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Sample records for purine nucleoside phosphorylases

  1. Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases in Bacillus subtilis. Purification and some properties of the adenosine-specific phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1978-01-01

    Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases (purine-nucleoside:orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) were purified from vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. One enzyme, inosine-guanosine phosphorylase, showed great similarity to the homologous enzyme of Bacillus cereus. It appeared...

  2. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in two unrelated Saudi patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alangari, Abdullah; Al-Harbi, Abdullah; Al-Ghonaium, Abdulaziz; Santisteban, Ines; Hershfield, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due...

  3. Anopheles gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure, and Inhibition

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    Taylor,E.; Rinaldo-Matthis, A.; Li, L.; Ghanem, M.; Hazleton, K.; Cassera, M.; Almo, S.; Schramm, V.

    2007-01-01

    The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is fast for AgPNP at 226 s-1 for guanosine in pre-steady-state studies. 5'-Deaza-1'-aza-2'-deoxy-1'-(9-methylene)-Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) is a transition-state mimic for a 2'-deoxyinosine ribocation with a fully dissociated N-ribosidic bond and is a slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor with a dissociation constant of 3.5 pM. This is the tightest-binding inhibitor known for any PNP, with a remarkable Km/Ki* of 5.4 x 107, and is consistent with enzymatic transition state predictions of enhanced transition-state analogue binding in enzymes with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Deoxyguanosine is a weaker substrate than deoxyinosine, and DADMe-Immucillin-G is less tightly bound than DADMe-ImmH, with a dissociation constant of 23 pM for AgPNP as compared to 7 pM for HsPNP. The crystal structure of AgPNP was determined in complex with DADMe-ImmH and phosphate to a resolution of 2.2 Angstroms to reveal the differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. The distance from the N1' cation to the phosphate O4 anion is shorter in the AgPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}PO4 complex than in HsPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}SO4, offering one explanation for the stronger inhibitory effect of DADMe-ImmH for AgPNP.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of E. Coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 0.99 Å resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2016-03-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) catalyze the reversible phosphorolysis of nucleosides and are key enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism. They are essential for normal cell function and can catalyze the transglycosylation. Crystals of E. coli PNP were grown in microgravity by the capillary counterdiffusion method through a gel layer. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined by the molecular-replacement method at 0.99 Å resolution. The structural features are considered, and the structure of E. coli PNP is compared with the structures of the free enzyme and its complexes with purine base derivatives established earlier. A comparison of the environment of the purine base in the complex of PNP with formycin A and of the pyrimidine base in the complex of uridine phosphorylase with thymidine revealed the main structural features of the base-binding sites. Coordinates of the atomic model determined with high accuracy were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB_ID: 4RJ2).

  5. Can Crystal Symmetry and Packing Influence the Active Site Conformation of Homohexameric Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylases?

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    Marija Luić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generaly believed that enzymes retain most of their functionality in the crystal form due to the large solvent content of protein crystals. This is facilitated by the fact that their natural environment in solution is not too far from the one found in the crystal form. Nevertheless, if the nature of the enzyme is such to require conformational changes, overcoming of the crystal packing constraints may prove to be too difficult. Such conformational change is present in one class of enzymes (purine nucleoside phosphorylases, that is the subject of our scientific interest for many years. The influence of crystal symmetry and crystal packing on the conformation of the active sites in the case of homohexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylases is presented and analysed. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  6. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramchik, Yu. A.; Timofeev, V. I.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-07-01

    Crystals of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase were grown in microgravity by the capillary counter-diffusion method through a gel layer. The X-ray diffraction data set suitable for the determination of the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution was collected from one crystal at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility to 0.99 Å resolution. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P21 and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = 74.1 Å, b = 110.2 Å, c = 88.2 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 111.08°. The crystal contains six subunits of the enzyme comprising a hexamer per asymmetric unit. The hexamer is the biological active form of E. coli. purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  7. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramchik, Yu. A., E-mail: inna@ns.crys.ras.ru; Timofeev, V. I., E-mail: espiov@ibch.ru; Zhukhlistova, N. E., E-mail: tostars@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kuranova, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Crystals of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase were grown in microgravity by the capillary counter-diffusion method through a gel layer. The X-ray diffraction data set suitable for the determination of the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution was collected from one crystal at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility to 0.99 Å resolution. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P2{sub 1} and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = 74.1 Å, b = 110.2 Å, c = 88.2 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 111.08°. The crystal contains six subunits of the enzyme comprising a hexamer per asymmetric unit. The hexamer is the biological active form of E. coli. purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  8. Structural determinants of the 5'-methylthioinosine specificity of Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

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    Teraya M Donaldson

    Full Text Available Plasmodium parasites rely upon purine salvage for survival. Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylase is part of the streamlined Plasmodium purine salvage pathway that leads to the phosphorylysis of both purines and 5'-methylthiopurines, byproducts of polyamine synthesis. We have explored structural features in Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PfPNP that affect efficiency of catalysis as well as those that make it suitable for dual specificity. We used site directed mutagenesis to identify residues critical for PfPNP catalytic activity as well as critical residues within a hydrophobic pocket required for accommodation of the 5'-methylthio group. Kinetic analysis data shows that several mutants had disrupted binding of the 5'-methylthio group while retaining activity for inosine. A triple PfPNP mutant that mimics Toxoplasma gondii PNP had significant loss of 5'-methylthio activity with retention of inosine activity. Crystallographic investigation of the triple mutant PfPNP with Tyr160Phe, Val66Ile, andVal73Ile in complex with the transition state inhibitor immucillin H reveals fewer hydrogen bond interactions for the inhibitor in the hydrophobic pocket.

  9. Structural characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from human pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

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    Štefanić, Zoran; Mikleušević, Goran; Luić, Marija; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Leščić Ašler, Ivana

    2017-08-01

    Microaerophilic bacterium Helicobacer pylori is a well known human pathogen involved in the development of many diseases. Due to the evergrowing infection rate and increase of H. pylori antibiotic resistence, it is of utmost importance to find a new way to attack and eradicate H. pylori. The purine metabolism in H. pylori is solely dependant on the salvage pathway and one of the key enzymes in this pathway is purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). In this timely context, we report here the basic biochemical and structural characterization of recombinant PNP from the H. pylori clinical isolate expressed in Escherichia coli. Structure of H. pylori PNP is typical for high molecular mass PNPs. However, its activity towards adenosine is very low, thus resembling more that of low molecular mass PNPs. Understanding the molecular mechanism of this key enzyme may lead to the development of new drug strategies and help in the eradication of H. pylori. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transition Path Sampling Study of the Reaction Catalyzed by Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

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    Saen-oon, Suwipa; Schramm, Vern L.; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    The Transition Path Sampling (TPS) method is a powerful technique for studying rare events in complex systems, that allows description of reactive events in atomic detail without prior knowledge of reaction coordinates and transition states. We have applied TPS in combination with a hybrid Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) method to study the enzyme human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hPNP). This enzyme catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of 6-oxypurine (deoxy)nucleosides to generate the corresponding purine base and (deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate. Hundreds of reactive trajectories were generated. Analysis of this transition path ensembles provides insight into the detailed mechanistic dynamics of reaction in the enzyme. Our studies have indicated a reaction mechanism involving the cleavage of the N-ribosidic bond to form transition states with substantial ribooxacarbenium ion character, that is then followed by conformational changes in the enzyme and the ribosyl group leading to migration of the anomeric carbon of the ribosyl group toward phosphate to form the product ribose 1-phosphate. This latter process is crucial in PNP, because several strong H-bonds form between active site residues in order to capture and align the phosphate nucleophile. Calculations of the commitment probability along reactive paths demonstrated the presence of a broad energy barrier at the transition state. Analysis of these transition state structures showed that bond-breaking and bond-forming distances are not a good choice for the reaction coordinate, but that the pseudorotational phase of the ribose ring is also a significant variable. PMID:20664707

  11. Molecular analysis of mutations in a patient with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency

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    Aust, M.R.; Norby-Slycord, C.J.; Andrews, L.G.; Markert, M.L. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)); Barrett, M.J. (Sunnyside Hospital, Clackamas, OR (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder resulting in severe combined immunodeficiency. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular defects responsible for PNP deficiency in one such patient. The patient's PNP cDNA was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Point mutations leading to amino acid substitutions were found in both alleles. One point mutation led to a Ser-to-Gly substitution at amino acid 51 and was common to both alleles. In addition, an Asp-to-Gly substitution at amino acid 128 and an Arg-to-Pro substitution at amino acid 234 were found in the maternal and paternal alleles, respectively. In order to prove that these mutations were responsible for the disease state, each of the three mutations was constructed separately by site-directed mutagenesis of the normal PNP cDNA, and each was transiently expressed in COS cells. Lysates from cells transfected with the allele carrying the substitution at amino acid 51 retained both function and immunoreactivity. Lysates from cells transfected with PNP alleles carrying a substitution at either amino acid 128 or amino acid 234 contained immunoreactive material but had no detectable human PNP activity. In summary, molecular analysis of this patient identified point mutations within the PNP gene which are responsible for the enzyme deficiency. 52 refs., 5 figs.

  12. A purine nucleoside phosphorylase in Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) with specificity for cytokinins contributes to the duration of tuber endodormancy.

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    Bromley, Jennifer R; Warnes, Barbara J; Newell, Christine A; Thomson, Jamie C P; James, Celia M; Turnbull, Colin G N; Hanke, David E

    2014-03-01

    StCKP1 (Solanum tuberosum cytokinin riboside phosphorylase) catalyses the interconversion of the N9-riboside form of the plant hormone CK (cytokinin), a subset of purines, with its most active free base form. StCKP1 prefers CK to unsubstituted aminopurines. The protein was discovered as a CK-binding activity in extracts of tuberizing potato stolon tips, from which it was isolated by affinity chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequence matched the translation product of a set of ESTs, enabling a complete mRNA sequence to be obtained by RACE-PCR. The predicted polypeptide includes a cleavable signal peptide and motifs for purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity. The expressed protein was assayed for purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity against CKs and adenine/adenosine. Isopentenyladenine, trans-zeatin, dihydrozeatin and adenine were converted into ribosides in the presence of ribose 1-phosphate. In the opposite direction, isopentenyladenosine, trans-zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin riboside and adenosine were converted into their free bases in the presence of Pi. StCKP1 had no detectable ribohydrolase activity. Evidence is presented that StCKP1 is active in tubers as a negative regulator of CKs, prolonging endodormancy by a chill-reversible mechanism.

  13. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase and xanthine oxidase activities in erythrocytes and plasma from marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Pérez-Milicua, Myrna Barjau; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal-Vertiz, Jaime A; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Vázquez-Medina, José P; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-05-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are key enzymes involved in the purine salvage pathway. PNP metabolizes purine bases to synthetize purine nucleotides whereas XO catalyzes the oxidation of purines to uric acid. In humans, PNP activity is reported to be high in erythrocytes and XO activity to be low in plasma; however, XO activity increases after ischemic events. XO activity in plasma of northern elephant seals has been reported during prolonged fasting and rest and voluntary associated apneas. The objective of this study was to analyze circulating PNP and XO activities in marine mammals adapted to tolerate repeated cycles of ischemia/reperfusion associated with diving (bottlenose dolphin, northern elephant seal) in comparison with semiaquatic (river otter) and terrestrial mammals (human, pig). PNP activities in plasma and erythrocytes, as well as XO activity in plasma, from all species were quantified by spectrophotometry. No clear relationship in circulating PNP or XO activity could be established between marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals. Erythrocytes from bottlenose dolphins and humans are highly permeable to nucleosides and glucose, intraerythrocyte PNP activity may be related to a release of purine nucleotides from the liver. High-energy costs will probably mean a higher ATP degradation rate in river otters, as compared to northern elephant seals or dolphins. Lower erythrocyte PNP activity and elevated plasma XO activity in northern elephant seal could be associated with fasting and/or sleep- and dive-associated apneas.

  14. Inhibition and Structure of Trichomonas vaginalis Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase with Picomolar Transition State Analogues

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    Rinaldo-Matthis,A.; Wing, C.; Ghanem, M.; Deng, H.; Wu, P.; Gupta, A.; Tyler, P.; Evans, G.; Furneaux, R.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan purine auxotroph possessing a unique purine salvage pathway consisting of a bacterial type purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and a purine nucleoside kinase. Thus, T. vaginalis PNP (TvPNP) functions in the reverse direction relative to the PNPs in other organisms. Immucillin-A (ImmA) and DADMe-Immucillin-A (DADMe-ImmA) are transition stte mimics of adenosine with geometric and electrostatic features that resemble early and late transition states of adenosine at the transition state stabilized by TvPNP. ImmA demonstrates slow-onset tight-binding inhibition with TvPNP, to give an equilibrium dissociation constant of 87 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 17.2 min, and a K{sub m}/K{sub d} ratio of 70,100. DADMe-ImmA resembles a late ribooxacarbenium ion transition state for TvPNP to give a dissociation constant of 30 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 64 min, and a K{sub m}/K{sub d} ratio of 203,300. The tight binding of DADMe-ImmA supports a late S{sub N}1 transition state. Despite their tight binding to TvPNP, ImmA and DADMe-ImmA are weak inhibitors of human and P. falciparum PNPs. The crystal structures of the TvPNP-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} and TvPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} ternary complexes differ from previous structures with substrate anologues. The tight binding with DADMe-ImmA is in part due to a 2.7 {angstrom} ionic interaction between a PO{sub 4} oxygen and the N1 cation of the hydroxypyrrolidine and is weaker in the TvPNP{center_dot}ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} structure at 3.5 {angstrom}. However, the TvPNP{center_dot}ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} structure includes hydrogen bonds between the 2'-hydroxyl and the protein that are not present in TvPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4}. These structures explain why DADMe-ImmA binds tighter than ImmA. Immucillin-H is a 12 nM inhibitor of TvPNP but a 56 pM inhibitor of human PNP. And this difference is explained by isotope

  15. Metabolites of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (NP in serum have the potential to delineate pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

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    Shaiju K Vareed

    Full Text Available Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma (PDAC, the fourth highest cause of cancer related deaths in the United States, has the most aggressive presentation resulting in a very short median survival time for the affected patients. Early detection of PDAC is confounded by lack of specific markers that has motivated the use of high throughput molecular approaches to delineate potential biomarkers. To pursue identification of a distinct marker, this study profiled the secretory proteome in 16 PDAC, 2 carcinoma in situ (CIS and 7 benign patients using label-free mass spectrometry coupled to 1D-SDS-PAGE and Strong Cation-Exchange Chromatography (SCX. A total of 431 proteins were detected of which 56 were found to be significantly elevated in PDAC. Included in this differential set were Parkinson disease autosomal recessive, early onset 7 (PARK 7 and Alpha Synuclein (aSyn, both of which are known to be pathognomonic to Parkinson's disease as well as metabolic enzymes like Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (NP which has been exploited as therapeutic target in cancers. Tissue Microarray analysis confirmed higher expression of aSyn and NP in ductal epithelia of pancreatic tumors compared to benign ducts. Furthermore, extent of both aSyn and NP staining positively correlated with tumor stage and perineural invasion while their intensity of staining correlated with the existence of metastatic lesions in the PDAC tissues. From the biomarker perspective, NP protein levels were higher in PDAC sera and furthermore serum levels of its downstream metabolites guanosine and adenosine were able to distinguish PDAC from benign in an unsupervised hierarchical classification model. Overall, this study for the first time describes elevated levels of aSyn in PDAC as well as highlights the potential of evaluating NP protein expression and levels of its downstream metabolites to develop a multiplex panel for non-invasive detection of PDAC.

  16. Nicotinamide riboside, an unusual, non-typical, substrate of purified purine-nucleoside phosphorylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgus-Kutrowska, B; Kulikowska, E; Wierzchowski, J; Bzowska, A; Shugar, D

    1997-01-15

    Nicotinamide 1-beta-D-riboside (Nir), the cationic, reducible moiety of the coenzyme NAD+, has been confirmed as an unusual substrate for purified purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from a mammalian source (calf spleen). It is also a substrate of the enzyme from Escherichia coli. The Km values at pH 7, 1.48 mM and 0.62 mM, respectively, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than for the natural substrate inosine, but the Vmax values were comparable, 96% and 35% that for Ino. The pseudo first-order rate constants, Vmax/Km, were 1.1% and 2.5% for the calf spleen and E. coli enzymes. The aglycon, nicotinamide, was neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of PNP. Nir was a weak inhibitor of inosine phosphorolysis catalyzed by both enzymes, with Ki values close to the Km for its phosphorolysis, consistent with simple competitive inhibition; this was further confirmed by Dixon plots. Phosphorolysis of the fluorescent positively charged substrate 7-methylguanosine was also inhibited in a competitive manner by both Ino and Nir. Phosphorolysis of Nir by both enzymes was inhibited competitively by several specific inhibitors of calf spleen and E. coli PNP, with Ki values similar to those for inhibition of other natural substrates. The pH dependence of the kinetic constants for the phosphorolysis of Nir and of a variety of other substrates, was extensively investigated, particularly in the alkaline pH range, where Nir exhibited abnormally high substrate activity relative to the reduced reaction rates of both enzymes towards other anionic or neutral substrates. The overall results are discussed in relation to present concepts regarding binding and phosphorolysis of substrates by PNP based on crystallographic data of enzyme-inhibitor complexes, and current studies on enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms of the cleavage of the Nir glycosidic bond.

  17. Thermodynamics of the Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Reaction Revealed by Computer Simulations.

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    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2017-01-10

    Enzymes are able to catalyze chemical reactions by reducing the activation free energy, yielding significant increases in the reaction rates. This can thermodynamically be accomplished by either reducing the activation enthalpy or increasing the activation entropy. The effect of remote mutations on the thermodynamic activation parameters of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase is examined using extensive molecular dynamics and free energy simulations. More than 2700 independent reaction free energy profiles for six different temperatures have been calculated to obtain high-precision computational Arrhenius plots. On the basis of these, the activation enthalpies and entropies were computed from linear regression of the plots with ΔG(⧧) as a function of 1/T, and the obtained thermodynamic activation parameters are in very good agreement with those from experiments. The Arrhenius plots immediately show that the 6-oxopurines (INO and GUO) have identical slopes, whereas the 6-aminopurine (ADO) has a significantly different slope, indicating that the substrate specificity is related to the difference in thermodynamic activation parameters. Furthermore, the calculations show that the human PNP specificity for 6-oxopurines over 6-aminopurines originates from significant differences in electrostatic preorganization. The effect of the remote double mutation, K22E and H104R (E:R), has also been examined, as it alters human PNP toward the bovine PNP. These residues are situated on the protein surface, 28-35 Å from the active site, and the mutation alters the enthalpy-entropy balance with little effect on the catalytic rates. It is thus quite remarkable that the empirical valence bond method can reproduce the enthalpies and entropies induced by these long-range mutations.

  18. Nicotinamide riboside and nicotinic acid riboside salvage in fungi and mammals. Quantitative basis for Urh1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase function in NAD+ metabolism.

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    Belenky, Peter; Christensen, Kathryn C; Gazzaniga, Francesca; Pletnev, Alexandre A; Brenner, Charles

    2009-01-02

    NAD+ is a co-enzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and an essential substrate of ADP-ribose transfer enzymes and sirtuins, the type III protein lysine deacetylases related to yeast Sir2. Supplementation of yeast cells with nicotinamide riboside extends replicative lifespan and increases Sir2-dependent gene silencing by virtue of increasing net NAD+ synthesis. Nicotinamide riboside elevates NAD+ levels via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by a pathway initiated by splitting the nucleoside into a nicotinamide base followed by nicotinamide salvage. Genetic evidence has established that uridine hydrolase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase are required for Nrk-independent utilization of nicotinamide riboside in yeast. Here we show that mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase but not methylthioadenosine phosphorylase is responsible for mammalian nicotinamide riboside kinase-independent nicotinamide riboside utilization. We demonstrate that so-called uridine hydrolase is 100-fold more active as a nicotinamide riboside hydrolase than as a uridine hydrolase and that uridine hydrolase and mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase cleave nicotinic acid riboside, whereas the yeast phosphorylase has little activity on nicotinic acid riboside. Finally, we show that yeast nicotinic acid riboside utilization largely depends on uridine hydrolase and nicotinamide riboside kinase and that nicotinic acid riboside bioavailability is increased by ester modification.

  19. Insights into Phosphate Cooperativity and Influence of Substrate Modifications on Binding and Catalysis of Hexameric Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylases

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    de Giuseppe, Priscila O.; Martins, Nadia H.; Meza, Andreia N.; dos Santos, Camila R.; Pereira, Humberto D’Muniz; Murakami, Mario T.

    2012-01-01

    The hexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacillus subtilis (BsPNP233) displays great potential to produce nucleoside analogues in industry and can be exploited in the development of new anti-tumor gene therapies. In order to provide structural basis for enzyme and substrates rational optimization, aiming at those applications, the present work shows a thorough and detailed structural description of the binding mode of substrates and nucleoside analogues to the active site of the hexameric BsPNP233. Here we report the crystal structure of BsPNP233 in the apo form and in complex with 11 ligands, including clinically relevant compounds. The crystal structure of six ligands (adenine, 2′deoxyguanosine, aciclovir, ganciclovir, 8-bromoguanosine, 6-chloroguanosine) in complex with a hexameric PNP are presented for the first time. Our data showed that free bases adopt alternative conformations in the BsPNP233 active site and indicated that binding of the co-substrate (2′deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate might contribute for stabilizing the bases in a favorable orientation for catalysis. The BsPNP233-adenosine complex revealed that a hydrogen bond between the 5′ hydroxyl group of adenosine and Arg43* side chain contributes for the ribosyl radical to adopt an unusual C3’-endo conformation. The structures with 6-chloroguanosine and 8-bromoguanosine pointed out that the Cl6 and Br8 substrate modifications seem to be detrimental for catalysis and can be explored in the design of inhibitors for hexameric PNPs from pathogens. Our data also corroborated the competitive inhibition mechanism of hexameric PNPs by tubercidin and suggested that the acyclic nucleoside ganciclovir is a better inhibitor for hexameric PNPs than aciclovir. Furthermore, comparative structural analyses indicated that the replacement of Ser90 by a threonine in the B. cereus hexameric adenosine phosphorylase (Thr91) is responsible for the lack of negative cooperativity of phosphate binding in this

  20. Insights into phosphate cooperativity and influence of substrate modifications on binding and catalysis of hexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylases.

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    Priscila O de Giuseppe

    Full Text Available The hexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacillus subtilis (BsPNP233 displays great potential to produce nucleoside analogues in industry and can be exploited in the development of new anti-tumor gene therapies. In order to provide structural basis for enzyme and substrates rational optimization, aiming at those applications, the present work shows a thorough and detailed structural description of the binding mode of substrates and nucleoside analogues to the active site of the hexameric BsPNP233. Here we report the crystal structure of BsPNP233 in the apo form and in complex with 11 ligands, including clinically relevant compounds. The crystal structure of six ligands (adenine, 2'deoxyguanosine, aciclovir, ganciclovir, 8-bromoguanosine, 6-chloroguanosine in complex with a hexameric PNP are presented for the first time. Our data showed that free bases adopt alternative conformations in the BsPNP233 active site and indicated that binding of the co-substrate (2'deoxyribose 1-phosphate might contribute for stabilizing the bases in a favorable orientation for catalysis. The BsPNP233-adenosine complex revealed that a hydrogen bond between the 5' hydroxyl group of adenosine and Arg(43* side chain contributes for the ribosyl radical to adopt an unusual C3'-endo conformation. The structures with 6-chloroguanosine and 8-bromoguanosine pointed out that the Cl(6 and Br(8 substrate modifications seem to be detrimental for catalysis and can be explored in the design of inhibitors for hexameric PNPs from pathogens. Our data also corroborated the competitive inhibition mechanism of hexameric PNPs by tubercidin and suggested that the acyclic nucleoside ganciclovir is a better inhibitor for hexameric PNPs than aciclovir. Furthermore, comparative structural analyses indicated that the replacement of Ser(90 by a threonine in the B. cereus hexameric adenosine phosphorylase (Thr(91 is responsible for the lack of negative cooperativity of phosphate binding

  1. Functional and Structural Characterization of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase from Kluyveromyces lactis and Its Potential Applications in Reducing Purine Content in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahor, Durga; Priyanka, Anu; Prasad, Gandham S; Thakur, Krishan Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of foods and beverages with high purine content increases the risk of hyperuricemia, which causes gout and can lead to cardiovascular, renal, and other metabolic disorders. As patients often find dietary restrictions challenging, enzymatically lowering purine content in popular foods and beverages offers a safe and attractive strategy to control hyperuricemia. Here, we report structurally and functionally characterized purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from Kluyveromyces lactis (KlacPNP), a key enzyme involved in the purine degradation pathway. We report a 1.97 Å resolution crystal structure of homotrimeric KlacPNP with an intrinsically bound hypoxanthine in the active site. KlacPNP belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase-I (NP-I) family, and it specifically utilizes 6-oxopurine substrates in the following order: inosine > guanosine > xanthosine, but is inactive towards adenosine. To engineer enzymes with broad substrate specificity, we created two point variants, KlacPNPN256D and KlacPNPN256E, by replacing the catalytically active Asn256 with Asp and Glu, respectively, based on structural and comparative sequence analysis. KlacPNPN256D not only displayed broad substrate specificity by utilizing both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines in the order adenosine > inosine > xanthosine > guanosine, but also displayed reversal of substrate specificity. In contrast, KlacPNPN256E was highly specific to inosine and could not utilize other tested substrates. Beer consumption is associated with increased risk of developing gout, owing to its high purine content. Here, we demonstrate that KlacPNP and KlacPNPN256D could be used to catalyze a key reaction involved in lowering beer purine content. Biochemical properties of these enzymes such as activity across a wide pH range, optimum activity at about 25°C, and stability for months at about 8°C, make them suitable candidates for food and beverage industries. Since KlacPNPN256D has broad substrate specificity, a

  2. Functional and Structural Characterization of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase from Kluyveromyces lactis and Its Potential Applications in Reducing Purine Content in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahor, Durga; Priyanka, Anu; Prasad, Gandham S; Thakur, Krishan Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of foods and beverages with high purine content increases the risk of hyperuricemia, which causes gout and can lead to cardiovascular, renal, and other metabolic disorders. As patients often find dietary restrictions challenging, enzymatically lowering purine content in popular foods and beverages offers a safe and attractive strategy to control hyperuricemia. Here, we report structurally and functionally characterized purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from Kluyveromyces lactis (KlacPNP), a key enzyme involved in the purine degradation pathway. We report a 1.97 Å resolution crystal structure of homotrimeric KlacPNP with an intrinsically bound hypoxanthine in the active site. KlacPNP belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase-I (NP-I) family, and it specifically utilizes 6-oxopurine substrates in the following order: inosine > guanosine > xanthosine, but is inactive towards adenosine. To engineer enzymes with broad substrate specificity, we created two point variants, KlacPNPN256D and KlacPNPN256E, by replacing the catalytically active Asn256 with Asp and Glu, respectively, based on structural and comparative sequence analysis. KlacPNPN256D not only displayed broad substrate specificity by utilizing both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines in the order adenosine > inosine > xanthosine > guanosine, but also displayed reversal of substrate specificity. In contrast, KlacPNPN256E was highly specific to inosine and could not utilize other tested substrates. Beer consumption is associated with increased risk of developing gout, owing to its high purine content. Here, we demonstrate that KlacPNP and KlacPNPN256D could be used to catalyze a key reaction involved in lowering beer purine content. Biochemical properties of these enzymes such as activity across a wide pH range, optimum activity at about 25°C, and stability for months at about 8°C, make them suitable candidates for food and beverage industries. Since KlacPNPN256D has broad substrate specificity, a

  3. Development of a new HPLC method using fluorescence detection without derivatization for determining purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Patricia; Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Buccella, Silvana; Rossini, Margherita; D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Ciccarelli, Renata; Marzo, Matteo; Marzo, Antonio; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Caciagli, Francesco

    2016-01-15

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) activity is involved in cell survival and function, since PNP is a key enzyme in the purine metabolic pathway where it catalyzes the phosphorolysis of the nucleosides to the corresponding nucleobases. Its dysfunction has been found in relevant pathological conditions (such as inflammation and cancer), so the detection of PNP activity in plasma could represent an attractive marker for early diagnosis or assessment of disease progression. Thus the aim of this study was to develop a simple, fast and sensitive HPLC method for the determination of PNP activity in plasma. The separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex PFP column using 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol as mobile phases in gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1ml/min and purine compounds were detected using UV absorption and fluorescence. The analysis was fast since the run was achieved within 13min. This method improved the separation of the different purines, allowing the UV-based quantification of the natural PNP substrates (inosine and guanosine) or products (hypoxanthine and guanine) and its subsequent metabolic products (xanthine and uric acid) with a good precision and accuracy. The most interesting innovation is the simultaneous use of a fluorescence detector (excitation/emission wavelength of 260/375nm) that allowed the quantification of guanosine and guanine without derivatization. Compared with UV, the fluorescence detection improved the sensitivity for guanine detection by about 10-fold and abolished almost completely the baseline noise due to the presence of plasma in the enzymatic reaction mixture. Thus, the validated method allowed an excellent evaluation of PNP activity in plasma which could be useful as an indicator of several pathological conditions.

  4. 6-Methylpurine derived sugar modified nucleosides: Synthesis and evaluation of their substrate activity with purine nucleoside phosphorylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdalla E A; Abou-Elkhair, Reham A I; Parker, William B; Allan, Paula W; Secrist, John A

    2016-04-01

    6-Methylpurine (MeP) is cytotoxic adenine analog that does not exhibit selectivity when administered systemically, and could be very useful in a gene therapy approach to cancer treatment involving Escherichia coli PNP. The prototype MeP releasing prodrug, 9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine, MeP-dR has demonstrated good activity against tumors expressing E. coli PNP, but its antitumor activity is limited due to toxicity resulting from the generation of MeP from gut bacteria. Therefore, we have embarked on a medicinal chemistry program to identify non-toxic MeP prodrugs that could be used in conjunction with E. coli PNP. In this work, we report on the synthesis of 9-(6-deoxy-β-d-allofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (3) and 9-(6-deoxy-5-C-methyl-β-d-ribo-hexofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (4), and the evaluation of their substrate activity with several phosphorylases. The glycosyl donors; 1,2-di-O-acetyl-3,5-di-O-benzyl-α-d-allofuranose (10) and 1-O-acetyl-3-O-benzyl-2,5-di-O-benzoyl-6-deoxy-5-C-methyl-β-d-ribohexofuran-ose (15) were prepared from 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidine-α-d-glucofuranose in 9 and 11 steps, respectively. Coupling of 10 and 15 with silylated 6-methylpurine under Vorbrüggen glycosylation conditions followed conventional deprotection of the hydroxyl groups furnished 5'-C-methylated-6-methylpurine nucleosides 3 and 4, respectively. Unlike 9-(6-deoxy-α-l-talo-furanosyl)-6-methylpurine, which showed good substrate activity with E. coli PNP mutant (M64V), the β-d-allo-furanosyl derivative 3 and the 5'-di-C-methyl derivative 4 were poor substrates for all tested glycosidic bond cleavage enzymes.

  5. hTERT-targeted E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene/6-methylpurine deoxyribose therapy for pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jia-hua; TANG Bo; LIU Xun-liang; HE Dao-wei; YANG De-tong

    2007-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most common tumors and has a 5-year survival for all stages of less than 5%. Most patients with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage and therefore are not candidates for surgical resection. In recent years, investigation into alternative treatment strategies for this aggressive disease has led to advances in the field of gene therapy for pancreatic cancer. E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase/6-methylpurine deoxyribose (ePNP/MePdR) is a suicide gene/prodrug system where PNP enzyme cleaves nontoxic MePdR into cytotoxic membrane-permeable compounds 6-methylpurine (MeP) with high bystander activity, hTERT is expressed in cell lines and tissues for telomerase activity. In this study we examined the efficacy of ePNP under the control of hTERT promoter sequences and assessed the selective killing effects of the ePNP/prodrug MePdR system on pancreatic tumors.Methods Recombinant pET-PNP was established. The protein of E. coli PNPase was expressed and an antibody to E.coli PNPase was prepared. Transcriptional activities of hTERT promoter sequences were analyzed using a luciferase reporter gene. A recombinant phTERT-ePNP vector was constructed. The ePNP/MePdR system affects SW1990 human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro.Results The hTERT promoter had high transcriptional activity and conferred specificity on cancer cell lines. The antibody to E. coli PNPase was demonstrated to be specific for the ePNP protein. The MePdR treatment induced a high in vitro cytotoxicity on the sole hTERT-ePNP-producing cell lines and affected SW1990 cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions The hTERT promoter control of the ePNP/MePdR system can provide a beneficial anti-tumor treatment in pancreatic cancer cell lines including a good bystander killing effect.

  6. 6-Methylpurine derived sugar modified nucleosides: Synthesis and in vivo antitumor activity in D54 tumor expressing M64V-Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdalla E A; Abou-Elkhair, Reham A I; Parker, William B; Allan, Paula W; Secrist, John A

    2016-01-27

    Impressive antitumor activity has been observed with fludarabine phosphate against tumors that express Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) due to the liberation of 2-fluoroadenine in the tumor tissue. 6-Methylpurine (MeP) is another cytotoxic adenine analog that does not exhibit selectivity when administered systemically, and could be very useful in a gene therapy approach to cancer treatment involving E. coli PNP. The prototype MeP releasing prodrug 9-(2-deoxy-β-d-ribofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (1) [MeP-dR] has demonstrated good activity against tumors expressing E. coli PNP, but its antitumor activity is limited due to toxicity resulting from the generation of MeP from gut bacteria. Therefore, we have embarked on a medicinal chemistry program to identify a combination of non-toxic MeP prodrugs and non-human adenosine glycosidic bond cleaving enzymes. The two best MeP-based substrates with M64V-E coli PNP, a mutant which was engineered to tolerate modification at the 5'-position of adenosine and its analogs, were 9-(6-deoxy-α-l-talofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (3) [methyl(talo)-MeP-R] and 9-(α-l-lyxofuranosyl)6-methylpurine (4) [lyxo-MeP-R]. The detailed synthesis methyl(talo)-MeP-R and lyxo-MeP-R, and the evaluation of their substrate activity with 4 enzymes not normally associated with cancer patients is described. In addition, we have determined the intraperitoneal pharmacokinetic (ip-PK) properties of methyl(talo)-MeP-R and have determined its in vivo bystander activity in mice bearing D54 tumors that express M64V PNP. The observed good in vivo bystander activity of [methyl(talo)-MeP-R/M64V-E coli PNP combination suggests that these agents could be useful for the treatment of cancer.

  7. The transition state analog inhibitor of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP) Immucillin-H arrests bone loss in rat periodontal disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deves, Candida; de Assunção, Thiago Milech; Ducati, Rodrigo Gay; Campos, Maria Martha; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diogenes Santiago; Batista, Eraldo L

    2013-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a purine-metabolizing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of 6-oxypurine (deoxy)nucleosides to their respective bases and (deoxy)ribose-1-phosphate. It is a key enzyme in the purine salvage pathway of mammalian cells. The present investigation sought to determine whether the PNP transition state analog inhibitor (Immucillin-H) arrests bone loss in two models of induced periodontal disease in rats. Periodontal disease was induced in rats using ligature or LPS injection followed by administration of Immucillin-H for direct analysis of bone loss, histology and TRAP staining. In vitro osteoclast differentiation and activation of T CD4+ cells in the presence of Immucillin-H were carried out for assessment of RANKL expression, PNP and Cathepsin K activity. Immucillin-H inhibited bone loss induced by ligatures and LPS, leading to a reduced number of infiltrating osteoclasts and inflammatory cells. In vitro assays revealed that Immucillin-H could not directly abrogate differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells, but affected lymphocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis. On the other hand, incubation of pre-activated T CD4+ with Immucillin-H decreased RANKL secretion with no compromise of cell viability. The PNP transition state analog Immucillin-H arrests bone loss mediated by T CD4+ cells with no direct effect on osteoclasts. PNP inhibitor may have an impact in the treatment of diseases characterized by the presence of pathogens and imbalances of bone metabolism.

  8. High-sensitivity capillary electrophoresis method for monitoring purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase reactions by a reversed electrode polarity switching mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jamshed; Müller, Christa E

    2011-07-22

    A simple, efficient, and highly sensitive in-line CE method was developed for the characterization and for inhibition studies of the nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) present in membrane preparations of human 1539 melanoma cells. After filling the running buffer (50 mM borate buffer, 100 mM SDS, pH 9.10) into a fused-silica capillary (50 cm effective length × 75 μm), a large sample volume was loaded by hydrodynamic injection (5 psi, 36 s), followed by the removal of the large plug of sample matrix from the capillary using polarity switching (-20 kV). The current was monitored and the polarity was reversed when 95% of the current had been recovered. The separation of the neutral analytes (nucleosides and nucleobases) was performed by applying a voltage of 15 kV. An about 10-fold improvement of sensitivity for the five investigated analytes (adenosine, inosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, xanthine) was achieved by large-volume stacking with polarity switching when compared with CE without stacking. For inosine and adenine detection limits as low as 60 nM were achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest sensitivity for nucleoside and nucleobase analysis using CE with UV detection reported so far. The Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) for PNP and ADA and the inhibition constants (K(i)) for standard inhibitors determined with the new method were consistent with literature data.

  9. Characterization of an engineered human purine nucleoside phosphorylase fused to an anti-her2/neu single chain Fv for use in ADEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Anna M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (ADEPT can be used to generate cytotoxic agents at the tumor site. To date non-human enzymes have mainly been utilized in ADEPT. However, these non-human enzymes are immunogenic limiting the number of times that ADEPT can be administered. To overcome the problem of immunogenicity, a fully human enzyme, capable of converting a non-toxic prodrug to cytotoxic drug was developed and joined to a human tumor specific scFv yielding a fully human targeting agent. Methods A double mutant of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hDM was developed which unlike the human enzyme can cleave adenosine-based prodrugs. For tumor-specific targeting, hDM was fused to the human anti-HER2/neu single chain Fv (scFv, C6 MH3B1. Enzymatic activity of hDM with its natural substrates and prodrugs was determined using spectrophotomeric approaches. A cell proliferation assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity generated following conversion of prodrug to drug as a result of enzymatic activity of hDM. Affinity of the targeting scFv, C6 MH3B1 fused to hDM to Her2/neu was confirmed using affinity chromatography, surface plasmon resonance, and flow-cytometry. Results In vitro hDM-C6 MH3B1 binds specifically to HER2/neu expressing tumor cells and localizes hDM to tumor cells, where the enzymatic activity of hDM-C6 MH3B1, but not the wild type enzyme, results in phosphorolysis of the prodrug, 2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine to the cytotoxic drug 2-fluoroadenine (F-Ade causing inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Significantly, the toxic small drug diffuses through the cell membrane of HER2/neu expressing cells as well as cells that lack the expression of HER2/neu, causing a bystander effect. F-Ade is toxic to cells irrespective of their growth rate; therefore, both the slowly dividing tumor cells and the non-dividing neighboring stromal cells that support tumor growth should be killed. Analysis of potential novel MHCII

  10. Novel purine nucleoside analogues for hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korycka, Anna; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Robak, Tadeusz

    2008-06-01

    Recently, the search for more effective and safer antineoplastic agents has led to synthesis and introduction into preclinical and clinical studies of a few new purine nucleoside analogues (PNA). Three of them: clofarabine (CAFdA), nelarabine, and forodesine (immucillin H, BCX-1777), despite belonging to the same group of drugs such as PNA, have shown some differences concerning their active forms, metabolic properties and mechanism of action. However, all these drugs have demonstrated promising activity in patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). CAFdA was approved for the therapy of relapsed or refractory ALL in the third line of treatment. It has proved promising in pediatric patients as well as in some patients who are able to proceed to allogenic hematopietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Moreover, the drug exhibits an efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-BP) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Nelarabine is recommended for T-ALL and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) with the overall response rates ranging from 11 to 60%. However, the use of the drug is limited by potentially severe neurotoxicity. Forodesine is a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) inhibitor and it has shown activity in relapsed and refractory T- and B-cells leukemias as well as in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Recently patented, a few of inventions in the field of pharmaceutical preparation of new PNA have also been published. Great hopes are currently set on the use of these drugs in the treatment of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies in adult and in pediatric patients, however ongoing studies will help to define their role in the standard therapy.

  11. Development, validation and application of a 96-well enzymatic assay based on LC-ESI-MS/MS quantification for the screening of selective inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Giulia; Ubiali, Daniela; Calleri, Enrica; Rabuffetti, Marco; Höfner, Georg C; Wanner, Klaus T; De Moraes, Marcela C; Martinelli, Leonardo K B; Santos, Diógenes Santiago; Speranza, Giovanna; Massolini, Gabriella

    2016-11-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP, EC 2.4.2.1) has been identified as a target for the development of specific inhibitors with potential antimycobacterial activity. We hereby described the development and validation of a new 96-well LC-ESI-MS/MS method to assess the inhibition activity of nucleoside analogues towards MtbPNP and the human PNP (HsPNP). Enzyme activity was determined by monitoring the phosphorolysis of inosine (Ino) to hypoxanthine (Hpx). The enzymatic assay (v = 0.5 mL, enzymeplate for sample processing and 2 min/sample for LC-MS analysis. Validation of the quantification method met the criteria of the CDER guidance of FDA. Kinetic parameters were in agreement with those reported in literature (HsPNP KM = 0.150 ± 0.020 mM vs 0.133 ± 0.015 mM; MtbPNP KM = 0.060 ± 0.009 mM vs 0.040 ± 0.003 mM for Ino), thus demonstrating the reliability of the newly developed enzymatic assay. Preliminary inhibition assays confirmed the effects reported for Acyclovir (Acv) and Formycin A (FA) against HsPNP and MtbPNP. The validated enzymatic assay was applied to the evaluation of a set of 8-halo-, 8-amino-, 8-O-alkyl-substituted purine ribonucleosides synthesized on purpose as potential inhibitors against MtbPNP. The assayed 8-substituted ribonucleosides did not exert a significant inhibitory effect against the tested enzymes up to 1 mM.

  12. Induction of nucleoside phosphorylase in Enterobacter aerogenes and enzymatic synthesis of adenine arabinoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Kun; Ding, Qing-Bao; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Yong-Li; Ou, Lin; Wang, Chang-Lu

    2008-07-01

    Nucleoside phosphorylases (NPases) were found to be induced in Enterobacter aerogenes DGO-04, and cytidine and cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) were the best inducers. Five mmol/L to fifteen mmol/L cytidine or CMP could distinctly increase the activities of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNPase), uridine phosphorylase (UPase) and thymidine phosphorylase (TPase) when they were added into medium from 0 to 8 h. In the process of enzymatic synthesis of adenine arabinoside from adenine and uracil arabinoside with wet cells of Enterobacter aerogenes DGO-04 induced by cytidine or CMP, the reaction time could be shortened from 36 to 6 h. After enzymatic reaction the activity of NPase in the cells induced remained higher than that in the cells uninduced.

  13. Induction of nucleoside phosphorylase in Enterobacter aerogenes and enzymatic synthesis of adenine arabinoside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-kun WEI; Qing-bao DING; Lu ZHANG; Yong-li GUO; Lin OU; Chang-lu WANG

    2008-01-01

    Nucleoside phosphorylases (NPases) were found to be induced in Enterobacter aerogenes DGO-04, and cytidine and cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) were the best inducers. Five mmol/L to fifteen mmol/L cytidine or CMP could distinctly increase the activities of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNPase), uridine phosphorylase (UPase) and thymidine phosphorylase (TPase) when they were added into medium from 0 to 8 h. In the process of enzymatic synthesis of adenine arabinoside from adenine and uracil arabinoside with wet cells ofEnterobacter aerogenes DCJO-04 induced by cytidine or CMP, the reaction time could be shortened from 36 to 6 h. After enzymatic reaction the activity of NPase in the cells induced remained higher than that in the cells uninduced.

  14. Purine and pyrimidine nucleosides preserve human astrocytoma cell adenylate energy charge under ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Francesco; Giannecchini, Michela; Sgarrella, Francesco; Carta, Maria Caterina; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Camici, Marcella

    2007-02-01

    The brain depends on both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for maintenance of ATP pools. Astrocytes play an integral role in brain functions providing trophic supports and energy substrates for neurons. In this paper, we report that human astrocytoma cells (ADF) undergoing ischemic conditions may use both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides as energy source to slow down cellular damage. The cells are subjected to metabolic stress conditions by exclusion of glucose and incubation with oligomycin (an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation). This treatment brings about a depletion of the ATP pool, with a concomitant increase in the AMP levels, which results in a significant decrease of the adenylate energy charge. The presence of purine nucleosides in the culture medium preserves the adenylate energy charge, and improves cell viability. Besides purine nucleosides, also pyrimidine nucleosides, such as uridine and, to a lesser extent, cytidine, are able to preserve the ATP pool. The determination of lactate in the incubation medium indicates that nucleosides can preserve the ATP pool through anaerobic glycolysis, thus pointing to a relevant role of the phosphorolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of nucleosides which generates, without energy expense, the phosphorylated pentose, which through the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis can be converted to energetic intermediates also in the absence of oxygen. In fact, ADF cells possess both purine nucleoside phosphorylase and uridine phosphorylase activities.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders that damage the immune system and cause severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). People with SCID lack virtually all immune ... Management Formal Diagnostic Criteria (1 link) ACT Sheet: Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) and Conditions Associated with T Cell Lymphoneia ( ...

  16. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Pavia); (Lund); (Southern Research)

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  17. Substrate specificity of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases of NP-II family probed by X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Prokofev, I. I.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases, which are widely used in the biotechnological production of nucleosides, have different substrate specificity for pyrimidine nucleosides. An interesting feature of these enzymes is that the three-dimensional structure of thymidine-specific nucleoside phosphorylase is similar to the structure of nonspecific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase. The three-dimensional structures of thymidine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium and nonspecific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacillus subtilis in complexes with a sulfate anion were determined for the first time by X-ray crystallography. An analysis of the structural differences between these enzymes demonstrated that Lys108, which is involved in the phosphate binding in pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase, corresponds to Met111 in thymidine phosphorylases. This difference results in a decrease in the charge on one of the hydroxyl oxygens of the phosphate anion in thymidine phosphorylase and facilitates the catalysis through SN2 nucleophilic substitution. Based on the results of X-ray crystallography, the virtual screening was performed for identifying a potent inhibitor (anticancer agent) of nonspecific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase, which does not bind to thymidine phosphorylase. The molecular dynamics simulation revealed the stable binding of the discovered compound—2-pyrimidin-2-yl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid—to the active site of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  18. Antimalarial action of nitrobenzylthioinosine in combination with purine nucleoside antimetabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, A M; Scott, H V; O'Sullivan, W J; Christopherson, R I

    1989-04-01

    The infection of human erythrocytes by two strains of the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (FCQ-27 or the multi-drug-resistant strain K-1), markedly changed the transport characteristics of the nucleosides, adenosine and tubercidin, compared to uninfected erythrocytes. A component of the transport of these nucleosides was insensitive to the classical mammalian nucleoside transport inhibitor nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR). In vitro studies with tubercidin demonstrated ID50 values of 0.43 and 0.51 microM for FCQ-27 and K-1, respectively. In addition, the nucleoside transport inhibitors NBMPR, nitrobenzylthioguanosine (NBTGR), dilazep and dipyridamole also independently exhibited antimalarial activity in vitro. The combination of tubercidin and NBMPR or NBTGR in vitro demonstrated synergistic activity, whilst tubercidin together with dilazep or dipyridamole showed subadditive activity. Analysis by HPLC indicated that NBMPR could permeate the infected cell membrane and provided evidence for the catabolism of NBMPR in vitro, with subsequent alteration of the purine pool in the infected erythrocyte. These observations further indicated the possibility of the utilization of cytotoxic nucleosides against P. falciparum infection in conjunction with a nucleoside transport inhibitor to protect the host tissue.

  19. An Efficient and Facile Methodology for Bromination of Pyrimidine and Purine Nucleosides with Sodium Monobromoisocyanurate (SMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Stromberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and facile strategy has been developed for bromination of nucleosides using sodium monobromoisocyanurate (SMBI. Our methodology demonstrates bromination at the C-5 position of pyrimidine nucleosides and the C-8 position of purine nucleosides. Unprotected and also several protected nucleosides were brominated in moderate to high yields following this procedure.

  20. In situ enzymatic removal of orthophosphate by the nucleoside phosphorylase catalyzed phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, J W; Sykes, B D

    1982-09-01

    An enzymatic orthophosphate removal system is described which can be effectively used to continuously remove orthophosphate from biochemical samples. The phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside is catalyzed by calf spleen nucleoside phosphorylase to give ribose-1-PO4 and nicotinamide along with a proton. At pH 8 the production of ribose-1-PO4 from orthophosphate is essentially quantitative. This reaction can be monitored optically or by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Equations are given for determining the time required to remove a given amount of phosphate from a typical NMR sample with a known amount of nucleoside phosphorylase. The effects of a competing orthophosphate-producing reaction are considered.

  1. The chemoenzymatic synthesis of clofarabine and related 2′-deoxyfluoroarabinosyl nucleosides: the electronic and stereochemical factors determining substrate recognition by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja V. Fateev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches to the synthesis of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (1, clofarabine were studied. The first approach consists in the chemical synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-arabinofuranose-1-phosphate (12a, 2FAra-1P via three step conversion of 1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-arabinofuranose (9 into the phosphate 12a without isolation of intermediary products. Condensation of 12a with 2-chloroadenine catalyzed by the recombinant E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP resulted in the formation of clofarabine in 67% yield. The reaction was also studied with a number of purine bases (2-aminoadenine and hypoxanthine, their analogues (5-aza-7-deazaguanine and 8-aza-7-deazahypoxanthine and thymine. The results were compared with those of a similar reaction with α-D-arabinofuranose-1-phosphate (13a, Ara-1P. Differences of the reactivity of various substrates were analyzed by ab initio calculations in terms of the electronic structure (natural purines vs analogues and stereochemical features (2FAra-1P vs Ara-1P of the studied compounds to determine the substrate recognition by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases. The second approach starts with the cascade one-pot enzymatic transformation of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinose into the phosphate 12a, followed by its condensation with 2-chloroadenine thereby affording clofarabine in ca. 48% yield in 24 h. The following recombinant E. coli enzymes catalyze the sequential conversion of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinose into the phosphate 12a: ribokinase (2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinofuranose-5-phosphate, phosphopentomutase (PPN; no 1,6-diphosphates of D-hexoses as co-factors required (12a, and finally PNP. The substrate activities of D-arabinose, D-ribose and D-xylose in the similar cascade syntheses of the relevant 2-chloroadenine nucleosides were studied and compared with the activities of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinose. As expected, D-ribose exhibited the best substrate

  2. A high-yielding, strictly regioselective prebiotic purine nucleoside formation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sidney; Thoma, Ines; Deutsch, Amrei; Gehrke, Tim; Mayer, Peter; Zipse, Hendrik; Carell, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    The origin of life is believed to have started with prebiotic molecules reacting along unidentified pathways to produce key molecules such as nucleosides. To date, a single prebiotic pathway to purine nucleosides had been proposed. It is considered to be inefficient due to missing regioselectivity and low yields. We report that the condensation of formamidopyrimidines (FaPys) with sugars provides the natural N-9 nucleosides with extreme regioselectivity and in good yields (60%). The FaPys are available from formic acid and aminopyrimidines, which are in turn available from prebiotic molecules that were also detected during the Rosetta comet mission. This nucleoside formation pathway can be fused to sugar-forming reactions to produce pentosides, providing a plausible scenario of how purine nucleosides may have formed under prebiotic conditions.

  3. SOME RECENT FINDINGS IN THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT NUCLEOSIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mikhailopulo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some recent findings in the biotechnology of biologically important nucleosides will be discussed, viz., (i a new strategy of the cascade one-pot transformation of D-pentoses into nucleosides based on the extension and deepening of the knowledge of the mechanism of functioning of the ribokinase, phosphopentomutase, and uridine, thymidine and purine nucleoside (PNP phosphorylases, and the role of different factors (structural, electronic, stereochemical in the glycoside bond formation, (ii the modern chemistries of the chemo-enzymatic syntheses of nucleosides, (iii the transglycosylation reaction using natural and sugar modified nucleosides as donors of carbohydrate residues and heterocyclic bases as acceptors catalyzed by nucleoside phosphorylases (NP.

  4. Targeting a Novel Plasmodium falciparum Purine Recycling Pathway with Specific Immucillins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, L; Shi, W; Lewandowicz, A; Singh, V; Mwakingwe, A; Birck, M R; Taylor Ringia, E A; Bench, G; Madrid, D C; Tyler, P C; Evans, G B; Furneaux, R H; Schramm, V L; Kim, K

    2004-05-19

    Plasmodium falciparum is unable to synthesize purine bases and relies upon purine salvage and purine recycling to meet its purine needs. We report that purines formed as products of the polyamine pathway are recycled in a novel pathway in which 5'-methylthioinosine is generated by adenosine deaminase. The action of P. falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase is a convergent step of purine salvage, converting both 5'-methylthioinosine and inosine to hypoxanthine. We used accelerator mass spectrometry to verify that 5'-methylthioinosine is an active nucleic acid precursor in P. falciparum. Prior studies have shown that inhibitors of purine salvage enzymes kill malaria, but potent malaria-specific inhibitors of these enzymes have not previously been described. 5'-methylthio-Immucillin-H, a transition state analogue inhibitor that is selective for malarial over human purine nucleoside phosphorylase, kills P. falciparum in culture. Immucillins are currently in clinical trials for other indications and may have application as antimalarials.

  5. Modification of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleosides by Direct C-H Bond Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal-catalyzed modifications of the activated heterocyclic bases of nucleosides as well as DNA or RNA fragments employing traditional cross-coupling methods have been well-established in nucleic acid chemistry. This review covers advances in the area of cross-coupling reactions in which nucleosides are functionalized via direct activation of the C8-H bond in purine and the C5-H or C6-H bond in uracil bases. The review focuses on Pd/Cu-catalyzed couplings between unactivated nucleoside bases with aryl halides. It also discusses cross-dehydrogenative arylations and alkenylations as well as other reactions used for modification of nucleoside bases that avoid the use of organometallic precursors and involve direct C-H bond activation in at least one substrate. The scope and efficiency of these coupling reactions along with some mechanistic considerations are discussed.

  6. Genomic evidence for complementary purine metabolism in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and its symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J S; MacDonald, S J; Jander, G; Nakabachi, A; Thomas, G H; Douglas, A E

    2010-03-01

    The purine salvage pathway recycles purines to nucleotides, promoting efficient utilization of purine nucleotides. Exceptionally among animals with completely sequenced genomes, the pea aphid lacks key purine recycling genes that code for purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase, indicating that the aphid can neither metabolize nucleosides to the corresponding purines, nor adenosine to inosine. Purine metabolism genes in the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera complement aphid genes, and Buchnera can meet its nucleotide requirement from aphid-derived guanosine. Buchnera demand for nucleosides may have relaxed the selection for purine recycling in the aphid, leading to the loss of key aphid purine salvage genes. Further, the coupled purine metabolism of aphid and Buchnera could contribute to the dependence of the pea aphid on this symbiosis.

  7. Enhancement of peripheral nerve regrowth by the purine nucleoside analog and cell cycle inhibitor, roscovitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Law

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve regeneration is a slow process that can be associated with limited outcomes and thus, a search for novel and effective therapy for peripheral nerve injury and disease is crucial. Here, we found that roscovitine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Furthermore, ex vivo analysis of pre-injured adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons showed that roscovitine enhances neurite regrowth in these cells. Likewise, in vivo transected sciatic nerves in rats locally perfused with roscovitine had augmented repopulation of new myelinated axons beyond the transection zone. By mass spectrometry, we found that roscovitine interacts with tubulin and actin. It interacts directly with tubulin and causes a dose-dependent induction of tubulin polymerization as well as enhances GTP-dependent tubulin polymerization. Conversely, roscovitine interacts indirectly with actin and counteracts the inhibitory effect of Cdk5 on Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization, and thus, causes actin polymerization. Moreover, in the presence of neurotrophic factors such as NGF, roscovitine-enhanced neurite outgrowth is mediated by increased activation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. Since microtubule and F-actin dynamics are critical for axonal regrowth, the ability of roscovitine to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways, and support polymerization of tubulin and actin indicate a major role for this purine nucleoside analog in the promotion of axonal regeneration. Together, our findings demonstrate a therapeutic potential for the purine nucleoside analog, roscovitine, in peripheral nerve injury.

  8. Enhancement of Peripheral Nerve Regrowth by the Purine Nucleoside Analog and Cell Cycle Inhibitor, Roscovitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Vincent; Dong, Sophie; Rosales, Jesusa L; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Zochodne, Douglas; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a slow process that can be associated with limited outcomes and thus a search for novel and effective therapy for peripheral nerve injury and disease is crucial. Here, we found that roscovitine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Furthermore, ex vivo analysis of pre-injured adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons showed that roscovitine enhances neurite regrowth in these cells. Likewise, in vivo transected sciatic nerves in rats locally perfused with roscovitine had augmented repopulation of new myelinated axons beyond the transection zone. By mass spectrometry, we found that roscovitine interacts with tubulin and actin. It interacts directly with tubulin and causes a dose-dependent induction of tubulin polymerization as well as enhances Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP)-dependent tubulin polymerization. Conversely, roscovitine interacts indirectly with actin and counteracts the inhibitory effect of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (Cdk5) on Actin-Related Proteins 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization, and thus, causes actin polymerization. Moreover, in the presence of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF), roscovitine-enhanced neurite outgrowth is mediated by increased activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Since microtubule and F-actin dynamics are critical for axonal regrowth, the ability of roscovitine to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways and support polymerization of tubulin and actin indicate a major role for this purine nucleoside analog in the promotion of axonal regeneration. Together, our findings demonstrate a therapeutic potential for the purine nucleoside analog, roscovitine, in peripheral nerve injury.

  9. Enhancement of Peripheral Nerve Regrowth by the Purine Nucleoside Analog and Cell Cycle Inhibitor, Roscovitine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Vincent; Dong, Sophie; Rosales, Jesusa L.; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Zochodne, Douglas; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a slow process that can be associated with limited outcomes and thus a search for novel and effective therapy for peripheral nerve injury and disease is crucial. Here, we found that roscovitine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Furthermore, ex vivo analysis of pre-injured adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons showed that roscovitine enhances neurite regrowth in these cells. Likewise, in vivo transected sciatic nerves in rats locally perfused with roscovitine had augmented repopulation of new myelinated axons beyond the transection zone. By mass spectrometry, we found that roscovitine interacts with tubulin and actin. It interacts directly with tubulin and causes a dose-dependent induction of tubulin polymerization as well as enhances Guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP)-dependent tubulin polymerization. Conversely, roscovitine interacts indirectly with actin and counteracts the inhibitory effect of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (Cdk5) on Actin-Related Proteins 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization, and thus, causes actin polymerization. Moreover, in the presence of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF), roscovitine-enhanced neurite outgrowth is mediated by increased activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Since microtubule and F-actin dynamics are critical for axonal regrowth, the ability of roscovitine to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways and support polymerization of tubulin and actin indicate a major role for this purine nucleoside analog in the promotion of axonal regeneration. Together, our findings demonstrate a therapeutic potential for the purine nucleoside analog, roscovitine, in peripheral nerve injury.

  10. Early Cellular Responses of Purine Nucleoside-mediated Protection of Hypoxia-induced Injuries of Neuronal PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Tomaselli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in brain may lead to cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. In parallel adenosine, a powerful endogenous neuroprotectant is formed. We wanted to investigate the effect of adenosine and its purine nucleoside relatives, inosine and guanosine on early cellular responses to hypoxia. O2-sensitive neuronal PC12-cells were subjected to chemical hypoxia induced with rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I. Loss of viability after hypoxic insult was impressively rescued by adenosine, guanosine and inosine. PC12-cells mainly express the A2A adenosine receptor. Its inhibition with a specific antagonist (CSC induced cell death of PC12-cells, which could be salvaged by adenosine but not with guanosine or inosine. We have previously demonstrated the important role of mitogen activated protein kinases 1/2 (p42/44 MAPK in purine-mediated rescue. In this study we were interested in the involvement of protein kinases whose activities mediate these processes, including protein kinase A (PKA, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K and protein kinase C-related kinases (PRK 1/2. Pharmacological inhibition of PKA and PI3-K increased hypoxia-induced toxicity and likewise also affected the rescue by purine nucleosides. Nerve growth factor (NGF and purine nucleosides induced an activation of PRK 1/2, which to our knowledge indicates for the first time that these kinases are potentially involved in purine nucleoside-mediated rescue of hypoxic neuronal cells. Results suggest that A2A receptor expressing cells are mainly dependent on the purine nucleoside adenosine for their rescue after hypoxic insult. In addition to PKA, PI3-K is an important effector molecule in A2A-mediated signaling and for the rescue of PC12-cells after hypoxic insult.

  11. Hypoxanthine production by ischemic heart demonstrated by high pressure liquid chromatography of blood purine nucleosides and oxypurines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Harmsen; J.W. de Jong (Jan Willem); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractAn isocratic high pressure liquid chromatographic system was developed for the estimation of purine nucleosides and oxypurines in blood. Use was made of a reversed-phase column. Nucleotides derived from erythrocytes affected the separation; these compounds were removed with A12O3. The

  12. Cloning, purification and characterisation of a recombinant purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacillus halodurans Alk36

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Visser, Daniel F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available medium was as follows: 14.6 g/l K2HPO4, 2 g/l (NH4)2SO4, 3.6 g/l Na2HPO4, 2.5 g/l citric acid, 1.2 g/l MgSO4, 5 g/l NH4NO3, and 20 g/l yeast extract. Glucose (17.5 g/l) and trace element solution (5 ml/l) was sterilized separately and added... reaction mixtures (1 ml) containing 1 mM guanosine in 50 mM universal buffer (50 mM Tris, 50 mM boric acid, 33 mM citric acid 50 mM Na2PO4), adjusted to pH values between 3 and 11 with either HCl or NaOH. PNPase (0.025 U) was added to ini- tiate...

  13. Current Status of Older and New Purine Nucleoside Analogues in the Treatment of Lymphoproliferative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Robak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For the past few years more and more new cytotoxic agents active in the treatment of hematological malignancies have been synthesized and become available for either in vitro studies or clinical trials. Among them the class of antineoplastic drugs belonging to the purine nucleoside analogues group (PNAs plays an important role. Three of them: pentostatin (DCF, cladribine (2-CdA and fludarabine (FA were approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of hematological malignancies. Recently three novel PNAs: clofarabine (CAFdA, nelarabine (ara-G and forodesine (immucillin H, BCX-1777 have been synthesized and introduced into preclinical studies and clinical trials. These agents seem to be useful mainly for the treatment of human T-cell proliferative disorders and they are currently undergoing clinical trials in lymphoid malignancies. However, there are also several studies suggesting the role of these drugs in B-cell malignancies. This review will summarize current knowledge concerning the mechanism of action, pharmacologic properties, clinical activity and toxicity of PNAs accepted for use in clinical practice, as well as new agents available for clinical trials.

  14. The role of a purine-specific nucleoside hydrolase in spore germination of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; He, Xihong; Liu, Gang; Tan, Huarong

    2008-05-01

    A homologous gene (iunH) of a putative nucleoside hydrolase (NH), which had been identified from the exosporia of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis spores, was cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Disruption of iunH did not affect the vegetative growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis, but promoted both inosine- and adenosine-induced spore germination. The inosine- or adenosine-induced germination rate decreased when the wild-type iunH gene was overexpressed in Bacillus thuringiensis. The iunH gene product was characterized as a purine-specific NH. The kinetic parameters of IunH with inosine as substrate were K(m)=399+/-115 microM, k(cat)=48.9+/-8.5 s(-1) and k(cat)/K(m)=1.23 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The optimal pH and temperature for IunH were found to be pH 6 and 80 degrees C. Meanwhile, the specific activity of inosine hydrolase in intact spores of the wild-type strain with inosine as substrate was 2.89+/-0.23x10(-2) micromol min(-1) (mg dry wt)(-1). These results indicate that IunH is important in moderating inosine- or adenosine-induced germination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores.

