Sample records for purification capacity andoxygen

  1. Novel peptide ligand with high binding capacity for antibody purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, L. N.; Gustavsson, P. E.; Michael, R.


    Small synthetic ligands for protein purification have become increasingly interesting with the growing need for cheap chromatographic materials for protein purification and especially for the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Today, Protein A-based chromatographic resins are the most...... commonly used capture step in mAb down stream processing; however, the use of Protein A chromatography is less attractive due to toxic ligand leakage as well as high cost. Whether used as an alternative to the Protein A chromatographic media or as a subsequent polishing step, small synthetic peptide...... ligands have an advantage over biological ligands; they are cheaper to produce, ligand leakage by enzymatic degradation is either eliminated or significantly reduced, and they can in general better withstand cleaning in place (CIP) conditions such as 0.1 M NaOH. Here, we present a novel synthetic peptide...

  2. An Evaluation of the Importance of Self- Purification Capacity of Rivers in Developing Effluent Discharge Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asheg Moalla, M.; Malek Mohammadi, B.; Torabian, A.


    In current effluent discharge standards of the most countries such as Iran, self-purification capacity of rivers have not been considered. These standards developed a similar effluent discharge standard for all of the rivers without considering hydrological and hydraulic conditions of rivers. In this paper in order to show the importance of self-purification capacity and differences between the rivers, in developing effluent discharge standard, two rivers- Gheshlagh River in Kurdistan and Sabzkooh River in Chaharmahal Bakhtiari- as samples were selected., and with applying Qual2kw model, current Iran effluent discharge standards were used to simulate the state of each river. The simulation showed that compliance with this standard maintain an appropriate qualitative condition of Gheshlagh River but in Sabzkoh River, due to the large number of pollution sources, these standards not only does not help to maintain the water quality but will have a very negative impact on water quality. Then Using simulation of river quality, the authorized appropriate limit based on self-purification capacity and the number and type of pollutants were estimated and showed that to develop accurate and efficient standards the self-purification capacity, the number of pollution sources, the amount of waste load and other different conditions of rivers also should be considered.

  3. High capacity argon extraction and purification system. [Suitable for age estimation of rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balogh, K; Morik, Gy [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia Atommag Kutato Intezete, Debrecen


    A high capacity metal-glass argon extraction and purification system has been developed for K/Ar dating of geologic materials. A set of samples can be loaded simultaneously and degassed in turn in the system by high frequency induction heating in a molybdenum crucible. The argon purification is carried out by titanium sponge, molecular sieve, copper oxide and glass and charcoal filled traps cooled by liquid nitrogen. The /sup 38/Ar spike and the atmospheric argon used for calibrating the mass spectrometer are dispensed by a gas-pipette system. 80-120 minutes after starting the degassing of the sample, the purified argon can be introduced into the mass spectrometer; the gettering materials regenerate in 1-5 hours, thus 1-3 samples may be analysed a day. The atmospheric argon inflow during an experimental process is less than 5x10/sup -8/ cc STP.

  4. Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck


    In Arequipa, Peru’s second largest city, engineers work hard to control water flows and provide different sectors with clean and sufficient water. In 2011, only 10 percent of the totality of water used daily by Arequipa’s then close to 1 million people—in households, tourism, industry, and mining......—was treated before it was returned to the river where it continues its flow downstream towards cultivated fields and, finally, into the Pacific Ocean. It takes specialized knowledge and manifold technologies to manage water and sustain life in Arequipa, and engineers are central actors for making water flow...... of categories can be understood as practices of purification. However, a purely technical grip on water is never possible. Unruly elements, like weather, contamination, urban dwellers, and competing interests, interfere and make processes of intervention unstable. Water is never completely cleaned, and, equally...

  5. Refined hyperentanglement purification of two-photon systems for high-capacity quantum communication with cavity-assisted interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Fang-Fang; Li, Tao; Long, Gui-Lu, E-mail:


    Hyperentanglement, defined as the entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a photonic quantum system, has attracted much attention recently as it can improve the channel capacity of quantum communication largely. Here we present a refined hyperentanglement purification protocol (hyper-EPP) for two-photon systems in mixed hyperentangled states in both the spatial-mode and polarization DOFs, assisted by cavity quantum electrodynamics. By means of the spatial (polarization) quantum state transfer process, the quantum states that are discarded in the previous hyper-EPPs can be preserved. That is, the spatial (polarization) state of a four-photon system with high fidelity can be transformed into another four-photon system with low fidelity, not disturbing its polarization (spatial) state, which makes this hyper-EPP take the advantage of possessing a higher efficiency.

  6. Purification, characterization and anti-aging capacity of mycelia zinc polysaccharide by Lentinus edodes SD-08. (United States)

    Wang, Liqin; Wang, Cuiqin; Gao, Xia; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Lin; Zhao, Huajie; Jia, Shouhua; Jia, Le


    In the modern society, aging had been a major problem. People may rely on many medicines to delay it. However, lots of medicines were chemosynthetic, and they would do a bad side-effect on human body. Microbial sources could be used as a potential means of producing natural antioxidants. Lentinus edodes, commercial obtained in daily life, had recently become more attractive in physiological research. Zinc was now considered as a major element in assuring the correct functioning of an organism and essential for maintaining coordination of the major homeostatic networks. To investigate the bioconversion of zinc and the physiological effects of their complex (MZPS), the present studies were processed. Mycelia polysaccharides (MPS) and mycelia zinc polysaccharides (MZPS) of Lentinus edodes SD-08 were extracted by hot water leaching and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography separately. The zinc content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The evaluation of monosaccharide compositions and proportions used gas chromatogram. The analysis of molecular weight used HPGPC chromatogram. The typical structure of polysaccharide was evaluated by IR spectrum. The antioxidant activities in vitro measured through reducing power, the scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The anti-aging activities in vivo measured through the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), GSH peroxide (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). MPS and MZPS of Lentinus edodes SD-08 were extracted and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography separately, and four fractions (MPS-1, MPS-2, MZPS-1 and MZPS-2) were obtained. In addition, MPS composing of rhamnose, arabinose and mannose (molar proportion = 1.75:1.00:3.02) and MZPS containing rhamnose, arabinose, mannose and glucose (molar proportion = 7.19:2.26:1.00:8.39) were investigated by gas chromatography

  7. Labelling of a biotin-derivative by 99mTc, its purification, and binding-capacity to avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollok, J.M.; Schultes, B.; Oehr, P.


    The paper summarizes the procedure of 99m Tc-labelling of NHS-LC-Biotin. It describes the conditions for the cemical reaction, the purification, and the determination of the degree of purity. The binding of the purified product to avidin is at least 94%. (orig.) [de

  8. Effect of charcoal on water purification


    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo


    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  9. Purification of rhamnolipid using colloidal magnetic nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phospholipid-coated colloidal magnetic nanoparticles with mean magnetite core size of 9 nm are shown to be effective ion exchange media for the recovery and purification of Rhaminolipid from culture mixtures. These particles have high adsorption capacity for purification (an order of magnitude larger than the best ...

  10. Strep-Tagged Protein Purification. (United States)

    Maertens, Barbara; Spriestersbach, Anne; Kubicek, Jan; Schäfer, Frank


    The Strep-tag system can be used to purify recombinant proteins from any expression system. Here, protocols for lysis and affinity purification of Strep-tagged proteins from E. coli, baculovirus-infected insect cells, and transfected mammalian cells are given. Depending on the amount of Strep-tagged protein in the lysate, a protocol for batch binding and subsequent washing and eluting by gravity flow can be used. Agarose-based matrices with the coupled Strep-Tactin ligand are the resins of choice, with a binding capacity of up to 9 mg ml(-1). For purification of lower amounts of Strep-tagged proteins, the use of Strep-Tactin magnetic beads is suitable. In addition, Strep-tagged protein purification can also be automated using prepacked columns for FPLC or other liquid-handling chromatography instrumentation, but automated purification is not discussed in this protocol. The protocols described here can be regarded as an update of the Strep-Tag Protein Handbook (Qiagen, 2009). © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Technological assumptions for biogas purification. (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle


    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  12. Polyether sulfone/hydroxyapatite mixed matrix membranes for protein purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junfen, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, North People Road 2999, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wu, Lishun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Heze University, Daxue Road 2269, Heze, Shandong Province 274015 (China)


    This work proposes a novel approach for protein purification from solution using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising of hydroxyapatite (HAP) inside polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. The influence of HAP particle loading on membrane morphology is studied. The MMMs are further characterized concerning permeability and adsorption capacity. The MMMs show purification of protein via both diffusion as well as adsorption, and show the potential of using MMMs for improvements in protein purification techniques. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. The properties and structures of MMMs prepared by immersion phase separation process were characterized by pure water flux, BSA adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  14. Water purification in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giammarchi, M. [Infn Milano (Italy); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Goretti, A.; Ianni, A. [Princeton University (United States); Miramonti, L. [Dip. di Fisica dell' Università di Milano e Infn (Italy)


    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian


    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi....../L and 95 and 400 mg F/L respectively in natural and synthetic solutions. The fluoride removal capacities observed were 4.6 mg F/g bone char for the column system and 2.7 mg F/g bone char for the batch system in case of synthetic magadi solution. It is however concluded that the batch system is the best...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  16. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.


    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  17. Automated multi-dimensional purification of tagged proteins. (United States)

    Sigrell, Jill A; Eklund, Pär; Galin, Markus; Hedkvist, Lotta; Liljedahl, Pia; Johansson, Christine Markeland; Pless, Thomas; Torstenson, Karin


    The capacity for high throughput purification (HTP) is essential in fields such as structural genomics where large numbers of protein samples are routinely characterized in, for example, studies of structural determination, functionality and drug development. Proteins required for such analysis must be pure and homogenous and available in relatively large amounts. AKTA 3D system is a powerful automated protein purification system, which minimizes preparation, run-time and repetitive manual tasks. It has the capacity to purify up to 6 different His6- or GST-tagged proteins per day and can produce 1-50 mg protein per run at >90% purity. The success of automated protein purification increases with careful experimental planning. Protocol, columns and buffers need to be chosen with the final application area for the purified protein in mind.

  18. Uranium hexafluoride purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de


    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF 6 -HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF 6 -HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  19. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Air/Water Purification (United States)


    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  1. Water Purification Product (United States)


    Ecomaster, an affiliate of BioServe Space Technologies, this PentaPure technology has been used to purify water for our nation's Space Shuttle missions since 1981. WTC-Ecomaster of Mirneapolis, Minnesota manufactures water purification systems under the brand name PentaPure (TM). BioServe researcher Dr. George Marchin, of Kansas State University, first demonstrated the superiority of this technology and licensed it to WTC. Marchin continues to perform microgravity research in the development of new technologies for the benefit of life on Earth.

  2. Gas purification project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broothaerts, J.; Claes, J.; Collard, G.; Goossens, W.; Harnie, R.; Heylen, P.; Vaesen, J.; Beukelaer, R. de; Dubois, G.; Glibert, R.; Mestrez, J.; Zahlen, A.


    Conceptual and experimental studies on LMFBR reprocessing and reactor off-gas purification systems are summarized. Iodine sorption on zeolites, low-temperature adsorption of noble gases on charcoal and catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, simulating tritium, are being studied in laboratory set-ups. A pilot loop with 25 m 3 h -1 throughput has been constructed. Results are quoted from the first phase of the iodine removal programme by scrubbing systems. Further extension of the test loop, comprising off-gases conditioning to removal of krypton in a cryodistillation unit, has been prepared. Delay-bed studies on 133 Xe extraction from LWR off-gases are reported. (author)

  3. Rational and systematic protein purification process development: the next generation. (United States)

    Nfor, Beckley K; Verhaert, Peter D E M; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Ottens, Marcel


    Current biopharmaceutical manufacturing strongly relies on using purification platform processes, offering harmonization of practices and speed-to-market. However, the ability of such processes to respond quickly to anticipated higher quality and capacity demands is under question. Here, we describe novel approaches for purification process development that incorporate biothermodynamics, modern high throughput experimentation and simulation tools. Such development leads to production platform-specific databases containing thermodynamic protein descriptors of major host cell proteins over a range of experimental conditions. This will pave the way for in silico purification process development, providing better process understanding and the potential to respond quickly to product quality and market demands. Future efforts will focus on improving this field further and enabling more rationale in process development.

  4. Statistical and Judgmental Criteria for Scale Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Durach, Christian F.; Kembro, Joakim


    of scale purification, to critically analyze the current state of scale purification in supply chain management (SCM) research and to provide suggestions for advancing the scale-purification process. Design/methodology/approach A framework for making scale-purification decisions is developed and used...

  5. Future of antibody purification. (United States)

    Low, Duncan; O'Leary, Rhona; Pujar, Narahari S


    Antibody purification seems to be safely ensconced in a platform, now well-established by way of multiple commercialized antibody processes. However, natural evolution compels us to peer into the future. This is driven not only by a large, projected increase in the number of antibody therapies, but also by dramatic improvements in upstream productivity, and process economics. Although disruptive technologies have yet escaped downstream processes, evolution of the so-called platform is already evident in antibody processes in late-stage development. Here we perform a wide survey of technologies that are competing to be part of that platform, and provide our [inherently dangerous] assessment of those that have the most promise.

  6. Recovery and purification of ethylene (United States)

    Reyneke, Rian [Katy, TX; Foral, Michael J [Aurora, IL; Lee, Guang-Chung [Houston, TX; Eng, Wayne W. Y. [League City, TX; Sinclair, Iain [Warrington, GB; Lodgson, Jeffery S [Naperville, IL


    A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.

  7. Online Oxide Contamination Measurement and Purification Demonstration (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Godfroy, T. J.; Webster, K. L.; Garber, A. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Childers, D. J.


    Liquid metal sodium-potassium (NaK) has advantageous thermodynamic properties indicating its use as a fission reactor coolant for a surface (lunar, martian) power system. A major area of concern for fission reactor cooling systems is system corrosion due to oxygen contaminants at the high operating temperatures experienced. A small-scale, approximately 4-L capacity, simulated fission reactor cooling system employing NaK as a coolant was fabricated and tested with the goal of demonstrating a noninvasive oxygen detection and purification system. In order to generate prototypical conditions in the simulated cooling system, several system components were designed, fabricated, and tested. These major components were a fully-sealed, magnetically-coupled mechanical NaK pump, a graphite element heated reservoir, a plugging indicator system, and a cold trap. All system components were successfully demonstrated at a maximum system flow rate of approximately 150 cc/s at temperatures up to 550 C. Coolant purification was accomplished using a cold trap before and after plugging operations which showed a relative reduction in oxygen content.

  8. Water Purification Systems (United States)


    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  9. Liquid metal purification device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takao; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro.


    The device of the present invention concerns a liquid metal purification device for removing and purifying impuries in liquid metal sodium used as coolants of an FBR type reactor. A vessel having a group of pipes made of hydrogen permeable metal at the inside thereof is disposed to the inlet pipeline of a cold trap. The group of hydrogen permeable metal pipes is connected to an exhaust pipe and a vacuum pump, so that the inside of the pipes is exhausted. Liquid metal sodium branched from the main pipeline of a coolant system passes through the outer side of the group of the hydrogen permeable metal pipes. In this cae, hydrogen contained as impurities in the liquid metal sodium diffuses and permeates the hydrogen permeation metal pipes and enters into the pipe group and is discharged out of the system by the vacuum pump. This can mitigate the hydrogen removing burden of the cold trap, to extend the device life time. (I.N.)

  10. Nanocellulose-Based Materials for Water Purification. (United States)

    Voisin, Hugo; Bergström, Lennart; Liu, Peng; Mathew, Aji P


    Nanocellulose is a renewable material that combines a high surface area with high strength, chemical inertness, and versatile surface chemistry. In this review, we will briefly describe how nanocellulose is produced, and present-in particular, how nanocellulose and its surface modified versions affects the adsorption behavior of important water pollutants, e.g., heavy metal species, dyes, microbes, and organic molecules. The processing of nanocellulose-based membranes and filters for water purification will be described in detail, and the uptake capacity, selectivity, and removal efficiency will also be discussed. The processing and performance of nanocellulose-based membranes, which combine a high removal efficiency with anti-fouling properties, will be highlighted.

  11. Nanocellulose-Based Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Voisin


    Full Text Available Nanocellulose is a renewable material that combines a high surface area with high strength, chemical inertness, and versatile surface chemistry. In this review, we will briefly describe how nanocellulose is produced, and present—in particular, how nanocellulose and its surface modified versions affects the adsorption behavior of important water pollutants, e.g., heavy metal species, dyes, microbes, and organic molecules. The processing of nanocellulose-based membranes and filters for water purification will be described in detail, and the uptake capacity, selectivity, and removal efficiency will also be discussed. The processing and performance of nanocellulose-based membranes, which combine a high removal efficiency with anti-fouling properties, will be highlighted.

  12. Rapid purification of recombinant histones. (United States)

    Klinker, Henrike; Haas, Caroline; Harrer, Nadine; Becker, Peter B; Mueller-Planitz, Felix


    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Khodashenas Pelko


    Full Text Available The Jainism emphasizes three major teachings about the purification of the soul (jiva, Ahimsa, Aparigrapha and anekantwad. Jainism, The focus of this religion has been purification of the soul by means of right conduct, right faith and right knowledge. The ultimate goal of Hinduism is Moksha or liberation (total freedom. In Hinduism, purification of the soul is a goal that one must work to attain. The Buddhism is the science of pursuing the aim of making the human mind perfect, and of purifying the human soul. The knowledge of purifying of the soul and softening of the hearts is as essential for human. They having the correct motivations means purifying our souls from hypocrisy, caprice, and heedlessness. The primary goal of Taoism may be described as the mystical intuition of the Tao, which is the way, the undivided unity, and the ultimate Reality. According to the Christianity access to truth cannot be conceived without purity of the soul

  14. Antimicrobial Peptide Production and Purification. (United States)

    Suda, Srinivas; Field, Des; Barron, Niall


    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural defense compounds which are synthesized as ribosomal gene-encoded pre-peptides and produced by all living organisms. AMPs are small peptides, usually cationic and typically have hydrophobic residues which interact with cell membranes and have either a narrow or broad spectrum of biological activity. AMPs are isolated from the natural host or heterologously expressed in other hosts such as Escherichia coli. The proto-typical lantibiotic Nisin is a widely used AMP that is produced by the food-grade organism Lactococcus lactis. Although AMP production and purification procedures require optimization for individual AMPs, the Nisin production and purification protocol outlined in this chapter can be easily applied with minor modifications for the production and purification of other lantibiotics or AMPs. While Nisin is produced and secreted into the supernatant, steps to recover Nisin from both cell-free supernatant and cell pellet are outlined in detail.

  15. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.


    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  16. Partial Purification and Characterization of Extracellular Protease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... Purification of the enzyme by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G75 following ammonium sulphate precipitation gave 2.26 fold increase in purification with specific activity of 46.13 units/mg protein while purification on Sephadex CM50 resulted in reduced ...

  17. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants


    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo


    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  18. Materials for Molybdenum 99 purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, M. Victoria; Mondino, Angel V.; Manzini, Alberto C.


    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) produces fission Mo 99, an isotope of wide use in nuclear medicine. In order to simplify the current Mo 99 production process, to shorten its duration and reduce impurities in the final product, alternative methods for purification steps were looked for. In this work a variety of new materials for the purification columns were designed, all of them with carbon. These materials were studied and a material which contribute with the best results for molybdenum retention, was selected. The preparation procedure and the working conditions were determined. (author)

  19. Hydrogen purification by periodic adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, Christian; Secchi, Argimiro R.; Trierweiler, Jorge O. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail:;;


    The periodic adsorption processes have been widely used for industrial applications, mainly because it spends less energy than the usual gas separation processes, like the cryogenic distillation. The largest commercial application of periodic adsorption processes is the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) applied to hydrogen purification. Although its wide use in the chemical and petrochemical industry, there are no reports in the open literature about complete modeling studies of a complex commercial unit, with multiple adsorbents and multiple beds and several feed components. This study has as objective the modeling, optimization and dynamical analysis of an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. (author)

  20. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez


    Full Text Available Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-assembly on the fabrication of new biomimetic membranes for membrane separation like reverse osmosis is emphasized. Mesoporous support materials for semiconductor growth in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and new carriers for immobilization of bacteria in bioreactors are used in the removal and processing of different kind of water pollutants like heavy metals. Obstacles to improve and optimize the fabrication as well as a better understanding of their performance in small-scale and pilot purification systems need to be addressed. However, it is expected that these new biomimetic materials will find their way into the current water purification technologies to improve their purification/removal performance in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.

