional problems in cells. Additionally, the metabolic and neuroendocrine environments of the fetus and the newborn play key roles in the regulation of energy balance. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during pregnancy and lactation may result in permanent changes in appetite control, neuroendocrine function and energy metabolism in the fetus, leading to metabolic programming. Further studies are needed to determine the role of fatty acid intake in metabolic programming.

  11. FACTS ABOUT TRANS FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Asgary

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fatty acids constitute the main class of lipids in the human diet, being found in nature mainly as glycerol esters that originate triacylglycerols. In the vegetal and animal kingdoms, fatty acids generally have cis unsaturations. In this form, the hydrogens bound to the double bond carbons are on the same side. In another possible configuration, called trans, the hydrogens are bound to un saturations, carbons on opposing sides. Fatty acids with one or more un saturations in the trans configuration are called trans fatty acids (TFAs.1-4      There are two major sources of TFA, those that come from ruminant animals and those that are industrially produced.      The majority of TFAs are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, which contain 10–40% as TFA.5 Hydrogenation is based on the reaction of unsaturated fatty acids of either vegetable or marine oil in the presence of a catalyst, in general nickel. The objective is to increase the oxidative stability of oils by reduction of the concentration of more unsaturated fatty acids and changing their physical properties, thus extending their application. Hydrogenation depends mainly on oil temperature, hydrogen pressure, stirring speed, reaction time, and the catalyst type and concentration. According to the process conditions, hydrogenation is classified as either partial or total and either selective or nonselective.6 It has been estimated that dietary TFAs from partially hydrogenated oils may be responsible for between 30,000 and 100,000 premature coronary deaths per year in the United States.7      The concentration of TFA in meat and milk from ruminants (i.e., cattle, sheep, goats, etc. contain 3 to 8% of total fat.5 It is hypothesized that ruminant TFAs, or certain TFA isomers from ruminant sources, may confer some health benefits; however, since TFA from animal sources accompany saturated fatty acids (SFA, an increase in a single ruminant TFA in the diet is not

  12. Application of Digital Image Analysis to Determine Pancreatic Islet Mass and Purity in Clinical Islet Isolation and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-jia; Kissler, Hermann J; Wang, Xiaojun; Cochet, Olivia; Krzystyniak, Adam; Misawa, Ryosuke; Golab, Karolina; Tibudan, Martin; Grzanka, Jakub; Savari, Omid; Grose, Randall; Kaufman, Dixon B; Millis, Michael; Witkowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic islet mass, represented by islet equivalent (IEQ), is the most important parameter in decision making for clinical islet transplantation. To obtain IEQ, the sample of islets is routinely counted manually under a microscope and discarded thereafter. Islet purity, another parameter in islet processing, is routinely acquired by estimation only. In this study, we validated our digital image analysis (DIA) system developed using the software of Image Pro Plus for islet mass and purity assessment. Application of the DIA allows to better comply with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) standards. Human islet samples were captured as calibrated digital images for the permanent record. Five trained technicians participated in determination of IEQ and purity by manual counting method and DIA. IEQ count showed statistically significant correlations between the manual method and DIA in all sample comparisons (r >0.819 and p islet particle number (IPN) and the IEQ/IPN ratio did not differ statistically between manual counting method and DIA. In conclusion, the DIA used in this study is a reliable technique in determination of IEQ and purity. Islet sample preserved as a digital image and results produced by DIA can be permanently stored for verification, technical training and islet information exchange between different islet centers. Therefore, DIA complies better with cGMP requirements than the manual counting method. We propose DIA as a quality control tool to supplement the established standard manual method for islets counting and purity estimation. PMID:24806436

  13. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis based multi-elemental analysis of high purity gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimova, F.A.; Sadikov, I.I; Salimov, M.I.; Zinov'ev, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Gallium is one of the widely used materials in semiconductor and optoelectronics industry. Gallium is used to produce infrared detectors, piezoelectric sensors, high- and low-temperature transistors for space and defense technology. One of the most important requirements for semiconductor materials of gallium compounds is an excessive high purity for layers and films. Information on impurities (type of an impurity, concentration, character of distribution) is important as for better understanding of the physical and chemical processes taking place in formed semiconductor structures and for the 'know-how' of devices on their basis. The object of this work is to develop radiochemical neutron activation technique for analysis of high purity gallium. Irradiation of 0.1 g of gallium sample in neutron flux of 5·10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 5 hours will result in induced activity of more than 10 8 Bq, due to 72 Ga radionuclide, half-life of which is 14.1 hours. Therefore to perform instrumental NAA of gallium long period (10 day) cooling is required, and high sensitive determination of elements producing short- and long-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 72 Ga. We have studied the behavior of gallium in extraction-chromatographic system 'TBP-HCl'. The experiments have shown that higher factor of distribution (D) and capacity on gallium can be achieved when 'TBP-4M HCl' system is used. However more than 10 trace elements have high D and thus they cannot be separated from 72 Ga. To resolve the problem and increase the number of separated trace elements we have used preliminary satisfaction of chromatographic column with tellurium, which has D higher than the most of elements in 'TBP-4M HCl' system and thus suppresses extraction of elements. Distribution profile of gallium along the column and elution curve of 25 trace elements have been measured. Chemical yields of separated elements measured by using radiotracers are more than 93%. On the basis of the carried out researches

  14. Effect of beryllium filter purity on x-ray emission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, M. B.; Franz, P.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Beryllium foils of the purity grade typically specified for use as filters in soft x-ray (SXR) diagnostics may contain sufficient heavy element impurities to distort the energy transmission response of the filter. Electron microprobe analysis of the foils used in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) SXR tomography diagnostic revealed an impurity content of ˜0.3% fractional abundance by weight, comprised primarily of iron, zirconium, chromium, and nickel. These impurities lower the peak filter transmission in the energy range of the detector and alter the shape of the transmission curve. As a result, foil impurities introduce errors in any general measurement where radiation is being filtered. For example, neglecting the effect of impurities on filter transmission leads to large systematic errors (50%) in the electron temperature measured using the SXR double-filter technique on MST.