  15. Effect of purine nucleoside analogue-acyclovir on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Elham; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Nejati, Vahid; Zamani, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue derived from guanosine, is known to be toxic to gonads and the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ACV on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rat. In this experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats (220 ± 20 g) were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 for each group). One group served as control and one group served as sham control [distilled water was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected]. ACV was administered intraperitoneally in the drug treatment groups (4, 16 and 48 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Eighteen days after the last injection, rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. After that, cauda epididymides were removed surgically. At the end, sperm concentrations in the cauda epididymis, sperm motility, morphology, viability, chromatin quality and DNA integrity were analyzed. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined. The results showed that ACV did not affect sperm count, but decreased sperm motility and sperm viability at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels. Sperm abnormalities increased at 48 mg/kg dose-level of ACV. Further, ACV significantly increases DNA damage at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels and chromatin abnormality at all doses. Besides, a significant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations was observed at 16 and 48 mg/ kg doses. The present results highly support the idea that ACV induces testicular toxicity by adverse effects on the sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in male rats.

  16. Purine metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, E.C.; Marr, J.J.; Berens, R.L.

    1989-06-25

    We have studied the incorporation and interconversion of purines into nucleotides by freshly isolated Toxoplasma gondii. They did not synthesize nucleotides from formate, glycine, or serine. The purine bases hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanine, and adenine were incorporated at 9.2, 6.2, 5.1, and 4.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. The purine nucleosides adenosine, inosine, guanosine, and xanthosine were incorporated at 110, 9.0, 2.7, and 0.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. Guanine, xanthine, and their respective nucleosides labeled only guanine nucleotides. Inosine, hypoxanthine, and adenine labeled both adenine and guanine nucleotide pools at nearly equal ratios. Adenosine kinase was greater than 10-fold more active than the next most active enzyme in vitro. This is consistent with the metabolic data in vivo. No other nucleoside kinase or phosphotransferase activities were found. Phosphorylase activities were detected for guanosine and inosine; no other cleavage activities were detected. Deaminases were found for adenine and guanine. Phosphoribosyltransferase activities were detected for all four purine nucleobases. Interconversion occurs only in the direction of adenine to guanine nucleotides.

  17. Two nucleoside uptake systems in Lactococcus lactis: Competition between purine nucleosides and cytidine allows for modulation of intracellular nucleotide pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Hammer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    in Lactococcus lactis were investigated by measuring the uptake of radioactively labeled nucleosides. The K. for for inosine, cytidine, and uridine was determined to be in the micromolar range. Furthermore, it was found that cytidine and inosine are competitive inhibitors of each other, whereas no competition...

  18. Structure of the homodimer of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium in the native state at 1.9 Å resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Pavlyuk, B. F.; Lashkov, A. A.; Seregina, T. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Vaĭnshteĭn, B. K.; Mikhaĭlov, A. M.

    2007-11-01

    Uridine phosphorylase ( UPh) belongs to pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases. This enzyme catalyzes cleavage of the C-N glycoside bond in uridine to form uracil and ribose-1’-phosphate. Uridine phosphorylase supplies cells with nucleotide precursors by catalyzing the phosphorolysis of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. This is an alternative to de novo nucleotide synthesis. The three-dimensional structure of native uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium ( StUPh) in a new crystal form was solved and refined at 1.90 Å resolution ( R st = 20.37%; R free = 24.69%; the rmsd of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.009 Å and 1.223°, respectively). A homodimer containing two asynchronously functioning active sites was demonstrated to be the minimum structural unit necessary for function of the hexameric StUPh molecule ( L 33 L 2). Each active site is formed by amino acid residues of both subunits.

  19. Elucidating the evolutionary history and expression patterns of nucleoside phosphorylase paralogs (vegetative storage proteins) in Populus and the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, Emily A; Pettengill, James B; Coleman, Gary D

    2013-08-19

    Nucleoside phosphorylases (NPs) have been extensively investigated in human and bacterial systems for their role in metabolic nucleotide salvaging and links to oncogenesis. In plants, NP-like proteins have not been comprehensively studied, likely because there is no evidence of a metabolic function in nucleoside salvage. However, in the forest trees genus Populus a family of NP-like proteins function as an important ecophysiological adaptation for inter- and intra-seasonal nitrogen storage and cycling. We conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the distribution and evolution of NP-like proteins in plants. These analyses revealed two major clusters of NP-like proteins in plants. Group I proteins were encoded by genes across a wide range of plant taxa while proteins encoded by Group II genes were dominated by species belonging to the order Malpighiales and included the Populus Bark Storage Protein (BSP) and WIN4-like proteins. Additionally, we evaluated the NP-like genes in Populus by examining the transcript abundance of the 13 NP-like genes found in the Populus genome in various tissues of plants exposed to long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) photoperiods. We found that all 13 of the Populus NP-like genes belonging to either Group I or II are expressed in various tissues in both LD and SD conditions. Tests of natural selection and expression evolution analysis of the Populus genes suggests that divergence in gene expression may have occurred recently during the evolution of Populus, which supports the adaptive maintenance models. Lastly, in silico analysis of cis-regulatory elements in the promoters of the 13 NP-like genes in Populus revealed common regulatory elements known to be involved in light regulation, stress/pathogenesis and phytohormone responses. In Populus, the evolution of the NP-like protein and gene family has been shaped by duplication events and natural selection. Expression data suggest that previously uncharacterized NP-like proteins may

  20. Purine (N)-Methanocarba Nucleoside Derivatives Lacking an Exocyclic Amine as Selective A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Dilip K; Ciancetta, Antonella; Warnick, Eugene; O'Connor, Robert; Chen, Zhoumou; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Crane, Steven; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Auchampach, John A; Salvemini, Daniela; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2016-04-14

    Purine (N)-methanocarba-5'-N-alkyluronamidoriboside A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonists lacking an exocyclic amine resulted from an unexpected reaction during a Sonogashira coupling and subsequent aminolysis. Because the initial C6-Me and C6-styryl derivatives had unexpectedly high A3AR affinity, other rigid nucleoside analogues lacking an exocyclic amine were prepared. Of these, the C6-Me-(2-phenylethynyl) and C2-(5-chlorothienylethynyl) analogues were particularly potent, with human A3AR Ki values of 6 and 42 nM, respectively. Additionally, the C2-(5-chlorothienyl)-6-H analogue was potent and selective at A3AR (MRS7220, Ki 60 nM) and also completely reversed mouse sciatic nerve mechanoallodynia (in vivo, 3 μmol/kg, po). The lack of a C6 H-bond donor while maintaining A3AR affinity and efficacy could be rationalized by homology modeling and docking of these hypermodified nucleosides. The modeling suggests that a suitable combination of stabilizing features can partially compensate for the lack of an exocyclic amine, an otherwise important contributor to recognition in the A3AR binding site.

  1. Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase from beef liver: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Anderson, B M

    1987-04-01

    Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase (NR phosphorylase) from beef liver has been purified to apparent homogeneity at 300-fold purification with a 35% yield. Kinetic constants for the enzyme-catalyzed phosphorolysis were as follows Knicotinamide riboside, 2.5 +/- 0.4 mM; Kinorganic phosphate, 0.50 +/- 0.12 mM; Vmax, 410 +/- 30 X 10(-6) mol min-1 mg protein-1, respectively. The molecular weights of the native enzyme and subunit structure were determined to be 131,000 and 32,000, respectively, suggesting the beef liver NR phosphorylase to be tetrameric in structure and consistent with the presence of identical subunits. The amino acid composition was shown to be very similar to that reported for human erythrocyte purine-nucleoside phosphorylase but differing considerably from that found for rat liver purine-nucleoside phosphorylase. In addition to catalytic activity with nicotinamide riboside, the beef liver enzyme catalyzed a phosphorolytic reaction with inosine and guanosine exhibiting activity ratios, nicotinamide riboside:inosine: guanosine of 1.00:0.35:0.29, respectively. These ratios of activity remained constant throughout purification of the beef liver enzyme and no separation of these activities was detected. Phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside was inhibited competitively by inosine (Ki = 75 microM) and guanosine (Ki = 75 microM). Identical rates of thermal denaturation of the beef liver enzyme were observed when determined for the phosphorolysis of either nicotinamide riboside or inosine. These observations coupled with studies of pH and specific buffer effects indicate the phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside, inosine, and guanosine to be catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  2. High yielding cascade enzymatic synthesis of 5-methyluridine using a novel Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase, from Bacillus halodurans Alk36

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vissser, D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available were amplified as previously described3,4. E.coli BL21(DE3) was used as the expression host. • Production of Enzymes in Batch Fermentation - E. coli UP and B. halodurans BHPNP1 were produced in batch fermentations using GMO media5. Crude extracts...

  3. [Determination of purine compounds and purine bases in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, M; Wolfram, G

    1987-10-01

    The total purine content and the content of RNA, DNA, nucleotides, nucleosides and free purine bases has been determined in commercial raw food. After hydrolysing food samples with acid, the total purine content is enzymatically determined as uric acid. For the determination of the nucleic acid content, a method is chosen that allows for the analysis of the composition of nucleic acids. The amount of purine bound in nucleic acids and of purine bound in nucleotides, nucleosides and free bases is very different. The content of nucleic acids is especially high in the innards of veal, pork and beef. In these samples the quantity of purine bound in nucleotides, nucleosides and bases is very small. In trout and herring, however, more purine is bound in RNA and DNA. The same is true of roe, pork and beef muscle. Peas and beans have the lowest total purine content of all the samples examined.

  4. Screening and characterization of purine nucleoside degrading lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut and evaluation of the serum uric acid lowering effect in hyperuricemic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is well known as the cause of gout. In recent years, it has also been recognized as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and nephropathy in diabetic patients. Foods high in purine compounds are more potent in exacerbating hyperuricemia. Therefore, the development of probiotics that efficiently degrade purine compounds is a promising potential therapy for the prevention of hyperuricemia. In this study, fifty-five lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut were evaluated for the ability to degrade inosine and guanosine, the two key intermediates in purine metabolism. After a preliminary screening based on HPLC, three candidate strains with the highest nucleoside degrading rates were selected for further characterization. The tested biological characteristics of candidate strains included acid tolerance, bile tolerance, anti-pathogenic bacteria activity, cell adhesion ability, resistance to antibiotics and the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Among the selected strains, DM9218 showed the best probiotic potential compared with other strains despite its poor bile resistance. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed that DM9218 has the highest similarity (99% to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The acclimated strain DM9218-A showed better resistance to 0.3% bile salt, and its survival in gastrointestinal tract of rats was proven by PCR-DGGE. Furthermore, the effects of DM9218-A in a hyperuricemia rat model were evaluated. The level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic rat can be efficiently reduced by the intragastric administration of DM9218-A (P<0.05. The preventive treatment of DM9218-A caused a greater reduction in serum uric acid concentration in hyperuricemic rats than the later treatment (P<0.05. Our results suggest that DM9218-A may be a promising candidate as an adjunctive treatment in patients with hyperuricemia during the onset period of disease. DM9218-A also has potential

  5. A phase 1 study of the pharmacokinetics of nucleoside analog trifluridine and thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor tipiracil (components of TAS-102) vs trifluridine alone

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, James M.; Rosen, Lee S.; Yoshida, Kenichiro; Rasco, Drew; Shapiro, Geoffrey I.; Sun, Weijing

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Trifluridine, a thymidine-based chemotherapeutic, has limited bioavailability after clinical administration as it is rapidly degraded via thymidine phosphorylase. An oral combination tablet combines trifluridine with a potent thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor, tipiracil hydrochloride. This study?s objective was to evaluate whether trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) administration increases trifluridine exposure vs trifluridine alone. Methods This open-label pharmacokinetic st...

  6. Purine and pyrimidine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, N

    1982-09-01

    The pathways of purine biosynthesis and degradation have been elucidated during the last 30 years; the regulation of the mechanisms involved is not yet fully understood, particularly with respect to quantitative aspects. Research into inborn errors of purine metabolism has provided valuable insights into purine synthesis and salvage pathways. Nutrition experiments using purine-free formula diets and supplements with defined purine sources permit precise descriptions of the influence of various dietary purines on uric acid formation. Supplements of dietary purines produce dose-proportional increases in plasma uric acid concentrations, uric acid pool size and renal uric acid excretion. The magnitude of these increases depends on the type of purine compound administered, which may limit the value of food tables for human dietetics. Purine content of food must be related not only to weight but also to energy and to protein, particularly if new foodstuffs or a vegetarian diet are ingested. Dietary purines appear to influence the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. In contrast to dietary purines, pyrimidines in the diet, if administered as nucleosides or nucleotides, are utilized in animals for the synthesis of nucleic acids. Much further work is necessary for a better understanding of the inter-relationships of purine and pyrimidine metabolism.

  7. A Novel GDP-d-glucose Phosphorylase Involved in Quality Control of the Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugar Pool in Caenorhabditis elegans and Mammals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lital N.; Gomez, Tara A.; Clarke, Steven G.; Linster, Carole L.

    2011-01-01

    The plant VTC2 gene encodes GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in plant vitamin C biosynthesis. Genes encoding apparent orthologs of VTC2 exist in both mammals, which produce vitamin C by a distinct metabolic pathway, and in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans where vitamin C biosynthesis has not been demonstrated. We have now expressed cDNAs of the human and worm VTC2 homolog genes (C15orf58 and C10F3.4, respectively) and found that the purified proteins also display GDP-hexose phosphorylase activity. However, as opposed to the plant enzyme, the major reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is the phosphorolysis of GDP-d-glucose to GDP and d-glucose 1-phosphate. We detected activities with similar substrate specificity in worm and mouse tissue extracts. The highest expression of GDP-d-glucose phosphorylase was found in the nervous and male reproductive systems. A C. elegans C10F3.4 deletion strain was found to totally lack GDP-d-glucose phosphorylase activity; this activity was also found to be decreased in human HEK293T cells transfected with siRNAs against the human C15orf58 gene. These observations confirm the identification of the worm C10F3.4 and the human C15orf58 gene expression products as the GDP-d-glucose phosphorylases of these organisms. Significantly, we found an accumulation of GDP-d-glucose in the C10F3.4 mutant worms, suggesting that the GDP-d-glucose phosphorylase may function to remove GDP-d-glucose formed by GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase, an enzyme that has previously been shown to lack specificity for its physiological d-mannose 1-phosphate substrate. We propose that such removal may prevent the misincorporation of glucosyl residues for mannosyl residues into the glycoconjugates of worms and mammals. PMID:21507950

  8. A novel GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase involved in quality control of the nucleoside diphosphate sugar pool in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lital N; Gomez, Tara A; Clarke, Steven G; Linster, Carole L

    2011-06-17

    The plant VTC2 gene encodes GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in plant vitamin C biosynthesis. Genes encoding apparent orthologs of VTC2 exist in both mammals, which produce vitamin C by a distinct metabolic pathway, and in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans where vitamin C biosynthesis has not been demonstrated. We have now expressed cDNAs of the human and worm VTC2 homolog genes (C15orf58 and C10F3.4, respectively) and found that the purified proteins also display GDP-hexose phosphorylase activity. However, as opposed to the plant enzyme, the major reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is the phosphorolysis of GDP-D-glucose to GDP and D-glucose 1-phosphate. We detected activities with similar substrate specificity in worm and mouse tissue extracts. The highest expression of GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase was found in the nervous and male reproductive systems. A C. elegans C10F3.4 deletion strain was found to totally lack GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase activity; this activity was also found to be decreased in human HEK293T cells transfected with siRNAs against the human C15orf58 gene. These observations confirm the identification of the worm C10F3.4 and the human C15orf58 gene expression products as the GDP-D-glucose phosphorylases of these organisms. Significantly, we found an accumulation of GDP-D-glucose in the C10F3.4 mutant worms, suggesting that the GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase may function to remove GDP-D-glucose formed by GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase, an enzyme that has previously been shown to lack specificity for its physiological D-mannose 1-phosphate substrate. We propose that such removal may prevent the misincorporation of glucosyl residues for mannosyl residues into the glycoconjugates of worms and mammals.

  9. Ethenoguanines undergo glycosylation by nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases at non-natural sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Ye

    Full Text Available Deoxyribosyl transferases and functionally related purine nucleoside phosphorylases are used extensively for synthesis of non-natural deoxynucleosides as pharmaceuticals or standards for characterizing and quantitating DNA adducts. Hence exploring the conformational tolerance of the active sites of these enzymes is of considerable practical interest. We have determined the crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution of Lactobacillus helveticus purine deoxyribosyl transferase (PDT with the tricyclic purine 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine (N2,3-ethenoguanine at the active site. The active site electron density map was compatible with four orientations, two consistent with sites for deoxyribosylation and two appearing to be unproductive. In accord with the crystal structure, Lactobacillus helveticus PDT glycosylates the 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine at N7 and N1, with a marked preference for N7. The activity of Lactobacillus helveticus PDT was compared with that of the nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase enzymes (DRT Type II from Lactobacillus leichmannii and Lactobacillus fermentum, which were somewhat more effective in the deoxyribosylation than Lactobacillus helveticus PDT, glycosylating the substrate with product profiles dependent on the pH of the incubation. The purine nucleoside phosphorylase of Escherichia coli, also commonly used in ribosylation of non-natural bases, was an order of magnitude less efficient than the transferase enzymes. Modeling based on published active-site structures as templates suggests that in all cases, an active site Phe is critical in orienting the molecular plane of the purine derivative. Adventitious hydrogen bonding with additional active site residues appears to result in presentation of multiple nucleophilic sites on the periphery of the acceptor base for ribosylation to give a distribution of nucleosides. Chemical glycosylation of O9-benzylated 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine also resulted

  10. Inosine, an Endogenous Purine Nucleoside, Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: a Role for A2A Adenosine Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Stella Célio; Dos Santos Coelho, Igor; Lieberknecht, Vicente; Cunha, Mauricio Peña; Calixto, João B; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano

    2016-04-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell autoimmune, inflammatory, and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Currently available therapies have partially effective actions and numerous side reactions. Inosine, an endogenous purine nucleoside, has immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, and analgesic properties. Herein, we evaluated the effect of inosine on the development and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental model of MS. Inosine (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated twice a day for 40 days. Immunological and inflammatory responses were evaluated by behavioral, histological, immunohistochemical, ELISA, RT-PCR, and Western blotting analysis. The administration of inosine exerted neuroprotective effects against EAE by diminishing clinical signs, including thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, as well as weight loss typical of the disease. These beneficial effects of inosine seem to be associated with the blockade of inflammatory cell entry into the CNS, especially lymphocytes, thus delaying the demyelinating process and astrocytes activation. In particular, up-regulation of IL-17 levels in the secondary lymphoid tissues, a result of EAE, was prevented by inosine treatment in EAE mice. Additionally, inosine consistently prevented A2AR up-regulation in the spinal cord, likely, through an ERK1-independent pathway. Altogether, these results allow us to propose that this endogenous purine might be a putative novel and helpful tool for the prevention of autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, such as MS. Thus, inosine could have considerable implications for future therapies of MS, and this study may represent the starting point for further investigation into the role of inosine and adenosinergic receptors in neuroinflammation processes. Graphical Abstract Preventive treatment with inosine inhibits the development and progression of EAE in C57Bl/6 mice. Furthermore, neuroinflammation and demyelinating processes

  11. Nicotinamide Riboside and Nicotinic Acid Riboside Salvage in Fungi and Mammals: QUANTITATIVE BASIS FOR Urh1 AND PURINE NUCLEOSIDE PHOSPHORYLASE FUNCTION IN NAD+METABOLISM*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Belenky, Peter; Christensen, Kathryn C.; Gazzaniga, Francesca; Pletnev, Alexandre A.; Brenner, Charles

    2009-01-01

    NAD+ is a co-enzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and an essential substrate of ADP-ribose transfer enzymes and sirtuins, the type III protein lysine deacetylases related to yeast Sir2. Supplementation of yeast cells with nicotinamide riboside extends replicative lifespan and increases Sir2-dependent gene silencing by virtue of increasing net NAD+ synthesis. Nicotinamide riboside elevates NAD+ levels via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by a pathway initiate...

  12. Circulating Human Neonatal Naïve B cells are Deficient in CD73 Impairing Purine Salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Aaron Pettengill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extracellular purines, in particular adenosine (Ado and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP, are critical immunoregulatory molecules. Expression and activity of purine ecto-enzymes on B cells in neonatal and adult blood may influence their function and has been incompletely characterized. Methods: Mononuclear cells were isolated from human neonatal (cord blood or adult (peripheral blood subjects and evaluated directly by flow cytometry for expression of purine ecto-enzymes. Additionally, B cell subsets were isolated from mononuclear cell fractions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and gene transcription of purine ecto-enzymes (CD39 and CD73, adenosine deaminase (ADA1, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP and select purine receptors (A2a were evaluated by reverse transcription followed by qRT-PCR. Immuno-magnetic-bead isolated naïve B cells were evaluated for enzymatic activity by incubation with radio-labeled purines followed by thin-layer chromatography, and subsequent B cell Ado acquisition was evaluated by liquid scintillation quantitation of radio-labeled Ado uptake.Results: Relative to their adult counterparts, neonatal circulating naïve B cells were markedly and selectively deficient in CD73 as observed by gene transcription, surface protein expression, and enzyme activity. Neonatal naïve B cell deficiency of CD73 expression significantly impaired their capacity to acquire extracellular purines for purine salvage.Conclusions: Human neonatal circulating naïve B cells are selectively deficient in CD73, impairing extracellular purine acquisition and potentially contributing to impaired B cell responses in early life.

  13. A phase 1 study of the pharmacokinetics of nucleoside analog trifluridine and thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor tipiracil (components of TAS-102) vs trifluridine alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, James M; Rosen, Lee S; Yoshida, Kenichiro; Rasco, Drew; Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Sun, Weijing

    2017-04-01

    Background Trifluridine, a thymidine-based chemotherapeutic, has limited bioavailability after clinical administration as it is rapidly degraded via thymidine phosphorylase. An oral combination tablet combines trifluridine with a potent thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor, tipiracil hydrochloride. This study's objective was to evaluate whether trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) administration increases trifluridine exposure vs trifluridine alone. Methods This open-label pharmacokinetic study randomly assigned patients with advanced solid tumors into two groups. On the morning of day 1, one group received a single 35 mg/m(2) dose of trifluridine/tipiracil and the other group received a single 35-mg/m(2) dose of trifluridine. Both groups received trifluridine/tipiracil 35 mg/m(2) on the evening of day 1, then twice daily on days 2-5 and 8-12 in a 28-day cycle. Results Twenty patients received an initial one-time dose of trifluridine alone and 19 other patients received an initial dose of trifluridine/tipiracil. Trifluridine area under the curve (AUC0-last) and maximum observed plasma concentrations (Cmax) were approximately 37- and 22-fold higher, respectively, with trifluridine/tipiracil vs trifluridine alone. Plasma concentrations of the major metabolite of trifluridine were lower following the administration of trifluridine/tipiracil vs trifluridine alone. Conclusion Tipiracil administered in combination with trifluridine significantly increased exposure to trifluridine compared with trifluridine alone.

  14. Rare 2-Substituted Purine Nucleosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    acetonyinosine, AVS-002159) has been found to have very high activity (TI > 1000) against the Sandfly Fever Virus (Phlebovirus). Another compound (2...propenyl group is occurring at the slow step of the reaction, i.e. the transmetalation stage. Temperature appears to be an important factor in...exclusive formation of the 1-propenyl compound 79 is realized when the temperature is raised to 110 °C. Deprotection of 79 with trimethyIsilyl iodide in

  15. Rare 2-Substituted Purine Nucleosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-17

    LimiteA ten US/^oy3rnAnl /I 5 MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION 7b A00RESS(Ofy. State, and ZIP Code...t). EtjN, CH,CN O Ac’° „ HN-^VN-\\ POCI OCH, OCH, H,C=CH PdCI^CHjCN), N»OCH, tolutnt, A CH.OH {^U HOCH, .. PS AcOCH, AcO OAc

  16. Mutation in the phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase gene (prs) that results in simultaneous requirements for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, nicotinamide nucleotide, histidine, and tryptophan in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1988-01-01

    , histidine, tryptophan, and nicotinamide mononucleotide were all added to the growth medium. Viability of the strain was dependent upon mutations in genes of the nucleoside salvage pathways that improved the utilization of exogenous nucleosides. The properties of the strain are those expected of a PRPP...

  17. Purine salvage in the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona, and generation of hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient clones for positive-negative selection of transgenic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Zhang, Zijing; Howe, Daniel K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite that causes severe neurological disease in horses and marine mammals. The Apicomplexa are all obligate intracellular parasites that lack purine biosynthesis pathways and rely on the host cell for their purine requirements. Hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT) and adenosine kinase (AK) are key enzymes that function in two complementary purine salvage pathways in apicomplexans. Bioinformatic searches of the S. neurona genome revealed genes encoding HXGPRT, AK and all of the major purine salvage enzymes except purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Wild-type S. neurona were able to grow in the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA) but were inhibited by 6-thioxanthine (6-TX), suggesting that the pathways involving either HXGPRT or AK are functional in this parasite. Prior work with Toxoplasma gondii demonstrated the utility of HXGPRT as a positive-negative selection marker. To enable the use of HXGPRT in S. neurona, the SnHXGPRT gene sequence was determined and a gene-targeting plasmid was transfected into S. neurona. SnHXGPRT-deficient mutants were selected with 6-TX, and single-cell clones were obtained. These Sn∆HXG parasites were susceptible to MPA and could be complemented using the heterologous T. gondii HXGPRT gene. In summary, S. neurona possesses both purine salvage pathways described in apicomplexans, thus allowing the use of HXGPRT as a positive-negative drug selection marker in this parasite.

  18. Purine metabolism in response to hypoxic conditions associated with breath-hold diving and exercise in erythrocytes and plasma from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo Velasco-Martínez, Iris; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian tissues under hypoxic conditions, ATP degradation results in accumulation of purine metabolites. During exercise, muscle energetic demand increases and oxygen consumption can exceed its supply. During breath-hold diving, oxygen supply is reduced and, although oxygen utilization is regulated by bradycardia (low heart rate) and peripheral vasoconstriction, tissues with low blood flow (ischemia) may become hypoxic. The goal of this study was to evaluate potential differences in the circulating levels of purine metabolism components between diving and exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Blood samples were taken from captive dolphins following a swimming routine (n=8) and after a 2min dive (n=8). Activity of enzymes involved in purine metabolism (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), inosine monophosphate deshydrogenase (IMPDH), xanthine oxidase (XO), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)), and purine metabolite (hypoxanthine (HX), xanthine (X), uric acid (UA), inosine monophosphate (IMP), inosine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine diphosphate (GDP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP)) concentrations were quantified in erythrocyte and plasma samples. Enzymatic activity and purine metabolite concentrations involved in purine synthesis and degradation, were not significantly different between diving and exercise. Plasma adenosine concentration was higher after diving than exercise (p=0.03); this may be related to dive-induced ischemia. In erythrocytes, HGPRT activity was higher after diving than exercise (p=0.007), suggesting an increased capacity for purine recycling and ATP synthesis from IMP in ischemic tissues of bottlenose dolphins during diving. Purine recycling and physiological adaptations may maintain the ATP concentrations in bottlenose dolphins after diving and exercise.

  19. [Production and study of Bacillus subtilis mutants for genes involved in nucleoside catabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantseva, E V; Sukhodolets, V V; Smirnov, Iu V

    1979-01-01

    By means of selection for a low thymine requirement the mutants fo thymine auxotrophs for deoxyriboaldolase (dra) and phosphodeoxyribomutase (drm) genes were obtained. Besides the mutants for pyrimidinenucleoside phosphorylase gene (pdp) were olso isolated using selection on the fluorodeoxyuridine resistance. The latter enzyme provides for pyrimidine nucleosides catabolism (thymidine, uridine) in Bacilli, as well as the conversion of exogenous thymine to thymidine in thymine auxotrophs. The data obtained when studying the deo-enzymes activities in various types of the mutants and also under the condition of induction by thymidine and acetoaldehyde are in accordance with the assumption that deoxyriboso-5-phosphate is an inductor of the deo-enzymes in Bacillus subtilis. The genes dra and pdp were tightly linked as it had been shown by the transformation experiments; in contrast, no linkage was revealed between dra and drm or pdp and drm. A secondary mutation (adn), not linked with dra and blocking the ability of bacteria to catabolise adenosine (purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity remains constant) was found in some dra-mutants.

  20. Lights and shadows in the challenge of binding acyclovir, a synthetic purine-like nucleoside with antiviral activity, at an apical-distal coordination site in copper(II)-polyamine chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Toro, Inmaculada; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Vílchez-Rodríguez, Esther; González-Pérez, Josefa María; Castiñeiras, Alfonso; Niclós-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Several nucleic acid components and their metal complexes are known to be involved in crucial metabolic steps. Therefore the study of metal-nucleic acid interactions becomes essential to understand these biological processes. In this work, the synthetic purine-like nucleoside acyclovir (acv) has been used as a model of guanosine recognition with copper(II)-polyamine chelates. The chemical stability of the N9-acyclic arm in acv offers the possibility to use this antiviral drug to deepen the knowledge of metal-nucleoside interactions. Cu(II) chelates with cyclam, cyclen and trien were used as suitable receptors. All these copper(II) tetraamine chelates have in common the potential ability to yield a Cu-N7(apical) bond assisted by an appropriate (amine)N-H⋯O6(acv) intra-molecular interligand interaction. A series of synthesis afforded the following compounds: [Cu(cyclam)(ClO4)2] (1), {[Cu(cyclam)(μ2-NO3)](NO3)}n (2), {[Cu(cyclam)(μ2-SO4)]·MeOH}n (3), {[Cu(cyclam)(μ2-SO4)]·5H2O}n (4), [Cu(cyclen)(H2O)]SO4·2H2O (5), [Cu(cyclen)(H2O)]SO4·3H2O (6), [Cu(trien)(acv)](NO3)2·acv (7) and [Cu(trien)(acv)]SO4·0.71H2O (8). All these compounds have been characterized by X-ray crystallography and FT-IR spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the macrochelates Cu(cyclen)(2+) and Cu(cyclam)(2+) are unable to bind acv at an apical site. In contrast, the Cu(trien)(2+) complex has proved to be an efficient receptor for acv in compounds (7) and (8). In the ternary complex [Cu(trien)(acv)](2+), the metal binding pattern of acv consists of an apical Cu-N7 bond assisted by an intra-molecular (primary amino)N-H⋯O6(acv) interligand interaction. Structural comparisons reveal that this unprecedented apical role of acv is due to the acyclic nature of trien together with the ability of the Cu(trien)(2+) chelate to generate five-coordinated (type 4+1) copper(II) complexes.

  1. Determination and profiling of purines in foods by using HPLC and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazawa, K; Sato, A; Kato, Y; Yamaoka, N; Fukuuchi, T; Yasuda, M; Mawatari, K; Nakagomi, K; Kaneko, K

    2014-01-01

    Purines in food are known to raise serum uric acid levels. We determined the purine content of sweet potato and beef by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The purine content of the samples was 118-1,034 μmol/100 g. The total purine content was also divided into purine bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids. Our results suggest that differences in total purine content and in the ratio of purine types between vegetables and beef cause a difference in elevation of serum uric acid levels.

  2. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A;

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  3. Induction of Recombinant Uridine Phosphorylase and Its Application in Biosynthesis of Pyrimidine Nucleosides%重组尿苷磷酸化酶的诱导及其在嘧啶核苷生物合成中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁庆豹; 欧伶; 魏东芝; 魏晓琨; 许彦梅; 张春艳

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant Escherichia coli pUDP, which overexpressed ufidine phosphorylase (UPase), was constructed. 0.5 mmol. L-1 lactose had a similar induction effect as the commonly used inducer IPTG during 2.5-5.5 h of cell growth. The lactose-induced UPase was stable at 50 ℃. Wet cells of pUDP was used as catalyst to biosynthesize 5-fiuorouridine from 30 mmol. L-1 uridine and 5-fiuorouracil in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) catalyzed at 50 ℃for 1.5 h and the yield of 5-fiuorouridine was higher than 68%. Under the optimum reaction conditions for production of 5-fiuoroufidine, 5-methyluridine and azauridine were synthesized from uridine by pUDP, the yield was 61.7% and 47.2% respectively. Deoxynucleosides were also synthesized by pUDP, but the yield was only about 20%.

  4. Glutathione-dependent reduction of arsenate by glycogen phosphorylase a reaction coupled to glycogenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németi, Balázs; Gregus, Zoltán

    2007-11-01

    Arsenate (As(V)) is reduced in the body to the more toxic arsenite (As(III)). We have shown that two enzymes catalyzing phosphorolytic cleavage of their substrates, namely purine nucleoside phosphorylase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, can reduce As(V) in presence of an appropriate thiol and their substrates. Another phosphorolytic enzyme that may also reduce As(V) is glycogen phosphorylase (GP). With inorganic phosphate (P(i)), GP catalyzes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate; however, it also accepts As(V). Testing the hypothesis that GP can reduce As(V), we incubated As(V) with the phosphorylated GPa or the dephosphorylated GPb purified from rabbit muscle and quantified the As(III) formed from As(V) by high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. In the presence of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), glycogen, and glutathione (GSH), both GP forms reduced As(V) at rates increasing with enzyme and As(V) concentrations. The As(V) reductase activity of GPa was 10-fold higher than that of GPb. However, incubating GPb with GP kinase and ATP (that converts GPb to GPa) increased As(V) reduction by phosphorylase up to the rate produced by GPa incubated under the same conditions. High concentration of inorganic sulfate, which activates GPb like phosphorylation, also promoted reduction of As(V) by GPb. As(V) reduction by GPa (like As(V) reduction in rats) required GSH. It also required glycogen (substrate for GP) and was stimulated by AMP (allosteric activator of GP) even at low micromolar concentrations. P(i), substrate for GP competing with As(V), inhibited As(III) formation moderately at physiological concentrations. Glucose-1-phosphate, the product of GP-catalyzed glycogenolysis, also decreased As(V) reduction. Summarizing, GP is the third phosphorolytic enzyme identified capable of reducing As(V) in vitro. For reducing As(V) by GP, GSH and glycogen are indispensable, suggesting that the reduction is

  5. Synthesis of acyclic purine nucleoside compounds: Dimethyl 2-( 2-( 2-(alkylthio) -6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl) ethyl) malonate%无环嘌呤核苷化合物2-(2-(6-氨基-2-烷硫基-9H-嘌呤-9-基)乙基)丙二酸二甲酯的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨悦; 李顺来; 杜洪光

    2011-01-01

    以腺嘌呤(1)为原料,经过氧化、水解、还原、环合和与S-烷基化反应得到2-烷硫基腺嘌呤(6);甲烷三羧酸三乙酯与1,2-二溴乙烷反应得到3-溴丙烷-1,1,1-三羧酸三乙酯(7);6和7在碱性条件下反应得到3-(6-氨基-2-烷硫基-9H-嘌呤-9-基)丙烷-1,1,1-三羧酸三乙酯(8);8在甲醇钠作用下发生脱酯基和酯交换反应,得到目标化合物2-(2-(6-氨基-2-烷硫基-9H-嘌呤-9-基)乙基)丙二酸二甲酯(9).通过FT-IR、1H- NMR、13C-NMR及HRMS对6种新的无环嘌呤核苷化合物8和9的结构进行了确证.%Three 2-alkylthioadenines have been prepared from adenine in five steps; oxidation, hydrolysis, reduction, cycle closing and S-alkylation. Triethyl methanetricarboxylate was treated with 1,2-dibromoethane to yield tri-ethyl 3-bromopropane-1 ,1,1-tricarboxylate, which was reacted with the 2-alkylthioadenines in the presence of potassium carbonate to yield triethyl 3-(2-( alkylthio)-6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl) propane-1,1,1-tricarboxylate. Treatment of this material with sodium methoxide in methanol gave dimethyl 2-(2-(2-( alkylthio)-6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl) ethyl) malonate. Six new acyclic purine nucleoside compounds have been obtained and their structures were determined by FT-IR, 'H-NMR, i3C-NMR and high resolution mass spectrometry.

  6. Expression of Pyrimidine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase Gene from Enterobacter Aerogenes in Escherichia Coli BL21%来源于产气肠杆菌的嘧啶核苷磷酸化酶基因在大肠杆菌BL21中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏元刚; 倪孟祥; 葛亚文; 吴梧桐

    2007-01-01

    实现产气肠杆菌(Enterobacter aerogenes)嘧啶核苷磷酸化酶(Pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase,PyPNase)基因在大肠杆菌中的高效表达.用来源于产气肠杆菌的核苷磷酸化酶N末端序列与NCBI中公布的已知序列进行比对,设计一对引物,以该菌株基因组DNA为模板扩增出PyPNase基因.定向克隆到PET-28a(+)载体后转化到表达宿主大肠杆菌BL21中,筛选阳性克隆并测序,然后在LB培养基中优化发酵条件.结果:目的基因片断长度为1 302 bp.表达产物经SDS-PAGE和酶活测定表明PyPNase基因在大肠杆菌中获得活性表达,43 ku处有表达蛋白.37℃培养2 h至对数生长中期,降温到31℃,0.1mmol/L IPTG诱导5 h获得最大酶活力为512.3 U/mg,为出发菌株的17.2倍.重组PyPNase的成功表达为今后大规模生产5-FUR打下了基础.

  7. Renal transepithelial transport of nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A; Vidale, E; Enigbokan, M

    1988-01-01

    Previous work from this and other laboratories has suggested that the mammalian kidney has unique mechanisms for handling purine nucleosides. For example, in humans and in mice, adenosine undergoes net renal reabsorption whereas deoxyadenosine is secreted [Kuttesch and Nelson: Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 8, 221 (1982)]. The relationships between these renal transport systems and classical renal organic cation and anion, carbohydrate, and cell membrane nucleoside transport carriers are not established. To investigate possible relationships between such carriers, we have tested effects of selected classical transport inhibitors on the renal clearances of adenosine, deoxyadenosine, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUR), and 5-fluorouracil in mice. The secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR, but not the reabsorption of adenosine or 5-fluorouracil, was prevented by the classical nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine. Cimetidine, an inhibitor of the organic cation secretory system, also inhibited the secretion of 5'-dFUR, although it did not inhibit deoxyadenosine secretion in earlier studies [Nelson et al.: Biochem. Pharmacol. 32, 2323 (1983)]. The specific inhibitor of glucose renal reabsorption, phloridzin, failed to inhibit the reabsorption of adenosine or the secretion of deoxyadenosine. Failure of the nucleoside transport inhibitors and phloridzin to prevent adenosine reabsorption suggests that adenosine reabsorption may occur via a unique process. On the other hand, inhibition of the net secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR by dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine implies a role for the carrier that is sensitive to these compounds in the renal secretion (active transport) of these nucleosides.

  8. Crystal Structure of Schistosoma mansoni Adenosine Phosphorylase/5’-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase and Its Importance on Adenosine Salvage Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torini, Juliana Roberta; Brandão-Neto, José; DeMarco, Ricardo; Pereira, Humberto D'Muniz

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni do not have de novo purine pathways and rely on purine salvage for their purine supply. It has been demonstrated that, unlike humans, the S. mansoni is able to produce adenine directly from adenosine, although the enzyme responsible for this activity was unknown. In the present work we show that S. mansoni 5´-deoxy-5´-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP, E.C. 2.4.2.28) is capable of use adenosine as a substrate to the production of adenine. Through kinetics assays, we show that the Schistosoma mansoni MTAP (SmMTAP), unlike the mammalian MTAP, uses adenosine substrate with the same efficiency as MTA phosphorolysis, which suggests that this enzyme is part of the purine pathway salvage in S. mansoni and could be a promising target for anti-schistosoma therapies. Here, we present 13 SmMTAP structures from the wild type (WT), including three single and one double mutant, and generate a solid structural framework for structure description. These crystal structures of SmMTAP reveal that the active site contains three substitutions within and near the active site when compared to it mammalian counterpart, thus opening up the possibility of developing specific inhibitors to the parasite MTAP. The structural and kinetic data for 5 substrates reveal the structural basis for this interaction, providing substract for inteligent design of new compounds for block this enzyme activity. PMID:27935959

  9. Crystal Structure of Schistosoma mansoni Adenosine Phosphorylase/5'-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase and Its Importance on Adenosine Salvage Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torini, Juliana Roberta; Brandão-Neto, José; DeMarco, Ricardo; Pereira, Humberto D'Muniz

    2016-12-01

    Schistosoma mansoni do not have de novo purine pathways and rely on purine salvage for their purine supply. It has been demonstrated that, unlike humans, the S. mansoni is able to produce adenine directly from adenosine, although the enzyme responsible for this activity was unknown. In the present work we show that S. mansoni 5´-deoxy-5´-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP, E.C. 2.4.2.28) is capable of use adenosine as a substrate to the production of adenine. Through kinetics assays, we show that the Schistosoma mansoni MTAP (SmMTAP), unlike the mammalian MTAP, uses adenosine substrate with the same efficiency as MTA phosphorolysis, which suggests that this enzyme is part of the purine pathway salvage in S. mansoni and could be a promising target for anti-schistosoma therapies. Here, we present 13 SmMTAP structures from the wild type (WT), including three single and one double mutant, and generate a solid structural framework for structure description. These crystal structures of SmMTAP reveal that the active site contains three substitutions within and near the active site when compared to it mammalian counterpart, thus opening up the possibility of developing specific inhibitors to the parasite MTAP. The structural and kinetic data for 5 substrates reveal the structural basis for this interaction, providing substract for inteligent design of new compounds for block this enzyme activity.

  10. Powerful methods to establish chromosomal markers in Lactococcus lactis: an analysis of pyrimidine salvage pathway mutants obtained by positive selections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    1995-01-01

    phosphoribosyltransferase (upp), uridindcytidine kinase (udk), pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (pdp), cytidine/deoxycytidine deaminase (dd), thymidine kinase (tdk) and purine nucleoride phosphorylase (pup). Based on an analysis of the mutants obtained, the pathways by which L. lactis metabolizes uracil...

  11. Synthesis and Bioactivity of Novel Trisubstituted Triazole Nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yi-ning; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Ning-ning; Xiang, Yu-hong; Zhang, Zhuo-yong; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Schols, Dominique; Zhang, Qing-shan; Wu, Qin-pei

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazole purine nucleosides were efficiently synthesized via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition in good yields. Bioactivity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in human embryonic lung cell cultures was evaluated and all compounds show low antiviral activity.

  12. Enantioselective and Regiodivergent Addition of Purines to Terminal Allenes: Synthesis of Abacavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Niels; Breit, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    The rhodium-catalyzed atom-economic asymmetric N-selective intermolecular addition of purine derivatives to terminal allenes is reported. Branched allylic purines were obtained in high yields, regioselectivity and outstanding enantioselectivity utilizing a Rh/Josiphos catalyst. Conversely, linear selective allylation of purines could be realized in good to excellent regio- and E/Z-selectivity with a Pd/dppf catalyst system. Furthermore, the new methodology was applied to a straightforward asymmetric synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside abacavir. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Absorption and Intermediary Metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    About 20 % of ruminal microbial N in dairy cows derives from purines and pyrimidines; however, their intermediary metabolism and contribution to the overall N metabolism has sparsely been described. In the present study, the postprandial patterns of net portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic...... metabolism were assessed to evaluate purine and pyrimidine N in dairy cows. Blood was sampled simultaneously from four veins with eight hourly samples from four multi-catheterised Holstein cows. Quantification of twenty purines and pyrimidines was performed with HPLC–MS/MS, and net fluxes were estimated...... across the PDV, hepatic tissue and total splanchnic tissue (TSP). Concentration differences between veins of fifteen purine and pyrimidine nucleosides (NS), bases (BS) and degradation products (DP) were different from zero (P≤ 0·05), resulting in the net PDV releases of purine NS (0·33–1·3 mmol...

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Modification of Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H. Shaughnessy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic modification of nucleoside structures provides access to molecules of interest as pharmaceuticals, biochemical probes, and models to study diseases. Covalent modification of the purine and pyrimidine bases is an important strategy for the synthesis of these adducts. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling is a powerful method to attach groups to the base heterocycles through the formation of new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. In this review, approaches to palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides are reviewed. Polar reaction media, such as water or polar aprotic solvents, allow reactions to be performed directly on the hydrophilic nucleosides and nucleotides without the need to use protecting groups. Homogeneous aqueous-phase coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes of water-soluble ligands provide a general approach to the synthesis of modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

  15. Enantiomeric Synthesis of Novel Apiosyl Nucleosides as Potential Antiviral Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ai Hong; Hong, Joon Hee [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    A series of 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoro-D-apiosyl nucleosides 15, 16, 17 and 18 were synthesized enantiomerically with L-Gulonic-{gamma}-lactone as the starting material. The reduction of butenolide 1 with DIBAL-H followed by the Luche procedure afforded the allylic alcohol 2. Ozonolysis and the reduction of compound 4 induced the cyclized lactol, which was acetylated to give the acetate 7. Condensation of the acetate 7 with silylated pyrimidine (N{sup 4}-benzoyl cytosine) and a purine base (6-chloropurine) under Vorbruggen conditions and deblocking afforded a series of fluorinated apiosyl nucleosides

  16. Synthesis of some novel hydrazono acyclic nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. Soltani Rad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The syntheses of novel hydrazono acyclic nucleosides similar to miconazole scaffolds are described. In this series of acyclic nucleosides, pyrimidine as well as purine and other azole derivatives replaced the imidazole function in miconazole and the ether group was replaced with a hydrazone moiety using phenylhydrazine. To interpret the dominant formation of (E-hydrazone derivatives rather than (Z-isomers, PM3 semiempirical quantum mechanic calculations were carried out which indicated that the (E-isomers had the lower heats of formation.

  17. Aqueous microwave-assisted cross-coupling reactions applied to unprotected nucleosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Gwénaëlle; Len, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Metal catalyzed cross-coupling reactions have been the preferred tools to access to modified nucleosides (on the C5-position of pyrimidines and on the C7- or C8-positions of purines). Our objective is to focus this mini-review on the Suzuki-Miyaura and on the Heck cross-couplings of nucleosides using microwave irradiations which is an alternative technology compatible with green chemistry and sustainable development PMID:25741506

  18. Isolation, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase crystallized with 2,2′-anhydrouridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, Vladimir I.; Lashkov, Alexander A.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Pavlyuk, Bogdan Ph. [A. V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospect 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kachalova, Galina S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya Street 3, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Betzel, Christian [Institute fur Biochemie und Lebensmittelchemie, University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22, Notkestrasse 85, 22604 Hamburg (Germany); Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu.; Zhukhlistova, Nadezhda E.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M., E-mail: amm@ns.crys.ras.ru [A. V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospect 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-01

    S. typhimurium uridine phosphorylase has been isolated and crystallized in the presence of ligand. Uridine phosphorylase (UPh; EC 2.4.2.3) is a member of the pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase family of enzymes which catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of the C—N glycoside bond of uridine, with the formation of ribose 1-phosphate and uracil. This enzyme has been shown to be important in the activation and catabolism of fluoropyrimidines. Modulation of its enzymatic activity may affect the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. The structural investigation of the bacterial uridine phosphorylases, both unliganded and complexed with substrate/product analogues and inhibitors, may help in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the phosphorolytic cleavage of uridine. Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase has been crystallized with 2,2′-anhydrouridine. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.15 Å. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data indicates that the crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.52, b = 123.98, c = 133.52 Å. The solvent content is 45.51%, assuming the presence of one hexamer molecule per asymmetric unit.

  19. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability ( R work = 16.2, R free = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  20. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A., E-mail: alashkov83@gmail.com; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability (R{sub work} = 16.2, R{sub free} = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  1. Three-dimensional structure of thymidine phosphorylase from E. coli in complex with 3'-azido-2'-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyuridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Fateev, I. V.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Murav'eva, T. I.; Kuranova, I. P.; Esipov, R. S.

    2013-11-01

    The three-dimensional structures of thymidine phosphorylase from E. coli containing the bound sulfate ion in the phosphate-binding site and of the complex of thymidine phosphorylase with sulfate in the phosphate-binding site and the inhibitor 3'-azido-2'-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyuridine (N3F-ddU) in the nucleoside-binding site were determined at 1.55 and 1.50 Å resolution, respectively. The amino-acid residues involved in the ligand binding and the hydrogen-bond network in the active site occupied by a large number of bound water molecules are described. A comparison of the structure of thymidine phosphorylase in complex with N3F-ddU with the structure of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from St. Aureus in complex with the natural substrate thymidine (PDB_ID: 3H5Q) shows that the substrate and the inhibitor in the nucleoside-binding pocket have different orientations. It is suggested that the position of N3F-ddU can be influenced by the presence of the azido group, which prefers a hydrophobic environment. In both structures, the active sites of the subunits are in the open conformation.

  2. Compositions containing nucleosides and manganese and their uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Levine, Rodney L.; Wehr, Nancy B.

    2015-11-17

    This invention encompasses methods of preserving protein function by contacting a protein with a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese). In addition, the invention encompasses methods of treating and/or preventing a side effect of radiation exposure and methods of preventing a side effect of radiotherapy comprising administration of a pharmaceutically effective amount of a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese) to a subject in need thereof. The compositions may comprise D. radiodurans extracts.

  3. Structures of native human thymidine phosphorylase and in complex with 5-iodouracil

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsiki, Eirini; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.; Iyer, Shalini; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Prior, Steven H.; Sleep, Darrell; Finnis, Chris; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) first identified as platelet derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) plays a key role in nucleoside metabolism. Human TP (hTP) is implicated in angiogenesis and is overexpressed in several solid tumors. Here, we report the crystal structures of recombinant hTP and its complex with a substrate 5-iodouracil (5IUR) at 3.0 and 2.5 Å, respectively. In addition, we provide information on the role of specific residues in the enzymatic activity of hTP through mut...

  4. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins.

  5. The salivary purine nucleosidase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA clone originating from adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was found with substantial similarity to nucleosidases of the EC 3.2.2.1 enzyme class. Although this type of enzyme is unusual in animals, abundant enzyme activity was found in salivary homogenates of this mosquito, but not in salivary homogenates of the mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus, or the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Aedes salivary homogenate hydrolyses inosine and guanosine to hypoxanthine and xanthine plus the ribose moiety, but does not hydrolyse the pyrimidines uridine and cytidine, thus characterizing the presence of a purine nucleosidase activity. The enzyme is present in oil-induced saliva, indicating that it is secreted. Male Ae. aegypti salivary gland homogenates (SGH) have very low purine nucleosidase activity, suggesting that the enzyme plays a role in mosquito blood feeding. A novel isocratic HPLC method to separate nucleosides and their bases is described.

  6. Efficient chemoenzymatic oligosaccharide synthesis by reverse phosphorolysis using cellobiose phosphorylase and cellodextrin phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Abou Hachem, Maher; Petersen, Bent O.

    2010-01-01

    Inverting cellobiose phosphorylase (CtCBP) and cellodextrin phosphorylase (CtCDP) from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 of glycoside hydrolase family 94 catalysed reverse phosphorolysis to produce cellobiose and cellodextrins in 57% and 48% yield from α-d-glucose 1-phosphate as donor with gluco...

  7. Efficient chemoenzymatic oligosaccharide synthesis by reverse phosphorolysis using cellobiose phosphorylase and cellodextrin phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakai, H.; Abou Hachem, M.; Petersen, B.O.; Westphal, Y.; Mannerstedt, K.; Baumann, M.J.; Dilokpimol, A.; Schols, H.A.; Duus, J.O.; Svensson, B.

    2010-01-01

    Inverting cellobiose phosphorylase (CtCBP) and cellodextrin phosphorylase (CtCDP) from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 of glycoside hydrolase family 94 catalysed reverse phosphorolysis to produce cellobiose and cellodextrins in 57% and 48% yield from alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate as donor with gluc

  8. Efficient chemoenzymatic oligosaccharide synthesis by reverse phosphorolysis using cellobiose phosphorylase and cellodextrin phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakai, H.; Abou Hachem, M.; Petersen, B.O.; Westphal, Y.; Mannerstedt, K.; Baumann, M.J.; Dilokpimol, A.; Schols, H.A.; Duus, J.O.; Svensson, B.

    2010-01-01

    Inverting cellobiose phosphorylase (CtCBP) and cellodextrin phosphorylase (CtCDP) from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 of glycoside hydrolase family 94 catalysed reverse phosphorolysis to produce cellobiose and cellodextrins in 57% and 48% yield from alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate as donor with gluc

  9. Isolation, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase crystallized with 2,2′-anhydrouridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Vladimir I.; Lashkov, Alexander A.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Pavlyuk, Bogdan Ph.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Betzel, Christian; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu.; Zhukhlistova, Nadezhda E.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2007-01-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UPh; EC 2.4.2.3) is a member of the pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase family of enzymes which catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of the C—N glycoside bond of uridine, with the formation of ribose 1-­phosphate and uracil. This enzyme has been shown to be important in the activation and catabolism of fluoropyrimidines. Modulation of its enzymatic activity may affect the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. The structural investigation of the bacterial uridine phosphorylases, both unliganded and complexed with substrate/product analogues and inhibitors, may help in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the phosphorolytic cleavage of uridine. Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase has been crystallized with 2,2′-anhydrouridine. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.15 Å. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data indicates that the crystal belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.52, b = 123.98, c = 133.52 Å. The solvent content is 45.51%, assuming the presence of one hexamer molecule per asymmetric unit. PMID:17909287

  10. Isolation, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase crystallized with 2,2'-anhydrouridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Vladimir I; Lashkov, Alexander A; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G; Pavlyuk, Bogdan Ph; Kachalova, Galina S; Betzel, Christian; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu; Zhukhlistova, Nadezhda E; Mikhailov, Al'bert M

    2007-10-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UPh; EC 2.4.2.3) is a member of the pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase family of enzymes which catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of the C-N glycoside bond of uridine, with the formation of ribose 1-phosphate and uracil. This enzyme has been shown to be important in the activation and catabolism of fluoropyrimidines. Modulation of its enzymatic activity may affect the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. The structural investigation of the bacterial uridine phosphorylases, both unliganded and complexed with substrate/product analogues and inhibitors, may help in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the phosphorolytic cleavage of uridine. Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase has been crystallized with 2,2'-anhydrouridine. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.15 A. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data indicates that the crystal belongs to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.52, b = 123.98, c = 133.52 A. The solvent content is 45.51%, assuming the presence of one hexamer molecule per asymmetric unit.

  11. Leishmania metacyclogenesis is promoted in the absence of purines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Donatelli Serafim

    Full Text Available Leishmania parasites, the causative agent of leishmaniasis, are transmitted through the bite of an infected sand fly. Leishmania parasites present two basic forms known as promastigote and amastigote which, respectively, parasitizes the vector and the mammalian hosts. Infection of the vertebrate host is dependent on the development, in the vector, of metacyclic promastigotes, however, little is known about the factors that trigger metacyclogenesis in Leishmania parasites. It has been generally stated that "stressful conditions" will lead to development of metacyclic forms, and with the exception of a few studies no detailed analysis of the molecular nature of the stress factor has been performed. Here we show that presence/absence of nucleosides, especially adenosine, controls metacyclogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We found that addition of an adenosine-receptor antagonist to in vitro cultures of Leishmania amazonensis significantly increases metacyclogenesis, an effect that can be reversed by the presence of specific purine nucleosides or nucleobases. Furthermore, our results show that proliferation and metacyclogenesis are independently regulated and that addition of adenosine to culture medium is sufficient to recover proliferative characteristics for purified metacyclic promastigotes. More importantly, we show that metacyclogenesis was inhibited in sand flies infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi that were fed a mixture of sucrose and adenosine. Our results fill a gap in the life cycle of Leishmania parasites by demonstrating how metacyclogenesis, a key point in the propagation of the parasite to the mammalian host, can be controlled by the presence of specific purines.

  12. The effect of purine and pyrimidine analogues and virazole on adenovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, P; Haghchenas, D; Wigand, R

    1975-04-01

    The multiplication of adenovirus 19 in HeLa cells was inhibited by various purine and pyrimidine analogues and by virazole. The formation of infectious virus and of capsid proteins (haemagglutin, group-specific complement-fixing antigen) was inhibited to the same degree, while the viral cytopathic effect (CPE) was not inhibited. The reversibility of the inhibition after removal of the substances was more complete for purine than for pyrimidine analogues. The inhibition was counteracted by simulataneous addition of the corresponding nucleosides. Adenosine was more effected than guanosine against purine analogues; both were partially effective against virazole, but none of them against arabinofuranosyladenine. The time-dependence of inhibition, the ensuing eclipse period after removal of the inhibitors, and the successive application of two inhibitors led to the conclusion that most of them affect the viral multiplication mainly by inhibition of DNA synthesis. Azacytidine inhibits the synthesis of structural proteins as well.

  13. X-ray structure of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase complexed with 5-fluorouracil and molecular modelling of the complex of 5-fluorouracil with uridine phosphorylase from Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkov, Alexander A; Sotnichenko, Sergey E; Prokofiev, Igor I; Gabdulkhakov, Azat G; Agapov, Igor I; Shtil, Alexander A; Betzel, Christian; Mironov, Alexander S; Mikhailov, Al'bert M

    2012-08-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UPh), which is a key enzyme in the reutilization pathway of pyrimidine nucleoside metabolism, is a validated target for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. A detailed analysis of the interactions of UPh with the therapeutic ligand 5-fluorouracil (5-FUra) is important for the rational design of pharmacological inhibitors of these enzymes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Expanding on the preliminary analysis of the spatial organization of the active centre of UPh from the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium (StUPh) in complex with 5-FUra [Lashkov et al. (2009), Acta Cryst. F65, 601-603], the X-ray structure of the StUPh-5-FUra complex was analysed at atomic resolution and an in silico model of the complex formed by the drug with UPh from Vibrio cholerae (VchUPh) was generated. These results should be considered in the design of selective inhibitors of UPhs from various species.

  14. Colourimetric and spectroscopic discrimination between nucleotides and nucleosides using para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene capped silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauran, Yannick; Grosso, Marie; Brioude, Arnaud; Kassab, Rima; Coleman, Anthony W

    2011-09-28

    The complexation of nucleosides and nucleotides by hybrid nanoparticles capped by para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene shows clear discrimination between purine and pyrimidine based molecules. For the pyrimidine nucleotides there is appearance of a new absorption band around 550 nm, and a colour change from yellow to orange red and pink.

  15. Drug: D10432 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10432 Drug Ulodesine succinate (USAN); Ulodesine hemisuccinate monohydrate (C12H16...N4O3)2. C4H6O4. 2H2O 682.2922 682.6795 D10432.gif Treatment of gout purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) in...gs [BR:br08310] Enzymes Transferases purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) [HSA:4860] [KO:K03783] Ulodesine D10432

  16. 1,3,5-Triazine-based analogues of purine: from isosteres to privileged scaffolds in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Felicia Phei Lin; Dolzhenko, Anton V

    2014-10-06

    Purines can be considered as the most ubiquitous and functional N-heterocyclic compounds in nature. Structural modifications of natural purines, particularly using isosteric ring systems, have been in the focus of many drug discovery programs. Fusion of 1,3,5-triazine ring with pyrrole, pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,3-triazole or 1,2,4-triazole results in seven bicyclic heterocyclic systems isosteric to purine. Application of the isosterism concept for the development of new compounds with therapeutic potential in areas involving purinergic regulation or purine metabolism led to significant advances in medicinal chemistry of the azolo[1,3,5]triazines. These 1,3,5-triazine-based purine-like scaffolds significantly increase level of molecular diversity and allow covering chemical space in the important areas of medicinal chemistry. Some of these azolo[1,3,5]triazine systems have become privileged scaffolds in the development of inhibitors of various kinases, phosphodiesterase, xanthine oxidase, and thymidine phosphorylase, antagonists of adenosine and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors, anticancer and antiviral agents.

  17. The relation of starch phosphorylases to starch metabolism in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Nicole; Ziegler, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Tissues of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Star) exhibit three starch phosphorylase activity forms resolved by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel affinity electrophoresis (P1, P2 and P3). Compartmentation analysis of young leaf tissues showed that P3 is plastidic, whereas P1 and P2 are cytosolic. P1 exhibits a strong binding affinity to immobilized glycogen upon electrophoresis, whereas P2 and the chloroplastic P3 do not. Cytosolic leaf phosphorylase was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The single polypeptide product constituted both the P1 and P2 activity forms. Probes for the detection of phosphorylase transcripts were derived from cDNA sequences of cytosolic and plastidic phosphorylases, and these-together with activity assays and a cytosolic phosphorylase-specific antiserum-were used to monitor phosphorylase expression in leaves and seeds. Mature leaves contained only plastidic phosphorylase, which was also strongly evident in the endosperm of developing seeds at the onset of reserve starch accumulation. Germinating seeds contained only cytosolic phosphorylase, which was restricted to the embryo. Plastidic phosphorylase thus appears to be associated with transitory leaf starch metabolism and with the initiation of seed endosperm reserve starch accumulation, but it plays no role in the degradation of the reserve starch. Cytosolic phosphorylase may be involved in the processing of incoming carbohydrate during rapid tissue growth.

  18. 3'-Azidothymidine in the active site of Escherichia coli thymidine phosphorylase: the peculiarity of the binding on the basis of X-ray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Vladimir; Abramchik, Yulia; Zhukhlistova, Nadezda; Muravieva, Tatiana; Fateev, Ilya; Esipov, Roman; Kuranova, Inna

    2014-04-01

    The structural study of complexes of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) with nucleoside analogues which inhibit its activity is of special interest because many of these compounds are used as chemotherapeutic agents. Determination of kinetic parameters showed that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (3'-azidothymidine; AZT), which is widely used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus, is a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor of Escherichia coli thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The three-dimensional structure of E. coli TP complexed with AZT was solved by the molecular-replacement method and was refined at 1.52 Å resolution. Crystals for X-ray study were grown in microgravity by the counter-diffusion technique from a solution of the protein in phosphate buffer with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. The AZT molecule was located with full occupancy in the electron-density maps in the nucleoside-binding pocket of TP, whereas the phosphate-binding pocket of the enzyme was occupied by phosphate (or sulfate) ion. The structure of the active-site cavity and conformational changes of the enzyme upon AZT binding are described in detail. It is found that the position of AZT differs remarkably from the positions of the pyrimidine bases and nucleoside analogues in other known complexes of pyrimidine phosphorylases, but coincides well with the position of 2'-fluoro-3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyuridine (N3FddU) in the recently investigated complex of E. coli TP with this ligand (Timofeev et al., 2013). The peculiarities of the arrangement of N3FddU and 3'-azidothymidine in the nucleoside binding pocket of TP and correlations between the arrangement and inhibitory properties of these compounds are discussed.

  19. Nucleotides, Nucleosides, and Nucleobases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Dandanell, Gert; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    We review literature on the metabolism of ribo- and deoxyribonucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleobases in Escherichia coli and Salmonella,including biosynthesis, degradation, interconversion, and transport. Emphasis is placed on enzymology and regulation of the pathways, at both the level of gene...