  1. Purification of antibody against Ara h 2 by a homemade immunoaffinity chromatography column. (United States)

    Wu, Zhihua; Li, Kun; Zhan, Shaode; Tong, Ping; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Chen, Hongbing


    Antibodies are used extensively in numerous applications both in vivo and in vitro. To purify anti-Ara h 2 polyclonal antibody, a homemade immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column method was established. The properties of homemade column were compared with those of the mAb affinity protein G (MPG) agarose high flow, a commercially available column successfully used in capturing polyclonal antibodies. During antibody purification from rabbits' antiserum against Ara h 2, the column capacity, recovery, and purification factor were characterized for IAC and MPG. The homemade IAC could separate the corresponding antibody with higher specificity and lower cost but with lower recovery and column capacity than those of MPG. Thus, the homemade IAC is a specific, inexpensive, and suitable method that can be used for various laboratory purifications.

  2. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank (United States)

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.


    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  3. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  4. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  5. Improved purification of immunoglobulin G from plasma by mixed-mode chromatography. (United States)

    Chai, Dong-Sheng; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Shi, Qing-Hong


    Efficient loading of immunoglobulin G in mixed-mode chromatography is often a serious bottleneck in the chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G. In this work, a mixed-mode ligand, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl) aniline, was coupled to Sepharose Fast Flow to fabricate AN SepFF adsorbents with ligand densities of 15-64 mmol/L, and the chromatographic performances of these adsorbents were thoroughly investigated to identify a feasible approach to improve immunoglobulin G purification. The results indicate that a critical ligand density exists for immunoglobulin G on the AN SepFF adsorbents. Above the critical ligand density, the adsorbents showed superior selectivity to immunoglobulin G at high salt concentrations, and also exhibited much higher dynamic binding capacities. For immunoglobulin G purification, both the yield and binding capacity increased with adsorbent ligand density along with a decrease in purity. It is difficult to improve the binding capacity, purity, and yield of immunoglobulin G simultaneously in AN SepFF chromatography. By using tandem AN SepFF chromatography, a threefold increase in binding capacity as well as high purity and yield of immunoglobulin G were achieved. Therefore, the tandem chromatography demonstrates that AN SepFF adsorbent is a practical and feasible alternative to MEP HyperCel adsorbents for immunoglobulin G purification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Water purification using organic salts (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.


    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  7. Multimodal charge-induction chromatography for antibody purification. (United States)

    Tong, Hong-Fei; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Chu, Wen-Ning; Zhang, Qi-Lei; Gao, Dong; Wang, Rong-Zhu; Yao, Shan-Jing


    Hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography (HCIC) has advantages of high capacity, salt-tolerance and convenient pH-controlled elution. However, the binding specificity might be improved with multimodal molecular interactions. New ligand W-ABI that combining tryptophan and 5-amino-benzimidazole was designed with the concept of mutimodal charge-induction chromatography (MCIC). The indole and benzimidazole groups of the ligand could provide orientated mutimodal binding to target IgG under neutral pH, while the imidazole groups could induce the electrostatic repulsion forces for efficient elution under acidic pH. W-ABI ligand was coupled successfully onto agarose gel, and IgG adsorption behaviors were investigated. High affinity to IgG was found with the saturated adsorption capacity of 70.4 mg/ml at pH 7, and the flow rate of mobile phase showed little impact on the dynamic binding capacity. In addition, efficient elution could be achieved at mild acidic pH with high recovery. Two separation cases (IgG separation from albumin containing feedstock and monoclonal antibody purification from cell culture supernatant) were verified with high purity and recovery. In general, MCIC with the specially-designed ligand is an expanding of HCIC with improved adsorption selectivity, which would be a potential alternative to Protein A-based capture for the cost-effective purification of antibodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The bubble method of water purification (United States)

    Smirnov, B. M.; Babaeva, N. Yu.; Naidis, G. V.; Panov, V. A.; Saveliev, A. S.; Son, E. E.; Tereshonok, D. V.


    The processes of water purification from admixture molecules are analyzed. The purification rate is limited due to a low diffusion coefficient of the admixture molecules in water. At non-small concentrations of the admixture molecules, the water purication can proceed through association of molecules in condensed nanoparticles which fall on the bottom of the water volume. The rate of association may be increased in an external electric field, but in reality this cannot change significantly the rate of the purification process. The bubble method of water purification is considered, where air bubbles formed at the bottom of the water volume, transfer admixture molecules to the interface. This method allows one to clean small water volumes fast. This mechanism of water purification is realized experimentally and exhibits the promises of the bubble purification method.

  9. Biomimetic small peptide functionalized affinity monoliths for monoclonal antibody purification. (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Xia, Donghai; Han, Hai; Peng, Kun; Zhu, Peijie; Crommen, Jacques; Wang, Qiqin; Jiang, Zhengjin


    The rapid development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic and diagnostic applications has necessitated the advancement of mAbs purification technologies. In this study, a biomimetic small peptide ligand 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid-Arg-Arg-Gly (DAAG) functionalized monolith was fabricated through a metal ion chelation-based multi-step approach. The resulting monolith showed good chromatographic performance. Compared with the Ni 2+ based IMAC monolith, the DAAG functionalized monolith exhibited not only excellent specificity but also higher dynamic binding capacity (DBC). The 10% DBC and 50% DBC for hIgG reached as high values as 26.0 and 34.6 mg/mL, respectively, at a ligand density of 8.8 μmol/mL, due to the high porosity and accessibility of the monolithic matrix. Moreover, the stability of the DAAG functionalized monolith in successive breakthrough experiments indicates that it has a promising potential for long-term use in mAbs purification. Finally, the DAAG functionalized monolith was successfully applied to the purification of trastuzumab or human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) from biological samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing Russian and Finnish standards of water purification


    Maria, Pupkova


    The subject of this thesis is water purification. The first aim of this thesis is to consider different ways of water purification. The second aim is to compare Finnish and Russian standards of water purification. The third one is to show water purification methods on the pattern of Mikkeli water purification plan. Water purification methods of water intended for human consumption will be described.Combined tables will be done according to the quality requirement of drinking water of both,...

  11. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente


    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  12. Ion exchange purification of scandium (United States)

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.


    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  13. Filters for water purification from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.V.; Khaydarov, R.R.; Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.


    Full text: At present purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ion exchange method based on using of different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. This paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylonitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in their high sorption rate, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 10 4 m 2 / kg, i.e. about 10 2 times greater than that of the resin (10 2 m 2 / kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M- 32 P, M- 131 I, M- 99 Mo+ 99m Tc, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu 2+ ) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr 6+ ). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides 134 , 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co and 129 I in presence of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ion-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc). (author)

  14. Lysine purification with cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayati, GH.; Mottaghi Talab, M.; Hamooni Hagheeghat, M.; Fatemi, M.


    L-lysine is an essential amino acid for the growth most of animal species and the number one limiting amino acid for poultry. After production and biomass removal by filtration and centrifugation, the essential next step is the lysine purification and recovery. There are different methods for lysine purification. The ion exchange process is one of the most commonly used purification methods. Lysine recovery was done from broth by ion exchange resin in three different ways: repeated passing, resin soaking and the usual method. Impurities were isolated from the column by repeated wash with distilled water. Recovery and purification was done with NH 4 OH and different alcohol volumes respectively. The results showed that repeated passing is the best method for lysine absorption (maximum range 86.21 %). Washing with alkali solution revealed that most of lysine is obtained in the first step of washing. The highest degree of lysine purification was achieved with the use of 4 volumes of alcohol

  15. Experimental study and simulation of phosphorus purification effects of bioretention systems on urban surface runoff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiake Li

    Full Text Available Excessive phosphorus (P contributes to eutrophication by degrading water quality and limiting human use of water resources. Identifying economic and convenient methods to control soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP pollution in urban runoff is the key point of rainwater management strategies. Through three series of different tests involving influencing factors, continuous operation and intermittent operation, this study explored the purification effects of bioretention tanks under different experimental conditions, it included nine intermittent tests, single field continuous test with three groups of different fillers (Fly ash mixed with sand, Blast furnace slag, and Soil, and eight intermittent tests with single filler (Blast furnace slag mixed with sand. Among the three filler combinations studied, the filler with fly ash mixed with sand achieved the best pollution reduction efficiency. The setting of the submerged zone exerted minimal influence on the P removal of the three filler combinations. An extension of the dry period slightly promoted the P purification effect. The combination of fly ash mixed with sand demonstrated a positive purification effect on SRP during short- or long-term simulated rainfall duration. Blast furnace slag also presented a positive purification effect in the short term, although its continuous purification effect on SRP was poor in the long term. The purification abilities of soil in the short and long terms were weak. Under intermittent operations across different seasons, SRP removal was unstable, and effluent concentration processes were different. The purification effect of the bioretention system on SRP was predicted through partial least squares regression (PLS modeling analysis. The event mean concentration removal of SRP was positively related to the adsorption capacity of filler and rainfall interval time and negatively related to submerged zones, influent concentration and volume.

  16. Exerting Capacity. (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A


    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  17. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid


    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  18. Ash study for biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez V, R. I.


    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  19. Reverse osmosis water purification system (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.


    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  20. Water purification from radionuclides with using fibroid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R. A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.


    Full text: Purification waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, organic contamination is one of the important problems today. For solving this problem we have created three types of fibroid sorbents on the base of Polyester: cationic and anionic exchange and carbonic. Main properties of these sorbents are described in this article. For example characteristics of the sorbents for removing radionuclides Co-60,57, Zn-65, Sr-89,90, Cs-134,137, etc., radionuclides containing organic molecules M-P-32, M-I-131, M-Mo-99+Tc-99m, M-C-14, etc., heavy metal ions Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Pb, Cd, Cr, U, etc., organic molecules (pesticides, phenols, dioxin, benzene, toluene, etc.) were investigated. Influence of pH on percent removal, influence of K, Na and another ions concentrations in the liquid on the percent removal, decreasing of the saturation capacity from number of regeneration and another characteristics are described. Static exchange capacity of the cationic sorbents is 1-2 mg-equ/g and anionic - 0.5-1 mg-equ/g. Capacity of the carbonic sorbents for benzene is 100 mg/g. Time of chemical balance setting is 1-2 s. The sorbents are effective in removing the low concentrations of contamination from the water (lower than 100-200 mg/l) and the air (lower than 100 mg/m 3 ). The use of sorbents in drinking water filters and mini-systems is described. The industrial water purification system consists of coagulating unit, sorbent unit and disinfectant unit. The systems are used in atomic power stations, electroplating plants, matches plants, leather and skin treating plants, car-washing stations, etc

  1. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator from ... Screening antibody was performed using rhPA milk in an ELISA-elution assay. ... useful for purifying other tPA mutants or other novel recombinant milkderived proteins.

  2. Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 4, 2014 ... 2Department of Food Technology, Erzurum Vocational Training School, Ataturk University, 25240, ... facultative anaerobic, catalase-negative, immobile (with ..... Partial purification of phytase from a soil isolate bacterium,.

  3. Purification and Characterization of Thermostable Cellulase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at ... Methods: Molecular community structure of the newly selected thermophilic bacterial ... Keywords: Thermostable cellulase, Sugarcane bagasse, Purification, Characterization, Hot spring ... Currently, one.

  4. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.


    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  5. Multipartite electronic entanglement purification with charge detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Yubo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Long Guilu, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)


    We present a multipartite entanglement purification scheme in a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state for electrons based on their spins and their charges. This scheme works for purification with two steps, i.e., bit-flip error correction and phase-flip error correction. By repeating these two steps, the parties in quantum communication can get some high-fidelity multipartite entangled electronic systems.

  6. Exploration of overloaded cation exchange chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification. (United States)

    Liu, Hui F; McCooey, Beth; Duarte, Tiago; Myers, Deanna E; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf; van Reis, Robert; Kelley, Brian D


    Cation exchange chromatography using conventional resins, having either diffusive or perfusive flow paths, operated in bind-elute mode has been commonly employed in monoclonal antibody (MAb) purification processes. In this study, the performance of diffusive and perfusive cation exchange resins (SP-Sepharose FF (SPSFF) and Poros 50HS) and a convective cation exchange membrane (Mustang S) and monolith (SO(3) Monolith) were compared. All matrices were utilized in an isocratic state under typical binding conditions with an antibody load of up to 1000 g/L of chromatographic matrix. The dynamic binding capacity of the cation exchange resins is typically below 100 g/L resin, so they were loaded beyond the point of anticipated MAb break through. All of the matrices performed similarly in that they effectively retained host cell protein and DNA during the loading and wash steps, while antibody flowed through each matrix after its dynamic binding capacity was reached. The matrices differed, though, in that conventional diffusive and perfusive chromatographic resins (SPSFF and Poros 50HS) demonstrated a higher binding capacity for high molecular weight species (HMW) than convective flow matrices (membrane and monolith); Poros 50HS displayed the highest HMW binding capacity. Further exploration of the conventional chromatographic resins in an isocratic overloaded mode demonstrated that the impurity binding capacity was well maintained on Poros 50HS, but not on SPSFF, when the operating flow rate was as high as 36 column volumes per hour. Host cell protein and HMW removal by Poros 50HS was affected by altering the loading conductivity. A higher percentage of host cell protein removal was achieved at a low conductivity of 3 mS/cm. HMW binding capacity was optimized at 5 mS/cm. Our data from runs on Poros 50HS resin also showed that leached protein A and cell culture additive such as gentamicin were able to be removed under the isocratic overloaded condition. Lastly, a MAb

  7. Purification Performance and Production of a Re-circulating Pond Aquaculture System Based on Paddy Field


    Gu Li; Shi-yang Zhang; Ling Tao; Xiao-li Li; Jing-hua Song; Chun-xue Zhang; Jian-qiang Zhu


    Developing improved aquaculture systems with a more efficient use of water and less environmental impact is becoming a crying need. A re-circulating aquaculture system consisting of paddy field and fish pond is a new culture mode due to aquaculture combing with agriculture. The present study focused on the purification capacity of the paddy field on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter, the fluctuation trend of water quality conditions during the whole rearing process and the culture effic...

  8. Isolation and purification of porcine LH for radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziecik, A.; Goralska, M.; Krzymowski, T.; Pogorzelski, K.


    The procedure of isolation and purification of LH from porcine pituitary glands is described. From 1 kg of pituitary glands 150 mg of LH GPZ-1 preparation of high purity were obtained. Immunization of rabbits with the prepared hormone gave homogeneous antibodies against porcine LH with high affinity and low cross-reactions with FSH. Radioreceptor assay with the use of the prepared porcine LH demonstrated the high capacity of cell membrane receptors of the boar tests for binding this hormone. (author)

  9. Anion exchange purification of plutonium at lower acidities (Preprint No. CT-6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Ravi, S.; Achuthan, P.V.; Das, S.K.; Madhusudan, A.; Janardhanan, C.; Rao, K.S.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.


    During concentration and purification of plutonium by anion exchange, 7.2 M HNO 3 is used as loading acidity for absorbing Pu(IV). In this study, the feasibility of utilizing lower acidities like 5.2 and 6.2 M has been investigated. The results indicate that lower acidities can be used in this step if reduced resin capacities are acceptable. (author)

  10. Capacity on wireless quantum cellular communication system (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Zhen; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen


    Quantum technology is making excellent prospects in future communication networks. Entanglement generation and purification are two major components in quantum networks. Combining these two techniques with classical cellular mobile communication, we proposed a novel wireless quantum cellular(WQC) communication system which is possible to realize commercial mobile quantum communication. In this paper, the architecture and network topology of WQC communication system are discussed, the mathematical model of WQC system is extracted and the serving capacity, indicating the ability to serve customers, is defined and calculated under certain circumstances.

  11. Phytofilter - environmental friendly solution for purification of surface plate from urbanized territories (United States)

    Ruchkinova, O.; Shchuckin, I.


    Its proved, that phytofilters are environmental friendly solution of problem of purification of surface plate from urbanized territories. Phytofilters answer the nowadays purposes to systems of purification of land drainage. The main problem of it is restrictions, connecter with its use in the conditions of cold temperature. Manufactured a technology and mechanism, which provide a whole-year purification of surface plate and its storage. Experimentally stated optimal makeup of filtering load: peat, zeolite and sand in per cent of volume, which provides defined hydraulic characteristics. Stated sorbate and ion-selective volume of complex filtering load of ordered composition in dynamic conditions. Estimated dependences of exit concentrations of oil products and heavy metals on temperature by filtering through complex filtering load of ordered composition. Defined effectiveness of purification at phytofiltering installation. Fixed an influence of embryophytes on process of phytogeneration and capacity of filtering load. Recommended swamp iris, mace reed and reed grass. Manufactured phytofilter calculation methodology. Calculated economic effect from use of phytofiltration technology in comparison with traditional block-modular installations.

  12. Photocatalytic materials and technologies for air purification. (United States)

    Ren, Hangjuan; Koshy, Pramod; Chen, Wen-Fan; Qi, Shaohua; Sorrell, Charles Christopher


    Since there is increasing concern for the impact of air quality on human health, the present work surveys the materials and technologies for air purification using photocatalytic materials. The coverage includes (1) current photocatalytic materials for the decomposition of chemical contaminants and disinfection of pathogens present in air and (2) photocatalytic air purification systems that are used currently and under development. The present work focuses on five main themes. First, the mechanisms of photodegradation and photodisinfection are explained. Second, system designs for photocatalytic air purification are surveyed. Third, the photocatalytic materials used for air purification and their characteristics are considered, including both conventional and more recently developed photocatalysts. Fourth, the methods used to fabricate these materials are discussed. Fifth, the most significant coverage is devoted to materials design strategies aimed at improving the performance of photocatalysts for air purification. The review concludes with a brief consideration of promising future directions for materials research in photocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simplified riboprobe purification using translucent straws as gel tubes. (United States)

    Kol, S; Ben-Shlomo, I; Adashi, E Y; Rohan, R M


    Gel purification of radioactive riboprobes enhances the quality of the ribonuclease protection assay. A simple and effective method for riboprobe purification is described. The method uses acrylamide gels in plastic tubes to achieve electrophoretic separation of the RNA polymerase products.

  14. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant


    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo


    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  15. Effect of Different Purification Techniques on the Characteristics of Heteropolysaccharide-Protein Biopolymer from Durian (Durio zibethinus Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirhosseini


    Full Text Available Natural biopolymers from plant sources contain many impurities (e.g., fat, protein, fiber, natural pigment and endogenous enzymes, therefore, an efficient purification process is recommended to minimize these impurities and consequently improve the functional properties of the biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of different purification techniques on the yield, protein content, solubility, water- and oil-holding capacity of a heteropolysaccharide-protein biopolymer obtained from durian seed. Four different purification methods using different chemicals and solvents (i.e., A (isopropanol and ethanol, B (isopropanol and acetone, C (saturated barium hydroxide, and D (Fehling solution] to liberate the purified biopolymer from its crude form were compared. In most cases, the purification process significantly (p < 0.05 improved the physicochemical properties of heteropolysaccharide-protein biopolymer from durian fruit seed. The present work showed that the precipitation using isopropanol and acetone (Method B resulted in the highest purification yield among all the tested purification techniques. The precipitation using saturated barium hydroxide (Method C led to induce the highest solubility and relatively high capacity of water absorption. The current study reveals that the precipitation using Fehling solution (Method D most efficiently eliminates the protein fraction, thus providing more pure biopolymer suitable for biological applications.

  16. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies


    Atadashi, I.M.


    Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quali...