  15. Effect of beryllium filter purity on x-ray emission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, M B; Hartog, D J Den; Goetz, J A; Franz, P

    2014-01-01

    Beryllium foils of the purity grade typically specified for use as filters in soft x-ray (SXR) diagnostics may contain sufficient heavy element impurities to distort the energy transmission response of the filter. Electron microprobe analysis of the foils used in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) SXR tomography diagnostic revealed an impurity content of ∼0.3% fractional abundance by weight, comprised primarily of iron, zirconium, chromium, and nickel. These impurities lower the peak filter transmission in the energy range of the detector and alter the shape of the transmission curve. As a result, foil impurities introduce errors in any general measurement where radiation is being filtered. For example, neglecting the effect of impurities on filter transmission leads to large systematic errors (50%) in the electron temperature measured using the SXR double-filter technique on MST. (paper)

  16. A radioagent method for determination of traces of phosphorus in high-purity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Sun, H.J.; Yang, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of the determination of phosphorus at the extreme trace levels in high-purity silicon by radioreagent method is explored. After silicon dissolution with hydrofluoric and nitric acids and matrix volatilization, 12-molybdophosphoric acid is formed by the addition of the reagent, sup(99)MoOsub(4)sup(2-), in nitric acid medium and then extracted into isobutyl acetate. By plotting the phosphorus content against the radioactivity of sup(99)Mo in the organic phase, a linear relationship persisting down to 5 ng is obtained. Special effort was made to eliminate the unreacted sup(99)MoOsub(4)sup(2-) reagent and the optimal control of phosphorus blank introduced through the multistage analytical procedure in order to ensure reliable determination of phosphorus at the ppb level. (author)

  17. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb for accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieler, T.R.; Wright, N.T.; Pourboghrat, F.; Compton, C.; Hartwig, K.T.; Baars, D.; Zamiri, A.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Darbandi, P.; Jiang, H.; Skoug, E.; Balachandran, S.; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  18. The determination of the radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-DTPA-HSA injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Guangrong; Zhang Yan

    1996-01-01

    A simple, rapid analytical method of radiochemical purity for the 99 Tc m -DTPA-HSA injection is established. 99 Tc m (VII), 99 Tc m (IV) and labelled compound 99 Tc m -DTPA-HSA are separated by two systems of paper chromatography on Whatman No.1. The solvent of the system A is 85% methanol and that of the system B is water-95% alcohol-ammonium hydroxide (volume ratio is 5:2:1). 90 Tc m (IV) and labelled compound are located at the origin, while R f of 99 Tc m (VII) is about 0.4-0.5 in the system A. R f of 99 Tc m (VII) and labelled compound are about 0.7-0.8, while 99 Tc m (IV) is located at the origin in the system B

  19. Determination of isotopic purity in heavy water to suit process requirement (Preprint No. CA-15)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanthiah, W S.A.; Srinivasan, K; Usuf Ali, M C.M. [Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin (India)

    1989-04-01

    In hydrogen/ammonia based heavy water plants, a simple specific gravity determination of heavy water without any purification or thermostating has proved to be simple and easy. The accuracy is found to be well within +- 0.5% in the isotopic purity (I.P) range of 30 to 90% W/W. There are three main methods that can be adopted for determination of I.P in this range: (1)refractometry, (2) infrared spectrophotometry, and (3) pycnometry. Refractrometry requires thermostating and the practical accuracy attainable is +- 1.5% W/W. Infrared spectrophotometer has a reported accuracy/ precision of +- 0.4%. Pycnometric analysis is simple and requires much less expertise and most suited for plant analyses. An accuracy better than +- 0.5% is attained without giving any correction for buoyancy, weighing to accuracy +- 0.1 mg, measuring temperature +- 0.2degC and sample having pH upto 3. (author). 8 annexures.

  20. Some aspects of the metal purity in high strength Al-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banizs, K.; Csernay-Balint, J.; Voeroes, G.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of Fe and Si on the properties of some high strength age-hardenable Al-alloys was investigated. It was found that a certain quantity (> 0.15 %) of Fe is advantageous to the formation of the cell-structure in the cast ingot both in the AlCuMg and AlZnMgCu alloys. An increased Fe-content causes a finer cell-structure. A higher Fe:Si ratio results in more homogeneous cell size distribution. Higher Si-content in the alloy decreases the favourable cast parameter range and increases the inclination to cracking of large diameter (> 270 mm) ingots. The reason of the correlation found between metal purity and mechanical properties is discussed

  1. Monitoring xenon purity in the LUX detector with a mass spectrometry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Jon; LUX Experiment Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. To monitor for radioactive impurities such as krypton and impurities which limit charge yield such as oxygen, LUX uses a xenon sampling system consisting of a mass spectrometer and a liquid nitrogen cold trap. The cold trap separates the gaseous impurities from a small sample of xenon and allows them to pass to the mass spectrometer for analysis. We report here on results from the LUX xenon sampling program. We also report on methods to enhance the sensitivity of the cold trap technique in preparation for the next-generation LUX-ZEPLIN experiment which will have even more stringent purity requirements.

  2. Efficiency correction for disk sources using coaxial High-Purity Ge detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Hiroshi.

    1993-03-01

    Efficiency correction factors for disk sources were determined by making use of closed-ended coaxial High-Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors, their relative efficiencies for a 3' 'x3' ' NaI(Tl) with the 1.3 MeV γ-rays were 30 % and 10 %, respectively. Parameters for the correction by mapping method were obtained systematically, using several monoenergetic (i.e. no coincidence summing loses) γ-ray sources produced by irradiation in the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) core. These were found out that (1) the systematics of the Gaussian fitting parameters, which were calculated using the relative efficiency distributions of HPGe, to the γ-ray energies are recognized, (2) the efficiency distributions deviate from the Gaussian distributions outside of the radii of HPGe. (3) mapping method is a practical use in satisfactory accuracy, as the results in comparison with the disk source measurements. (author)

  3. Corrosion in Supercritical carbon Dioxide: Materials, Environmental Purity, Surface Treatments, and Flow Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2013-12-10

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is gaining importance for power conversion in the Generation IV fast reactor system because of its high conversion efficiencies. When used in conjunction with a sodium fast reactor, the supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle offers additional safety advantages by eliminating potential sodium-water interactions that may occur in a steam cycle. In power conversion systems for Generation IV fast reactors, supercritical CO{sub 2} temperatures could be in the range of 30°C to 650°C, depending on the specific component in the system. Materials corrosion primarily at high temperatures will be an important issue. Therefore, the corrosion performance limits for materials at various temperatures must be established. The proposed research will have four objectives centered on addressing corrosion issues in a high-temperature supercritical CO{sub 2} environment: Task 1: Evaluation of corrosion performance of candidate alloys in high-purity supercritical CO{sub 2}: The following alloys will be tested: Ferritic-martensitic Steels NF616 and HCM12A, austenitic alloys Incoloy 800H and 347 stainless steel, and two advanced concept alloys, AFA (alumina forming austenitic) steel and MA754. Supercritical CO{sub 2} testing will be performed at 450°C, 550°C, and 650°C at a pressure of 20 MPa, in a test facility that is already in place at the proposing university. High purity CO{sub 2} (99.9998%) will be used for these tests. Task 2: Investigation of the effects of CO, H{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} impurities in supercritical CO{sub 2} on corrosion: Impurities that will inevitably present in the CO{sub 2} will play a critical role in dictating the extent of corrosion and corrosion mechanisms. These effects must be understood to identify the level of CO{sub 2} chemistry control needed to maintain sufficient levels of purity to manage corrosion. The individual effects of important impurities CO, H{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} will be investigated by adding them