  20. Extracellular-purine metabolism in blood vessels (part I). Extracellular-purine level in blood of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecka, Joanna; Molski, Stanislaw; Komoszynski, Michal

    2010-09-01

    Adenosine and adenosine derivatives are the main regulators of purinoceptors (P1 and P2) mediated hemostasis and blood pressure. Since impaired hemostasis and high blood pressure lead to atherosclerosis and to the development of aneurysm, in this study we tested and compared the concentration of extracellular purines (e-purines) in the blood in of patients having abdominal aortic aneurysm with that from healthy volunteers. Whereas adenine nucleosides and nucleotides level in human blood plasma was analysed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), cholesterol concentration was estimated by an enzymatic assay. We did not find any correlation between e-purines concentration and the age of healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the sum level of e-purines (ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, and inosine) in the control group did not exceed 70 microM, while it was nearly two-fold higher in the blood of patients having abdominal aortic aneurysm, (123 microM). In a special case of people with Leriche Syndrome, a disease characterized by deep atherosclerotic changes, the e-purines level had further increased. Additionally, we also report typical atherosclerotic changes in the aorta using histological assays as well as total cholesterol rise. The significant rise in cholesterol concentration in the blood of the patients with abdominal aortas aneurysm, compared with the control groups, was not unique since 23% of the healthy people also exceeded the normal level of cholesterol. Therefore, our results strongly indicate that the estimation of e-purines concentration in the blood may serve as another indicator of atherosclerosis and warrant further consideration as a futuristic diagnostic tool.

  1. Rational engineering of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase into either trehalose or kojibiose dual specificity phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Petersen, Bent O; Westphal, Yvonne; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Abou Hachem, Maher; Duus, Jens Ø; Schols, Henk A; Svensson, Birte

    2010-10-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase (LaMP) of the (alpha/alpha)(6)-barrel glycoside hydrolase family 65 (GH65) catalyses both phosphorolysis of maltose and formation of maltose by reverse phosphorolysis with beta-glucose 1-phosphate and glucose as donor and acceptor, respectively. LaMP has about 35 and 26% amino acid sequence identity with GH65 trehalose phosphorylase (TP) and kojibiose phosphorylase (KP) from Thermoanaerobacter brockii ATCC35047. The structure of L. brevis MP and multiple sequence alignment identified (alpha/alpha)(6)-barrel loop 3 that forms the rim of the active site pocket as a target for specificity engineering since it contains distinct sequences for different GH65 disaccharide phosphorylases. Substitution of LaMP His413-Glu421, His413-Ile418 and His413-Glu415 from loop 3, that include His413 and Glu415 presumably recognising the alpha-anomeric O-1 group of the glucose moiety at subsite +1, by corresponding segments from Ser426-Ala431 in TP and Thr419-Phe427 in KP, thus conferred LaMP with phosphorolytic activity towards trehalose and kojibiose, respectively. Two different loop 3 LaMP variants catalysed the formation of trehalose and kojibiose in yields superior of maltose by reverse phosphorolysis with (alpha1, alpha1)- and alpha-(1,2)-regioselectivity, respectively, as analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance. The loop 3 in GH65 disaccharide phosphorylase is thus a key determinant for specificity both in phosphorolysis and in regiospecific reverse phosphorolysis.

  2. Active site conformational dynamics in human uridine phosphorylase 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo P Roosild

    Full Text Available Uridine phosphorylase (UPP is a central enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzing the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose-1-phosphate. Human UPP activity has been a focus of cancer research due to its role in activating fluoropyrimidine nucleoside chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and capecitabine. Additionally, specific molecular inhibitors of this enzyme have been found to raise endogenous uridine concentrations, which can produce a cytoprotective effect on normal tissues exposed to these drugs. Here we report the structure of hUPP1 bound to 5-FU at 2.3 A resolution. Analysis of this structure reveals new insights as to the conformational motions the enzyme undergoes in the course of substrate binding and catalysis. The dimeric enzyme is capable of a large hinge motion between its two domains, facilitating ligand exchange and explaining observed cooperativity between the two active sites in binding phosphate-bearing substrates. Further, a loop toward the back end of the uracil binding pocket is shown to flexibly adjust to the varying chemistry of different compounds through an "induced-fit" association mechanism that was not observed in earlier hUPP1 structures. The details surrounding these dynamic aspects of hUPP1 structure and function provide unexplored avenues to develop novel inhibitors of this protein with improved specificity and increased affinity. Given the recent emergence of new roles for uridine as a neuron protective compound in ischemia and degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, inhibitors of hUPP1 with greater efficacy, which are able to boost cellular uridine levels without adverse side-effects, may have a wide range of therapeutic applications.

  3. Recent development of phosphorylases possessing large potential for oligosaccharide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Svensson, Birte

    2013-01-01

    catalysts for efficient synthesis of particular oligosaccharides from a donor sugar 1-phosphate and suitable carbohydrate acceptors with strict regioselectivity. Although utilization of phosphorylases for oligosaccharide synthesis has been limited because only few different enzymes are known, recently...... the number of reported phosphorylases has gradually increased, providing the variation making these enzymes useful tools for efficient synthesis of diverse oligosaccharides.......Phosphorylases are one group of carbohydrate active enzymes involved in the cleavage and formation of glycosidic linkages together with glycoside hydrolases and sugar nucleotide-dependent glycosyltransferases. Noticeably, the catalyzed phosphorolysis is reversible, making phosphorylases suitable...

  4. Rational engineering of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase into either trehalose or kojibiose dual specificity phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Petersen, B.O.; Westphal, Y.

    2010-01-01

    of the active site pocket as a target for specificity engineering since it contains distinct sequences for different GH65 disaccharide phosphorylases. Substitution of LaMP His413-Glu421, His413-Ile418 and His413-Glu415 from loop 3, that include His413 and Glu415 presumably recognising the alpha-anomeric O-1...... in yields superior of maltose by reverse phosphorolysis with (alpha 1, alpha 1)- and alpha-(1,2)- regioselectivity, respectively, as analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance. The loop 3 in GH65 disaccharide phosphorylase is thus a key determinant for specificity both in phosphorolysis and in regiospecific...

  5. Nucleoside phosphorylation in amide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffstall, A. M.; Kokko, B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with phosphorylation in possible prebiotic nonaqueous solvents. To this end, phosphorylation of nucleosides using inorganic phosphates in amide solutions is studied at room and elevated temperatures. Reaction proceeds most readily in formamide and N-methylformamide. Products obtained at elevated temperature are nucleotides, nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates, and when the phosphate concentration is high, nucleoside diphosphates. At room temperature, adenosine afforded a mixture of nucleotides, but none of the cyclic nucleotide. Conditions leading to the highest relative percentage of cyclic nucleotide involve the use of low concentrations of phosphate and an excess of nucleoside.

  6. Crystal structure of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Desiree; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Mirza, Osman

    2004-01-01

    phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) refined at 1.77 A resolution. It represents the first 3D structure of a sucrose phosphorylase and is the first structure of a phosphate-dependent enzyme from the glycoside hydrolase family 13. The structure of BiSP is composed of the four domains A, B, B...

  7. Glucose 6-phosphate regulates hepatic glycogenolysis through inactivation of phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiston, Susan; Andersen, Birgitte; Agius, Loranne

    2003-06-01

    High glucose concentration suppresses hepatic glycogenolysis by allosteric inhibition and dephosphorylation (inactivation) of phosphorylase-a. The latter effect is attributed to a direct effect of glucose on the conformation of phosphorylase-a. Although glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), like glucose, stimulates dephosphorylation of phosphorylase-a by phosphorylase phosphatase, its physiological role in regulating glycogenolysis in intact hepatocytes has not been tested. We show in this study that metabolic conditions associated with an increase in G6P, including glucokinase overexpression and incubation with octanoate or dihydroxyacetone, cause inactivation of phosphorylase. The latter conditions also inhibit glycogenolysis. The activity of phosphorylase-a correlated inversely with the G6P concentration within the physiological range. The inhibition of glycogenolysis and inactivation of phosphorylase-a caused by 10 mmol/l glucose can be at least in part counteracted by inhibition of glucokinase with 5-thioglucose, which lowers G6P. In conclusion, metabolic conditions that alter the hepatic G6P content affect glycogen metabolism not only through regulation of glycogen synthase but also through regulation of the activation state of phosphorylase. Dysregulation of G6P in diabetes by changes in activity of glucokinase or glucose 6-phosphatase may be a contributing factor to impaired suppression of glycogenolysis by hyperglycemia.

  8. Structure and electronic spectra of purine-methyl viologen charge transfer complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Patwardhan, Sameer; Singh, Arunoday; Simeon, Tomekia; Sarjeant, Amy A; Schatz, George C; Lewis, Frederick D

    2014-01-01

    The structure and properties of the electron donor-acceptor complexes formed between methyl viologen and purine nucleosides and nucleotides in water and the solid state have been investigated using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. Solution studies were performed using UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations were performed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Energy decomposition analysis indicates that dispersion and induction (charge-transfer) interactions dominate the total binding energy, whereas electrostatic interactions are largely repulsive. The appearance of charge transfer bands in the absorption spectra of the complexes are well-described by time-dependent DFT and are further explained in terms of the redox properties of purine monomers and solvation effects. Crystal structures are reported for complexes of methyl viologen with the purines 2'-deoxyguanosine 3'-monophosphate (DAD'DAD' type) and 7-deazaguanosine (DAD'ADAD' type). Comparison of the structures determined in the solid state and by theoretical methods in solution provides valuable insights into the nature of charge-transfer interactions involving purine bases as electron donors.

  9. Bias of purine stretches in sequenced chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario; Brunak, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We examined more than 700 DNA sequences (full length chromosomes and plasmids) for stretches of purines (R) or pyrimidines (Y) and alternating YR stretches; such regions will likely adopt structures which are different from the canonical B-form. Since one turn of the DNA helix is roughly 10 bp, we...... measured the fraction of each genome which contains purine (or pyrimidine) tracts of lengths of 10 by or longer (hereafter referred to as 'purine tracts'), as well as stretches of alternating pyrimidines/purine ('pyr/pur tracts') of the same length. Using this criteria, a random sequence would be expected......, in eukaryotes there is an abundance of long stretches of purines or alternating purine/pyrimidine tracts, which cannot be explained in this way; these sequences are likely to play an important role in eukaryotic chromosome organisation....

  10. The effect of fluoropyrimidines with or without thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor on the expression of thymidine phosphorylase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Capel, van T; Smid, K.; Fukushima, M; Hoekman, K.; Pinedo, H.M.; Peters, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (platelet-derived-endothelial-cell-growth-factor) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of thymidine to thymine and 2-deoxyribose-1-phosphate, activates 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'DFUR) and inactivates trifluorothymidine (TFT). The effect of 5'DFUR and TFT with or without

  11. Rational engineering of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase into either trehalose or kojibiose dual specificity phosphorylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakai, H.; Petersen, B.O.; Westphal, Y.; Dilokpimol, A.; Hachem, M.A.; Duus, J.O.; Schols, H.A.; Svensson, B.

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase (LaMP) of the (a/a)6-barrel glycoside hydrolase family 65 (GH65) catalyses both phosphorolysis of maltose and formation of maltose by reverse phosphorolysis with ß-glucose 1-phosphate and glucose as donor and acceptor, respectively. LaMP has about

  12. Drosophila deoxyribonucleoside kinase mutants with enhanced ability to phosphorylate purine analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Rozpedowska, E.; Le Breton, C.

    2007-01-01

    ability to phosphorylate pyrimidines, while the ability to phosphorylate purine analogs was relatively similar to the wild-type enzyme. We selected two mutants, for expression in the osteosarcoma 143B, the glioblastoma U-87M-G and the breast cancer MCF7 cell lines. The sensitivities of the transduced cell...... to create Dm-dNK mutants with increased specificity for several nucleoside analogs (NAs) used as anticancer or antiviral drugs. Four mutants were characterized for the ability to sensitize Escherichia coli toward analogs and for their substrate specificity and kinetic parameters. The mutants had a reduced...

  13. A novel nucleoside kinase from Burkholderia thailandensis: a member of the phosphofructokinase B-type family of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroko; Sakasegawa, Shin-Ichi; Yasuda, Yuko; Imamura, Shigeyuki; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2008-12-01

    The genome of the mesophilic Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis contains an open reading frame (i.e. the Bth_I1158 gene) that has been annotated as a putative ribokinase and PFK-B family member. Notably, although the deduced amino acid sequence of the gene showed only 29% similarity to the recently identified nucleoside kinase from hyperthermophilic archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, 15 of 17 residues reportedly involved in the catalytic activity of M. jannaschii nucleoside kinase were conserved. The gene was cloned and functionally overexpressed in Rhodococcus erythropolis, and the purified enzyme was characterized biochemically. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was unusually broad for a bacterial PFK-B protein, and the specificity extended not only to purine and purine-analog nucleosides but also to uridine. Inosine was the most effective phosphoryl acceptor, with the highest k(cat)/K(m) value (80 s(-1).mm(-1)) being achieved when ATP served as the phosphoryl donor. By contrast, this enzyme exhibited no activity toward ribose, indicating that the recombinant enzyme was a nucleoside kinase rather than a ribokinase. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed analysis of a bacterial nucleoside kinase in the PFK-B family.

  14. Modified 5-fluorouracil: Uridine phosphorylase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkov, A. A.; Shchekotikhin, A. A.; Shtil, A. A.; Sotnichenko, S. E.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a medication widely used in chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer. Being a substrate for the reverse reaction catalyzed by uridine phosphorylase (UPase), 5-FU serves as a promising prototype molecule (molecular scaffold) for the design of a selective UPase inhibitor that enhances the antitumor activity of 5-FU and exhibits intrinsic cytostatic effects on cancer cells. The chemical formula of the new compound, which binds to the uracil-binding site and, in the presence of a phosphate anion, to the phosphate-binding site of UPase, is proposed and investigated by molecular simulation methods.

  15. N2-(1-Methoxycarbonylethyl)guanosine, a new nucleoside coupled with an amino acid derivative from Amanita exitialis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lang Chi; Hui Ye Zhang; Jing Hua Xue; Jing Hao; Mei Fang Liu; Xiao Yi Wei

    2009-01-01

    A new purine nucleoside coupled with an amino acid derivative, N2-(1-methoxycarbonylethyl)guanosine 1, along with βearboline and russulaceramide was isolated from the fruiting bodies ofAmanita exitialis, a newly described poisonous mushroom. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. This is the first report of naturally occurring nucleosides in which an α-amino acid derivative is bonded through its a-amino nitrogen to a nucleobase aglycone by a C-N bond. The new compound was found to be toxic in brine shrimp lethality test (BST).

  16. High-yielding cascade enzymatic synthesis of 5-methyluridine using a novel combination of nucleoside phosphorylases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Visser, Daniel F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ml scale using defined growth media (K2HPO4, 14.6 g.l-1; (NH4)2SO4 2 g.l-1; Na2HPO4, 3.6 g.l-1; Citric Acid, 2.5 g.l-1; MgSO4, 0.25 g.l-1; NH4NO3, 5 g.l-1; yeast extract, 10 g.l-1; glucose 30 g.l-1 and ampicillin, 100 µg.ml- 1). An overnight... was reached at 4 h. Enzyme Recovery. After fermentation, the broth was harvested and allowed to settle overnight at 4°C. The biomass was separated from the supernatant by decanting, and subjected to a freeze-thaw cycle alternating between +20oC and – 20...

  17. [Total purine content in selected foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, G; Colling, M

    1987-12-01

    For the dietary treatment of hyperuricemia and gout, it is necessary to know the total purine content of food. A new method determining the purine content enzymatically, as uric acid, allows routine analysis. Many foods of animal and plant origin were brought in usual or alternative stores and analysed.

  18. In Silico Investigation of Flavonoids as Potential Trypanosomal Nucleoside Hydrolase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hung Hung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis is endemic to 37 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by two related species of Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies suffer from resistance and public accessibility of expensive medicines. Finding safer and effective therapies of natural origin is being extensively explored worldwide. Pentamidine is the only available therapy for inhibiting the P2 adenosine transporter involved in the purine salvage pathway of the trypanosomatids. The objective of the present study is to use computational studies for the investigation of the probable trypanocidal mechanism of flavonoids. Docking experiments were carried out on eight flavonoids of varying level of hydroxylation, namely, flavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, apigenin, kaempferol, fisetin, and quercetin. Using AutoDock 4.2, these compounds were tested for their affinity towards inosine-adenosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase and the inosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase, the major enzymes of the purine salvage pathway. Our results showed that all of the eight tested flavonoids showed high affinities for both hydrolases (lowest free binding energy ranging from −10.23 to −7.14 kcal/mol. These compounds, especially the hydroxylated derivatives, could be further studied as potential inhibitors of the nucleoside hydrolases.

  19. [Purine in common plant food in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shengzhong; Zou, Lina; Wang, Zhaoxu; Pan, Hongzhi; Yang, Yuexin

    2012-01-01

    To determine the content of purine in plant food in China with HPLC. HPLC analysis was applied on Waters Atlantis T3 column (4.6mm x 250mm x 5 microm), using 10.0 mmol/L NH4COOH (pH 3.6) and CH3OH (99%/1%) as mobile phase and running at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The column temperature was 30 degrees C, and the detection wavelength was at 254nm. The content of purine varied significantly in different kinds of plant food. The content of purine in dried fungi and dried legumes and legume products was higher than that in other food, the content of purine in vegetables and vegetable products and fruits and fruit products was low. As a whole, the content of purine was: dried fungi and algae > dried legumes and legume products > nuts and fresh > seeds fungi and algae > cereal and cereals products > vegetables and vegetable products > fruit and fruit products > tubers, starches and products. The content of purine of dried fungi and algae and dried legumes and legume products in plant food was high. The content of purine was varied significantly in different kinds of plant food.

  20. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakilam Satishkumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxytris(dimethylaminophosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL, T-cell lymphoma (TCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.

  1. Kinetic and biochemical characterization of Trypanosoma evansi nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Paulo Henrique Exterchoter; Batista, Franciane; Wagner, Glauber; Magalhães, Maria de Lourdes Borba; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Nucleoside triphosphate diphospho-hydrolases (NTPDases) catalyze the hydrolysis of several nucleosides tri and diphosphate playing major roles in eukaryotes including purinergic signaling, inflammation, hemostasis, purine salvage and host-pathogen interactions. These enzymes have been recently described in parasites where several evidences indicated their involvement in virulence and infection. Here, we have investigated the presence of NTPDase in the genome of Trypanosoma evansi. Based on the genomic sequence from Trypanosoma brucei, we have amplified an 1812 gene fragment corresponding to the T. evansi NTPDase gene. The protein was expressed in the soluble form and purified to homogeneity and enzymatic assays were performed confirming the enzyme identity. Kinetic parameters and substrate specificity were determined. The dependence of cations on enzymatic activity was investigated indicating the enzyme is stimulated by divalent cations and carbohydrates but inhibited by sodium. Bioinformatic analysis indicates the enzyme is a membrane bound protein facing the extracellular side of the cell with 98% identity to the T. brucei homologous NTPDase gene.

  2. Dietary purines in vegetarian meat analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlik, Jaroslav; Plachy, Vladimir; Fernandez, Javier; Rada, Vojtech

    2010-11-01

    The meat alternatives market offers a wide range of products resembling meat in taste, flavour or texture but based on vegetable protein sources. These high protein-low purine foods may find application in a low purine or purine-free diet, which is sometimes suggested for subjects with increased serum urate levels, i.e. hyperuricaemia. We determined purine content (uric acid, adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine) in 39 commercially available meat substitutes and evaluated them in relation to their protein content. Some of the products contained a comparable sum of adenine and hypoxanthine per protein as meat. Analysis of variance showed an influence of protein source used. Mycoprotein-based products had significantly higher contents (2264 mg kg(-1)) of adenine and hypoxanthine per kg of 100% protein than soybean-based products (1648 mg kg(-1)) or mixtures consisting of soybean protein and wheat protein (1239 mg kg(-1)). Protein-rich vegetable-based meat substitutes might be generally accepted as meat alternatives for individuals on special diets. The type of protein used to manufacture these products determines the total content of purines, which is relatively higher in the case of mycoprotein or soybean protein, while appearing lower in wheat protein and egg white-based products. These are therefore more suitable for dietary considerations in a low-purine diet for hyperuricaemic subjects. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  3. Targeting the Plasmodium vivax equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PvENT1 for antimalarial drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Deniskin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium falciparum and vivax cause most cases of malaria. Emerging resistance to current antimalarial medications makes new drug development imperative. Ideally a new antimalarial drug should treat both falciparum and vivax malaria. Because malaria parasites are purine auxotrophic, they rely on purines imported from the host erythrocyte via Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters (ENTs. Thus, the purine import transporters represent a potential target for antimalarial drug development. For falciparum parasites the primary purine transporter is the P. falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Type 1 (PfENT1. Recently we identified potent PfENT1 inhibitors with nanomolar IC50 values using a robust, yeast-based high throughput screening assay. In the current work we characterized the Plasmodium vivax ENT1 (PvENT1 homologue and its sensitivity to the PfENT1 inhibitors. We expressed a yeast codon-optimized PvENT1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PvENT1-expressing yeast imported both purines ([3H]adenosine and pyrimidines ([3H]uridine, whereas wild type (fui1Δ yeast did not. Based on radiolabel substrate uptake inhibition experiments, inosine had the lowest IC50 (3.8 μM, compared to guanosine (14.9 μM and adenosine (142 μM. For pyrimidines, thymidine had an IC50 of 183 μM (vs. cytidine and uridine; mM range. IC50 values were higher for nucleobases compared to the corresponding nucleosides; hypoxanthine had a 25-fold higher IC50 than inosine. The archetypal human ENT1 inhibitor 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR had no effect on PvENT1, whereas dipyridamole inhibited PvENT1, albeit with a 40 μM IC50, a 1000-fold less sensitive than human ENT1 (hENT1. The PfENT1 inhibitors blocked transport activity of PvENT1 and the five known naturally occurring non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with similar IC50 values. Thus, the PfENT1 inhibitors also target PvENT1. This implies that development of novel

  4. Targeting the Plasmodium vivax equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PvENT1) for antimalarial drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniskin, Roman; Frame, I J; Sosa, Yvett; Akabas, Myles H

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Plasmodium falciparum and vivax cause most cases of malaria. Emerging resistance to current antimalarial medications makes new drug development imperative. Ideally a new antimalarial drug should treat both falciparum and vivax malaria. Because malaria parasites are purine auxotrophic, they rely on purines imported from the host erythrocyte via Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters (ENTs). Thus, the purine import transporters represent a potential target for antimalarial drug development. For falciparum parasites the primary purine transporter is the P. falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Type 1 (PfENT1). Recently we identified potent PfENT1 inhibitors with nanomolar IC50 values using a robust, yeast-based high throughput screening assay. In the current work we characterized the Plasmodium vivax ENT1 (PvENT1) homologue and its sensitivity to the PfENT1 inhibitors. We expressed a yeast codon-optimized PvENT1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PvENT1-expressing yeast imported both purines ([(3)H]adenosine) and pyrimidines ([(3)H]uridine), whereas wild type (fui1Δ) yeast did not. Based on radiolabel substrate uptake inhibition experiments, inosine had the lowest IC50 (3.8 μM), compared to guanosine (14.9 μM) and adenosine (142 μM). For pyrimidines, thymidine had an IC50 of 183 μM (vs. cytidine and uridine; mM range). IC50 values were higher for nucleobases compared to the corresponding nucleosides; hypoxanthine had a 25-fold higher IC50 than inosine. The archetypal human ENT1 inhibitor 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) had no effect on PvENT1, whereas dipyridamole inhibited PvENT1, albeit with a 40 μM IC50, a 1000-fold less sensitive than human ENT1 (hENT1). The PfENT1 inhibitors blocked transport activity of PvENT1 and the five known naturally occurring non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with similar IC50 values. Thus, the PfENT1 inhibitors also target PvENT1. This implies that development of novel antimalarial drugs

  5. Ubiquinol (QH(2)) functions as a negative regulator of purine nucleotide inhibition of Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial uncoupling protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2011-01-01

    We compared the influence of different adenine and guanine nucleotides on the free fatty acid-induced uncoupling protein (UCP) activity in non-phosphorylating Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria when the membranous ubiquinone (Q) redox state was varied. The purine nucleotides exhibit an inhibitory effect in the following descending order: GTP>ATP>GDP>ADP≫GMP>AMP. The efficiency of guanine and adenine nucleotides to inhibit UCP-sustained uncoupling in A. castellanii mitochondria depends on the Q redox state. Inhibition by purine nucleotides can be increased with decreasing Q reduction level (thereby ubiquinol, QH₂ concentration) even with nucleoside monophosphates that are very weak inhibitors at the initial respiration. On the other hand, the inhibition can be alleviated with increasing Q reduction level (thereby QH₂ concentration). The most important finding was that ubiquinol (QH₂) but not oxidised Q functions as a negative regulator of UCP inhibition by purine nucleotides. For a given concentration of QH₂, the linoleic acid-induced GTP-inhibited H(+) leak was the same for two types of A. castellanii mitochondria that differ in the endogenous Q content. When availability of the inhibitor (GTP) or the negative inhibition modulator (QH₂) was changed, a competitive influence on the UCP activity was observed. QH₂ decreases the affinity of UCP for GTP and, vice versa, GTP decreases the affinity of UCP for QH₂. These results describe the kinetic mechanism of regulation of UCP affinity for purine nucleotides by endogenous QH₂ in the mitochondria of a unicellular eukaryote.

  6. A conserved loop in polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) essential for both RNA and ADP/phosphate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzaniga, Thomas; Mazzantini, Elisa; Nardini, Marco; Regonesi, Maria Elena; Greco, Claudio; Briani, Federica; De Gioia, Luca; Dehò, Gianni; Tortora, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) reversibly catalyzes RNA phosphorolysis and polymerization of nucleoside diphosphates. Its homotrimeric structure forms a central channel where RNA is accommodated. Each protomer core is formed by two paralogous RNase PH domains: PNPase1, whose function is largely unknown, hosts a conserved FFRR loop interacting with RNA, whereas PNPase2 bears the putative catalytic site, ∼20 Å away from the FFRR loop. To date, little is known regarding PNPase catalytic mechanism. We analyzed the kinetic properties of two Escherichia coli PNPase mutants in the FFRR loop (R79A and R80A), which exhibited a dramatic increase in Km for ADP/Pi binding, but not for poly(A), suggesting that the two residues may be essential for binding ADP and Pi. However, both mutants were severely impaired in shifting RNA electrophoretic mobility, implying that the two arginines contribute also to RNA binding. Additional interactions between RNA and other PNPase domains (such as KH and S1) may preserve the enzymatic activity in R79A and R80A mutants. Inspection of enzyme structure showed that PNPase has evolved a long-range acting hydrogen bonding network that connects the FFRR loop with the catalytic site via the F380 residue. This hypothesis was supported by mutation analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of PNPase domains and RNase PH suggests that such network is a unique feature of PNPase1 domain, which coevolved with the paralogous PNPase2 domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. High performance liquid chromatographic profiles of nucleosides, bases and tryptophan in the plasma of the Tasmanian devil and four other marsupial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, J D; Nicol, S C; Perrone, P; Brown, P R

    1984-01-01

    Plasma profiles of nucleosides, bases and trytophan of five marsupial species were established using the reversed-phase mode of high performance liquid chromatography (RHPLC). Within each species, the profiles were highly reproducible and between species there were distinct differences. In the Tasmanian devil, the circulating levels of constituents examined with one exception, were generally lower than in the other marsupials. The exception was a constituent present in large amounts and having the characteristics of a purine nucleoside derivative which was found only in the plasma of the devil.

  8. Prebiotic syntheses of purines and pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, B; Lazcano, A; Oró, J

    1984-01-01

    The work done in many laboratories during the last two decades has confirmed that hydrogen cyanide and cyanoacetylene are the two major precursors for the prebiotic synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, respectively. Although several different pathways for the synthesis of purines have been described, they are all variations of the initial mechanism proposed by Oró and Kimball, where hydrogen cyanide leads first to the formation of a 4,5-di-substituted imidazole derivative, and then to the closing of the purine ring with a C1 compound. A number of experiments have shown that purines and pyrimidines can also be obtained from methane, ammonia (nitrogen), and water mixtures, provided an activating source of energy (radiation, electric discharges, etc.) is available. However, in this case the yields are lower by about two orders of magnitude because of the intermediate formation of hydrogen cyanide and cyanoacetylene. The latter two compounds have been found in interstellar space, Titan and other bodies of the solar system. They were probably present in the primordial parent bodies from the solar nebula in concentrations of 10(-2) to 10(-3) M as inferred from recent calculations by Miller and coworkers obtained for the Murchison meteorite. These concentrations should have been sufficient to generate relatively large amounts of purine and pyrimidine bases on the primitive Earth.

  9. Murine norovirus (MNV-1) exposure in vitro to the purine nucleoside analog Ribavirin increases quasispecies diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R; Baugher, Joseph D; Rippinger, Christine M; Pinekenstein, Rebecca; Kolawole, Abimbola O; Mehoke, Thomas S; Wobus, Christiane E; Feldman, Andrew B; Pineda, Fernando J; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2016-01-04

    Ribavirin is a pharmaceutical antiviral used for the treatment of RNA virus infections including norovirus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, Lassa virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinovirus. Despite the drug's history and documented efficacy, the antiviral mechanism of Ribavirin remains unclear. Mechanisms proposed include depletion of the intracellular GTP pool, immunomodulatory effects, induction of error catastrophe, inhibition of viral polymerase activity, and/or inhibition of viral capping. In the present study, we leveraged deep sequencing data to demonstrate that Ribavirin increases murine norovirus (MNV-1) viral diversity. By serial passaging MNV-1 in RAW 264.7 cells for twenty generations in the presence of Ribavirin, we demonstrated statistically significant increases in both the number of unique haplotypes and the average pairwise difference (APD). Based on statistically significant differences in the probability of nucleotide mutations based on Roche 454 sequencing, we also demonstrated that single nucleotide substitutions are increased in the presence of Ribavirin. Finally, we demonstrated Ribavirin's impact on statistically significantly reducing the relative proportion of the dominant sequence within the quasispecies.

  10. [Effect of cooking on the purine content of foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, M; Wolfram, G

    1987-12-01

    The total purine content and the content of purines bound in RNA and DNA was determined in selected food (veal meat, pork meat, pork liver, pork spleen, soja meat). Raw and boiled food samples were analysed. During preparation of food the total purine content is changed by losses of water or of purines into cooking water. Simultaneously, a great part of nucleic acids is hydrolysed.

  11. Crystal structure of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprogoe, D.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Mirza, O.; Kastrup, J.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gajhede, M.; Skov, L.K.

    2004-01-01

    Around 80 enzymes are implicated in the generic starch and sucrose pathways. One of these enzymes is sucrose phosphorylase, which reversibly catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and orthophosphate to d-Fructose and a-d-glucose 1-phosphate. Here, we present the crystal structure of sucrose phosphoryla

  12. Increased hepatic glycogen synthetase and decreased phosphorylase in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Saugmann, P; Richter, Erik

    1979-01-01

    Rats were either physically trained by a 12 wk swimming program or were freely eating or weight matched, sedentary controls. Trained rats had a higher relative liver weight and total hepatic glycogen synthetase (EC 2.4.1.11) activity and a lower phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) activity than the other...

  13. Señales purinérgicas Purinergic signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R Lazarowski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En la última década se ha aportado clara evidencia de que tanto nucleósidos como nucleótidos de adenina y uridina pueden funcionar como factores de señalización extracelular. Su acción es mediada por dos tipos principales de receptores de superficie denominados purinérgicos. Los receptores P1 se activan por adenosina, y son todos metabotrópicos, mientras que los receptores de nucleótidos (ATP, ADP, UTP y UDP y nucleótidos-azúcares (UDP-glucosa y UDP-galactosa pueden ser metabotrópicos (P2Y o ionotrópicos (P2X. La importancia y complejidad de este sistema de señalización se evidencia por la diversidad de mecanismos de liberación de nucleótidos al medio extracelular y por la distribución ubicua de varios grupos de ectonucleotidasas capaces de catalizar la degradación y conversión de nucleótidos. Hasta el momento se han descrito y clonado una veintena de estos receptores que modulan una variedad de respuestas, como el impulso nervioso, la respuesta inflamatoria, la secreción de insulina, la regulación del tono vascular y la percepción del dolor. En la presente revisión se describen las características estructurales y farmacológicas de los receptores purinérgicos y se analiza la interacción dinámica entre estos receptores, los nucleósidos y nucleótidos, y las ectonucleotidasas, con especial atención a la dinámica de la agregación plaquetaria, la respuesta inmune y la hidratación de las mucosas respiratorias.In the last decade evidence accumulated that nucleosides and nucleotides of both uridine and adenine can act as extracellular signaling factors. Their action is mediated by two main types of surface receptors commonly known as purinergic. P1 receptors are metabotropic and activated by adenosine, whereas receptors for nucleotides (ATP, ADP, UTP and UDP and nucleotide-sugars (UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose can be either metabotropic (P2Y or ionotropic (P2X. The importance and complexity of this signaling system

  14. Total purine and purine base content of common foodstuffs for facilitating nutritional therapy for gout and hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kiyoko; Aoyagi, Yasuo; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Inazawa, Katsunori; Yamaoka, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    Purines are natural substances found in all of the body's cells and in virtually all foods. In humans, purines are metabolized to uric acid, which serves as an antioxidant and helps to prevent damage caused by active oxygen species. A continuous supply of uric acid is important for protecting human blood vessels. However, frequent and high intake of purine-rich foods reportedly enhances serum uric acid levels, which results in gout and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and metabolic syndrome. In Japan, the daily intake of dietary purines is recommended to be less than 400 mg to prevent gout and hyperuricemia. We have established an HPLC method for purine analysis and determined purines in a total of 270 foodstuffs. A relatively small number of foods contained concentrated amounts of purines. For the most part, purine-rich foods are also energy-rich foods, and include animal meats, fish meats, organs such as the liver and fish milt, and yeast. When the ratio of the four purine bases (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) was compared, two groups of foods were identified: one that contained mainly adenine and guanine and one that contained mainly hypoxanthine. For patients with gout and hyperuricemia, the amount of total purines and the types of purines consumed, particularly hypoxanthine, are important considerations. In this context, the data from our analysis provide a purine content reference, and thereby clinicians and patients could utilize that reference in nutritional therapy for gout and hyperuricemia.

  15. Nucleoside transporters and liver cell growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdés, Raquel; Mata, João F; Del Santo, Belén; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Felipe, Antonio; Casado, F Javier

    1998-01-01

    .... This review summarizes work performed in our laboratory on these transport systems, particularly nucleoside transporters, which are up-regulated in physiological situations associated with liver cell growth...

  16. Efficient chemoenzymatic oligosaccharide synthesis by reverse phosphorolysis using cellobiose phosphorylase and cellodextrin phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Hachem, Maher Abou; Petersen, Bent O; Westphal, Yvonne; Mannerstedt, Karin; Baumann, Martin J; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Schols, Henk A; Duus, Jens Ø; Svensson, Birte

    2010-12-01

    Inverting cellobiose phosphorylase (CtCBP) and cellodextrin phosphorylase (CtCDP) from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 of glycoside hydrolase family 94 catalysed reverse phosphorolysis to produce cellobiose and cellodextrins in 57% and 48% yield from α-d-glucose 1-phosphate as donor with glucose and cellobiose as acceptor, respectively. Use of α-d-glucosyl 1-fluoride as donor increased product yields to 98% for CtCBP and 68% for CtCDP. CtCBP showed broad acceptor specificity forming β-glucosyl disaccharides with β-(1→4)- regioselectivity from five monosaccharides as well as branched β-glucosyl trisaccharides with β-(1→4)-regioselectivity from three (1→6)-linked disaccharides. CtCDP showed strict β-(1→4)-regioselectivity and catalysed linear chain extension of the three β-linked glucosyl disaccharides, cellobiose, sophorose, and laminaribiose, whereas 12 tested monosaccharides were not acceptors. Structure analysis by NMR and ESI-MS confirmed two β-glucosyl oligosaccharide product series to represent novel compounds, i.e. β-D-glucopyranosyl-[(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl](n)-(1→2)-D-glucopyranose, and β-D-glucopyranosyl-[(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl](n)-(1→3)-D-glucopyranose (n = 1-7). Multiple sequence alignment together with a modelled CtCBP structure, obtained using the crystal structure of Cellvibrio gilvus CBP in complex with glucose as a template, indicated differences in the subsite +1 region that elicit the distinct acceptor specificities of CtCBP and CtCDP. Thus Glu636 of CtCBP recognized the C1 hydroxyl of β-glucose at subsite +1, while in CtCDP the presence of Ala800 conferred more space, which allowed accommodation of C1 substituted disaccharide acceptors at the corresponding subsites +1 and +2. Furthermore, CtCBP has a short Glu496-Thr500 loop that permitted the C6 hydroxyl of glucose at subsite +1 to be exposed to solvent, whereas the corresponding longer loop Thr637-Lys648 in CtCDP blocks binding of C6-linked disaccharides as

  17. A flexible loop as a functional element in the catalytic mechanism of nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemeulebroucke, An; De Vos, Stefan; Van Holsbeke, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Versées, Wim

    2008-08-08

    The nucleoside hydrolase of Trypanosoma vivax hydrolyzes the N-glycosidic bond of purine nucleosides. Structural and kinetic studies on this enzyme have suggested a catalytic role for a flexible loop in the vicinity of the active sites. Here we present the analysis of the role of this flexible loop via the combination of a proline scan of the loop, loop deletion mutagenesis, steady state and pre-steady state analysis, and x-ray crystallography. Our analysis reveals that this loop has an important role in leaving group activation and product release. The catalytic role involves the entire loop and could only be perturbed by deletion of the entire loop and not by single site mutagenesis. We present evidence that the loop closes over the active site during catalysis, thereby ordering a water channel that is involved in leaving group activation. Once chemistry has taken place, the loop dynamics determine the rate of product release.

  18. Tailoring Imprinted Titania Nanoparticles for Purines Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mujahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imprinted titania nanoparticles were developed for selective recognition of purines, for example, guanine and its final oxidation product uric acid. Titania nanoparticles were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium butoxide as precursor in the presence of pattern molecules. The morphology of synthesized nanoparticles is evaluated by SEM images. Recognition characteristics of imprinted titania nanoparticles are studied by exposing them to standard solution of guanine and uric acid, respectively. The resultant change in their concentration is determined by UV/Vis analysis that indicated imprinted titania nanoparticles possess high affinity for print molecules. In both cases, nonimprinted titania is taken as control to observe nonspecific binding interactions. Cross sensitivity studies suggested that imprinted titania is at least five times more selective for binding print molecules than competing analyte thus indicating its potential for bioassay of purines.

  19. Stimulating effect of phosphatidic acid on autophosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negami, A I; Sasaki, H; Yamamura, H

    1985-09-16

    Autophosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase from rabbit skeletal muscle was stimulated by acidic phospholipids such as phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidyl-serine. PA stimulated an initial velocity of autophosphorylation 3.8-fold. When fully autophosphorylated, about 11 mol of phosphate per tetramer (alpha beta gamma delta) were incorporated in the presence of PA and about 6.5 mol in the absence of PA. In the presence of PA (100 micrograms/ml), there was a concomitant enhancement of its kinase activity about 25-fold at pH 6.8. PA (100 micrograms/ml) sharply decreased an apparent Ka for Ca2+ on autophosphorylation from 4.0 X 10(-5) M to 1.0 X 10(-6) M. Available evidence indicates that the Ca2+-activated, PA-dependent autophosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase shows an ability to stimulate glycogen breakdown.

  20. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase gene is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in human lymphoma cell line DHL-9: another mechanism of enzyme deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Keiko; Wada, Hideo; Nishioka, Junji; Nakatani, Kaname; Yamada, Yasuaki; Kamihira, Shimeru; Kusunoki, Masato; Nobori, Tsutomu

    2005-04-01

    Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) involved in the metabolism of purine and polyamine has been known to be deficient in a variety of tumors. Although this enzyme deficiency was reportedly caused by partial or total deletion of the MTAP gene, human MTAP-deficient lymphoma cell line DHL-9 has the intact MTAP gene. In order to determine the mechanism of MTAP deficiency in DHL-9, we carried out methylation-specific PCR analysis of sodium bisulfite-treated genomic DNA followed by DNA sequence analysis. Following incubation with various concentrations of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DHL-9 cells were subjected to RT-PCR and an immunoblot analysis for MTAP expression. MTAP promoter in DHL-9 cells was methylated at cytosine of all CpG dinucleotides analyzed. Moreover, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment induced DHL-9 cells to express MTAP mRNA and protein. Taken together, MTAP deficiency in DHL-9 was caused by transcriptional silencing due to promoter methylation. Promoter methylation of the MTAP gene was also found in DNA samples from adult T-cell leukemia patients. These results indicated that promoter hypermethylation is another mechanism of MTAP deficiency in human malignancy. Thus, immunological diagnostics will be needed for an accurate evaluation of MTAP expression at the protein level.

  1. Pan-pathway based interaction profiling of FDA-approved nucleoside and nucleobase analogs with enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egeblad

    Full Text Available To identify interactions a nucleoside analog library (NAL consisting of 45 FDA-approved nucleoside analogs was screened against 23 enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism using a thermal shift assay. The method was validated with deoxycytidine kinase; eight interactions known from the literature were detected and five additional interactions were revealed after the addition of ATP, the second substrate. The NAL screening gave relatively few significant hits, supporting a low rate of "off target effects." However, unexpected ligands were identified for two catabolic enzymes guanine deaminase (GDA and uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1. An acyclic guanosine prodrug analog, valaciclovir, was shown to stabilize GDA to the same degree as the natural substrate, guanine, with a ΔT(agg around 7°C. Aciclovir, penciclovir, ganciclovir, thioguanine and mercaptopurine were also identified as ligands for GDA. The crystal structure of GDA with valaciclovir bound in the active site was determined, revealing the binding of the long unbranched chain of valaciclovir in the active site of the enzyme. Several ligands were identified for UPP1: vidarabine, an antiviral nucleoside analog, as well as trifluridine, idoxuridine, floxuridine, zidovudine, telbivudine, fluorouracil and thioguanine caused concentration-dependent stabilization of UPP1. A kinetic study of UPP1 with vidarabine revealed that vidarabine was a mixed-type competitive inhibitor with the natural substrate uridine. The unexpected ligands identified for UPP1 and GDA imply further metabolic consequences for these nucleoside analogs, which could also serve as a starting point for future drug design.

  2. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics.

  3. Biochemical properties of potato phosphorylase change with its intracellular localization as revealed by immunological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E M; Becker, J U; Volkmann, D

    1981-02-01

    Phosphorylase was purified from young and senescent potato tubers. Antibodies raised against the enzyme from young tubers crossreacted with phosphorylase from old tissue, although the latter exhibited different physico-chemical properties. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis it migrated with higher mobility, its subunit molecular weight was determined in the range of 40,000 in contrast to 100,000 of the phosphorylase in young tubers. The enzyme of senescent tubers displayed an isoelectric point of 5.4 different from the one of young tubers with 5.0, and the diffusion coefficients of the two enzymes varied. The appearance of the phosphorylase form typical for senescent tissue is connected with changes in the intracellular localization as revealed by immunofluorescence. Before massive starch accumulation is initiated, non-vacuolated subepidermal cells contain antigenically active material in their cytoplasm. During starch accumulation in fully differentiated storage parenchyma, only amyloplasts fluoresce, indicating the presence of adsorbed phosphorylase protein. Cytoplasmic phosphorylase can be detected in the continuance of senescence and, finally, after 16 months of tuber storage, the particle-bound enzyme had mostly disappeared. Simultaneously, we observed membrane destruction and decomposition on the ultrastructural level. The phosphorylase from senescent potatoes is a converted molecule and seems to be formed by proteolytic cleavage. The location of phosphorylase in the amyloplasts during starch synthesis indicates that it also plays a role in starch synthesis and not only in its degradation.

  4. Distinct Purine Distribution in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known to contain a diverse suite of organic compounds, many of which are essential components of biochemistry. Amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, have been extensively studied in such meteorites (e.g. Botta and Bada 2002; Pizzarello et aI., 2006). The origin of amino acids in meteorites has been firmly established as extraterrestrial based on their detection typically as racemic mixtures of amino acids, the presence of many non-protein amino acids, and non-terrestrial values for compound-specific deuterium, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic measurements. In contrast to amino acids, nucleobases in meteorites have been far less studied. Nucleobases are substituted one-ring (pyrimidine) or two-ring (purine) nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and serve as the information carriers of nucleic acids and in numerous coenzymes. All of the purines (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and pyrimidines (uracil) previously reported in meteorites are biologically common and could be interpreted as the result of terrestrial contamination (e.g. van del' Velden and Schwartz, 1974.) Unlike other meteoritic organics, there have been no observations of stochastic molecular diversity of purines and pyrimidines in meteorites, which has been a criterion for establishing extraterrestrial origin. Maltins et al. (2008) performed compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements for uracil and xanthine in the Murchison meteorite. They assigned a non-terrestrial origin for these nucleobases; however, the possibility that interfering indigenous molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) contributed to the 13C-enriched isotope values for these nucleobases cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, the origin of these meteoritic nucleobases has never been established unequivocally. Here we report on our investigation of extracts of II different carbonaceous chondrites covering various petrographic types (Cl, CM, and CR) and degrees of aqueous alteration

  5. A deoxyadenylate kinase activity associated with polynucleotide phosphorylase from Micrococcus luteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Jonathan E.; Klee, Claude B.

    1976-01-01

    We report here the presence of two enzymatic activities associated with highly purified preparations of polynucleotide phosphorylase from Micrococcus luteus. The first, a nuclease activity, which is not separated from the phosphorylase on hydroxylapatite, may be due to substitution of H2O for phosphate in the phosphorolysis reaction. The second ac tivity, a deoxyadenylate kinase, the bulk of which is not resolved from the phosphorylase using gel filtration, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, DEAE-Sephadex, or hydroxylapatite chromatography, may represent a new activity of polynucleotide phosphorylase or be due to an enzyme which is tightly bound to the phosphorylase. Several properties of the kinase are described and its possible significance with respect to the overall enzyme mechanism is discussed. PMID:188014

  6. Synthesis of Nucleoside Derivatives Containing Benzophenoxazinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu GAO; Wu Xin ZOU; Ling WU; Jin Shui LI; Ji Tao WANG; Ji Ben MENG

    2004-01-01

    Two new nucleoside derivatives containing benzophenoxazinone moiety were synthesized. Their luminescence spectra show that they have strong near infrared fluorescence. Our study provides a new method for direct introduction of near infrared fluorescent probe to bioactive molecules.

  7. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Nathanael S. (Berkeley, CA); Schultz, Peter (Oakland, CA); Kim, Sung-Hou (Moraga, CA); Meijer, Laurent (Roscoff, FR)

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  8. Catalase increases ethanol oxidation through the purine catabolism in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-García, Daniel; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic ethanol oxidation increases according to its concentration and is raised to near-saturation levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH); therefore, re-oxidation of NADH becomes rate limiting in ethanol metabolism by the liver. Adenosine is able to increase liver ethanol oxidation in both in vivo and in vitro conditions; the enhancement being related with the capacity of the nucleoside to accelerate the transport of cytoplasmic reducing equivalents to mitochondria, by modifying the subcellular distribution of the malate-aspartate shuttle components. In the present study, we explored the putative effects of adenosine and other purines on liver ethanol oxidation mediated by non-ADH pathways. Using the model of high precision-cut rat liver slices, a pronounced increase of ethanol oxidation was found in liver slices incubated with various intermediates of the purine degradation pathway, from adenosine to uric acid (175-230%, over controls). Of these, urate had the strongest (230%), whereas xanthine had the less pronounced effect (178% over controls). The enhancement was not abolished by 4-methylpyrazole, indicating that the effect was independent of alcohol dehydrogenase. Conversely, aminotriazole, a catalase inhibitor, completely abolished the effect, pointing out that this enhanced ethanol oxidation is mediated by catalase activity. It is concluded that the H2O2 needed for catalase activity is derived from the oxidation of (hypo)xanthine by xanthine oxidase and the oxidation of urate by uricase. The present and previous data led us to propose that, depending on the metabolic conditions, adenosine might be able to stimulate the metabolism of ethanol through different pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On the accessibility to conical intersections in purines: hypoxanthine and its singly protonated and deprotonated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villabona-Monsalve, Juan P; Noria, Raquel; Matsika, Spiridoula; Peón, Jorge

    2012-05-09

    The dynamics following electronic excitation of hypoxanthine and its nucleoside inosine were studied by femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion. Our objective was to explore variants of the purinic DNA bases in order to determine the molecular parameters that increase or reduce the accessibility to ground state conical intersections. From experiments in water and methanol solution we conclude that both dominant neutral tautomers of hypoxanthine exhibit ultrashort excited state lifetimes (τ conical intersection for the fluorescent state upon removal of the amino group, present in guanine but absent in hypoxanthine. The excited state dynamics of singly protonated hypoxanthine were also studied, showing biexponential decays with a 1.1 ps component (5%) besides a sub-0.2 ps ultrafast component. On the other hand, the S(1) lifetimes of the singly deprotonated forms of hypoxanthine and inosine show drastic differences, where the latter remains ultrafast but the singly deprotonated hypoxanthine shows a much longer lifetime of 19 ps. This significant variation is related to the different deprotonation sites in hypoxanthine versus inosine, which gives rise to significantly different resonance structures. In our study we also include multireference perturbation theory (MRMP2) excited state calculations in order to determine the nature of the initial electronic excitation in our experiments and clarify the ordering of the states in the singlet manifold at the ground state geometry. In addition, we performed multireference configuration interaction calculations (MR-CIS) that identify the presence of low-lying conical intersections for both prominent neutral tautomers of hypoxanthine. In both cases, the surface crossings occur at geometries reached by out of plane opposite motions of C2 and N3. The study of this simpler purine gives several insights into how small structural modifications, including amino substitution and protonation site and state, determine the accessibility

  10. Route of administration of pentobarbital affects activity of liver glycogen phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Sonne, B; Richter, Erik

    1986-01-01

    pentobarbital (5 mg/100 g body wt) either intraperitoneally, as a slow intravenous infusion, or as an intravenous or intracardial bolus. Times from administration of barbiturate to sampling of the liver were 10 min, 10 min, 85 +/- 32 s (mean +/- SE), and 53 +/- 10 s, respectively. Phosphorylase a activity...... in % of total phosphorylase activity was 40 +/- 2, 56 +/- 4, 82 +/- 3, and 92 +/- 2, respectively, all significantly different. Thus the route of administration of pentobarbital affects the phosphorylase a activity and should be considered when evaluating this activity. This fact can only be partially explained...

  11. Metabolic Interactions of Purine Derivatives with Human ABC Transporter ABCG2: Genetic Testing to Assess Gout Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoko Kaneko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, excess purine nucleosides are removed from the body by breakdown in the liver and excretion from the kidneys. Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans. Two-thirds of uric acid in the human body is normally excreted through the kidney, whereas one-third undergoes uricolysis (decomposition of uric acid in the gut. Elevated serum uric acid levels result in gout and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Recent studies have shown that human ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 plays a role of renal excretion of uric acid. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, i.e., 421C>A (major and 376C>T (minor, in the ABCG2 gene result in impaired transport activity, owing to ubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation and truncation of ABCG2, respectively. These genetic polymorphisms are associated with hyperuricemia and gout. Allele frequencies of those SNPs are significantly higher in Asian populations than they are in African and Caucasian populations. A rapid and isothermal genotyping method has been developed to detect the SNP 421C>A, where one drop of peripheral blood is sufficient for the detection. Development of simple genotyping methods would serve to improve prevention and early therapeutic intervention for high-risk individuals in personalized healthcare.

  12. Synthesis of novel chiral compounds of purine and pyrimidine bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪毓海; 陈庆华

    1999-01-01

    The physiologically active groups such as purine and pyrimidine bases are introduced to the asymmetric ynthesis. The optically pure compounds bearing purine and pyrimidine bases (5a—5e) were prepared via the asymetric Michael addition reaction of purines and pyrimidines as Michael donators with the chiral source 5-(R)-[(1R, 2S, 5R)-menthyloxy]-2(5H)-furanone (3a), which was prepared from the natural chiral auxiliary (-)-menthol. The synthetic method was studied in detail and the new compounds were identified on the basis of their analytical data and spectroscopic data, such as [α]D20, IR, UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. The absolute configuration of 5a was established by X-ray crystallography. The results provided an efficient synthetic route to chiral purines and pyrimidine analogues, and offered chiral sources for further research on the physiologically active compounds of chiral nucleotides.

  13. Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy caused by thymidine phosphorylase enzyme deficiency: From pathogenesis to emerging therapeutic options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Yadak (Rana); P.S. Smitt; M.W. van Gisbergen; N.P. van Til (Niek); I.F.M. de Coo (René)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a progressive metabolic disorder caused by thymidine phosphorylase (TP) enzyme deficiency. The lack of TP results in systemic accumulation of deoxyribonucleosides thymidine (dThd) and deoxyuridine (dUrd). In these patients,

  14. Synthesis of Methoxyethyl Nucleoside Dimer Phosphoramidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Gi Weon; Kang, Yong Han [Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Four types of methoxyethyl (MOE) nucleoside phosphoramidites, which are categorized as second-generation building blocks of antisense oligonucleotide drugs, were synthesized. Also, three types of MOE nucleoside dimer phosphoramidites were synthesized to increase the efficiency and oligomer purity in solid phase synthesis. The block-like dimer phosphoramidites can prevent or minimize the formation of the (N-1) mer impurity, thereby affording the fabrication of pure oligonucleotides and reducing the synthesis time by performing coupling reactions in the order of 2 + 2 + 2.

  15. Purine DNA adducts of 4,5-dioxovaleric acid and 2,4-decadienal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, J; Carvalho, V M; Onuki, J; Douki, T; Medeiros, M H; Di Mascio, P D

    1999-01-01

    The present overview describes recent findings on the formation of cyclic adducts of purine DNA bases after reaction with two aldehyde compounds, 4,5-dioxovaleric acid (DOVA) and 2,4-decadlenal (DDE), which are involved in 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) accumulation and lipid peroxidation, respectively. ALA accumulates under pathological conditions and is associated with an increased incidence of liver cancer. The final oxidation product of ALA, DOVA, is an efficient alkylating agent of the guanine moieties in both nucleoside and isolated DNA. Adducts were produced through the formation of a Schiff base involving the N2-amino group of 2'-deoxyguanosine and the ketone function of DOVA, respectively. DDE is an important breakdown product of lipid peroxidation. It is cytotoxic to mammalian cells and is known to be implicated in DNA damage. It can bind to 2'-deoxyadenosine, yielding highly fluorescent products, including 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine and two other, related adducts. The reaction mechanism for the formation of DDE-2'-deoxyadenosine adducts involves epoxidation of DDE and subsequent addition of the resulting reactive intermediates to the N6 amino group of 2'-deoxyadenosine, followed by cyclization at the N1 site. Formation of endogenous DNA adducts may contribute to the genotoxic potential of ALA and DDE.

  16. Activation of glycogen phosphorylase in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and isolated hepatocytes by organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, F C; Davis, L H; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-15

    Several organophosphates including diisopropylfluorophosphonate (DPF) and a variety of compounds used as chemical warfare agents produced dose- and time-dependent increases in phosphorylase-a, the phosphorylated form of glycogen phosphorylase in rat pheochromocytoma cells, PC12, and isolated hepatocytes. Increases in phosphorylase-a did not occur in cells exposed to the carbamates, physostigmine or pyridostigmine, or to O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethylmethyl-phosphonathiolate (VX), an organophosphate which is protonated at physiological pH. When extracellular pH was increased to pH 8, VX acted like the other organophosphates and increased phosphorylase-a activity. The possibility that organophosphates increase phosphorylase-a in intact cells by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular binding sites is supported by the following findings: organophosphate-induced increases in phosphorylase-a did not correlate with changes in cyclic AMP in the two cell types studied; in PC12 cells, increases in this activity occurred in the absence of extracellular calcium and were not inhibited by the calcium channel blocker, verapamil; fluorescence of the calcium sensitive dye, Quin-2, in PC12 cells preloaded with the acetoxymethyl ester of the dye was increased by soman; finally, addition of the calcium ionophore, A23187, to PC12 cells maintained in calcium-free medium caused sarin-stimulated phosphorylase-a activity to return rapidly to basal levels. Collectively, these data argue strongly that organophosphates increase phosphorylase-a activity in intact cells via a novel mechanism involving release of calcium from intracellular binding sites.

  17. Precision Synthesis of Functional Polysaccharide Materials by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kadokawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the precise synthesis of functional polysaccharide materials using phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic reactions is presented. This particular enzymatic approach has been identified as a powerful tool in preparing well-defined polysaccharide materials. Phosphorylase is an enzyme that has been employed in the synthesis of pure amylose with a precisely controlled structure. Similarly, using a phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization, the chemoenzymatic synthesis of amylose-grafted heteropolysaccharides containing different main-chain polysaccharide structures (e.g., chitin/chitosan, cellulose, alginate, xanthan gum, and carboxymethyl cellulose was achieved. Amylose-based block, star, and branched polymeric materials have also been prepared using this enzymatic polymerization. Since phosphorylase shows a loose specificity for the recognition of substrates, different sugar residues have been introduced to the non-reducing ends of maltooligosaccharides by phosphorylase-catalyzed glycosylations using analog substrates such as α-d-glucuronic acid and α-d-glucosamine 1-phosphates. By means of such reactions, an amphoteric glycogen and its corresponding hydrogel were successfully prepared. Thermostable phosphorylase was able to tolerate a greater variance in the substrate structures with respect to recognition than potato phosphorylase, and as a result, the enzymatic polymerization of α-d-glucosamine 1-phosphate to produce a chitosan stereoisomer was carried out using this enzyme catalyst, which was then subsequently converted to the chitin stereoisomer by N-acetylation. Amylose supramolecular inclusion complexes with polymeric guests were obtained when the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization was conducted in the presence of the guest polymers. Since the structure of this polymeric system is similar to the way that a plant vine twines around a rod, this polymerization system has been named

  18. The cytosol activity of thymidine phosphorylase in endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieńkiewicz Andrzej

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymidine phosphorylase (TP is identical with platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF which promotes angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytosol activity of TP in tumor samples from patients with endometrial cancer. Methods The activity of TP was measured by the spectrophotometric method in the cytosol of endometrial tumor samples from 43 patients. Moreover, the expression of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP protein and microvessel density (MD were examined in the same endometrial tumor samples by immunohistochemical staining. Normal endometrium from 16 women, treated surgically due to nononcological reasons served as a control. A relationship between the cytosol TP activity, PD-ECGF/TP protein expression, MD and clinicopathologic features was investigated. Results A significantly higher the cytosol TP activity, PD-ECGF/TP protein expression and MD was stated in malignant tumor samples when compared to the control (samples of normal endometrium. A positive statistically significant correlation between the cytosol enzyme activity and PD-ECGF/TP protein expression and MD was found, but weaker from the remaining ones between PD-ECGF/TP protein expression and MD was observed. Besides no correlation between the cytosol TP activity, PD-ECGF/TP protein expression as well as MD and grading or histopatological type of endometrial cancer was stated. Conclusion The cytosol TP activity in endometrial cancer is significantly higher than in normal endometrium, with no relation as to the stage and grade of tumors, but correlates with the PD-ECGF/TP protein expression and MD may therefore be associated with favorable prognosis in patients treated with chemo- or radiotherapy after surgery.

  19. Associations between purine metabolites and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The antioxidant defense system, which is known to be dysregulated in schizophrenia, is closely linked to the dynamics of purine pathway. Thus, alterations in the homeostatic balance in the purine pathway may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Breakdown products in purine pathway were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a coulometric multi-electrode array system for 25 first-episode neuroleptic-naïve patients with schizophrenia at baseline and at 4-weeks following initiation of treatment with antipsychotic medication. Associations between these metabolites and clinical and neurological symptoms were examined at both time points. The ratio of uric acid and guanine measured at baseline predicted clinical improvement following four weeks of treatment with antipsychotic medication. Baseline levels of purine metabolites also predicted clinical and neurological symtpoms recorded at baseline; level of guanosine was associated with degree of clinical thought disturbance, and the ratio of xanthosine to guanosine at baseline predicted degree of impairment in the repetition and sequencing of actions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Findings suggest an association between optimal levels of purine byproducts and dynamics in clinical symptoms and adjustment, as well as in the integrity of sensory and motor processing. Taken together, alterations in purine catabolism may have clinical relevance in schizophrenia pathology.

  20. X-ray structures of uridine phosphorylase from Vibrio cholerae in complexes with uridine, thymidine, uracil, thymine, and phosphate anion: Substrate specificity of bacterial uridine phosphorylases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofev, I. I.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Balaev, V. V.; Seregina, T. A.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    In many types of human tumor cells and infectious agents, the demand for pyrimidine nitrogen bases increases during the development of the disease, thus increasing the role of the enzyme uridine phosphorylase in metabolic processes. The rational use of uridine phosphorylase and its ligands in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries requires knowledge of the structural basis for the substrate specificity of the target enzyme. This paper summarizes the results of the systematic study of the three-dimensional structure of uridine phosphorylase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae in complexes with substrates of enzymatic reactions—uridine, phosphate anion, thymidine, uracil, and thymine. These data, supplemented with the results of molecular modeling, were used to consider in detail the structural basis for the substrate specificity of uridine phosphorylases. It was shown for the first time that the formation of a hydrogen-bond network between the 2'-hydroxy group of uridine and atoms of the active-site residues of uridine phosphorylase leads to conformational changes of the ribose moiety of uridine, resulting in an increase in the reactivity of uridine compared to thymidine. Since the binding of thymidine to residues of uridine phosphorylase causes a smaller local strain of the β-N1-glycosidic bond in this the substrate compared to the uridine molecule, the β-N1-glycosidic bond in thymidine is more stable and less reactive than that in uridine. It was shown for the first time that the phosphate anion, which is the second substrate bound at the active site, interacts simultaneously with the residues of the β5-strand and the β1-strand through hydrogen bonding, thus securing the gate loop in a conformation

  1. Thymidine phosphorylase influences [(18)F]fluorothymidine uptake in cancer cells and patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Lee, Haeng Jung; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Seog Young; Jang, Se Jin; Lee, Jong Jin; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk

    2014-07-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleoside salvage pathway, catalyses the reversible phosphorylation of thymidine, thereby generating thymine and 2-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate. By regulating the levels of endogenous thymidine, TP may influence [(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) uptake. We investigated the effect of TP activity on [(18)F]FLT uptake by tumours. Uptake of [(3)H]FLT and [(3)H]thymidine ([(3)H]Thd) and the activities of TP, thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), and equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) were determined in exponentially growing A431, A549, HT29, HOP92, ACHN, and SKOV3 cells in the presence or absence of tipiracil hydrochloride, a TP inhibitor. Eighty-five non-small cell lung cancer tissues from a patient cohort that was previously studied with [(18)F]FLT positron emission tomography (PET) were retrieved and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of TP expression. Factors that affected the maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of [(18)F]FLT-PET were identified by multiple linear regression analysis. A431 cells had the highest TP activity; A549 and HT29 cells had moderate TP activity; and ACHN, SKOV3, and HOP92 cells had little detectable TP activity. Cell lines with high TP activity took up more [(3)H]FLT than [(3)H]Thd, whereas cells with little TP activity took up more [(3)H]Thd than [(3)H]FLT. In cells with high TP activity, TP inhibition decreased [(3)H]FLT uptake and increased [(3)H]Thd uptake. However, TP inhibition had no effect on ACHN, SKOV3, and HOP92 cells. TP inhibition did not change TK1 or ENT1 activity, but did increase the intracellular level of thymidine. The SUVmax of [(18)F]FLT was affected by three independent factors: Ki-67 expression (P < 0.001), immunohistochemical TP score (P < 0.001), and tumour size (P = 0.015). TP activity influences [(18)F]FLT uptake, and may explain preferential uptake of [(18)F]FLT over [(3)H]Thd. These results provide important insights into the

  2. Purine Metabolism in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Oreshnikov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of purine metabolism in clinically significant acute cerebral ischemia. Subjects and materials. Three hundred and fifty patients with the acutest cerebral ischemic stroke were examined. The parameters of gas and electrolyte composition, acid-base balance, the levels of malonic dialdehyde, adenine, guanine, hypox-anthine, xanthine, and uric acid, and the activity of xanthine oxidase were determined in arterial and venous bloods and spinal fluid. Results. In ischemic stroke, hyperuricemia reflects the severity of cerebral metabolic disturbances, hemodynamic instability, hypercoagulation susceptiility, and the extent of neurological deficit. In ischemic stroke, hyperuri-corachia is accompanied by the higher spinal fluid levels of adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine and it is an indirect indicator of respiratory disorders of central genesis, systemic acidosis, hypercoagulation susceptibility, free radical oxidation activation, the intensity of a stressor response to cerebral ischemia, cerebral metabolic disturbances, the depth of reduced consciousness, and the severity of neurological deficit. Conclusion. The high venous blood activity of xanthine oxidase in ischemic stroke is associated with the better neurological parameters in all follow-up periods, the better early functional outcome, and lower mortality rates. Key words: hyperuricemia, stroke, xanthine oxidase, uric acid, cerebral ischemia.