  17. Cover gas purification experience at KNK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, H; Stade, K Ch [Kernkraftwerk-Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H., Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stamm, H H [Institute of Radiochemistry, Nuclear Research Center, Karsruhe (Germany)


    KNK II is an experimental, sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. The reactor was operated until 1974 with a thermal core (KNK I). The plant was converted into a fast breeder reactor (KNK II) from 1974 to 1977. The commissioning of KNK II was started in October 1977 with the first fast core KNK 11/1. After 400 effective full power days (EFPD) the reactor was shut down in August 1982. After replacing the complete core by the second fast core KNK 11/2, the plant went into operation again in August 1983. In August 1986 nearly 400 EFPD were achieved with the second fast core. Argon is used as cover gas in the primary and secondary sodium systems of KNK. In former times fresh argon was supplied by a bundle of gas cylinders. Later on a liquid argon supply was installed. Purification of cover gas is done by flushing only. During KNK I operation no fuel failures occurred. The primary cover gas activity was characterized by the formation of Ar-41, only small quantities of fission gas were measured, released from 'tramp uranium'. Therefore, no problems existed during KNK I operation with regard to radioactive gas disposal. However, after start-up of KNK II, several fuel elements failed. Until August 1986, five fuel failures were observed, two in KNK 11/1, and three in KNK 11/2. Sometimes, operation with defective fuel pins caused problems when fission gases leaked into the containment atmosphere, and the access had to be restricted. The purging rate of the primary cover gas was limited by the capacity of the charcoal filters in the delay line. Of all non-radioactive impurities, hydrogen (H{sub z}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) were of most importance in the primary cover gas. Main source of both impurities was the ingress of air and atmospheric moisture during handling operations in shutdown periods. An other possible source for hydrogen might be a release from the steel-clad zirconium hydride, used as moderator in the moderated driver fuel elements. Additional nitrogen may diffuse

  18. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered 237 Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO 2 for future production of 238 Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously 237 Np, 238 Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  19. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  20. Cadmium purification with a vibrating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, N.; Esna-Ashari, M.; Biallas, H.; Kangas, K.


    While electrolytically producing zinc from sulfide concentrates, purification is the most significant step. Impurities such as Co, Sn, Ge, Ni and Sb can cause extensive redissolution of the electrodeposited zinc, thus diminishing current efficiency. Other metals, particularly cadmium, lead and copper, can negatively affect zinc properties by deposition on the cathode. It is standard practice to use atomized zinc dust as a reducing agent in the purification process, either alone or combined with additives. In conventional operations, special facilities are necessary to produce zinc dust in an amount close to 8wt% of cathode production. This paper examines a technique which makes use of zinc granules instead of dust

  1. Kevlar based nanofibrous particles as robust, effective and recyclable absorbents for water purification. (United States)

    Nie, Chuanxiong; Peng, Zihang; Yang, Ye; Cheng, Chong; Ma, Lang; Zhao, Changsheng


    Developing robust and recyclable absorbents for water purification is of great demand to control water pollution and to provide sustainable water resources. Herein, for the first time, we reported the fabrication of Kevlar nanofiber (KNF) based composite particles for water purification. Both the KNF and KNF-carbon nanotube composite particles can be produced in large-scale by automatic injection of casting solution into ethanol. The resulted nanofibrous particles showed high adsorption capacities towards various pollutants, including metal ions, phenylic compounds and various dyes. Meanwhile, the adsorption process towards dyes was found to fit well with the pseudo-second-order model, while the adsorption speed was controlled by intraparticle diffusion. Furthermore, the adsorption capacities of the nanofibrous particles could be easily recovered by washing with ethanol. In general, the KNF based particles integrate the advantages of easy production, robust and effective adsorption performances, as well as good recyclability, which can be used as robust absorbents to remove toxic molecules and forward the application of absorbents in water purification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of the protocol for purification of artemisinin based on combination of commercial and computationally designed adsorbents. (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Karim, Kal; Cutler, Malcolm; Piletsky, Sergey A


    A polymeric adsorbent for extraction of the antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua L. was computationally designed. This polymer demonstrated a high capacity for artemisinin (120 mg g(-1) ), quantitative recovery (87%) and was found to be an effective material for purification of artemisinin from complex plant matrix. The artemisinin quantification was conducted using an optimised HPLC-MS protocol, which was characterised by high precision and linearity in the concentration range between 0.05 and 2 μg mL(-1) . Optimisation of the purification protocol also involved screening of commercial adsorbents for the removal of waxes and other interfering natural compounds, which inhibit the crystallisation of artemisinin. As a result of a two step-purification protocol crystals of artemisinin were obtained, and artemisinin purity was evaluated as 75%. By performing the second stage of purification twice, the purity of artemisinin can be further improved to 99%. The developed protocol produced high-purity artemisinin using only a few purification steps that makes it suitable for large scale industrial manufacturing process. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Venturi purification device and its application in purification of gaseous waste of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Yu Ren; Yang Huanlei


    The working principle of Venturi purification device and its purification of aerosol have been described. Then, taking the gaseous iodine as an example, the absorption process of insoluble gas pollutants is discussed, the calculation methods of the gas-liquid contact area, mass transfer rate and efficiency of mass transfer are educed, and the factors that affect the efficiency of mass transfer are analyzed. (authors)

  4. Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria and determination of its kinetic properties. ... Many of the cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds store phosphorus in phytate form. Phytases can be produced by plants, animals and microorganisms. However, the ones with microbial origin ...

  5. Purification of functionalized DNA origami nanostructures. (United States)

    Shaw, Alan; Benson, Erik; Högberg, Björn


    The high programmability of DNA origami has provided tools for precise manipulation of matter at the nanoscale. This manipulation of matter opens up the possibility to arrange functional elements for a diverse range of applications that utilize the nanometer precision provided by these structures. However, the realization of functionalized DNA origami still suffers from imperfect production methods, in particular in the purification step, where excess material is separated from the desired functionalized DNA origami. In this article we demonstrate and optimize two purification methods that have not previously been applied to DNA origami. In addition, we provide a systematic study comparing the purification efficacy of these and five other commonly used purification methods. Three types of functionalized DNA origami were used as model systems in this study. DNA origami was patterned with either small molecules, antibodies, or larger proteins. With the results of our work we aim to provide a guideline in quality fabrication of various types of functionalized DNA origami and to provide a route for scalable production of these promising tools.

  6. Purification and characterization of xylanase from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylanase was subjected to a three-step purification scheme involving ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. Purity was verified by running the extracted protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a single band was ...

  7. Expression, purification and characterization of the interferon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 19, 2012 ... utilizing a single-step affinity purification with an appreciable yield of the highly purified protein. Recombinant RNase L was characterized by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and MALDI-TOF analysis. A semi-quantitative agarose-gel-based ribonuclease assay was developed for measuring its 2-5A-dependent ...

  8. Purification and characterization of protease enzyme from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 20, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Purification and ... ting into small peptides and free amino acids, which can ... Isolated strain was cultured in synthetic medium- casein (SMC; ... Protease activity was assayed by sigma's non-specific protease ... following buffers: 0.05 M citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 5 to 6), Tris-.

  9. Purification, Characterization and Antibacterial Mechanism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out the extraction, purification and biological characterization, and assess the antibacterial activity of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus acidophilus XH1. Methods: Chloroform extraction method was used for bacteriocin extraction while characterization of bacteriocin was carried out by flat-dug well agar ...

  10. Expression and Purification of Sperm Whale Myoglobin (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Indivero, Virginia; Burkhard, Caroline


    We present a multiweek laboratory exercise that exposes students to the fundamental techniques of bacterial expression and protein purification through the preparation of sperm whale myoglobin. Myoglobin, a robust oxygen-binding protein, contains a single heme that gives the protein a reddish color, making it an ideal subject for the teaching…

  11. Biodiesel separation and purification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atadashi, I.M.; Aroua, M.K.; Aziz, A. Abdul


    Biodiesel as a biodegradable, sustainable and clean energy has worldwide attracted renewed and growing interest in topical years, chiefly due to development in biodiesel fuel and ecological pressures which include climatic changes. In the production of biodiesel from biomass, separation and purification of biodiesel is a critical technology. Conventional technologies used for biodiesel separation such as gravitational settling, decantation, filtration and biodiesel purification such as water washing, acid washing, and washing with ether and absorbents have proven to be inefficient, time and energy consumptive, and less cost effective. The involvement of membrane reactor and separative membrane shows great promise for the separation and purification of biodiesel. Membrane technology needs to be explored and exploited to overcome the difficulties usually encountered in the separation and purification of biodiesel. In this paper both conventional and most recent membrane technologies used in refining biodiesel have been critically reviewed. The effects of catalysts, free fatty acids, water content and oil to methanol ratios on the purity and quality of biodiesel are also examined. (author)

  12. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.I.


    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  13. Partial purification and biochemical characterization of acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is one of the important crops of the North Eastern Region of India. In the present study, acid phosphatase enzyme was isolated and partially purified from germinated local mung bean seeds. The sequential partial purification process was performed using ammonium sulphate precipitation method.

  14. TiO2-Impregnated Porous Silica Tube and Its Application for Compact Air- and Water-Purification Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai


    Full Text Available A simple, convenient, reusable, and inexpensive air- and water-purification unit including a one-end sealed porous amorphous-silica (a-silica tube coated with TiO2 photocatalyst layers has been developed. The porous a-silica layers were formed through outside vapor deposition (OVD. TiO2 photocatalyst layers were formed through impregnation and calcination onto a-silica layers. The resulting porous TiO2-impregnated a-silica tubes were evaluated for air-purification capacity using an acetaldehyde gas decomposition test. The tube (8.5 mm e.d. × 150 mm demonstrated a 93% removal rate for high concentrations (ca. 300 ppm of acetaldehyde gas at a single-pass condition with a 250 mL/min flow rate under UV irradiation. The tube also demonstrated a water purification capacity at a rate 2.0 times higher than a-silica tube without TiO2 impregnation. Therefore, the tubes have a great potential for developing compact and in-line VOC removal and water-purification units.

  15. Research of Biogas Purification Using Microalgae Monoraphidium Griffithii Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Bingelytė


    Full Text Available Using biogas instead of fossil fuels decreases pollutants such as solid particles, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides concentrations in the environment. Green energy and development of relevant infrastructure improves air quality considerably. Chemical, physical, biological methods are used for biogas purification. The main difficulties using biological methods are selection of suitable microorganisms’ suspensions and making optimal conditions in photobioreactor. Different origin and structure microalgae suspensions are used applying biological treatment methods. Monoraphidium griffithi, which is widespread in fresh water, has relatively high potential. Microalgae’ cultures absorb the main components of biogas – carbon dioxide (CO2 and hydrogen sulphide (H2S. Absorbtion processes are based on photosynthesis. Microalgae absorb specific components of biogas when there are suitable light source and nutrient solvent. The main purposes of the research are to asses emission of biogas using different substrates (chicken manure and wastewater sludge. Also, it was measured main physical and chemical characteristics of both substrates: acidicy, temperature, redox potential, conductivity, biohemical oxygen demand. According results of the research, emission from wastewater sludge is greater than from chicken manure so sludge was chosen in teh next stage of the research. The next stage – asssessment of purification efficienty using Monoraphidium grifftihii suspension. Raw biogas was supplied to photobioreacor (with microalgae suspension. Alterations of methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrogen sulphide concentrations were measured precisely. According to results concentration of methane in the beginning of the researc was 62%, after 35 days – 69%. Meanwhile carbon dioxide – 37% and 31% by analogy. Experimental research alows to assess Monoraphidium griffithi absorption capacity of ballast components. Results were compared to different scientists

  16. Carbon nanotubes for energy storage using their hydrogen adsorption capacity: state of the art and perspectives; Nanotubos de carbono para estocagem de energia por adsorcao de hidrogenio: estado da arte e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestro, Luis Fernando; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Combustiveis Alternativos], e-mail:


    It is presented an updated scope of the research in carbon nanotubes synthesis, their purification and a discussion of recent results in energy storage using their hydrogen adsorption capacity. The GCA activities in this area are also discussed. (author)

  17. The Viability of Photocatalysis for Air Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen O. Hay


    Full Text Available Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO air purification technology is reviewed based on the decades of research conducted by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC and their external colleagues. UTRC conducted basic research on the reaction rates of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The knowledge gained allowed validation of 1D and 3D prototype reactor models that guided further purifier development. Colleagues worldwide validated purifier prototypes in simulated realistic indoor environments. Prototype products were deployed in office environments both in the United States and France. As a result of these validation studies, it was discovered that both catalyst lifetime and byproduct formation are barriers to implementing this technology. Research is ongoing at the University of Connecticut that is applicable to extending catalyst lifetime, increasing catalyst efficiency and extending activation wavelength from the ultraviolet to the visible wavelengths. It is critical that catalyst lifetime is extended to realize cost effective implementation of PCO air purification.

  18. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    CERN Document Server

    Apblett, Allen


    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  19. Development of partitioning process: purification of DIDPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Morita, Yasuji; Kubota, Masumitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The partitioning process has developed and demonstrated that the solvent extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) can successfully separate transuranium elements from a high-level liquid waste. In the solvent extraction, DIDPA is decomposed by radiolysis and hydrolysis. The main degradation product is monoisodecyl phosphoric acid (MIDPA). Ethylene glycol has been used for removing the product by a solvent extraction method. However this method has two drawbacks that two phases separate slowly and the used ethylene glycol is not regeneratable. First it was found that the addition of acetone or methanol with 20 volume % improved the phase separation. Then a new purification method was developed by using an aqueous solution of methanol or acetone. The new purification method is as excellent as the ethylene glycol method for the removal of MIDPA. (author)

  20. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanova, I.V.; Nazarenko, O.B.; Anna, Yu.


    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  1. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges (United States)

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.


    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification.

  2. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.


    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification

  3. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle


    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  4. Propagation and Purification of Baculovirus oryctes Huger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susamto Somowiyarjo


    Full Text Available An isolate of Baculovirus oryctes, a possible biological control agent for coconut beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Huger from East Java was propagated and purified. The virus could be transmitted by feeding the imago with 10% sucrose containing virus from homogenate of infected beetles. Effectivity of virus to 9 healthy females by sexual copulation. Virus be succesfully purified by a method of Payne. Key words: Baculovirus oryctes, transmission, purification

  5. Estimating the recreational carrying capacity of a lowland river section. (United States)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Pusch, Martin T


    Recreational boating represents a major human use of inland waters in many regions. However, boating tourism may affect the ecological integrity of surface waters in multiple ways. In particular, surface waves produced by boating may disturb freshwater invertebrates, such as interrupting the filtration activity of benthic mussels. As mussels may significantly contribute to self-purification, disturbance may have crucial impacts on water quality, and thus on water tourism. In this paper we calculate the carrying capacity of a river section for sustainable boating tourism based on the preservation of water quality. This approach is complemented by spatial and social approaches for carrying capacity estimates. The ecological carrying capacity significantly decreases with lower water levels during summer. Hence, the analysis of variables that influence the river's carrying capacity allows the formation of recommendations for management measures that integrate social, touristic and ecological aspects.

  6. Entanglement of purification: from spin chains to holography (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Devakul, Trithep; Halbasch, Matthew G.; Zaletel, Michael P.; Swingle, Brian


    Purification is a powerful technique in quantum physics whereby a mixed quantum state is extended to a pure state on a larger system. This process is not unique, and in systems composed of many degrees of freedom, one natural purification is the one with minimal entanglement. Here we study the entropy of the minimally entangled purification, called the entanglement of purification, in three model systems: an Ising spin chain, conformal field theories holographically dual to Einstein gravity, and random stabilizer tensor networks. We conjecture values for the entanglement of purification in all these models, and we support our conjectures with a variety of numerical and analytical results. We find that such minimally entangled purifications have a number of applications, from enhancing entanglement-based tensor network methods for describing mixed states to elucidating novel aspects of the emergence of geometry from entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  7. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi


    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  8. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification (United States)

    Lueptow, RIchard M.


    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.

  9. Overview of the purification of recombinant proteins. (United States)

    Wingfield, Paul T


    When the first version of this unit was written in 1995, protein purification of recombinant proteins was based on a variety of standard chromatographic methods and approaches, many of which were described and mentioned throughout Current Protocols in Protein Science. In the interim, there has been a shift toward an almost universal usage of the affinity or fusion tag. This may not be the case for biotechnology manufacture where affinity tags can complicate producing proteins under regulatory conditions. Regardless of the protein expression system, questions are asked as to which and how many affinity tags to use, where to attach them in the protein, and whether to engineer a self-cleavage system or simply leave them on. We will briefly address some of these issues. Also, although this overview focuses on E.coli, protein expression and purification, other commonly used expression systems are mentioned and, apart from cell-breakage methods, protein purification methods and strategies are essentially the same. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Separation and purification of hyaluronic acid by glucuronic acid imprinted microbeads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdamar, H.Acelya; Sarioezlue, Nalan Yilmaz [Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ozcan, Ayca Atilir; Ersoez, Arzu [Department of Chemistry, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Say, Ridvan, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); BIBAM (Plant, Drug and Scientific Researches Center), Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)


    The purification of hyaluronic acid (HA) is relatively significant to use in biomedical applications. The structure of HA is formed by the repetitive units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine. In this study, glucuronic acid-imprinted microbeads have been supplied for the purification of HA from cell culture (Streptococcus equi). Histidine-functional monomer, methacryloylamidohistidine (MAH) was chosen as the metal-complexing monomer. The glucuronic acid-imprinted poly(ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate-MAH-Copper(II)) [p(EDMA-MAH-Cu{sup 2+})] microbeads have been synthesized by typical suspension polymerization procedure. The template glucuronic acid has been removed by employing 5 M methanolic KOH solution. p(EDMA-MAH-Cu{sup 2+}) microbeads have been characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and swelling studies. Moreover, HA adsorption experiments have been performed in a batch experimental set-up. Purification of HA from cell culture supernatant has been also investigated by determining the hyaluronidase activity using purified HA as substrate. The glucuronic acid imprinted p(EDMA-MAH-Cu{sup 2+}) particles can be used many times with no significant loss in adsorption capacities. Also, the selectivity of prepared molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) has been examined. Results have showed that MIP particles are 19 times more selective for glucuronic acid than N-acetylglucose amine.

  11. Entanglement purification of multi-mode quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, J; Knoell, L; Welsch, D-G


    An iterative random procedure is considered allowing entanglement purification of a class of multi-mode quantum states. In certain cases, complete purification may be achieved using only a single signal state preparation. A physical implementation based on beam splitter arrays and non-linear elements is suggested. The influence of loss is analysed in the example of purification of entangled N-mode coherent states

  12. A Scintillator Purification System for the Borexino Solar Neutrino Detector


    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.


    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector was performed with a system that combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification of the scintillator achieved unprecedented low backgrounds for the large scale liquid scintillation detector. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, construction and commissioning of the purification system, and reviews the require...

  13. Exergy costs analysis of water desalination and purification techniques by transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasquer, Beatriz; Martínez-Gracia, Amaya; Uche, Javier


    Highlights: • A procedure to estimate the unit exergy cost of water treatment techniques is provided. • Unit exergy costs of water purification and desalination are given as a function of design and operating parameters. • Unit exergy costs range from 3.3 to 6.8 in purification and from 2 to 26 in desalination. • They could be used in their preliminary design as good indicators of their energy efficiency. - Abstract: The unit exergy costs of desalination and purification, which are two alternatives commonly used for water supply and treatment, have been characterized as a function of the energy efficiency of the process by combining the Exergy Cost Analysis with Transfer Function Analysis. An equation to assess the exergy costs of these alternatives is then proposed as a quick guide to know the energy efficiency of any water treatment process under different design and operating conditions. This combination, was satisfactory applied to groundwaters and water transfers. After identifying the boundaries of the system, input and output flows are calculated in exergy values. Next, different examples are analyzed in order to propose a generic equation to assess the exergy cost of the water restoration technologies, attending to their main features. Recovery ratio, energy requirements and salts concentrations (for desalination), and plant capacity and organic matter recovery (for water purification) are introduced in the calculations as their main endogenous parameters. Values obtained for typical operation ranges of commercial plants showed that unit exergy costs of water purification ranged from 3.3 to 6.8; maximum values, as expected, were found at low plant capacities and high organic matter removal ratios. For water desalination, values varied from 2 to 7 in membrane technologies and from 10 to 26 in thermal processes. The recovery ratio and salts concentration in raw water increased the unit exergy costs in membrane techniques. In distillation processes

  14. Synthesis of Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles in radiofrequency thermal plasma reactor and their use for purification of histidine-tagged proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feczko, Tivadar; Muskotal, Adel; Gal, Lorand; Szepvoelgyi, Janos; Sebestyen, Anett; Vonderviszt, Ferenc


    Superparamagnetic Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized in radiofrequency thermal plasma reactor from aqueous solutions of Ni- and Zn-nitrates. The nanoparticles were studied for protein purification performance in both quantitative and qualitative terms. For comparison, experiments were also performed by Ni-charged affinity chromatography. It was proved that the Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles effectively purified histidine-tagged proteins with a maximum protein binding capacity of about 7% (w/w). Gel electrophoresis demonstrated better purification characteristics for magnetic nanoparticles than for affinity chromatography.