  4. Se-Se isoelectronic centers in high purity CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Rita; Andre, Regis; Mariette, Henri [CEA-CNRS, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, Institut Neel, 25 rue des martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Golnik, Andrzej; Kossacki, Piotr; Gaj, Jan A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    We evidence zero-dimensional exciton states trapped on isoelectronic Se centers in CdTe quantum wells, {delta}-doped with Se. Thanks to special precautions taken to have very high purity CdTe heterostructures, it is possible to observe, in photoluminescence spectra, sharp discrete lines arising from individual centers related to the Se doping. These emission lines appear at about 40 meV below the CdTe band gap energy. The most prominent lines are attributed to the recombination of excitons bound to nearest-neighbor selenium pairs in a tetrahedral CdTe environment. This assignment is confirmed by a common linear polarization direction of the emitted light, parallel to <110>. These excitons localized on individual isoelectronic traps are good candidates as single photon emitters (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Temperature dependence of luminescence for different surface flaws in high purity silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, J.; Grua, P.; Neauport, J.; Fargin, E.; Jubera, V.; Talaga, D.; Del Guerzo, A.; Raffy, G.; Jouannigot, S.

    2013-01-01

    In situ temperature dependence of the Photoluminescence under 325 nm irradiation is used to investigate defect populations existing in different surface flaws in high purity fused silica. Five photoluminescence bands peaking at 1.9, 2.1, 2.3, 2.63 and 3.11 eV have been detected in the spectral area ranging from 1.6 up to 3.6 eV. The Gaussian deconvolution of spectra allows dividing the five luminescence bands in two categories. The former corresponds to bands showing a significant intensity enhancement while temperature decreases; the latter corresponds to bands remaining insensitive to the temperature evolution. Such a behavior brings new information on defects involved in laser damage mechanism at 351 nm in nanosecond regime. (authors)

  6. Germanium field-effect transistor made from a high-purity substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Goulding, F.S.; Haller, E.E.

    1978-11-01

    Field effect transistors have been fabricated on high-purity germanium substrates using low-temperature technology. The aim of this work is to preserve the low density of trapping centers in high-quality starting material by low-temperature ( 0 C) processing. The use of germanium promises to eliminate some of the traps which cause generation-recombination noise in silicon field-effect transistors (FET's) at low temperatures. Typically, the transconductance (g/sub m/) in the germanium FET's is 10 mA/V and the gate leakage can be less than 10 -12 A. Present devices exhibit a large 1/f noise component and most of this noise must be eliminated if they are to be competitive with silicon FET's commonly used in high-resolution nuclear spectrometers

  7. Radiochemical purity and in vitro stability of Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, J.

    2001-01-01

    The increased contents of long lived 99 Tc, oxygen and cupric ions could affect the labeling yield of eight radiopharmaceuticals. Oxygen and in leaser extend copper were found to affect the radiochemical purity of the preparations. In vitro stability of radiopharmaceuticals, examined on 99m Tc(Sn)-pyrosphoshate solutions, was extended when ascorbic acid was added as the chemical stabilizer. The quantity of 5x10 -7 mol/dm 3 of ascorbic acid was found to be sufficient to keep the content of 99m Tc-pertechnetate below 1 % six hours after labeling even in the cases when 99m Tc was present in high radioactive concentrations (740-814 GBq/dm 3 ). The results led to the development of the kits in which ascorbic or gentisic acid are the standards component in the kit composition (author)

  8. Zero- and two-dimensional hybrid carbon phosphors for high colorimetric purity white light-emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yamei; Chang, Qing; Xiu, Fei; Chen, Yingying; Liu, Zhengdong; Ban, Chaoyi; Cheng, Shuai; Liu, Juqing; Huang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are promising phosphors for white light emission. A facile single-step synthesis method has been developed to prepare zero- and two-dimensional hybrid carbon phosphors for the first time. Zero-dimensional carbon dots (C-dots) emit bright blue luminescence under 365 nm UV light and two-dimensional nanoplates improve the dispersity and film forming ability of C-dots. As a proof-of-concept application, the as-prepared hybrid carbon phosphors emit bright white luminescence in the solid state, and the phosphor-coated blue LEDs exhibit high colorimetric purity white light-emission with a color coordinate of (0.3308, 0.3312), potentially enabling the successful application of white emitting phosphors in the LED field.

  9. Stir zone microstructure of commercial purity titanium friction stir welded using pcBN tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Sato, Yutaka S.; Kokawa, Hiroyuki; Park, Seung Hwan C.; Hirano, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, friction stir welding was applied to commercial purity titanium using a polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tool, and microstructure and hardness in the weld were examined. Additionally, the microstructural evolution during friction stir welding was also discussed. The stir zone consisted of fine equiaxed α grains surrounded by serrate grain boundaries, which were produced through the β → α allotropic transformation during the cooling cycle of friction stir welding. The fine α grains caused higher hardness than that in the base material. A lath-shaped α grain structure containing Ti borides and tool debris was observed in the surface region of the stir zone, whose hardness was the highest in the weld

  10. Ultra low energy-ultra low background high purity germanium detectors for studies on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, A.K.; Singh, V.; Singh, L.; Singh, M.K.; Wong, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) are the leading DM candidates. Super symmetric particles (SUSY) are one of the leading WIMP candidates. To probe this least explored region Taiwan EXperiments On NeutrinO collaboration is pursuing research and development program by using High Purity Germanium detectors (HPGe). These detectors offer a matured technology to scale up the detectors and achieve sub-keV level threshold i.e. few hundreds of eV, economically. The various detectors developed by the collaboration is shown in the below figure. The current goal of the collaboration is to develop detectors of kg-scale target mass, ∼100 eV threshold and low-background specification for the studies on WIMPs, μ v and neutrino - nucleus coherent scattering

  11. Effect of microemulsion component purity on the chromatographic figures of merit in chiral microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojtari, Adeline B; Foley, Joe P

    2009-04-17

    Numerous combinations of one-, two-, and three-chiral-component microemulsions have been previously prepared in our group, using N-dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV), 2-hexanol, and ethyl acetate, dibutyl tartrate, or diethyl tartrate. A few results of the various formulations investigated suggested the possible presence of minor impurities in one or more components of the microemulsion. In this study, the purity of the current lots of R- and S-surfactant were measured, as was the subsequent effect of minor impurities on the relevant chromatographic figures of merit (CFOMs) that describe a chiral separation, i.e., efficiency, enantioselectivity, retention, migration window (elution range), and resolution. Two related methods are proposed for correcting enantioselectivities measured in the presence of chiral impurities in the chiral microemulsion.