  3. Metabolic Reprogramming During Purine Stress in the Protozoan Pathogen Leishmania donovani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Jessica L.; Yates, Phillip A.; Soysa, Radika; Alfaro, Joshua F.; Yang, Feng; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Weitz, Karl K.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; David, Larry L.; Ramasamy, Gowthaman; Myler, Peter J.; Carter, Nicola S.

    2014-02-27

    The ability of Leishmania to survive in their insect or mammalian host is dependent upon an ability to sense and adapt to changes in the microenvironment. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the parasite response to environmental changes, such as nutrient availability. To elucidate nutrient stress response pathways in Leishmania donovani, we have used purine starvation as the paradigm. The salvage of purines from the host milieu is obligatory for parasite replication; nevertheless, purine-starved parasites can persist in culture without supplementary purine for over 3 months, indicating that the response to purine starvation is robust and engenders parasite survival under conditions of extreme scarcity. To understand metabolic reprogramming during purine starvation we have employed global approaches. Whole proteome comparisons between purine-starved and purine-replete parasites over a 6-48 h span have revealed a temporal and coordinated response to purine starvation. Purine transporters and enzymes involved in acquisition at the cell surface are upregulated within a few hours of purine removal from the media, while other key purine salvage components are upregulated later in the time-course and more modestly. After 48 h, the proteome of purine-starved parasites is extensively remodeled and adaptations to purine stress appear tailored to deal with both purine deprivation and general stress. To probe the molecular mechanisms affecting proteome remodeling in response to purine starvation, comparative RNA-seq analyses, qRT-PCR, and luciferase reporter assays were performed on purine-starved versus purine-replete parasites. While the regulation of a minority of proteins tracked with changes at the mRNA level, for many regulated proteins it appears that proteome remodeling during purine stress occurs primarily via translational and/or post-translational mechanisms.

  4. Metabolic reprogramming during purine stress in the protozoan pathogen Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Martin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Leishmania to survive in their insect or mammalian host is dependent upon an ability to sense and adapt to changes in the microenvironment. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the parasite response to environmental changes, such as nutrient availability. To elucidate nutrient stress response pathways in Leishmania donovani, we have used purine starvation as the paradigm. The salvage of purines from the host milieu is obligatory for parasite replication; nevertheless, purine-starved parasites can persist in culture without supplementary purine for over three months, indicating that the response to purine starvation is robust and engenders parasite survival under conditions of extreme scarcity. To understand metabolic reprogramming during purine starvation we have employed global approaches. Whole proteome comparisons between purine-starved and purine-replete parasites over a 6-48 h span have revealed a temporal and coordinated response to purine starvation. Purine transporters and enzymes involved in acquisition at the cell surface are upregulated within a few hours of purine removal from the media, while other key purine salvage components are upregulated later in the time-course and more modestly. After 48 h, the proteome of purine-starved parasites is extensively remodeled and adaptations to purine stress appear tailored to deal with both purine deprivation and general stress. To probe the molecular mechanisms affecting proteome remodeling in response to purine starvation, comparative RNA-seq analyses, qRT-PCR, and luciferase reporter assays were performed on purine-starved versus purine-replete parasites. While the regulation of a minority of proteins tracked with changes at the mRNA level, for many regulated proteins it appears that proteome remodeling during purine stress occurs primarily via translational and/or post-translational mechanisms.

  5. Interaction of muscle glycogen phosphorylase b reconstituted from apoenzyme and analogs of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with specific ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotareva, N A; Sugrobova, N P; Bulanova, L N; Poznanskaya, A A; Kurganov, B I; Gunar, V I

    1996-04-01

    Phosphorylase b from rabbit skeletal muscles was reconstituted with analogs of PLP containing residues -CH(2)-CH(2)-COOH, trans-CH=CH-COOH or -C=-COOH at position 5. Replacing native coenzyme in the phosphorylase molecule with any PLP analog tested leads to the decrease in the enzyme affinity for the allosteric inhibitor, FMN. Phosphorylase b reconstituted with analogs of PLP shows the greater ability for association in tetramers in the presence of 1 mM AMP than native enzyme.

  6. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. IV. Lack of adrenergic activation of phosphorylase in rat ascites hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Yanaoka, T; Sanae, F; Wakusawa, S; Koshiura, R

    1986-10-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase a activity in 7 rat ascites hepatoma cell lines treated with adrenergic agents, phenylephrine, epinephrine and isoproterenol, was investigated as compared with that in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Basal phosphorylase activities in hepatoma cells except AH7974 cells were lower than that in hepatocytes. Phosphorylase in hepatoma cells was not activated by any of the agents, while the enzyme activity in hepatocytes was clearly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Phosphorylase in hepatocytes was sensitive to glucagon, but it was found to be insensitive to glucagon in all hepatoma cells. The present results suggest that rat ascites hepatoma cells may escape the glycogenolytic regulation by catecholamines and glucagon.

  7. Localization of thymidine phosphorylase in advanced gastric and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiya; Okamoto, Ken; Akimori, Toyokazu; Tochika, Naoshige; Yoshimoto, Tadashi; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Sugimoto, Takeki; Araki, Keijiro

    2004-01-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is known to be more concentrated in human cancer tissues than in adjacent normal tissue based on findings using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. However, the ultrastructural localization of TP in cancer tissues has not previously been demonstrated. We investigated the localization of TP in gastric cancer and colorectal cancer tissue by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Between April 1997 and May 2000, we obtained surgically resected specimens from 42, 46, and 36 cases of advanced gastric, colon, and rectal cancer, respectively. ELISA demonstrated that the TP level was higher in cancer tissues than in adjacent normal tissue. Immunohistochemically, cancer cells were positive for the enzyme in some cases. However, in a number of cases immunopositive inflammatory cells were also present in cancerous tissues. At the electron microscope level, TP was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of cancer cells and in the mitochondria of the neutrophil in gastric cancer tissue. In rectal cancer tissues, cytoplasmic granules in macrophages in cancer tissues were immunoreactive for the TP. These findings suggest that TP is produced by macrophages and exists in neutrophils and cancer cells.

  8. Synthesis of branched polyglucans by the tandem action of potato phosphorylase and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, Jeroen; Reixach, Marta Palomo; van der Maarel, Marc; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Schouten, Arend Jan; Loos, Katja

    2008-01-01

    An enzymatic tandem reaction is described in which the enzymes phosphorylase and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) catalyze the synthesis of branched polyglucans from glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P). Phosphorylase consumes G-1-P and polymerizes linear amylose while DR GBE intro

  9. Beyond Crystallography: Investigating the Conformational Dynamics of the Purine Riboswitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Colby D.; Batey, Robert T.

    Riboswitches are structured elements located in the 5'-untranslated regions of numerous bacterial mRNAs that serve to regulate gene expression via their ability to specifically bind metabolites. The purine riboswitch ligand-binding domain has emerged as an important model system for investigating the relationship between RNA structure and function. Directed by NMR and crystallographically generated structures of this RNA, a variety of biophysical and biochemical techniques have been utilized to understand its dynamic nature. In this review, we describe these various approaches and what they reveal about the purine riboswitch.

  10. Guanosina : uma nova abordagem do sistema purinérgico

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Alexandre Antunes Soares

    2005-01-01

    Durante as últimas décadas os estudos do sistema purinérgico concentraram seu foco de atenção nas ações dos derivados da adenina (como adenosina e o ATP). Seus efeitos, receptores, agonistas e antagonistas encontram-se muito bem estabelecidos dentro do sistema nervoso central. Os resultados obtidos com os diversos estudos dos derivados da guanina trazem uma nova perspectiva para o estudo do sistema purinérgico. Os nucleotídeos derivados da guanina são classicamente associados ao sistema de tr...

  11. Distribution of Nucleosides in Populations of Cordyceps cicadae

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Bo Zeng; Hong Yu; Feng Ge; Jun-Yuan Yang; Zi-Hong Chen; Yuan-Bing Wang; Yong-Dong Dai; Alison Adams

    2014-01-01

    A rapid HPLC method had been developed and used for the simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides (uracil, uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenine, adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine and cordycepin) in 10 populations of Cordyceps cicadae, in order to compare four populations of Ophicordyceps sinensis and one population of Cordyceps militaris. Statistical analysis system (SAS) 8.1 was used to analyze the nucleoside data. The pattern of nucleoside distribution was analyzed...

  12. Fetal-onset severe skeletal muscle glycogenosis associated with phosphorylase-b kinase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührer, C; van Landeghem, F; Brück, W; Felderhoff-Müser, U; Vorgerd, M; Obladen, M

    2000-04-01

    We report on a premature newborn girl delivered after 32 weeks of gestation by cesarean section after sparse limb movements, fetal tachycardia and late heart rate decelerations had suggested fetal distress. Following 1 day of mechanical ventilation, adequate pulmonary gas exchange was achieved by spontaneous breathing. Main symptoms were virtually complete absence of spontaneous movements, increased flexor tonus of the extremities, and hypotonia of the trunk. Inability to suck or swallow required nasogastric gavage feeding. There were no hypoglycemic episodes. Echocardiography revealed normal myocardial function. Creatine kinase was 237 U/I at 2 days of life, declining to normal values thereafter. Muscle biopsy revealed increased glycogen storage with subsarcolemmal glycogen deposits and low phosphorylase-a activity while total phosphorylase was normal after in vitro activation, suggestive of phosphorylase-b kinase deficiency. No mutation was detected in exon 1 of the myophosphorylase gene. No psychomotor development was observed, and the infant died of central apnea at 3 months of age.

  13. Synthesis, screening and docking of small heterocycles as glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiker, Stephanie S; Loughlin, Wendy A; Lohning, Anna S; Petersson, Maria J; Jenkins, Ian D

    2014-09-12

    A series of morpholine substituted amino acids (phenylalanine, leucine, lysine and glutamic acid) was synthesized. A fragment-based screening approach was then used to evaluate a series of small heterocycles, including morpholine, oxazoline, dihydro-1,3-oxazine, tetrahydro-1,3-oxazepine, thiazoline, tetrahydro-1,3-pyrimidine, tetrahydro-1,3-diazepine and hexahydro-1H-benzimidazole, as potential inhibitors of Glycogen Phosphorylase a. Thiazoline 7 displayed an improved potency (IC50 of 25 μM) and had good LE and LELP values, as compared to heterocycles 1, 5, 9-13 and 19 (IC50 values of 1.1 mM-23.9 mM). A docking study using the crystal structure of human liver Glycogen Phosphorylase, provided insight into the interactions of heterocycles 5, 7, 9-13 and 19 with Glycogen Phosphorylase.

  14. Stretches of alternating pyrimidine/purines and purines are respectively linked with pathogenicity and growth temperature in prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Bohlin, J; Hardy, SP

    2009-01-01

    -tracts are associated with phylum, AT content, oxygen requirement, growth temperature and halotolerance. All associations described were statistically significant with p factors......BACKGROUND: The genomic fractions of purine (RR) and alternating pyrimidine/purine (YR) stretches of 10 base pairs or more, have been linked to genomic AT content, the formation of different DNA helices, strand-biased gene distribution, DNA structure, and more. Although some of these factors...... regression analysis to investigate how AT content, habitat, growth temperature, pathogenicity, phyla, oxygen requirement and halotolerance correlated with the distribution of RR and YR stretches in prokaryotes. RESULTS: Our results indicate that RR and YR-stretches are differently distributed in prokaryotic...

  15. Novel Coumarin Derivatives Containing 1,2,4-Triazole, 4,5-Dicyanoimidazole and Purine Moieties: Synthesis and Evaluation of Their Cytostatic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Mintas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report here on the synthesis and in vitro anti-tumor effects of a series of novel 1,2,4-triazole (compounds 3–6, 4,5-dicyanoimidazole (compound 7, and purine (compounds 8–13 coumarin derivatives and their acyclic nucleoside analogues 14–18. Structures of novel compounds 3–18 were deduced from their 1H- and 13C-NMR and corresponding mass spectra. Results of anti-proliferative assays performed on a panel of selected human tumor cell lines revealed that compound 6 had moderate cytostatic activity against the HeLa cell line (IC50 = 35 µM, whereas compound 10 showed moderate activity against the HeLa (IC50 = 33 µM, HepG2 (IC50 = 25 µM and SW620 (IC50 = 35 µM cell lines. These compounds showed no cytotoxic effects on normal (diploid human fibroblasts.

  16. Significance of the first transcribed nucleoside of capped RNA for ligand-induced folding of the cap-binding complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Remigiusz; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Stepinski, Janusz; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Mazza, Catherine; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Cusack, Stephen; Stolarski, Ryszard

    2005-05-01

    Many proteins, including those that bind RNA, change conformation upon binding a ligand, a phenomenon known as induced fit. CBP20, the small subunit of the nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC), recognizes specifically the 5' cap of eukaryotic mRNA and snRNA. The N- and C-terminal regions of the CBP20 subunit of the human nuclear cap-binding complex only acquire a proper fold in complex with capped RNA. The cap is composed of 7-methylguanosine linked by a 5'-to-5' triphosphate bridge to the first transcribed nucleoside of the RNA. The significance of the latter for the capped RNA-CBC association and local folding of CBC has been characterized by emission spectroscopy. Fluorescence titration of CBC has been performed for three selected, mono- and dinucleotide mRNA 5' cap analogues. The measured values of the equilibrium association constant and the corresponding Gibbs free energy depend on the type of the first transcribed nucleoside (purine or pyrimidine), and decrease ~10-fold in the case of a mononucleotide analogue, 7-methylguanosine triphosphate. However, the total quenching of the intrinsic protein fluorescence is similar for each analogue. Changes of the solvent-accessible CBC hydrophobic surface of CBC on binding of the structurally different cap analogues have been followed using bis-ANS fluorescent probe.

  17. Cytosolic purine 5'-nucleotidases of rat liver and human red blood cells: regulatory properties and role in AMP dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berghe, G; Bontemps, F; Vincent, M F

    1988-01-01

    Of the various species of cellular 5'-nucleotidases, membranous, lysosomal and cytosolic, only the latter are likely to play a role in the physiologic dephosphorylation of the 5'-nucleoside monophosphates present in the cytoplasm. The necessity to preserve cellular ATP renders a strict control of the dephosphorylation as well as of the deamination of AMP mandatory, because both nucleotides are maintained in equilibrium by adenylate kinase. Our studies of cytosolic purine 5'-nucleotidases purified from rat liver and from human erythrocytes, reviewed in this presentation, have shown that both display complex kinetic properties. Both enzymes have markedly higher affinities for IMP and for GMP than for AMP. In addition, they are stimulated by nucleoside triphosphates, among them ATP and GTP, and inhibited by Pi. The erythrocytic purine 5'-nucleotidase is also stimulated by glycerate 2,3-bisphosphate. It could thus be expected that under conditions of ATP and GTP breakdown, particularly when accompanied by an increase in Pi, the dephosphorylation of AMP would be curtailed. To verify this hypothesis, experiments were performed with isolated rat hepatocytes and with human red blood cells. The rate of dephosphorylation of AMP was measured by following time-wise the production of adenosine in the presence of coformycin (or deoxycoformycin) and 5-iodotubercidin. The coformycins inhibit the deamination of adenosine into inosine by adenosine deaminase, and 5-iodotubercidin inhibits the recycling of adenosine into AMP by adenosine kinase. Upon induction of ATP catabolism by the addition of fructose to isolated rat hepatocytes, the dephosphorylation of AMP was nearly completely suppressed. In accordance with these results, the activity of the rat liver cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase, assayed in the presence of concentrations of substrate and effectors mimicking those measured in intact cells following the addition of fructose, was decreased as compared to control conditions. In

  18. Purines and Neuronal Excitability: Links to the Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, SA; Kawamura, M; Ruskin, DN; Geiger, JD; Boison, D

    2011-01-01

    ATP and adenosine are purines that play dual roles in cell metabolism and neuronal signaling. Acting at the A1 receptor (A1R) subtype, adenosine acts directly on neurons to inhibit excitability and is a powerful endogenous neuroprotective and anticonvulsant molecule. Previous research showed an increase in ATP and other cell energy parameters when an animal is administered a ketogenic diet, an established metabolic therapy to reduce epileptic seizures, but the relationship among purines, neuronal excitability and the ketogenic diet was unclear. Recent work in vivo and in vitro tested the specific hypothesis that adenosine acting at A1Rs is a key mechanism underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy and yielded direct evidence linking A1Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Specifically, an in vitro mimic of a ketogenic diet revealed an A1R-dependent metabolic autocrine hyperpolarization of hippocampal neurons. In parallel, applying the ketogenic diet in vivo to transgenic mouse models with spontaneous electrographic seizures revealed that intact A1Rs are necessary for the seizure-suppressing effects of the diet. This is the first direct in vivo evidence linking A1Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Other predictions of the relationship between purines and the ketogenic diet are discussed. Taken together, recent research on the role of purines may offer new opportunities for metabolic therapy and insight into its underlying mechanisms. PMID:21880467

  19. Purines and neuronal excitability: links to the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, S A; Kawamura, M; Ruskin, D N; Geiger, J D; Boison, D

    2012-07-01

    ATP and adenosine are purines that play dual roles in cell metabolism and neuronal signaling. Acting at the A(1) receptor (A(1)R) subtype, adenosine acts directly on neurons to inhibit excitability and is a powerful endogenous neuroprotective and anticonvulsant molecule. Previous research showed an increase in ATP and other cell energy parameters when an animal is administered a ketogenic diet, an established metabolic therapy to reduce epileptic seizures, but the relationship among purines, neuronal excitability and the ketogenic diet was unclear. Recent work in vivo and in vitro tested the specific hypothesis that adenosine acting at A(1)Rs is a key mechanism underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy and yielded direct evidence linking A(1)Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Specifically, an in vitro mimic of a ketogenic diet revealed an A(1)R-dependent metabolic autocrine hyperpolarization of hippocampal neurons. In parallel, applying the ketogenic diet in vivo to transgenic mouse models with spontaneous electrographic seizures revealed that intact A(1)Rs are necessary for the seizure-suppressing effects of the diet. This is the first direct in vivo evidence linking A(1)Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Other predictions of the relationship between purines and the ketogenic diet are discussed. Taken together, recent research on the role of purines may offer new opportunities for metabolic therapy and insight into its underlying mechanisms.

  20. Direct N9-arylation of purines with aryl halides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Foller; Ulven, Trond

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method for N-arylation of purines is reported. The N-arylation is catalysed by Cu(i) and 4,7-bis(2-hydroxyethylamino)-1,10-phenanthroline (BHPhen) in aqueous DMF or ethanol. The reaction generally proceeds with high selectivity for the N(9)-position....

  1. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  2. Autogenous regulation of Escherichia coli polynucleotide phosphorylase expression revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzaniga, Thomas; Briani, Federica; Zangrossi, Sandro; Merlino, Giuseppe; Marchi, Paolo; Dehò, Gianni

    2009-03-01

    The Escherichia coli polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase; encoded by pnp), a phosphorolytic exoribonuclease, posttranscriptionally regulates its own expression at the level of mRNA stability and translation. Its primary transcript is very efficiently processed by RNase III, an endonuclease that makes a staggered double-strand cleavage about in the middle of a long stem-loop in the 5'-untranslated region. The processed pnp mRNA is then rapidly degraded in a PNPase-dependent manner. Two non-mutually exclusive models have been proposed to explain PNPase autogenous regulation. The earlier one suggested that PNPase impedes translation of the RNase III-processed pnp mRNA, thus exposing the transcript to degradative pathways. More recently, this has been replaced by the current model, which maintains that PNPase would simply degrade the promoter proximal small RNA generated by the RNase III endonucleolytic cleavage, thus destroying the double-stranded structure at the 5' end that otherwise stabilizes the pnp mRNA. In our opinion, however, the first model was not completely ruled out. Moreover, the RNA decay pathway acting upon the pnp mRNA after disruption of the 5' double-stranded structure remained to be determined. Here we provide additional support to the current model and show that the RNase III-processed pnp mRNA devoid of the double-stranded structure at its 5' end is not translatable and is degraded by RNase E in a PNPase-independent manner. Thus, the role of PNPase in autoregulation is simply to remove, in concert with RNase III, the 5' fragment of the cleaved structure that both allows translation and prevents the RNase E-mediated PNPase-independent degradation of the pnp transcript.

  3. Autogenous Regulation of Escherichia coli Polynucleotide Phosphorylase Expression Revisited▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzaniga, Thomas; Briani, Federica; Zangrossi, Sandro; Merlino, Giuseppe; Marchi, Paolo; Dehò, Gianni

    2009-01-01

    The Escherichia coli polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase; encoded by pnp), a phosphorolytic exoribonuclease, posttranscriptionally regulates its own expression at the level of mRNA stability and translation. Its primary transcript is very efficiently processed by RNase III, an endonuclease that makes a staggered double-strand cleavage about in the middle of a long stem-loop in the 5′-untranslated region. The processed pnp mRNA is then rapidly degraded in a PNPase-dependent manner. Two non-mutually exclusive models have been proposed to explain PNPase autogenous regulation. The earlier one suggested that PNPase impedes translation of the RNase III-processed pnp mRNA, thus exposing the transcript to degradative pathways. More recently, this has been replaced by the current model, which maintains that PNPase would simply degrade the promoter proximal small RNA generated by the RNase III endonucleolytic cleavage, thus destroying the double-stranded structure at the 5′ end that otherwise stabilizes the pnp mRNA. In our opinion, however, the first model was not completely ruled out. Moreover, the RNA decay pathway acting upon the pnp mRNA after disruption of the 5′ double-stranded structure remained to be determined. Here we provide additional support to the current model and show that the RNase III-processed pnp mRNA devoid of the double-stranded structure at its 5′ end is not translatable and is degraded by RNase E in a PNPase-independent manner. Thus, the role of PNPase in autoregulation is simply to remove, in concert with RNase III, the 5′ fragment of the cleaved structure that both allows translation and prevents the RNase E-mediated PNPase-independent degradation of the pnp transcript. PMID:19136586

  4. Metabolic signature of breast cancer cell line MCF-7: profiling of modified nucleosides via LC-IT MS coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleiter Christoph H

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer, like other diseases accompanied by strong metabolic disorders, shows characteristic effects on cell turnover rate, activity of modifying enzymes and DNA/RNA modifications, resulting also in elevated amounts of excreted modified nucleosides. For a better understanding of the impaired RNA metabolism in breast cancer cells, we screened these metabolites in the cell culture supernatants of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and compared it to the human mammary epithelial cells MCF-10A. The nucleosides were isolated and analyzed via 2D-chromatographic techniques: In the first dimension by cis-diol specific boronate affinity extraction and subsequently by reversed phase chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer. Results Besides the determination of ribonucleosides, additional compounds with cis-diol structure, deriving from cross-linked biochemical pathways, like purine-, histidine- and polyamine metabolism were detected. In total, 36 metabolites were identified by comparison of fragmentation patterns and retention time. Relation to the internal standard isoguanosine yielded normalized area ratios for each identified compound and enabled a semi-quantitative metabolic signature of both analyzed cell lines. 13 of the identified 26 modified ribonucleosides were elevated in the cell culture supernatants of MCF-7 cells, with 5-methyluridine, N2,N2,7-trimethylguanosine, N6-methyl-N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine and 3-(3-aminocarboxypropyl-uridine showing the most significant differences. 1-ribosylimidazole-4-acetic acid, a histamine metabolite, was solely found in the supernatants of MCF-10A cells, whereas 1-ribosyl-4-carboxamido-5-aminoimidazole and S-adenosylmethionine occurred only in supernatants of MCF-7 cells. Conclusion The obtained results are discussed against the background of pathological changes in cell metabolism, resulting in new perspectives for modified nucleosides and related metabolites as possible

  5. C5-Modified nucleosides exhibiting anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Park, Sun Min; Kim, Hwan Mook; Park, Song-Kyu; Lee, Kiho; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2009-08-15

    We describe (i) a simple method for the synthesis of C5-modified nucleosides from 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and (ii) their activity against six types of human cancer cell lines (HCT15, MM231, NCI-H23, NUGC-3, PC-3, ACHN). We generated nitrile oxides in situ from oximes using a commercial bleaching agent; their cycloadditions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine yielded isoxazole derivatives possessing activity against the cancer cell lines. We synthesized several azides from benzylic bromides and their click reactions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine provided triazole derivatives.

  6. Hybridization accompanying FRET event in labeled natural nucleoside-unnatural nucleoside containing chimeric DNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Das, Suman K; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Jana, Subhashis

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a highly efficient strategy in illuminating the structures, structural changes and dynamics of DNA, proteins and other biomolecules and thus is being widely utilized in studying such phenomena, in designing molecular/biomolecular probes for monitoring the hybridization event of two single stranded DNA to form duplex, in gene detection and in many other sensory applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. Moreover, FRET can give information about the positional status of chromophores within the associated biomolecules with much more accuracy than other methods can yield. Toward this end, we want to report here the ability of fluorescent unnatural nucleoside, triazolylphenanthrene ((TPhen)BDo) to show FRET interaction upon hybridization with fluorescently labeled natural nucleosides, (Per)U or (OxoPy)U or (Per)U, forming two stable chimeric DNA duplexes. The pairing selectivity and the thermal duplex stability of the chimeric duplexes are higher than any of the duplexes with natural nucleoside formed. The hybridization results in a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from donor triazolylphenanthrene of (TPhen)BDo to acceptor oxopyrene of (OxoPy)U and/or to perylene chromophore of (Per)U, respectively, in two chimeric DNA duplexes. Therefore, we have established the FRET process in two chimeric DNA duplexes wherein a fluorescently labeled natural nucleoside ((OxoPy)U or (Per)U) paired against an unnatural nucleoside ((TPhen)BDo) without sacrificing the duplex stability and B-DNA conformation. The hybridization accompanying FRET event in these classes of interacting fluorophores is new. Moreover, there is no report of such designed system of chimeric DNA duplex. Our observed phenomenon and the design can potentially be exploited in designing more of such efficient FRET pairs for useful application in the detection and analysis of biomolecular interactions and in material science application. Copyright

  7. Two nucleoside transporters in Lactococcus lactis with different substrate specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Sørensen, Claus; Jendresen, Christian Bille

    2010-01-01

    at both genetic and physiological level, using mutagenesis and by measuring the growth and uptake of nucleosides in the different mutants supplemented with different nucleosides. Two high affinity transporters were identified: BmpA-NupABC was shown to be an ABC transporter with the ability to actively...

  8. The search for an identification of amino acids, nucleobases and nucleosides in samples returned from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Charles W.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril; Kuo, Kenneth C.; Stalling, David L.; Zumwalt, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return mission will provide us with a unique source of material from our solar system; material which could advance our knowledge of the processes of chemical evolution. As has been pointed out, Mars geological investigations based on the Viking datasets have shown that primordial Mars was in many biologically important ways similar to the primordial Earth; the presence of surface liquid water, moderate surface temperatures, and atmosphere of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and high geothermal heat flow. Indeed, it would seem that conditions on Earth and Mars were fundamentally similar during the first one billion years or so. As has been pointed out, Mars may well contain the best preserved record of the events that transpired on the early planets. Examination of that early record will involve searching for many things, from microfossils to isotopic abundance data. We propose an investigation of the returned Mars samples for biologically important organic compounds, with emphases on amino acids, the purine and pyrimidine bases, and nucleosides.

  9. Polymer phosphorylases: clues to the emergence of non-replicative and replicative polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Miguel Angel

    2011-12-01

    Polymer formation is arguably one of the essential factors that allowed the emergence, stabilisation and spread of life on Earth. Consequently, studies concerning biopolymers could shed light on the origins of life itself. Of particular interest are RNA and polysaccharide polymers, the archetypes of the contrasting proposed evolutionary scenarios and their respective polymerases. Nucleic acid polymerases were hypothesised, before their discovery, to have a functional similarity with glycogen phosphorylase. Further identification and characterisation of nucleic acid polymerases; particularly of polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), provided experimental evidence for the initial premise. Once discovered, frequent similarities were found between PNPase and glycogen phosphorylase, in terms of catalytic features and biochemical properties. As a result, PNPase was seen as a model of primitive polymerase and used in laboratory precellular systems. Paradoxically, however, these similarities were not sufficient as an argument in favour of an ancestral common polymerisation mechanism prior to polysaccharides and polyribonucleotides. Here we present an overview of the common features shared by polymer phosphorylases, with new proposals for the emergence of polysaccharide and RNA polymers.

  10. Is muscle glycogenolysis impaired in X-linked phosphorylase b kinase deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orngreen, M.C.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Jeppesen, T.D.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unclear to what extent muscle phosphorylase b kinase (PHK) deficiency is associated with exercise-related symptoms and impaired muscle metabolism, because 1) only four patients have been characterized at the molecular level, 2) reported symptoms have been nonspecific, and 3) lact...

  11. Role of phosphorylase in the mechanism of potato minituber storage cell changes during clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, O.; Shnyukova, E.

    The differences between the cytochemical reaction intensity and activity of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) and carbohydrate content in storage parenchyma cells of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) minitubers grown for 30 days in the horizontal clinostate (2 rev/min) and in the control have been studied by electroncytochemical and biochemical methods. It is established an acceleration of minitubers formation and storage parenchyma cell differentiation at clinorotation. Electroncytochemical investigation of phosphorylase activity localization in the storage parenchyma cells of minitubers grown in control and at clinorotation showed the product of the reaction as electron-dense precipitate was marked plastids. Intensity and density of precipitate was increase in stroma of plastids and on starch grain surface during of intensive growth of starch in amyloplast (on 10- and 20-days of the minituber formation) of clinorotated minitubers in comparison with that in the control. The precipitate amount was decreased in the plastids on 30 day of growth in both variants. Using biochemical methods it is found that activity of phosphorylase and content of mono- and disaccharide and also starch content changed in minitubers formed during clinorotation and in the control. Data obtained are discussed regarding the possible mechanism of phosphorylase activity change and the role of mono- and disaccharide in acceleration of storage organ formation during clinorotation.

  12. Indicator cell lines for the detection of hidden mycoplasma contamination, using an adenosine phosphorylase screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, G.T.; Polak-Vogelzang, A.A.; Bast, B.J.E. G.

    Mycoplasmas are a major cause of cell culture contamination and are especially troublesome during HAT selection. The enzyme adenosine phosphorylase (adoP) is present in all common mycoplasma species but is considered to have a low activity in mammalian cells. However, using an adoP screening test,

  13. Accumulation of thymidine-derived sugars in thymidine phosphorylase overexpressing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnsdorp, I. V.; Azijli, K.; Jansen, E. E.; Wamelink, M. M.; Jakobs, C.; Struys, E. A.; Fukushima, M.; Kruyt, F. A. E.; Peters, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is often overexpressed in cancer and potentially plays a role in the stimulation of angiogenesis The exact mechanism of angiogenesis induction is unclear, but is postulated to be related to thymidine-derived sugars. TP catalyzes the conversion of thymidine (TdR) to thymi

  14. Structural rearrangements of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis during sucrose conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Sprogøe, Desiree

    2006-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) was studied by site-directed mutagenesis and x-ray crystallography. An inactive mutant of BiSP (E232Q) was co-crystallized with sucrose. The structure revealed a substrate-binding mode comparable with that seen...

  15. Role of platelet-derived enclothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase in fluoropyrimidine sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, M; van Capel, T; Van der Born, K; Kruyt, FA; Fukushinna, M; Hoekman, K; Pinedo, HM; Peters, GJ

    2003-01-01

    Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF)/thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyses the reversible phosphorolysis of thymidine to thymine and 2-deoxyribose-1-phosphate and is involved in the metabolism of fluoropyrimidines. It can also activate 5'-deoxyfluorouridine (5'DFUR) and possibl

  16. Is muscle glycogenolysis impaired in X-linked phosphorylase b kinase deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orngreen, M.C.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Jeppesen, T.D.; Akman, H.O.; Wevers, R.A.; Andersen, S.T.; Laak, H.J. ter; Diggelen, OP van; DiMauro, S.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unclear to what extent muscle phosphorylase b kinase (PHK) deficiency is associated with exercise-related symptoms and impaired muscle metabolism, because 1) only four patients have been characterized at the molecular level, 2) reported symptoms have been nonspecific, and 3) lactate

  17. Purine biosynthesis in archaea: variations on a theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Anne M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to perform de novo biosynthesis of purines is present in organisms in all three domains of life, reflecting the essentiality of these molecules to life. Although the pathway is quite similar in eukaryotes and bacteria, the archaeal pathway is more variable. A careful manual curation of genes in this pathway demonstrates the value of manual curation in archaea, even in pathways that have been well-studied in other domains. Results We searched the Integrated Microbial Genome system (IMG for the 17 distinct genes involved in the 11 steps of de novo purine biosynthesis in 65 sequenced archaea, finding 738 predicted proteins with sequence similarity to known purine biosynthesis enzymes. Each sequence was manually inspected for the presence of active site residues and other residues known or suspected to be required for function. Many apparently purine-biosynthesizing archaea lack evidence for a single enzyme, either glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase or inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase, suggesting that there are at least two more gene variants in the purine biosynthetic pathway to discover. Variations in domain arrangement of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide synthetase and substantial problems in aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase and inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase assignments were also identified. Manual curation revealed some overly specific annotations in the IMG gene product name, with predicted proteins without essential active site residues assigned product names implying enzymatic activity (21 proteins, 2.8% of proteins inspected or Enzyme Commission (E. C. numbers (57 proteins, 7.7%. There were also 57 proteins (7.7% assigned overly generic names and 78 proteins (10.6% without E.C. numbers as part of the assigned name when a specific enzyme name and E. C. number were well-justified. Conclusions The patchy distribution of purine biosynthetic genes in archaea is

  18. Crystallographic and Computational Study of Purine: Caffeine Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed F. Mabied

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of substituted purine derivative, 8-(3-butyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydrothiazol-2-ylidenehydrazino-3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-diones, caffeine derivative, has been determined. It crystallized in monoclinic system and space group P21/c with unit cell parameters a = 15.2634 (9, b = 13.4692 (9, c = 11.9761 (7 Å, and β = 108.825 (3°. Although each constituting moiety of the structure individually is planar, nonplanar configuration for the whole molecule was noticed. Molecular mechanics computations indicated the same nonplanar feature of the whole molecule. A network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds contacts and π interactions stabilized the structure.

  19. Proteome analysis of the purine stimulon from Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, N.H.; Roepstorff, P.; Hammer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Box-Pribnov box structures resembling the PurR activated promoters for the purDEK and purCSQLF operons. Most, and possibly all members of the Psu stimulon are thus members of the PurR regulon. Five Psu proteins could not be identified. The second stimulon, the Psd stimulon (purine starvation decreased), whose...... members are down-regulated during purine depletion, contained proteins related to protein synthesis (PpsB, EF-TS, trigger factor), or to GTPases (FtsZ, EF-TS); or are involved in energy metabolism (GapB, CcpA). No common regulatory elements could be found for members of this stimulon. Two Psd proteins...

  20. Yeast-based High-Throughput Screen Identifies Plasmodium falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 Inhibitors That Kill Malaria Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, I. J.; Deniskin, Roman; Rinderspacher, Alison; Katz, Francine; Deng, Shi-Xian; Moir, Robyn D.; Adjalley, Sophie H.; Coburn-Flynn, Olivia; Fidock, David A.; Willis, Ian M.; Landry, Donald W.; Akabas, Myles H.

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrative transporters are potential drug targets, however most functional assays involve radioactive substrate uptake that is unsuitable for high-throughput screens (HTS). We developed a robust yeast-based growth assay that is potentially applicable to many equilibrative transporters. As proof of principle, we applied our approach to Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfENT1). PfENT1 inhibitors might serve as novel antimalarial drugs since PfENT1-mediated purine import is essential for parasite proliferation. To identify PfENT1 inhibitors, we screened 64,560 compounds and identified 171 by their ability to rescue the growth of PfENT1-expressing fui1Δ yeast in the presence of a cytotoxic PfENT1 substrate, 5-fluorouridine (5-FUrd). In secondary assays, nine of the highest activity compounds inhibited PfENT1-dependent growth of a purine auxotrophic yeast strain with adenosine as the sole purine source (IC50 0.2–2 µM). These nine compounds completely blocked [3H]adenosine uptake into PfENT1-expressing yeast and erythrocyte-free trophozoite-stage parasites (IC50 5–50 nM), and inhibited chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant parasite proliferation (IC50 5–50 µM). Wild-type (WT) parasite IC50 values were up to four-fold lower compared to PfENT1-knockout (pfent1Δ) parasites. pfent1Δ parasite killing showed a delayed-death phenotype not observed with WT. We infer that in parasites, the compounds inhibit both PfENT1 and a secondary target with similar efficacy. The secondary target identity is unknown, but its existence may reduce the likelihood of parasites developing resistance to PfENT1 inhibitors. Our data support the hypothesis that blocking purine transport through PfENT1 may be a novel and compelling approach for antimalarial drug development. PMID:25602169

  1. Purine metabolism in patients with gout: the role of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Carús, E; Mateos, F A; Sanz, A G; Herrero, E; Ramos, T; Puig, J G

    1997-01-01

    Primary gout is characterized by increased plasma and decreased urinary concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid. To examine whether lead could explain the disturbance of purine metabolism in gout, we determined hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid metabolism and 5-day cumulative urinary lead excretion rates after an EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) test in 27 patients with primary gout and reduced creatinine clearance (C(cr)) and in 50 patients with gout and normal C(cr). The results were compared to those obtained in 26 normal subjects matched for age. All gout patients evidenced a marked renal underexcretion of hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid relative to their increased plasma levels. Purine metabolism was remarkably similar in both gout groups except for a significantly lower uric acid excretion in patients with reduced C(cr). Blood lead levels and cumulative lead excretion rates were significantly higher in gout patients with renal failure as compared to patients with normal C(cr). Fourteen patients (52%) with renal insufficiency and 6 (12%) with normal C(cr) showed increased lead excretion rates (95% Cl for the difference, 29-51%, p < 0.001). Mobilizable lead was not significantly correlated with serum or urinary purine concentrations. Hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid underexcretion was similar in gout patients with increased or normal cumulative lead excretion rates. The prevalence of atheromatosis and arterial hypertension together was significantly higher in gout patients with renal failure than in patients with normal C(cr) (81 vs. 60%, 95% Cl for the difference, 11-31%, p < 0.005). These results indicate that lead is not a significant contributor to the renal underexcretion of purines in gout. An increased mobilizable lead is not by itself evidence that lead is the cause of the renal insufficiency in patients with primary gout. Atheromatous nephropathy and/or nephroangiosclerosis may explain impaired renal function in patients with

  2. A novel enzymatic approach in the production of food with low purine content using Arxula adeninivorans endogenous and recombinant purine degradative enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Dagmara A; Trautwein-Schult, Anke; Cordes, Arno; Bode, Rüdiger; Baronian, Keith; Kunze, Gotthard

    2015-01-01

    The purine degradation pathway in humans ends with uric acid, which has low water solubility. When the production of uric acid is increased either by elevated purine intake or by impaired kidney function, uric acid will accumulate in the blood (hyperuricemia). This increases the risk of gout, a disease described in humans for at least 1000 years. Many lower organisms, such as the yeast Arxula adeninivorans, possess the enzyme, urate oxidase that converts uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate, thus preventing uric acid accumulation. We have examined the complete purine degradation pathway in A. adeninivorans and analyzed enzymes involved. Recombinant adenine deaminase, guanine deaminase, urate oxidase and endogenous xanthine oxidoreductase have been investigated as potential additives to degrade purines in the food. Here, we review the current model of the purine degradation pathway of A. adeninivorans and present an overview of proposed enzyme system with perspectives for its further development.

  3. Biological treatment in clarificated purines pilot plant; Depuracion biologica en plant piloto del clarificado de los purines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosque Hernandez, J. L. del; Martin Sanchez, J. L. [Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the environmental problem that suppose the residuals, denominated. Purines, it is necessary to treat them so that they can take advantage. for it, in the part I of the work, the treatment that facilitates the operation of separation of the solid in suspension of the raw purin that allows to decrease the matter organic present in the liquid phase, settled down as well as, the increase of the power fertilizer in the solid phase. The part II of this investigation have as purpose the treatment of the phase it liquidates obtained previously to adapt it for their use like water of industrial type and the solid phase as fertilizer. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Occurrence of theobromine synthase genes in purine alkaloid-free species of Camellia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mariko; Kitao, Naoko; Mizuno, Kouichi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Kato, Misako

    2009-02-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) are purine alkaloids that are present in high concentrations in plants of some species of Camellia. However, most members of the genus Camellia contain no purine alkaloids. Tracer experiments using [8-(14)C]adenine and [8-(14)C]theobromine showed that the purine alkaloid pathway is not fully functional in leaves of purine alkaloid-free species. In five species of purine alkaloid-free Camellia plants, sufficient evidence was obtained to show the occurrence of genes that are homologous to caffeine synthase. Recombinant enzymes derived from purine alkaloid-free species showed only theobromine synthase activity. Unlike the caffeine synthase gene, these genes were expressed more strongly in mature tissue than in young tissue.

  5. [Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, V; Yeni, P

    2000-06-01

    The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) directly inhibit the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) by binding in a reversible and non-competitive manner to the enzyme. The currently available NNRTIs are nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz; other compounds are under evaluation. NNRTIs are extensively metabolized in the liver through cytochrome P450, leading to pharmacokinetic interactions with compounds utilizing the same metabolic pathway, particularly PIs, whose plasma levels are altered in the presence of NNRTIs. NNRTIs are drugs with a low genetic barrier, i.e. a single mutation in RT genoma induces a high-level of phenotypic resistance, preventing the use of NNRTIs as monotherapy. In naive patients, several trials have shown the value of NNRTIs in combination with nucleosides and/or protease inhibitors. Small pilot studies have shown that NNRTIs may be useful as second-line therapy. However, due to the rapid emergence of resistant virus to these compounds in case of incomplete viral suppression, NNRTIs should not be added to current failing antiretroviral regimen. The most common side-effect reported with nevirapine and delavirdine is rash. The incidence of rash is rather similar under these two compounds, but severe rash is less frequent with delavirdine. The most common adverse reactions reported with efavirenz are central nervous system complaints such as dizziness. Rash is reported less frequently than with nevirapine or delavirdine, and is usually mild. NNRTIs resistance mutations are located in the amino acid residues aligning the NNRTI-binding "pocket" site. High-level resistance is often associated with a single point mutation which develops within this site (especially codon groups 100 - 108 and 181 - 190). Patients failing on one NNRTI are very likely to possess multiple NNRTI resistance mutations. NNRTIs should always be used as part of a potent antiretroviral therapy to insure suppression of viral replication, thus circumventing

  6. Thymidine phosphorylase influences [{sup 18}F]fluorothymidine uptake in cancer cells and patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin [Gachon University, College of Pharmacy, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Jeong Seok [Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Goyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Haeng Jung; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Seog Young [Asan Medical Center, Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Se Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Jin; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleoside salvage pathway, catalyses the reversible phosphorylation of thymidine, thereby generating thymine and 2-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate. By regulating the levels of endogenous thymidine, TP may influence [{sup 18}F]fluorothymidine ([{sup 18}F]FLT) uptake. We investigated the effect of TP activity on [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake by tumours. Uptake of [{sup 3}H]FLT and [{sup 3}H]thymidine ([{sup 3}H]Thd) and the activities of TP, thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), and equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) were determined in exponentially growing A431, A549, HT29, HOP92, ACHN, and SKOV3 cells in the presence or absence of tipiracil hydrochloride, a TP inhibitor. Eighty-five non-small cell lung cancer tissues from a patient cohort that was previously studied with [{sup 18}F]FLT positron emission tomography (PET) were retrieved and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of TP expression. Factors that affected the maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of [{sup 18}F]FLT-PET were identified by multiple linear regression analysis. A431 cells had the highest TP activity; A549 and HT29 cells had moderate TP activity; and ACHN, SKOV3, and HOP92 cells had little detectable TP activity. Cell lines with high TP activity took up more [{sup 3}H]FLT than [{sup 3}H]Thd, whereas cells with little TP activity took up more [{sup 3}H]Thd than [{sup 3}H]FLT. In cells with high TP activity, TP inhibition decreased [{sup 3}H]FLT uptake and increased [{sup 3}H]Thd uptake. However, TP inhibition had no effect on ACHN, SKOV3, and HOP92 cells. TP inhibition did not change TK1 or ENT1 activity, but did increase the intracellular level of thymidine. The SUVmax of [{sup 18}F]FLT was affected by three independent factors: Ki-67 expression (P < 0.001), immunohistochemical TP score (P < 0.001), and tumour size (P = 0.015). TP activity influences [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake, and may explain preferential uptake of [{sup 18}F]FLT over [{sup 3

  7. Experimental and theoretical dipole moments of purines in their ground and lowest excited singlet states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Jean-Jacques; Diabou Gaye, Mame; Párkányi, Cyril; Cho, Nam Sook; Von Szentpály, László

    1987-01-01

    The ground-state dipole moments of seven biologically important purines (purine, 6-chloropurine, 6-mercaptopurine, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and caffeine) were determined at 25°C in acetic acid (all the above compounds with the exception of purine) and in ethyl acetate (purine, theophylline and caffeine). Because of its low solubility, it was not possible to measure the dipole moment of uric acid. The first excited singlet-state dipole moments were obtained on the basis of the Bakhshiev and Chamma—Viallet equations using the variation of the Stokes shift with the solvent dielectric constant-refractive index term. The theoretical dipole moments for all the purines listed above and including uric acid were calculated by combining the use of the PPP (π-LCI-SCF-MO) method for the π-contribution to the overall dipole moment with the σ-contribution obtained as a vector sum of the σbond moments and group moments. The experimental and theoretical values were compared with the data available in the literature for some of the purines under study. For several purines, the calculations were carried out for different tautomeric forms. Excited singlet-state dipole moments are smaller than the ground-state values by 0.8 to 2.2 Debye units for all purines under study with the exception of 6-chloropurine. The effects of the structure upon the ground- and excited-state dipole moments of the purines are discussed.

  8. nucleoside DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitors for treating epi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Epi-mutation, DNA methyltransferase, Non-nucleoside, DNMT1 inhibitor, Docking .... associated genes [18] and the effect could not be ... compound that may inhibit DNA methylation non- ... potential of which is over estimated [16];.

  9. A Modular Approach to Phosphoglycosyltransferase Inhibitors Inspired by Nucleoside Antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walvoort, Marthe T C; Lukose, Vinita; Imperiali, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoglycosyltransferases (PGTs) represent "gatekeeper" enzymes in complex glycan assembly pathways by catalyzing transfer of a phosphosugar from an activated nucleotide diphosphosugar to a membrane-resident polyprenol phosphate. The unique structures of selected nucleoside antibiotics, such as tu

  10. Current prodrug strategies for improving oral absorption of nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside analogues are first line chemotherapy in various severe diseases: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome, cytomegalovirus infections, cancer, etc. However, many nucleoside analogues exhibit poor oral bioavailability because of their high polarity and low intestinal permeability. In order to get around this drawback, prodrugs have been utilized to improve lipophilicity by chemical modification of the parent drug. Alternatively, prodrugs targeting transporters present in the intestine have been applied to promote the transport of the nucleoside analogues. Valacyclovir and valganciclovir are two classic valine ester prodrugs transported by oligopeptide transporter 1. The ideal prodrug achieves delivery of a parent drug by attaching a non-toxic moiety that is stable during transport, but is readily degraded to the parent drug once at the target. This article presents advances of prodrug approaches for enhancing oral absorption of nucleoside analogues.

  11. Crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae at 2.4;#8201;Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Cheong, Cheom-Gil; Lee, Seok-Yong (Duke)

    2012-07-11

    Nucleosides are required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and the nucleoside adenosine has a function in a variety of signalling processes. Transport of nucleosides across cell membranes provides the major source of nucleosides in many cell types and is also responsible for the termination of adenosine signalling. As a result of their hydrophilic nature, nucleosides require a specialized class of integral membrane proteins, known as nucleoside transporters (NTs), for specific transport across cell membranes. In addition to nucleosides, NTs are important determinants for the transport of nucleoside-derived drugs across cell membranes. A wide range of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer drugs (such as Ara-C and gemcitabine) and antiviral drugs (such as zidovudine and ribavirin), have been shown to depend, at least in part, on NTs for transport across cell membranes. Concentrative nucleoside transporters, members of the solute carrier transporter superfamily SLC28, use an ion gradient in the active transport of both nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs against their chemical gradients. The structural basis for selective ion-coupled nucleoside transport by concentrative nucleoside transporters is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae in complex with uridine at 2.4 {angstrom}. Our functional data show that, like its human orthologues, the transporter uses a sodium-ion gradient for nucleoside transport. The structure reveals the overall architecture of this class of transporter, unravels the molecular determinants for nucleoside and sodium binding, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of nucleoside and nucleoside drug transport across cell membranes.

  12. Distribution of nucleosides in populations of Cordyceps cicadae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wen-Bo; Yu, Hong; Ge, Feng; Yang, Jun-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Bing; Dai, Yong-Dong; Adams, Alison

    2014-05-14

    A rapid HPLC method had been developed and used for the simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides (uracil, uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenine, adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine and cordycepin) in 10 populations of Cordyceps cicadae, in order to compare four populations of Ophicordyceps sinensis and one population of Cordyceps militaris. Statistical analysis system (SAS) 8.1 was used to analyze the nucleoside data. The pattern of nucleoside distribution was analyzed in the sampled populations of C. cicadae, O. sinensis and C. militaris, using descriptive statistical analysis, nested analysis and Q cluster analysis. The total amount of the 10 nucleosides in coremium was 1,463.89-5,678.21 µg/g in 10 populations of C. cicadae, 1,369.80-3,941.64 µg/g in sclerotium. The average contents of the 10 analytes were 4,392.37 µg/g and 3,016.06 µg/g in coremium and sclerotium, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nucleosides ranged from 8.36% to 112.36% in coremium of C. cicadae, and from 10.77% to 155.87% in sclerotium of C. cicadae. The CV of the nucleosides was wide within C. cicadae populations. The nested variation analysis by the nine nucleosides' distribution indicated that about 42.29% of the nucleoside variability in coremium was attributable to the differentiation among populations, and the remaining 57.71% resided in the populations. It was also shown that about 28.94% of the variation in sclerotium was expressed between populations, while most of the variation (71.06%) corresponded to the populations.

  13. The Nucleoside Uridine Isolated in the Gas Phase**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present the first experimental observation of the isolated nucleoside uridine, placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and characterized by Fourier transform microwave techniques. Free from the bulk effects of their native environments, anti/C2’-endo-g+ conformation has been revealed as the most stable form of uridine. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside. PMID:25683559

  14. Urinary nucleosides as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fang Zheng; Jun Yang; Xin-Jie Zhao; Bo Feng; Hong-Wei Kong; Ying-Jie Chen; Shen Lv; Min-Hua Zheng; Guo-Wang Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Fourteen urinary nucleosides, primary degradation products of tRNA, were evaluated to know the potential as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer.METHODS: The concentrations of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides from 52 patients with colorectal cancer, 10patients with intestinal villous adenoma and 60 healthy adults were determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method.RESULTS: The mean levels of 12 kinds of urinary nucleosides (except uridine and guanosine) in the patients with colorectal cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with intestinal villous adenoma or the healthy adults. Using the levels of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides as the data vectors for principal component analysis, 71% (37/52) patients with colorectal cancer were correctly classified from healthy adults, in which the identification rate was much higher than that of CEA method (29%).Only 10% (1/10) of patients with intestinal villous adenoma were indistinguishable from patients with colorectal cancer. The levels of m1G, Pseu and m1A were positively related with tumor size and Duke's stages of colorectal cancer. When monitoring the changes in urinary nucleoside concentrations of patients with colorectal cancer associated with surgery, it was found that the overall correlations with clinical assessment were 84% (27/32)and 91% (10/11) in response group and progressive group, respectively.CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that urinary nucleosides determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method may be useful as biological markers for colorectal cancer.

  15. Synthesis of coumarin or ferrocene labeled nucleosides via Staudinger ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kois Pavol

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reaction of azides with triaryl phosphines under mild conditions gives iminophosphoranes which can react with almost any kind of electrophilic reagent, e.g. aldehydes/ketones to form imines or esters to form amides. This so-called Staudinger ligation has been employed in a wide range of applications as a general tool for bioconjugation including specific labeling of nucleic acids. Results A new approach for the preparation of labeled nucleosides via intermolecular Staudinger ligation is described. Reaction of azidonucleosides with triphenylphosphine lead to iminophosphorane intermediates, which react subsequently with derivatives of coumarin or ferrocene to form coumarin or ferrocene labeled nucleosides. Fluorescent properties of coumarin labeled nucleosides are determined. Conclusion New coumarin and ferrocene labeled nucleosides were prepared via intermolecular Staudinger ligation. This reaction joins the fluorescent coumarin and biospecific nucleoside to the new molecule with promising fluorescent and electrochemical properties. The isolated yields of products depend on the structure of azidonucleoside and carboxylic acids. A detailed study of the kinetics of the Staudinger ligation with nucleoside substrates is in progress.

  16. Flexibility as a Strategy in Nucleoside Antiviral Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, H L; Ku, T C; Seley-Radtke, K L

    2015-01-01

    As far back as Melville Wolfrom's acyclic sugar synthesis in the 1960's, synthesis of flexible nucleoside analogues have been an area of interest. This concept, however, went against years of enzyme-substrate binding theory. Hence, acyclic methodology in antiviral drug design did not take off until the discovery and subsequent FDA approval of such analogues as Acyclovir and Tenofovir. More recently, the observation that flexible nucleosides could overcome drug resistance spawned a renewed interest in the field of nucleoside drug design. The next generation of flexible nucleosides shifted the focus from the sugar moiety to the nucleobase. With analogues such as Seley-Radtke "fleximers", and Herdewijn's C5 substituted 2'-deoxyuridines, the area of base flexibility has seen great expansion. More recently, the marriage of these methodologies with acyclic sugars has resulted in a series of acyclic flex-base nucleosides with a wide range of antiviral properties, including some of the first to exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Various flexible nucleosides and their corresponding nucleobases will be compared in this review.

  17. RNase III-Independent Autogenous Regulation of Escherichia coli Polynucleotide Phosphorylase via Translational Repression

    OpenAIRE

    Carzaniga, T.; Dehò, G; Briani, F.

    2015-01-01

    The complex posttranscriptional regulation mechanism of the Escherichia coli pnp gene, which encodes the phosphorolytic exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), involves two endoribonucleases, namely, RNase III and RNase E, and PNPase itself, which thus autoregulates its own expression. The models proposed for pnp autoregulation posit that the target of PNPase is a mature pnp mRNA previously processed at its 5′ end by RNase III, rather than the primary pnp transcript (RNase I...

  18. Recombinant production and biochemical characterization of a hyperthermostable α-glucan/maltodextrin phosphorylase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M. Mizanur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-glucan phosphorylase catalyzes the reversible cleavage of α-1-4-linked glucose polymers into α-D-glucose-1-phosphate. We report the recombinant production of an α-glucan/maltodextrin phosphorylase (PF1535 from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, and the first detailed biochemical characterization of this enzyme from any archaeal source using a mass-spectrometry-based assay. The apparent 98 kDa recombinant enzyme was active over a broad range of temperatures and pH, with optimal activity at 80 °C and pH 6.5–7. This archaeal protein retained its complete activity after 24 h at 80 °C in Tris-HCl buffer. Unlike other previously reported phosphorylases, the Ni-affinity column purified enzyme showed broad substrate specificity in both the synthesis and degradation of maltooligosaccharides. In the synthetic direction of the enzymatic reaction, the lowest oligosaccharide required for the chain elongation was maltose. In the degradative direction, the archaeal enzyme can produce glucose-1-phosphate from maltotriose or longer maltooligosaccharides including both glycogen and starch. The specific activity of the enzyme at 80 °C in the presence of 10 mM maltoheptaose and at 10 mg ml–1 glycogen concentration was 52 U mg–1 and 31 U mg–1, respectively. The apparent Michaelis constant and maximum velocity for inorganic phosphate were 31 ± 2 mM and 0.60 ± 0.02 mM min–1 µg–1, respectively. An initial velocity study of the enzymatic reaction indicated a sequential bi-bi catalytic mechanism. Unlike the more widely studied mammalian glycogen phosphorylase, the Pyrococcus enzyme is active in the absence of added AMP.

  19. Engineering the specificity of trehalose phosphorylase as a general strategy for the production of glycosyl phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Van der Borght, Jef; De Vreese, Rob; D'hooghe, Matthias; Soetaert, Wim; Desmet, Tom

    2014-07-25

    A two-step process is reported for the anomeric phosphorylation of galactose, using trehalose phosphorylase as biocatalyst. The monosaccharide enters this process as acceptor but can subsequently be released from the donor side, thanks to the non-reducing nature of the disaccharide intermediate. A key development was the creation of an optimized enzyme variant that displays a strict specificity (99%) for β-galactose 1-phosphate as product.

  20. High phosphorylase activity is correlated with increased potato minituber formation and starch content during extended clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, O. M.; Schnyukova, E. I.; Leach, J. E.

    2003-05-01

    The major purpose of these experiments were to investigate growth of potato storage organs and starch synthesis in minitubers at slow horizontal clinorotation (2 rpm), which partly mimics microgravity, and a secondary goal was to study the activity and localization of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) in storage parenchyma under these conditions. Miniplants of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) were grown in culture for 30 days for both the vertical control and the horizontal clinorotation. During long-term clinorotation, an acceleration of minituber formation, and an increase of amyloplast number and size in storage parenchyma cells, as well as increased starch content, was observed in the minitubers. The differences among cytochemical reaction intensity, activity of phosphorylase, and carbohydrate content in storage parenchyma cells of minitubers grown in a horizontal clinostat were established by electron-cytochemical and biochemical methods. It is shown that high phosphorylase activity is correlated with increased starch content during extended clinorotation. The results demonstrate the increase in carbohydrate metabolism and possible accelerated growth of storage organs under the influence of microgravity, as mimicked by clinorotation; therefore, clinorotation can be used as a basis for future studies on mechanisms of starch synthesis under microgravity.

  1. 1,4-alpha-Glucan phosphorylase form Klebsiella pneumoniae covalently couple on porous glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengenmayer, F; Linder, D; Wallenfels, K

    1977-09-01

    A simplified procedure for the preparation of 1,4-alpha-glucan phosphorylase from Klebsiella pneumoniae is described. An 80-fold purification is achieved in two steps with an overall yield of about 50%. The specific activity of the homogeneous enzyme protein is 17.7 units/mg. Compared with glycogen phosphorylase from rabbit muscle the enzyme from K. pneumoniae shows a markedly higher stability against deforming and chaotropic agents. The 1,4-alpha-glucan phosphorylase was covalently bound to porous glass particles by three different methods. Coupling with glutaraldehyde gave the highest specific activity, i.e., 5.6 units/mg of bound protein or 133 units/g of glass with maltodextrin as substrate. This corresponds to about 30% of the specific activity of the soluble enzyme. With substrates of higher molecular weight, such as glycogen or amylopectin, lower relative activity was observed. The immobilized enzyme preparations showed pH activity profiles which were slightly displaced to higher values and exhibited an increased temperature stability.

  2. 1, 4-alpha-Glucan phosphorylase from Klebsiella pneumoniae purification, subunit structure and amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, D; Kurz, G; Bender, H; Wallenfels, K

    1976-11-01

    1. A 1,4-alpha-glucan phosphorylase from Klebsiella pneumoniae has been purified about 80-fold with an over-all yield greater than 35%. The purified enzyme has been shown to be homogeneous by gel electrophoresis at different pH-values, by isoelectric focusing, by dodecylsulfate electrophoresis and by ultracentrifugation. 2. The molecular weight of the native enzyme has been determined to be 180 000 by ultra-centrifugation studies, in good agreement with the value of 189 000 estimated by gel permeation chromatography. 3. The enzyme dissociates in the presence of 0.1% dodecylsulfate or 5 M guanidine hydrochloride into polypeptide chains. The molecular weight of these polypeptide chains has been found to be 88 000 by dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 99 000 by sedimentation equilibrium studies, indicating that the native enzyme is composed of two polypeptide chains. 4. The enzyme contains pyridoxalphosphate with a stoichiometry of two moles per 180 000 g protein, confirming that the 1,4-alpha-glucan phosphorylase from Klebsiella pneumoniae is a dimeric enzyme. 5. The amino acid composition of the enzyme has been determined, and its correspondence to that of 1,4-alpha-glucan phosphorylases from other sources is discussed. 6. The pI of the enzyme has been shown to be 5.3 and its pH-optimum to be about pH 5.9. The enzyme is stable in the range from pH 5.9 to 10.5.

  3. [Properties of sucrose phosphorylase from recombinant Escherichia coli and enzymatic synthesis of alpha-arbutin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuejia; Ma, Jiangfeng; Xu, Rong; He, Aiyong; Jiang, Min; Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Yin

    2012-12-01

    Sucrose phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.7, Sucrose phosphorylase, SPase) can be produced by recombinant strain Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)/Pet-SPase. Crude enzyme was obtained from the cells by the high pressure disruption and centrifugation. Sucrose phosphorylase was purified by Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography and desalted by ultrafiltration. The specific enzyme activity was 1.1-fold higher than that of the crude enzyme, and recovery rate was 82.7%. The purified recombinant SPase had a band of 59 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Thermostability of the enzyme was shown at temperatures up to 37 degrees C, and pH stability between pH 6.0 and 6.7. The optimum temperature and pH were 37 degrees C and 6.7, respectively. The K(m) of SPase for sucrose was 7.3 mmol/L, and Vmax was 0.2 micromol/(min x mg). Besides, alpha-arbutin was synthesized from sucrose and hydroquinone by transglucosylation with recombinant SPase. The optimal conditions for synthesis of alpha-arbutin were 200 U/mL of recombinant SPase, 20% of sucrose, and 1.6% hydroquinone at pH 6-6.5 and 25 degrees C for 21 h. Under these conditions, alpha-arbutin was obtained with a 78.3% molar yield with respect to hydroquinone, and the concentration of alpha-arbutin was about 31 g/L.

  4. Glycogen phosphorylase is involved in stress endurance and biofilm formation in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Anat; Castro-Sowinski, Susana; Lerner, Hadas; Okon, Yaacov; Burdman, Saul

    2009-11-01

    Here we report the identification of a glycogen phosphorylase (glgP) gene in the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, Sp7, and the characterization of a glgP marker exchange mutant of this strain. The glgP mutant showed a twofold reduction of glycogen phosphorylase activity and an increased glycogen accumulation as compared with wild-type Sp7, indicating that the identified gene indeed encodes a protein with glycogen phosphorylase activity. Interestingly, the glgP mutant had higher survival rates than the wild type after exposure to starvation, desiccation and osmotic pressure. The mutant was shown to be compromised in its biofilm formation ability. Analysis of the exopolysaccharide sugar composition of the glgP mutant revealed a decrease in the amount of glucose, accompanied by increases in rhamnose, fucose and ribose, as compared with the Sp7 exopolysaccharide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates GlgP activity in A. brasilense, and shows that glycogen accumulation may play an important role in the stress endurance of this bacterium.