  15. Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor (DMP WaPR), Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor offers significant improvements over existing water purification technologies used in Advanced Life Support...

  16. Aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns for affinity glycoprotein purification. (United States)

    Armutcu, Canan; Bereli, Nilay; Bayram, Engin; Uzun, Lokman; Say, Rıdvan; Denizli, Adil


    Novel aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns were prepared to efficiently affinity purify immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human plasma. The monolithic columns were synthesised in a stainless steel HPLC column (20 cm × 5 mm id) by in situ bulk polymerisation of N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid (MAAsp), a polymerisable derivative of L-aspartic acid, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Monolithic columns [poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid) (PHEMAsp)] were characterised by swelling studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The monolithic columns were used for IgG adsorption/desorption from aqueous solutions and human plasma. The IgG adsorption depended on the buffer type, and the maximum IgG adsorption from aqueous solution in phosphate buffer was 0.085 mg/g at pH 6.0. The monolithic columns allowed for one-step IgG purification with a negligible capacity decrease after ten adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Total iron binding capacity (United States)

    ... page: // Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  18. The potency of monoethanolamine in biogas purification and upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Maile


    Full Text Available Biogas has been exploited as one of the alternative sources of renewable energy having the potential to replace fossil fuels. It contains impurities when raw, as it consists of 50–70% methane (CH4, 30–50% carbon dioxide (CO2 and trace gases such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S. Chemical absorption is often a preferred purification technique in industrial applications because it has high efficiencies, removes H2S completely, operates at low pressures, and has higher reaction rates. The focus of this study is on amines as they are widely used worldwide to purify biogas. A continuous system was used where 1 L digester was used for biogas production which was bubbled through an absorbent in 500 mL gas washing bottle. The gas exiting the absorption column was analyzed using Gas Chromatography. The methane yield obtained in this study was higher because MEA is a good absorbent. The biomethane potential was found to be 0.40 m3 CH4/kg VS (volatile solids. An increase in concentration resulted in increased co2 absorption capacity and rate, an average of 76%, 78%, and 84% vol from an initial concentration of 52% vol were achieved for the respective concentrations. The CH4 content of the purified biogas improved with increasing temperature. The removal efficiency of carbon dioxide increased from 66% at room temperature to 77% at 40 °C. Temperature of the solvent increased the absorption capacity and carbon dioxide removal efficiency of the process. Keywords: Absorption rate, Concentration, Removal efficiency, Solvent, Temperature

  19. Boronic acid-modified magnetic materials for antibody purification (United States)

    Dhadge, Vijaykumar L.; Hussain, Abid; Azevedo, Ana M.; Aires-Barros, Raquel; Roque, Ana C. A.


    Aminophenyl boronic acids can form reversible covalent ester interactions with cis-diol-containing molecules, serving as a selective tool for binding glycoproteins as antibody molecules that possess oligosaccharides in both the Fv and Fc regions. In this study, amino phenyl boronic acid (APBA) magnetic particles (MPs) were applied for the magnetic separation of antibody molecules. Iron oxide MPs were firstly coated with dextran to avoid non-specific binding and then with 3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane to allow further covalent coupling of APBA (APBA_MP). When contacted with pure protein solutions of human IgG (hIgG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), APBA_MP bound 170 ± 10 mg hIgG g−1 MP and eluted 160 ± 5 mg hIgG g−1 MP, while binding only 15 ± 5 mg BSA g−1 MP. The affinity constant for the interaction between hIgG and APBA_MP was estimated as 4.9 × 105 M−1 (Ka) with a theoretical maximum capacity of 492 mg hIgG adsorbed g−1 MP (Qmax), whereas control particles bound a negligible amount of hIgG and presented an estimated theoretical maximum capacity of 3.1 mg hIgG adsorbed g−1 MP (Qmax). APBA_MPs were also tested for antibody purification directly from CHO cell supernatants. The particles were able to bind 98% of IgG loaded and to recover 95% of pure IgG (purity greater than 98%) at extremely mild conditions. PMID:24258155

  20. Air capacity for Sydney


    Forsyth, Peter


    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  1. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper


    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  2. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon


    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  4. Improving the technology of purification of gas emissions petrochemical industries




    The technology of cleaning of gas emissions flares in the production of synthetic rubber. Developed dynamic scrubber for scrubbing gas emissions. Complex studies served as the basis for the design of an air purification system of industrial premises. Purification of gas emissions before combustion in flares has significantly reduced air pollution by toxic substances.

  5. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Podzorova, E.A.; Chulkov, V.N.; Han, B.; Kim, D.K.


    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  6. Necessity of purification during bacterial DNA extraction with environmental soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Lim


    Full Text Available Complexity and heterogeneity of soil samples have often implied the inclusion of purification steps in conventional DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. Unfortunately the purification steps are also time and labor intensive. Therefore the necessity of DNA purification was re-visited and investigated for a variety of environmental soil samples that contained various amounts of PCR inhibitors. Bead beating and centrifugation was used as the baseline (without purification method for DNA extraction. Its performance was compared with that of conventional DNA extraction kit (with purification. The necessity criteria for DNA purification were established with environmental soil samples. Using lysis conditions at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes with 0.1 mm glass beads, centrifugation time of 10 minutes and 1:10 dilution ratio, the baseline method outperformed conventional DNA extraction on cell seeded sand samples. Further investigation with PCR inhibitors (i.e., humic acids, clay, and magnesium [Mg] showed that sand samples containing less than 10 μg/g humic acids and 70% clay may not require purifications. Interestingly, the inhibition pattern of Mg ion was different from other inhibitors due to the complexation interaction of Mg ion with DNA fragments. It was concluded that DNA extraction method without purification is suitable for soil samples that have less than 10 μg/g of humic acids, less than 70% clay content and less than 0.01% Mg ion content.

  7. Comparative study of peroxidase purification from apple and orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the isolation and purification of peroxidase from low cost material; moreover, no significant work has been done on the isolation and purification of peroxidase from such cost effective sources (apple and orange seeds). Peroxidases had attracted considerable interest in recent years because of their ...

  8. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. Lipase from Aspergillus flavus was purified in a single step purification using MnFeO4 magnetic nano particles to achieve a 20.53- fold purification with specific activity of. 11.29 U/mg and a 59% recovery yield. SDS-PAGE of lipase showed a single pure band with corresponding molecular weight of 35 kDa.

  9. Purification and characterization of three laccase isozymes from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 17, 2012 ... improve wine quality by removing fermentation inhibitors so as to increase yield of ethanol (Baldrian, 2006). They have also been used .... Summary of purification of laccase isozymes from Trametes sp. HS-03a. Purification .... and kinetics of a thermostable laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus. (SCC 108).

  10. Optimization of laboratory scale production and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcystin content is however highly variable and optimised culture conditions are essential to produce viable yields of microcystin for purification. We describe the optimization of culture conditions and evaluation of various purification methods to enhance the yield of microcystin from laboratory scale culture.

  11. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector (United States)

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.


    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  12. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mordvinova


    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  13. Single-step affinity purification for fungal proteomics. (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B; De Souza, Colin P; Osmani, Stephen A


    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  14. Single-Step Affinity Purification for Fungal Proteomics ▿ †


    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H.; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B.; De Souza, Colin P.; Osmani, Stephen A.


    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  15. Overview of the recombinant proteins purification by affinity tags and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From protein within isolation process which the same matter increases labor costs further and prevents application of these tags in industrial scale. Therefore proper replacement is emphasized for enzymatic removal of purification tags. Keywords: protein purification; recombinant proteins; self-cleavable tags; Intein tags; ...

  16. Development of Purification Protocol Specific for Bacteriocin 105B (United States)


    Bacillus anthracis. As the current application of broad-spectrum antimicrobials promotes the development of multi- drug resistant microorganisms...SPECTRUM TARGETED ANTIMICROBIALS ASSAYS PURIFICATION BACILLUS ANTHRACIS DRUG- RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS...through the purification procedure. The wide-spread use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents has led to the development of drug resistant

  17. Purification and fluorescent labeling of the human serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren G F; Gether, Ulrik


    To establish a purification procedure for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) we expressed in Sf9 insect cells an epitope-tagged version of the transporter containing a FLAG epitope at the N-terminus and a polyhistidine tail at the C-terminus (FLAG-hSERT-12H). For purification, the transporter...

  18. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B


    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  19. Phase equilibria at the Zirconium metal purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani-Sudjoko; Busron-Masduki; Sunardjo; Budi-Sulistyo


    It was investigated the research in the purification of zirconium metal, which was results from the reduction process, by adding heat in the vacuum environment. The process was done in batch in the stainless steel reactor, equiped with vacuum pump and electric heater. The investigated variable were process temperature and pressure. From this research it was obtained that equilibrium constant for MgCl 2 and Mg were expressed in the equation K M g C l 2 = 0.9011 P 1 .3779 1.06552 T and K M g = 6.0115P + 1.35256T - 6.93912

  20. [Purification of 67Cu]. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.


    This report documents progress made in several areas of research and describes results which have not yet been published. These areas include: Purification of 67 Cu; Macrocyclic chelates for targeted therapy; Studies of biologic activation associated with molecular receptor increase and tumor response in ChL6/L6 protocol patients; Lym-1 single chain genetically engineered molecules; Analysis of molecular genetic coded messages to enhance tumor response; Human dosimetry and therapeutic human use radiopharmaceuticals; studies in phantoms; Quantitative SPECT; Preclinical studies; and Clinical studies

  1. Process for purification of gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, S Z; Letitschevskij, V I; Maergojz, I I; Michailov, L A; Puschkarev, L I


    The process relates to the purification of gas mixtures of N, H, and Ar, or N and H, or N and O which contain CO, CO/sub 2/ and water vapour. Single-stage adsorption occurs under standard pressure at temperatures from -40 to +4/sup 0/C up to the point of CO penetration through the zeolite layer. Zeolite is of type A or X combined with Ca, Na, Ag, Cd, Co, Ni, Mn or a natural zeolite of the type klinoptilolite. Regeneration is achieved at constant temperature and pressure of 1-5x10/sup -1/ Torr or by heating to 120-600/sup 0/C.

  2. CAREM-25. Purification and volume control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Chocron, Mauricio; Goya, Hector E.; Ortega, Daniel A.; Ramilo, Lucia B.


    The purification and volume control system has the following main functions: water level control inside reactor pressure vessel (RPR) in all the reactor operational modes, pressure control when the reactor operates in solid state, and maintenance of radiological, physical and chemical parameters of primary water. In case of Hot Shutdown operational mode and also after Scram the system is capable of extraction of nuclear decay heat. The design of the system is in accordance with the Requirements of ANSI/ ANS 51.1; 58.11 and 56.2 standards. (author)

  3. Filters for water purification from oil products and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.R.; Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Malikov, Sh.


    Full text: Purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems at present day. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ionic exchange method based on using different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. The paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylo nitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in high rate of a sorption process, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 10'4 m 2 / kg, i.e. about 102 times greater than that of the resin (10 2 m 2 / kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M- P 32, M- I 131, M-Mo 99 mTc+99, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu 2 +) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr 6 +). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides Cs 134,137, Sr 90, Co 60 and I 129 in presence of Na + , K + , Ca 2 +, Mg 2 +, Cl - ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ionic-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc)

  4. Purification of alcohol obtained from molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visnevskaya, G L; Egorov, A S; Sokol' skaya, E V


    A study of the composition of alcohol liquids on different plates of a fractionation column of indirect action during purification of alcohol obtained from normal and defective molasses, and from starch raw material, showed that there were two local strength minima in the lower part of the column and on the plates (adjacent and feed). Aldehydes behaved as a typical head impurity; a noticeable increase in their concentration occurred only on the highest plates in the fractionation column. In the zone of the column containing liquids of a strength of 86 to 94% alcohol by weight a sharply pronounced local maximum of ester accumulation were observed, provisionally designated as intermediate, whose presence is apparently one of the causes of the specific sharp taste of alcohol obtained from molasses. These esters hinder the obtaining of high-grade alcohols which are standard in respect to ester content and oxidizability test. Reduction with 0.05N KMnO/sub 4/ occurs most rapidly with alcohol liquids in the zone of ester accumulation; purification of alcohols obtained from grain and potato raw material resulted in no zones of ester accumulation in the column.

  5. Purification of radionuclides for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.


    Novel systems for the rapid separation of 67 Cu, 90 Y, 188 Re, 212 Bi, 213 Bi, and 223 Ra are described. To achieve the high levels of decontamination required of radionuclides used in radioimmunotherapy, we have utilised combinations of ion exchange (IX) and novel extraction chromatographic (EXC) resins. The objective of each separation system is to remove by many orders of magnitude the parent isotopes and to reduce the concentrations of stable, sometimes adventitious impurities, to low levels. The latter objective is particularly important to achieve a high degree of bonding of radionuclide onto a monoclonal antibody. The purification of 212 Bi (60.6 min half-life) furnishes a good example of the level of purity that we have achieved using tandem combinations of EXC and IX resins. Bismuth-212 was separated from its daughters, 212 Pb, 224 Ra, 228 Th and 232 U at the 50 mCi level. The resultant 212 Bi decayed to background in a few days indicative of high purity. Another example of extraordinary removal of parent nuclide from daughter nuclide and subsequent purification of daughter from stable elements is the preparation of 90 Y. Strontium-90 was removed from 90 Y by > 10 9 . The purified 90 Y uptake by monoclonal antibodies was close to 100%

  6. Purification and functional characterization of nine human Aquaporins produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the purpose of biophysical characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Amstrup; Gourdon, Pontus Emanuel; Gotfryd, Kamil


    investigated the capacity of S. cerevisiae to deliver high yields of prime quality human AQPs, focusing on poorly characterized members including some previously shown to be difficult to isolate. Exploiting GFP labeled forms we comprehensively optimized production and purification procedures resulting...... in satisfactory yields of all nine AQP targets. We applied the obtained knowledge to successfully upscale purification of histidine tagged human AQP10 produced in large bioreactors. Glycosylation analysis revealed that AQP7 and 12 were O-glycosylated, AQP10 was N-glycosylated while the other AQPs were...... not glycosylated. We furthermore performed functional characterization and found that AQP 2, 6 and 8 allowed flux of water whereas AQP3, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 12 also facilitated a glycerol flux. In conclusion, our S. cerevisiae platform emerges as a powerful tool for isolation of functional, difficult-to-express human...

  7. Capacity planning and management


    Boydell, Briony


    After reading this chapter you should be able to: • Define and measure capacity and appreciate the factors that influence it. • Assess the difficulties of matching capacity to demand. • Evaluate and apply the different strategies for matching capacity with demand in the short, medium and long term. • Analyse the impact of constraints and bottlenecks on a process and consider the Theory of Constraints. • Outline the different strategies available for both manufacturing and service operations. ...

  8. A Technology Platform to Test the Efficacy of Purification of Alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro A. Paredes-Juarez


    Full Text Available Alginates are widely used in tissue engineering technologies, e.g., in cell encapsulation, in drug delivery and various immobilization procedures. The success rates of these studies are highly variable due to different degrees of tissue response. A cause for this variation in success is, among other factors, its content of inflammatory components. There is an urgent need for a technology to test the inflammatory capacity of alginates. Recently, it has been shown that pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs in alginate are potent immunostimulatories. In this article, we present the design and evaluation of a technology platform to assess (i the immunostimulatory capacity of alginate or its contaminants, (ii where in the purification process PAMPs are removed, and (iii which Toll-like receptors (TLRs and ligands are involved. A THP1 cell-line expressing pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and the co-signaling molecules CD14 and MD2 was used to assess immune activation of alginates during the different steps of purification of alginate. To determine if this activation was mediated by TLRs, a THP1-defMyD88 cell-line was applied. This cell-line possesses a non-functional MyD88 coupling protein, necessary for activating NF-κB via TLRs. To identify the specific TLRs being activated by the PAMPs, we use different human embryonic kidney (HEK cell-line that expresses only one specific TLR. Finally, specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs were applied to identify the specific PAMP. By applying this three-step procedure, we can screen alginate in a manner, which is both labor and cost efficient. The efficacy of the platform was evaluated with an alginate that did not pass our quality control. We demonstrate that this alginate was immunostimulatory, even after purification due to reintroduction of the TLR5 activating flagellin. In addition, we tested two commercially available purified alginates. Our experiments show that these commercial

  9. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of adsorption selectivity of immunoglobulins M, A and G and purification of immunoglobulin M with mixed-mode resins. (United States)

    Luo, Ying-Di; Zhang, Qi-Lei; Yao, Shan-Jing; Lin, Dong-Qiang


    This study investigated adsorption selectivity of immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin (IgG) on four mixed-mode resins with the functional ligands of 4-mercatoethyl-pyridine (MEP), 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI), 5-aminobenzimidazole (ABI) and tryptophan-5-aminobenzimidazole (W-ABI), respectively. IgM purification processes with mixed-mode resins were also proposed. All resins showed typical pH-dependent adsorption, and high adsorption capacity was found at pH 5.0-8.0 with low adsorption capacity under acidic conditions. Meanwhile, high selectivity of IgM/IgA and IgM/IgG was obtained with ABI-4FF and MMI-4FF resins at pH 4.0-5.0, which was used to develop a method for IgM, IgA and IgG separation by controlling loading and elution pH. Capture of monoclonal IgM from cell culture supernatant with ABI-4FF resins was studied and high purity (∼99%) and good recovery (80.8%) were obtained. Moreover, IgM direct separation from human serum with combined two-step chromatography (ABI-4FF and MMI-4FF) was investigated, and IgM purity of 65.2% and a purification factor of 28.3 were obtained after optimization. The antibody activity of IgM was maintained after purification. The results demonstrated that mixed-mode chromatography with specially-designed ligands is a promising way to improve adsorption selectivity and process efficiency of IgM purification from complex feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.


    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  12. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikakis, A.


    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  13. Submersible purification system for radioactive water (United States)

    Abbott, Michael L.; Lewis, Donald R.


    A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

  14. Purification of tritium-free water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.


    Ground water which has been out of contact with the atmosphere for a long time as compared to the half life of tritium (12.43 years) does not contain any measureable amount of tritium. Such water is called tritium-free water. It may contain dissolved and suspended impurities and has to be purified before it can be used for the preparation of blanks and standards required in the routine measurement of low level tritium in water samples. The purification of tritium-free water by distillation in a closed system has been described. The quality of processed tritium-free water was precisely checked at International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Vienna and found satisfactory. (authors)

  15. Radioligand purification prior to routine receptor assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.-M.; Berthois, Y.; Martin, P.-M.


    The need to repurify the commercially available radioligands [ 3 H]estradiol and [ 3 H]testosterone before use in routine assays was investigated. Storage of these products for 2 months after delivery led to appreciable degradation of [ 3 H]estradiol compared to [ 3 H]testosterone. Unexpectedly, TLC and even HPLC procedures were ineffective in completely restoring the purity of [ 3 H]-estradiol and the unremoved polar products induced important variations in our estrogen receptor assays. An increase in non-specific binding and a concomitant decrease in total binding were observed resulting in an underestimation of specific binding sites and of the affinity constant. In some cases Scatchard analysis was not possible. The authors therefore strongly recommend the repurification of low-stability radioligands and propose an economic time-saving procedure for the purification of [ 3 H]estradiol by solvent differential partition which requires no high-cost investment in apparatus. (author)

  16. Purification of biomaterials by phase partitioning (United States)

    Harris, J. M.