  12. Calibration of Single High Purity Germanium Detector for Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, T.M.; Morsi, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new Accuscan II single germanium detector for whole body counter was installed in NRC (Egypt). The current paper concerned on calibration of single high purity germanium detector for whole body counter. Physical parameters affecting on performance of whole body counter such as linearity, minimum detectable activity and source detector distance, SDD were investigated. Counting efficiencies for the detector have been investigated in rear wall, fixed diagnostic position in air. Counting efficiencies for organ compartments such as thyroid, lung, upper and lower gastrointestinal tract have been investigated using transfer phantom in fixed diagnostic and screening positions respectively. The organ compartment efficiencies in screening geometry were higher than that value of diagnostic geometry by a factor of three. The committed dose equivalents of I-131 in thyroid were ranged from 0.073 ± 0.004 to 1.73±0.09 mSv and in lung was 0.02±0.001 mSv

  13. Effect of microplastic deformation on the electron ultrasonic absorption in high-purity molybdenum monocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal' -Val' , P.P.; Kaufmann, Kh.J.

    1983-03-01

    The low temperature (100-6 K) linear absorption of ultrasound (88 kHz) by high purity molybdenum single crystals have been studied. Both unstrained samples and samples sub ected to microplastic deformation (epsilon<=0.45%) were used. Unstrained samples displayed at T<30 K a rapid increase in the absorption with lowering temperature which is interpreted as an indication of electron viscosity due to electron-phonon collisions. After deformation this part of absorption disappeared. This seems to suggest that microplastic deformation brings about in the crystal a sufficiently large number of defects that can compete with phonons in restricting the electron mean free path. A low temperature dynamic annealing has been revealed in strained samples, that is almost complete recovery of the absorption nature under irradiation with high amplitude sound, epsilon/sub 0/ approximately 10/sup -4/, during 10 min, at 6 K. A new relaxation peak of absorption at 10 K has been found in strained samples.

  14. High Purity Tungsten Spherical Particle Preparation From WC-Co Spent Hard Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was recycled to obtain high purity spherical tungsten powder by a combined hydrometallurgy and physical metallurgy pathway. Selective leaching of tungsten element from hard metal scrap occurs at solid / liquid interface and therefore enlargement of effective surface area is advantageous. Linear oxidation behavior of Tungsten carbide-cobalt and the oxidized scrap is friable to be pulverized by milling process. In this regard, isothermally oxidized Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was mechanically broken into particles and then tungsten trioxide particle was recovered by hydrometallurgical method. Recovered tungsten trioxide was reduced to tungsten particle in a hydrogen environment. After that, tungsten particle was melted and solidified to make a spherical one by RF (Ratio Frequency thermal plasma process. Well spherical tungsten micro-particle was successfully obtained from spent scrap. In addition to the morphological change, thermal plasma process showed an advantage for the purification of feedstock particle.

  15. Facile synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles with high purity using lanthanide oleate compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ning; Ai, Chao-Chao; Zhou, Ya-Ming; Wang, Zuo; Ren, Lei

    2018-02-01

    A novel strategy for preparing highly pure NaYF4-based upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) was developed using lanthanide oleate compounds [Ln(OA)3] as the precursor, denoted as the Ln-OA preparation method. Compared to the conventional solvothermal method for synthesizing UCNPs using lanthanide chloride compounds (LnCl3) as the precursor (denoted as the Ln-Cl method), the Ln-OA strategy exhibited the merits of high purity, reduced purification process and a uniform size in preparing core and core-shell UCNPs excited by a 980 or 808 nm near infrared (NIR) laser. This work sheds new insight on the preparation of UCNPs and promotes their application in biomedical fields.

  16. Recovery Kinetics in Commercial Purity Aluminum Deformed to Ultrahigh Strain: Model and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to analyze recovery kinetics is developed from a recent model, and microstructural observations are introduced to supplement hardness measurements. The approach involves two steps of data fitting, and the second step of fitting enables an estimation of the apparent activation energy...... for recovery. This approach is applied to commercial purity aluminum (AA1050) cold rolled to ultrahigh strain (99.6 pct reduction in thickness) and annealed at temperatures from 413 K to 493 K (140 A degrees C to 220 A degrees C). The annealing data fit the recovery model well, and the analysis shows...... that the apparent activation energy increases during recovery and approaches 190 kJ/mol at the end of recovery, suggesting that solute drag is an important rate-controlling mechanism. The recovery rate for the highly strained Al is found to be higher than that for Al deformed to a lower strain, an effect which...

  17. Impact of precursor purity on optical properties and radiation detection of CsI:Tl scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saengkaew, Phannee; Cheewajaroen, Kulthawat; Yenchai, Chadet; Thong-aram, Decho [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand); Sanorpim, Sakuntam [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Jitpukdee, Manit [Kasetsart University, Department of Applied Radiation and Isotope, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Yordsri, Visittapong; Thanachayanont, Chanchana [Ministry of Science and Technology, National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani (Thailand); Nuntawong, Noppadon [Ministry of Science and Technology, National Electronic and Computer Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    Cesium iodide doped with thallium (CsI:Tl) crystals was grown to develop the gamma-ray detectors by using low-cost raw materials. Effect of impurities on optical properties and radiation detection performance was investigated. By a modified homemade Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, CsI:Tl samples were grown in two levels of CsI and TlI reactant materials, i.e., having as a very high purity of 99.999 % and a high purity of 99.9 %. XRD measurements indicate CsI:Tl crystals having a good quality with a dominant (110) plane. Having a cubic structure, a lattice constant of CsI crystals of 0.4574 nm and a crystallite size of 43.539 nm were obtained. From the lower-purity raw materials, calcite was found in an orange crystal with a lattice constant of 0.4560 nm and a crystallite size of 43.089 nm. By PL measurements, the optical properties of the CsI:Tl crystals were analyzed. ∝540-nm-wavelength PL peak was observed from the colorless high-purity crystal, and ∝600-nm-wavelength PL peak was observed from the orange crystal. The brighter PL emission was obtained from the orange crystals suggesting impurities. CsI:Tl surface morphology by SEM exhibited a smooth surface with some parallel crystal facets. For electrical properties of high-quality CsI:Tl crystals, the electrical resistances were 230 ± 16 MΩ in cross-sectional direction and 714 ± 136 MΩ in vertical direction with respect to more homogeneous crystal quality in cross-sectional direction than that in vertical direction. TEM measurement was applied to evaluate the microstructure of colorless CsI:Tl crystal with different patterns of a cubic structure. Both CsI:Tl crystals show good efficiencies and good resolutions. Maintaining the same electronic conditions and amplifications, the colorless CsI:Tl scintillators represented a higher detection efficiency at 122 keV of Co-57 of 78.4 % and the energy resolution of 23.3 % compared to the detection efficiency of 75.9 % and the energy resolution of 34.6 % of the