  5. Architecture of Amylose Supramolecules in Form of Inclusion Complexes by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokawa, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the architecture of amylose supramolecules in form of inclusion complexes with synthetic polymers by phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization. Amylose is known to be synthesized by enzymatic polymerization using α-d-glucose 1-phosphate as a monomer, by phosphorylase catalysis. When the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization was conducted in the presence of various hydrophobic polymers, such as polyethers, polyesters, poly(ester-ether), and polycarbonates as a guest polymer, such inclusion supramolecules were formed by the hydrophobic interaction in the progress of polymerization. Because the representation of propagation in the polymerization is similar to the way that a vine of a plant grows, twining around a rod, this polymerization method for the formation of amylose-polymer inclusion complexes was proposed to be named “vine-twining polymerization”. To yield an inclusion complex from a strongly hydrophobic polyester, the parallel enzymatic polymerization system was extensively developed. The author found that amylose selectively included one side of the guest polymer from a mixture of two resemblant guest polymers, as well as a specific range in molecular weights of the guest polymers poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF) in the vine-twining polymerization. Selective inclusion behavior of amylose toward stereoisomers of chiral polyesters, poly(lactide)s, also appeared in the vine-twining polymerization. PMID:24970172

  6. Electrochemical Synthesis of 5-Purin-6'-ylthiocatechols in Aqueous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-Jian; ZENG Cheng-Chu; PING Da-Wei; CAI Yuan-Li; ZHONG Ru-Gang

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical synthesis of 5-purin-6'-ylthiocatechols was carried out by anodic oxidation of catechol derivatives la--ld in the presence of 6-mercaptopurine (2) in aqueous solution.Results of cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential electrolysis indicated that the starting catechols were first oxidized to the corresponding o-benzoquinone,which underwent further Michael addition with 6-mercaptopurine to produce titled products 3a--3d following an EC (E=electrochemical and C=chemical step) mechanism.Such work further demonstrates the versatility of the anodic oxidation of catechols and their in-situ transformation for the synthesis of derivatized catechols.

  7. 9-Benzyl-6-benzylsulfanyl-9H-purin-2-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maywan Hariono

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H17N5S, the dihedral angles between the purine ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.009 Å and the S-bound and methylene-bound phenyl rings are 74.67 (8 and 71.28 (7°, respectively. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds generate R22(8 loops. C—H...N interactions link the dimers into (100 sheets.

  8. Señales purinérgicas Purinergic signals

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J.

    2009-01-01

    En la última década se ha aportado clara evidencia de que tanto nucleósidos como nucleótidos de adenina y uridina pueden funcionar como factores de señalización extracelular. Su acción es mediada por dos tipos principales de receptores de superficie denominados purinérgicos. Los receptores P1 se activan por adenosina, y son todos metabotrópicos, mientras que los receptores de nucleótidos (ATP, ADP, UTP y UDP) y nucleótidos-azúcares (UDP-glucosa y UDP-galactosa) pueden ser metabotrópicos (P2Y)...

  9. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES IN ASSOCIATION OF PURINES WITH POLYBENZENOID HYDROCARBONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PULLMAN, B; CLAVERIE, P; CAILLET, J

    1965-03-12

    The interactions in solution between purine or pyrimidine bases and polybenzenoid aromatic hydrocarbons probably consist in a vertical, stacking-type physical association. By molecular orbital calculations the role of the Van der Waals-London intermolecular forces in these interactions is determined. The electrostatic dipole-dipole forces are negligible, the polarization (or induction) dipole-induced dipole forces are contributory, but most important are the dispersion (or fluctuation) forces. This loose, physical type of interaction should not show any specificity with respect to the carcinogenic activity of the hydrocarbons.

  10. Associations between Purine Metabolites and Monoamine Neurotransmitters in First-Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K Yao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a biochemically complex disorder characterized by widespread defects in multiple metabolic pathways whose dynamic interactions, until recently, have been difficult to examine. Rather, evidence for these alterations has been collected piecemeal, limiting the potential to inform our understanding of the interactions amongst relevant biochemical pathways. We herein review perturbations in purine and neurotransmitter metabolism observed in early SZ using a metabolomic approach. Purine catabolism is an underappreciated, but important component of the homeostatic response of mitochondria to oxidant stress. We have observed a homeostatic imbalance of purine catabolism in first-episode neuroleptic-naive patients with SZ (FENNS. Precursor and product relationships within purine pathways are tightly correlated. Although some of these correlations persist across disease or medication status, others appear to be lost among FENNS suggesting that steady formation of the antioxidant uric acid via purine catabolism is altered early in the course of illness. As is the case for within-pathway correlations, there are also significant cross-pathway correlations between respective purine and tryptophan pathway metabolites. By contrast, purine metabolites show significant cross-pathway correlation only with tyrosine, and not with its metabolites. Furthermore, several purine metabolites (uric acid, guanosine, or xanthine are each significantly correlated with 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA in healthy controls, but not in FENNS at baseline or 4-week after antipsychotic treatment. Taken together, the above findings suggest that purine catabolism strongly associates with the tryptophan pathways leading to serotonin (5-HT and kynurenine metabolites. The Lack of a significant correlation between purine metabolites and 5-HIAA, suggests alterations in key 5-HT pathways that may both be modified by and contribute to oxidative stress via purine

  11. Stretches of alternating pyrimidine/purines and purines are respectively linked with pathogenicity and growth temperature in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Simon P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomic fractions of purine (RR and alternating pyrimidine/purine (YR stretches of 10 base pairs or more, have been linked to genomic AT content, the formation of different DNA helices, strand-biased gene distribution, DNA structure, and more. Although some of these factors are a consequence of the chemical properties of purines and pyrimidines, a thorough statistical examination of the distributions of YR/RR stretches in sequenced prokaryotic chromosomes has to the best of our knowledge, not been undertaken. The aim of this study is to expand upon previous research by using regression analysis to investigate how AT content, habitat, growth temperature, pathogenicity, phyla, oxygen requirement and halotolerance correlated with the distribution of RR and YR stretches in prokaryotes. Results Our results indicate that RR and YR-stretches are differently distributed in prokaryotic phyla. RR stretches are overrepresented in all phyla except for the Actinobacteria and β-Proteobacteria. In contrast, YR tracts are underrepresented in all phyla except for the β-Proteobacterial group. YR-stretches are associated with phylum, pathogenicity and habitat, whilst RR-tracts are associated with phylum, AT content, oxygen requirement, growth temperature and halotolerance. All associations described were statistically significant with p . Conclusion Analysis of chromosomal distributions of RR/YR sequences in prokaryotes reveals a set of associations with environmental factors not observed with mono- and oligonucleotide frequencies. This implies that important information can be found in the distribution of RR/YR stretches that is more difficult to obtain from genomic mono- and oligonucleotide frequencies. The association between pathogenicity and fractions of YR stretches is assumed to be linked to recombination and horizontal transfer.

  12. Purine Bases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravluyova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of purine bases and intermediates of purine catabolism in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Decrease of adenine and hypoxantine in plasma of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was registered. Increase of guanine in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was established.

  13. Purine derivate content and amino acid profile in larval stages of three edible insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednářová, Martina; Borkovcová, Marie; Komprda, Tomáš

    2014-01-15

    Considering their high content of protein, insects are a valuable alternative protein source. However, no evaluation of their purine content has so far been done. High content of purine derivates may lead to the exclusion of such food from the diet of people with specific diseases. The aim of this study was to analyse the content of selected purine derivates and amino acid profile in the three insect species most often used for entomophagy in Europe and compare them with the purine content in egg white and chicken breast. The content of individual purine derivates and their total content were significantly dependent on insect species. The purine content in all three species was significantly higher (P content was 548.9 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM) in mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), 551.6 g kg(-1) DM in superworm (Zophobas atratus) and 564.9 g kg(-1) DM in cricket (Gryllus assimilis). Larvae of mealworm and superworm are protein-rich and purine-low meat alternatives. In contrast, cricket nymphs are protein-rich and purine-rich and cannot be recommended for people with hyperuricemia or gout. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Morphine enhances the release of /sup 3/H-purines from rat brain cerebral cortical prisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, P.H.; Phillis, J.W.; Yuen, H.

    1982-10-01

    In vitro experiments have shown that /sup 3/H-purines can be released from /sup 3/H-adenosine preloaded rat brain cortical prisms by a KCl-evoked depolarization. The KCl-evoked release of /sup 3/H-purines is dependent on the concentration of KCl present in the superfusate. At concentrations of 10(-7) approximately 10(-5)M morphine did not influence the basal release of /sup 3/H-purines from the prisms, although it enhanced the KCl-evoked release of /sup 3/H-purines. The enhancement of KCl-evoked /sup 3/H-purine release by morphine was concentration-dependent and was antagonized by naloxone, suggesting the involvement of opiate receptors. Uptake studies with rat brain cerebral cortical synaptosomes show that morphine is a very weak inhibitor of adenosine uptake. Comparisons with dipyridamole, a potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake, suggest that this low level of inhibition of the uptake did not contribute significantly to the release of /sup 3/H-purine by morphine seen in our experiments. It is therefore suggested that morphine enhances KCl-evoked /sup 3/H-purine release by an interaction with opiate receptors and that the resultant increase in extracellular purine (adenosine) levels may account for some of the actions of morphine.

  15. Characterization of purine catabolic pathway genes in coelacanths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forconi, Mariko; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Barucca, Marco; Buonocore, Francesco; De Moro, Gianluca; Fausto, Anna Maria; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Schartl, Manfred; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

    2014-09-01

    Coelacanths are a critically valuable species to explore the gene changes that took place in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life. One interesting and biologically relevant feature of the genus Latimeria is ureotelism. However not all urea is excreted from the body; in fact high concentrations are retained in plasma and seem to be involved in osmoregulation. The purine catabolic pathway, which leads to urea production in Latimeria, has progressively lost some steps, reflecting an enzyme loss during diversification of terrestrial species. We report the results of analyses of the liver and testis transcriptomes of the Indonesian coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis and of the genome of Latimeria chalumnae, which has recently been fully sequenced in the framework of the coelacanth genome project. We describe five genes, uricase, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, parahox neighbor B, allantoinase, and allantoicase, each coding for one of the five enzymes involved in urate degradation to urea, and report the identification of a putative second form of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase that is characteristic of the genus Latimeria. The present data also highlight the activity of the complete purine pathway in the coelacanth liver and suggest its involvement in the maintenance of high plasma urea concentrations.

  16. Riboswitch Structure: an Internal Residue Mimicking the Purine Ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfosse, V.; Bouchard, P; Bonneau, E; Dagenais, P; Lemay, J; Lafontaine, D; Legault, P

    2009-01-01

    The adenine and guanine riboswitches regulate gene expression in response to their purine ligand. X-ray structures of the aptamer moiety of these riboswitches are characterized by a compact fold in which the ligand forms a Watson-Crick base pair with residue 65. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a strict restriction at position 39 of the aptamer that prevents the G39-C65 and A39-U65 combinations, and mutational studies indicate that aptamers with these sequence combinations are impaired for ligand binding. In order to investigate the rationale for sequence conservation at residue 39, structural characterization of the U65C mutant from Bacillus subtilis pbuE adenine riboswitch aptamer was undertaken. NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography studies demonstrate that the U65C mutant adopts a compact ligand-free structure, in which G39 occupies the ligand-binding site of purine riboswitch aptamers. These studies present a remarkable example of a mutant RNA aptamer that adopts a native-like fold by means of ligand mimicking and explain why this mutant is impaired for ligand binding. Furthermore, this work provides a specific insight into how the natural sequence has evolved through selection of nucleotide identities that contribute to formation of the ligand-bound state, but ensures that the ligand-free state remains in an active conformation.

  17. Distribution of Nucleosides in Populations of Cordyceps cicadae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bo Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A rapid HPLC method had been developed and used for the simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides (uracil, uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenine, adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine and cordycepin in 10 populations of Cordyceps cicadae, in order to compare four populations of Ophicordyceps sinensis and one population of Cordyceps militaris. Statistical analysis system (SAS 8.1 was used to analyze the nucleoside data. The pattern of nucleoside distribution was analyzed in the sampled populations of C. cicadae, O. sinensis and C. militaris, using descriptive statistical analysis, nested analysis and Q cluster analysis. The total amount of the 10 nucleosides in coremium was 1,463.89–5,678.21 µg/g in 10 populations of C. cicadae, 1,369.80–3,941.64 µg/g in sclerotium. The average contents of the 10 analytes were 4,392.37 µg/g and 3,016.06 µg/g in coremium and sclerotium, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV of nucleosides ranged from 8.36% to 112.36% in coremium of C. cicadae, and from 10.77% to 155.87% in sclerotium of C. cicadae. The CV of the nucleosides was wide within C. cicadae populations. The nested variation analysis by the nine nucleosides’ distribution indicated that about 42.29% of the nucleoside variability in coremium was attributable to the differentiation among populations, and the remaining 57.71% resided in the populations. It was also shown that about 28.94% of the variation in sclerotium was expressed between populations, while most of the variation (71.06% corresponded to the populations.

  18. Strain Promoted Click Chemistry of 2- or 8-Azidopurine and 5-Azidopyrimidine Nucleosides and 8-Azidoadenosine Triphosphate with Cyclooctynes. Application to Living Cell Fluorescent Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Jessica; Annoual, Marie; Das, Jayanta Kumar; Felty, Quentin; Gonzalez, Walter G; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Sharifai, Nima; Chiba, Akira; Wnuk, Stanislaw F

    2015-08-19

    Strain-promoted click chemistry of nucleosides and nucleotides with an azido group directly attached to the purine and pyrimidine rings with various cyclooctynes in aqueous solution at ambient temperature resulted in efficient formation (3 min to 3 h) of fluorescent, light-up, triazole products. The 2- and 8-azidoadenine nucleosides reacted with fused cyclopropyl cyclooctyne, dibenzylcyclooctyne, or monofluorocyclooctyne to produce click products functionalized with hydroxyl, amino, N-hydroxysuccinimide, or biotin moieties. The 5-azidouridine and 5-azido-2'-deoxyuridine were similarly converted to the analogous triazole products in quantitative yields in less than 5 min. The 8-azido-ATP quantitatively afforded the triazole product with fused cyclopropyl cyclooctyne in aqueous acetonitrile (3 h). The novel triazole adducts at the 2- or 8-position of adenine or 5-position of uracil rings induce fluorescence properties which were used for direct imaging in MCF-7 cancer cells without the need for traditional fluorogenic reporters. FLIM of the triazole click adducts demonstrated their potential utility for dynamic measuring and tracking of signaling events inside single living cancer cells.

  19. Inhibition of uptake of adenosine into human blood platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, J.P.M.; Sixma, J.J.; Trieschnigg, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Adenosine transport into human blood platelets is mediated by two independent systems with different affinities. Both systems transport only purine nucleosides and no pyrimidine nucleosides. In experiments with differently substituted purine nucleosides, purines and analogues, differences in carrier

  20. Fast repair of purine deoxynucleotide radical cations by rutin and quercetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Chenyang; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Boon, P. J., Cullis, P. M., Symons, M. C. R. et al., Effects of ionizing radiation on deoxyribonucleic acid and related systems, Part 1, The role of oxygen, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin. Trans. 2, 1984, 1393-1399.[2]Boon, P. J., Cullis, P. M., Symons, M. C. R. et al., Effects of ionizing radiation on deoxyribonucleic acid and related systems, Part 2, The influence of nitroimidazole drugs on the course of radiation damage to aqueous doxyribonucleic acid, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin. Trans. 2, 1985, 1057-1061.[3]Teoule, R., Effects of Ionizing Radiation on DNA, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 1978, 153, 166, 187.[4]Wallace, S. S., Oxidative Damage to DNA and Its Repair, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1997, 49-90.[5]Steenken, J., Purine bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides: aqueous solution redox chemistry and transformation reaction of their radical cations and e? and OH adducts, Chem. Rev., 1989, 89: 503-520.[6]Simic, M. G., Bergtold, D. S., Karam, L. R., Generation of oxy radicals in biosystems, Mutation Res., 1989, 214: 3-12.[7]O'Neill, P., Pulse radiolytic study of the interaction of thiols and ascorbate with OH adducts of dGMP and dG: implications for DNA repair process, Radiat. Res., 1983, 96: 198-210.[8]Jiang, Y., Yao, S. D., Lin, N. Y., Fast repair of oxidizing OH radical adduct of dGMP by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: a pulse radiolytic study, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 1997, 49: 447-450.[9]Li, W. Y., Zheng, R. L., Su, B. N. et al., Repair of dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts by verbascoside via electron transfer: a pulse radiolysis study, Int. J. Radiat. Biol., 1996, 69: 481-486.[10]Li, W. Y., Zou, Z. H., Zheng, R. L. et al., Fast repair of thymine-hydroxyl radical adduct by phenylpropanoid glycosides, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 1997, 49: 429-432.[11]Shi, Y. M., Wang, W. F., Shi, Y. P. et al., Fast repair of dAMP hydroxyl adducts by verbasicoside via electron transfer, Science in China, Ser. C, 1999, 42(6): 621

  1. New insights into the synergism of nucleoside analogs with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael W; Parker, William B; Xu, Bo

    2013-09-26

    Nucleoside analogs have been frequently used in combination with radiotherapy in the clinical setting, as it has long been understood that inhibition of DNA repair pathways is an important means by which many nucleoside analogs synergize. Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a critical enzyme required for the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs, have clarified the mechanistic role this kinase plays in chemo- and radio-sensitization. A heretofore unrecognized role of dCK in the DNA damage response and cell cycle machinery has helped explain the synergistic effect of these agents with radiotherapy. Since most currently employed nucleoside analogs are primarily activated by dCK, these findings lend fresh impetus to efforts focused on profiling and modulating dCK expression and activity in tumors. In this review we will briefly review the pharmacology and biochemistry of the major nucleoside analogs in clinical use that are activated by dCK. This will be followed by discussions of recent advances in our understanding of dCK activation via post-translational modifications in response to radiation and current strategies aimed at enhancing this activity in cancer cells.

  2. Acyclic Immucillin Phosphonates. Second-Generation Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine- Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelton, Keith Z. [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Ho, Meng-Chaio [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cassera, Maria B. [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Clinch, Keith [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Crump, Douglas R. [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Rosario Jr., Irving [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Merino, Emilio F. [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Almo, Steve C. [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Tyler, Peter C. [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Schramm, Vern L. [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2012-06-22

    We found that Plasmodium falciparum is the primary cause of deaths from malaria. It is a purine auxotroph and relies on hypoxanthine salvage from the host purine pool. Purine starvation as an antimalarial target has been validated by inhibition of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Hypoxanthine depletion kills Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture and in Aotus monkey infections. Hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) from P. falciparum is required for hypoxanthine salvage by forming inosine 5'-monophosphate, a branchpoint for all purine nucleotide synthesis in the parasite. We present a class of HGXPRT inhibitors, the acyclic immucillin phosphonates (AIPs), and cell permeable AIP prodrugs. The AIPs are simple, potent, selective, and biologically stable inhibitors. The AIP prodrugs block proliferation of cultured parasites by inhibiting the incorporation of hypoxanthine into the parasite nucleotide pool and validates HGXPRT as a target in malaria.

  3. Analysis of substrate specificity and kinetics of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases with N'-methylanthraniloyl-substituted purine and pyrimidine 3',5'-cyclic nucleotides by fluorescence spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reinecke

    Full Text Available As second messengers, the cyclic purine nucleotides adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP play an essential role in intracellular signaling. Recent data suggest that the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cCMP and uridine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cUMP also act as second messengers. Hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs is the most important degradation mechanism for cAMP and cGMP. Elimination of cUMP and cCMP is not completely understood, though. We have shown that human PDEs hydrolyze not only cAMP and cGMP but also cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides, indicating that these enzymes may be important for termination of cCMP- and cUMP effects as well. However, these findings were acquired using a rather expensive HPLC/mass spectrometry assay, the technical requirements of which are available only to few laboratories. N'-Methylanthraniloyl-(MANT-labeled nucleotides are endogenously fluorescent and suitable tools to study diverse protein/nucleotide interactions. In the present study, we report the synthesis of new MANT-substituted cyclic purine- and pyrimidine nucleotides that are appropriate to analyze substrate specificity and kinetics of PDEs with more moderate technical requirements. MANT-labeled nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic monophosphates (MANT-cNMPs are shown to be substrates of various human PDEs and to undergo a significant change in fluorescence upon cleavage, thus allowing direct, quantitative and continuous determination of hydrolysis via fluorescence detection. As substrates of several PDEs, MANT-cNMPs show similar kinetics to native nucleotides, with some exceptions. Finally, they are shown to be also appropriate tools for PDE inhibitor studies.

  4. Purine analog-like properties of bendamustine underlie rapid activation of DNA damage response and synergistic effects with pyrimidine analogues in lymphoid malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuya Hiraoka

    Full Text Available Bendamustine has shown considerable clinical activity against indolent lymphoid malignancies as a single agent or in combination with rituximab, but combination with additional anti-cancer drugs may be required for refractory and/or relapsed cases as well as other intractable tumors. In this study, we attempted to determine suitable anti-cancer drugs to be combined with bendamustine for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, aggressive lymphomas and multiple myeloma, all of which are relatively resistant to this drug, and investigated the mechanisms underlying synergism. Isobologram analysis revealed that bendamustine had synergistic effects with alkylating agents (4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and melphalan and pyrimidine analogues (cytosine arabinoside, gemcitabine and decitabine in HBL-2, B104, Namalwa and U266 cell lines, which represent the above entities respectively. In cell cycle analysis, bendamustine induced late S-phase arrest, which was enhanced by 4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide, and potentiated early S-phase arrest by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C, followed by a robust increase in the size of sub-G1 fractions. Bendamustine was able to elicit DNA damage response and subsequent apoptosis faster and with shorter exposure than other alkylating agents due to rapid intracellular incorporation via equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs. Furthermore, bendamustine increased the expression of ENT1 at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the uptake of Ara-C and subsequent increase in Ara-C triphosphate (Ara-CTP in HBL-2 cells to an extent comparable with the purine analog fludarabine. These purine analog-like properties of bendamustine may underlie favorable combinations with other alkylators and pyrimidine analogues. Our findings may provide a theoretical basis for the development of more effective bendamustine-based combination therapies.

  5. Assessment of expression of selected Bcl-2 family proteins in lymphoid infiltration in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with nucleoside analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kłoczko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL is characterized by clonal growth and accumulation of mature lymphoid cells due to disturbance in genetically regulated form of cell death called apoptosis. The intrinsic mechanism of apoptosis is controlled by Bcl-2 family proteins. Purine nucleoside analogues induce the apoptosis in cells in a state of quiescence. The aim of the study was to assess expression of selected Bcl-2 family proteins in neoplastic infiltration in bone marrow in patients with B-CLL treated with nucleoside analogues. The study comprised examination of bone marrow obtained routinely by trephine biopsy from 18 patients with B-CLL diagnosed before administration of purine nucleoside analogues treatment and after its completion. Expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-x and Bax proteins was examined. Lymphoid cells in bone marrow were present in all patients before administration of treatment. After treatment in two patients bone marrow was infiltrated in diffuse pattern, whereas other patients presented nodular pattern of infiltration. The difference between stage of infiltration before and after treatment was statistically significant (p<0.002. High percentage of infiltration cells with positive anti Bcl-2 reaction from 42.0% in one patient to 85.33+/-3.06% in four patients before treatment was observed. After treatment percentage of infiltration cells with positive anti Bcl-2 antibody reaction was from 33.0+/-18.38% in two patients to 99.0% in one patient. Positive correlation between stage of infiltration and expression of Bcl-2 protein was confirmed before and after treatment. Such correlations were not observed in case of Bax and Bcl-x. Strong staining of immunohistochemical reaction of cells in lymphoid infiltration with Bcl-2 antibody was confirmed. There was a difference between Bcl-/Bax ratio before and after treatment. Immunohistochemical assessment of expression of Bcl-2 family proteins in cells of lymphoid infiltration in bone

  6. In silico binding analysis and SAR elucidations of newly designed benzopyrazine analogs as potent inhibitors of thymidine phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Imran, Syahrul; Rahim, Fazal; Wadood, Abdul; Al Muqarrabun, Laode Muhammad Ramadhan; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Ghufran, Mehreen; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is up regulated in wide variety of solid tumors and therefore presents a remarkable target for drug discovery in cancer. A novel class of extremely potent TPase inhibitors based on benzopyrazine (1-28) has been developed and evaluated against thymidine phosphorylase enzyme. Out of these twenty-eight analogs eleven (11) compounds 1, 4, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24 and 28 showed potent thymidine phosphorylase inhibitory potentials with IC50 values ranged between 3.20±0.30 and 37.60±1.15μM when compared with the standard 7-Deazaxanthine (IC50=38.68±4.42μM). Structure-activity relationship was established and molecular docking studies were performed to determine the binding interactions of these newly synthesized compounds. Current studies have revealed that these compounds established stronger hydrogen bonding networks with active site residues as compare to the standard compound 7DX.

  7. Preliminary investigation of the three-dimensional structure of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase in the crystalline state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsova, Maria V; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G; Molchan, Olga K; Lashkov, Alexandr A; Garber, Maria B; Mironov, Alexandr S; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu; Voelter, Wolfgang; Betzel, Christian; Zhang, Yang; Ealick, Steven E; Mikhailov, Al'bert M

    2005-04-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UPh) catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of the C-N glycosidic bond of uridine to ribose 1-phosphate and uracil in the pyrimidine-salvage pathway. The crystal structure of the Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase (StUPh) has been determined at 2.5 A resolution and refined to an R factor of 22.1% and an Rfree of 27.9%. The hexameric StUPh displays 32 point-group symmetry and utilizes both twofold and threefold non-crystallographic axes. A phosphate is bound at the active site and forms hydrogen bonds to Arg91, Arg30, Thr94 and Gly26 of one monomer and Arg48 of an adjacent monomer. The hexameric StUPh model reveals a close structural relationship to Escherichia coli uridine phosphorylase (EcUPh).

  8. Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of 3-Aminoindole Nucleosides of 2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, Adel A. H.; Elessawy, Farag A.; Barakat, Yousif A. [Menoufia Univ., Shebin El-Koam (Egypt); Ellatif, Mona M. Abd [The British Univ. in Egypt, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-15

    A new method for the construction of 3-aminoindole nucleosides of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose based is presented. Nitration and acetylation of the indole nucleosides by acetic anhydride-nitric acid mixture followed by reduction using silver catalyst (SNSM) impregnated on silica gel, afforded the corresponding amino indole nucleosides. The nucleosides were tested for antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) to show different degrees of antiviral activities or inhibitory actions.

  9. Milestones in the discovery of antiviral agents: nucleosides and nucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik de Clercq

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, a number of milestones in the antiviral research field on nucleosides and nucleotides are reviewed in which the author played a significant part, especially in the initial stages of their development. Highlighted are the amino acyl esters of acyclovir, particularly valacyclovir (VACV, brivudin (BVDU and the valine ester of Cf1743 (FV-100, the 2′,3′-dideoxynucleosides (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NRTIs, the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (S-HPMPA, (S-HPMPC (cidofovir and alkoxyalkyl esters thereof (HDP-, ODE-CDV, adefovir and adefovir dipivoxil, tenofovir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, combinations containing TDF and emtricitabine, i.e., Truvada®, Atripla®, Complera®/Eviplera® and the Quad pill, and the phosphonoamidate derivatives GS-7340, GS-9131, GS-9191 and GS-9219.

  10. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors inspired by roscovitine: purine bioisosteres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorda, Radek; Paruch, Kamil; Krystof, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roscovitine is a synthetic inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases that is currently undergoing clinical trials as a candidate drug for some oncological indications. Its discovery prompted many research teams to further optimize its structure or to initiate their own related but independent studies. This article reviews known roscovitine bioisosteres that have been prepared as CDK inhibitors using different core heterocycles. The individual bioisostere types have been described and explored to a different extent, which complicates direct comparisons of their biochemical activity - only six direct analogs containing different purine bioisosteres have been prepared and evaluated side by side with roscovitine. Only four types of bioisosteres have demonstrated improved biological properties, namely pyrazolo[ 1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazines, pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines, pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridines and pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidines.

  11. Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Jancso

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility of using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy described in this paper was applied to identify sugarcane clusters for each step of the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Representative sequences of this pathway were chosen from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and used to search the translated sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database using the available basic local alignment search tool (BLAST facility. Retrieved clusters were further tested for the statistical significance of the alignment by an implementation (PRSS3 of the Monte Carlo shuffling algorithm calibrated using known protein sequences of divergent taxa along the phylogenetic tree. The sequences were compared to each other and to the sugarcane clusters selected using BLAST analysis, with the resulting table of p-values indicating the degree of divergence of each enzyme within different taxa and in relation to the sugarcane clusters. The results obtained by this strategy allowed us to identify the sugarcane proteins participating in the purine synthesis pathway.A via de síntese de purino nucleotídeos é considerada uma via de central importância para todas as células. Na maioria dos organismos, os purino nucleotídeos são sintetizados ''de novo'' a partir de precursores não-nucleotídicos como amino ácidos, amônia e dióxido de carbono. O conhecimento das enzimas envolvidas na via de síntese de purinas da cana-de-açúcar vai abrir a possibilidade do uso dessas enzimas como alvos no desenho

  12. Antimalarial activity of thiosemicarbazones and purine derived nitriles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallari, Jeremy P.; Guiguemde, Wendyam A.; Guy, R. Kiplin

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a devastating illness caused by multiple species of the Plasmodium genus. The parasite’s food vacuole of falcipain proteases have been extensively studied as potential drug targets. Here we report the testing of two established cysteine protease inhibitor scaffolds against both chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant parasites. A subset of purine derived nitriles killed the parasite with moderate potency, and these inhibitors do not seem to exert their antiproliferative effects as cysteine protease inhibitors. Compound potency was determined to be similar against both parasite strains, indicating a low probability of cross resistance with chloroquine. These compounds represent a novel antimalarial scaffold, and a potential starting point for the development new inhibitors. PMID:19447616

  13. Potential activity of the purine compounds caffeine and aminophylline on bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul Hussein S AL-Janabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purine compounds are special types of alkaloids. Caffeine and aminophylline are considered the most important members of purines due to their wide use in therapeutics. Aims: To detect any potential antibacterial effects on pathogenic bacteria of the widely prescribed members of purines caffeine and aminophylline. Materials and Methods: Two species of gram-positive bacteria and five species of gram-negative bacteria were exposed to these purine agents. Antibacterial effects of the tested purines were determined using the spectrophotometer method to assess the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC. Results: Among the strains of bacteria tested, Bacillus subtilis showed the most susceptibility to purine agents. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were found to be more susceptible to caffeine than the other strains. Aminophylline showed inhibitory action on many isolates, especially at the concentration of 10mg/ml. Paracoccus yeei demonstrated resistance to all tested purine compounds up to a concentration of 10.5mg/ml. Conclusions: Caffeine and aminophylline had the ability to inhibit many strains of pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Inhibition of DNA glycosylases via small molecule purine analogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C Jacobs

    Full Text Available Following the formation of oxidatively-induced DNA damage, several DNA glycosylases are required to initiate repair of the base lesions that are formed. Recently, NEIL1 and other DNA glycosylases, including OGG1 and NTH1 were identified as potential targets in combination chemotherapeutic strategies. The potential therapeutic benefit for the inhibition of DNA glycosylases was validated by demonstrating synthetic lethality with drugs that are commonly used to limit DNA replication through dNTP pool depletion via inhibition of thymidylate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase. Additionally, NEIL1-associated synthetic lethality has been achieved in combination with Fanconi anemia, group G. As a prelude to the development of strategies to exploit the potential benefits of DNA glycosylase inhibition, it was necessary to develop a reliable high-throughput screening protocol for this class of enzymes. Using NEIL1 as the proof-of-principle glycosylase, a fluorescence-based assay was developed that utilizes incision of site-specifically modified oligodeoxynucleotides to detect enzymatic activity. This assay was miniaturized to a 1536-well format and used to screen small molecule libraries for inhibitors of the combined glycosylase/AP lyase activities. Among the top hits of these screens were several purine analogs, whose postulated presence in the active site of NEIL1 was consistent with the paradigm of NEIL1 recognition and excision of damaged purines. Although a subset of these small molecules could inhibit other DNA glycosylases that excise oxidatively-induced DNA adducts, they could not inhibit a pyrimidine dimer-specific glycosylase.

  15. Morphine enhances purine nucleotide catabolism in rive and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang LIU; Jian-kai LIU; Mu-jie KAN; Lin GAO; Hai-ying FU; Hang ZHOU; Min HONG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect and mechanism of morphine on purine nucleotide catabolism. Methods: The rat model of morphine dependence and withdrawal and rat C6 glioma cells in culture were used. Concentrations of uric acid in the plasma were measured by the uricase-rap method, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xan- thine oxidase (XO) in the plasma and tissues were measured by the ADA and XO test kit. RT-PCR and RT-PCR-Southern blotting were used to examine the relative amount of ADA and XO gene transcripts in tissues and C6 cells. Results: (i) the concentration of plasma uric acid in the morphine-administered group was signifi-cantly higher (P<0.05) than the control group; (ii) during morphine administration and withdrawal periods, the ADA and XO concentrations in the plasma increased significantly (P<0.05); (iii) the amount of ADA and XO in the parietal lobe, liver, small intestine, and skeletal muscles of the morphine-administered groups increased, while the level of ADA and XO in those tissues of the withdrawal groups decreased; (iv) the transcripts of the ADA and XO genes in the parietal lobe, liver, small intestine, and skeletal muscles were higher in the morphine-administered group. The expression of the ADA and XO genes in those tissues returned to the control level during morphine withdrawal, with the exception of the skeletal muscles; and (v) the upregulation of the expression of the ADA and XO genes induced by morphine treatment could be reversed by naloxone. Conclusion: The effects of morphine on purine nucleotide metabolism might be an important, new biochemical pharmacological mechanism of morphine action.

  16. Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates: synthesis and properties of a new class of nucleotide analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Renpei; Kawanaka, Toshihide; Oka, Natsuhisa; Wada, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates were synthesized via the condensation reactions of appropriately protected nucleosides with monopyridinium H-boranophosphonate. The condensation reactions gave only the mono-esterified products under the optimized conditions without formation of di-esterified byproducts. Deprotection of the condensation products was achieved under basic conditions to afford the fully-deprotected nucleoside H-boranophosphonates in excellent yields.

  17. Thymidine esters as substrate analogue inhibitors of angiogenic enzyme thymidine phosphorylase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Sumaira; Ishtiaq, Marium; Shaikh, Muniza; Hameed, Abdul; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2017-02-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyzes the cleavage of thymidine into thymine and 2-deoxy-α-d-ribose-1-phosphate. Elevated activity of TP prevents apoptosis, and induces angiogenesis which ultimately leads to tumor growth and metastasis. Critical role of TP in cancer progression makes it a valid target in anti-cancer research. Discovery of small molecules as TP inhibitors is vigorously pursued in cancer therapy. In the present study, we functionalized thymidine as benzoyl ester to synthesize compounds 3-16. In vitro evaluation of thymidine esters for their thymidine phosphorylase inhibition activity was subsequently carried out. Compounds 4, 10, 14, and 15 showed good activities with lower IC50 values than the standard, 7-deazaxanthine (IC50=41.0±1.63μM). Among them, compound 14 showed five folds higher activity (IC50=7.5±0.8μM), while 4 (IC50=18.5±1.0μM) and 10 (IC50=18.8±1.2μM) showed two folds higher activity than the standard. Compound 15 showed slightly better activity (IC50=33.3±1.5μM) to the standard. Potent compounds were further subjected to kinetic and molecular docking studies to identify their mode of inhibition, and to study their interactions with the protein at atomic level, respectively. All active compounds were non-cytotoxic to mouse fibroblast 3T3 cell line. These results identify thymidine esters as substrate analogue (substrate-like) inhibitors of angiogenic enzyme thymidine phosphorylase for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nucleoside triphosphate synthesis catalysed by adenylate kinase is ADP dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoës, Martin; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (Adk) that catalyses the synthesis of ADP from ATP and AMP has also been shown to perform an ATP dependent phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxynucleoside diphosphates to their corresponding nucleoside triphosphate; ATP+(d)NDPADP+(d)NTP. This reaction, suggested to occur by the tran......Adenylate kinase (Adk) that catalyses the synthesis of ADP from ATP and AMP has also been shown to perform an ATP dependent phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxynucleoside diphosphates to their corresponding nucleoside triphosphate; ATP+(d)NDPADP+(d)NTP. This reaction, suggested to occur...

  19. Synthesis of Novel 1,3-Dioxolane Nucleoside Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡冬梅; 林昆华; 李明宗; 温集武; 李鸿艳; 尤田耙

    2004-01-01

    Novel 1,3-dioxolane C-nucleoside analogues of tiazofurin 2-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-1,3-thiazole-4-carboxamide as well as N-nucleoside analogues of substituted imidazoles 1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-4-nitroimidazole and 1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-4,5-dicyanoimidazole were synthesized frommethyl acrylate through a multistep procedure. Their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra and elemental analysis.

  20. Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy: novel pathogenic mutations in thymidine phosphorylase gene in two Italian brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libernini, Laura; Lupis, Chiara; Mastrangelo, Mario; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Leuzzi, Vincenzo

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE, MIM 603041) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder occurring due to mutations in a nuclear gene coding for the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP). Clinical features of MNGIE include gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, ptosis or ophthalmoparesis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse leukoencephalopathy, and signs of mitochondrial dysfunction in tissues. We report the clinical and molecular findings in two brothers in whom novel TYMP gene mutations (c.215-13_215delinsGCGTGA; c.1159 + 2T > A) were associated with different clinical presentations and outcomes.

  1. Amino acid anthranilamide derivatives as a new class of glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen A; Li, Yue H; Coppo, Frank T; Graybill, Todd L; Cichy-Knight, Maria; Patel, Mehul; Gale, Jennifer; Li, Hu; Thrall, Sara H; Tew, David; Tavares, Francis; Thomson, Stephen A; Weiel, James E; Boucheron, Joyce A; Clancy, Daphne C; Epperly, Andrea H; Golden, Pamela L

    2008-07-15

    A series of amino acid anthranilamide derivatives identified from a high-throughput screening campaign as novel, potent, and glucose-sensitive inhibitors of human liver glycogen phosphorylase a are described. A solid-phase synthesis using Wang resin was also developed which provided efficient access to a variety of analogues, and resulted in the identification of key structure-activity relationships, and the discovery of a potent exemplar (IC(50)=80 nM). The SAR scope, synthetic strategy, and in vitro results for this series are presented herein.

  2. Microwave-assisted one step synthesis of 8-arylmethyl-9H-purin-6-amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Kang, Yanlong; Taldone, Tony; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2009-01-15

    Molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an important target in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, and has rapidly become the focus of several drug discovery efforts. Among small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors with clinical applicability are derivatives of 8-arylmethyl-9H-purin-6-amine class. Here we report the use of microwave-assisted chemistry for the successful one-pot delivery of 8-arylmethyl-9H-purin-6-amines. We discuss the applicability as well as the limitations of this method towards the creation of a large chemical diversity in the 8-arylmethyl-9H-purin-6-amine series.

  3. [Quantum-chemical investigation of the elementary molecular mechanisms of pyrimidine-purine transversions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', O O; Govorun D M

    2010-01-01

    Purine-purine mispairs of DNA (thus involving template base in anti-conformation along the glycosidic bond and base of the incoming nucleotide - in syn-conformation) leading to pyrimidine-purine "transversions"-type point mutations were revealed and characterized at the MP2/6-311++G(2df,pd)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory in vacuum approach adequately modeling hydrophobic environment of the active centre of high-fidelity replicative DNA-polymerases.

  4. Prediction of potential antimalarial targets of artemisinin based on protein information from whole genome of Plasmodium falciparum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN LiPing; HUANG Qiang; NAN Peng; ZHONG Yang

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the genomic data and protein pathway information about Plasmodium falciparum clone 3D7 from the NCBI taxonomy database and the KEGG database,eight key protein enzymes in the signal pathways were selected to perform molecular docking with artemisinin.The binding modes obtained from the molecular docking suggested that purine nucleoside phosphorylase (pfPNP),peptide deformylase (pfPDF),and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (pfRpiA) may be involved in the antimalarial mode of action of artemisinin.Artemisinin exhibited its antimalarial activity probably by interfering with the metabolic pathways of purine,pyrimidine,methionine,glyoxylate and dicarboxylate,or pentose phosphate.

  5. Nucleoside triphosphate synthesis catalysed by adenylate kinase is ADP dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Martin; Kilstrup, M.

    2005-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (Adk) that catalyses the synthesis of ADP from ATP and AMP has also been shown to perform an ATP dependent phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxynucleoside diphosphates to their corresponding nucleoside triphosphate; ATP + (d)NDP ¿ ADP + (d)NTP. This reaction, suggested to occur...

  6. [Quantitative analysis of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Zhou, Miao-Xia; Sun, Min-Tian; Gao, Hao; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-07-01

    To compare the main nucleosides in Cordyceps genus herbs (C. sinensis, C. millitaris, Hirsutella sinensis and C. sobolifera), an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of uridine, inosine, guanosine, adenosine and cordycepine in Cordyceps genus herbs was developed. The sample was extracted with 0.5% phosphoric acid solution to prepare test solution. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) column with gradient elution by 0.04 mol•L⁻¹ potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution and acetonitrile, column temperature 30 ℃,flow rate 0.8 mL•min⁻¹,and detection wavelength 260 nm. The content of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus herbs was evaluated by fingerprint analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The calibration curves of five nucleosides showed good linear regression (r>0.99) and the average recoveries were between 95.0% and 105.0%. The contents of the five nucleosides in the four Cordyceps genus herbs were different and could be obviously distinguished by HCA. The fingerprint analysis result showed that the similarity between C. sinensis and the others was less than 0.9. The method was accurate and reliable, which can be used for quality control of Cordyceps genus herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases activate nucleoside antibiotics in severely pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Shannon, O.; Clausen, A.R.;

    2007-01-01

    Common bacterial pathogens are becoming progressively more resistant to traditional antibiotics, representing a major public-health crisis. Therefore, there is a need for a variety of antibiotics with alternative modes of action. In our study, several nucleoside analogs were tested against...... alternative for combating pathogenic bacteria....

  8. Synthesis, bioanalysis and pharmacology of nucleoside and nucleotide analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are an important class of drugs in anticancer and antiviral therapy. The compounds are, however, only active after intracellular conversion to their mono-, di- and triphosphate nucleotide form. In this thesis the development of sensitive liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mas

  9. Synthesis of Peptidomimetic Conjugates of Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpi, Michaela; Zakharova, Valeria M.; Krylov, Ivan S.; McKenna, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic nucleoside phosphonates connected through a P-O-C linkage to a promoiety represent a class of prodrugs designed to overcome the low oral bioavailability of parent antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. In our prodrug approach, a non-toxic promoiety such as an amino acid or dipeptide is conjugated to the cyclic form of the parent drug by esterification of the phosphonic acid moiety by an alcoholic amino acid side chain (Ser, Tyr, and analogues) or through a glycol linker. For the biological evaluation and investigation of the pharmacokinetic profiles of these modified nucleoside phosphonates, a reliable synthetic procedure that allows preparation of sufficient amount of potential prodrugs is needed. This unit describes a method for generating peptidomimetic conjugates of two potent antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: 1-[(2S)-3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl]cytosine ((S)-HPMPC, and 9-[(2S)-3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl]adenine ((S)-HPMPA). Two alternate strategies allowing synthesizing selected amino acid, dipeptide, or ethylene glycol-linked amino acid prodrugs of (S)-HPMPC and (S)-HPMPA in solution and using a solid-phase approach are presented. PMID:21154529

  10. Iminosugars as potential inhibitors of glycogenolysis: structural insights into the molecular basis of glycogen phosphorylase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakos, Nikos G; Tiraidis, Costas; Leonidas, Demetres D; Zographos, Spyros E; Kristiansen, Marit; Jessen, Claus U; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Leif; Agius, Loranne

    2006-09-21

    Iminosugars DAB (5), isofagomine (9), and several N-substituted derivatives have been identified as potent inhibitors of liver glycogen phosphorylase a (IC(50) = 0.4-1.2 microM) and of basal and glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis (IC(50) = 1-3 microM). The X-ray structures of 5, 9, and its N-3-phenylpropyl analogue 8 in complex with rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase (GPb) shows that iminosugars bind tightly at the catalytic site in the presence of the substrate phosphate and induce conformational changes that characterize the R-state conformation of the enzyme. Charged nitrogen N1 is within hydrogen-bonding distance with the carbonyl oxygen of His377 (5) and in ionic contact with the substrate phosphate oxygen (8 and 9). Our findings suggest that the inhibitors function as oxocarbenium ion transition-state analogues. The conformational change to the R state provides an explanation for previous findings that 5, unlike inhibitors that favor the T state, promotes phosphorylation of GPb in hepatocytes with sequential inactivation of glycogen synthase.

  11. Effect of purine alkaloids on the proliferation of lettuce cells derived from protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Hamako; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the ecological role of caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and paraxanthine, which are released from purine alkaloid forming plants, the effects of these purine alkaloids on the division and colony formation of lettuce cells were assessed at concentrations up to 1 mM. Five days after treatment with 500 μM caffeine, theophylline and paraxanthine, division of isolated protoplasts was significantly inhibited. Thirteen days treatment with > 250 μM caffeine had a marked inhibitory effect on the colony formation of cells derived from the protoplasts. Other purine alkaloids also acted as inhibitors. The order of the inhibition was caffeine > theophylline > paraxanthine > theobromine. These observations suggest that a relatively low concentration of caffeine is toxic for proliferation of plant cells. In contrast, theobromine is a weak inhibitor of proliferation. Possible allelopathic roles of purine alkaloids in natural ecosystems are discussed.

  12. De novo purine biosynthesis by two pathways in Burkitt lymphoma cells and in human spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reem, G H

    1972-05-01

    This study was designed to answer the question whether human lymphocytes and spleen cells were capable of de novo purine biosynthesis. Experiments were carried out in cell-free extracts prepared from human spleen, and from a cell line established from Burkitt lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma cells and human spleen cells could synthesize the first and second intermediates of the purine biosynthetic pathway. Cell-free extracts of all cell lines studied contained the enzyme systems which catalyze the synthesis of phosphoribosyl-1-amine, the first intermediate unique to the purine biosynthetic pathway and of phosphoribosyl glycinamide, the second intermediate of this pathway. Phosphoribosyl-1-amine could be synthesized in cell-free extracts from alpha-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and glutamine, from PRPP and ammonia, and by an alternative pathway, directly from ribose-5-phosphate and ammonia. These findings suggest that extrahepatic tissues may be an important source for the de novo synthesis of purine ribonucleotide in man. They also indicate that ammonia may play an important role in purine biosynthesis. The alternative pathway for the synthesis of phosphoribosyl-1-amine from ribose-5-phosphate and ammonia was found to be subject to inhibition by the end products of the purine synthetic pathway, particularly by adenylic acid and to a lesser degree by guanylic acid. The alternative pathway for phosphoribosyl-1-amine synthesis from ribose-5-phosphate and ammonia may contribute significantly towards the regulation of the rate of de novo purine biosynthesis in the normal state, in metabolic disorders in which purines are excessively produced and in myeloproliferative diseases.

  13. Regio- and stereoselective glucosylation of diols by sucrose phosphorylase using sucrose or glucose 1-phosphate as glucosyl donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renirie, R.; Pukin, A.; Lagen, van B.; Franssen, M.C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that glycerol can be regioselectively glucosylated by sucrose phosphorylase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides to form 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-glycerol (Coedl et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47 (2008) 10086-10089). A series of compounds related to glycerol were investigated

  14. A Targeted Metabolomics Assay to Measure Eight Purines in the Diet of Common Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardente, A J; Garrett, T J; Wells, R S; Walsh, M; Smith, C R; Colee, J; Hill, R C

    2016-10-01

    Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence. Commercially available purine assays measure only four purines, but reported changes in purines during frozen storage suggest that a wider range of metabolites should be measured when comparing fresh and stored fish. A method using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed to quantify eight purine metabolites in whole fish and squid commonly consumed by dolphins. The coefficient of variation within and among days was sometimes high for purines present in small amounts but was acceptable (≤ 25%) for guanine, hypoxanthine, and inosine, which were present in high concentrations. This expanded assay identified a total purine content up to 2.5 times greater than the total that would be quantified if only four purines were measured. Assuming additional purines are absorbed, these results suggest that additional purine metabolites should be measured to better understand the associated risk when fish or other purine-rich foods are consumed by people or animals prone to developing uroliths.

  15. Arxula adeninivorans xanthine oxidoreductase and its application in the production of food with low purine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, D A; Trautwein-Schult, A; Cordes, A; Hoferichter, P; Klein, C; Bode, R; Baronian, K; Kunze, G

    2013-09-01

    Isolation and characterization of xanthine oxidoreductase and its application in the production of food with low purine content. The A. adeninivorans xanthine oxidoreductase is an inducible enzyme. The best inducers were identified by enzyme activity tests and real-time PCR and used to produce large amounts of the protein. Xanthine oxidoreductase was partially purified and biochemically characterized, showing pH and temperature optimum of 8·5 and 43°C, respectively. The enzyme decreased xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations in yeast extract and was active simultaneously with other purine-degrading enzymes so that all of the substrates for uric acid production were reduced in a single step. It was shown that induced A. adeninivorans can produce sufficient amount of xanthine dehydrogenase and that the enzyme is able to reduce xanthine and hypoxanthine content in food, and when used in conjunction with other enzymes of the pathway, uric acid concentration is significantly reduced. Reduction in dietary purines is recommended to people suffering from hyperuricemia. Elimination of most purine-rich foods may affect balanced nutrition. Food with lowered purine concentration will assist in controlling the disease. This study is a continuation of previous studies that characterized and overexpressed other enzymes of the purine degradation pathway. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Divergent prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidine and 8-oxo-purine ribonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Shaun; Nikmal, Arif; Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Szostak, Jack W.; Powner, Matthew W.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding prebiotic nucleotide synthesis is a long standing challenge thought to be essential to elucidating the origins of life on Earth. Recently, remarkable progress has been made, but to date all proposed syntheses account separately for the pyrimidine and purine ribonucleotides; no divergent synthesis from common precursors has been proposed. Moreover, the prebiotic syntheses of pyrimidine and purine nucleotides that have been demonstrated operate under mutually incompatible conditions. Here, we tackle this mutual incompatibility by recognizing that the 8-oxo-purines share an underlying generational parity with the pyrimidine nucleotides. We present a divergent synthesis of pyrimidine and 8-oxo-purine nucleotides starting from a common prebiotic precursor that yields the β-ribo-stereochemistry found in the sugar phosphate backbone of biological nucleic acids. The generational relationship between pyrimidine and 8-oxo-purine nucleotides suggests that 8-oxo-purine ribonucleotides may have played a key role in primordial nucleic acids prior to the emergence of the canonical nucleotides of biology.

  17. Simultaneous quantification of purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides and their degradation products in bovine blood plasma by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Vestergaard, Mogens; Løvendahl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    -matched calibration standards and stable isotopically labelled reference compounds. The quantitative analysis was preceded by a novel pre-treatment procedure consisting of ethanol precipitation, filtration, evaporation and reconstitution. Parameters for separation and detection during the LC–MS/MS analysis were...

  18. [Hyperuricemia and disorders in content of amino acids-purine precursors in patients with autoimmune diseases and gout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolenko, Iu I; Siniachenko, O V; Anan'eva, M N; Nikolenko, V Iu; Dubiaga, V V; Shchukin, I N

    2005-06-01

    Patients with system lupus erythematosus, rheumatic arthritis, chronic active hepatitis and gout were found to have considerable hyperuricemia and be decreased in aminoacides content, which are the predecessors of purine. Hyperactivity of xanthineoxidase and POL content were also revealed. The close correlation relation of purine indices of such patients has been observed. The obtained data allow applying methods of correction of immunity system and purine metabolism to these patients by introducing in a complex therapy inhibitors of xanthineoxidase.

  19. Mildiomycin: a nucleoside antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Cosín, M; Carrasco, L

    1985-03-01

    Mildiomycin, a new nucleoside antibiotic, selectively inhibits protein synthesis in HeLa cells, and is less active in the inhibition of RNA or DNA synthesis. An increased inhibition of translation by mildiomycin is observed in cultured HeLa cells when they are permeabilized by encephalomyocarditis virus. This observation suggests that this antibiotic does not easily pass through the cell membrane, as occurs with other nucleoside and aminoglycoside antibiotics. The inhibition of translation is also observed in cell-free systems, such as endogenous protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate or the synthesis of polyphenylalanine directed by poly (U). Finally the mode of action of mildiomycin was investigated and the results suggest that the compound blocks the peptidyl-transferase center.

  20. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for in-vitro Selection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Adolfo; Dellafiore, María; Montserrat, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  1. Natural flavonoids as antidiabetic agents. The binding of gallic and ellagic acids to glycogen phosphorylase b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, Efthimios; Stravodimos, George A; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2015-07-08

    We present a study on the binding of gallic acid and its dimer ellagic acid to glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Ellagic acid is a potent inhibitor with Kis of 13.4 and 7.5 μM, in contrast to gallic acid which displays Kis of 1.7 and 3.9 mM for GPb and GPa, respectively. Both compounds are competitive inhibitors with respect to the substrate, glucose-1-phoshate, and non-competitive to the allosteric activator, AMP. However, only ellagic acid functions with glucose in a strongly synergistic mode. The crystal structures of the GPb-gallic acid and GPb-ellagic acid complexes were determined at high resolution, revealing that both ligands bind to the inhibitor binding site of the enzyme and highlight the structural basis for the significant difference in their inhibitory potency.

  2. 3D-QSAR studies on glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors by flexible comparative molecular field analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Canceling grids accommodating probes in comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), the idea of flexibleness is introduced into the CoMFA, and in combination with swarm intelligent algorithm which attempts to optimize distributions of diverse probes around drug molecules, a new 3D-QSAR method is proposed in this context as flexible comparative molecular field analysis (FCoMFA). In preliminary at-tempts to performing QSAR studies on 47 glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors, FCoMFA is employed and confirmed to be potent to exploring ligand-receptor interaction manners at active positions and thus to generating stable and predictable models. Simultaneously by an intuitive graphics regarding probe distribution patterns, impacts of different substituted groups on activities is also given an insight into.

  3. 3D-QSAR studies on glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors by flexible comparative molecular field analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Peng; LI ZhiLiang

    2007-01-01

    Canceling grids accommodating probes in comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), the idea of flexibleness is introduced into the CoMFA, and in combination with swarm intelligent algorithm which attempts to optimize distributions of diverse probes around drug molecules, a new 3D-QSAR method is proposed in this context as flexible comparative molecular field analysis (FCoMFA). In preliminary attempts to performing QSAR studies on 47 glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors, FCoMFA is employed and confirmed to be potent to exploring ligand-receptor interaction manners at active positions and thus to generating stable and predictable models. Simultaneously by an intuitive graphics regarding probe distribution patterns, impacts of different substituted groups on activities is also given an insight into.

  4. Functional and structural characterization of plastidic starch phosphorylase during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Ruzanski, Christian; Krucewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    (HvPho1) for starch biosynthesis in barley endosperm, we analyzed HvPho1 protein production and enzyme activity levels throughout barley endosperm development and characterized structure-function relationships of HvPho1. The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of starch granule biosynthesis......The production of starch is essential for human nutrition and represents a major metabolic flux in the biosphere. The biosynthesis of starch in storage organs like barley endosperm operates via two main pathways using different substrates: starch synthases use ADP-glucose to produce amylose...... and amylopectin, the two major components of starch, whereas starch phosphorylase (Pho1) uses glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), a precursor for ADP-glucose production, to produce α-1,4 glucans. The significance of the Pho1 pathway in starch biosynthesis has remained unclear. To elucidate the importance of barley Pho1...

  5. Differential Expression of a Glycogen Phosphorylase Gene in Volvariella volvacea Mycelium Exposed to Low Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan; WANG Hong; LI Zhengpeng; LU Lianjing; CHEN Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    Relative expression of a glycogen phosphorylase gene (pyg)in mycelia of cold-sensitive (V23)and cold-tolerant (VH3)strains of Volvariella volvacea during exposure to low temperature (0 ℃)over time courses was quantified by real-time PCR using theα-tubulin gene as internal control.Pyg expression levels in strain V23 decreased after 4 h exposure and,although recovering after 6 h,still remained lower than untreated controls.Gene expression in strain VH3 decreased sharply after low temperature exposure for 2 h, reaching a minimum value after 8 h when the relative expression level was only 0.28 times that of untreated controls.Overall,although pyg expression decreased in both V23 and VH3 over prolonged exposure,the fall was less pronounced in strain V23 compared with VH3.

  6. Mapping of a liver phosphorylase kinase [alpha]-subunit gene on the mouse x chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Yan; Derry, J.M.J.; Barnard, P.J. (MRC Molecular Neurobiology Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Hendrickx, J.; Coucke, P.; Willems, P.R. (Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorylase kinase (PHK) is a regulatory enzyme of the glycogenolytic pathway composed of a complex of four subunits. We recently mapped the muscle [alpha]-subunit gene (Phka) to the mouse X chromosome in a region syntenic with the proximal long arm of the human X chromosome and containing the human homologue of this gene, PHKA. We now report the mapping of the liver [alpha]-subunit gene to the telomeric end of the mouse X chromosome. This mapping position would suggest a location for the human liver [alpha]-subunit gene on the proximal short arm of the X chromosome, a region recently implicated in X-linked liver glycogenosis (XLG). 20 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsova, Mariya V; Savochkina, Yulia A; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G; Baidakov, Sergey N; Lyashenko, Andrey V; Zolotukhina, Maria; Errais Lopes, Liubov; Garber, Mariya B; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu; Nikonov, Stanislav V; Mironov, Alexandr S; Ealick, Steven E; Mikhailov, Al 'Bert M

    2004-04-01

    The structural udp gene encoding uridine phosphorylase (UPh) was cloned from the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. S. typhimurium UPh (StUPh) was purified to apparent homogeneity and crystallized. The primary structure of StUPh has high homology to the UPh from E. coli, but the enzymes differ substantially in substrate specificity and sensitivity to the polarity of the medium. Single crystals of StUPh were grown using hanging-drop vapor diffusion with PEG 8000 as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.9 A resolution. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data indicated that the crystal belonged to space group P6(1(5)), with unit-cell parameters a = 92.3, c = 267.5 A. The solvent content is 37.7% assuming the presence of one StUPh hexamer per asymmetric unit.

  8. Structure of cellobiose phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum in complex with phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Elsen, Nathaniel L.; Fox, Brian G.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2012-03-27

    Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome-producing bacterium that is able to efficiently degrade and utilize cellulose as a sole carbon source. Cellobiose phosphorylase (CBP) plays a critical role in cellulose degradation by catalyzing the reversible phosphate-dependent hydrolysis of cellobiose, the major product of cellulose degradation, into -D-glucose 1-phosphate and D-glucose. CBP from C. thermocellum is a modular enzyme composed of four domains [N-terminal domain, helical linker, (/)6-barrel domain and C-terminal domain] and is a member of glycoside hydrolase family 94. The 2.4 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of C. thermocellum CBP reveals the residues involved in coordinating the catalytic phosphate as well as the residues that are likely to be involved in substrate binding and discrimination.

  9. Evaluation of anti-HIV-1 mutagenic nucleoside analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-02

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of "lethal mutagenesis" that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively.

  10. Purification and characterization of the maize amyloplast stromal 112-kDa starch phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, H H; Yu, Y; Wasserman, B P; Carman, G M

    2001-04-01

    A plastidic 112-kDa starch phosphorylase (SP) has been identified in the amyloplast stromal fraction of maize. This starch phosphorylase was purified 310-fold from maize endosperm and characterized with respect to its enzymological and kinetic properties. The purification procedure included ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephacryl 300 HR chromatography, affinity starch adsorption, Q-Sepharose, and Mono Q chromatography. The procedure resulted in a nearly homogeneous enzyme preparation as determined by native and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Anti-SP antibodies recognized the purified 112-kDa SP enzyme and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis confirmed that the purified enzyme is the amyloplast stromal 112-kDa SP. Analysis of the purified enzyme by Superose 6 gel filtration chromatography indicated that the native enzyme consisted of two identical subunits. The pH optimum for the enzyme was 6.0 in the synthetic direction and 5.5 in the phosphorolytic direction. SP activity was inhibited by thioreactive agents, diethyl pyrocarbonate, phenylglyoxal, and ADP-glucose. The activation energies for the synthetic and phosphorolytic reactions were 11.1 and 16.9 kcal/mol, respectively, and the enzyme was thermally labile above 50 degrees C. Results of kinetic experiments indicated that the enzyme catalyzes its reaction via a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. The Km value for amylopectin was eight-fold lower than that of glycogen. A kinetic analysis indicated that the phosphorolytic reaction was favored over the synthetic reaction when malto-oligosaccharides (4 to 7 units) were used as substrates. The specificity constants (Vmax/Km) of the enzyme measured in either the synthetic or the phosphorolytic directions increased with increasing chain length.

  11. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eGirke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage of partially degraded nucleotides i.e. nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level.

  12. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level.

  13. [Reconstruction of muscle glycogen phosphorylase b from an apoenzyme and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and its analogs. Interaction of apophosphorylase and the reconstructed enzyme with specific ligands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotareva, N A; Sugrobova, N P; Bulanova, L N; Poznanskaia, A A; Kurganov, B I; Gunar, V I

    1995-12-01

    Sedimentation methods were used to study the effects of modification of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) molecule at the 5th position on the affinity of reconstituted muscle glycogen phosphorylase b for the substrate (glycogen) and the allosteric inhibitor (FMN) as well as on the enzyme capacity to association induced by AMP. Reconstituted phosphorylase b was obtained with PLP analogs containing at the 5th position -CH2-CH2-COOH (analog I), trans-CH=CH-COOH (analog II) or -C identical to COOH (analog III) residues. Reconstitution of phosphorylase b is accompanied by the recovery of the enzyme quaternary structure. Phosphorylase b reconstituted with PLP or analogs I, II and III is not distinguished practically from the native enzyme in its affinity for glycogen. Substitution of the native coenzyme in the phosphorylase molecule with any tested PLP analog leads to lower enzyme affinity for FMN. Microscopic dissociation constants of the FMN-enzyme complexes increase in the following order: enzyme.I < enzyme.II < enzyme.III. Phosphorylase b reconstituted with analogs I, II and III differs substantially from the native enzyme in its capacity to association in the presence of 1 mM AMP: the reconstituted enzyme is represented practically by only the tetrameric form.

  14. A multi-step process of viral adaptation to a mutagenic nucleoside analogue by modulation of transition types leads to extinction-escape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Agudo

    Full Text Available Resistance of viruses to mutagenic agents is an important problem for the development of lethal mutagenesis as an antiviral strategy. Previous studies with RNA viruses have documented that resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin (1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1-H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide is mediated by amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerase that either increase the general template copying fidelity of the enzyme or decrease the incorporation of ribavirin into RNA. Here we describe experiments that show that replication of the important picornavirus pathogen foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV in the presence of increasing concentrations of ribavirin results in the sequential incorporation of three amino acid substitutions (M296I, P44S and P169S in the viral polymerase (3D. The main biological effect of these substitutions is to attenuate the consequences of the mutagenic activity of ribavirin -by avoiding the biased repertoire of transition mutations produced by this purine analogue-and to maintain the replicative fitness of the virus which is able to escape extinction by ribavirin. This is achieved through alteration of the pairing behavior of ribavirin-triphosphate (RTP, as evidenced by in vitro polymerization assays with purified mutant 3Ds. Comparison of the three-dimensional structure of wild type and mutant polymerases suggests that the amino acid substitutions alter the position of the template RNA in the entry channel of the enzyme, thereby affecting nucleotide recognition. The results provide evidence of a new mechanism of resistance to a mutagenic nucleoside analogue which allows the virus to maintain a balance among mutation types introduced into progeny genomes during replication under strong mutagenic pressure.