    A technique which is particularly suited to microgravity environments and which is potentially more powerful than electrophoresis is phase partitioning. Phase partitioning is purification by partitioning between the two immiscible aqueous layers formed by solution of the polymers poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran in water. This technique proved to be very useful for separations in one-g but is limited for cells because the cells are more dense than the phase solutions thus tend to sediment to the bottom of the container before reaching equilibrium with the preferred phase. There are three phases to work in this area: synthesis of new polymers for affinity phase partitioning; development of automated apparatus for ground-based separations; and design of apparatus for performing simple phase partitioning space experiments, including examination of mechanisms for separating phases in the absence of gravity.

  17. Water purification using solar radiation in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udounwa, A.E.; Osuji, R.U.


    In developing countries, lack of safe and reliable drinking water constitutes a major problem. Contaminated water is the major cause of most water borne diseases like diarrhoea. Disinfection of water is accomplished by a number of different physical - chemical treatments including boiling, application of chlorine and filtration techniques. Solar energy, which is universally available, can also be used effectively in this process, that is, to deactivate the micro-organisms present in this contaminated water thereby improving its microbiological quality. This treatment process is called solar water disinfection. This paper therefore appraises the extent to which research work has been done as regards purification of water using solar radiation in Nigeria vis-a-vis outside the country. It is hoped that it will serve as a wake-up-call for Nigerians especially those in remote areas with no treated pipe borne water supply. The problems and prospects of this technology as well as the policy implications are presented. (author)

  18. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM......-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay...... to be a sensitive marker of acute tissue injury and fatal outcome in humans. Patients with a low plasma concentration of Gc-globulin due to severe tissue injury might potentially benefit from infusions with purified Gc-globulin [1]. With an equine Gc-globulin assay, future studies will investigate the concentration...

  19. (Hyper)thermophilic enzymes: production and purification. (United States)

    Falcicchio, Pierpaolo; Levisson, Mark; Kengen, Servé W M; Koutsopoulos, Sotirios


    The discovery of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms, thriving at environmental temperatures near or above 100 °C, has revolutionized our ideas about the upper temperature limit at which life can exist. The characterization of (hyper)thermostable proteins has broadened our understanding and presented new opportunities for solving one of the most challenging problems in biophysics: how is structural stability and biological function maintained at high temperatures where "normal" proteins undergo dramatic structural changes? In our laboratory we have purified and studied many thermostable and hyperthermostable proteins in an attempt to determine the molecular basis of heat stability. Here, we present methods to express such proteins and enzymes in E. coli and provide a general protocol for overproduction and purification. The ability to produce enzymes that retain their stability and activity at elevated temperatures creates exciting opportunities for a wide range of biocatalytic applications.

  20. Vitreous membranes used in the biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Viera, L.; Rodriguez Munoz, S.; Fernandez Santana, E.; Martines Ramirez, Y.; Crespo Artigas, A.; Viera Gallardo, Y.


    In the present work 10 vitreous membranes with different masses of zinc oxide (ZnO(s)) and particle diameters charcoal (DPC) are used in the purification of biogas. The porosity and tortuosity of the membranes is obtained, showing the variation with respect to the composition thereof. From these structural features specific flow of H 2 S(g) is obtained which is transferred using the Fick's diffusion equation in the membranes and its value increases with increasing mass of ZnO(s). By X-ray diffraction membrane made with 3.16 g of ZnO(s) forming zinc sulfide it is shown, so we can say that the removal of H 2 S(g) occurs by a process of absorption with chemical reaction in the membranes. (Author)

  1. Radiation purification of water from cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskarev, I.M.; Rylova, A.E.; Sevast'yanov, A.I.


    Attempts at performing the process of radiation purification of water from cyanides have been described in the literature and were briefly reviewed earlier. Sodium cyanide solutions were examined in a concentration range from 26 mg/l to 80 g/l. The data given in various publications often disagree. Radiation yields of cyanide decay vary from 0.48 to 28 molecule/100 eV for equal dose rates, according to the data presented by various authors, and the maximum yield of 1200 was attained at a low dose rate (0.18 kGy/h) in a neutral solution. Chain decomposition of cyanides was observed in some studies, but not in others; the acidity of the solution examined was not necessarily reported. It was specified that complete decomposition of cyanides occurs; however, no detection limits for the analytical procedures of cyanide determination were reported. The authors performed experiments on the purification of actual industrial waste waters (solution and slurry), which were preliminarily preserved with sodium hydroxide (pH 9; the cyanide content was 90 mg/1). Solutions in dishes 40 mm in diameter and 20 or 40 mm in height were exposed to X-rays with a maximum energy of bremsstrahlung spectrum of 70 keV. Volumes of the solutions were 20 and 40 ml. With consideration for angular divergence and beam attenuation by solution, the average absorbed-dose rates were 1.5 and 3.1 kGy/h for dishes of V equal to 40 and 20 ml, respectively. Measurements of the absorbed dose were made with a ferrosulfate dosimeter

  2. Prospects for OPEC capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, M.A.


    OPEC capacity is not exogenous, but responds to demand. Price increases have not been caused by capacity shortages. OPEC nations find it hard to set aside even very small portions of their revenues for oil investment, despite its extreme profitability. Foreign investors face high risks. Production sharing makes their after-tax return even more unstable. (author)

  3. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K.


    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  4. Poly(N-vinylimidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the purification and isolation of phenolic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemeth, Dieter; Noël, Jean-Christophe [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, CCB—Center of Chemistry and Biomedicine, Innrain 80-82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jakschitz, Thomas [Austrian Drug Screening Institute, Innrain 66a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rainer, Matthias, E-mail: [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, CCB—Center of Chemistry and Biomedicine, Innrain 80-82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Tessadri, Richard [Institute of Mineralogy and Petrography, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Huck, Christian W. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, CCB—Center of Chemistry and Biomedicine, Innrain 80-82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bonn, Günther K. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, CCB—Center of Chemistry and Biomedicine, Innrain 80-82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Austrian Drug Screening Institute, Innrain 66a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)


    Highlights: • Free-radical polymerization of protonable vinylimidazole with EGMDA. • Polymer-optimization by maximum loading capacity of phenolic acids. • Performs better than SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in normal phase mode using acetonitrile. • Performs equal or even better in anion-exchange mode compared to Oasis-MAX. • Efficient purification of phenolic compounds from crude extract. - Abstract: In this study we report the novel polymeric resin poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the purification and isolation of phenolic acids. The monomer to crosslinker ratio and the porogen composition were optimized for isolating phenolic acids diluted in acetonitrile at normal phase chromatography conditions, first. Acetonitrile serves as polar, aprotic solvent, dissolving phenolic acids but not interrupting interactions with the stationary phase due to the approved Hansen solubility parameters. The optimized resin demonstrated high loading capacities and adsorption abilities particularly for phenolic acids in both, acetonitrile and aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior of aqueous standards can be attributed to ion exchange effects due to electrostatic interactions between protonated imidazole residues and deprotonated phenolic acids. Furthermore, adsorption experiments and subsequent curve fittings provide information of maximum loading capacities of single standards according to the Langmuir adsorption model. Recovery studies of the optimized polymer in the normal-phase and ion-exchange mode illustrate the powerful isolation properties for phenolic acids and are comparable or even better than typical, commercially available solid phase extraction materials. In order to prove the applicability, a highly complex extract of rosemary leaves was purified by poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and the isolated compounds were identified using UHPLC–qTOF-MS.

  5. Production and purification of polyclonal anti-hamster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... IgG showed high titer and high specificity in the designed ELISA. Purified antibody and its conjugation with HRP are used in research and diagnosis of hamster disease. Key words: Production, purification, hamster immunoglobulins.

  6. Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivasidis, A.


    Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.) [de

  7. Generation and purification of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwach, Verena; Passier, Robert


    © 2016 International Society of Differentiation Efficient and reproducible generation and purification of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) is crucial for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug screening and study of developmental events during cardiac specification. Established

  8. Extraction and Purification of Flavonoids from Radix Puerariae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and preparations are now on sale. ... significant for optimization of extraction, resin selection and ... and flavonoids as indexes, optimize the proper density. ..... system. Sep Purif Technol. 2008; 62: 590-595. 12. Chen JH, Liau BC, Jong TT.

  9. Radiation-adsorption purification of effluents containing pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusentseva, S.A.; Shubin, V.N.; Nikonorova, G.K.; Zorin, D.M.; Sosnovskaya, A.A.; Petryaev, E.P.; Vlasova, V.I.; Edimicheva, I.P.; Subbotina, N.N.; Belorusskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Minsk)


    The radiation-adsorption purification is one of the new direction in the radiation purification of natural wastes and effluents containing pesticides. This method combines the conventional adsorption purification with radiation treatment of the sorbent, and the result the protection time of the sorbent increases due to the radiation regeneration of carbon. In present work the method was used for purification of effluents from pesticides, such as 4,4'Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane /DDT/, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane /HCCH/, dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinylphosphate /DDVF/ and petroleum products (a mixture of kerosene and xylene in ratio 7:1). Such effluents are formed at factories producing an insecticide aerosol 'Prime-71'. Three investigations were carried out on model with a solution similar composition to industrial effluents. (author)

  10. The technology of large-scale pharmaceutical plasmid purification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 4, 2010 ... DNA vaccine, the cost of purification must be decreased. Although commonly .... Three mice were killed every 4 days interval. Tissues of heart, liver, .... Now, methods such as chromatography had good prospects in plasmid ...

  11. Comparative study of methods for extraction and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 2, 2010 ... and or enzymatic lysis for direct or indirect extraction of. DNA followed by ... strength wastewater sludge in order to determine the best. DNA extraction protocol ... Ammonium acetate purification method was used to remove the.

  12. Vegetation characteristics and water purification by artificial floating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Dec 19, 2011 ... INTRODUCTION. Environmental pollution poses a grave menace to the ... major functions; 1) water purification, 2) providing habitats for certain animals ... areas. The aims were to; 1) select certain emerging plants effective at ...

  13. The Partial Purification and Characterization of Trypsin From the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    fractionation, dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purification fold and yield were 6.23 and. 4.49%, respectively. .... It was subjected to water wash and digestive tracts were .... sulphate precipitation was a simple method and generally.

  14. Feasibility Study on Manufacturing Lightweight Aggregates from Water Purification Sludge (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Fang; Chen, How-Ji


    This study mainly discussed the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight aggregates from water purification sludge in Taiwan. They were analysed for the physical and chemical composition before the sintering test for lightweight aggregates in a laboratory. Then the physical and mechanical properties of the synthesized aggregates were assessed. The result showed that the chemical composition of sludge in the water purification plants was within the appropriate range for manufacturing lightweight aggregate as proposed in the literature. The sintering test demonstrated that the particle density of aggregates from the ten types of water purification sludge were mostly less than 1.8 g/cm3. In addition, the dry unit weight, the organic impurity, the ignition loss, and other characteristics of synthesized aggregates met the requirement of CNS standards, while its water absorption and crushing strength also fulfilled the general commercial specifications. Therefore, reclamation of water purification sludge for production of lightweight aggregate is indeed feasible.

  15. Enhanced extraction and purification of plasmid DNA from escherichia coli by applying a hybrid magnetic nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.J. da; Chavez-Guajardo, A.E.; Medina-llamas, J.C.; Alcaraz-Espinoza, J.J.; Melo, C.P. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)


    Full text: Plasmid DNA (pDNA), a special kind of nucleic acid usually found in bacteria, is a small molecule physically distinct from chromosomal DNA that can replicate independently. This genetic material has been used in a wide set of biotechnological methodologies, such as genetic engineering, production of recombinant drugs and gene therapy, among others. In all these applications, the extraction and purification of pDNA appears as a crucial step. In this work, we describe the synthesis of a polyaniline and maghemite (PANI/?-Fe2O3) magnetic nanocomposite (MNC) and its use in a new Escherichia coli (E. coli) pDNA extraction and purification protocol. We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and magnetic measurements to characterize the MNC, which was synthesized through an emulsion polymerization method. The yield, purity and quality of the pDNA extracted by using our proposed MNC protocol were evaluated through UV-Vis, agarose gel electrophoreses and PCR techniques, respectively. After comparing our results to those obtained by use of a commercial kit (Promega Wizard Plus SV Minipreps), we suggest that the novel protocol here proposed appears as a competitive alternative methodology. Not only the purification step can be completed within only 10 min, but the high adsorption capacity of the MNC results in pDNA yields that are almost twice the best values obtained by using the commercial kit. Hence, this new MNC methodology can be of general interest and find widespread use in different types of biomedical applications. (author)

  16. A new helium gas recovery and purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamotot, T.; Suzuki, H.; Ishii, J.; Hamana, I.; Hayashi, S.; Mizutani, S.; Sanjo, S.


    A helium gas recovery and purification system, based on the principle of gas permeation through a membrane, is described. The system can be used for the purification of helium gas containing air as a contaminant. The apparatus, operating at ambient temperature does not need constant attention, the recovery ratio of helium gas is satisfactory and running costs are low. Gases other than helium can be processed with the apparatus. (U.K.)

  17. Health physics system scheme for the uranium purification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.; Oliveira, E.C.; Sordi, G.A.A.; Abrao, A.


    After describing the two uranium purification processes used in the Chemical Engineerring Division of the Instituto de Energia Atomica, it is examined the possible hazards and methods to control or eliminate them. Since these purification process present several stages, in each one of them it is evaluated the hazards and tried to give adequate solutions to protect both, personnel and installations, from the potential radiation hazards

  18. Specialists' meeting on fast reactor cover gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The tentative agenda was adopted by the participants without comment and was followed throughout the meeting. The following topics were discussed at the subsequent sessions of the meeting on 'Fast Reactor Cover Gas Purification': National Position Papers; Impurities: Sources and Measurement; Cover Gas Purification Techniques; Sodium Aerosol Trapping; Radiological Considerations. Based on the papers presented and the discussions following, session summaries and conclusions were prepared and are included in this report

  19. Specialists' meeting on fast reactor cover gas purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The tentative agenda was adopted by the participants without comment and was followed throughout the meeting. The following topics were discussed at the subsequent sessions of the meeting on 'Fast Reactor Cover Gas Purification': National Position Papers; Impurities: Sources and Measurement; Cover Gas Purification Techniques; Sodium Aerosol Trapping; Radiological Considerations. Based on the papers presented and the discussions following, session summaries and conclusions were prepared and are included in this report.

  20. Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.


    The paper describes a method for purification of human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from outdated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using commonly available laboratory reagents and yielding a mitogen purified 800,000-fold over the starting material. [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of cultured cells responsive to PDGF represents the most readily available method to follow its purification and define the biological activity of a purified preparation. Other assays to quantitate PDGF include radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay

  1. Improving the large scale purification of the HIV microbicide, griffithsin. (United States)

    Fuqua, Joshua L; Wanga, Valentine; Palmer, Kenneth E


    Griffithsin is a broad spectrum antiviral lectin that inhibits viral entry and maturation processes through binding clusters of oligomannose glycans on viral envelope glycoproteins. An efficient, scaleable manufacturing process for griffithsin active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is essential for particularly cost-sensitive products such as griffithsin -based topical microbicides for HIV-1 prevention in resource poor settings. Our previously published purification method used ceramic filtration followed by two chromatography steps, resulting in a protein recovery of 30%. Our objective was to develop a scalable purification method for griffithsin expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that would increase yield, reduce production costs, and simplify manufacturing techniques. Considering the future need to transfer griffithsin manufacturing technology to resource poor areas, we chose to focus modifying the purification process, paying particular attention to introducing simple, low-cost, and scalable procedures such as use of temperature, pH, ion concentration, and filtration to enhance product recovery. We achieved >99% pure griffithsin API by generating the initial green juice extract in pH 4 buffer, heating the extract to 55°C, incubating overnight with a bentonite MgCl2 mixture, and final purification with Capto™ multimodal chromatography. Griffithsin extracted with this protocol maintains activity comparable to griffithsin purified by the previously published method and we are able to recover a substantially higher yield: 88 ± 5% of griffithsin from the initial extract. The method was scaled to produce gram quantities of griffithsin with high yields, low endotoxin levels, and low purification costs maintained. The methodology developed to purify griffithsin introduces and develops multiple tools for purification of recombinant proteins from plants at an industrial scale. These tools allow for robust cost-effective production and purification of

  2. Re-purification of labelled ferritin antigen with HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haoyi; Jin Lichun


    Objective: To improve the quality of long-term stored labelled ferritin antigen with HPLC. Methods: The antigen was analyzed and purified with HPLC and again analyzed with RIA afterwards. Results: Ferritin antigen underwent significant polymerization after long-term (aggregation) storage. After re-purification with HPLC, its immuno-activity and labelled specific radioactivity were both significantly improved. Conclusion: Quality of stored ferritin RIA kit could be greatly improved after re-purification with HPLC

  3. Economic Methods of Ginger Protease'sextraction and Purification (United States)

    Qiao, Yuanyuan; Tong, Junfeng; Wei, Siqing; Du, Xinyong; Tang, Xiaozhen

    This article reports the ginger protease extraction and purification methods from fresh ginger rhizome. As to ginger protease extraction, we adapt the steps of organic solvent dissolving, ammonium sulfate depositing and freeze-drying, and this method can attain crude enzyme powder 0.6% weight of fresh ginger rhizome. The purification part in this study includes two steps: cellulose ion exchange (DEAE-52) and SP-Sephadex 50 chromatography, which can purify crude ginger protease through ion and molecular weight differences respectively.

  4. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase from Aspergillus flavus was purified in a single step purification using MnFeO4 magnetic nano particles to achieve a 20.53- fold purification with specific activity of 11.29 U/mg and a 59% recovery yield. SDS-PAGE of lipase showed a single pure band with corresponding molecular weight of 35 kDa. The optimal ...

  5. The entanglement purification for entangled multi-particle states

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Liu; Guo Guang Can


    We present two purification schemes for nonmaximally entangled states. We first show that two parties, Alice and Bob, start with shared less-entangled three-particle states to probabilistically produce a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state by Bell state measurements and positive operator valued measure (POVM) or a unitary transformation. Then, by a straightforward generalization of the schemes, the purification of a multi-particle entangled state can be realized. 25 Refs. --- 35 --- AN

  6. Effectiveness of liquid radioactive waste purification by inorganic granulated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarevskij, V.M.; Stepanets, O.V.; Sharygin, L.M.; Matveev, S.A.


    Study results on purification of simulative and real liquid radioactive wastes from fission products radionuclides and by inorganic corrosion-nature sorbents 'Thermoxide' are presented. Properties by sorption of cesium, strontium and cobalt are studied; results of experiments on purification of weakly-salted water solutions (waste waters, ships drainage tanks, showers and laundries) of the Beloyarsk NPP are presented. Sorbents source characteristics are determined. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.


    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  8. Affinity chromatography: A versatile technique for antibody purification. (United States)

    Arora, Sushrut; Saxena, Vikas; Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi


    Antibodies continue to be extremely utilized entities in myriad applications including basic research, imaging, targeted delivery, chromatography, diagnostics, and therapeutics. At production stage, antibodies are generally present in complex matrices and most of their intended applications necessitate purification. Antibody purification has always been a major bottleneck in downstream processing of antibodies, due to the need of high quality products and associated high costs. Over the years, extensive research has focused on finding better purification methodologies to overcome this holdup. Among a plethora of different techniques, affinity chromatography is one of the most selective, rapid and easy method for antibody purification. This review aims to provide a detailed overview on affinity chromatography and the components involved in purification. An array of support matrices along with various classes of affinity ligands detailing their underlying working principles, together with the advantages and limitations of each system in purifying different types of antibodies, accompanying recent developments and important practical methodological considerations to optimize purification procedure are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko R.S.