  18. Bibliographical study on the high-purity germanium radiation detectors used in gamma and X spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornand, Bernard; Friant, Alain

    1979-03-01

    The germanium or silicon lithium-drifted detectors, Ge(Li) or Si(Li), and high-purity germanium detectors, HP Ge (impurity concentration approximately 10 10 cm -3 ), are the most commonly used at the present time as gamma and X-ray spectrometers. The HP Ge detectors for which room temperature storage is the main characteristic can be obtained with a large volume and a thin window, and are used as the Ge(Li) in γ ray spectrometry or the Si(Li) in X-ray spectrometry. This publication reviews issues from 1974 to 1978 on the state of the art and applications of the HP Ge semiconductor detectors. 101 bibliographical notices with French summaries are presented. An index for authors, documents and periodicals, and subjects is included [fr

  19. Computers in the investigation of the impurity content of high-purity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, Yu.B.; Yan'kov, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency of the concept of data banks for the accumulation and processing of information is now generally acknowledged. In scientific investigations not only bibliographic but also factual data banks are becoming more and more prevalent. In this article, the authors consider the possibilities of providing a data bank on high-purity materials for the study of impurity contents. Also in this paper, the authors distinguish the following groups of problems that arise in the study of impurity composition and presents examples of their proposed solutions to these problems: the analysis of error and the determination of the most probably value of impurity concentration; the estimation of average properties of impurity composition with respect to groups of impurities and samples, and the forecast of the complete impurity composition

  20. Sensor locations and noise reduction in high-purity batch distillation control loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oisiovici R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the sensor locations on the composition control of high-purity batch distillation columns has been investigated. Using concepts of the nonlinear control theory, an input-output linearizing controller was implemented to keep the distillate composition constant at a desired value by varying the reflux ratio. An Extended Kalman Filter was developed to estimate the compositions required in the control algorithm using temperature measurements. In the presence of measurement noise, the control performance depended greatly on the sensor locations. Placing the sensors further from the top stages reduced the detrimental effects of noise but increased the inference error. To achieve accurate composition control, both noise reduction and composition estimate accuracy should be considered in the selection of the sensor locations.

  1. Neutron activation analysis of high-purity iron in comparison with chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinomura, Atsushi; Horino, Yuji; Takaki, Seiichi; Abiko, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis of iron samples of three different purity levels has been performed and compared with chemical analysis for 30 metallic and metalloid impurity elements. The concentration of As, Cl, Cu, Sb and V detected by neutron activation analysis was mostly in agreement with that obtained by chemical analysis. The sensitivity limits of neutron activation analysis of three kinds of iron samples were calculated and found to be reasonable compared with measured values or detection limits of chemical analysis; however, most of them were above the detection limits of chemical analysis. Graphite-shielded irradiation to suppress fast neutron reactions was effective for Mn analysis without decreasing sensitivity to the other impurity elements. (author)

  2. High-purity germanium detection system for the in vivo measurement of americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, W.H.; Falk, R.B.; Wood, C.B.; Liskey, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A high-purity germanium (HPGe) array, photon-counting system has been developed for the Rocky Flats Plant Body-Counter Medical Facility. The newly improved system provides exceptional resolutions of low-energy X-ray and gamma-ray spectra associated with the in vivo deposition of plutonium and americium. Described are the operational parameters of the system and some qualitative results illustrating detector performance for the photon emissions produced from the decay of plutonium and americium between energy ranges from 10 to 100 kiloelectron volts. Since large amounts of data are easily generated with the system, data storage, analysis, and computer software developments continue to be an essential ingredient for processing spectral data obtained from the detectors. Absence of quantitative data is intentional. The primary concern of the study was to evaluate the effects of the various physical and electronic operational parameters before adding those related entirely to a human subject

  3. Simulation for photon detection in spectrometric system of high purity (HPGe) using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Guilherme Jorge de Souza

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy defines parameters for classification and management of radioactive waste in accordance with the activity of materials. The efficiency of a detection system is crucial to determine the real activity of a radioactive source. When it's possible, the system's calibration should be performed using a standard source. Unfortunately, there are only a few cases that it can be done this way, considering the difficulty of obtaining appropriate standard sources for each type of measurement. So, computer simulations can be performed to assist in calculating of the efficiency of the system and, consequently, also auxiliary the classification of radioactive waste. This study aims to model a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector with MCNPX code, approaching the spectral values computationally obtained of the values experimentally obtained for the photopeak of 137 Cs. The approach will be made through changes in outer dead layer of the germanium crystal modeled. (author)

  4. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb for accelerator cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Bieler

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  5. High polarization purity operation of 99% in 9xx-nm broad stripe laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Rintaro; Yamagata, Yuji; Kaifuchi, Yoshikazu; Tada, Katsuhisa; Nogawa, Ryozaburo; Yamada, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki

    2018-02-01

    Polarization characteristics of self-aligned stripe (SAS) laser diodes (LDs) and Ridge-LDs are investigated to realize highly efficient polarization beam combined (PBC) LD modules. Vertical layers of both lasers are designed identically. Near field patterns (NFP) of TM polarization for the Ridge-LD showed peaks at the side edges, as expected by the strain simulation. On the other hand, SAS-LD showed a relatively flat and weak profile. Polarization purity (ITE/ (ITE+ITM)) of SAS-LDs exceeds 99%, while those of the Ridge-LDs are as low as 96%. It is confirmed that our SAS-LDs are suitable sources for PBC with low power loss.

  6. Simultaneous determination of dysprosium, holmium and erbium in high purity rare earth oxides by second order derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbu, M.; Prasada Rao, T.; Iyer, C. S. P.; Damodaran, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    High purity individual rare earth oxides are increasingly used as major components in lasers (Y 2 O 3 ), phosphors (YVO 3 , Eu 2 O 3 ), magnetic bubble memory films (Gd 2 O 3 ) and refractive-index lenses and fibre optics (La 2 O 3 ). The determination of individual lanthanides in high purity rare earth oxides is a more important and difficult task. This paper reports the utilization of higher order derivative spectrophotometry for the simultaneous determination of dysprosium, holmium and erbium in high purity rare earth oxides. The developed procedure is simple, reliable and allows the determination of 0.001 to 0.2% of dysprosium, holmium and erbium in several rare earth. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Creating high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms by a pair of unipolar laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, PeiPei; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, ShanShan; Wang, HanMu; Xu, ZiShan; Liu, HongPing

    2018-04-01

    We propose a method of producing high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms by a pair of unipolar laser pulses. The first positive-polarity optical half-cycle pulse is used to prepare an excited-state wave packet while the second one is less intense, but with opposite polarity and time delayed, and is employed to drag back the escaping free electron and clip the shape of the bound Rydberg wave packet, selectively increasing or decreasing a fraction of the angular-momentum components. An intelligent choice of laser parameters such as phase and amplitude helps us to control the orbital-angular-momentum composition of an electron wave packet with more facility; thus, a specified angular-momentum state with high purity can be achieved. This scheme of producing high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms has significant application in quantum-information processing.