  15. A multi-step process of viral adaptation to a mutagenic nucleoside analogue by modulation of transition types leads to extinction-escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Rubén; Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Arias, Armando; de la Higuera, Ignacio; Perales, Celia; Pérez-Luque, Rosa; Verdaguer, Nuria; Domingo, Esteban

    2010-08-26

    Resistance of viruses to mutagenic agents is an important problem for the development of lethal mutagenesis as an antiviral strategy. Previous studies with RNA viruses have documented that resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin (1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1-H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) is mediated by amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerase that either increase the general template copying fidelity of the enzyme or decrease the incorporation of ribavirin into RNA. Here we describe experiments that show that replication of the important picornavirus pathogen foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in the presence of increasing concentrations of ribavirin results in the sequential incorporation of three amino acid substitutions (M296I, P44S and P169S) in the viral polymerase (3D). The main biological effect of these substitutions is to attenuate the consequences of the mutagenic activity of ribavirin -by avoiding the biased repertoire of transition mutations produced by this purine analogue-and to maintain the replicative fitness of the virus which is able to escape extinction by ribavirin. This is achieved through alteration of the pairing behavior of ribavirin-triphosphate (RTP), as evidenced by in vitro polymerization assays with purified mutant 3Ds. Comparison of the three-dimensional structure of wild type and mutant polymerases suggests that the amino acid substitutions alter the position of the template RNA in the entry channel of the enzyme, thereby affecting nucleotide recognition. The results provide evidence of a new mechanism of resistance to a mutagenic nucleoside analogue which allows the virus to maintain a balance among mutation types introduced into progeny genomes during replication under strong mutagenic pressure.

  16. Redesign of the Active Site of Sucrose Phosphorylase through a Clash-Induced Cascade of Loop Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael; Grimm, Clemens; Seibel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose phosphorylases have been applied in the enzymatic production of glycosylated compounds for decades. However, several desirable acceptors, such as flavonoids or stilbenoids, that exhibit diverse antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic or antioxidant properties, remain poor substrates. The Q345F exchange in sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis allows efficient glucosylation of resveratrol, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in yields of up to 97 % whereas the wild-type enzyme favours sucrose hydrolysis. Three previously undescribed products are made available. The crystal structure of the variant reveals a widened access channel with a hydrophobic aromatic surface that is likely to contribute to the improved activity towards aromatic acceptors. The generation of this channel can be explained in terms of a cascade of structural changes arising from the Q345F exchange. The observed mechanisms are likely to be relevant for the design of other tailor-made enzymes.

  17. New synthesis of 3-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-5-substituted-1,2,4-triazoles, nanomolar inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Sándor; Bokor, Éva; Varga, Gergely; Szőcs, Béla; Páhi, András; Czifrák, Katalin; Tóth, Marietta; Juhász, László; Docsa, Tibor; Gergely, Pál; Somsák, László

    2014-04-09

    O-Perbenzoylated 5-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)tetrazole was reacted with N-benzyl carboximidoyl chlorides to give the corresponding 4-benzyl-3-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-5-substituted-1,2,4-triazoles. Removal of the O-benzoyl and N-benzyl protecting groups by base catalysed transesterification and catalytic hydrogenation, respectively, furnished a series of 3-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-5-substituted-1,2,4-triazoles with aliphatic, mono- and bicyclic aromatic, and heterocyclic substituents in the 5-position. Enzyme kinetic studies revealed these compounds to inhibit rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase b: best inhibitors were the 5-(4-aminophenyl)- (Ki 0.67 μM) and the 5-(2-naphthyl)-substituted (Ki 0.41 μM) derivatives. This study uncovered the C-glucopyranosyl-1,2,4-triazoles as a novel skeleton for nanomolar inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase.

  18. Effects of /sup 45/Ca on murine skeletal muscle. 1. Alterations of glycogen, phosphorylase and phosphohexose isomerase levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asotra, K.; Katoch, S.S.; Krishan, K.; Malhotra, R.K. (Himachal Pradesh Univ., Simla (India). Dept. of Bio-sciences)

    1983-01-01

    Adult Swiss albino mice weighing 16+-1 g were injected with 3.7x10/sup 4/ Bq and 7.4x10/sup 4/ Bq/g body weight of /sup 45/Ca. Mice of both dose groups were autopsied on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 after /sup 45/Ca administration. Diaphragm and gastrocnemius in the /sup 45/Ca-treated and normal mice were analyzed for quantitation of glycogen as well as bioassay of phosphorylase and phosphohexose isomerase activities. Internal irradiation with the two doses of /sup 45/Ca resulted in glycogen accumulation in both the muscles. /sup 45/Ca-treated diaphragm showed greater radioresponse but a slower recovery than gastrocnemius with respect to glycogen accumulation. A decline in the rates of glycogenolysis and glycolysis indicated by decreased phosphorylase and phosphohexose isomerase activities appeared to be responsible for glycogen accumulation in skeletal muscle on account of /sup 45/Ca treatment.

  19. Functionalized Solid Electrodes for Electrochemical Biosensing of Purine Nucleobases and Their Analogues: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Kumar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in electrochemical analysis of purine nucleobases and few other important purine derivatives has been growing rapidly. Over the period of the past decade, the design of electrochemical biosensors has been focused on achieving high sensitivity and efficiency. The range of existing electrochemical methods with carbon electrode displays the highest rate in the development of biosensors. Moreover, modification of electrode surfaces based on nanomaterials is frequently used due to their extraordinary conductivity and surface to volume ratio. Different strategies for modifying electrode surfaces facilitate electron transport between the electrode surface and biomolecules, including DNA, oligonucleotides and their components. This review aims to summarize recent developments in the electrochemical analysis of purine derivatives, as well as discuss different applications.

  20. Excretion of purine base derivatives after intake of bacterial protein meal in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, A.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial protein meal has a high content ofprotein but also of RNA and DNA. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four diets containing increasing levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM), from weaning to 80 kg live weight, to evaluate whether the RNA and DNA contents of BPM influenced the retention...... of nitrogen. It was hypothesised that an increased intake of RNA and DNA would lead to an increased urinary excretion of purine base derivatives and increased plasma concentrations. Retention of nitrogen was unaffected by dietary content of BPM (P=0.08) and the urinary excretion of purine base derivatives...... increased with increasing dietary content of BPM. No differences in fasting plasma concentration of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine were observed. It can therefore be concluded that increasing levels of dietary BPM maintained protein accretion and led to changes in excretion of purine detrivatices...

  1. Two-step enzymatic synthesis of guanine arabionside%两步酶法合成阿糖鸟苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓琨; 丁庆豹; 欧伶; 张鹭; 王昌禄

    2008-01-01

    The chemical synthesis of Guanine arabinoside (ara-G) is extremely complex, time-consuming, and seriously polluted. A two-step enzymatic synthesis process was developed to acquire ara-G easily. 2,6-Diaminopurine arabinoside (ara-DA) was first synthesized with purine nucleoside phosphorylase and pyrimidine nucleoside phos-phorylase produced by Enterobacter aerogenes DGW-07. The conversion yield of ara-DA could reach above 90% when the reaction liquid contained 30 mmol·L-1 uracil arabinoside as arabinose donor, 10 mmol·L-1 2,6-diaminopurine as arabinose acceptor in pH 7.0 20 mmol·L-1 phosphate buffer, and reacted at 60℃ for 48h. Then, ara-DA was effectively transformed into ara-G with adenylate deaminase produced by Aspergillus oryzae DAW-01. The total process had no complex separation and purification.

  2. Radical-induced purine lesion formation is dependent on DNA helical topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzidis, Michael A; Prisecaru, Andreea; Molphy, Zara; Barron, Niall; Randazzo, Antonio; Dumont, Elise; Krokidis, Marios G; Kellett, Andrew; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos

    2016-11-01

    Herein we report the quantification of purine lesions arising from gamma-radiation sourced hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)) on tertiary dsDNA helical forms of supercoiled (SC), open circular (OC), and linear (L) conformation, along with single-stranded folded and non-folded sequences of guanine-rich DNA in selected G-quadruplex structures. We identify that DNA helical topology and folding plays major, and unexpected, roles in the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine (8-oxo-dA), along with tandem-type purine lesions 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine (5',8-cdG) and 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (5',8-cdA). SC, OC, and L dsDNA conformers together with folded and non-folded G-quadruplexes d[TGGGGT]4 (TG4T), d[AGGG(TTAGGG)3] (Tel22), and the mutated tel24 d[TTGGG(TTAGGG)3A] (mutTel24) were exposed to HO(•) radicals and purine lesions were then quantified via stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS analysis. Purine oxidation in dsDNA follows L > OC ≫ SC indicating greater damage towards the extended B-DNA topology. Conversely, G-quadruplex sequences were significantly more resistant toward purine oxidation in their unfolded states as compared with G-tetrad folded topologies; this effect is confirmed upon comparative analysis of Tel22 (∼50% solution folded) and mutTel24 (∼90% solution folded). In an effort to identify the accessibly of hydroxyl radicals to quadruplex purine nucleobases, G-quadruplex solvent cavities were then modeled at 1.33 Å with evidence suggesting that folded G-tetrads may act as potential oxidant traps to protect against chromosomal DNA damage.

  3. Determination of four different purines and their content change in seafood by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xin; Sui, Jianxin; Mi, Nasha; Lin, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Seafood is regarded as a high-purine food that may induce gout, which has attracted extensive attention concerning its safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable method to determine the purine content in seafood and its change during storage to offer consumers healthy diet information. Chromatographic separation was carried out using Waters Atlantis dC18 column, and potassium phosphate monobasic solution (0.02 mol L(-1) , pH 3.6) as a mobile phase. The average recovery yields of four purines were 91.5-105.0%, and relative standard deviation values were around 1.8-6.5%. Shrimp and snail contained higher amounts of purine than fish and bivalves; the livers and skins of fish contained higher amounts of purine than muscles; and the main purine varied depending on the type of seafood. Also, purine content of seafood changed during storage. The purine content of seafood differed depending on species, body part and degree of freshness, which could recommend consumers a healthy diet, especially for people with hyperuricemia and gout. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Microwave-assisted one step synthesis of 8-arylmethyl-9H-purin-6-amines

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an important target in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, and has rapidly become the focus of several drug discovery efforts. Among small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors with clinical applicability are derivatives of 8-arylmethyl-9H-purin-6-amine class. Here we report the use of microwave-assisted chemistry for the successful one-pot delivery of 8-arylmethyl-9H-purin-6-amines. We discuss the applicability as well as the limitations of this me...

  5. UPP1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    UPP1, or uridine phosphorylase 1, is a pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase. UPP1, in the presence of orthophosphate, catalyzes the reversible phosphorylytic cleavage of uridine and deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose- or deoxyribose-1-phosphate. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases can add ribose or deoxyribose to pyrimidine bases to form nucleosides that can be incorporated into RNA or DNA.

  6. Carboranyl Nucleosides & Oligonucleotides for Neutron Capture Therapy Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2004-12-01

    This proposal enabled us to synthesize and develop boron-rich nucleosides and oligonucleotide analogues for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the treatment of various malignancies. First, we determined the relationship between structure, cellular accumulation and tissue distribution of 5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) and its derivatives D-ribo-CU and 5-o-carboranyluracil (CU), to potentially target brain and other solid tumors for neutron capture therapy. Synthesized carborane containing nucleoside derivatives of CDU, D- and L-enantiomers of CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU were used. We measured tissue disposition in xenografted mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors xenografts and in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma isografts in their flanks and intracranially. The accumulation of D-CDU, 1-({beta}-L-arabinosyl)-5-o-carboranyluracil, D-ribo-CU, and CU were also studied in LnCap human prostate tumor cells and their retention was measured in male nude mice bearing LnCap and 9479 human prostate tumor xenografts. D-CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU levels were measured after administration in mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors in their flanks. D-CDU achieved high cellular concentrations in LnCap cells and up to 2.5% of the total cellular compound was recovered in the 5'-monophosphorylated form. D-CDU cellular concentrations were similar in LnCap and 9479 tumor xenografts. Studies in tumor bearing animals indicated that increasing the number of hydroxyl moieties in the sugar constituent of the carboranyl nucleosides lead to increased rate and extent of renal elimination, a decrease in serum half-lives and an increased tissue specificity. Tumor/brain ratios were greatest for CDU and D-ribo-CU, while tumor/prostate ratios were greatest with CU. CDU and D-ribo-CU have potential for BNCT of brain malignancies, while CU may be further developed for prostate cancer. A method was developed for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing (ocarboran-1-yl

  7. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Luděk; Valdés, James J.; Gil, Victor A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, Jiří; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a leading cause of human neuroinfections in Europe and Northeast Asia. There are no antiviral therapies for treating TBEV infection. A series of nucleoside analogues was tested for the ability to inhibit the replication of TBEV in porcine kidney cells and human neuroblastoma cells. The interactions of three nucleoside analogues with viral polymerase were simulated using advanced computational methods. The nucleoside analogues 7-deaza-2′-C-methyladenosine (7-deaza-2′-CMA), 2′-C-methyladenosine (2′-CMA), and 2′-C-methylcytidine (2′-CMC) inhibited TBEV replication. These compounds showed dose-dependent inhibition of TBEV-induced cytopathic effects, TBEV replication (50% effective concentrations [EC50]of 5.1 ± 0.4 μM for 7-deaza-2′-CMA, 7.1 ± 1.2 μM for 2′-CMA, and 14.2 ± 1.9 μM for 2′-CMC) and viral antigen production. Notably, 2′-CMC was relatively cytotoxic to porcine kidney cells (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] of ∼50 μM). The anti-TBEV effect of 2′-CMA in cell culture diminished gradually after day 3 posttreatment. 7-Deaza-2′-CMA showed no detectable cellular toxicity (CC50 > 50 μM), and the antiviral effect in culture was stable for >6 days posttreatment. Computational molecular analyses revealed that compared to the other two compounds, 7-deaza-2′-CMA formed a large cluster near the active site of the TBEV polymerase. High antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity suggest that 7-deaza-2′-CMA is a promising candidate for further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating TBEV infection. PMID:26124166

  8. Structural principles of nucleoside selectivity in a 2'-deoxyguanosine riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovskaya, Olga; Polonskaia, Anna; Patel, Dinshaw J; Serganov, Alexander

    2011-08-14

    Purine riboswitches have an essential role in genetic regulation of bacterial metabolism. This family includes the 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) riboswitch, which is involved in feedback control of deoxyguanosine biosynthesis. To understand the principles that define dG selectivity, we determined crystal structures of the natural Mesoplasma florum riboswitch bound to cognate dG as well as to noncognate guanosine, deoxyguanosine monophosphate and guanosine monophosphate. Comparison with related purine riboswitch structures reveals that the dG riboswitch achieves its specificity through modification of key interactions involving the nucleobase and rearrangement of the ligand-binding pocket to accommodate the additional sugar moiety. In addition, we observe new conformational changes beyond the junctional binding pocket extending as far as peripheral loop-loop interactions. It appears that re-engineering riboswitch scaffolds will require consideration of selectivity features dispersed throughout the riboswitch tertiary fold, and structure-guided drug design efforts targeted to junctional RNA scaffolds need to be addressed within such an expanded framework.

  9. RNase III-Independent Autogenous Regulation of Escherichia coli Polynucleotide Phosphorylase via Translational Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzaniga, Thomas; Dehò, Gianni; Briani, Federica

    2015-06-01

    The complex posttranscriptional regulation mechanism of the Escherichia coli pnp gene, which encodes the phosphorolytic exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), involves two endoribonucleases, namely, RNase III and RNase E, and PNPase itself, which thus autoregulates its own expression. The models proposed for pnp autoregulation posit that the target of PNPase is a mature pnp mRNA previously processed at its 5' end by RNase III, rather than the primary pnp transcript (RNase III-dependent models), and that PNPase activity eventually leads to pnp mRNA degradation by RNase E. However, some published data suggest that pnp expression may also be regulated through a PNPase-dependent, RNase III-independent mechanism. To address this issue, we constructed isogenic Δpnp rnc(+) and Δpnp Δrnc strains with a chromosomal pnp-lacZ translational fusion and measured β-galactosidase activity in the absence and presence of PNPase expressed by a plasmid. Our results show that PNPase also regulates its own expression via a reversible RNase III-independent pathway acting upstream from the RNase III-dependent branch. This pathway requires the PNPase RNA binding domains KH and S1 but not its phosphorolytic activity. We suggest that the RNase III-independent autoregulation of PNPase occurs at the level of translational repression, possibly by competition for pnp primary transcript between PNPase and the ribosomal protein S1. In Escherichia coli, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase, encoded by pnp) posttranscriptionally regulates its own expression. The two models proposed so far posit a two-step mechanism in which RNase III, by cutting the leader region of the pnp primary transcript, creates the substrate for PNPase regulatory activity, eventually leading to pnp mRNA degradation by RNase E. In this work, we provide evidence supporting an additional pathway for PNPase autogenous regulation in which PNPase acts as a translational repressor independently of RNase III

  10. Glycogen stability and glycogen phosphorylase activities in isolated skeletal muscles from rat and toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C A; Stephenson, G M

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that endogenous glycogen depletion may affect excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling events in vertebrate skeletal muscle. One approach employed in physiological investigations of E-C coupling involves the use of mechanically skinned, single fibre preparations obtained from tissues stored under paraffin oil, at room temperature (RT: 20-24 degrees C) and 4 degrees C for several hours. In the present study, we examined the effect of these storage conditions on the glycogen content in three muscles frequently used in research on E-C coupling: rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and toad iliofibularis (IF). Glycogen content was determined fluorometrically in homogenates prepared from whole muscles, stored under paraffin oil for up to 6 h at RT or 4 degrees C. Control muscles and muscles stored for 0.5 and 6 h were also analysed for total phosphorylase (Phos(total)) and phosphorylase a (Phos a) activities. No significant change was observed in the glycogen content of EDL and SOL muscles stored at RT for 0.5 h. In rat muscles stored at RT for longer than 0.5 h, the glycogen content decreased to 67.6% (EDL) and 78.7% (SOL) of controls after 3 h and 25.3% (EDL) and 37.4% (SOL) after 6 h. Rat muscles stored at 4 degrees C retained 79.0% (EDL) and 92.5% (SOL) of glycogen after 3 h and 75.2% (EDL) and 61.1% (SOL) after 6 h. The glycogen content of IF muscles stored at RT or 4 degrees C for 6 h was not significantly different from controls. Phos(total) was unchanged in all muscles over the 6 h period, at both temperatures. Phos a was also unchanged in the toad IF muscles, but in rat muscles it decreased rapidly, particularly in EDL (4.1-fold after 0.5 h at RT). Taken together these results indicate that storage under paraffin oil for up to 6 h at RT or 4 degrees C is accompanied by minimal glycogen loss in toad IF muscles and by a time- and temperature-dependent glycogen loss in EDL and SOL muscles of the rat.

  11. Novel inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth based on modified pyrimidine nucleosides and their analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmalenyuk, E. R.; Kochetkov, S. N.; Alexandrova, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    The review summarizes data on the synthesis and antituberculosis activity of pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives and their analogues. Enzymes from M. tuberculosis as promising targets for prototypes of new-generation drugs are considered. Nucleosides as inhibitors of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains are characterized. The bibliography includes 101 references.

  12. Synthesis of Antiviral Acyclic C-nucleosides Incorporating 4-Thiazolinones Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan; CAO Ling-Hua

    2003-01-01

    @@ Carbohydrates are useful molecules to creatures. They take part in life processes in different ways. [ 1] C-nucleo sides are well known nucleoside analogues. A number of nucleoside analogues have been found to show a broad spectrum of biological activity, some of posses important anticancer and antiviral activities. [2

  13. Syntheses of Nucleoside Derivatives Containing Fmoc- or Trityl-protected Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui; ZOU Wu-xin; JI Qi; MA Yu-xin; MENG Ji-ben

    2005-01-01

    Facile direct esterification reactions between 2′,3′-O-isopropylidene-nucleosides and Fmoc- or trityl-protected amino acids via N,N-dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide(DCC) mediated condensation are described. These reactions offer a mild and convenient method to synthesize aminoacylated nucleoside derivatives.

  14. A procedure for the preparation and isolation of nucleoside-5’-diphosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J. Korhonen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tris[bis(triphenylphosphoranylideneammonium] pyrophosphate (PPN pyrophosphate was used in the SN2 displacements of the tosylate ion from 5’-tosylnucleosides to afford nucleoside-5’-diphosphates. Selective precipitation permitted the direct isolation of nucleoside-5’-diphosphates from crude reaction mixtures.

  15. Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates: a new class of boron-containing nucleotide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Renpei; Oka, Natsuhisa; Kawanaka, Toshihide; Wada, Takeshi

    2009-05-14

    A study on the synthesis of nucleoside H-boranophosphonates, a new class of nucleotide analogues having a P-->BH(3) and a P-H group, via condensation of the corresponding nucleosides with H-boranophosphonate derivatives is described.

  16. Comparison of human erythrocyte purine nucleotide metabolism and blood purine and pyrimidine degradation product concentrations before and after acute exercise in trained and sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinska, Wioleta; Suska, M; Lubkowska, A; Jakubowska, K; Olszewska, M; Safranow, K; Chlubek, D

    2017-04-21

    This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and sedentary subjects before and after maximal physical exercise together with measuring the activity of purine metabolism enzymes as well as the concentration of purine (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid) and pyrimidine (uridine) degradation products in blood. The study included 15 male elite rowers [mean age 24.3 ± 2.56 years; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 52.8 ± 4.54 mL/kg/min; endurance and strength training 8.2 ± 0.33 h per week for 6.4 ± 2.52 years] and 15 sedentary control subjects (mean age 23.1 ± 3.41 years; VO2max 43.2 ± 5.20 mL/kg/min). Progressive incremental exercise testing until refusal to continue exercising was conducted on a bicycle ergometer. The concentrations of ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP and the activities of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT), hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (PRPP-S) were determined in erythrocytes. The concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and uridine were determined in the whole blood before exercise, after exercise, and 30 min after exercise testing. The study demonstrated a significantly higher concentration of ATP in the erythrocytes of trained subjects which, in part, may be explained by higher metabolic activity on the purine re-synthesis pathway (significantly higher PRPP-S, APRT and HGPRT activities). The ATP concentration, just as the ATP/ADP ratio, as well as an exercise-induced increase in this ratio, correlates with the VO2max level in these subjects which allows them to be considered as the important factors characterising physical capacity and exercise tolerance. Maximal physical exercise in the group of trained subjects results not only in a lower post-exercise increase in the concentration of hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid but also in that of uridine. This indicates the possibility of

  17. Ligand Binding and Conformational Changes in the Purine-Binding Riboswitch Aptamer Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeske, Jonas; Buck, Janina; Wöhnert, Jens; Schwalbe, Harald

    Riboswitches are highly structured mRNA elements that regulate gene expression upon specific binding of small metabolite molecules. The purine-binding riboswitches bind different purine ligands by forming both canonical Watson—Crick and non-canonical intermolecular base pairs, involving a variety of hydrogen bonds between the riboswitch aptamer domain and the purine ligand. Here, we summarize work on the ligand binding modes of both purine-binding aptamer domains, their con-formational characteristics in the free and ligand-bound forms, and their ligand-induced folding. The adenine- and guanine-binding riboswitch aptamer domains display different conformations in their free forms, despite nearly identical nucleotide loop sequences that form a loop—loop interaction in the ligand-bound forms. Interestingly, the stability of helix II is crucial for the formation of the loop—loop interaction in the free form. A more stable helix II in the guanine riboswitch leads to a preformed loop—loop interaction in its free form. In contrast, a less stable helix II in the adenine riboswitch results in a lack of this loop—loop interaction in the absence of ligand and divalent cations.

  18. Development of a conductometric phosphate biosensor based on tri-layer maltose phosphorylase composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Bessueille, François; Leonard, Didier; Xia, Siqing; Wang, Xuejiang; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jianfu

    2008-05-12

    A conductometric biosensor for phosphate detection was developed using maltose phosphorylase (MP) from recombinant Escherichia coli immobilized on a planar interdigitated electrode by cross-linking with saturated glutaraldehyde (GA) vapour in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The process parameters for the fabrication of the mono-enzymatic sensor and various experimental variables such as the enzyme loading, time of immobilization in saturated GA vapour, working buffer solution and temperature were investigated with regard to their influence on sensitivity, detection limit, dynamic range, operational and storage stability. The biosensor can work well at the temperature between 20 degrees C and 50 degrees C, and reach 90% of steady-state conductance in about 10s. The sensor has two linear ranges, one is from 1.0 microM to 20 microM phosphate with a detection limit of 1.0 microM, and the other is between 20 microM and 400 microM phosphate. When stored in citrate buffer (0.1M, pH 6.0) at 4 degrees C, the biosensor showed good stability over two months. No obvious interference from other anionic species like SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-) and HCO(3)(-) was detected. The biosensor is suitable for use in real water samples.

  19. Defects in Polynucleotide phosphorylase impairs virulence in Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia eHu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase is reported to regulate virulence in Salmonella, Yersinia spp. and Campylobacter jejuni, yet its role in Escherichia coli O157:H7 has not been investigated. To gain insights into its roles in E. coli O157:H7 virulence, pnp deletion mutants were generated and the major virulence factors were compared to their parental wild type strains. Deletion of pnp in E. coli O157:H7 dramatically decreased stx2 mRNA expression and Stx2 protein production, and impaired lambdoid prophage activation in E. coli O157:H7. Quantitative PCR further confirmed that the Stx2 phage lytic growth was repressed by pnp deletion. Consistent with reduced Stx2 production and Stx2 phage activation, the transcriptional levels of genes involved in phage lysis and replication were down-regulated. In addition, disruption of pnp in E. coli O157:H7 decreased its adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells as well as cattle colonic explant tissues. On the other hand, PNPase inactivation in E. coli O157:H7 enhanced Tir protein content and the transcription of type three secretion system components, including genes encoding intimin, Tir and EspB as well as LEE positive regulator, Ler. Collectively, data indicate that PNPase has pleiotropic effects on the virulence of E. coli O157:H7.

  20. The kinetic mechanism of Human Thymidine Phosphorylase - a molecular target for cancer drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deves, Candida; Rostirolla, Diana Carolina; Martinelli, Leonardo Kras Borges; Bizarro, Cristiano Valim; Santos, Diogenes Santiago; Basso, Luiz Augusto

    2014-03-04

    Human Thymidine Phosphorylase (HTP), also known as the platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) or gliostatin, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of thymidine (dThd) to thymine and 2-deoxy-α-d-ribose-1-phosphate (2dR1P). HTP is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway involved in dThd homeostasis in cells. HTP is a target for anticancer drug development as its enzymatic activity promotes angiogenesis. Here, we describe cloning, expression, and purification to homogeneity of recombinant TYMP-encoded HTP. Peptide fingerprinting and the molecular mass value of the homogenous protein confirmed its identity as HTP assessed by mass spectrometry. Size exclusion chromatography showed that HTP is a dimer in solution. Kinetic studies revealed that HTP displayed substrate inhibition for dThd. Initial velocity and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies suggest that HTP catalysis follows a rapid-equilibrium random bi-bi kinetic mechanism. ITC measurements also showed that dThd and Pi binding are favorable processes. The pH-rate profiles indicated that maximal enzyme activity was achieved at low pH values. Functional groups with apparent pK values of 5.2 and 9.0 are involved in dThd binding and groups with pK values of 6.1 and 7.8 are involved in phosphate binding.

  1. Gene expression and molecular characterization of a thermostable trehalose phosphorylase from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yuanyuan; DAI Xiuyu; ZHOU Jian; LIU Jingfang; PEI Huadong; XIANG Hua

    2005-01-01

    A gene encoding the trehalose phosphorylase (TreP), which reversibly catalyzes trehalose degradation and synthesis from a-glucose-1-phosphate (α-GIc-1-P) and glucose, was cloned from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli.The overexpressed TreP, with a molecular mass of approximately 90 kDa, was determined by SDS-PAGE. It catalyzes trehalose synthesis and degradation optimally at 70℃ (for 30 min), with the optimum pHs at 6.0 and 7.0, respectively. It is highly thermostable, with a 77% residual activity after incubation at 50℃ for 7 h. Under the optimum reaction conditions, 50 μg crude enzyme of the TreP is able to catalyze the synthesis of trehalose up to 11.6 mmol/L from 25 mmol/L α-GIc-1-P and 125 mmol/L glucose within 30 min, while only 1.5 mmol/L out of 250 mmol/L trehalose is degraded within the same time period. Dot blotting revealed that the treP gene in T.tengcongensis was upregulated in response to salt stress but downregulated when trehalose was supplied. Both results indicate that the dominant function of the T. tengcongensis TreP is catalyzing trehalose synthesis but not degradation. Thus it might provide a novel route for industrial production of trehalose.

  2. Surface Induced Dissociation Yields Quaternary Substructure of Refractory Noncovalent Phosphorylase B and Glutamate Dehydrogenase Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Zhou, Mowei; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2014-03-01

    Ion mobility (IM) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled with native MS are useful for studying noncovalent protein complexes. Collision induced dissociation (CID) is the most common MS/MS dissociation method. However, some protein complexes, including glycogen phosphorylase B kinase (PHB) and L-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) examined in this study, are resistant to dissociation by CID at the maximum collision energy available in the instrument. Surface induced dissociation (SID) was applied to dissociate the two refractory protein complexes. Different charge state precursor ions of the two complexes were examined by CID and SID. The PHB dimer was successfully dissociated to monomers and the GDH hexamer formed trimeric subcomplexes that are informative of its quaternary structure. The unfolding of the precursor and the percentages of the distinct products suggest that the dissociation pathways vary for different charge states. The precursors at lower charge states (+21 for PHB dimer and +27 for GDH hexamer) produce a higher percentage of folded fragments and dissociate more symmetrically than the precusors at higher charge states (+29 for PHB dimer and +39 for GDH hexamer). The precursors at lower charge state may be more native-like than the higher charge state because a higher percentage of folded fragments and a lower percentage of highly charged unfolded fragments are detected. The combination of SID and charge reduction is shown to be a powerful tool for quaternary structure analysis of refractory noncovalent protein complexes, as illustrated by the data for PHB dimer and GDH hexamer.

  3. Dual-action hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic agents that inhibit glycogen phosphorylase and lanosterol demethylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, H James; Petras, Stephen F; Hoover, Dennis J; Mankowski, Dayna C; Soliman, Victor F; Sugarman, Eliot D; Hulin, Bernard; Kwon, Younggil; Gibbs, E Michael; Mayne, James T; Treadway, Judith L

    2005-03-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia requires simultaneous treatment with hypoglycemic agents and lipid-modulating drugs. We recently described glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors that reduce glycogenolysis in cells and lower plasma glucose in ob/ob mice (J. Med. Chem., 41: 2934, 1998). In evaluating the series prototype, CP-320626, in dogs, up to 90% reduction in plasma cholesterol was noted after 2 week treatment. Cholesterol reductions were also noted in ob/ob mice and in rats. In HepG2 cells, CP-320626 acutely and dose-dependently inhibited cholesterolgenesis without affecting fatty acid synthesis. Inhibition occurred together with a dose-dependent increase in the cholesterol precursor, lanosterol, suggesting that cholesterolgenesis inhibition was due to lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) inhibition. In ob/ob mice, acute treatment with CP-320626 resulted in a decrease in hepatic cholesterolgenesis with concomitant lanosterol accumulation, further implicating CYP51 inhibition as the mechanism of cholesterol lowering in these animals. CP-320626 and analogs directly inhibited rhCYP51, and this inhibition was highly correlated with HepG2 cell cholesterolgenesis inhibition (R2 = 0.77). These observations indicate that CP-320626 inhibits cholesterolgenesis via direct inhibition of CYP51, and that this is the mechanism whereby CP-320626 lowers plasma cholesterol in experimental animals. Dual-action glycogenolysis and cholesterolgenesis inhibitors therefore have the potential to favorably affect both the hyperglycemia and the dyslipidemia of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Structure-activity relationships of flavonoids as potential inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Atsushi; Nasu, Norio; Takebayashi, Kenji; Adachi, Isao; Minami, Yasuhiro; Sanae, Fujiko; Asano, Naoki; Watson, Alison A; Nash, Robert J

    2008-06-25

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous components in vegetables, fruits, tea, and wine. Therefore, they are often consumed in large quantities in our daily diet. Several flavonoids have been shown to have potential as antidiabetic agents. In the present study, we focused on inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) by flavonoids. 6-Hydroxyluteolin, hypolaetin, and quercetagetin were identified as good inhibitors of dephosphorylated GP (GPb), with IC 50 values of 11.6, 15.7, and 9.7 microM, respectively. Furthermore, a structure-activity relationship study revealed that the presence of the 3' and 4' OH groups in the B-ring and double bonds between C2 and C3 in flavones and flavonols are important factors for enzyme recognition and binding. Quercetagetin inhibited GPb in a noncompetitive manner, with a K i value of 3.5 microM. Multiple inhibition studies by Dixon plots suggested that quercetagetin binds to the allosteric site. In primary cultured rat hepatocytes, quercetagetin and quercetin suppressed glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis, with IC 50 values of 66.2 and 68.7 microM, respectively. These results suggested that as a group of novel GP inhibitors, flavonoids have potential to contribute to the protection or improvement of control of diabetes type II.

  5. Kinetics and mechanistic study of competitive inhibition of thymidine phosphorylase by 5-fluoruracil derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaccia, Manuela; Gentili, Patrizia; Bešker, Neva; D'Abramo, Marco; Giansanti, Luisa; Leonelli, Francesca; La Bella, Angela; Gradella Villalva, Denise; Mancini, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    In a previous investigation, cationic liposomes formulated with new 5-FU derivatives, differing for the length of the polyoxyethylenic spacer that links the N(3) position of 5-FU to an alkyl chain of 12 carbon atoms, showed a higher cytotoxicity compared to free 5-FU, the cytotoxic effect being directly related to the length of the spacer. To better understand the correlation of the spacer length with toxicity, we carried out initial rate studies to determine inhibition, equilibrium and kinetic constants (KI, KM, kcat), and get inside inhibition activity of the 5-FU derivatives and their mechanism of action, a crucial information to design structural variations for improving the anticancer activity. The experimental investigation was supported by docking simulations based on the X-ray structure of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) from Escherichia coli complexed with 3'-azido-2'-fluoro-dideoxyuridin. Theoretical and experimental results showed that all the derivatives exert the same inhibition activity of 5-FU either as monomer and when embedded in lipid bilayer.

  6. Nucleosides and ODN electrochemical detection onto boron doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Elodie; Chane-Tune, Jérôme; Mailley, Pascal; Szunerits, Sabine; Marcus, Bernadette; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Mermoux, Michel; Vieil, Eric

    2004-06-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) is a promising material for electroanalytical chemistry due mainly to its chemical stability, its high electrical conductivity and to the large amplitude of its electroactive window in aqueous media. The latter feature allowed us to study the direct oxidation of the two electroactive nucleosides, guanosine and adenosine. The BDD electrode was first activated by applying high oxidizing potentials, allowing to increase anodically its working potential window through the oxidation of CH surface groups into hydroxyl and carbonyl terminations. Guanosine (1.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and adenosine (1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl) could then be detected electrochemically with an acceptable signal to noise ratio. The electrochemical signature of each oxidizable base was assessed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), in solutions containing one or both nucleosides. These experiments pointed out the existence of adsorption phenomena of the oxidized products onto the diamond surface. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used to investigate these adsorption effects at the microscopic scale. The usefulness of BDD electrodes for the direct electrochemical detection of synthetic oligonucleotides is also evidenced.

  7. An azide-modified nucleoside for metabolic labeling of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Anne B; Luedtke, Nathan W

    2014-04-14

    Metabolic incorporation of azido nucleoside analogues into living cells can enable sensitive detection of DNA replication through copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) "click" reactions. One major limitation to this approach is the poor chemical stability of nucleoside derivatives containing an aryl azide group. For example, 5-azido-2'-deoxyuridine (AdU) exhibits a 4 h half-life in water, and it gives little or no detectable labeling of cellular DNA. In contrast, the benzylic azide 5-(azidomethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (AmdU) is stable in solution at 37 °C, and it gives robust labeling of cellular DNA upon addition of fluorescent alkyne derivatives. In addition to providing the first examples of metabolic incorporation into and imaging of azide groups in cellular DNA, these results highlight the general importance of assessing azide group stability in bioorthogonal chemical reporter strategies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Properties of mammalian nuclear-envelope nucleoside triphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; Cockrill, J B; Lavine, J E; McCaldin, B; Sim, R B

    1979-09-01

    The nucleoside triphosphatase activities of the nuclear envelopes from rat liver, pig liver and simian-virus-40-transformed mouse-embryo 3T3 cells were shown to exhibit similar parperties. All three preparations hydrolyse ATP, 2'-dATP, 3'-dATP, GTP, CTP and UTP in the presence of Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ with a pH optimum of 8.0, are sensitive to inhibition by mercurials, arsenicals, quercetin, proflavin and adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and are partially inactivated by exposure to high ionic strength. The kinetic behaviour is similar for all substrates irrespective of the source of material. The typical Eadie-Hofstee plot, which is concave upwards at pH 8.0 when the ionic strength is 20mM, becomes linear when the pH is increased to 8.5 or the ionic strength to 160mM. The overall evidence, particularly the labelling of only one polypeptide by [gamma-32P]ATP, suggests that under the conditions of preparation and assay used only one class of nucleoside triphosphatase active sites is detectable in nuclear envelopes. The importance of these results for an understanding of the role of the enzyme in vivo is discussed.

  9. Structural assignment of 6-oxy purine derivatives through computational modeling, synthesis, X-ray diffraction, and spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyun; Chen, Xi; Yang, Guang-Fu; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2010-05-27

    6-Oxy purine derivatives have been considered as potential therapeutic agents in various drug discovery efforts reported in the literature. However, the structural assignment of this important class of compounds has been controversial concerning the specific position of a hydrogen atom in the structure. To theoretically determine the most favorable type of tautomeric form of 6-oxy purine derivatives, we have carried out first-principles electronic structure calculations on the possible tautomeric forms (A, B, and C) and their relative stability of four representative 6-oxy purine derivatives (compounds 1-4). The computational results in both the gas phase and aqueous solution clearly reveal that the most favorable type of tautomeric form of these compounds is A, in which a hydrogen atom bonds with the N1 atom on the purine ring. To examine the computational results, one of the 6-oxy purine derivatives (i.e., compound 4) has been synthesized and its structure has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analysis. All of the obtained computational and experimental data are consistent with the conclusion that the 6-oxy purine derivative exists in tautomer A. The conclusive structural assignment reported here is expected to be valuable for future computational studies on 6-oxy purine derivative binding with proteins and for computational drug design involving this type of compounds.

  10. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A; Real-Valle, Roberto A; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements.

  11. Arxula adeninivorans recombinant guanine deaminase and its application in the production of food with low purine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein-Schult, Anke; Jankowska, Dagmara; Cordes, Arno; Hoferichter, Petra; Klein, Christina; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter; Baronian, Keith; Bode, Rüdiger; Kunze, Gotthard

    2014-01-01

    Purines of exogenous and endogenous sources are degraded to uric acid in human beings. Concentrations >6.8 mg uric acid/dl serum cause hyperuricemia and its symptoms. Pharmaceuticals and the reduction of the intake of purine-rich food are used to control uric acid levels. A novel approach to the latter proposition is the enzymatic reduction of the purine content of food by purine-degrading enzymes. Here we describe the production of recombinant guanine deaminase by the yeast Arxula adeninivorans LS3 and its application in food. In media supplemented with nitrogen sources hypoxanthine or adenine, guanine deaminase (AGDA) gene expression is induced and intracellular accumulation of guanine deaminase (Agdap) protein occurs. The characteristics of the guanine deaminase isolated from wild-type strain LS3 and a transgenic strain expressing the AGDA gene under control of the strong constitutive TEF1 promoter were determined and compared. Both enzymes were dimeric and had temperature optima of 55°C with high substrate specificity for guanine and localisation in both the cytoplasm and vacuole of yeast. The enzyme was demonstrated to reduce levels of guanine in food. A mixture of guanine deaminase and other purine degradation enzymes will allow the reduction of purines in purine-rich foods. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cruz, Roberto I.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A.; Real-Valle, Roberto A.; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements. PMID:27375492

  13. Synthesis and photophysical characterisation of a fluorescent nucleoside analogue that signals the presence of an abasic site in RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanpure, Arun A; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2012-11-05

    The synthesis and site-specific incorporation of an environment-sensitive fluorescent nucleoside analogue (2), based on a 5-(benzofuran-2-yl)pyrimidine core, into DNA oligonucleotides (ONs), and its photophysical properties within these ONs are described. Interestingly and unlike 2-aminopurine (a widely used nucleoside analogue probe), when incorporated into an ON and hybridised with a complementary ON, the emissive nucleoside 2 displays significantly higher emission intensity than the free nucleoside. Furthermore, photophysical characterisation shows that the fluorescence properties of the nucleoside analogue within ONs are significantly influenced by flanking bases, especially by guanosine. By utilising the responsiveness of the nucleoside to changes in base environment, a DNA ON reporter labelled with the emissive nucleoside 2 was constructed; this signalled the presence of an abasic site in a model depurinated sarcin/ricin RNA motif of a eukaryotic 28S rRNA.

  14. Structures of yeast Apa2 reveal catalytic insights into a canonical AP₄A phosphorylase of the histidine triad superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Tao; Li, Wen-Zhe; Chen, Yuxing; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2013-08-09

    The homeostasis of intracellular diadenosine 5',5″'-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is maintained by two 60% sequence-identical paralogs of Ap4A phosphorylases (Apa1 and Apa2). Enzymatic assays show that, compared to Apa1, Apa2 has a relatively higher phosphorylase activity towards Ap3A (5',5″'-P(1),P(3)-tetraphosphate), Ap4A, and Ap5A (5',5″'-P(1),P(5)-tetraphosphate), and Ap4A is the favorable substrate for both enzymes. To decipher the catalytic insights, we determined the crystal structures of Apa2 in the apo-, AMP-, and Ap4A-complexed forms at 2.30, 2.80, and 2.70Å resolution, respectively. Apa2 is an α/β protein with a core domain of a twisted eight-stranded antiparallel β-sheet flanked by several α-helices, similar to the galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT) members of the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily. However, a unique auxiliary domain enables an individual Apa2 monomer to possess an intact substrate-binding cleft, which is distinct from previously reported dimeric GalT proteins. This cleft is perfectly complementary to the favorable substrate Ap4A, the AMP and ATP moieties of which are perpendicular to each other, leaving the α-phosphate group exposed at the sharp turn against the catalytic residue His161. Structural comparisons combined with site-directed mutagenesis and activity assays enable us to define the key residues for catalysis. Furthermore, multiple-sequence alignment reveals that Apa2 and homologs represent canonical Ap4A phosphorylases, which could be grouped as a unique branch in the GalT family. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of ligand binding to the purine riboswitch aptamer domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sunny D; Stoddard, Colby D; Wise, Sarah J; Batey, Robert T

    2006-06-09

    Riboswitches are cis-acting genetic regulatory elements found commonly in bacterial mRNAs that consist of a metabolite-responsive aptamer domain coupled to a regulatory switch. Purine riboswitches respond to intracellular concentrations of either adenine or guanine/hypoxanthine to control gene expression. The aptamer domain of the purine riboswitch contains a pyrimidine residue (Y74) that forms a Watson-Crick base-pairing interaction with the bound purine nucleobase ligand that discriminates between adenine and guanine. We sought to understand the structural basis of this specificity and the mechanism of ligand recognition by the purine riboswitch. Here, we present the 2,6-diaminopurine-bound structure of a C74U mutant of the xpt-pbuX guanine riboswitch, along with a detailed thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of nucleobase recognition by both the native and mutant riboswitches. These studies demonstrate clearly that the pyrimidine at position 74 is the sole determinant of purine riboswitch specificity. In addition, the mutant riboswitch binds adenine and adenine derivatives well compared with the guanine-responsive riboswitch. Under our experimental conditions, 2,6-diaminopurine binds the RNA with DeltaH=-40.3 kcal mol(-1), DeltaS=-97.6 cal mol(-1)K(-1), and DeltaG=-10.73 kcal mol(-1). A kinetic determination of the slow rate (0.15 x 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) and 2.1 x 10(5)mM(-1)s(-1) for 2-aminopurine binding the adenine-responsive mutant riboswitch and 7-deazaguanine-binding guanine riboswitch, respectively) of association under varying experimental conditions allowed us to propose a mechanism for ligand recognition by the purine riboswitch. A conformationally dynamic unliganded state for the binding pocket is stabilized first by the Watson-Crick base pairing between the ligand and Y74, and by the subsequent ordering of the J2/3 loop, enclosing the ligand within the three-way junction.

  16. Interaction between N-Phospho-Amino Acids and Nucleoside in Aqueous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nucleosides were phosphorylated with different N- (O, O-diisopropyl) phosphoryl amino acids to give nucleoside mono phosphates in aqueous solution. 2', 3', and 5'-isomers had been confirmed by comparison with authentic samples on the basis of HPLC analysis. The conversion percentage of nucleoside indicated that N- (O, O-diisopropyl) phosphoryl aspartic acid reacted with adenosine and guanosine at a much higher rate than other kinds of N- phosphoryl amino acids, while phosphorylation of cytidine and uridine was relatively easy by using N- (O, O-diisopropyl) phosphoryl threonine. The result could give some clue to the prebiotic code origin of nucleic acid and protein.

  17. Relationship between the Expression of Thymidylate Synthase,Thymidine Phosphorylase and Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase and Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常玉; 翁艳洁; 王鸿雁; 石英; 马丁

    2010-01-01

    The mRNA and protein expression of thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and their relationship with prognosis were investigated. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman) was used to detect the mRNA expression of TS, TP and DPD in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded 106 samples of epithelial ovarian cancer and 29 normal ovaries. A TATA box-binding protein (TBP) was used as an endogenous reference gene. A relationship between TS, TP, DPD expression a...

  18. Phytogenic Polyphenols as Glycogen Phosphorylase Inhibitors: The Potential of Triterpenes and Flavonoids for Glycaemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas, Demetres D; Hayes, Joseph M; Kato, Atsushi; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Kyriakis, Efthimios; Chetter, Ben A; Stravodimos, George A

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a validated pharmaceutical target for the development of antihyperglycaemic agents. Phytogenic polyphenols, mainly flavonoids and pentacyclic triterpenes, have been found to be potent inhibitors of GP. These compounds have both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential for glycemic control in diabetes type 2. This review focuses mainly on the most successful (potent) of these compounds discovered to date. The protein-ligand interactions that form the structural basis of their potencies are discussed, highlighting the potential for exploitation of their scaffolds in the future design of new GP inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Studies on yeast nucleoside triphosphate-nucleoside diphosphate transphosphorylase (nucleoside diphosphokinase). IV. Steady-state kinetic properties with thymidine nucleotides (including 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine analogues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Alber, T; Richardson, D; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M

    1991-01-01

    A study of the steady-state kinetics of the crystalline brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis) nucleoside diphosphokinase, with the magnesium complexes of the adenine and thymidine nucleotides as reactants, has led to a postulated kinetic mechanism which proceeds through a substituted enzyme. This agrees with the earlier conclusions of Garces and Cleland [Biochemistry 1969; 8:633-640] who characterized a reaction between the magnesium complexes of the adenine and uridine nucleotides. An advantage of using thymidine nucleotides as reactants is that they permit accurate, rapid and continuous assays of the enzymatic activity in coupled-enzymatic tests. Through measurements of the initial velocities and product inhibition studies, the Michaelis constants, maximum velocities, and inhibition constants could be evaluated for the individual substrates. Competitive substrate inhibition was encountered at relatively high substrate concentrations, which also permitted an evaluation of their ability to act as 'dead-end' inhibitors. The Michaelis constants for the 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AzT) analogues were also evaluated and, although these values were only somewhat higher than those of their natural substrates, the Km's for the adenine nucleotides as paired substrates were lower and the Vmax's were drastically reduced. The pharmacological implications of these observations are touched upon and extrapolated to the cases where therapeutic doses of AzT may be employed.

  20. Genome shuffling improved the nucleosides production in Cordyceps kyushuensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanming; Zhang, Guoying; Zhao, Xuan; Ling, Jianya

    2017-10-20

    Genome shuffling was first applied to improve the production of nucleosides in Cordyceps kyushuensis. Six improved strains were selected for genome shuffling by UV and HNO2 mutagenesis. Ten improved genome shuffling strains with good genetic stability were obtained, among which, the production of cordycepin in R6 was 9.624 times higher than that of the ancestor. While in R18 and R19, the yield of cordycepin, adenosine, guanosine and uridine were all increased greatly compared with the ancestor. Based on the four phenotypes of the content of cordycepin, adenosine, guanosine and uridine, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to infer the relationships between genome shuffling strains and mutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Allosteric Inhibition of Brain Glycogen Phosphorylase by Neurotoxic Dithiocarbamate Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cécile; Bui, Linh-Chi; Petit, Emile; Haddad, Iman; Agbulut, Onnik; Vinh, Joelle; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2017-02-03

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are important industrial chemicals used extensively as pesticides and in a variety of therapeutic applications. However, they have also been associated with neurotoxic effects and in particular with the development of Parkinson-like neuropathy. Although different pathways and enzymes (such as ubiquitin ligases or the proteasome) have been identified as potential targets of DTCs in the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying their neurotoxicity remain poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that alteration of glycogen metabolism in the brain contributes to neurodegenerative processes. Interestingly, recent studies with N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate suggest that brain glycogen phosphorylase (bGP) and glycogen metabolism could be altered by DTCs. Here, we provide molecular and mechanistic evidence that bGP is a target of DTCs. To examine this system, we first tested thiram, a DTC pesticide known to display neurotoxic effects, observing that it can react rapidly with bGP and readily inhibits its glycogenolytic activity (kinact = 1.4 × 10(5) m(-1) s(-1)). Using cysteine chemical labeling, mass spectrometry, and site-directed mutagenesis approaches, we show that thiram (and certain of its metabolites) alters the activity of bGP through the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond (Cys(318)-Cys(326)), known to act as a redox switch that precludes the allosteric activation of bGP by AMP. Given the key role of glycogen metabolism in brain functions and neurodegeneration, impairment of the glycogenolytic activity of bGP by DTCs such as thiram may be a new mechanism by which certain DTCs exert their neurotoxic effects.

  2. Affinity crystallography reveals the bioactive compounds of industrial juicing byproducts of Punica granatum for glycogen phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravodimos, George A; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Apostolou, Anna; Kyriakis, Efthimios; Kafaski-Kanelli, Vassiliki-Nafsika; Solovou, Theodora G A; Gatzona, Pagona; Liggri, Panagiota Cv; Theofanous, Stavroula; Gorgogietas, Vyron A; Kissa, Apostolia; Psachoula, Chariklia; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Lemonakis, Angelos; Psarra, Anna-Maria G; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Haroutounian, Serkos; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2017-06-18

    Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a pharmaceutical target for the discovery of new antihyperglycaemic agents. Punica granatum is a well-known plant for its potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activities but so far has not been examined for antihyperglycaemic activity. To examine the inhibitory potency of eighteen polyphenolic extracts obtained from Punica granatum fruits and industrial juicing byproducts against GP and discover their most bioactive ingredients. Kinetic experiments were conducted to measure the IC50 values of the extracts while affinity crystallography was used to identify the most bioactive ingredient. The inhibitory effect of one of the polyphenolic extracts was also verified ex vivo, in HepG2 cells. All extracts exhibit significant in vitro inhibitory potency (IC50 values in the range of low μg/mL). Affinity crystallography revealed that the most bioactive ingredients of the extracts were chlorogenic and ellagic acids, found bound in the active and the inhibitor site of GP, respectively. While ellagic acid is an established GP inhibitor, the inhibition of chlorogenic acid is reported for the first time. Kinetic analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid is an inhibitor with Ki=2.5 x 10-3 M that acts synergistically with ellagic acid. Our study provides the first evidence for a potential antidiabetic usage of Punica granatum extracts as antidiabetic food supplements. Although, more in vivo studies have to be performed before these extracts reach the stage of antidiabetic food supplements our study provides a first positive step towards this process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Functional and structural characterization of plastidic starch phosphorylase during barley endosperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A; Ruzanski, Christian; Krucewicz, Katarzyna; Meier, Sebastian; Hägglund, Per; Svensson, Birte; Palcic, Monica M

    2017-01-01

    The production of starch is essential for human nutrition and represents a major metabolic flux in the biosphere. The biosynthesis of starch in storage organs like barley endosperm operates via two main pathways using different substrates: starch synthases use ADP-glucose to produce amylose and amylopectin, the two major components of starch, whereas starch phosphorylase (Pho1) uses glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), a precursor for ADP-glucose production, to produce α-1,4 glucans. The significance of the Pho1 pathway in starch biosynthesis has remained unclear. To elucidate the importance of barley Pho1 (HvPho1) for starch biosynthesis in barley endosperm, we analyzed HvPho1 protein production and enzyme activity levels throughout barley endosperm development and characterized structure-function relationships of HvPho1. The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of starch granule biosynthesis, that is, the enzymes and substrates involved in the initial transition from simple sugars to polysaccharides, remain unclear. We found that HvPho1 is present as an active protein at the onset of barley endosperm development. Notably, purified recombinant protein can catalyze the de novo production of α-1,4-glucans using HvPho1 from G1P as the sole substrate. The structural properties of HvPho1 provide insights into the low affinity of HvPho1 for large polysaccharides like starch or amylopectin. Our results suggest that HvPho1 may play a role during the initiation of starch biosynthesis in barley.

  4. Polynucleotide phosphorylase has an impact on cell biology of Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila eHaddad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polynucleotide phosphorylase, encoded by the pnp gene, is known to degrade mRNA, mediating post-transcriptional regulation and may affect cellular functions. The role of PNPase is pleiotropic. As the two major ribonucleases (RNase E and RNase II of Escherichia coli are absent from Campylobacter genome, this study was focused on PNPase. The effect of PNPase mutation on C. jejuni phenotypes and proteome was investigated. The inactivation of the pnp gene reduced significantly the ability of C. jejuni to adhere and to invade Ht-29 cells. Moreover, the pnp mutant strain exhibited a decrease in C. jejuni swimming ability and chick colonization. To explain effects of PNPase on C. jejuni 81-176 phenotype, the proteome of the pnp mutant and parental strains were compared. Overall, little variation in protein production was observed. Despite the predicted role of PNPase in mRNA regulation, the pnp mutation did not induce profound proteomic changes suggesting that other ribonucleases in C. jejuni might ensure this biological function in the absence of PNPase. Nevertheless, synthesis of proteins which are involved in virulence (LuxS, PEB3, motility (NANA synthetase, stress-response (KatA, DnaK, Hsp90 and translation system (EF-Tu, EF-G were modified in the pnp mutant strain suggesting a more specific role of PNPase in C. jejuni. In conclusion, PNPase deficiency induces limited but important consequences on C. jejuni biology that could explain swimming limitation, chick colonization delay and the decrease of cell adhesion/invasion ability.

  5. Heat Capacity Changes for Transition-State Analogue Binding and Catalysis with Human 5'-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Ross S; Cameron, Scott A; Karp, Jerome M; Arcus, Vickery L; Schramm, Vern L

    2017-02-17

    Human 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) catalyzes the phosphorolysis of 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA). Its action regulates cellular MTA and links polyamine synthesis to S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) salvage. Transition state analogues with picomolar dissociation constants bind to MTAP in an entropically driven process at physiological temperatures, suggesting increased hydrophobic character or dynamic structure for the complexes. Inhibitor binding exhibits a negative heat capacity change (-ΔCp), and thus the changes in enthalpy and entropy upon binding are strongly temperature-dependent. The ΔCp of inhibitor binding by isothermal titration calorimetry does not follow conventional trends and is contrary to that expected from the hydrophobic effect. Thus, ligands of increasing hydrophobicity bind with increasing values of ΔCp. Crystal structures of MTAP complexed to transition-state analogues MT-DADMe-ImmA, BT-DADMe-ImmA, PrT-ImmA, and a substrate analogue, MT-tubercidin, reveal similar active site contacts and overall protein structural parameters, despite large differences in ΔCp for binding. In addition, ΔCp values are not correlated with Kd values. Temperature dependence of presteady state kinetics revealed the chemical step for the MTAP reaction to have a negative heat capacity for transition state formation (-ΔCp(‡)). A comparison of the ΔCp(‡) for MTAP presteady state chemistry and ΔCp for inhibitor binding revealed those transition-state analogues most structurally and thermodynamically similar to the transition state. Molecular dynamics simulations of MTAP apoenzyme and complexes with MT-DADMe-ImmA and MT-tubercidin show small, but increased dynamic motion in the inhibited complexes. Variable temperature CD spectroscopy studies for MTAP-inhibitor complexes indicate remarkable protein thermal stability (to Tm = 99 °C) in complexes with transition-state analogues.

  6. Polynucleotide phosphorylase hinders mRNA degradation upon ribosomal protein S1 overexpression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briani, Federica; Curti, Serena; Rossi, Francesca; Carzaniga, Thomas; Mauri, Pierluigi; Dehò, Gianni

    2008-11-01

    The exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase, encoded by pnp) is a major player in bacterial RNA decay. In Escherichia coli, PNPase expression is post-transcriptionally regulated at the level of mRNA stability. The primary transcript is very efficiently processed by the endonuclease RNase III at a specific site and the processed pnp mRNA is rapidly degraded in a PNPase-dependent manner. While investigating the PNPase autoregulation mechanism we found, by UV-cross-linking experiments, that the ribosomal protein S1 in crude extracts binds to the pnp-mRNA leader region. We assayed the potential role of S1 protein in pnp gene regulation by modulating S1 expression from depletion to overexpression. We found that S1 depletion led to a sharp decrease of the amount of pnp and other tested mRNAs, as detected by Northern blotting, whereas S1 overexpression caused a strong stabilization of pnp and the other transcripts. Surprisingly, mRNA stabilization depended on PNPase, as it was not observed in a pnp deletion strain. PNPase-dependent stabilization, however, was not detected by chemical decay assay of bulk mRNA. Overall, our data suggest that PNPase exonucleolytic activity may be modulated by the translation potential of the target mRNAs and that, upon ribosomal protein S1 overexpression, PNPase protects from degradation a set of full-length mRNAs. It thus appears that a single mRNA species may be differentially targeted to either decay or PNPase-dependent stabilization, thus preventing its depletion in conditions of fast turnover.

  7. Polynucleotide phosphorylase is implicated in homologous recombination and DNA repair in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzaniga, Thomas; Sbarufatti, Giulia; Briani, Federica; Dehò, Gianni

    2017-04-04

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase, encoded by pnp) is generally thought of as an enzyme dedicated to RNA metabolism. The pleiotropic effects of PNPase deficiency is imputed to altered processing and turnover of mRNAs and small RNAs, which in turn leads to aberrant gene expression. However, it has long since been known that this enzyme may also catalyze template-independent polymerization of dNDPs into ssDNA and the reverse phosphorolytic reaction. Recently, PNPase has been implicated in DNA recombination, repair, mutagenesis and resistance to genotoxic agents in diverse bacterial species, raising the possibility that PNPase may directly, rather than through control of gene expression, participate in these processes. In this work we present evidence that in Escherichia coli PNPase enhances both homologous recombination upon P1 transduction and error prone DNA repair of double strand breaks induced by zeocin, a radiomimetic agent. Homologous recombination does not require PNPase phosphorolytic activity and is modulated by its RNA binding domains whereas error prone DNA repair of zeocin-induced DNA damage is dependent on PNPase catalytic activity and cannot be suppressed by overexpression of RNase II, the other major enzyme (encoded by rnb) implicated in exonucleolytic RNA degradation. Moreover, E. coli pnp mutants are more sensitive than the wild type to zeocin. This phenotype depends on PNPase phosphorolytic activity and is suppressed by rnb, thus suggesting that zeocin detoxification may largely depend on RNA turnover. Our data suggest that PNPase may participate both directly and indirectly through regulation of gene expression to several aspects of DNA metabolism such as recombination, DNA repair and resistance to genotoxic agents.

  8. The exoribonuclease Polynucleotide Phosphorylase influences the virulence and stress responses of yersiniae and many other pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Rosenzweig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are incessantly challenged by both biotic and abiotic stressors threatening their existence. Therefore, bacterial pathogens must possess mechanisms to successfully subvert host immune defenses as well as overcome the stress associated with host-cell encounters. To achieve this, bacterial pathogens typically experience a genetic re-programming whereby anti-host/stress factors become expressed and eventually translated into effector proteins. In that vein, the bacterial host-cell induced stress-response is similar to any other abiotic stress to which bacteria respond by up-regulating specific stress-responsive genes. Following the stress encounter, bacteria must degrade unnecessary stress responsive transcripts through RNA decay mechanisms. The 3 pathogenic yersiniae (Yersinia pestis, Y. pseudo-tuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica are all psychrotropic bacteria capable of growth at 4˚C; however, cold growth is dependent on the presence of an exoribonuclease, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase. PNPase has also been implicated as a virulence factor in several notable pathogens including the salmonellae, Helicobacter pylori, and the yersiniae (where it typically influences the type three secretion system. Further, PNPase has been shown to associate with ribonuclease E (endoribonuclease, RhlB (RNA helicase, and enolase (glycolytic enzyme in several Gram-negative bacteria forming a large, multi-protein complex known as the RNA degradosome. This review will highlight studies demonstrating the influence of PNPase on the virulence potentials and stress responses of various bacterial pathogens as well as focusing on the degradosome- dependent and -independent roles played by PNPase in yersiniae stress responses.

  9. Dynamic metabolic labeling of DNA in vivo with arabinosyl nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Anne B; Luedtke, Nathan W

    2011-12-20

    Commonly used metabolic labels for DNA, including 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and BrdU, are toxic antimetabolites that cause DNA instability, necrosis, and cell-cycle arrest. In addition to perturbing biological function, these properties can prevent metabolic labeling studies where subsequent tissue survival is needed. To bypass the metabolic pathways responsible for toxicity, while maintaining the ability to be metabolically incorporated into DNA, we synthesized and evaluated a small family of arabinofuranosyl-ethynyluracil derivatives. Among these, (2'S)-2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-5-ethynyluridine (F-ara-EdU) exhibited selective DNA labeling, yet had a minimal impact on genome function in diverse tissue types. Metabolic incorporation of F-ara-EdU into DNA was readily detectable using copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne "click" reactions with fluorescent azides. F-ara-EdU is less toxic than both BrdU and EdU, and it can be detected with greater sensitivity in experiments where long-term cell survival and/or deep-tissue imaging are desired. In contrast to previously reported 2'-arabino modified nucleosides and EdU, F-ara-EdU causes little or no cellular arrest or DNA synthesis inhibition. F-ara-EdU is therefore ideally suited for pulse-chase experiments aimed at "birth dating" DNA in vivo. As a demonstration, Zebrafish embryos were microinjected with F-ara-EdU at the one-cell stage and chased by BrdU at 10 h after fertilization. Following 3 d of development, complex patterns of quiescent/senescent cells containing only F-ara-EdU were observed in larvae along the dorsal side of the notochord and epithelia. Arabinosyl nucleoside derivatives therefore provide unique and effective means to introduce bioorthogonal functional groups into DNA for diverse applications in basic research, biotechnology, and drug discovery.