    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  10. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert


    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  11. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Byrne, Bernadette


    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan. PMID:27470880

  12. Rational design of peptide affinity ligands for the purification of therapeutic enzymes. (United States)

    Trasatti, John P; Woo, James; Ladiwala, Asif; Cramer, Steven; Karande, Pankaj


    Non-mAb biologics represent a growing class of therapeutics under clinical development. Although affinity chromatography is a potentially attractive approach for purification, the development of platform technologies, such as Protein A for mAbs, has been challenging due to the inherent chemical and structural diversity of these molecules. Here, we present our studies on the rapid development of peptide affinity ligands for the purification of biologics using a prototypical enzyme therapeutic in clinical use. Employing a suite of de novo rational and combinatorial design strategies we designed and screened a library of peptides on microarray platforms for their ability to bind to the target with high affinity and selectivity in cell culture fluid. Lead peptides were evaluated on resin in batch conditions and compared with a commercially available resin to evaluate their efficacy. Two lead candidates identified from microarray studies provided high binding capacity to the target while demonstrating high selectivity against culture contaminants and product variants compared to a commercial resin system. These findings provide a proof-of-concept for developing affinity peptide-based bioseparations processes for a target biologic. Peptide affinity ligand design and screening approaches presented in this work can also be easily translated to other biologics of interest. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Purification of influenza deoxyribonucleic acid-based vaccine using agmatine monolith. (United States)

    Bicho, D; Caramelo-Nunes, C; Sousa, A; Sousa, F; Queiroz, J A; Tomaz, C T


    Lately, researchers have made several efforts to improve vaccine production to fight highly contagious respiratory diseases like influenza. One of the most promising options for reducing the impact of this virus is DNA vaccination. However, a large quantity of highly pure plasmid DNA (pDNA) is necessary to attain this goal. The present work describes the production and purification of the plasmid NTC7482-41H-VA2HA expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin using an agmatine monolith. This ligand was chosen to purify supercoiled (sc) pDNA from complex lysates because of its versatile multimodal character. Its natural intervention in several biological systems together with its similarity with the highly studied arginine ligand allowed the development of a simpler and more specific purification process. Agmatine works under two strategies: descending ammonium sulfate gradient and ascending sodium chloride gradient. Furthermore, pH manipulation revealed an important role in pDNA isoforms selectivity. Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) experiments were performed varying different parameters and showed an increase with pDNA concentration, while high flow rate and high pH had the opposite effect. Sc pDNA was purified with high yield and was efficient with respect to cell transfection and cell viability. This monolith showed to be appropriate to purify the plasmid NTC7482-41H-VA2HA, providing a valuable tool for pDNA influenza vaccines preparation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Purification process of natural graphite as anode for Li-ion batteries: chemical versus thermal (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Song, X.; Guerfi, A.; Rioux, R.; Kinoshita, K.

    The intercalation of Li ions in natural graphite that was purified by chemical and thermal processes was investigated. A new chemical process was developed that involved a mixed aqueous solution containing 30% H 2SO 4 and 30% NH xF y heated to 90 °C. The results of this process are compared to those obtained by heating the natural graphite from 1500 to 2400 °C in an inert environment (thermal process). The first-cycle coulombic efficiency of the purified natural graphite obtained by the chemical process is 91 and 84% after the thermal process at 2400 °C. Grinding the natural graphite before or after purification had no significant effect on electrochemical performance at low currents. However, grinding to a very small particle size before purification permitted optimization of the size distribution of the particles, which gives rise to a more homogenous electrode. The impurities in the graphite play a role as microabrasion agents during grinding which enhances its hardness and improves its mechanical properties. Grinding also modifies the particle morphology from a 2- to a 3-D structure (similar in shape to a potato). This potato-shaped natural graphite shows high reversible capacity at high current densities (about 90% at 1 C rate). Our analysis suggests that thermal processing is considerably more expensive than the chemical process to obtain purified natural graphite.

  15. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Byrne, Bernadette


    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan.

  16. Evaluating Capacity Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    She also had the dubious pleasure of checking and correcting the text numerous ... Has your organization received training or other types of support for capacity ...... processors, and consumer groups in its research and development work.

  17. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  18. Profiling and quantitative evaluation of three Nickel-Coated magnetic matrices for purification of recombinant proteins: lelpful hints for the optimized nanomagnetisable matrix preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei Saeed


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several materials are available in the market that work on the principle of protein magnetic fishing by their histidine (His tags. Little information is available on their performance and it is often quoted that greatly improved purification of histidine-tagged proteins from crude extracts could be achieved. While some commercial magnetic matrices could be used successfully for purification of several His-tagged proteins, there are some which have been proved to operate just for a few extent of His-tagged proteins. Here, we address quantitative evaluation of three commercially available Nickel nanomagnetic beads for purification of two His-tagged proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and present helpful hints for optimized purification of such proteins and preparation of nanomagnetisable matrices. Results Marked differences in the performance of nanomagnetic matrices, principally on the basis of their specific binding capacity, recovery profile, the amount of imidazole needed for protein elution and the extent of target protein loss and purity were obtained. Based on the aforesaid criteria, one of these materials featured the best purification results (SiMAG/N-NTA/Nickel for both proteins at the concentration of 4 mg/ml, while the other two (SiMAC-Nickel and SiMAG/CS-NTA/Nickel did not work well with respect to specific binding capacity and recovery profile. Conclusions Taken together, functionality of different types of nanomagnetic matrices vary considerably. This variability may not only be dependent upon the structure and surface chemistry of the matrix which in turn determine the affinity of interaction, but, is also influenced to a lesser extent by the physical properties of the protein itself. Although the results of the present study may not be fully applied for all nanomagnetic matrices, but provide a framework which could be used to profiling and quantitative evaluation of other magnetisable matrices and also

  19. Purification by using the zone melting technique; Purification par la technique de la zone fondue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, Michel


    The zone melting technique has first been used in metallurgy, and has been developed for the preparation of silicon and germanium for semiconductors, and then for the preparation of organic bodies of high purity. In this research thesis, the author first presents the principle of this technique, and then discusses the influence of agitation in liquid phase, and the influence of the number of passages over the zone. He discusses issues related to matter transport, and some technical details which intervene in the design of an apparatus for purification by zone melting. He finally presents examples.

  20. Purification of an Immunoadjuvant Saponin Fraction from Quillaja brasiliensis Leaves by Reversed-Phase Silica Gel Chromatography. (United States)

    Yendo, Anna C A; de Costa, Fernanda; Kauffmann, Carla; Fleck, Juliane D; Gosmann, Grace; Fett-Neto, Arthur G


    Saponins include a large variety of molecules that find several applications in pharmacology. The use of Quillaja saponaria saponins as immunological adjuvants in vaccines is of interest due to their capacity to stimulate both humoral and cellular responses. The congener species Q. brasiliensis has saponins with chemical similarities and adjuvant activity comparable to that of Q. saponaria fraction Quil-A ® , with additional advantages of showing lower toxicity and reduced hemolytic activity. Here we describe in detail the methods for preparing the aqueous extract from Q. brasiliensis leaves, as well as the purification of the bioactive saponin fraction QB-90 using silica reversed-phase chromatography.


    King, E.L.


    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  2. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang


    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2

  3. Commercial Charcoal Characterisation For Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saryati; Sumardjo; Sutisna; Handayani, Ari; Suprapti, Siti


    In order to provide a drinking water purification substance, has been studied the charcoal characterisation that based on a porous profile and an adsorption properties of the charcoal. There were using the commercial charcoal like wood charcoals, coconut shell charcoals and activated charcoals. The porous profile was studied by using an electron microscope SEM-EDX and the adsorption properties was studied by using the water sample simulation that contains several metal ions. The concentration of all ions was ten times greater that the maximum ions concentration that permissible in the drinking water. From the grain surface microscopic analysis was shown that the pore structure of the wood charcoal was more regular than the coconut shell charcoal. Mean while the activated charcoal has pore more than wood and coconut shell charcoal. Grains size was not an adsorption parameter. The absorptivitas charcoal was affected by pH solution, but this effect was not linear proportion. There are no significant deference in the adsorptivitas among the tree charcoals that has been studied for Al 3 + , Cr 3+ , Ag 1 +, and Pb 2+ ions the adsorption was large enough (> 60%), for Mn 2+ , Fe 3+ , Se 4+ , Cd 2+ and Ba 2+ ions was 20%-60% dan for Mg 2+ , Na 1+ , Ca 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions was less than 20 %. Generally the wood and coconut shell charcoal absorptivity in the pH 4 solutions was lower than in the pH 5-7 solutions

  4. Recent developments in water purification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.C.


    Water is source of life. More than 70% surface of earth is covered with water. Water is extensively used in industries for various purposes like cooling, rinsing, steam generation and as process fluid etc. Water as found in nature cannot be used directly in industries since it contains various types of impurities which can affect smooth operation of equipment/plants. Quality of water requirement for industry greatly differs from the quality requirement for domestic use. Some industrial plant such as nuclear and thermal power plants, pharmaceutical plants and electronic industries require water of quality approaching that of ultra pure water. To get water of required quality from available natural resources, selection of proper treatment methods and control of necessary water conditioning procedures are essential analysis of water for different types of impurities involving various analytical techniques is also of great importance to select proper processes for its purification. In this talk, a survey of various types of impurities present in water from different sources, their harmful effects and general methods than can be used for removal of these impurities are detailed. Various methods of removing suspended and colloidal impurities, organic and gaseous impurities from water are also described

  5. Purification of a putative brain somatostatin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Haitao; Johnson, K.; Thermos, K.; Reisine, T.


    The brain somatostatin receptor was purified by affinity chromatographic techniques. A protein of 60 kDa could be purified from rat brain. The protein was eluted from a [D-Trp 8 ]SRIF affinity column with either sodium acetate (pH 5.5) or free [D-Trp 8 ]SRIF. The binding of the protein to the affinity column was prevented by free [D-Trp 8 ]SRIF or the stable SRIF analogue SMS 201-996 but not by the inactive somatostatin 28-(1-14). The purified receptor could be covalently labeled by the 125 I-labeled SRIF analogue CGP 23996. Excess [D-Trp 8 ]SRIF blocked the binding of 125 I-labeled CGP 23996 to the purified receptor, but somatostatin 28-(1-14) did not affect the binding. A 60-kDa protein was also purified from the anterior pituitary cell line AtT-20, which has a high expression of SRIF receptors. In contrast, no 60-kDa protein could be purified from CHO cells, which have no detectable SRIF receptors. These findings present evidence for the purification of the SRIF receptor

  6. Investigation of activated Al-pillared clay efficiency in vegetable oil purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomić Gizela A.


    Full Text Available This paper represents a contribution to the applicability of natural clays and their derivates as adsorbents in the process of purification of vegetable oil. Investigation of textural properties of raw and purified clay samples reveals that during acid activation and Al-pillaring, BET and micropore surface area increases significantly. However, bleaching capacity of clay and its derivates is not determined by using sample surface area, but rather sample total pore volume. Surface area, especially micropore surface area contributes to removal of smaller molecules. This was confirmed by successful elimination of moisture and volatile materials by samples with an appropriate micropore structure. Used samples of clay and its derivates do not significantly influence acid and peroxide values of raw sunflower oil during its treatment.

  7. Purification and properties of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species. (United States)

    Notermans, S; Wieten, G; Engel, H W; Rombouts, F M; Hoogerhout, P; van Boom, J H


    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species were purified and partially characterized. Purification included (NH4)2SO4 treatment, Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and Con A-sepharose chromatography. The EPS of Penicillium digitatum, Mucor racemosus and Cladosporium cladosporioides showed high antigenic capacities. Immunologically the EPS were partially genus-specific, but cross-reactivity was observed. The EPS antigens produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus repens and Geotrichum candidum lost their immunological activity upon heating (100 degrees C) at pH 1.8, while the EPS antigen of M. racemosus, Rhizopus oligosporus and C. cladosporioides were stable under the same conditions. The dominant monosaccharides present in the EPS antigen were mannose, galactose and glucose. The EPS obtained from cultures of M. racemosus and R. oligosporus also contained rhamnose. In the EPS produced by Penicillium spp. and A. repens the galactose residues were determined to be immunodominant.

  8. Application of enhanced electronegative multimodal chromatography as the primary capture step for immunoglobulin G purification. (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Chen, Quan; Xian, Mo; Nian, Rui; Xu, Fei


    In recent studies, electronegative multimodal chromatography with Eshmuno HCX was demonstrated to be a highly promising recovery step for direct immunoglobulin G (IgG) capture from undiluted cell culture fluid. In this study, the binding properties of HCX to IgG at different pH/salt combinations were systematically studied, and its purification performance was significantly enhanced by lowering the washing pH and conductivity after high capacity binding of IgG under its optimal conditions. A single polishing step gave an end-product with non-histone host cell protein (nh-HCP) below 1 ppm, DNA less than 1 ppb, which aggregates less than 0.5% and an overall IgG recovery of 86.2%. The whole non-affinity chromatography based two-column-step process supports direct feed loading without buffer adjustment, thus extraordinarily boosting the overall productivity and cost-savings.

  9. The panel of egg allergens, Gal d 1-Gal d 5: Their improved purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Have, T. T.


    Egg proteins represent one of the most important sources evoking food allergic reactions. In order to improve allergy diagnosis, purified and well-characterized proteins are needed. Although the egg white allergens Gal d 1, 2, 3 and 4 (ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme......) are commercially available, these preparations contain impurities, which affect exact in vitro diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to set up further purification protocols and to extend the characterization of the physicochemical and immunological properties of the final batches. The egg white allergens...... Gal d 1-4 were purified from commercial preparations, whereas Gal d 5 (a-livetin) was purified from egg yolk. The final batches of Gal d 1-5 consisted of a range of isoforms with defined tertiary structure. In addition, the IgE binding capacity of the purified egg allergens was tested using allergic...

  10. Historical and perspectives of thorium compounds production and purification at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O.; Abrao, A.; Freitas, Antonio A.; Carvalho, Fatima M.S. de; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Cunha, Edgar F.; Ayoub, Jamil M.S.; Mindrisz, Ana C.


    The production and purification of some thorium compounds has been performed in the IPEN in the last 15 years. Some raw materials have been employed in this production, obtained from the monazite exploitation in industrial scale that it was performed in Sao paulo during the period 1948 until 1994. More than 160 t of high purity thorium nitrate were produced, purified by the solvent extraction process. The thorium nitrate has been supplied for the Brazilian portable gaslight industry to the production of Welsbach Mantle. Nowadays, a new facility is being designed and built. The main concern is the recovering of the production capacity, lost after some years of operation without suitable maintenance. This activity has an important strategic role, considering the huge Brazilian thorium resources and the renewed interest in thorium fuel cycle. This paper describes a brief historical background of thorium activities in the IPEN as well as their perspectives. (author)

  11. Capacity Maximizing Constellations (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher


    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  12. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.


    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  13. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi


    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  14. Purification of a-galactosidase from seeds of Sesbania marginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falco A.L.P.


    Full Text Available Alpha-galactosidase taken from a raw extract of Sesbania marginata legume seeds was purified by partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS. Initially, galactomannan/dextran 2,000,000 systems were used for the purification, and the partition coefficients of alpha -galactosidase varied from 1.5 to 4.0. However, mass transport in these systems was poor due to the high viscosity of the employed polymers. Therefore, partitioning in polyethyleneglycol (PEG/ sodium phosphate systems and the effect of sodium chloride upon the enzyme purification and the yield of alpha -galactosidase were also investigated. The purification achieved in a single-step was 5.7 with a recovery of 144% of alpha -galactosidase, possibly due to the removal of materials which inhibited alpha -galactosidase activity before the purification. The removal of the main protein contaminants and the highest yields were achieved in PEG 4,000/ sodium phosphate + 6% NaCl system at pH 5.0. Further purification by preparative on-exchange chromatography was also developed.

  15. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.


    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  16. Oriented immobilized anti-hIgG via F(c) fragment-imprinted PHEMA cryogel for IgG purification. (United States)

    Bereli, Nilay; Ertürk, Gizem; Tümer, M Aşkin; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil


    Antibodies are used in many applications, especially as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Among the various techniques used for the purification of antibodies, immunoaffinity chromatography is by far the most common. For this purpose, oriented immobilization of antibodies is an important step for the efficiency of purification step. In this study, F(c) fragment-imprinted poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel (MIP) was prepared for the oriented immobilization of anti-hIgG for IgG purification from human plasma. Non-imprinted poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel (NIP) was also prepared for random immobilization of anti-hIgG to compare the adsorption capacities of oriented (MIP/anti-hIgG) and random (NIP/anti-hIgG) cryogel columns. The amount of immobilized anti-hIgG was 19.8 mg/g for the NIP column and 23.7 mg/g for the MIP column. Although the amount of immobilized anti-hIgG was almost the same for the NIP and MIP columns, IgG adsorption capacity was found to be three times higher than the NIP/anti-hIgG column (29.7 mg/g) for the MIP/anti-hIgG column (86.9 mg/g). Higher IgG adsorption capacity was observed from human plasma (up to 106.4 mg/g) with the MIP/anti-hIgG cryogel column. Adsorbed IgG was eluted using 1.0 M NaCl with a purity of 96.7%. The results obtained here are very encouraging and showed the usability of MIP/anti-hIgG cryogel prepared via imprinting of Fc fragments as an alternative to conventional immunoaffinity techniques for IgG purification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Immunoaffinity purification and reconstitution of the human bilirubin/phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppen, J.; Jansen, P. L.; Oude Elferink, R. P.


    When membrane proteins are solubilized and subjected to purification procedures, the loss of lipids surrounding the protein often results in irreversible inactivation. We describe a procedure for the immunoaffinity purification of the membrane protein UDP-glucuronosyltransferase from human liver.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    When membrane proteins are solubilized and subjected to purification procedures, the loss of lipids surrounding the protein often results in irreversible inactivation. We describe a procedure for the immunoaffinity purification of the membrane protein UDP-glucuronosyltransferase from human liver.

  19. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment. (United States)

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.


    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  20. Petunia peroxidase a: isolation, purification and characteristics. (United States)

    Hendriks, T; Wijsman, H J; van Loon, L C


    The fast-moving anionic peroxidase isoenzyme variant PRXa was purified from leaves of petunia (Petunia hybrida). Over 1300-fold purification was achieved by subjecting extracellular extracts to two sequential acetone precipitations and resuspending the pellets at pH 5.0 and pH 8.0, respectively, followed by gel filtration and chromatofocusing. The purified enzyme had an absorbance ratio (A405 nm/A280 nm) of 3.6, a molecular mass of about 37 kDa and a pI of 3.8. Three molecular forms with slightly different molecular masses were separated by concanavalin-A--Sepharose affinity chromatography, indicating that these three forms differ in their carbohydrate moieties. The absorption spectrum of PRXa had maxima at 496 and 636 nm and a Soret band at 405 nm. Spectra of compounds I and IV were obtained by titrating a batch of PRXa stored for several months at -20 degrees C with H2O2. The addition of 1 mol H2O2/mol freshly purified PRXa caused the formation of compound II, indicating that freshly isolated PRXa contains a bound hydrogen donor which is lost upon storage. Compound III was obtained from both preparations in the presence of excess H2O2. The pH optimum of PRXa for the reaction with H2O2 and guaiacol was 5.0 and its specific activity 61 mkat/g protein. Among various aromatic compounds, coniferyl alcohol was polymerized by PRXa to presumed lignin-like material. The extracellular localization and high affinity of PRXa for the cinnamic acid derivatives suggest that this isoenzyme functions in the polymerization or cross-linking of lignin in the plant cell wall.

  1. EDF PWRs primary coolant purification strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gressier, Frederic; Mascarenhas, Darren; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Ranchoux, Gilles


    In order to achieve a good physico-chemical quality of the primary coolant fluid, the primary water is continuously treated by the Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS). This system is composed of a treatment chain containing filters and ion-exchange resins. In the EDF design, an upstream filter is placed before the resin so as to prevent it from being saturated with insoluble particles. Then, the fluid passes through several resin beds (up to 3 depending on the configuration) and again through a downstream filter that prevents resin fines dissemination into the reactor coolant. Much work has been conducted in the last 5 years on the homogenisation of products and usage on French EDF NPP primary coolant treatment, while taking into account the compromise between source term reduction, liquid and solid waste, and buying and disposal costs. Two national markets have been created, and two operational documents for chemists on site have been published: a filtration guideline and an ion-exchange resin guideline. Both documents give general information about the products used, how are they characterized and selected for national market (technical requirements, standards and tests), how they should be used and what are the change-out criteria. They are also periodically updated based on feedback from sites. The positive impact on resin and filter lifetime (extension of some, limitation of others), homogenisation of products and usage will be presented. Moreover, EDF is constantly in the process of improving the current purification methods, as well as researching the use of existing and novel technologies. In this field, recent experiments on short loading of resin during reactor shutdown has been tested on site with success. In addition, work is done on silica free filters, filter consumption and filter chemical release. An overview of these optimization methods will be given. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd


    capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...