  8. Development of anabolic-androgenic steroids purity certified reference materials for anti-doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Can; Su, Fuhai; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Hongmei

    2011-12-20

    The need for certified reference materials (CRM) of anabolic-androgenic steroids reference materials was emphasized by the Beijing 2008 Olympic game as a tool to improve comparability, ensuring accuracy and traceability of analytical results for competing athletes. The China National Institute of Metrology (NIM) responded to the state request by providing seven anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) reference materials for Beijing Olympic anti-doping, GBW (E) 100086-GBW (E) 100092. This work describes the production of the series of AAS CRMs, according to ISO Guides 34 and 35 [1,2], which comprises the material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment, CRMs' characterization including moisture content, trace metal content. The AASs' purity values were assigned with collaborative study involved eight laboratories applying high resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Homogeneity of the AAS CRMs were determined by an in-house validated liquid chromatographic methodology. Potential degradation during storage was also investigated and a shelf-life based on this value was established. The certified values of CRMs were 99.76±0.079%, 99.76±0.25%, 99.63±0.09%, 99.67±0.11%, 98.82±0.56%, 96.30±0.39% and 99.71±0.49% (purity±expanded uncertainty with confidence level of 95%) for methyltestosterone, testosterone propionate, nandrolone, nandrolone 17-propionate, boldenone, trenbolone acetate and testosterone respectively. The certified values for all the studied AAS reference materials are traceable to the international system of units (SI). The CRMs developed were applied by 32 laboratory including sports organizations and analytical laboratories during the 2008 Olympic game for anti-doping control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of radiochemical purity of [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Aline E.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z., E-mail: radiofarmacoscdtn@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    The quality control of [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) has received attention due to its increasing clinical use. Although the quality requirements of {sup 18}FDG are established in various pharmacopoeia, the suitability of all testing methods used should be verified under actual conditions of use and documented. The aim of this study was to develop a high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for radiochemical purity evaluation of {sup 18}FDG, based on pharmacopoeia references, and to verify its suitability for routine quality control in our centre. HPLC analysis was performed with an Agilent HPLC. {sup 18}FDG and impurities were separated on an anion-exchange column by isocratic elution with 0.1 M NaOH as the mobile phase. Detection was accomplished with refractive index and NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors. The flow rate of the mobile phase was set at 0.8 mL/min and the column temperature was kept at 35 deg C. Specificity, linearity, precision and robustness were assessed to verify if the method was adequate for its intended purpose. Retention time of {sup 18}FDG was not affected by the presence of other components of the formulation and a good peak resolution was achieved. The analytical curve of {sup 18}FDG was linear, with a correlation coefficient value of 0.9995. Intraday repeatable precision, reported as the relative standard deviation, was 0.11%. Analytical procedure remained unaffected by small variations in mobile phase flow rate. Results evidenced that HPLC is suitable for radiochemical purity evaluation of {sup 18}FDG, considering operational conditions of our laboratory. (author)

  10. The Debye light scattering equation’s scaling relation reveals the purity of synthetic dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Hui-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ping [National Chung Cheng University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (China); Tang, Yi-Hsuan [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry (China); Chen, Hui-Ting [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science (China); Kao, Chai-Lin, E-mail: clkao@kmu.edu.tw [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry (China); Wang, Shau-Chun, E-mail: chescw@ccu.edu.tw [National Chung Cheng University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (China)

    2016-03-15

    Spherical dendrimer structures cannot be structurally modeled using conventional polymer models of random coil or rod-like configurations during the calibration of the static light scattering (LS) detectors used to determine the molecular weight (M.W.) of a dendrimer or directly assess the purity of a synthetic compound. In this paper, we used the Debye equation-based scaling relation, which predicts that the static LS intensity per unit concentration is linearly proportional to the M.W. of a synthetic dendrimer in a dilute solution, as a tool to examine the purity of high-generational compounds and to monitor the progress of dendrimer preparations. Without using expensive equipment, such as nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry, this method only required an affordable flow injection set-up with an LS detector. Solutions of the purified dendrimers, including the poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer and its fourth to seventh generation pyridine derivatives with size range of 5–9 nm, were used to establish the scaling relation with high linearity. The use of artificially impure mixtures of six or seven generations revealed significant deviations from linearity. The raw synthesized products of the pyridine-modified PAMAM dendrimer, which included incompletely reacted dendrimers, were also examined to gauge the reaction progress. As a reaction toward a particular generational derivative of the PAMAM dendrimers proceeded over time, deviations from the linear scaling relation decreased. The difference between the polydispersity index of the incompletely converted products and that of the pure compounds was only about 0.01. The use of the Debye equation-based scaling relation, therefore, is much more useful than the polydispersity index for monitoring conversion processes toward an indicated functionality number in a given preparation.Graphical abstract.

  11. Radiolabeling, quality control and radiochemical purity assessment of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B.; Mengatti, Jair

    2009-01-01

    Somatostatine receptors are widely expressed by several tumors, especially of the neuroendocrine origin. In vivo images of these tumors using radiolabeled somatostatine analogues became a useful clinical tool in oncology. The aim of this work was the radiolabeling of the somatostatine analogue HYNIC-TOC with 99mTc as well as the evaluation of the radiochemical stability and quality control of labeled complex. 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC was produced by labeling conditions using 20 μg of peptide, 20 mg of tricine and 10 mg of EDDA as coligands, 1110 MBq of 99mTc (99Mo-99mTc IPEN-TEC generator) and 15 μg of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O. The reaction proceeds for 10 minutes at boiling water bath. Radiochemical purity of labeled preparation was evaluated by different chromatographic systems: ITLC-SG in methanol:ammonium acetate (1:1); TLC-SG in sodium citrate buffer 0.1 N pH 5.0 and methylethylketone, and HPLC employing column C-18, 5 μm, 4.6 mm x 250 mm, UV (220 nm), radioactivity detectors, 1 mL/minute flow of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid solution 0.1 %. Labeled compound has been found radiochemically stable for 5 hours and radiochemical purity was higher than 90 %. The thin layer chromatographic systems enabled the separation of radiochemical species presented in the labeled mixture as well as HPLC system. The labeling procedure studied resulted in high radiochemical yield and easy preparation. Future works include the preparation of a lyophilized reagent to make feasible the preparation of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC at nuclear medicine services in order to study the clinical potential of the radiopharmaceutical in diagnostic and staging of neuroendocrine tumors. (author)

  12. Gas purity analytics, calibration studies, and background predictions towards the first results of XENON1T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasterok, Constanze