  10. Uridine Nucleoside Thiation: Gas-Phase Structures and Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlow, Lucas; Lee, Justin; Rodgers, M. T.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The naturally occurring thiated uridine nucleosides, 4-thiouridine (s4Urd) and 2-thiouridine (s2Urd), play important roles in the function and analysis of a variety of RNAs. 2-Thiouridine and its C5 modified analogues are commonly found in tRNAs and are believed to play an important role in codon recognition possibly due to their different structure, which has been shown by NMR to be predominantly C3'-endo. 2-Thiouridine may also play an important role in facilitating nonenzymatic RNA replication and transcription. 4-Thiouridine is a commonly used photoactivatable crosslinker that is often used to study RNA-RNA and RNA-protein cross-linking behavior. Differences in the base pairing between uracil and 4-thiouracil with adenine and guanine are an important factor in their role as a cross linker. The photoactivity of s4Urd may also aid in preventing near-UV lethality in cells. An understanding of their intrinsic structure in the gas-phase may help further elucidate the roles these modified nucleosides play in the regulation of RNAs. In this work, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectra of the protonated forms of s2Urd and s4Urd were collected in the IR fingerprint region. Structural information is determined by comparison with theoretical linear IR spectra generated from density functional theory calculations using molecular modeling to generate low-energy candidate structures. Present results are compared with analogous results for the protonated forms of uridine and 2'-deoxyuridine as well as solution phase NMR data and crystal structures.

  11. Contents and retentions of free and total purine bases in lamb meat cooked by several household methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anfossi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the content of total and free purine bases in muscle foods and their retentions upon cooking have been since long established (Brulé et al., 1988. Recently, though, an important rôle has been acknowledged to dietary sources of preformed purines for the growth of tissues with a rapid turnover and for optimal function of the cellular immune response, up to the point that the positive features of these nutrients seem to outweigh by far the negative ones (ILSI, 1998. Scanty information exists about the total purine content of raw ovine meat, the only available sources of data being a survey by Herbel and Montag (1987 on purine and pyrimidine contents of protein-rich foods and the comprehensive collection of food composition tables compiled by Scherz and Senser (1994...

  12. Molecular analysis of "de novo" purine biosynthesis in solanaceous species and in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, Paul; Lein, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    , microorganisms and Arabidopsis, the first plant species with a completely sequenced genome, shows that plants principally use the same biochemical steps to synthesize purine nucleotides and possess all the essential genes and enzymes. Here we report on the cloning and molecular analysis of the complete purine...... biosynthesis pathway in plants, and the in planta functional analysis of PRPP (5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophoshate) amidotransferase (ATase), catalyzing the first committed step of the "de novo" purine biosynthesis. The cloning of the genes involved in the purine biosynthesis pathway was attained by a screening...... strategy with heterologous cDNA probes and by using S. cerevisiae mutants for complementation. Southern hybridization showed a complex genomic organization for these genes in solanaceous species and their organ- and developmental specific expression was analyzed by Northern hybridization. The specific role...

  13. Abiotic synthesis of purines and other heterocyclic compounds by the action of electrical discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, S.; Flory, D.; Basile, B.; Oro, J.

    1984-01-01

    The synthesis of purines and pyrimidines using Oparin-Urey-type primitive earth atmospheres has been demonstrated by reacting methane, ethane, and ammonia in electrical discharges. Adenine, guaine, 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide (AICA), and isocytosine have been identified by UV spectrometry and paper chromatography as the products of the reaction. The total yields of the identified heterocyclic compounds are 0.0023 percent. It is concluded that adenine synthesis occurs at a much lower concentration of hydrogen cyanide than has been shown by earlier studies. Pathways for the synthesis of purines from hydrogen cyanide are discussed, and a comparison of the heterocyclic compounds that have been identified in meteorites and in prebiotic reactions is presented.

  14. The prebiotic synthesis of modified purines and their potential role in the RNA world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Modified purines are found in all organisms in the tRNA, rRNA, and even DNA, raising the possibility of an early role for these compounds in the evolution of life. These include N6-methyladenine, 1-methyladenine, N6,N6-dimethyladenine, 1-methylhypoxanthine, 1-methylguanine, and N2-methylguanine. We find that these bases as well as a number of nonbiological modified purines can be synthesized from adenine and guanine by the simple reaction of an amine or an amino group with adenine and guanine under the concentrated conditions of the drying-lagoon or drying-beach model of prebiotic synthesis with yields as high as 50%. These compounds are therefore as prebiotic as adenine and guanine and could have played an important role in the RNA world by providing additional functional groups in ribozymes, especially for the construction of hydrophobic binding pockets.

  15. Direct Isolation of Purines and Pyrimidines from Nucleic Acids Using Sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Schubert, Michael; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    A sublimation technique was developed to isolate purines and pyrimidines directly from lambda-deoxyribonucleic acid (lambda-DNA) and Escherichia coli cells. The sublimation of adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine from lambda-DNA was tested under reduced pressure (approx. 0.5 Torr) at temperatures of >150 C. With the exception of guanine, approximately 60 -75% of each base was sublimed directly from the lambda-DNA and recovered on a coldfinger of the sublimation apparatus after heating to 450 C. Several nucleobases including adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil were also recovered from E. coli bacteria after heating the cells to the same temperature, although some thermal decomposition of the bases also occurred. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using sublimation to isolate purines and pyrimidines from native E. coli DNA and RNA without any chemical treatment of the cells.

  16. An ancient riboswitch class in bacteria regulates purine biosynthesis and one-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter B; Nelson, James W; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-01-22

    Over 30 years ago, ZTP (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside 5'-triphosphate), a modified purine biosynthetic intermediate, was proposed to signal 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate (10f-THF) deficiency in bacteria. However, the mechanisms by which this putative alarmone or its precursor ZMP (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, also known as AICAR) brings about any metabolic changes remain unexplained. Herein, we report the existence of a widespread riboswitch class that is most commonly associated with genes related to de novo purine biosynthesis and one-carbon metabolism. Biochemical data confirm that members of this riboswitch class selectively bind ZMP and ZTP with nanomolar affinity while strongly rejecting numerous natural analogs. Indeed, increases in the ZMP/ZTP pool, caused by folate stress in bacterial cells, trigger changes in the expression of a reporter gene fused to representative ZTP riboswitches in vivo. The wide distribution of this riboswitch class suggests that ZMP/ZTP signaling is important for species in numerous bacterial lineages.

  17. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Some New 2,6-Substituted Purines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageswara Rao Kode

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A seriesof twenty four acyclic unsaturated 2,6-substututed purines 5a-20b were synthesized. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against NCI-60 DTP human tumor cell line screen at 10µMconcentration. N9-[(Z-4'-chloro-2'-butenyl-1'-yl]-2,6-dichloropurine(5a, N9-[4'-chloro-2'-butynyl-1'-yl]-2,6-dichloropurine(10a, N9-[(E-2',3'-dibromo-4'-chloro-2'-butenyl-1'-yl]-6-methoxypurine(14and N9-[4'-chloro-2'-butynyl-1'-yl]-6-(4-methoxyphenyl-purine(19exhibited highly potent cytotoxic activity with GI50 values in the 1–5 µM range for most human tumor cell lines. Other compounds exhibited moderate activity.

  18. Purine metabolism and oxidative stress in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Gh. Al-Rubaye

    2013-08-01

    Results: Serum ADA and SOD were significantly lower in boys with autism accompanied by significant higher serum MDA levels when compared with controls. Conclusion: Patients with ASD have impaired purine metabolism and increased oxidative stress which was supported by low levels of ADA and SOD, and high level of MDA. Further biochemical or genetic studies are required to explore the nature of autism. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(4.000: 293-297

  19. [Glutathione redox system, immune status, antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides in hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapbergenov, S O; Sovetov, B S; Bekbosynova, R B; Bolysbekova, S M

    2015-01-01

    The immune status, components of the glutathione redox system, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides have been investigated in animals with experimental hypothyroidism. On day 8 after an increase in the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-helpers and T-suppressors as well as increased number of B-lymphocytes was found in blood of thyroidectomized rats. This was accompanied by decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (AD), AMP-deaminase (AMPD), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) in blood, but the ratio of enzyme activity AD/AMPD increased. These changes in the activity of enzymes, involved in purine catabolism can be regarded as increased functional relationships between T and B lymphocytes in hypothyroidism. The functional changes of immune system cells were accompanied by increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and the ratio GH/GPx. Thyroidectomized rats had increased amounts of total, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH), but the ratio GSH/GSSG decerased as compared with control animals. In the liver, hypothyroidism resulted in activation of SOD, GPx, decreased activity of GR and decreased ratio GR/GPx. At the same time, the levels of total, oxidized, and reduced glutathione increased, but the ratio GSH/GSSG as well as activities of enzymes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism ratio (and their ratio 5'N/AD + AMPD) decreased. All these data suggest a functional relationship of the glutathione redox system not only with antioxidant enzymes, but also activity of enzymes involved purine nucleotide metabolism and immune status.

  20. Durabilidad de morteros de cemento en contacto con purines de cerdo

    OpenAIRE

    Massana Guitart, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    En el medio agrícola-ganadero el cemento y sus derivados, morteros y hormigones, son materiales ampliamente utilizados. Su uso se extiende desde la parte estructural de las edificaciones a elementos tales como revestimiento de paredes, comederos, o pavimentos tanto continuos como discontinuos o balsas de almacenamiento de purines, de hormigón en masa o armado o incluso de fábrica de ladrillo con revestimiento de mortero. Todos estos elementos se encuentran en ambientes de diversa agresividad,...

  1. Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in post-weaned northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Aguilar, Andres; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2012-05-01

    Northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1-2 months) of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In terrestrial mammals, food deprivation stimulates ATP degradation and decreases ATP synthesis, resulting in the accumulation of purines (ATP degradation byproducts). Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) salvages ATP by recycling the purine degradation products derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolism, which also promotes oxidant production. The contributions of HGPRT to purine recycling during prolonged food deprivation in marine mammals are not well defined. In the present study we cloned and characterized the complete and partial cDNA sequences that encode for HGPRT and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in northern elephant seals. We also measured XO protein expression and circulating activity, along with xanthine and hypoxanthine plasma content in fasting northern elephant seal pups. Blood, adipose and muscle tissue samples were collected from animals after 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks of their natural post-weaning fast. The complete HGPRT and partial XOR cDNA sequences are 771 and 345 bp long and encode proteins of 218 and 115 amino acids, respectively, with conserved domains important for their function and regulation. XOR mRNA and XO protein expression increased 3-fold and 1.7-fold with fasting, respectively, whereas HGPRT mRNA (4-fold) and protein (2-fold) expression increased after 7 weeks in adipose tissue and muscle. Plasma xanthine (3-fold) and hypoxanthine (2.5-fold) levels, and XO (1.7- to 20-fold) and HGPRT (1.5- to 1.7-fold) activities increased during the last 2 weeks of fasting. Results suggest that prolonged fasting in elephant seal pups is associated with increased capacity to recycle purines, which may contribute to ameliorating oxidant production and enhancing the supply of ATP, both of which would be beneficial during prolonged food deprivation and appear to be adaptive in this species.

  2. Thermodynamic examination of 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Shane; Shiskova, Evgenia; Hahm, Yaeeun; Grover, Neena

    2015-07-01

    Bulge loops are common features of RNA structures that are involved in the formation of RNA tertiary structures and are often sites for interactions with proteins and ions. Minimal thermodynamic data currently exist on the bulge size and sequence effects. Using thermal denaturation methods, thermodynamic properties of 1- to 5-nt adenine and guanine bulge loop constructs were examined in 10 mM MgCl(2) or 1 M KCl. The [Formula: see text] loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA constructs were between 3.07 and 5.31 kcal/mol in 1 M KCl buffer. In 10 mM magnesium ions, the ΔΔG° values relative to 1 M KCl were 0.47-2.06 kcal/mol more favorable for the RNA bulge loops. The [Formula: see text] loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in DNA constructs were between 4.54 and 5.89 kcal/mol. Only 4- and 5-nt guanine constructs showed significant change in stability for the DNA constructs in magnesium ions. A linear correlation is seen between the size of the bulge loop and its stability. New prediction models are proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA in 1 M KCl. We show that a significant stabilization is seen for small bulge loops in RNA in the presence of magnesium ions. A prediction model is also proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loop RNA constructs in 10 mM magnesium chloride.

  3. Biochemical and physiological characterisation of the purine degradation pathway in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth is often limited by nitrogen availability in the soil. Not only do plants depend on efficient nitrogen uptake, they also require effective means to internally redistribute nitrogen during every stage of development. The purine degradation pathway contributes to this nitrogen recycling in plants. In tropical legumes it is also of central importance to the plants’ nitrogen supply under nitrogen-fixing conditions. This is the first time that the complete ureide degradation pathway h...

  4. Metabolic engineering of an industrial polyoxin producer for the targeted overproduction of designer nucleoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianzhao; Liu, Jin; Wan, Dan; Cai, You-Sheng; Wang, Yinghu; Li, Shunying; Wu, Pan; Feng, Xuan; Qiu, Guofu; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Chen, Wenqing; Deng, Zixin

    2015-09-01

    Polyoxin and nikkomycin are naturally occurring peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics with potent antifungal bioactivity. Both exhibit similar structural features, having a nucleoside skeleton and one or two peptidyl moieties. Combining the refactoring of the polyoxin producer Streptomyces aureochromogenes with import of the hydroxypyridylhomothreonine pathway of nikkomycin allows the targeted production of three designer nucleoside antibiotics designated as nikkoxin E, F, and G. These structures were determined by NMR and/or high resolution mass spectrometry. Remarkably, the introduction of an extra copy of the nikS gene encoding an ATP-dependent ligase significantly enhanced the production of the designer antibiotics. Moreover, all three nikkoxins displayed improved bioactivity against several pathogenic fungi as compared with the naturally-occurring antibiotics. These data provide a feasible model for high efficiency generation of nucleoside antibiotics related to polyoxins and nikkomycins in a polyoxin cell factory via synthetic biology strategy.

  5. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus NDK: preliminary crystallographic analysis of the first viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Jeudy, Sandra; Coutard, Bruno; Lebrun, Régine; Abergel, Chantal

    2005-01-01

    A. polyphaga mimivirus, the largest known double-stranded DNA virus, is the first virus to exhibit a nucleoside diphosphate kinase gene. The expression and crystallization of the viral NDK are reported.

  6. The preparation of trisubstituted alkenyl nucleoside phosphonates under ultrasound-assisted olefin cross-metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ozkan; Hamada, Manabu; Roy, Vincent; Nolan, Steven P; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2013-09-01

    Intermolecular ultrasound-assisted olefin cross-metathesis is reported. This approach allows an easy access to challenging trisubstituted alkenyl nucleoside phosphonates. Regioselective chemoenzymatic deacetylation and Mitsunobu coupling are also described.

  7. Nucleoside, nucleotide and oligonucleotide based amphiphiles: a successful marriage of nucleic acids with lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissot, Arnaud; Camplo, Michel; Grinstaff, Mark W; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2008-04-21

    Amphiphilic molecules based on nucleosides, nucleotides and oligonucleotides are finding more and more biotechnological applications. This Perspective highlights their synthesis, supramolecular organization as well as their applications in the field of biotechnology.

  8. Importance of mammalian nuclear-envelope nucleoside triphosphatase in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; McCaldin, B; McArdle, H J

    1979-09-15

    The nucleoside triphosphate-stimulated efflux of RNA from isolated nuclei was studied under a range of conditions, and the effects of these conditions on the process were compared with the properties of the nucleoside triphosphatase located in the pore complex. A marked similarity between the rate of efflux and the rate of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis was apparent, in terms of substrate specificity, sensitivity to treatment with insolubilized trypsin, kinetics and the effects of increased ionic strength and of many inhibitors. These results are taken, in view of earlier evidence, to suggest that the activity of the nucleoside triphosphatase is a prerequisite for nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA transport in vivo. There are some indications that the nuclear-envelope lipid is also involved in regulating the efflux process.

  9. Determination of purine contents in different parts of pork and beef by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shengzhong; Zou, Lina; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Guangteng; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Miaojing; Yang, Fenghua; Li, Chunmei; He, Yingjuan; Guan, Hongjun; Guo, Yupeng; Wang, Dong; Cui, Xinyu; Ye, Hongting; Liu, Fenghai; Pan, Hongzhi; Yang, Yuexin

    2015-03-01

    Determination of adenine, hypoxanthine, guanine and xanthine in different parts of pork and beef using high performance liquid chromatography was described. Chromatographic separation was carried out on Waters Atlantis T3 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm × 5 μm) with column temperature at 30 °C. The mobile phase contained 99% 10.0 mmol/L ammonium formate solution at pH 3.6 and 1.0% methanol. Chromatography was achieved at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection wavelength at 254 nm. The results indicated that total purine amounts in pork rump and beef sirloin were higher than those in other parts (Ppurine bases were hypoxanthine and adenine, and hypoxanthine content was the most highest in all samples (Ppurine and uricogenic purine base, we suggest that excess consumption of them be avoid, whereas pork loin chop and beef rib eye are more suitable for a low-purine diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Purine molecules as hypnogenic factors role of adenosine, ATP, and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Muñoz, M; Salín-Pascual, R

    2010-12-01

    Purines are ubiquitous molecules with important roles in the regulation of metabolic networks and signal transduction events. In the central nervous system, adenosine and ATP modulate the sleep-wake cycle, acting as ligands of specific transmembrane receptors and as allosteric effectors of key intracellular enzymes for brain energy expenditure. Two types of adenosine receptors seem to be relevant to the sleep function, A1 and A2A. Caffeine, an antagonist of adenosine receptors, has been used as a tool in some of the studies reviewed in the present chapter. Possible changes in adenosine functioning due to the aging process have been observed in animal models and abnormalities in the adenosine system could also explain primary insomnia or the reduced amount of delta sleep and increased sensitivity to caffeine in some subjects with sleep deficits. Caffeine is a methylated-derivate of xanthine with profound effects on the onset and quality of sleep episodes. This purine acts principally as an antagonist of the A2A receptors. Adenosine and ATP in the nervous system are the bridge between metabolic activity, recovery function, and purinergic transmission that underlies the daily wake-sleep cycle in mammals. Modulators of purine actions have the potential to alleviate insomnia and other sleep disorders based on their physiopathological role during the sleep process.

  11. Isolation of Purines and Pyrimidines from the Murchison Meteorite Using Sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of life on Earth, and possibly on other planets such as Mars, would have required the presence of liquid water and a continuous supply of prebiotic organic compounds. The exogenous delivery of organic matter by asteroids, comets, and carbonaceous meteorites could have contributed to the early Earth s prebiotic inventory by seeding the planet with biologically important organic compounds. A wide variety of prebiotic organic compounds have previously been detected in the Murchison CM type carbonaceous chondrite including amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. These compounds dominate terrestrial biochemistry and are integral components of proteins, DNA and RNA. Several purines including adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine, as well as the pyrimidine uracil, have previously been detected in water or formic acid extracts of Murchison using ion-exclusion chromatography and ultraviolet spectroscopy. However, even after purification of these extracts, the accurate identification and quantification of nucleobases is difficult due to interfering UV absorbing compounds. In order to reduce these effects, we have developed an extraction technique using sublimation to isolate purines and pyrimidines from other non-volatile organic compounds in Murchison acid extracts.

  12. Chemical modification of the third strand: differential effects on purine and pyrimidine triple helix formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; Arimondo, Paola B; Lacroix, Laurent; Garestier, Thérèse; Klump, Horst; Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2002-01-08

    DNA triple helices offer exciting perspectives toward oligonucleotide-directed control of gene expression. Oligonucleotide analogues are routinely used with modifications in either the backbone or the bases to form more stable triple-helical structures or to prevent their degradation in cells. In this article, different chemical modifications are tested in a model system, which sets up a competition between the purine and pyrimidine motifs. For most modifications, the DeltaH degrees of purine triplex formation is close to zero, implying a nearly temperature-independent affinity constant. In contrast, the pyrimidine triplex is strongly favored at lower temperatures. The stabilization induced by modifications previously known to be favorable to the pyrimidine motif was quantified. Interestingly, modifications favorable to the GT motif (propynyl-U and dU replacing T) were also discovered. In a system where two third strands compete for triplex formation, replacement of the GA or GT strand by a pyrimidine strand may be observed at neutral pH upon lowering the temperature. This purine-to-pyrimidine triplex conversion depends on the chemical nature of the triplex-forming strands and the stability of the corresponding triplexes.

  13. Purine biosynthetic genes are required for cadmium tolerance in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speiser, D.M.; Ortiz, D.F.; Kreppel, L.; Scheel, G.; McDonald, G.; Ow, D.W. (Dept. of Agriculture, Albany, CA (United States) Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are metal-chelating peptides produced in plants and some fungi in response to heavy metal exposure. A Cd-sensitive mutant of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, defective in production of a PC-Cd-sulfide complex essential for metal tolerance, was found to harbor mutations in specific genes of the purine biosynthetic pathway. Genetic analysis of the link between metal complex accumulation and purine biosynthesis enzymes revealed that genetic lesions blocking two segments of the pathway, before and after the IMP branchpoint, are required to produce the Cd-sensitive phenotype. The biochemical functions of these two segments of the pathway are similar, and a model based on the alternate use of a sulfur analog substrate is presented. The novel participation of purine biosynthesis enzymes in the conversion of the PC-Cd complex to the PC-Cd-sulfide complex in the fission yeast raises an intriguing possibility that these same enzymes might have a role in sulfur metabolism in the fission yeast S. pombe, and perhaps in other biological systems. 41 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Purine and pyrimidine metabolism: Convergent evidence on chronic antidepressant treatment response in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Ik; Dournes, Carine; Sillaber, Inge; Uhr, Manfred; Asara, John M.; Gassen, Nils C.; Rein, Theo; Ising, Marcus; Webhofer, Christian; Filiou, Michaela D.; Müller, Marianne B.; Turck, Christoph W.

    2016-01-01

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used drugs for the treatment of psychiatric diseases including major depressive disorder (MDD). For unknown reasons a substantial number of patients do not show any improvement during or after SSRI treatment. We treated DBA/2J mice for 28 days with paroxetine and assessed their behavioral response with the forced swim test (FST). Paroxetine-treated long-time floating (PLF) and paroxetine-treated short-time floating (PSF) groups were stratified as proxies for drug non-responder and responder mice, respectively. Proteomics and metabolomics profiles of PLF and PSF groups were acquired for the hippocampus and plasma to identify molecular pathways and biosignatures that stratify paroxetine-treated mouse sub-groups. The critical role of purine and pyrimidine metabolisms for chronic paroxetine treatment response in the mouse was further corroborated by pathway protein expression differences in both mice and patients that underwent chronic antidepressant treatment. The integrated -omics data indicate purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathway activity differences between PLF and PSF mice. Furthermore, the pathway protein levels in peripheral specimens strongly correlated with the antidepressant treatment response in patients. Our results suggest that chronic SSRI treatment differentially affects purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, which may explain the heterogeneous antidepressant treatment response and represents a potential biosignature. PMID:27731396

  15. The Formation of Nucleobases from the Irradiation of Purine in Astophysical Ices and Comparisons with Meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, S. A.; Materese, C. K.; Nuevo, M.

    2016-01-01

    N-heterocycles have been identified in meteorites and their extraterrestrial origins are suggested by isotopic ratio measurements. Although small N- heterocycles have not been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), recent experiments in our lab have shown that the irradiation of the aromatic molecules like benzene (C6H6) and naphthalene (C10H8) in mixed molecular ices leads to the formation of O- and N-heterocyclic molecules. Among the class of N-heterocycles are the nucleobases, which are of astrobiological interest because they are the information bearing units of DNA and RNA. Nucleobases have been detected in meteorites [3-5], with isotopic signatures that are also consistent with an extraterrestrial origin. Three of the biologically relevant nucleobases (uracil, cytosine, and guanine) have a pyrimidine core structure while the remaining two (adenine and guanine) possess a purine core. Previous experiments in our lab have demonstrated that all of the bio-logical nucleobases (and numerous other molecules) with a pyrimidine core structure can be produced by irradiating pyrimidine in mixed molecular ices of several compositions [6-8]. In this work, we study the formation of purine-based molecules, including the nucleobases adenine, and guanine, from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of purine in ices consisting mixtures of H2O and NH3 at low temperature. The experiments are designed to simulate the astrophysical conditions under which these species may be formed in dense molecular clouds, protoplanetary disks, or on the surfaces of icy bodies in planetary systems.

  16. Nature's combinatorial biosynthesis and recently engineered production of nucleoside antibiotics in Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shawn; Kinney, William A; Van Lanen, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Modified nucleosides produced by Streptomyces and related actinomycetes are widely used in agriculture and medicine as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and antiviral agents. These specialized small-molecule metabolites are biosynthesized by complex enzymatic machineries encoded within gene clusters in the genome. The past decade has witnessed a burst of reports defining the key metabolic processes involved in the biosynthesis of several distinct families of nucleoside antibiotics. Furthermore, genome sequencing of various Streptomyces species has dramatically increased over recent years. Potential biosynthetic gene clusters for novel nucleoside antibiotics are now apparent by analysis of these genomes. Here we revisit strategies for production improvement of nucleoside antibiotics that have defined mechanisms of action, and are in clinical or agricultural use. We summarize the progress for genetically manipulating biosynthetic pathways for structural diversification of nucleoside antibiotics. Microorganism-based biosynthetic examples are provided and organized under genetic principles and metabolic engineering guidelines. We show perspectives on the future of combinatorial biosynthesis, and present a working model for discovery of novel nucleoside natural products in Streptomyces.

  17. Lipases in green chemistry: acylation and alcoholysis on steroids and nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldessari, Alicia; Iglesias, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe the application of lipases in acylation and alcoholysis reactions on steroids and nucleosides. In the field of steroids, a variety of acetyl and fatty acid derivatives of androstanes, pregnanes, and cholestanes have been prepared through lipase-catalyzed acylation and alcoholysis reactions taking advantage of the high regio- and stereoselectivity of these enzymes. The substrates as well as the products show a high degree of biological activity as neurosteroids, hormones, and glucocorticoids. The regioselective preparation of diacylated nucleosides by means of an enzymatic alcoholysis allowed the synthesis of nucleosides prodrugs or modified nucleosides. The quantitative full deacylation and dealkoxycarbonylation of nucleosides and steroids is a mild synthetic method for the deprotection of these labile compounds. Some of the reported steroid and nucleoside products are novel, and it is not possible to obtain them satisfactorily by following traditional synthetic procedures. The advantages presented by this methodology, such as selectivity, mild reaction conditions, and low environmental impact, make the lipases an important tool in the application of the principles of Green Chemistry, offering a convenient way to prepare derivatives of natural compounds with a great potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Anthranilimide-based glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: 1. Identification of 1-amino-1-cycloalkyl carboxylic acid headgroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, Steven M.; Banker, Pierette; Bickett, David M.; Carter, H. Luke; Clancy, Daphne C.; Dickerson, Scott H.; Dwornik, Kate A.; Garrido, Dulce M.; Golden, Pamela L.; Nolte, Robert T.; Peat, Andrew J.; Sheckler, Lauren R.; Tavares, Francis X.; Thomson, Stephen A.; Wang, Liping; Weiel, James E.; (GSKNC)

    2009-05-15

    Optimization of the amino acid residue within a series of anthranilimide-based glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors is described. These studies culminated in the identification of anthranilimides 16 and 22 which displayed potent in vitro inhibition of GPa in addition to reduced inhibition of CYP2C9 and excellent pharmacokinetic properties.

  19. Peptide microarray analysis of substrate specificity of the transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase KPI-2 reveals reactivity with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Brautigan, David L

    2006-11-01

    Human lemur (Lmr) kinases are predicted to be Tyr kinases based on sequences and are related to neurotrophin receptor Trk kinases. This study used homogeneous recombinant KPI-2 (Lmr2, LMTK2, Cprk, brain-enriched protein kinase) kinase domain and a library of 1,154 peptides on a microarray to analyze substrate specificity. We found that KPI-2 is strictly a Ser/Thr kinase that reacts with Ser either preceded by or followed by Pro residues but unlike other Pro-directed kinases does not strictly require an adjacent Pro residue. The most reactive peptide in the library corresponds to Ser-737 of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, and the recombinant R domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was a preferred substrate. Furthermore the KPI-2 kinase phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the single site in phosphorylase and purified phosphorylase b, making this only the second known phosphorylase b kinase. Phosphorylase was used as a specific substrate to show that KPI-2 is inhibited in living cells by addition of nerve growth factor or serum. The results demonstrate the utility of the peptide library to probe specificity and discover kinase substrates and offer a specific assay that reveals hormonal regulation of the activity of this unusual transmembrane kinase.

  20. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX leads to activation of the Rac 1 GTPase/glycogen phosphorylase pathway in interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llavero, Francisco; Urzelai, Bakarne; Osinalde, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have reported that the active form of Rac 1 GTPase binds to the glycogen phosphorylase muscle isoform (PYGM) and modulates its enzymatic activity leading to T cell proliferation. In the lymphoid system, Rac 1 and in general other small GTPases of the Rho family participate in the sig...

  1. Homeostatic imbalance of purine catabolism in first-episode neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purine catabolism may be an unappreciated, but important component of the homeostatic response of mitochondria to oxidant stress. Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of oxidative stress in schizophrenia pathology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a coulometric multi-electrode array system, we compared 6 purine metabolites simultaneously in plasma between first-episode neuroleptic-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FENNS, n = 25 and healthy controls (HC, n = 30, as well as between FENNS at baseline (BL and 4 weeks (4w after antipsychotic treatment. Significantly higher levels of xanthosine (Xant and lower levels of guanine (G were seen in both patient groups compared to HC subjects. Moreover, the ratios of G/guanosine (Gr, uric acid (UA/Gr, and UA/Xant were significantly lower, whereas the ratio of Xant/G was significantly higher in FENNS-BL than in HC. Such changes remained in FENNS-4w with exception that the ratio of UA/Gr was normalized. All 3 groups had significant correlations between G and UA, and Xan and hypoxanthine (Hx. By contrast, correlations of UA with each of Xan and Hx, and the correlation of Xan with Gr were all quite significant for the HC but not for the FENNS. Finally, correlations of Gr with each of UA and G were significant for both HC and FENNS-BL but not for the FENNS-4w. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During purine catabolism, both conversions of Gr to G and of Xant to Xan are reversible. Decreased ratios of product to precursor suggested a shift favorable to Xant production from Xan, resulting in decreased UA levels in the FENNS. Specifically, the reduced UA/Gr ratio was nearly normalized after 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. In addition, there are tightly correlated precursor and product relationships within purine pathways; although some of these correlations persist across disease or medication status, others appear to be lost among FENNS

  2. Selective killing of tumors deficient in methylthioadenosine phosphorylase: a novel strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lubin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gene for methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP lies on 9p21, close to the gene CDKN2A that encodes the tumor suppressor proteins p16 and p14ARF. MTAP and CDKN2A are homozygously co-deleted, with a frequency of 35 to 70%, in lung and pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, osteosarcoma, soft-tissue sarcoma, mesothelioma, and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In normal cells, but not in tumor cells lacking MTAP, MTAP cleaves the natural substrate, 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA, to adenine and 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate (MTR-1-P, which are then converted to adenine nucleotides and methionine. This distinct difference between normal MTAP-positive cells and tumor MTAP-negative cells led to several proposals for therapy. We offer a novel strategy in which both MTA and a toxic adenine analog, such as 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP, 6-methylpurine (MeP, or 2-fluoroadenine (F-Ade, are administered. In MTAP-positive cells, abundant adenine, generated from supplied MTA, competitively blocks the conversion of an analog, by adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT, to its active nucleotide form. In MTAP-negative tumor cells, the supplied MTA cannot generate adenine; hence conversion of the analog is not blocked. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that this combination treatment--adenine analog plus MTA--kills MTAP-negative A549 lung tumor cells, while MTAP-positive human fibroblasts (HF are protected. In co-cultures of the breast tumor cell line, MCF-7, and HF cells, MCF-7 is inhibited or killed, while HF cells proliferate robustly. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU and 6-thioguanine (6-TG may also be used with our strategy. Though neither analog is activated by APRT, in MTAP-positive cells, adenine produced from supplied MTA blocks conversion of 5-FU and 6-TG to their toxic nucleotide forms by competing for 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP. The combination of MTA with 5-FU or 6-TG, in the treatment of MTAP-negative tumors, may produce a significantly

  3. Quantification of the glycogen cascade system: the ultrasensitive responses of liver glycogen synthase and muscle phosphorylase are due to distinctive regulatory designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh KV

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signaling pathways include intricate networks of reversible covalent modification cycles. Such multicyclic enzyme cascades amplify the input stimulus, cause integration of multiple signals and exhibit sensitive output responses. Regulation of glycogen synthase and phosphorylase by reversible covalent modification cycles exemplifies signal transduction by enzyme cascades. Although this system for regulating glycogen synthesis and breakdown appears similar in all tissues, subtle differences have been identified. For example, phosphatase-1, a dephosphorylating enzyme of the system, is regulated quite differently in muscle and liver. Do these small differences in regulatory architecture affect the overall performance of the glycogen cascade in a specific tissue? We address this question by analyzing the regulatory structure of the glycogen cascade system in liver and muscle cells at steady state. Results The glycogen cascade system in liver and muscle cells was analyzed at steady state and the results were compared with literature data. We found that the cascade system exhibits highly sensitive switch-like responses to changes in cyclic AMP concentration and the outputs are surprisingly different in the two tissues. In muscle, glycogen phosphorylase is more sensitive than glycogen synthase to cyclic AMP, while the opposite is observed in liver. Furthermore, when the liver undergoes a transition from starved to fed-state, the futile cycle of simultaneous glycogen synthesis and degradation switches to reciprocal regulation. Under such a transition, different proportions of active glycogen synthase and phosphorylase can coexist due to the varying inhibition of glycogen-synthase phosphatase by active phosphorylase. Conclusion The highly sensitive responses of glycogen synthase in liver and phosphorylase in muscle to primary stimuli can be attributed to distinctive regulatory designs in the glycogen cascade system. The different

  4. Synthesis of acylamino acid esters of nucleoside 5'-phosphates and their investigation with PMR and CD spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhayev, A V; Popovkina, S V; Tarussova, N B; Kirpichnikov, M P; Florentiev, V L; Krayevsky, A A; Kukhanova, M K; Gottikh, B P

    1977-01-01

    The acylamino acid esters of nucleoside 5'-phosphates are synthesized via condensation of N-(N'-acylaminoacyl) imidazoles with nucleoside 5'-phosphates. The PMR and CD spectra of the esters obtained are studied. The 3'-isomers of the substances under study are observed to have a shift in the conformational N in equilibrium S equilibrium of the carbohydrate moiety in favour of the S-form as compared to the initial nucleosides and their 2'-acyl esters. PMID:909771

  5. [Principles of the hydrolysis of bound purine and pyrimidine bases in foods and program-controlled calculation of nucleic acid content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, W; Montag, A

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine the amount of combined purine and pyrimidine bases in foods we investigated the chemical fundamentals of their hydrolytic digestion it was demonstrated that the digestion mixture used, containing trifluoracetic- and formic acids, protected the purine bases during hydrolysis from oxidative degradation due to carbon monoxide formation. Further, a time-saving computer-program was developed and presented. This program allows, depending on the purine composition, the calculation of the corresponding nucleic acids, the nucleotides and the purine-nitrogen-content of the food.

  6. Suiciding of lymphocytic precursor cells by tritiated nucleosides, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeki, E M; Nishimura, T; Bisel, T U

    1978-02-01

    Differences in suiciding by various tritiated nucleosides were observed between two functional assays for in vitro lymphocytic precursor cell development, the hemolysin plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay and the B lymphocytic colony-forming cell (CFC-L) assay, using BDF1 mouse spleen cells. PFC growth was markedly reduced by an early (days 0-1) pulse of tritiated deoxyadenosine ([3H]dAdo), but relatively unaffected by a pulse of tritiated thymidine ([3H]dThd) during the same interval. In contrast, CFC-L formation significantly dropped after an early (day 0) [3H]dThd pulse, as well as after pulses of [3H]dAdo and the corresponding tritiated ribosides, uridine and adenosine. This implied a cycling state in an early lymphocytic precursor cell, as opposed to the PFC insensitivity to an early [3H]dThd pulse. The response pattern of colonies and clusters to [3H]dThd supported our notion of a delayed suiciding of CFC contributing to the increase in cluster numbers.

  7. Antibacterial Nucleoside-Analog Inhibitor of Bacterial RNA Polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioli, Sonia I; Zhang, Yu; Degen, David; Carzaniga, Thomas; Del Gatto, Giancarlo; Serina, Stefania; Monciardini, Paolo; Mazzetti, Carlo; Guglierame, Paola; Candiani, Gianpaolo; Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Facchetti, Giuseppe; Kaltofen, Petra; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Dehò, Gianni; Donadio, Stefano; Ebright, Richard H

    2017-06-15

    Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens pose an urgent public-health crisis. Here, we report the discovery, from microbial-extract screening, of a nucleoside-analog inhibitor that inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) and exhibits antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens: pseudouridimycin (PUM). PUM is a natural product comprising a formamidinylated, N-hydroxylated Gly-Gln dipeptide conjugated to 6'-amino-pseudouridine. PUM potently and selectively inhibits bacterial RNAP in vitro, inhibits bacterial growth in culture, and clears infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes peritonitis. PUM inhibits RNAP through a binding site on RNAP (the NTP addition site) and mechanism (competition with UTP for occupancy of the NTP addition site) that differ from those of the RNAP inhibitor and current antibacterial drug rifampin (Rif). PUM exhibits additive antibacterial activity when co-administered with Rif, exhibits no cross-resistance with Rif, and exhibits a spontaneous resistance rate an order-of-magnitude lower than that of Rif. PUM is a highly promising lead for antibacterial therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA nucleoside composition and methylation in several species of microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Brown, L.M. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Total DNA was isolated from 10 species of microalgae, including representatives of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorella ellipsoidea, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Monoraphidium minutum), Bacillariophyceae (Cyclotella cryptica, Navicula saprophila, Nitzschia pusilla, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum), Charophyceae (Stichococcus sp.), Dinophyceae (Crypthecodinium cohnii), and Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis suecica). Control samples of Escherichia coli and calf thymus DNA were also analyzed. The nucleoside base composition of each DNA sample was determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained 5-methyldeoxycytidine, although at widely varying levels. In M. minutum, about one-third of the cytidine residues were methylated. Restriction analysis supported this high degree of methylation in M. minutum and suggested that methylation is biased toward 5[prime]-CG dinucleotides. The guanosine + cytosine (GC) contents of the green algae were, with the exception of Stichococcus sp., consistently higher than those of the diatoms. Monoraphidium minutum exhibited an extremely high GC content of 71%. Such a value is rare among eukaryotic organisms and might indicate an unusual codon usage. This work is important for developing strategies for transformation and gene cloning in these algae. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry of phosphorylase B ions generated with supercharging reagents but in charge-reducing buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Christopher J; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Loo, Joseph A; de la Mora, Juan Fernandez

    2010-11-01

    We investigate whether "supercharging" reagents able to shift the charge state distributions (CSDs) of electrosprayed protein ions upward also influence gas-phase protein structure. A differential mobility analyzer and a mass spectrometer are combined in series (DMA-MS) to measure the mass and mobility of monomer and multimeric phosphorylase B ions (monomer molecular weight ∼97 kDa) in atmospheric pressure air. Proteins are electrosprayed from charge-reducing triethylammonium formate in water (pH = 6.8) with and without the addition of the supercharging reagent tetramethylene sulfone (sulfolane). Because the DMA measures ion mobility prior to collisional heating or declustering, it probes the structure of supercharged protein ions immediately following solvent (water) evaporation. As in prior studies, the addition of sulfolane is found to drastically increase both the mean and maximum charge state of phosphorylase B ions. Ions from all protein n-mers were found to yield mobilities that, for a given charge state, were ∼6-10% higher in the absence of sulfolane. We find that the mobility decrease which arises with sulfolane is substantially smaller than that typically observed for folded-to-unfolded transitions in protein ions (where a ∼60% decrease in mobility is typical), suggesting that supercharging reagents do not cause structural protein modifications in solution as large as noted recently by Williams and colleagues [E. R. Williams et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 2010, 21, 1762-1774]. In fact, the measurements described here indicate that the modest mobility decrease observed can be partly attributed to sulfolane trapping within the protein ions during DMA measurements, and probably also in solution. As the most abundant peaks in measured mass-mobility spectra for ions produced with and without sulfolane correspond to non-covalently bound phosphorylase B dimers, we find that in spite of a change in mobility/cross section, sulfolane addition does not

  10. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 transfection with ultrasound and microbubbles in nucleoside transport deficient HEK293 cells greatly increases gemcitabine uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproski, Robert J; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Favis, Nicole; Evans, David; Young, James D; Cass, Carol E; Zemp, Roger J

    2013-01-01

    Gemcitabine is a hydrophilic clinical anticancer drug that requires nucleoside transporters to cross plasma membranes and enter cells. Pancreatic adenocarcinomas with low levels of nucleoside transporters are generally resistant to gemcitabine and are currently a clinical problem. We tested whether transfection of human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (hCNT3) using ultrasound and lipid stabilized microbubbles could increase gemcitabine uptake and sensitivity in HEK293 cells made nucleoside transport deficient by pharmacologic treatment with dilazep. To our knowledge, no published data exists regarding the utility of using hCNT3 as a therapeutic gene to reverse gemcitabine resistance. Our ultrasound transfection system--capable of transfection of cell cultures, mouse muscle and xenograft CEM/araC tumors--increased hCNT3 mRNA and (3)H-gemcitabine uptake by >2,000- and 3,400-fold, respectively, in dilazep-treated HEK293 cells. Interestingly, HEK293 cells with both functional human equilibrative nucleoside transporters and hCNT3 displayed 5% of (3)H-gemcitabine uptake observed in cells with only functional hCNT3, suggesting that equilibrative nucleoside transporters caused significant efflux of (3)H-gemcitabine. Efflux assays confirmed that dilazep could inhibit the majority of (3)H-gemcitabine efflux from HEK293 cells, suggesting that hENTs were responsible for the majority of efflux from the tested cells. Oocyte uptake transport assays were also performed and provided support for our hypothesis. Gemcitabine uptake and efflux assays were also performed on pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells with similar results to that of HEK293 cells. Using the MTS proliferation assay, dilazep-treated HEK293 cells demonstrated 13-fold greater resistance to gemcitabine compared to dilazep-untreated HEK293 cells and this resistance could be reversed by transfection of hCNT3 cDNA. We propose that transfection of hCNT3 cDNA using ultrasound and microbubbles may be a

  11. HPLC analysis for the clinical-biochemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism of purines and pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Amorini, Angela Maria; Di Pietro, Valentina; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The determination of purines and pyrimidines in biofluids is useful for the clinical-biochemical characterization of acute and chronic pathological states that induce transient or permanent alterations of metabolism. In particular, the diagnosis of several inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) is accomplished by the analysis of circulating and excreted purines and pyrimidines. It is certainly advantageous to simultaneously determine the full purine and pyrimidine profile, as well as to quantify other compounds of relevance (e.g., organic acids, amino acids, sugars) in various metabolic hereditary diseases, in order to screen for a large number of IEMs using a reliable and sensitive analytical method characterized by mild to moderate costs. Toward this end, we have developed an ion-pairing HPLC method with diode array detection for the synchronous separation of several purines and pyrimidines. This method also allows the quantification of additional compounds such as N-acetylated amino acids and dicarboxylic acids, the concentrations of which are profoundly altered in different IEMs. The application of the method in the analysis of biological samples from patients with suspected purine and pyrimidine disorders is presented to illustrate its applicability for the clinical-biochemical diagnosis of IEM.

  12. Consequences of impaired purine recycling on the proteome in a cellular model of Lesch-Nyhan disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammer, Eric B; Göttle, Martin; Duong, Duc M; Hanfelt, John; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Jinnah, H A

    2015-04-01

    The importance of specific pathways of purine metabolism for normal brain function is highlighted by several inherited disorders, such as Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). In this disorder, deficiency of the purine recycling enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), causes severe neurological and behavioral abnormalities. Despite many years of research, the mechanisms linking the defect in purine recycling to the neurobehavioral abnormalities remain unclear. In the current studies, an unbiased approach to the identification of potential mechanisms was undertaken by examining changes in protein expression in a model of HGprt deficiency based on the dopaminergic rat PC6-3 line, before and after differentiation with nerve growth factor (NGF). Protein expression profiles of 5 mutant sublines carrying different mutations affecting HGprt enzyme activity were compared to the HGprt-competent parent line using the method of stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of tryptic digests, and subsequent identification of affected biochemical pathways using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) functional annotation chart analysis. The results demonstrate that HGprt deficiency causes broad changes in protein expression that depend on whether the cells are differentiated or not. Several of the pathways identified reflect predictable consequences of defective purine recycling. Other pathways were not anticipated, disclosing previously unknown connections with purine metabolism and novel insights into the pathogenesis of LND. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Poly purine.pyrimidine sequences upstream of the beta-galactosidase gene affect gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmachari Samir K

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly purine.pyrimidine sequences have the potential to adopt intramolecular triplex structures and are overrepresented upstream of genes in eukaryotes. These sequences may regulate gene expression by modulating the interaction of transcription factors with DNA sequences upstream of genes. Results A poly purine.pyrimidine sequence with the potential to adopt an intramolecular triplex DNA structure was designed. The sequence was inserted within a nucleosome positioned upstream of the β-galactosidase gene in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, between the cycl promoter and gal 10Upstream Activating Sequences (UASg. Upon derepression with galactose, β-galactosidase gene expression is reduced 12-fold in cells carrying single copy poly purine.pyrimidine sequences. This reduction in expression is correlated with reduced transcription. Furthermore, we show that plasmids carrying a poly purine.pyrimidine sequence are not specifically lost from yeast cells. Conclusion We propose that a poly purine.pyrimidine sequence upstream of a gene affects transcription. Plasmids carrying this sequence are not specifically lost from cells and thus no additional effort is needed for the replication of these sequences in eukaryotic cells.

  14. Abnormal Purine Metabolism and Hearing Loss%嘌呤代谢异常与听力损失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 张璞; 张勋

    2015-01-01

    嘌呤,是存在于人体内的一种化学成分,参与组成核酸及ATP等人体多种重要物质。嘌呤的代谢异常会引起一系列的疾病,包括:痛风、免疫系统疾病、血液疾病、肾脏疾病等,但目前其与耳聋的关系报道甚少,且多集中在遗传性耳聋方面。本文将对嘌呤代谢异常与耳聋的关系进行综述,并探讨嘌呤代谢异常引起非遗传性耳聋的发病机制。%[Abstact]Purine, one chemical constituent existing in the human body, participates in the production of a variety of important substances including nucleic acids and ATP. Abnormal metabolism of purine leads to a series of diseases (e.g., gout, autoimmune diseases, blood diseases, kidney diseases, etc). However, reports on the relationship between purine and hearing loss as hereditary deafness are rare. In this paper, we will summa-rize study evidence on the association between abnormal purine metabolism and hearing loss, and discuss the pathogenesis of non-hereditary deafness resulting from abnormal purine metabolism.

  15. The purine-utilizing bacterium Clostridium acidurici 9a: a genome-guided metabolic reconsideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hartwich

    Full Text Available Clostridium acidurici is an anaerobic, homoacetogenic bacterium, which is able to use purines such as uric acid as sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. Together with the two other known purinolytic clostridia C. cylindrosporum and C. purinilyticum, C. acidurici serves as a model organism for investigation of purine fermentation. Here, we present the first complete sequence and analysis of a genome derived from a purinolytic Clostridium. The genome of C. acidurici 9a consists of one chromosome (3,105,335 bp and one small circular plasmid (2,913 bp. The lack of candidate genes encoding glycine reductase indicates that C. acidurici 9a uses the energetically less favorable glycine-serine-pyruvate pathway for glycine degradation. In accordance with the specialized lifestyle and the corresponding narrow substrate spectrum of C. acidurici 9a, the number of genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism is significantly lower than in other clostridia such as C. acetobutylicum, C. saccharolyticum, and C. beijerinckii. The only amino acid that can be degraded by C. acidurici is glycine but growth on glycine only occurs in the presence of a fermentable purine. Nevertheless, the addition of glycine resulted in increased transcription levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in the glycine-serine-pyruvate pathway such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase and acetate kinase, whereas the transcription levels of formate dehydrogenase-encoding genes decreased. Sugars could not be utilized by C. acidurici but the full genetic repertoire for glycolysis was detected. In addition, genes encoding enzymes that mediate resistance against several antimicrobials and metals were identified. High resistance of C. acidurici towards bacitracin, acriflavine and azaleucine was experimentally confirmed.

  16. Isolation, crystallization in the macrogravitation field, preliminary X-ray investigation of uridine phosphorylase from Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A M; Smirnova, E A; Tsuprun, V L; Tagunova, I V; Vainshtein, B K; Linkova, E V; Komissarov, A A; Siprashvili, Z Z; Mironov, A S

    1992-03-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UPH) from Escherichia coli K-12 has been purified to near homogeneity from a strain harbouring the udp gene, encoding UPH, on a multicopy plasmid. UPH was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with the specific activity 230 units/mg with a recovery of 80%, yielding 120 mg of enzyme from 3g cells. Crystals of enzyme suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis were obtained in a preparative ultracentrifuge. The packing of the molecules in the crystals may be described by the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with the unit cell constants a = 90.4; b = 128.8; c = 136.8 A. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit, Vm = 2.4. These crystals diffract to at least 2.5-2.7 A resolution. The hexameric structure of UPH was directly demonstrated by electron microscopy study and image processing.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase complexed with 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkov, A A; Gabdoulkhakov, A G; Shtil, A A; Mikhailov, A M

    2009-06-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UPh; EC 2.4.2.3) catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of uridine to form ribose 1-phosphate and uracil. This enzyme also activates pyrimidine-containing drugs, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In order to better understand the mechanism of the enzyme-drug interaction, the complex of Salmonella typhimurium UPh with 5-FU was cocrystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 294 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 A resolution. Analysis of these data revealed that the crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 158.26, b = 93.04, c = 149.87 A, alpha = gamma = 90, beta = 90.65 degrees . The solvent content was 45.85% assuming the presence of six hexameric molecules of the complex in the unit cell.

  18. Measurement of small scalar and dipolar couplings in purine and pyrimidine bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zídek, L; Wu, H; Feigon, J; Sklenár, V

    2001-10-01

    A suite of spin-state-selective excitation (S3E) NMR experiments for the measurements of small one-bond (13C-13C, 15N-13C) and two-bond (1H-13C, 1H-15N) coupling constants in 13C,15N labeled purine and pyrimidine bases is presented. The incorporation of band-selective shaped pulses, elimination of the cross talk between alpha and beta sub-spectra, and accuracy and precision of the proposed approach are discussed. Merits of using S3E rather than alpha/beta-half-filter are demonstrated using results obtained on isotopically labeled DNA oligonucleotides.

  19. Purine and its analogues and radiation damage in Bacillus megaterium spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, E.L.

    1986-12-01

    As an extension of results obtained from radiation studies on caffeine both in other laboratories and more recently in this laboratory using the bacterial spore as the test system, six compounds with chemical structures closely resembling that of caffeine were tested as radiation modifiers. Of these compounds, purine, adenine and hypoxanthine resembled caffeine in sensitizing spores to radiation, while theobromine, xanthine and theophylline did not. These responses are discussed in relation to the electron sequestration hypothesis of cellular sensitization to high-energy radiation.

  20. Apoplastic Nucleoside Accumulation in Arabidopsis Leads to Reduced Photosynthetic Performance and Increased Susceptibility Against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumann, Manuel; Fischer, Marietta; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Girke, Christopher; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between plant and pathogen often occur in the extracellular space and especially nucleotides like ATP and NAD have been identified as key players in this scenario. Arabidopsis mutants accumulating nucleosides in the extracellular space were generated and studied with respect to susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea infection and general plant fitness determined as photosynthetic performance. The mutants used are deficient in the main nucleoside uptake system ENT3 and the extracellular nucleoside hydrolase NSH3. When grown on soil but not in hydroponic culture, these plants markedly accumulate adenosine and uridine in leaves. This nucleoside accumulation was accompanied by reduced photosystem II efficiency and altered expression of photosynthesis related genes. Moreover, a higher susceptibility toward Botrytis cinerea infection and a reduced induction of pathogen related genes PR1 and WRKY33 was observed. All these effects did not occur in hydroponically grown plants substantiating a contribution of extracellular nucleosides to these effects. Whether reduced general plant fitness, altered pathogen response capability or more direct interactions with the pathogen are responsible for these observations is discussed.

  1. Apoplastic nucleoside accumulation in Arabidopsis leads to reduced photosynthetic performance and increased susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eDaumann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Interactions between plant and pathogen often occur in the extracellular space and especially nucleotides like ATP and NAD have been identified as key players in this scenario. Arabidopsis mutants accumulating nucleosides in the extracellular space were generated and studied with respect to susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea infection and general plant fitness determined as photosynthetic performance. The mutants used are deficient in the main nucleoside uptake system ENT3 and the extracellular nucleoside hydrolase NSH3. When grown on soil but not in hydroponic culture, these plants markedly accumulate adenosine and uridine in leaves. This nucleoside accumulation was accpmpanied by reduced photosystem II efficiency and altered expression of photosynthesis related genes. Moreover, a higher susceptibility towards Botrytis cinerea infection and a reduced induction of pathogen related genes PR1 and WRKY33 was observed. All these effects did not occur in hydroponically grown plants substantiating a contribution of extracellular nucleosides to these effects. Whether reduced general plant fitness, altered pathogen response capability or more direct interactions with the pathogen are responsible for these observations is discussed.

  2. TD-DFT Investigation of the Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectra of Some Purine and Pyrimidine Bases of Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahleson, Tobias; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a computational study of the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the 200–300 nm wavelength region of purine and its derivative hypoxanthine, as well as of the pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids uracil, thymine, and cytosine, using the B3LYP and CAM–B3LYP functionals. Solvent...... effects are investigated within the polarizable continuum model and by inclusion of explicit water molecules. In general, the computed spectra are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones, apart from some overall blue shifts. Both the pseudo-A term shape of the MCD spectra of the purines...... and the B term shape of the spectra of pyrimidine bases are reproduced. Our calculations also correctly reproduce the reversed phase of the MCD bands in purine compared to that of its derivatives present in nucleic acids. Solvent effects are sizable and system specific, but they do not in general alter...

  3. Multi-stress resistance in Lactococcus lactis is actually escape from purine-induced stress sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryssel, Mia; Hviid, Anne-Mette Meisner; Dawish, Mohamed S.

    2014-01-01

    in the rich and complex M17 medium. When salvage of purines and subsequent conversion to GTP was permitted in various genetic backgrounds of L. lactis MG1363, the cells became sensitive to acid stress, indicating that an excess of guanine nucleotides induces stress sensitivity. The addition of phosphate......Multi-stress resistance is a widely documented and fascinating phenotype of lactococci where single mutations, preferentially in genes involved in nucleotide metabolism and phosphate uptake, result in elevated tolerance to multiple stresses simultaneously. In this report, we have analysed...... nucleotides is formed as a result of an improved conversion of guanosine in the salvage pathway. Based upon our findings, we suggest that L. lactis MG1363 is naturally multi-stress resistant in habitats devoid of any purine source. However, any exogenous purine that results in increased guanine nucleotide...

  4. Effect of tempe waste on excreation of purine derivatives and microbial–N supply in lactating Etawah crossbred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A Astuti

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate excretion of purine derivatives and microbial–N supply in lactating Etawah crossbred goats fed with fermented soybean waste. Sixteen first lactating goats were randomly allotted into four dietary treatment groups that received 50% king grass plus R1: 50% concentrate, R2: 25% concentrate and 25% fresh tempe waste, R3: 25% concentrate and 25% fermented tempe waste, and R4: 25% concentrate and 25% gelatinizing of liquid tempe waste. Fermented tempe waste was made by fermentation of tempe waste (seed content of soybean using Aspergillus niger, while for the gellatinizing of liquid tempe waste was made by gelatinized with maize flour. Protein balance studies were conducted during two week trial and at the end of the research. Urinary protein and purine derivatives were collected for analysis. Microbial–N supply was calculated from purine derivatives excretion. Results showed that nitrogen consumptions were significantly different between R4 and three other treatments and apparent digestible nitrogen in R3 were higher than that of R4 (P<0.05. The nitrogen retention in R1 and R3 were higher than that of R2 and R4. Urinary purine derivatives in this study showed that allantoin, xanthine and hypoxanthine in R3 were higher than that of R4, while R1 and R2 were the same and the highest uric acid excretion and total purine derivatives were observed in R3. Microbial–N supply were significantly different between all treatments where R3 was the highest. This research concluded that fermented soybean waste had the highest total purine derivatives excretion and microbial–N supply to the lactating Etawah crossbred goats.

  5. Alcohol Dehydrogenase 5 Is a Source of Formate for De Novo Purine Biosynthesis in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sajin; Chon, James; Field, Martha S; Stover, Patrick J

    2017-04-01

    Background: Formate provides one-carbon units for de novo purine and thymidylate (dTMP) synthesis and is produced via both folate-dependent and folate-independent pathways. Folate-independent pathways are mediated by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5) and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which generate formate by oxidizing formaldehyde. Formate is a potential biomarker of B-vitamin-dependent one-carbon metabolism.Objective: This study investigated the contributions of ADH5 and ALDH2 to formate production and folate-dependent de novo purine and dTMP synthesis in HepG2 cells.Methods:ADH5 knockout and ALDH2 knockdown HepG2 cells were cultured in folate-deficient [0 nM (6S) 5-formyltetrahydrofolate] or folate-sufficient [25 nM (6S) 5-formyltetrahydrofolate] medium. Purine biosynthesis was quantified as the ratio of [(14)C]-formate to [(3)H]-hypoxanthine incorporated into genomic DNA, which indicates the contribution of the de novo purine synthesis pathway relative to salvage synthesis. dTMP synthesis was quantified as the ratio of [(14)C]-deoxyuridine to [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into genomic DNA, which indicates the capacity of de novo dTMP synthesis relative to salvage synthesis.Results: The [(14)C]-formate-to-[(3)H]-hypoxanthine ratio was greater in ADH5 knockout than in wild-type HepG2 cells, under conditions of both folate deficiency (+30%; P HepG2 cells, indicating decreased use of exogenous formate, or increased endogenous formate synthesis, for de novo purine biosynthesis.Conclusions: In HepG2 cells, ADH5 is a source of formate for de novo purine biosynthesis, especially during folate deficiency when folate-dependent formate production is limited. Formate is also shown to be limiting in the growth of HepG2 cells. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (hENT1 in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Towards Individualized Treatment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Spratlin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers, where curative surgical resections are rare and less than 5% of patients experience long-term survival. Despite numerous clinical trials, improvements in the systemic treatment of this disease have been limited. Gemcitabine, a nucleoside analogue, is still considered the standard of care chemotherapy for most patients in the advanced disease setting. To exert its cytotoxic effects, gemcitabine must enter cells via nucleoside transporters, most notably human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1. Increasingly strong evidence suggests hENT1 is a prognostic biomarker in gemcitabine-treated pancreatic cancer, and may well be a predictive biomarker of gemcitabine efficacy. In this review, we synthesize the literature surrounding hENT1 in pancreatic cancer, identify the key outstanding questions, and suggest strategies to prospectively evaluate the clinical utility of hENT1 in future clinical studies.

  7. Synthesis of azole nucleoside analogues of D-pinitol as potential antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tianrong; Lou, Hongxiang

    2007-05-07

    A convenient strategy is reported for the synthesis of azole nucleoside analogues of D-pinitol (=3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol). The key intermediate 3-O-methyl-4,5-epoxy-D-chiro-inositol was obtained in excellent yield via an epoxidation from mono-methanesulfonate of D-pinitol. The process of opening of the epoxy ring by azole-bases appeared strongly regioselective in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene. All newly synthesized carbocyclic azole nucleosides were assayed against lung and bladder cancer in vitro. Only the triazole and benzotriazole nucleoside analogues inhibited the growth of human lung cancer cell lines (PG) with EC(50) of 11.3 and 22.6 microM, respectively, and showed much less inhibitory activity against human bladder cell lines (T(24)).

  8. Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen analysis in hepatitis B e antigen-positive nucleoside-naive patients treated with entecavir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Gish; T. Chang; C.L. Lai (Chen); R.A. de Man (Robert); A. Gadano; C. Llamoso (Cyril); H. Tang (Hui)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Entecavir is a potent nucleoside analogue for treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) levels are predictive of response to interferon-α in CHB treatment; however, the clinical utility of qHBsAg in nucleoside/nucleotide

  9. Genetic Screen Reveals the Role of Purine Metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus Persistence to Rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Yee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infections with Staphylococcus aureus such as septicemia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and biofilm infections are difficult to treat because of persisters. Despite many efforts in understanding bacterial persistence, the mechanisms of persister formation in S. aureus remain elusive. Here, we performed a genome-wide screen of a transposon mutant library to study the molecular mechanisms involved in persistence of community-acquired S. aureus. Screening of the library for mutants defective in persistence or tolerance to rifampicin revealed many genes involved in metabolic pathways that are important for antibiotic persistence. In particular, the identified mutants belonged to metabolic pathways involved in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, vitamin and purine biosynthesis. Five mutants played a role in purine biosynthesis and two mutants, purB, an adenylosuccinate lyase, and purM, a phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetase, were selected for further confirmation. Mutants purB and purM showed defective persistence compared to the parental strain USA300 in multiple stress conditions including various antibiotics, low pH, and heat stress. The defect in persistence was restored by complementation with the wildtype purB and purM gene in the respective mutants. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of persistence in S. aureus and provide novel therapeutic targets for developing more effective treatment for persistent infections due to S. aureus.

  10. Roles of the Amino Group of Purine Bases in the Thermodynamic Stability of DNA Base Pairing

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    Shu-ichi Nakano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energetic aspects of hydrogen-bonded base-pair interactions are important for the design of functional nucleotide analogs and for practical applications of oligonucleotides. The present study investigated the contribution of the 2-amino group of DNA purine bases to the thermodynamic stability of oligonucleotide duplexes under different salt and solvent conditions, using 2'-deoxyriboinosine (I and 2'-deoxyribo-2,6-diaminopurine (D as non-canonical nucleotides. The stability of DNA duplexes was changed by substitution of a single base pair in the following order: G•C > D•T ≈ I•C > A•T > G•T > I•T. The apparent stabilization energy due to the presence of the 2-amino group of G and D varied depending on the salt concentration, and decreased in the water-ethanol mixed solvent. The effects of salt concentration on the thermodynamics of DNA duplexes were found to be partially sequence-dependent, and the 2-amino group of the purine bases might have an influence on the binding of ions to DNA through the formation of a stable base-paired structure. Our results also showed that physiological salt conditions were energetically favorable for complementary base recognition, and conversely, low salt concentration media and ethanol-containing solvents were effective for low stringency oligonucleotide hybridization, in the context of conditions employed in this study.

  11. Purine 5‧,8-cyclo-2‧-deoxynucleoside lesions in irradiated DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Krokidis, Marios G.; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos; Terzidis, Michael A.