  3. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm


    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  4. Study of air purification in the production of radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradin, J.; Desroches, J.


    As the fabrication of radio-elements takes place in almost airtight enclosures in which a frequent air renewal is required, and while taking the purification rate into account (1.000 to 5.000 m 3 /h), the authors report the study of wet purification in conjunction with dry purification through paper filters, in order to capture dusts. An apparatus has been implemented which allows high gas flow rates. A radioactive aerosol has been introduced in this apparatus and its efficiency has been measured by different means. The authors describe the instrumentation (column, aerosol generator), operation, rate adjustment, and losses. Aerosols of manganese and sodium have been used. Their particle granulometry has been determined. The authors report several types of tests [fr

  5. Recent Advances in Nanoporous Membranes for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Wang


    Full Text Available Nanoporous materials exhibit wide applications in the fields of electrocatalysis, nanodevice fabrication, energy, and environmental science, as well as analytical science. In this review, we present a summary of recent studies on nanoporous membranes for water purification application. The types and fabrication strategies of various nanoporous membranes are first introduced, and then the fabricated nanoporous membranes for removing various water pollutants, such as salt, metallic ions, anions, nanoparticles, organic chemicals, and biological substrates, are demonstrated and discussed. This work will be valuable for readers to understand the design and fabrication of various nanoporous membranes, and their potential purification mechanisms towards different water pollutants. In addition, it will be helpful for developing new nanoporous materials for quick, economic, and high-performance water purification.

  6. Moderator purification and design modifications based on operation feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S; Chakrabarti, A K; Shirolkar, K M; Sharma, V K [Nuclear Power Corporation, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    Heavy water is used as a moderator in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors using natural uranium as a fissile fuel. The purification system is provided to maintain the purity of moderator heavy water so as to minimise the radiolytic decomposition of heavy water due to nuclear radiation which otherwise would lead to hazardous concentration of deuterium in the moderator cover gas. The presence of dissolved impurity in the moderator increases the radiolysis rate by impeding the reverse reaction and hence these must be removed. The purification system in general controls the chemistry of moderator by minimizing the corrosion of piping in the circuit and along with the liquid poison injection system adjusts the concentration of the poisons in the moderator. This paper describes the evolution of the purification system for the 500 MWe PHWRs based on various operating requirements and feedback from the operating stations. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Purification of thyrotropin from human hypophysis: preliminary preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, V.C.; Lin, L.H.; Bartolini, P.


    The adequacy of stored crude preparations for isolation of human tyrotropin (TSH) was evaluated according to Ross et al from a side fraction obtained during the purification of growth hormone from frozen pituitaries (SOMATORMON). Six crude TSH preparations were stored at - 20 0 C during several years for further purification. One of these preparations was purified by sucessive chromatographies on Sephadex G-100, hydroxylapatite and SP-Sephadex C50. The TSH content present in the chromatographic fractions and in the pools was assayed by specific radioimmunoassay developed at our laboratory. The protein determination of the fractions and pools was performed by absorbance at 280 nm and by the method of Lowry at al, respectively. The TSH activity increased eight times during the purification and the TSH purified had a radioimmunological potency around half that de scribed by Roos at al. The results suggest the fitness of long time stored preparations in the attainment of pure TSH. (author) [pt

  8. Bromelain: an overview of industrial application and purification strategies. (United States)

    Arshad, Zatul Iffah Mohd; Amid, Azura; Yusof, Faridah; Jaswir, Irwandi; Ahmad, Kausar; Loke, Show Pau


    This review highlights the use of bromelain in various applications with up-to-date literature on the purification of bromelain from pineapple fruit and waste such as peel, core, crown, and leaves. Bromelain, a cysteine protease, has been exploited commercially in many applications in the food, beverage, tenderization, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and textile industries. Researchers worldwide have been directing their interest to purification strategies by applying conventional and modern approaches, such as manipulating the pH, affinity, hydrophobicity, and temperature conditions in accord with the unique properties of bromelain. The amount of downstream processing will depend on its intended application in industries. The breakthrough of recombinant DNA technology has facilitated the large-scale production and purification of recombinant bromelain for novel applications in the future.

  9. Moderator purification and design modifications based on operation feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Chakrabarti, A.K.; Shirolkar, K.M.; Sharma, V.K.


    Heavy water is used as a moderator in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors using natural uranium as a fissile fuel. The purification system is provided to maintain the purity of moderator heavy water so as to minimise the radiolytic decomposition of heavy water due to nuclear radiation which otherwise would lead to hazardous concentration of deuterium in the moderator cover gas. The presence of dissolved impurity in the moderator increases the radiolysis rate by impeding the reverse reaction and hence these must be removed. The purification system in general controls the chemistry of moderator by minimizing the corrosion of piping in the circuit and along with the liquid poison injection system adjusts the concentration of the poisons in the moderator. This paper describes the evolution of the purification system for the 500 MWe PHWRs based on various operating requirements and feedback from the operating stations. (author)

  10. One-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification with linear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Yu-Bo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Long, Gui Lu, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)


    We present a one-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification scheme for an N-photon system in a Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state with linear optical elements. The parties in quantum communication can in principle obtain a maximally entangled state from each N-photon system with a success probability of 100%. That is, it does not consume the less-entangled photon systems largely, which is far different from other multipartite entanglement purification schemes. This feature maybe make this scheme more feasible in practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We proposed a deterministic entanglement purification scheme for GHZ states. ► The scheme uses only linear optical elements and has a success probability of 100%. ► The scheme gives a purified GHZ state in just one-step.

  11. 21 CFR 884.6170 - Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction water and water purification... Devices § 884.6170 Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction water purification systems are devices specifically intended to generate high quality...

  12. Purification of a synthetic pterocarpanquinone by countercurrent chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Fernanda das Neves; Silva, Alcides Jose M. da; Domingos, Jorge L. de Oliveira; Costa, Paulo Roberto R.; Leitao, Gilda G.; Daher Netto, Chaquip


    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) was employed as a useful, fast and economic alternative to conventional chromatography techniques for the purification of a synthetic pterocarpanquinone, LQB-118. The separation was performed in a two-step CCC with the solvent system hexanechloroform- methanol-water 2:1.5:5:2 in both steps. Traditional purification of these reaction products by silica gel column chromatography demanded a large amount of solvent and time, besides allowing the irreversible adsorption of the compound in the column. The use of 1 H NMR for the calculation of KD of target compound is proposed as an alternative for HPLC measurements. (author)

  13. Sandia Sodium Purification Loop (SNAPL) description and operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, R.U.; Weatherbee, R.L.; Smith, L.A.; Mastin, F.L.; Nowotny, K.E.


    Sandia's Sodium Purification Loop was constructed to purify sodium for fast reactor safety experiments. An oxide impurity of less than 10 parts per million is required by these in-pile experiments. Commercial, reactor grade sodium is purchased in 180 kg drums. The sodium is melted and transferred into the unit. The unit is of a loop design and purification is accomplished by ''cold trapping.'' Sodium purified in this loop has been chemically analysed at one part per million oxygen by weight. 5 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs

  14. [Development of new magnetic bead separation and purification instrument]. (United States)

    Xu, Yingyuan; Chen, Yi


    The article describes the development of new magnetic bead separation and purification instrument. The main application of the instrument is to capture tubercle bacillus from sputum. It is a pretreatment instrument and provides a new platform to help doctors to diagnose bacillary phthisis. Not only could it be used for tubercle bacillus capturing, but also for gene, protein and cell separating and purification. Because the controller of the instrument is 16-bit single chip microcomputer, the cost could be greatly reduced and it will be widely used in China.

  15. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  16. A simple method for affinity purification of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juweid, M; Sato, J; Paik, C; Onay-Basaran, S; Weinstein, J N; Neumann, R D [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)


    A simple method is described for affinity purification of radiolabeled antibodies using glutaraldehyde-fixed tumor target cells. The cell-bound antibody fraction is removed from the cells by an acid wash and then immediately subjected to buffer-exchange chromatography. The method was applied to the D3 murine monoclonal antibody which binds to a 290 kDa antigen on the surface of Line 10 guinea pig carcinoma cells. No alteration in the molecular size profile was detected after acid washing. Purification resulted in a significant increase in immunoreactivity by an average of 14 [+-] 47% (SD; range 4-30%). (author).

  17. Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Xiong, Shaoling; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Litao; Yang, Yanyan


    A recombinant baculovirus, rv-egfp-NK, containing a reporter gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used to express nattokinase (NK), a fibrinolytic enzyme, in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) cells. The recombinant protein also included a histidine tag for purification using Ni(2+) resins. The recombinant NK, approximately 30 kDa, retained fibrinolytic activity (60 U/ml). The integration of the EGFP expression cassette in the Bac-to-Bac system is thus an effective method for the expression and purification of recombinant NK protein in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells.

  18. Experimental Study on Purification of Low Grade Diatomite (United States)

    Xiao, Liguang; Pang, Bo


    This paper presented an innovation for purification of low grade diatomite(DE) by grinding, ultrasonic pretreatment, acid leaching of closed stirring and calcination. The optimum process parameters of DE purification were obtained, the characterizations of original and purified DE were determined by SEM and BET. The results showed that the specific surface area of DE increased from 12.65m2/g to 23.23m2/g, which increased by 45.54%. SEM analysis revealed that the pore structure of purified DE was dredged highly.

  19. Functionalized Organosilicate Sorbents for Air Purification (United States)


    Average mesopore diameters are similar to E50 (81 Å). There is a significant reduction in the pore diameter distribution near the micropore range...capacity. This tends to indicate bulk and internal diffusion limitations. Under humid conditions the phenomenon is exacerbated; breakthrough occurs more...One possibility is that octane sorption is limited by internal pore diffusion rates resulting from condensation in smaller pores first which may

  20. Study on cryogenic adsorption capability of trace nitrogen and methane by activated carbon for cooIant helium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Hua; Wu Zongxin


    A fixed-bed apparatus with dynamic two-route proportional gas mixing system was designed to investigate the cryogenic adsorption behavior of nitrogen and methane on activated carbon for designing the helium purification system of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). With helium as carrier gas and at the impurity partial pressure of tens Pa, experiments were performed at near atmospheric pressure and by dynamic column breakthrough method at -196°C. The breakthrough curves and desorption curves were measured. By analyzing the breakthrough curve, both the equilibrium adsorption capacity and the kinetic adsorption capacity at breakthrough point were determined. Based on mass-transfer zone model, the experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed. (author)

  1. Catalase purification from rat liver with iron-chelated poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(l)-glutamic acid) cryogel discs. (United States)

    Göktürk, Ilgım; Perçin, Işık; Denizli, Adil


    In this study, iron-chelated poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(l)-glutamic acid) (PHEMAGA/Fe(3+)) cryogel discs were prepared. The PHEMAGA/Fe(3+) cryogel discs were characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, swelling tests, and surface area measurements. The PHEMAGA/Fe(3+) cryogel discs had large pores ranging from 10 to 100 µm with a swelling degree of 9.36 g H2O/g cryogel. Effects of pH, temperature, initial catalase concentration, and flow rate on adsorption capacity of the PHEMAGA/Fe(3+) cryogel discs were investigated. Maximum catalase adsorption capacity (62.6 mg/g) was obtained at pH 7.0, 25°C, and 3 mg/ml initial catalase concentration. The PHEMAGA/Fe(3+) cryogel discs were also tested for the purification of catalase from rat liver. After tissue homogenization, purification of catalase was performed using the PHEMAGA/Fe(3+) cryogel discs and catalase was obtained with a yield of 54.34 and 16.67 purification fold.

  2. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yingchun; Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng; Liu Feng


    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals

  3. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.


    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Yingchun [Department of Mathematics, Hunan Normal University 410081, Changsha (China); COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Liu Feng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Nanjing University (China)


    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals.





    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  6. Options on capacity imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.


    Since the start of this year, the Dutch energy company Nuon has been using a computer system to formulate real-time responses to national capacity imbalances in the electricity supply market. The work earns Nuon a fixed fee from TenneT (Dutch Transmission System Operator) and ensures a more stable imbalance price for everyone. The key to success has been the decision to start the project from scratch [nl

  7. CSTI High Capacity Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.


    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  8. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern


    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  9. A general method for the purification of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing strong secondary structure by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on PRP-1 resin. (United States)

    Germann, M W; Pon, R T; van de Sande, J H


    Synthetic 5'-dimethoxytritylated oligodeoxyribonucleotides, which contained strong secondary structure, were satisfactorily denatured and purified by reversed-phase HPLC on PRP-1 columns when strongly alkaline conditions (0.05 M NaOH) were employed. This procedure was suitable for the purification of hairpin structures, e.g., d(CG)nT4(CG)n (n = 4, 5, 6), and oligo(dG) sequences, e.g., d(G)24, as well as oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes which contained degenerate base sites. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides as long as 50 bases in length were purified. Recovery of injected oligonucleotides was typically 90% or better. The high capacity of the PRP-1 resin also allowed purification to be performed on a preparative scale (2-8 mg per injection). Enzymatic degradation and HPLC analysis indicated that no modification of the heterocyclic bases occurred under the alkaline conditions described.

  10. Pulsed corona demonstrator for semi-industrial scale air purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.; Huiskamp, T.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.


    Although pulsed corona technology for air purification is widely investigated by the lab experiments, large-scale application has yet to be proven. Industrial systems require large flow handling and thus, high corona power. An autonomous semi-industrial scale pilot wire-cylinder type corona reactor

  11. Purification yields of forced air filters for radioactive breath protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landman, E.B.


    Air filters for breath protection were tested as to purification yield using the in-situ DOP testing method. Only some of them satisfied the requirements made by the authors. Requirements, testing methods, experimental set-up and results are presented. (G.J.P.)

  12. Rotary adsorbers for waste air purification and solvent recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, G.; Eigenberger, G.


    Rotary Adsorbers for Waste Air Purification and Solvent Recovery. Thanks to their compact construction and low pressure drops, adsorbers with rotating adsorbent beds are highly suitable both for retrofitting of waste air purification units and generally for the removal of absorbable components from gas streams. When used in conjunction with straightforward hot gas desorption they permit almost complete purification of gas flows with concomitant concentration of the separated components in the desorbate by a factor of 10 to 20. They can also be used in conjunction with recovery of the separated components by partial condensation of the desorbate. Owing to the fixed coupling of adsorption and desorption times, which is determined by the geometry of the unit, the behaviour of the system is distinctly different from that of conventional multiple bed systems in cyclic operation. A detailed model description and computer simulation of operating behaviour are particularly useful for their analysis. It is shown that the behaviour of commercially available rotor concepts can be much better understood in this way and new concepts for exhaust air purification with integrated solvent recovery can be developed which are characterised by significantly reduced energy requirements for desorption and condensation. (orig.) [de

  13. Testing of the influenza virus purification by CIEF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Kubíček, O.; Kubesová, Anna; Kubíčková, Z.; Rosenbergová, K.; Šlais, Karel


    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2010), s. 331-338 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * PCR * purification efficiency Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.569, year: 2010

  14. Effective Purification of Biogas by Condensing-Liquid Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poloncarzová, Magda; Vejražka, Jiří; Veselý, Václav; Izák, Pavel


    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2010), s. 669-671 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biogas purification * condensing liquid * gas permeation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 12.730, year: 2010

  15. Advanced purification of petroleum refinery wastewater by catalytic vacuum distillation. (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Mao, Wei; Chen, Yashao


    In our work, a new process, catalytic vacuum distillation (CVD) was utilized for purification of petroleum refinery wastewater that was characteristic of high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity. Moreover, various common promoters, like FeCl(3), kaolin, H(2)SO(4) and NaOH were investigated to improve the purification efficiency of CVD. Here, the purification efficiency was estimated by COD testing, electrolytic conductivity, UV-vis spectrum, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pH value. The results showed that NaOH promoted CVD displayed higher efficiency in purification of refinery wastewater than other systems, where the pellucid effluents with low salinity and high COD removal efficiency (99%) were obtained after treatment, and the corresponding pH values of effluents varied from 7 to 9. Furthermore, environment estimation was also tested and the results showed that the effluent had no influence on plant growth. Thus, based on satisfied removal efficiency of COD and salinity achieved simultaneously, NaOH promoted CVD process is an effective approach to purify petroleum refinery wastewater. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Purification of phospholipase A2 from Bothrops atrox venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Quevedo


    Full Text Available Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 from Bothrops atrox (Sensu lato venom, from Chiriguaná (Colombia was purified using exclusión chromatography on Sephadex G-75, obtaining five fractions one of which showed phospholipase A2 activity. After further purification on Mono S cationic exchange column, eight fractions with PLA2 activity, measured using the hemolytic method, were obtained.

  17. Extraction and Purification of Flavonoids from Radix Puerariae | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an efficient method for the purification of flavonoids from Radix puerariae. Methods: Optimal extraction technology was obtained using orthogonal test. Through adsorption and desorption tests, 8 resins with different polarity, diameter, and surface area were studied. Finally, a novel macroporous resin, ...

  18. Studies on isolation and partial purification of lysozyme from egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 5, 2009 ... nine species of lovebirds, and many different colour var- ieties. Their scientific name Agapornis comes from the. Greek Agapa meaning, “Love” and ornis meaning “bird”. This paper describes the isolation, partial purification and determination of molecular weight of lysozyme of Agapor- nis sp. egg white.

  19. High-level expression, purification, polyclonal antibody preparation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OprD is a specific porin which can binds imipenem and carbapenems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. OprD loss plays a central role in mediating carbapenem resistance. Therefore, purification of oprD protein lays a pavement for the study in vivo and in vitro. In our study, the oprD gene was cloned into pQE30 expression ...

  20. Purification and properties of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replicase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabel, P.


    This thesis concerns the partial purification and properties of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase) produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata plants with Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV). The enzyme is believed to be coded, at least in part, by the virus genome and to

  1. Expression and purification of recombinant Shiga toxin 2B from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression and purification of recombinant Shiga toxin 2B from Escherichia coli O157:H7. ... (SDS-PAGE) and StxB2 yield was 450 μg ml-1 confirmed by Bradford assay. Recombinant Stx2B protein was produced in highly pure yield using ...

  2. Optimized conditions for high-level solubilization and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NH Computers


    Oct 10, 2011 ... filtration chromatography using Sephadex G-50 column. The purified protein was refolded by .... blocking with BSA, the nitrocellulose membrane was processed using rabbit monoclonal antibody raised ..... recombinant human growth hormone using radial flow chromatography. Protein Exp. Purif., 68: 54-59.

  3. New concept of gas purification by electron attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamon, Hajime; Mizota, Hirotoshi; Sano, Noriaki; Schulze, S.; Okazaki, Morio


    Recently, the public has become interested in the following types of gas purification: (1) removal of indoor air pollutants; (2) complete removal of dioxin from incineration plants; (3) complete removal of radioactive iodine compounds; (4) simultaneous removal of NOx and SOx in exhaust gases from cogeneration plants; (5) removal and decomposition of halocarbons; (6) ultrahigh purification of gas sued for semiconductor industries. A new concept of gas purification by electron attachment is proposed. Low-energy electrons generated in a corona-discharge reactor are captured by electronegative impurities, producing negative ions. The ions drift to the anode in the electric field and are removed at the anode of the reactor. Two types of reactors were used to remove the negative ions: a deposition-type reactor, which deposits negative ions at the anode surface; a sweep-out-type reactor, which sweeps out enriched electronegative impurities through the porous anode. Removals of dilute sulfur compounds, oxygen and iodine from nitrogen were conducted to verify the concept of gas purification. Simulation models were used to estimate removal efficiencies of these compounds, by taking into account electron attachment, and experimental constants of the models were determined. The removal efficiency correlated by the models agreed well with the experimental one

  4. Comparison of five procedures for the purification of insoluble elastin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, W.F.; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van


    Elastin is an insoluble, highly cross-linked protein, providing elasticity to organs like lung. aorta, and ligaments. Despite its remarkable mechanical properties. elastin has found little use as a biomaterial. Purification of intact elastin from elastic fibres presents a major challenge, among

  5. Fungal laccase: copper induction, semi-purification, immobilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal laccase: copper induction, semi-purification, immobilization, phenolic effluent treatment and electrochemical measurement. ... In order to apply in an effluent treatment, laccase was immobilized on different vitroceramics supports, pyrolytic graphite and also on a carbon fiber electrode as biosensor. The maximum ...