    2017-10-25

    The XENON1T experiment aims at the direct detection of the well motivated dark matter candidate of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) scattering off xenon nuclei. The first science run of 34.2 live days has already achieved the most stringent upper limit on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections above masses of 10 GeV with a minimum of 7.7.10{sup -47} cm{sup 2} at a mass of 35 GeV. Crucial for this unprecedented sensitivity are a high xenon gas purity and a good understanding of the background. In this work, a procedure is described that was developed to measure the purity of the experiment's xenon inventory of more than three tons during its initial transfer to the detector gas system. The technique of gas chromatography has been employed to analyze the noble gas for impurities with the focus on oxygen and krypton contaminations. Furthermore, studies on the calibration of the experiment's dominating background induced by natural gamma and beta radiation were performed. Hereby, the novel sources of radioactive isotopes that can be dissolved in the xenon were employed, namely {sup 220}Rn and tritium. The sources were analyzed in terms of a potential impact on the outcome of a dark matter search. As a result of the promising findings for {sup 220}Rn, the source was successfully deployed in the first science run of XENON1T. The first WIMP search of XENON1T is outlined in this thesis, in which a background component from interactions taking place in close proximity to the detector wall is identified, investigated and modeled. A background prediction was derived that was incorporated into the background model of the WIMP search which was found to be in good agreement with the observation.

  13. Preparation, radiochemical purity control and stability of 99mTc-mertiatide (Mag-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hemert, F.J.; Schimmel, K.J.M.; Van Eck-Smit, B.L.F.; Van Lenthe, H.

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphic image analysis of 99m Tc-mertiatide (Mag-3, mercaptoacetyltriglycine) clearance provides the determination of the blood flow, the tubular transit time and the excretion as well from both kidneys. Radiopharmaceutical routine recommends a radiochemical purity control before administration of the product to a patient. The main objective of this study is to develop a Mag-3 labeling procedure that fits better than the previous one in our daily routine production of radiopharmaceuticals. Increasing proportions of 99m Tc-Mag-3 were measured during the heating and cooling steps of the Mag-3 labeling procedure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was used to confirm the results of a rapid radiochemical quality control assay on standard instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel (ITLC-SG) paper. The reconstitution time takes 20-25 minutes from the harvest of pertechnetate to a ready-for-use calibrated patient syringe. The HPLC profile of 99m Tc-Mag-3 including its minor impurities remains unchanged for 24-48 hours after reconstitution. The application of a programmable Peltier-directed device for heating/cooling provides a better control of the temperature course. The procedure proposed fully meets the labeling criteria recommended by the supplier and can be performed with a minimum of attention within a time-span that we formerly needed for solely the radiochemical purity control assay. Moreover, 99m Tc-Mag-3 prepared in this way seems to be considerably more stable than mentioned in the manufacturer's instructions. (author)

  14. Grain Size and Phase Purity Characterization of U3Si2 Pellet Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoggan, Rita E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, Kevin R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cappia, Fabiola [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wagner, Adrian R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Characterization of U3Si2 fresh fuel pellets is important for quality assurance and validation of the finished product. Grain size measurement methods, phase identification methods using scanning electron microscopes equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction, and phase quantification methods via image analysis have been developed and implemented on U3Si2 pellet samples. A wide variety of samples have been characterized including representative pellets from an initial irradiation experiment, and samples produced using optimized methods to enhance phase purity from an extended fabrication effort. The average grain size for initial pellets was between 16 and 18 µm. The typical average grain size for pellets from the extended fabrication was between 20 and 30 µm with some samples exhibiting irregular grain growth. Pellets from the latter half of extended fabrication had a bimodal grain size distribution consisting of coarsened grains (>80 µm) surrounded by the typical (20-30 µm) grain structure around the surface. Phases identified in initial uranium silicide pellets included: U3Si2 as the main phase composing about 80 vol. %, Si rich phases (USi and U5Si4) composing about 13 vol. %, and UO2 composing about 5 vol. %. Initial batches from the extended U3Si2 pellet fabrication had similar phases and phase quantities. The latter half of the extended fabrication pellet batches did not contain Si rich phases, and had between 1-5% UO2: achieving U3Si2 phase purity between 95 vol. % and 98 vol. % U3Si2. The amount of UO2 in sintered U3Si2 pellets is correlated to the length of time between U3Si2 powder fabrication and pellet formation. These measurements provide information necessary to optimize fabrication efforts and a baseline for future work on this fuel compound.

  15. Radiolabeling, quality control and radiochemical purity assessment of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B.; Mengatti, Jair [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Somatostatine receptors are widely expressed by several tumors, especially of the neuroendocrine origin. In vivo images of these tumors using radiolabeled somatostatine analogues became a useful clinical tool in oncology. The aim of this work was the radiolabeling of the somatostatine analogue HYNIC-TOC with 99mTc as well as the evaluation of the radiochemical stability and quality control of labeled complex. 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC was produced by labeling conditions using 20 {mu}g of peptide, 20 mg of tricine and 10 mg of EDDA as coligands, 1110 MBq of 99mTc (99Mo-99mTc IPEN-TEC generator) and 15 {mu}g of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O. The reaction proceeds for 10 minutes at boiling water bath. Radiochemical purity of labeled preparation was evaluated by different chromatographic systems: ITLC-SG in methanol:ammonium acetate (1:1); TLC-SG in sodium citrate buffer 0.1 N pH 5.0 and methylethylketone, and HPLC employing column C-18, 5 {mu}m, 4.6 mm x 250 mm, UV (220 nm), radioactivity detectors, 1 mL/minute flow of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid solution 0.1 %. Labeled compound has been found radiochemically stable for 5 hours and radiochemical purity was higher than 90 %. The thin layer chromatographic systems enabled the separation of radiochemical species presented in the labeled mixture as well as HPLC system. The labeling procedure studied resulted in high radiochemical yield and easy preparation. Future works include the preparation of a lyophilized reagent to make feasible the preparation of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC at nuclear medicine services in order to study the clinical potential of the radiopharmaceutical in diagnostic and staging of neuroendocrine tumors. (author)

  16. Purity Evaluation of Curcuminoids in the Turmeric Extract Obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh K; Sharma, Khushbu; Dutta, Anirban; Kundu, Aditi; Awasthi, Akanksha; Goon, Arnab; Banerjee, Kaushik; Saha, Supradip

    2017-05-01

    Curcuminoids, the active principle of Curcuma longa L, is one of the most researched subjects worldwide for its broad-spectrum biological activities. Being traditionally known for their anticancer properties and issues related to bioavailability, the curcuminoids, including diferuloylmethane (curcumin), have gained special attention. Thus, the current study focused on the purity profiling of curcuminoids when extracted by accelerated solvent extraction, which was run with turmeric rhizome powder (20 g) at 1500 psi and at 50°C, with a static time of 10 min and with three cycles. The performance of ethanol, ethyl acetate, and acetone as extraction solvents was comparatively evaluated. Once extracted, the individual curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) were purified by column chromatography, followed by preparative TLC, and the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. The HPLC method was standardized by using a gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. The LODs were calculated as 0.27, 0.33, and 0.42 μg/mL for curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, respectively. Accuracy (relative percentage error) and precision RSD values of the developed HPLC method were below 5%. The intraday accuracy ranged between -0.9 and -3.63%. The physical yield was the highest in ethanol (8.4%) extraction, followed by ethyl acetate (7.4%) and acetone (6.6%). Maximum purity was recorded in acetone (46.2%), followed by ethanol (43.4%) and ethyl acetate (38.8%), with no significant differences across the individual curcuminoids. This research will be useful for future applications related to the extraction of curcuminoids at a commercial level and to their profiling in food matrixes.