    2016-11-01

    Having their position gained among the smallest bulky DNA lesions recognized by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) enzyme, purine 5‧,8-cyclo-2‧-deoxynucleosides (5‧,8-cPu) are increasingly attracting the interest in the field of genome integrity in health and diseases. Exclusively generated by one of the most harmful of the reactive oxygen species, the hydroxyl radical, 5‧,8-cPu can be utilized also for highly valuable information regarding the oxidative status nearby the area where the genetic information is stored. Herein, we have collected the most recently reported biological studies, focusing on the repair mechanism of these lesions and their biological significance particularly in transcription. The LC-MS/MS quantification protocols that appeared in the literature are discussed in details, along with the reported values for the four 5‧,8-cPu produced by in vitro γ-radiolysis experiments with calf thymus DNA. Mechanistic insights in the formation of the purine 5‧,8-cyclo-2‧-deoxynucleosides and their chemical stability are also given in the light of their potential to be utilized as DNA biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  12. Purine-benzimidazole hybrids: synthesis, single crystal determination and in vitro evaluation of antitumor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alka; Luxami, Vijay; Paul, Kamaldeep

    2015-03-26

    In an effort to identify novel compounds for the treatment of cancer, a diverse array of potential bioactive hybrid, purine-benzimidazole was synthesized in good yields through nucleophilic substitution at C6 position of purine ring with versatile cyclic amines at C2 position. The structures of newly prepared compounds were confirmed by IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, mass spectroscopy and, in case of 19, by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated against 60 human tumour cell lines at one dose concentration level. Compound 6 exhibited significant growth inhibition and was evaluated as 60 cell panel at five dose concentration levels. Compound 6 proved to be 1.25 fold more active than the positive control 5-FU, with GI50 value of 18.12 μM (MG-MID). Interaction of the compounds with Aurora-A enzyme involved in the process of propagation of cancer, has also been investigated. Compound 6 showed selectivity towards Aurora-A kinase inhibition with IC50 value of 0.0l μM. Molecular docking studies in the active binding site provided theoretical support for the experimental biological data acquired.

  13. Modeling compositional dynamics based on GC and purine contents of protein-coding sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2010-11-08

    Background: Understanding the compositional dynamics of genomes and their coding sequences is of great significance in gaining clues into molecular evolution and a large number of publically-available genome sequences have allowed us to quantitatively predict deviations of empirical data from their theoretical counterparts. However, the quantification of theoretical compositional variations for a wide diversity of genomes remains a major challenge.Results: To model the compositional dynamics of protein-coding sequences, we propose two simple models that take into account both mutation and selection effects, which act differently at the three codon positions, and use both GC and purine contents as compositional parameters. The two models concern the theoretical composition of nucleotides, codons, and amino acids, with no prerequisite of homologous sequences or their alignments. We evaluated the two models by quantifying theoretical compositions of a large collection of protein-coding sequences (including 46 of Archaea, 686 of Bacteria, and 826 of Eukarya), yielding consistent theoretical compositions across all the collected sequences.Conclusions: We show that the compositions of nucleotides, codons, and amino acids are largely determined by both GC and purine contents and suggest that deviations of the observed from the expected compositions may reflect compositional signatures that arise from a complex interplay between mutation and selection via DNA replication and repair mechanisms.Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Zhaolei Zhang (nominated by Mark Gerstein), Guruprasad Ananda (nominated by Kateryna Makova), and Daniel Haft. 2010 Zhang and Yu; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. MINYAK ATSIRI KUNYIT SEBAGAI ANTI RADANG PADA PENDERIT GOUT ARTRITIS DENGAN DIET TINGGI PURIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondius Solfaine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma Domestica Volatile Oil (Curcuma domestica, Val as Anti Inflamation Agent on Gout Arthritis Patient with High Purin Diet. Increased concentrations of crystal monosodium urea at joint and soft tissue represent induced of inflammation at gout arthritis (GA. Incidence and prevalence GA disseminate wide in developed countries in Asian range from 2-15% and In Indonesia, GA prevalence was 29% and mostly found in Minahasa, Toraja, and Batak ethnics. This research was aimed to analyse application of curcuma domestica volatile oil as anti inflammation agent on gout arthritis patient who has high purin diet and to assess specific cellular mediator Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α. The design of the study was randomized pretest-posttest control group design with single blind treatment. The GCMS test was performed to identify active component in volatile oil. The sample was the new gout arthritis patient in Haji Public Hospital Surabaya. For a week, treatment group was assigned with volatile oil with dose 25 mg/kg body weight and the control group was given indometasin 150 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment. Volatile oil of curcuma domestica (Curcuma domestica, val has four fraction of active component. There was decreasing in blood urea level in treatment group (p = 0.001 and control group (p = 0.007. Both in control and treatment group, there was also decreasing in TNF-α, however it was not statistically significant.

  15. Vectorial transport of nucleoside analogs from the apical to the basolateral membrane in double-transfected cells expressing the human concentrative nucleoside transporter hCNT3 and the export pump ABCC4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Maria; Keller, Daniela; Brom, Manuela; Hummel-Eisenbeiss, Johanna; Lyko, Frank; Keppler, Dietrich

    2010-07-01

    The identification of the transport proteins responsible for the uptake and the efflux of nucleosides and their metabolites enables the characterization of their vectorial transport and a better understanding of their absorption, distribution, and elimination. Human concentrative nucleoside transporters (hCNTs/SLC28A) are known to mediate the transport of natural nucleosides and some nucleoside analogs into cells in a sodium-dependent and unidirectional manner. On the other hand, several human multidrug resistance proteins [human ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily C (ABCC)] cause resistance against nucleoside analogs and mediate transport of phosphorylated nucleoside derivatives out of the cells in an ATP-dependent manner. For the integrated analysis of uptake and efflux of these compounds, we established a double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cell line stably expressing the human uptake transporter hCNT3 in the apical membrane and the human efflux pump ABCC4 in the basolateral membrane. The direction of transport was from the apical to the basolateral compartment, which is in line with the unidirectional transport and the localization of both recombinant proteins in the MDCKII cells. Recombinant hCNT3 mediated the transport of several known nucleoside substrates, and we identified 5-azacytidine as a new substrate for hCNT3. It is of interest that coexpression of both transporters was confirmed in pancreatic adenocarcinomas, which represent an important clinical indication for the therapeutic use of nucleoside analogs. Thus, our results establish a novel cell system for studies on the vectorial transport of nucleosides and their analogs from the apical to the basolateral compartment. The results contribute to a better understanding of the cellular transport characteristics of nucleoside drugs.

  16. Apoptosis induced by nucleosides in the human hepatoma HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suh-Ching Yang; Che-Lin Chiu; Chi-Chang Huang; Jiun-Rong Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptotic effects of nucleosides on the human hepatoma HepG2.METHODS: The nucleosides included inosine (I), cytidine(C), uridine (U), thymidine (T), adenosine (A), and guanosine (G). Cells were incubated by the mediums with or without nucleosides at 37 ℃ in a 50 mL/L CO2 humidified atmosphere.RESULTS: It was found that the cell viabilities were significantly decreased, when cells were treated with 30 mmol/L I, 30 mmol/L C, 30 mmol/L U, 30 mmol/L T,0.5 mmol/L A, and 0.5 mmol/L G after 12 h incubation (P<0.05). About the apoptotic phenomenon, the cell percentages of sub-G1 cells were significantly increased in the mediums containing nucleosides such as C, U, T,A, and G (P<0.05). Furthermore, the caspase-3 activity was increased, when the cells were incubated with T(P<0.05). The protein expressions of p53 and p21 showed no difference in each group. To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis induced by nucleosides, it was found that the contents of soluble Fas ligand contents were increased in HepG2 cells following I, U, T, and A treatment (P<0.05).But, TNF-α and cytochrome c were undetectable.CONCLUSION: Thymidine may induce the apoptosis in HepG2, but the effective dosages and reactive time must be investigated in the future study. However, the apoptosis-inducing abilities of other nucleosides were still unclear in this study.

  17. Synthesis of Novel Homo-N-Nucleoside Analogs Composed of a Homo-1,4-Dioxane Sugar Analog and Substituted 1,3,5-Triazine Base Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enantioselective syntheses from dimethyl tartrate of 1,3,5-triazine homo-N-nucleoside analogs, containing a 1,4-dioxane moiety replacing the sugar unit in natural nucleosides, were accomplished. The triazine heterocycle in the nucleoside analogs was further substituted with combinations of NH2, OH and Cl in the 2,4-triazine positions.

  18. Highly selective capture of nucleosides with boronic acid functionalized polymer brushes prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ting; Zhu, Shuqiang; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-01

    The nucleoside or modified nucleoside level in biological fluids reflects the pathological or physiological state of the body. Boronate affinity absorbents are widely used to selectively extract nucleosides from complex samples. In this work, a novel functionalized absorbent was synthesized by attaching 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid to gold nanoparticles on modified attapulgite. The surface of the attapulgite was modified by poly(acryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) by atom transfer radical polymerization, creating many polymer brushes on the surface. The resultant material exhibited superior binding capacity (30.83 mg/g) for adenosine and was able to capture cis-diol nucleosides from 1000-fold interferences. Finally, to demonstrate its potential for biomolecule extraction, this boronate affinity material was used to preconcentrate nucleosides from human urine and plasma.

  19. Biotransformation of 2,6-diaminopurine nucleosides by immobilized Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedetti, Eliana C; Rivero, Cintia W; Britos, Claudia N; Lozano, Mario E; Trelles, Jorge A

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and green bioprocess to obtain 2,6-diaminopurine nucleosides using thermophilic bacteria is herein reported. Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT 43 showed a conversion rate of 90 and 83% at 2 h to obtain 2,6-diaminopurine-2'-deoxyriboside and 2,6-diaminopurine riboside, respectively. The selected biocatalyst was successfully stabilized in an agarose matrix and used to produce up to 23.4 g of 2,6-diaminopurine-2'-deoxyriboside in 240 h of process. These nucleoside analogues can be used as prodrug precursors or in antisense oligonucleotide synthesis.

  20. [Substrate specificity and kinetic properties of a soluble nucleoside triphosphatase from bovine kidneys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivuk, V F; Rusina, I M; Luchko, T A; Makarchikov, A F

    2008-01-01

    Soluble nucleoside triphosphatase differing in its properties from all known proteins with NTPase activity was partially purified from bovine kidneys. The enzyme has pH optimum of 7.5, molecular mass of 60 kDa, as estimated by gel chromatography, and shows an absolute dependence on divalent metal ions. NTPase obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the range of substrate concentration tested from 45 to 440 microM; the apparent Km for inosine-5'-triphosphate was calculated to be 23.3 microM. The enzyme was found to possess a broad substrate specificity, being capable of hydrolyzing various nucleoside-5'-tri- as well as diphosphates.

  1. Versatile synthesis of amino acid functionalized nucleosides via a domino carboxamidation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Gheerardijn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized oligonucleotides have recently gained increased attention for incorporation in modified nucleic acid structures both for the design of aptamers with enhanced binding properties as well as the construction of catalytic DNA and RNA. As a shortcut alternative to the incorporation of multiple modified residues, each bearing one extra functional group, we present here a straightforward method for direct linking of functionalized amino acids to the nucleoside base, thus equipping the nucleoside with two extra functionalities at once. As a proof of principle, we have introduced three amino acids with functional groups frequently used as key-intermediates in DNA- and RNAzymes via an efficient and straightforward domino carboxamidation reaction.

  2. Facile synthesis of 1',2'-cis-beta-pyranosyladenine nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takayuki; Shinohara, Hisashi; Luo, Xiong; Kandeel, Mahmoud; Kitade, Yukio

    2007-12-10

    1',2'-cis-beta-Glycosyladenine nucleosides, such as beta-altroside, beta-mannoside, and beta-idoside, were efficiently synthesized from the corresponding 1',2'-trans-beta-6-chloropurine derivatives, beta-glucoside, and beta-galactoside. Nucleophilic substitution of the O-trifluoromethanesulfonyl groups at the C-2' and/or 3' was carried out using tetrabutylammonium acetate or cesium acetate under mild conditions. Subsequent deprotection and amidation afforded the desired compounds, 1',2'-cis-beta-pyranosyladenine nucleosides.

  3. Anthranilimide based glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part 3: X-ray crystallographic characterization, core and urea optimization and in vivo efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Stephen A.; Banker, Pierette; Bickett, D. Mark; Boucheron, Joyce A.; Carter, H. Luke; Clancy, Daphne C.; Cooper, Joel P.; Dickerson, Scott H.; Garrido, Dulce M.; Nolte, Robert T.; Peat, Andrew J.; Sheckler, Lauren R.; Sparks, Steven M.; Tavares, Francis X.; Wang, Liping; Wang, Tony Y.; Weiel, James E.; (GSKNC)

    2009-05-15

    Key binding interactions of the anthranilimide based glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa) inhibitor 2 from X-ray crystallography studies are described. This series of compounds bind to the AMP site of GP. Using the binding information the core and the phenyl urea moieties were optimized. This work culminated in the identification of compounds with single nanomolar potency as well as in vivo efficacy in a diabetic model.

  4. Three-dimensional structures of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis at 1.4 Å resolution and its complex with an antibacterial drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Uridine phosphorylases play an essential role in the cellular metabolism of some antibacterial agents. Acute infectious diseases (bubonic plague, yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, etc., caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia) are treated using both sulfanilamide medicines and antibiotics, including trimethoprim. The action of an antibiotic on a bacterial cell is determined primarily by the character of its interactions with cellular components, including those which are not targets (for example, with pyrimidine phosphorylases). This type of interaction should be taken into account in designing drugs. The three-dimensional structure of uridine phosphorylase from the bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) with the free active site was determined for the first time by X-ray crystallography and refined at 1.40 Å resolution (DPI = 0.062 Å; ID PDB: 4OF4). The structure of the complex of YptUPh with the bacteriostatic drug trimethoprim was studied by molecular docking and molecular dynamics methods. The trimethoprim molecule was shown to be buffered by the enzyme YptUPh, resulting in a decrease in the efficiency of the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia with trimethoprim.

  5. Effects of eugenol-reduced clove extract on glycogen phosphorylase b and the development of diabetes in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanae, Fujiko; Kamiyama, Ogusa; Ikeda-Obatake, Kyoko; Higashi, Yasuhiko; Asano, Naoki; Adachi, Isao; Kato, Atsushi

    2014-02-01

    We found that the 50% aqueous EtOH extract of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) had potent dose-dependent inhibitory activity toward glycogen phosphorylase b and glucagon-stimulated glucose production in primary rat hepatocytes. Among the components, eugeniin inhibited glycogen phosphorylase b and glucagon-stimulated glucose production in primary rat hepatocytes, with IC50 values of 0.14 and 4.7 μM, respectively. In sharp contrast, eugenol showed no significant inhibition toward glycogen phosphorylase b, even at a concentration of 400 μM. Eugenol-reduced clove extracts (erCE) were prepared and when fed to a db/db mouse they clearly suppressed the blood glucose and HbA1c levels. Furthermore, plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels in 5% and 10% erCE-fed db/db mice were significantly lowered, compared with control db/db mice without erCE supplementation. These results suggested that dietary supplementation with the erCE could beneficially modify glucose and lipid metabolism and contribute to the prevention of the progress of hyperglycemia and metabolic syndrome.

  6. Consortium analysis of gene and gene–folate interactions in purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathways with ovarian carcinoma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Terry, Kathryn L; Goodman, Marc T

    2014-01-01

    SCOPE: We reevaluated previously reported associations between variants in pathways of one-carbon (1-C) (folate) transfer genes and ovarian carcinoma (OC) risk, and in related pathways of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and assessed interactions with folate intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: Odds rat...

  7. Subcellular location of the enzymes of purine breakdown in the yeast Candida famata grown on uric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Large, Peter J.; Waterham, Hans R.; Veenhuis, Marten

    1990-01-01

    The subcellular location of the enzymes of purine breakdown in the yeast Candida famata, which grows on uric acid as sole carbon and nitrogen source, has been examined by subcellular fractionation methods. Uricase was confirmed as being peroxisomal, but the other three enzymes, allantoinase, allanto

  8. Involvement of the ribose operon repressor RbsR in regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Kori, Ayako; Ishihama, Akira

    2013-07-01

    Escherichia coli is able to utilize d-ribose as its sole carbon source. The genes for the transport and initial-step metabolism of d-ribose form a single rbsDACBK operon. RbsABC forms the ABC-type high-affinity d-ribose transporter, while RbsD and RbsK are involved in the conversion of d-ribose into d-ribose 5-phosphate. In the absence of inducer d-ribose, the ribose operon is repressed by a LacI-type transcription factor RbsR, which is encoded by a gene located downstream of this ribose operon. At present, the rbs operon is believed to be the only target of regulation by RbsR. After Genomic SELEX screening, however, we have identified that RbsR binds not only to the rbs promoter but also to the promoters of a set of genes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism. Northern blotting analysis indicated that RbsR represses the purHD operon for de novo synthesis of purine nucleotide but activates the add and udk genes involved in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide synthesis. Taken together, we propose that RbsR is a global regulator for switch control between the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides and its salvage pathway.

  9. Prodrugs of purine and pyrimidine analogues for the intestinal di/tri-peptide transporter PepT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Engelbrecht; Friedrichsen, Gerda Marie; Sørensen, Arne Hagsten

    2003-01-01

    A general drug delivery approach for increasing oral bioavailability of purine and pyrimidine analogues such as acyclovir may be to link these compounds reversibly to stabilized dipeptide pro-moieties with affinity for the human intestinal di/tri-peptide transporter, hPepT1. In the present study...

  10. TD-DFT investigation of the magnetic circular dichroism spectra of some purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahleson, Tobias; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Santoro, Fabrizio; Improta, Roberto; Coriani, Sonia

    2015-05-28

    We present a computational study of the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the 200-300 nm wavelength region of purine and its derivative hypoxanthine, as well as of the pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids uracil, thymine, and cytosine, using the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals. Solvent effects are investigated within the polarizable continuum model and by inclusion of explicit water molecules. In general, the computed spectra are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones, apart from some overall blue shifts. Both the pseudo-A term shape of the MCD spectra of the purines and the B term shape of the spectra of pyrimidine bases are reproduced. Our calculations also correctly reproduce the reversed phase of the MCD bands in purine compared to that of its derivatives present in nucleic acids. Solvent effects are sizable and system specific, but they do not in general alter the qualitative shape of the spectra. The bands are dominated by the bright π → π* transitions, and our calculations in solution nicely reproduce their energy differences, improving the estimates obtained in the gas phase. Shoulders are predicted for purine and uracil due to n → π* excitations, but they are too weak to be observed in the experiment.

  11. Antiproliferative activity of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides: synthesis, DNA-binding and cell cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, Vyankat A; Lawande, Pravin P; Kate, Anup N; Khan, Ayesha; Joshi, Rakesh; Kumbhar, Anupa A; Shinde, Vaishali S

    2016-04-26

    An efficient route was developed for synthesis of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides from readily available d-glucose. The key reactions were Vörbruggen glycosylation and ring closing metathesis (RCM). Primarily, to understand the mode of DNA binding, we performed a molecular docking study and the binding was found to be in the minor groove region. Based on the proposed binding model, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques using calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) demonstrated a non-intercalative mode of binding. Antiproliferative activity of nucleosides was tested against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and found to be active at low micromolar concentrations. Compounds and displayed significant antiproliferative activity as compared to and with the reference anticancer drug, doxorubicin. Cell cycle analysis showed that nucleoside induced cell cycle arrest at the S-phase. Confocal microscopy has been performed to validate the induction of cellular apoptosis. Based on these findings, such modified bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides will make a significant contribution to the development of anticancer drugs.

  12. Carbocyclic nucleoside analogues: classification, target enzymes, mechanisms of action and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyugina, E. S.; Khandazhinskaya, A. P.; Kochetkov, Sergei N.

    2012-08-01

    Key biological targets (S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, telomerase, human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase, herpes virus DNA polymerase and hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase) and the mechanisms of action of carbocyclic nucleoside analogues are considered. Structural types of analogues are discussed. Methods of synthesis for the most promising compounds and the spectrum of their biological activities are described. The bibliography includes 126 references.

  13. Phosphorylation of nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase by casein kinase 2 in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, M; Issinger, O G; Lascu, I;

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated phosphorylation of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and of homologous NDPK from different species by human casein kinase 2 (CK-2). The human NDPK isotypes A and B were phosphorylated by CK-2 in vitro both when the purified proteins and total lysate of HL-60 leukemia...

  14. Investigation of proton affinities and gas phase vibrational spectra of protonated nucleosides, deoxynucleosides, and their analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ung, H.U.; Huynh, K.T.; Poutsma, J.C.; Oomens, J.; Berden, G.; Morton, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    DNA nucleobases make use of hydrogen bonding, whether in associating to form the Watson-Crick double-helix or in producing alternative structures such as the G-quadruplex or the i-motif. Nucleoside proton-bound dimers provide an avenue for investigating characteristics that they possess within the

  15. Metabolome analysis via comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography: identification of modified nucleosides from RNA metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Lucas; Erbes, Thalia; Krieger, Sonja; Trafkowski, Jens; Rodamer, Michael; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-05-01

    Modified nucleosides derived from the RNA metabolism constitute an important chemical class, which are discussed as potential biomarkers in the detection of mammalian breast cancer. Not only the variability of modifications, but also the complexity of biological matrices such as urinary samples poses challenges in the analysis of modified nucleosides. In the present work, a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS) approach for the analysis of modified nucleosides in biological samples was established. For prepurification of urinary samples and cell culture supernatants, we performed a cis-diol specific affinity chromatography using boronate-derivatized polyacrylamide gel. In order to establish a 2D-LC method, we tested numerous column combinations and chromatographic conditions. In order to determine the target compounds, we coupled the 2D-LC setup to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer performing full scans, neutral loss scans, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The combination of a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column with a Zorbax Bonus-RP column was found to deliver a high degree of orthogonality and adequate separation. By application of 2D-LC-MS approaches, we were able to detect 28 target compounds from RNA metabolism and crosslinked pathways in urinary samples and 26 target compounds in cell culture supernatants, respectively. This is the first demonstration of the applicability and benefit of 2D-LC-MS for the targeted metabolome analysis of modified nucleosides and compounds from crosslinked pathways in different biological matrices.

  16. Activities of adenine nucleotide and nucleoside degradation enzymes in platelets of rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Camila B; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Vargas, Lara B; Bitencourt, Paula E R; Souza, Viviane C G; Costa, Marcio M; Leal, Claudio A M; Moretto, Maria B; Leal, Daniela B R; Lopes, Sonia T A; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2011-05-31

    Nucleotide and nucleoside-degrading enzymes, such as nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrose (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) are present in the surface membranes of platelets, involved in clotting disturbances of Trypanosoma evansi-infected animals. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating the activities of these enzymes in platelets of rats experimentally infected with T. evansi. Animals were divided into four groups, according to the level of parasitemia. Blood samples were collected on days 3 (group A: at the beginning of parasitemia), 5 (group B: high parasitemia) and 15 (group C: chronic infection), post-infection. Group D (control group) was composed of non-infected animals for platelet count, separation and enzymatic assays. Animals from groups A and B showed marked thrombocytopenia, but platelet count was not affected in chronically infected rats. NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and ADA activities decreased (pplatelets from rats of groups A and B, when compared to the control group. In group C, only NTPDase and 5'-nucleoside activities decreased (pplatelet count and nucleotide/nucleoside hydrolysis were positive and statistically significant (pPlatelet aggregation was decreased in all infected groups, in comparison to the control group (pplatelets of T. evansi-infected animals might be related to thrombocytopenia, that by reducing the number of platelets, there was less release of ATP and ADP. Another possibility being suggested is that changes have occurred in the membrane of these cells, decreasing the expression of these enzymes in the cell membrane.

  17. Use of nucleoside (tide) analogues in patients with hepatitis B-related acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Doan Y; Seremba, Emmanuel; Ajmera, Veeral;

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of nucleoside(tide) analogues (NA) in the treatment of acute liver failure due to hepatitis B virus (HBV-ALF) remains controversial. We determined retrospectively the impact of NAs in a large cohort of patients with HBV-ALF....

  18. ACTIVATION OF G-PROTEINS BY RECEPTOR-STIMULATED NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASE IN DICTYOSTELIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bominaar, Anthony A.; Molijn, Anco C.; Pestel, Martine; Veron, Michel; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    Recently, interest in the enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase (EC 2.7.4.6) has increased as a result of its possible involvement in cell proliferation and development. Since NDP kinase is one of the major sources of GTP in cells, it has been suggested that the effects of an altered NDP kinase

  19. Aspartic acid based nucleoside phosphoramidate prodrugs as potent inhibitors of hepatitis C virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Munmun; Maiti, Mohitosh; Rozenski, Jef; De Jonghe, Steven; Herdewijn, Piet

    2015-05-14

    In view of a persistent threat to mankind, the development of nucleotide-based prodrugs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a constant effort in many medicinal chemistry groups. In an attempt to identify novel nucleoside phosphoramidate analogues for improving the anti-HCV activity, we have explored, for the first time, aspartic acid (Asp) and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) esters as amidate counterparts by considering three 2'-C-methyl containing nucleosides, 2'-C-Me-cytidine, 2'-C-Me-uridine and 2'-C-Me-2'-fluoro-uridine. Synthesis of these analogues required protection for the vicinal diol functionality of the sugar moiety and the amino group of the cytidine nucleoside to regioselectively perform phosphorylation reaction at the 5'-hydroxyl group. Anti-HCV data demonstrate that the Asp-based phosphoramidates are ∼550 fold more potent than the parent nucleosides. The inhibitory activity of the Asp-ProTides was higher than the Ala-ProTides, suggesting that Asp would be a potential amino acid candidate to be considered for developing novel antiviral prodrugs.

  20. Pd0-Catalyzed Methyl Transfer on Nucleosides and Oligonucleotides, Envisaged as a PET Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fouquet

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The methyl transfer reaction from activated monomethyltin, via a modified Stille coupling reaction, was studied under “ligandless” conditions on fully deprotected 5'-modified nucleosides and one dinucleotide. The reaction was optimized to proceed in a few minutes and quantitative yield, even under dilute conditions, thus affording a rapid and efficient new method for oligonucleotide labelling with carbon-11.

  1. Organometallic nucleoside analogues with ferrocenyl linker groups: synthesis and cancer cell line studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy V; Sallustrau, Antoine; Balzarini, Jan; Bedford, Matthew R; Eden, John C; Georgousi, Niki; Hodges, Nikolas J; Kedge, Jonathan; Mehellou, Youcef; Tselepis, Chris; Tucker, James H R

    2014-07-10

    Examples of organometallic compounds as nucleoside analogues are rare within the field of medicinal bioorganometallic chemistry. We report on the synthesis and properties of two chiral ferrocene derivatives containing a nucleobase and a hydroxyalkyl group. These so-called ferronucleosides show promising anticancer activity, with cytostatic studies on five different cancer cell lines indicating that both functional groups are required for optimal activity.

  2. An efficient and green preparation of 5-aminophosphonate substituted pyrimidine nucleosides under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Ying Zhang; Ying Ying Qu; Xue Sen Fan

    2010-01-01

    An environmentally benign and highly efficient one-pot preparation of α-aminophosphonates under solvent-free conditions was developed.By employing this method,5-aminophosphonate substituted pyrimidine nucleosides were synthesized in good to excellent yields starting from 5-formyl-2'-deoxyuridine,aniline and dimethylphosphite.

  3. Viral fitness: relation to drug resistance mutations and mechanisms involved: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jan; Henry, Kenneth R; Arts, Eric J; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E

    2007-03-01

    Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors constitute the backbone of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. One of the major obstacles in achieving the long-term efficacy of anti-HIV-1 therapy is the development of resistance. The advent of resistance mutations is usually accompanied by a change in viral replicative fitness. This review focuses on the most common nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated mutations and their effects on HIV-1 replicative fitness. Recent studies have explained the two main mechanisms of resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and their role in HIV-1 replicative fitness. The first involves mutations directly interfering with binding or incorporation and seems to impact replicative fitness more adversely than the second mechanism, which involves enhanced excision of the newly incorporated analogue. Further studies have helped explain the antagonistic effects between amino acid substitutions, K65R, L74V, M184V, and thymidine analogue mutations, showing how viral replicative fitness influences the evolution of thymidine analogue resistance pathways. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations impact HIV-1 replicative fitness to a lesser extent than protease resistance mutations. The monitoring of viral replicative fitness may help in the management of HIV-1 infection in highly antiretroviral-experienced individuals.

  4. Chemical and Conformational Diversity of Modified Nucleosides Affects tRNA Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Y. P. Väre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available RNAs are central to all gene expression through the control of protein synthesis. Four major nucleosides, adenosine, guanosine, cytidine and uridine, compose RNAs and provide sequence variation, but are limited in contributions to structural variation as well as distinct chemical properties. The ability of RNAs to play multiple roles in cellular metabolism is made possible by extensive variation in length, conformational dynamics, and the over 100 post-transcriptional modifications. There are several reviews of the biochemical pathways leading to RNA modification, but the physicochemical nature of modified nucleosides and how they facilitate RNA function is of keen interest, particularly with regard to the contributions of modified nucleosides. Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are the most extensively modified RNAs. The diversity of modifications provide versatility to the chemical and structural environments. The added chemistry, conformation and dynamics of modified nucleosides occurring at the termini of stems in tRNA’s cloverleaf secondary structure affect the global three-dimensional conformation, produce unique recognition determinants for macromolecules to recognize tRNAs, and affect the accurate and efficient decoding ability of tRNAs. This review will discuss the impact of specific chemical moieties on the structure, stability, electrochemical properties, and function of tRNAs.

  5. Intersubunit ionic interactions stabilize the nucleoside diphosphate kinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgescauld, Florian; Moynie, Lucile; Habersetzer, Johann;

    2013-01-01

    Most nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are hexamers. The C-terminal tail interacting with the neighboring subunits is crucial for hexamer stability. In the NDPK from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) this tail is missing. The quaternary structure of Mt-NDPK is essential for full enzymatic acti...

  6. Investigation of proton affinities and gas phase vibrational spectra of protonated nucleosides, deoxynucleosides, and their analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.U. Ung; K.T. Huynh; J.C. Poutsma; J. Oomens; G. Berden; T.H. Morton

    2015-01-01

    DNA nucleobases make use of hydrogen bonding, whether in associating to form the Watson-Crick double-helix or in producing alternative structures such as the G-quadruplex or the i-motif. Nucleoside proton-bound dimers provide an avenue for investigating characteristics that they possess within the i

  7. Fast repair of purine deoxynucleotide radical cations by rutin and quercetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨阳; 石益民; 王文锋; 贾忠建; 姚思德; 范波涛; 郑荣梁

    2001-01-01

    Repair effects of rutin and quercetin on purine deoxynucleotide radical cations were studied using pulse radiolysis technique. On electron pulse irradiation of N2 saturated deoxynucleotide aqueous solution containing 20 mmol/L K2S2O8, 200 mmol/L t-BuOH and rutin or quercetin, the transient absorption spectra of the deoxynucleotide radical cations decayed quickly. At the same time, the spectra of flavonoid phenoxyl radicals formed within several dozen microseconds. The results indicated that deoxynucleotide radical cations can be repaired by flavonoids. The rate constants of the repair reactions were 3.8×108-4.4×108 mol-1·L·s-1 and 1.3×108-1.8×108 mol-1·L·s-1 for dAMP and dGMP radical cations, respectively.

  8. Molecular and biochemical characterization of caffeine synthase and purine alkaloid concentration in guarana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpl, Flávia Camila; Kiyota, Eduardo; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Gonçalves, José Francisco de Carvalho; da Silva, José Ferreira; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Guarana seeds have the highest caffeine concentration among plants accumulating purine alkaloids, but in contrast with coffee and tea, practically nothing is known about caffeine metabolism in this Amazonian plant. In this study, the levels of purine alkaloids in tissues of five guarana cultivars were determined. Theobromine was the main alkaloid that accumulated in leaves, stems, inflorescences and pericarps of fruit, while caffeine accumulated in the seeds and reached levels from 3.3% to 5.8%. In all tissues analysed, the alkaloid concentration, whether theobromine or caffeine, was higher in young/immature tissues, then decreasing with plant development/maturation. Caffeine synthase activity was highest in seeds of immature fruit. A nucleotide sequence (PcCS) was assembled with sequences retrieved from the EST database REALGENE using sequences of caffeine synthase from coffee and tea, whose expression was also highest in seeds from immature fruit. The PcCS has 1083bp and the protein sequence has greater similarity and identity with the caffeine synthase from cocoa (BTS1) and tea (TCS1). A recombinant PcCS allowed functional characterization of the enzyme as a bifunctional CS, able to catalyse the methylation of 7-methylxanthine to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and theobromine to caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), respectively. Among several substrates tested, PcCS showed higher affinity for theobromine, differing from all other caffeine synthases described so far, which have higher affinity for paraxanthine. When compared to previous knowledge on the protein structure of coffee caffeine synthase, the unique substrate affinity of PcCS is probably explained by the amino acid residues found in the active site of the predicted protein.

  9. Purine-rich foods, protein intake, and the prevalence of hyperuricemia: the Shanghai Men's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, R; Xiang, Y-B; Elasy, T; Xu, W H; Cai, H; Cai, Q; Linton, M F; Fazio, S; Zheng, W; Shu, X-O

    2012-05-01

    Diet may play an important role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout. However, the association between dietary factors and hyperuricemia remains unclear, and few studies have investigated direct links between food intake and hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between high purine-content foods and protein intake with the prevalence of hyperuricemia by using data from a cross-sectional study of 3978 men aged 40-74 yrs living in Shanghai, China. Hyperuricemia was defined as blood uric acid level >7.0 mg/dl. One quarter of this population had hyperuricemia. Dietary information was collected by using a food frequency questionnaire. We collected information on anthropometric measurements and lifestyle factors and other potential confounding factors and disease history via interviews. Total protein consumption was not associated with hyperuricemia. We found a positive association between protein from animal sources and prevalence of hyperuricemia and an inverse association between protein from plant sources and hyperuricemia. However, these associations failed to reach significance in mutually adjusted analysis. Seafood intake was associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia. The ORs for quintiles of seafood intake (including fish and shellfish) were 1.00, 1.49, 1.35, 1.34, and 1.56 (p for trend: 0.01). An inverse association approaching significance between soy food consumption and hyperuricemia was observed (ORs: 1.00, 0.90, 0.70, 0.89, and 0.77 for quintiles of intake; p for trend: 0.07). No associations between consumption of purine-rich vegetables or meat and prevalence of hyperuricemia were observed. Our data suggest a direct association between seafood consumption and hyperuricemia and an inverse association between consumption of soy food and hyperuricemia among middle-aged, Chinese men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  11. Analysis of the Nucleoside Content of Cordyceps sinensis Using the Stepwise Gradient Elution Technique of Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,King-Wah(马敬桦); CHAU,Foo-Tim(周福添); WU,Jian-Yong(吴建勇)

    2004-01-01

    Nucleoside is the main class of active components in Cordyceps sinensis. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is one of the most commonly used methods in pharmacopoeias for analyzing chemical components of herbal medicine. Since the isocratic elution method cannot be applied successfully in TLC analysis for separating all the nucleoside components, the stepwise gradient elution has been developed in this work to separate eight nucleoside standards with success. In this way, quantitative analyses of the samples of Cordyceps sinensis were achieved via the proposed TLC procedure coupled with the scanning densitometric techniques of CAMAG and TLCQA methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  12. Synthesis, enzyme kinetics and computational evaluation of N-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) oxadiazolecarboxamides as glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Mária; Varga, Gergely; Szilágyi, Bence; Juhász, László; Docsa, Tibor; Gergely, Pál; Begum, Jaida; Hayes, Joseph M; Somsák, László

    2013-09-15

    All possible isomers of N-β-D-glucopyranosyl aryl-substituted oxadiazolecarboxamides were synthesised. O-Peracetylated N-cyanocarbonyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamine was transformed into the corresponding N-glucosyl tetrazole-5-carboxamide, which upon acylation gave N-glucosyl 5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carboxamides. The nitrile group of the N-cyanocarbonyl derivative was converted to amidoxime which was ring closed by acylation to N-glucosyl 5-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-carboxamides. A one-pot reaction of protected β-D-glucopyranosylamine with oxalyl chloride and then with arenecarboxamidoximes furnished N-glucosyl 3-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-5-carboxamides. Removal of the O-acetyl protecting groups by the Zemplén method produced test compounds which were evaluated as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase. Best inhibitors of these series were N-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) 5-(naphth-1-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-carboxamide (Ki = 30 μM), N-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) 5-(naphth-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-carboxamide (Ki =33 μM), and N-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) 3-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-carboxamide (Ki = 104 μM). ADMET property predictions revealed these compounds to have promising oral drug-like properties without any toxicity.

  13. Crystal structure of Caulobacter crescentus polynucleotide phosphorylase reveals a mechanism of RNA substrate channelling and RNA degradosome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Steven W; Gubbey, Tobias; Hug, Isabelle; Jenal, Urs; Luisi, Ben F

    2012-04-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) is an exoribonuclease that cleaves single-stranded RNA substrates with 3'-5' directionality and processive behaviour. Its ring-like, trimeric architecture creates a central channel where phosphorolytic active sites reside. One face of the ring is decorated with RNA-binding K-homology (KH) and S1 domains, but exactly how these domains help to direct the 3' end of single-stranded RNA substrates towards the active sites is an unsolved puzzle. Insight into this process is provided by our crystal structures of RNA-bound and apo Caulobacter crescentus PNPase. In the RNA-free form, the S1 domains adopt a 'splayed' conformation that may facilitate capture of RNA substrates. In the RNA-bound structure, the three KH domains collectively close upon the RNA and direct the 3' end towards a constricted aperture at the entrance of the central channel. The KH domains make non-equivalent interactions with the RNA, and there is a marked asymmetry within the catalytic core of the enzyme. On the basis of these data, we propose that structural non-equivalence, induced upon RNA binding, helps to channel substrate to the active sites through mechanical ratcheting. Structural and biochemical analyses also reveal the basis for PNPase association with RNase E in the multi-enzyme RNA degradosome assembly of the α-proteobacteria.

  14. An Imprinted Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregate (iCLEA of Sucrose Phosphorylase: Combining Improved Stability with Altered Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Desmet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The industrial use of sucrose phosphorylase (SP, an interesting biocatalyst for the selective transfer of α-glucosyl residues to various acceptor molecules, has been hampered by a lack of long-term stability and low activity towards alternative substrates. We have recently shown that the stability of the SP from Bifidobacterium adolescentis can be significantly improved by the formation of a cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA. In this work, it is shown that the transglucosylation activity of such a CLEA can also be improved by molecular imprinting with a suitable substrate. To obtain proof of concept, SP was imprinted with α-glucosyl glycerol and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. As a consequence, the enzyme’s specific activity towards glycerol as acceptor substrate was increased two-fold while simultaneously providing an exceptional stability at 60 °C. This procedure can be performed in an aqueous environment and gives rise to a new enzyme formulation called iCLEA.

  15. Activity of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in normal and cirrhotic rat liver during glycogen synthesis from glucose or fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezborodkina, Natalia N; Chestnova, Anna Yu; Okovity, Sergey V; Kudryavtsev, Boris N

    2014-03-01

    Cirrhotic patients often demonstrate glucose intolerance, one of the possible causes being a decreased glycogen-synthesizing capacity of the liver. At the same time, information about the rates of glycogen synthesis in the cirrhotic liver is scanty and contradictory. We studied the dynamics of glycogen accumulation and the activity of glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in the course of 120min after per os administration of glucose or fructose to fasted rats with CCl4-cirrhosis or fasted normal rats. Blood serum and liver pieces were sampled for examinations. In the normal rat liver administration of glucose/fructose initiated a fast accumulation of glycogen, while in the cirrhotic liver glycogen was accumulated with a 20min delay and at a lower rate. In the normal liver GS activity rose sharply and GPa activity dropped in the beginning of glycogen synthesis, but 60min later a high synthesis rate was sustained at the background of a high GS and GPa activity. Contrariwise, in the cirrhotic liver glycogen was accumulated at the background of a decreased GS activity and a low GPa activity. Refeeding with fructose resulted in a faster increase in the GS activity in both the normal and the cirrhotic liver than refeeding with glucose. To conclude, the rate of glycogen synthesis in the cirrhotic liver is lower than in the normal one, the difference being probably associated with a low GS activity.

  16. Hemoglobin interacting proteins and implications of spectrin hemoglobin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Avik; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2015-10-14

    In this report we have analyzed interacting partners of hemoglobin inside erythrocyte and sought possible implications of hemoglobin-spectrin interaction. Our list of identified cytosolic hemoglobin interacting proteins includes redox regulators like peroxiredoxin-2, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1, flavin reductase and chaperones like HSP70, α-hemoglobin stabilizing protein. Others include metabolic enzymes like carbonic anhydrase-1, selenium binding protein-1, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and nucleoside diphosphate kinase. Additionally, various membrane proteins like α and β spectrin, ankyrin, band3, protein4.1, actin and glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase have been shown to interact with hemoglobin. Our result indicates that major membrane skeleton protein spectrin, that also has a chaperone like activity, helps to fold the unstable alpha-globin chains in vitro. Taken together our results could provide insight into a protein network evolved around hemoglobin molecule inside erythrocyte that may add a new perspective in understanding the hemoglobin function and homeostasis.

  17. Synthesis and enzymatic evaluation of the guanosine analogue 2-amino-6-mercapto-7-methylpurine ribonucleoside (MESG): insights into the phosphorolysis reaction mechanism based on the blueprint transition state: S{sub N}1 or S{sub N}2?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DaSilveira Neto, Brenno A. [University of Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. of Medicinal and Technological Chemistry; Lapis, Alexandre A.M. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (Unipampa), Bage, RS (Brazil); Netz, Paulo A.; Dias, Silvio L. P.; Tamborim, Silvia M.; Dupont, Jairton [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry. Lab. of Molecular Catalysis; Spencer, John [University of Greenwich at Medway (United Kingdom). School of Science; Basso, Luiz A.; Santos, Digenes S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas em Biologia Molecular e Funcional

    2010-07-01

    A modified experimental procedure for the synthesis of MESG (2-amino-6-mercapto-7- methylpurine ribonucleoside) 1 has been successfully performed and its full characterization is presented. High resolution ESI(+)-MSMS indicates both the nucleoside bond cleavage as the main fragmentation in the gas phase and a possible S{sub N}1 mechanism. Ab initio transition state calculations based on the blue print transition state support this mechanistic rationale and discard an alternative S{sub N}2 mechanism. Assays using purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) enzyme (human and M. tuberculosis sources) indicate its efficiency in the phosphorolysis of MESG and allow the quantitative determination of inorganic phosphate in real time assay. (author)

  18. Pharmacological reversal of histone methylation presensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to nucleoside drugs: in vitro optimization and novel nanoparticle delivery studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hung, Sau Wai; Mody, Hardik; Marrache, Sean; Bhutia, Yangzom D; Davis, Franklin; Cho, Jong Hyun; Zastre, Jason; Dhar, Shanta; Chu, Chung K; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2013-01-01

    ...), in improving the chemosensitivity of pancreatic cancer to nucleoside analogs (i.e., gemcitabine). DZNep brought delayed but selective cytotoxicity to pancreatic cancer cells without affecting normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial...

  19. (1-Adamantyl{4-[(2-chloro-9-isopropyl-9H-purin-6-ylaminomethyl]phenyl}methanone trichloromethane solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rouchal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C26H30ClN5O·CHCl3, the purine molecule consists of essentially planar benzene and purine ring systems [maximum deviation 0.010 (4 Å for both ring systems] forming a dihedral angle of 85.52 (9°. Intermolecular N—H...N hydrogen bonds link adjacent molecules into centrosymmetric dimers. The structure also contains intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...N interactions. The benzene rings form offset face-to-face π–π stacking interactions with an interplanar distance of 3.541 (4 Å and a centroid-to-centroid distance of 4.022 (4 Å.

  20. Nucleoside modifications in RNA limit activation of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase and increase resistance to cleavage by RNase L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bart R; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Jha, Babal K; Silverman, Robert H; Weissman, Drew; Karikó, Katalin

    2011-11-01

    The interferon-induced enzymes 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and RNase L are key components of innate immunity involved in sensory and effector functions following viral infections. Upon binding target RNA, OAS is activated to produce 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates (2-5A) that activate RNase L, which then cleaves single-stranded self and non-self RNA. Modified nucleosides that are present in cellular transcripts have been shown to suppress activation of several RNA sensors. Here, we demonstrate that in vitro transcribed, unmodified RNA activates OAS, induces RNase L-mediated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage and is rapidly cleaved by RNase L. In contrast, RNA containing modified nucleosides activates OAS less efficiently and induces limited rRNA cleavage. Nucleoside modifications also make RNA resistant to cleavage by RNase L. Examining translation in RNase L(-/-) cells and mice confirmed that RNase L activity reduces translation of unmodified mRNA, which is not observed with modified mRNA. Additionally, mRNA containing the nucleoside modification pseudouridine is translated longer and has an extended half-life. The observation that modified nucleosides in RNA reduce 2-5A pathway activation joins OAS and RNase L to the list of RNA sensors and effectors whose functions are limited when RNA is modified, confirming the role of nucleoside modifications in suppressing immune recognition of RNA.

  1. Dereplication of known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in natural product extracts by capillary electrophoresis-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Shi, Qian; Wang, Yanlong; Li, Zhaoyong; Wang, Shuai

    2015-03-26

    Nucleobase and nucleoside compounds exist widely in various organisms. An often occurring problem in the discovery of new bioactive compounds from natural products is reisolation of known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds. To resolve this problem, a capillary electrophoresis-high resolution mass spectrometry (CE-HR-MS) method providing both rapid separation and accurate mass full-scan MS data was developed for the first time to screen and dereplicate known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in crude extracts of natural products. Instrumental parameters were optimized to obtain optimum conditions for CE separation and electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) detection. The proposed method was verified to be precise, reproducible, and sensitive. Using this method, known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in different marine medicinal organisms including Syngnathus acus Linnaeus; Hippocampus japonicus Kaup and Anthopleura lanthogrammica Berkly were successfully observed and identified. This work demonstrates that CE-HR-MS combined with an accurate mass database may be used as a powerful tool for dereplicating known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in different types of natural products. Rapid dereplication of known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds allows researchers to focus on other leads with greater potential to yield new substances.

  2. Dereplication of Known Nucleobase and Nucleoside Compounds in Natural Product Extracts by Capillary Electrophoresis-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nucleobase and nucleoside compounds exist widely in various organisms. An often occurring problem in the discovery of new bioactive compounds from natural products is reisolation of known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds. To resolve this problem, a capillary electrophoresis-high resolution mass spectrometry (CE-HR-MS method providing both rapid separation and accurate mass full-scan MS data was developed for the first time to screen and dereplicate known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in crude extracts of natural products. Instrumental parameters were optimized to obtain optimum conditions for CE separation and electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS detection. The proposed method was verified to be precise, reproducible, and sensitive. Using this method, known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in different marine medicinal organisms including Syngnathus acus Linnaeus; Hippocampus japonicus Kaup and Anthopleura lanthogrammica Berkly were successfully observed and identified. This work demonstrates that CE-HR-MS combined with an accurate mass database may be used as a powerful tool for dereplicating known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in different types of natural products. Rapid dereplication of known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds allows researchers to focus on other leads with greater potential to yield new substances.

  3. The development and validation of an immunoassay for the measurement of anti-thymidine phosphorylase antibodies in mouse and dog sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Charlotte; Levene, Michelle; Bax, Bridget E

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocyte encapsulated thymidine phosphorylase (EE-TP) is under development as an enzyme replacement therapy for mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), a fatal metabolic disorder resulting from an inherited deficiency of the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase. We report here the development and validation of a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) bridging immunoassay to support Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant preclinical safety studies of EE-TP in the mouse and dog. Affinity-purified rabbit anti-E. coli thymidine phosphorylase (TP) antibody was used as a calibrator standard with an effective working range of 2.5-7500 ng/mL. The minimum required dilution (MRD) for both mouse and dog sera was 1:10. The mean analytical recoveries for anti-TP antibodies spiked into serum at 70 ng/mL and 7000 ng/mL were 117.9% and 93.2%, respectively for mouse, and 112.0% and 104.3%, respectively for dog. The intra-assay precision (coefficient of variation, CV) ranged between 1.1% and 8.0% in mouse serum, and 1.9% and 2.5% in dog serum. Inter-assay precision ranged between -1.6% and 6.7% in mouse serum, and -13.0% and -2.5% in dog serum. Assay cut-point/screening cut-point correction factors were 201.37 and 44.4, respectively for mouse and dog sera. For future analysis of positive test samples, less than 37.12% (mouse) and 31.41% (dog) inhibition of the assay signal in the confirmation assay will confer anti-TP antibody specificity. Assay drift and hook effects (prozone) were not observed. The intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy for robustness were within ±20%.

  4. Function of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in glycogen phosphorylase: a model study using 6-fluoro-5'-deoxypyridoxal- and 5'-deoxypyridoxal-reconstituted enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.C.; Scott, R.D.; Graves, D.J.

    1987-01-27

    A new vitamin B/sub 6/ analogue, 6-fluoro-5'-deoxypyridoxal (6-FDPL), was synthesized and characterized. This analogue, as well as 6-fluoropyridoxal (6-FPAL), 6-fluoropyridoxal phosphate (6-FPLP), and 6-fluoropyridoxine, showed positive heteronuclear /sup 1/H-/sup 18/F nuclear Overhauser effects between the 5'-protons and the 6-fluorine. Apophosphorylase reconstituted with 6-FDLP showed 1% of the activity of the native enzyme in the presence of phosphite. The kinetic pattern, apparent pH optimum of activity, and the activity-temperature dependency of the 6-FDPL-enzyme were virtually identical with those of phosphorylase reconstituted with the parent compound, 6-FPAL except the K/sub m/ of phosphite toward the 6-FDPL-enzyme was 9 times higher than that with the 6-FPAL-enzyme and the 6-FDPL-enzyme showed a lower V/sub max/ value. Phosphorylase reconstituted with 5'-deoxypyridoxal (DPL) also showed activity in the presence of phosphite. The kinetics and the temperature-activity dependency of this reconstituted enzyme were investigated. /sup 19/F nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the binding of glucose 1-phosphate to a 6-FDPL-enzyme-adenosine 5'-phosphate (AMP) complex shifted the /sup 19/F signal 0.6 ppm upfield, whereas a 2.1 ppm change was observed when the 6-FPAL-enzyme-AMP formed a complex with glucose 1-phosphate. Analysis of the activation parameters, activation enthalpy and activation entropy, of the reaction of glycogen degradation catalyzed by phosphorylase containing pyridoxal phosphate, 6-FDPL, pyridoxal, or DPL showed that modifications of the coenzyme molecule affected only the activation entropy, not the activation enthalpy. Results of this study indicate that the protein structure surrounding the coenzyme molecule, as well as the coenzyme configuration, is altered upon the binding of ligands.

  5. Crystal structures of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase complexes with thiocarbamate non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallarossa, Andrea; Cesarini, Sara; Ranise, Angelo; Ponassi, Marco; Unge, Torsten; Bolognesi, Martino

    2008-01-25

    O-Phthalimidoethyl-N-arylthiocarbamates (TCs) have been recently identified as a new class of potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs), by means of computer-aided drug design techniques [Ranise A. Spallarossa, S. Cesarini, F. Bondavalli, S. Schenone, O. Bruno, G. Menozzi, P. Fossa, L. Mosti, M. La Colla, et al., Structure-based design, parallel synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and molecular modeling studies of thiocarbamates, new potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor isosteres of phenethylthiazolylthiourea derivatives, J. Med. Chem. 48 (2005) 3858-3873]. To elucidate the atomic details of RT/TC interaction and validate an earlier TC docking model, the structures of three RT/TC complexes were determined at 2.8-3.0A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The conformations adopted by the enzyme-bound TCs were analyzed and compared with those of bioisosterically related NNRTIs.

  6. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Sikarwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria associated with hospital acquired infections. This bacterium possesses a variety of resistance mechanisms which makes it more difficult to control the bacterium with conventional drugs, and, so far no effective drug treatment is available against it. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase is an important enzyme, which maintains the total nucleotide triphosphate pool inside the cell by the transfer of γ-phosphate from NTPs to NDPs. The role of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk has also been observed in pathogenesis in other organisms. However, intensive studies are needed to decipher its other putative roles in Acinetobacter baumannii. In the present study, we have successfully cloned the gene encoding Ndk and achieved overexpression in bacterial host BL-21 (DE3. The overexpressed protein is further purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA chromatography.

  7. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, Juhi; Kaushik, Sanket; Sinha, Mau; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria associated with hospital acquired infections. This bacterium possesses a variety of resistance mechanisms which makes it more difficult to control the bacterium with conventional drugs, and, so far no effective drug treatment is available against it. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase is an important enzyme, which maintains the total nucleotide triphosphate pool inside the cell by the transfer of γ-phosphate from NTPs to NDPs. The role of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk) has also been observed in pathogenesis in other organisms. However, intensive studies are needed to decipher its other putative roles in Acinetobacter baumannii. In the present study, we have successfully cloned the gene encoding Ndk and achieved overexpression in bacterial host BL-21 (DE3). The overexpressed protein is further purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) chromatography. PMID:23662205

  8. Rapid and liquid-based selection of genetic switches using nucleoside kinase fused with aminoglycoside phosphotransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tominaga

    Full Text Available The evolutionary design of genetic switches and circuits requires iterative rounds of positive (ON- and negative (OFF- selection. We previously reported a rapid OFF selection system based on the kinase activity of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (hsvTK on the artificial mutator nucleoside dP. By fusing hsvTK with the kanamycin resistance marker aminoglycoside-(3'-phosphotransferase (APH, we established a novel selector system for genetic switches. Due to the bactericidal nature of kanamycin and nucleoside-based lethal mutagenesis, both positive and negative selection could be completed within several hours. Using this new selector system, we isolated a series of homoserine lactone-inducible genetic switches with different expression efficiencies from libraries of the Vibrio fischeri lux promoter in two days, using only liquid handling.

  9. Transport of pyrimidine nucleosides in cells of Escherichia coli K 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, B; Munch-Petersen

    1975-11-15

    1. The transport of pyrimidine mucleosides into cells of Escherichis coli has been investigated in mutant strains which cannot metabolize these nucleosides. Such cells transport and concentrate purimidine mucleosides several hindredfold. 2. The transport is inhibited by energy poisons and by sulfhydryl reagents. 3. Pyrimidine mucleosides compete mutually for transport. Adenosine is also a strong competitor while guanosine and inosine are weak competitors. 4. The rate of pyrimidine mucleoside transport is shown to be under control of the cytR and deoR gene products, which are also known to regulate the synthesis of nucleoside-catabolizing enzymes. The transport system is repressed by growth on glucose, as is the synthesis of the enzymes.

  10. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  11. Study of Copper and Purine-Copper Complexes on Modified Carbon Electrodes by Cyclic and Elimination Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Zerzankova, Lenka; Dycka, Filip; Mikelova, Radka; Jelen, Frantisek

    2008-01-01

    Using a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode (PIGE) and mercury-modified pyrolytic graphite electrode with basal orientation (Hg-PGEb) copper(II) and Cu(II)-DNA purine base solutions have been studied by cyclic (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) in connection with elimination voltammetry with linear scan (EVLS). In chloride and bromide solutions (pH 6), the redox process of Cu(II) proceeded on PIGE with two cathodic and two anodic potentially separated signals. According to the elimination function E4, the first cathodic peak corresponds to the reduction Cu(II) + e- → Cu(I) with the possibility of fast disproportionation 2Cu(I) → Cu(II)+ Cu(0). The E4 of the second cathodic peak signalized an electrode process controlled by a surface reaction. The electrode system of Cu(II) on Hg-PGEb in borate buffer (pH 9.2) was characterized by one cathodic and one anodic peak. Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on PIGE and cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) on Hg-PGEb were carried out at potentials where the reduction of copper ions took place and Cu(I)-purine complexes were formed. By using ASV and CSV in combination with EVLS, the sensitivity of Cu(I)-purine complex detection was enhanced relative to either ASV or CSV alone, resulting in higher peak currents of more than one order of magnitude. The statistical treatment of CE data was used to determine the reproducibility of measurements. Our results show that EVLS in connection with the stripping procedure is useful for both qualitative and quantitative microanalysis of purine derivatives and can also reveal details of studied electrode processes. PMID:27879715

  12. Diisopropyl {[(R-2-(2-amino-6-chloro-9H-purin-9-yl-1-methylethoxy]methyl}phosphonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Zhao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H25ClN5O4P, the r.m.s. deviation for the purine ring system is 0.0165 Å. The coordination about the P atom is a distorted tetrahedron [O=P—O angles = 116.70 (6 and 109.87 (6°]. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.

  13. Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues with Potential Antiviral Activity against Negative Strand RNA Virus Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    75 out by the same enzyme responsible for the first phosphorylation. The primary target for their activity is the DNA polymerisation reaction against...was the 229 first nucleoside analogue to have clinical usage for the treatment of herpetic eye infections. It was closely followed by 5...sequence and also to see whether it was possible to make an acid chloride in the presence of hydroxyl groups or whether polymerisation or other side

  14. Detergent inhibited, heat labile nucleoside triphosphatase in cores of avian myeloblastosis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1978-01-01

    Endogenous DNA synthesis was studied in isolated core particles of avian myeloblastosis virus. It was found that cores contained an enzymatic activity which rapidly converted the added nucleoside triphosphates to diphosphates (but not further) at 0 degrees C, thus inhibiting DNA synthesis. This t....... This triphosphatase probably originates from the viral membranes. In the cores the enzyme is completely inactivated by low concentrations (0.02%) of Nonident P-40. Also, the enzyme is very thermolabile and denatures rapidly at 38 degrees C....

  15. Comparison of Clostridium difficile detection by monolayer and by inhibition of nucleoside uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhr, J.E.; Trent, D.J.; Collmann, I.R.

    1987-02-01

    Detection and identification of Clostridium difficile toxin by traditional monolayer assay were compared with results obtained by a new procedure based on toxin-dependent inhibition of target cell uptake of a radioactive nucleoside. A high degree of correlation was noted between the two determinations. Although the new procedure was quantitative and objective, its value is seen at present as a rapid screen that may support results obtained in monolayers and as a potential assay for other, currently unidentified, toxins.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Bridged Nucleosides on Thermus aquaticus DNA Polymerase and Insight into the Binding Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kun Kim

    Full Text Available Modified nucleosides have the potential to inhibit DNA polymerases for the treatment of viral infections and cancer. With the hope of developing potent drug candidates by the modification of the 2',4'-position of the ribose with the inclusion of a bridge, efforts were focused on the inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase using quantitative real time PCR, and the results revealed the significant inhibitory effects of 2',4'-bridged thymidine nucleoside on the polymerase. Study on the mode of inhibition revealed the competitive mechanism with which the 2',4'-bridged thymidine operates. With a Ki value of 9.7 ± 1.1 μM, the 2',4'-bridged thymidine proved to be a very promising inhibitor. Additionally, docking analysis showed that all the nucleosides including 2',4'-bridged thymidine were able to dock in the active site, indicating that the substrate analogs reflect a structural complementarity to the enzyme active site. The analysis also provided evidence that Asp610 was a key binding site for 2',4'-bridged thymidine. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed to further understand the conformational variations of the binding. The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD values for the peptide backbone of the enzyme and the nitrogenous base of the inhibitor stabilized within 0.8 and 0.2 ns, respectively. Furthermore, the MD analysis indicates substantial conformational change in the ligand (inhibitor as the nitrogenous base rotated anticlockwise with respect to the sugar moiety, complemented by the formation of several new hydrogen bonds where Arg587 served as a pivot axis for binding formation. In conclusion, the active site inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase by 2',4'-bridged thymidine suggests the potential of bridged nucleosides as drug candidates.

  17. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1-mediated uptake of 5-azacytidine enhances DNA demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Maria; Stresemann, Carlo; Keller, Daniela; Brom, Manuela; Schirrmacher, Esther; Keppler, Dietrich; Lyko, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine (5-azaCyd) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine have found increasing use for the treatment of myeloid leukemias and solid tumors. Both nucleoside analogues must be transported into cells and phosphorylated before they can be incorporated into DNA and inactivate DNA methyltransferases. The members of the human equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporter families mediate transport of natural nucleosides and some nucleoside analogues into cells. However, the molecular identity of the transport proteins responsible for mediating the uptake of 5-azanucleosides has remained unknown. To this end, we have generated a stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney strain II cell line expressing recombinant hCNT1. An antiserum directed against hCNT1 specifically detected the protein in the apical membrane of hCNT1-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Using [14C]5-azaCyd, we show here that hCNT1 mediated the Na+-dependent uptake of this drug with a Km value of 63 micromol/L. Na+-dependent transport of radiolabeled cytidine, uridine, and 5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine further showed the functionality of the transporter. hCNT1-expressing cells were significantly more sensitive to 5-azaCyd, and drug-dependent covalent trapping of DNA methyltransferase 1 was substantially more pronounced. Importantly, these results correlated with a significant sensitization of hCNT1-expressing cells toward the demethylating effects of 5-azaCyd and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In conclusion, our study identifies 5-azaCyd as a novel substrate for hCNT1 and provides direct evidence that hCNT1 is involved in the DNA-demethylating effects of this drug.

  18. Novel indazole non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors using molecular hybridization based on crystallographic overlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyn H; Allan, Gill; Barba, Oscar; Burt, Catherine; Corbau, Romuald; Dupont, Thomas; Knöchel, Thorsten; Irving, Steve; Middleton, Donald S; Mowbray, Charles E; Perros, Manos; Ringrose, Heather; Swain, Nigel A; Webster, Robert; Westby, Mike; Phillips, Chris

    2009-02-26

    A major problem associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for the treatment of HIV is their lack of resilience to mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. Using structural overlays of the known inhibitors efavirenz and capravirine complexed in RT as a starting point, and structure-based drug design techniques, we have created a novel series of indazole NNRTIs that possess excellent metabolic stability and mutant resilience.

  19. Investigating the role of nucleoside transporters in the resistance of colorectal cancer to 5-fluorouracil therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Lee Cheng; Mal, Mainak; Koh, Poh Koon; Cheah, Peh Yean; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Ho, Han Kiat

    2013-03-01

    Resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) poses a constant challenge to the management of colorectal cancer (CRC). Consistent efforts were called for to identify molecular markers that can effectively predict patients' response. This study investigated the role of nucleoside transporters, particularly human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), in predicting clinical treatment outcome with 5FU-based therapy. Expression of a panel of nucleoside transporters in biopsied tumors from 7 CRC patients was measured by real-time PCR prior to 5FU-based chemotherapy. To provide mechanistic support for the role of hENT1 in 5FU resistance, cell viability of Caco-2 cells was measured, following incubation with varying concentrations of 5FU and a hENT1 inhibitor. Biopsied tumors were further subjected to global metabonomic profiling using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. High hENT1 levels in tumor tissue correlated with poor clinical response to 5FU. Corroborating with the clinical findings, chemical inhibition of hENT1 in Caco-2 cells resulted in an augmentation of 5FU efficacy. Metabonomic profiling revealed that the pretreatment metabotype associated with non-responders to 5FU therapy was distinct from metabotype of responders (partial least-squares discriminant analysis Q(2) (cumulative) = 0.898, R(2)X = 0.513, R(2)Y = 0.996). This is the first clinical report on the relationships of intratumoral expression of nucleoside transporters and tumor metabotype with response to 5FU among CRC patients. Coupled to the in vitro findings, our preliminary data suggested hENT1 to be a potential codeterminant of clinical response to 5FU.

  20. Synthesis of triazole-nucleoside phosphoramidites and their use in solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Brandon J; Efthymiou, Tim C; Desaulniers, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-19

    Triazole-backbone oligonucleotides are macromolecules that have one or more triazole units that are acting as a backbone mimic. Triazoles within the backbone have been used within oligonucleotides for a variety of applications. This unit describes the preparation and synthesis of two triazole-nucleoside phosphoramidites [uracil-triazole-uracil (UtU) and cytosine-triazole-uracil (CtU)] based on a PNA-like scaffold, and their incorporation within oligonucleotides.