  17. The Debye light scattering equation’s scaling relation reveals the purity of synthetic dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Hui-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ping; Tang, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Hui-Ting; Kao, Chai-Lin; Wang, Shau-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Spherical dendrimer structures cannot be structurally modeled using conventional polymer models of random coil or rod-like configurations during the calibration of the static light scattering (LS) detectors used to determine the molecular weight (M.W.) of a dendrimer or directly assess the purity of a synthetic compound. In this paper, we used the Debye equation-based scaling relation, which predicts that the static LS intensity per unit concentration is linearly proportional to the M.W. of a synthetic dendrimer in a dilute solution, as a tool to examine the purity of high-generational compounds and to monitor the progress of dendrimer preparations. Without using expensive equipment, such as nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry, this method only required an affordable flow injection set-up with an LS detector. Solutions of the purified dendrimers, including the poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer and its fourth to seventh generation pyridine derivatives with size range of 5–9 nm, were used to establish the scaling relation with high linearity. The use of artificially impure mixtures of six or seven generations revealed significant deviations from linearity. The raw synthesized products of the pyridine-modified PAMAM dendrimer, which included incompletely reacted dendrimers, were also examined to gauge the reaction progress. As a reaction toward a particular generational derivative of the PAMAM dendrimers proceeded over time, deviations from the linear scaling relation decreased. The difference between the polydispersity index of the incompletely converted products and that of the pure compounds was only about 0.01. The use of the Debye equation-based scaling relation, therefore, is much more useful than the polydispersity index for monitoring conversion processes toward an indicated functionality number in a given preparation.Graphical abstract

  18. Assessment of radiochemical purity of [18F]fludeoxyglucose by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Aline E.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.

    2011-01-01

    The quality control of [ 18 F]fludeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) has received attention due to its increasing clinical use. Although the quality requirements of 18 FDG are established in various pharmacopoeia, the suitability of all testing methods used should be verified under actual conditions of use and documented. The aim of this study was to develop a high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for radiochemical purity evaluation of 18 FDG, based on pharmacopoeia references, and to verify its suitability for routine quality control in our centre. HPLC analysis was performed with an Agilent HPLC. 18 FDG and impurities were separated on an anion-exchange column by isocratic elution with 0.1 M NaOH as the mobile phase. Detection was accomplished with refractive index and NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors. The flow rate of the mobile phase was set at 0.8 mL/min and the column temperature was kept at 35 deg C. Specificity, linearity, precision and robustness were assessed to verify if the method was adequate for its intended purpose. Retention time of 18 FDG was not affected by the presence of other components of the formulation and a good peak resolution was achieved. The analytical curve of 18 FDG was linear, with a correlation coefficient value of 0.9995. Intraday repeatable precision, reported as the relative standard deviation, was 0.11%. Analytical procedure remained unaffected by small variations in mobile phase flow rate. Results evidenced that HPLC is suitable for radiochemical purity evaluation of 18 FDG, considering operational conditions of our laboratory. (author)

  19. Improving the radiochemical purity determination of 123I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciana Carvalheira; Paulo Bechara Dutra; Paula Fernandes de Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    The HPLC method originally applied at the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) for the radiochemical purity determination of 123iodine labeled m-iodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-mIBG) takes 18.5 min. The final product release also depends on this result, and to facilitate this stage, we aimed to decrease this analysis time. We also intended to use fewer toxic compounds, if feasible. The optimization approach used herein was a combination of factorial and mixture designs to study simultaneously the selected variables. Analysis time, resolution and chromatograms aspect were the measured responses. The qualitative analysis of these responses provided the best chromatographic separation conditions that were 52 mM KH 2 PO 4 in a solution of ethanol and water (1:1), applying a flow rate of 0.50 mL min -1 and C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm). These optimum conditions not only decreased the analysis time in 61 %, but also allowed the reduction of mobile phase toxicity. To assure reliable data, method validation was performed for these conditions. The method has proved its specificity, the detection limit found was 3.70 × 10 -4 MBq mL -1 and the quantification limit has corresponded to 1.11 × 10 -3 MBq mL -1 . Repeatability and intermediate precision has not exceeded 3 and 5 %, respectively, and the accuracy has matched the interval of 95-105 %. This new method has been routinely applied in the radiochemical purity determination of 123 I-mIBG at IEN. (author)

  20. Various analytical techniques used for the measurement of isotopic purity of heavy water at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayanan, V.; Umapathy, P.; Bhaskaran, R.; Nagarajan, J.; Pradeep, Jeena; Ayyar, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the various techniques used for the measurement of isotopic purity of heavy water samples received from different sources viz. reactor systems, heavy water upgrading plant and fresh consignment from heavy water production plants. Heavy water is used in PHWRs as moderator and primary coolant. Isotopic Purity is an important parameter to be monitored/analysed regularly for both the systems. There is a minimum isotopic purity level to be maintained in the moderator system due to neutron economy/fuel burnup and in the case of coolant system the measurement is of paramount importance due to its safety considerations. The selection of the method of analysis depends on the isotopic range. The techniques used to measure the isotopic purity of heavy water are a) Infrared Spectrophotometry b) Refractometry c) Densitometry. Infrared spectrometer uses the property of molecular absorption of IR radiation by HOD species and the absorbance is the measure of isotopic purity. This technique is generally used for measuring high isotopic (80-99.98%) and low isotopic samples. Refractometer uses the property of refractive index of heavy water. The difference in refractive indices of light water and heavy water is 0.0048. A 1 % change in D 2 O concentration would thus equal to 0.000048 refractive index units. This method is used for determining the approximate isotopic value of a sample. Density meter uses the property of difference in densities of light and heavy water. The difference in density of 99.999% D 2 O and light water is 0.107540 which covers the whole range of interest. The experience gained with these techniques in the measurements of isotopic purity of various samples are presented in this paper. (author)