  6. Purification and characterization of protease from Bacillus cereus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 16, 2013 ... Purification and characterization of protease from. Bacillus cereus SU12 isolated from oyster. Saccostrea cucullata. S. Umayaparvathi*, S. Meenakshi, M. Arumugam and T. Balasubramanian. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai - 608.

  7. Modelling a water purification process for quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der F.H.; Luca, S.; Overal, G.; Dubbeldam, J.L.A.; Di Bucchianico, A.; Jongbloed, G.; Dubbeldam, J.; Groenevelt, W.; Heemink, A.W.; Lahaye, D.; Meerman, C.; Meulen, van der F.


    This paper deals with a quality engineering problem introduced by ‘Waterlaboratorium Noord’ (WLN) situated at the Netherlands. In-terest lies in determining an optimal sampling frequency that provides suÿcient information on the water quality in a drinking water purifica-tion plant. The water

  8. Transuranium element purification by liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Koehly, G.


    In the transuranium element production, the liquid-liquid extraction purification is presented. The affinity of TBP and trilaurylammonium nitrate for these elements is given. Exemples of NP/Pu, Pu/Np, U/Pu, Am/Cm, Am and Cm/Ln separation are presented [fr

  9. Generation, concentration and purification for ionic entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang


    In cavity QED, the atoms would be sent through the sequential arrays of cavities for the generation of multi-cavity entanglement, or several atoms would be sent into the same cavity mode one bye one for the generation of multi-atom entanglement. The complexity of these processes will impose limitations on the experimental feasibility of it. So, following our previous publication [International Journal Of Quantum Information 2, 231 (2004)] we will propose an alternative scheme for the preparation of multi-cavity W state via cavity QED, which uses the geometrical method to do what other authors have proposed previously using sequential arrays of cavities. Due to the impossibility that one quantum system can be isolated from the environment absolutely, the entanglement of the entangled objects will decrease exponentially with the propagating distance of the objects, and the practically available quantum entangled states are all non-maximally entangled states or the more general case--mixed states. Following our previous publications [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042307 (2005), ibid. 71, 012308 (2005)], we will propose an entanglement generation, concentration and purification scheme for atomic or ionic system, which is mainly based on Cavity QED and linear optical elements. This purification process avoids the controlled-NOT (C-NOT) operations needed in the original purification protocol, which simplifies the whole purification process

  10. Purification of HGI2 for nuclear detector fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, M.M.


    A process for purification of mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) to be used as a source material for the growth of detector quality crystals. The high purity HgI 2 raw material is produced by a combination of three stages: synthesis of HgI 2 from Hg and I 2 , repeated sublimation, and zone refining

  11. A low inventory adsorptive process for tritium extraction and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, B.; Bora, B.; Chew, M.; Rump, M.; Kveton, O.K.


    The fuel cycles of future fusion power systems present a diverse spectrum of challenges to gas separation technology, for extraction, concentration, purification and confinement of tritium in fusion fuel cycles. Economic and safety factors motivate process design for minimum tritium inventory, functional simplicity, and overall reliability. A new gas separation process with some features of interest to fusion has been demonstrated under the auspices of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project. This process (Thermally Coupled Pressure Swing Adsorption or 'TCPSA') is potentially applicable to several fusion applications for separation purification of hydrogen, notably for tritium extraction from breeder blanket purge helium. Recent experimental tests have been directed toward fusion applications, primarily extraction and concentration of tritium-rich hydrogen from the blanket purge helium stream, and also considering purification of this and other hydrogen isotope streams such as the plasma exhaust. For example, hydrogen at 0.1% concentration in helium has been extracted in a TCPSA module operating at 195 K, with the process performed in a single working space to achieve simultaneous high extraction and concentration of the hydrogen. With methane or carbon oxides as the impurities, substantially complete separation is achieved by the same apparatus at ambient temperature. Engineering projections for scale-up to ITER blanket purge extraction and purification applications indicate a low working inventory of tritium

  12. Chromatographic and electrophoretic methods for nanodisc purification and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Bo Højen; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas


    Soluble nanoscale lipid bilayers, termed nanodiscs, are widely used in science for studying the membrane-anchored and integral membrane protein complexes under defined experimental conditions. Although their formation occurs by a self-assembly process, nanodisc purification and the verification...

  13. Purification and characterization of a protease from Thermophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 19, 2006 ... protein liquid chromatography. The method gave a ... gent industry are the proteases from bacteria sources ... In this paper, we report our recent progress on the purification ... 10 to 60 min, then cooled in ice-water and the residue activity was measured .... Huo P, Mao J, Shi Y (2003). ... Kumar CG (2002).

  14. The technology of large-scale pharmaceutical plasmid purification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further test demonstrated that the pcDNAlacZ purified with CTAB and authoritative endotoxin-free plasmid Kit had the similar transfection efficiency in vivo and in vitro. CTAB can be used for plasmid purification; the main advantages of the DNAs purified with CTAB include the avoidance of animal-derived enzymes, toxic ...

  15. Purification performances of common reed beds based on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 30, 2013 ... advantages, the reed bed is a solution to Beninese purification problems. Since technical service agent of ... Journal of Applied Biosciences 71:5682– 5691. ISSN 1997–5902 ..... 15N/14N ratios. Journal of Hydrology, vol. 199,.

  16. Potential for sustainable energy with biogas from sewage purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, J.; Van Gastel, M.; De Jong, K.


    Insight is given into the possibility to produce biogas from sewage purification plants in the Netherlands. Attention is paid to the estimated potential of sustainable energy from biogas, the economic effectiveness of several scenarios, the critical success factors and bottlenecks [nl

  17. Expression and purification of recombinant Shiga toxin 2B from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t


    May 25, 2016 ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Bacterial strains, plasmid and media ... toxin 2B gene after purified by wizard genomic DNA purification kit. (Promega, USA) ..... This result was approximately two times higher compared to Halo .... manual, 3rd Eds. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press,. Cold Spring ...

  18. Active Test of Purification Facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseki, Tadahiro; Tsujimura, Akino; Nitta, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takashi


    During the second and third steps of Active Test of the Plutonium Purification unit, the extraction and reextraction performances of pulsed columns and mixer-settlers have been checked. Plutonium losses into wastes have been also checked. As a result, it was confirmed that the expected performances had been achieved. (authors)

  19. A simple method for purification of herpesvirus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Normann, Preben


    A rapid and reliable method for purification of herpesvirus DNA from cell cultures is described. The method is based on the isolation of virus particles and/or nucleocapsids by differential centrifugation and exploits the solubilizing and denaturing capabilities of cesium trifluoroacetate during...

  20. Evaluation of indigenous anion exchange resins for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, R.; Sabharwal, K.N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Thite, B.S.; Ajithlal, R.T.; Sinalkar, Nitin; Dharampurikar, G.R.; Janardhanan, C.; Michael, K.M.; Vijayan, K.; Jambunathan, U.; Dey, P.K.


    Preliminary data with pure plutonium nitrate solution indicate that indigenous anion exchange resin can be used for the purification and concentration of plutonium. However, further studies are required to be conducted on larger scale with actual plant feed solutions before arriving to final conclusions. This includes repeated loading and elution cycles studies with the same bed and evaluation of the performance after each cycle

  1. Purification technology for flue/off gases using electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji


    The present paper describes research and development on purification technology using electron beams for flue/off gases containing pollutants: removal of sulfate oxide and nitrogen oxide from flue gases of coal/oil combustion power plants, decomposition of dioxins in waste incineration flue gas, and decomposition/removal of toxic volatile organic compounds from off gas. (author)

  2. Purification of bacteriocins using size-exclusion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai


    Full Text Available The bacteriocin purification involves following main steps. a. Extraction of cell-free-supernatant of bacteria. b. Ammonium sulfate precipitation. c. Dialysis. d. Diafiltration using PVP and e. Size-exclusion chromatography. However, depending on the nature of work, the compound could be further analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC, NMR, mass spectrometry and sequencing.

  3. InDA-APDA conference on desalination and water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodaye, H.S.; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.


    The symposium covers all relevant areas including integrated water management, current experiences and advances in membrane and thermal desalination, water purification and effluent treatment. Special sessions on nanotechnology and advances in membrane development provide an in sight into what we can expect in future. Papers in the conference proceedings relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. Purification and deodorization of structured lipids by short path distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Nina Skall


    Purification of structured lipids (SL), produced from lipase- catalyzed acidolysis of rapeseed oil and capric acid, and deodorization of randomized SL, produced from chemical randomization of fish oil and tricaprin, were studied in a bench-scale short path distillation (SPD). SL obtained from...

  5. Energy Efficient Bioethanol Purification by Heat Pump Assisted Extractive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin


    The purification of bioethanol fuel requires an energy demanding separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behaviour of ethanol-water mixture. The classic separation sequence consists of three distillation columns that

  6. Novel heat-pump-assisted extractive distillation for bioethanol purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.


    The purification of bioethanol fuel involves an energy-intensive separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behavior of the ethanol-water mixture. The conventional separation sequence employs three distillation columns that

  7. Partial purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline proteases from the digestive tract of anchovy were partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purification fold and yield were 6.23 and 4.49%, respectively. The optimum activities of partially purified alkaline proteases were observed at 60°C and at pH 11.0.

  8. Purification and characterization of the chitosanase from Aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purification and characterization of the chitosanase from Aeromonas sp. HG08. Y Sun, J Zhang, S Wang. Abstract. In this work, the characterization of a chitosanase-producing bacterium isolated from soil was reported and this strain was grouped under the genus Aeromonas by virtue of its morphological, physiological ...

  9. Natural gas purification using supported ionic liquid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuluth, M.A.M.; Overbeek, J.P.; Wees, H.J.; Zubeir, L.F.; Haije, W.G.; Berrouk, A.S.; Peters, C.J.; Kroon, M.C.


    This paper examines the possibility of the application of a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) for natural gas purification. The ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([emim][FAP]) was impregnated successfully in the ¿-alumina layer of a tubular

  10. Optimized conditions for high-level solubilization and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we describe the cloning, over-expression, efficient solubilization, purification and evaluation of bioactivity of camel growth hormone (cGH). The total cellular RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of freshly slaughtered animals and cDNA of cGH was synthesized by a pair of sequence specific primers with a ...

  11. High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger


    This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr

  12. Synthesis Gas Purification Purification des gaz de synthèse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiche D.


    Full Text Available Fischer-Tropsch (FT based B-XTL processes are attractive alternatives for future energy production. These processes aim at converting lignocellulosic biomass possibly in co-processing with petcoke, coal, or vacuum residues into synthetic biofuels. A gasification step converts the feed into a synthesis gas (CO and H2 mixture , which undergoes the Fischer-Tropsch reaction after H2/CO ratio adjustment and CO2 removal. However synthesis gas also contains various impurities that must be removed in order to prevent Fischer-Tropsch catalyst poisoning. Due to the large feedstocks variety that can be processed, significant variations of the composition of the synthesis gas are expected. Especially, this affects the nature of the impurities that are present (element, speciation, as well as their relative contents. Moreover, due to high FT catalyst sensitivity, severe syngas specifications regarding its purity are required. For these reasons, synthesis gas purification constitutes a major challenge for the development of B-XTL processes. In this article, we focus on these major hurdles that have to be overcome. The different kinds of syngas impurities are presented. The influence of the nature of feedstocks, gasification technology and operating conditions on the type and content of impurities is discussed. Highlight is given on the fate of sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, halides, transition and heavy metals. Main synthesis gas purification technologies (based on adsorption, absorption, catalytic reactions, etc. are finally described, as well as the related challenges. Les procédés de synthèse de biocarburants par voie Fischer-Tropsch (FT, voies B-XTL, représentent des alternatives prometteuses pour la production d’énergie. Ces procédés permettent la conversion en carburants de synthèse de biomasse lignocellulosique, éventuellement mise en oeuvre en mélange avec des charges fossiles telles que petcoke, charbons ou résidus sous vide. Pour

  13. Halloysite nanotubule clay for efficient water purification. (United States)

    Zhao, Yafei; Abdullayev, Elshad; Vasiliev, Alexandre; Lvov, Yuri


    Halloysite clay has chemical structure similar to kaolinite but it is rolled in tubes with diameter of 50 nm and length of ca. 1000 nm. Halloysite exhibits higher adsorption capacity for both cationic and anionic dyes because it has negative SiO2 outermost and positive Al2O3 inner lumen surface; therefore, these clay nanotubes have efficient bivalent adsorbancy. An adsorption study using cationic Rhodamine 6G and anionic Chrome azurol S has shown approximately two times better dye removal for halloysite as compared to kaolin. Halloysite filters have been effectively regenerated up to 50 times by burning the adsorbed dyes. Overall removal efficiency of anionic Chrome azurol S exceeded 99.9% for 5th regeneration cycle of halloysite. Chrome azurol S adsorption capacity decreases with the increase of ionic strength, temperature and pH. For cationic Rhodamine 6G, higher ionic strength, temperature and initial solution concentration were favorable to enhanced adsorption with optimal pH 8. The equilibrium adsorption data were described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 1992 Annual Capacity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  15. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio


    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho


    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  17. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  18. Automated high-throughput protein purification using an ÄKTApurifier and a CETAC autosampler. (United States)

    Yoo, Daniel; Provchy, Justin; Park, Cynthia; Schulz, Craig; Walker, Kenneth


    As the pace of drug discovery accelerates there is an increased focus on screening larger numbers of protein therapeutic candidates to identify those that are functionally superior and to assess manufacturability earlier in the process. Although there have been advances toward high throughput (HT) cloning and expression, protein purification is still an area where improvements can be made to conventional techniques. Current methodologies for purification often involve a tradeoff between HT automation or capacity and quality. We present an ÄKTA combined with an autosampler, the ÄKTA-AS, which has the capability of purifying up to 240 samples in two chromatographic dimensions without the need for user intervention. The ÄKTA-AS has been shown to be reliable with sample volumes between 0.5 mL and 100 mL, and the innovative use of a uniquely configured loading valve ensures reliability by efficiently removing air from the system as well as preventing sample cross contamination. Incorporation of a sample pump flush minimizes sample loss and enables recoveries ranging from the low tens of micrograms to milligram quantities of protein. In addition, when used in an affinity capture-buffer exchange format the final samples are formulated in a buffer compatible with most assays without requirement of additional downstream processing. The system is designed to capture samples in 96-well microplate format allowing for seamless integration of downstream HT analytic processes such as microfluidic or HPLC analysis. Most notably, there is minimal operator intervention to operate this system, thereby increasing efficiency, sample consistency and reducing the risk of human error. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immobilized graphene-based composite from asphalt: Facile synthesis and application in water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan; Gupta, Soujit Sen [DST Unit on Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen Mundampra [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Chennai Campus, Chennai 600048 (India); Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: [DST Unit on Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)


    Highlights: ► Facile strategy to make graphenic materials from cheaper precursor such as asphalt. ► Material can be made in solution; also as anchored on solid substrates. ► The synthesized material, GSC, was found to be excellent for water purification. ► The applicability was demonstrated through batch and laboratory columns experiments. ► The capacity was compared to other similar adsorbents and was found to be superior. -- Abstract: An in situ strategy for the preparation of graphene immobilized on sand using asphalt, a cheap carbon precursor is presented. The as-synthesized material was characterized in detail using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The presence of G and D bands at 1578 cm{sup −1} and 1345 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectroscopy and the 2D sheet-like structure with wrinkles in transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of graphenic materials. In view of the potential applicability of supported graphenic materials in environmental application, the as-synthesized material was tested for purifying water. Removal of a dye (rhodamine-6G) and a pesticide (chlorpyrifos), two of the important types of pollutants of concern in water, were investigated in this study. Adsorption studies were conducted in batch mode as a function of time, particle size, and adsorbent dose. The continuous mode experiments were conducted in multiple cycles and they confirmed that the material can be used for water purification applications. The adsorption efficacy of the present adsorbent system was compared to other reported similar adsorbent systems and the results illustrated that the present materials are superior. The adsorbents were analyzed for post treatment and their reusability was evaluated.

  20. Extraction and purification of plutonium by a tertiary amine; Extraction et purification du plutonium par une amine tertiaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentinian, M de; Chesne, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses, Section de Chimie des Actimides (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Trilaurylamine diluted with a paraffinic solvent (dodecane) was studied as part of the research dealing with the separation and purification of plutonium. The physical properties (solubility of nitrates in the amine as a function of temperature) and the resistance to radiations of this substance were examined. The extraction characteristics of nitric solutions of plutonium, uranium and certain fission products are given as a function of the following factors: concentration of the various ions in solution, valency states. A method of plutonium purification based on these results is presented. (author) [French] La trilaurylamine diluee par un solvant paraffinique (dodecane) a ete etudiee dans le cadre des recherches concernant la separation et la purification du plutonium. Une etude des caracteres physiques (solubilite des nitrates dans l'amine en fonction de la temperature) s'ajoute a celle de la tenue aux radiations de ce corps. Les caracteristiques d'extraction de solutions nitriques de plutonium, uranium, et certains produits de fission, sont donnes en fonction des facteurs suivants: concentration des differents ions en solution, etats de valence. On presente une methode de purification du plutonium basee sur ces resultats. (auteur)

  1. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.


    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  2. Simultaneous purification and storage of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynek, S.; Fuller, W.; Weber, R.; Carlson, E. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Specially coated magnesium particles have been shown to selectively absorb hydrogen from a hydrogen-rich gas stream such as reformate. These coated magnesium particles can store the absorbed hydrogen as required and subsequently deliver pure hydrogen, just as uncoated magnesium particles can. These coated magnesium particles could be used in a device that accepts a steady stream of reformate, as from a methane reformer, stores the selectively absorbed hydrogen indefinitely, and delivers purified hydrogen on demand. Unfortunately, this coating (magnesium nitride) has been shown to degrade over a period of several weeks, so that the magnesium within evidences progressively lower storage capacity. The authors are investigating two other coatings, one of which might be applicable to hydridable metals other than magnesium, to replace magnesium nitride.

  3. Analyse in the patients with refractory heart purification treated by continuous blood purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xun; Huang Chengwen; Huang Zhongliang


    Objective: To investigate the application of continuous blood purification (CBP) and the effect of the angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone (ALD), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in plasma with refractory heart failure (RHF) treated by CBP. Methods: 35 cases with RHF were treated by CBP. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, blood oxygen saturation, blood markers of biochemistry, blood gas analysis, left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac function and Ang II, ALD, ANF in plasma were checked before and after treatment. Results: the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, heart rate, respiration, serum creatinine, blood urea nitroge, Ang II, ALD, ANF in plasma after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment of CBP (P 3 - , PaO 2 , LVEF after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment of CBP (P + , Na + , Cl - of blood serum were recovered normal after treatment, and cardiac function was recovered (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: In the patients with RHF, CBP can efficiently treat the water-electrolyte disturbance, keep the acid-base balance, decrease the levels of AngII, ALD, ANF in plasma, clear the inflammatory mediator and improve cardiac function. (authors)

  4. Replacement of fine particle purification filter of the PHT purification system - 15083

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.S.


    The increase of chalk river unidentified deposit (CRUD), a particulate corrosion product in PHT (primary heat transport) system with increased operating years of a nuclear power plant causes: -) the problems of increased heavy water decomposition and deuterium formation reaction due to catalytic reaction with CRUD, -) damage to PHT pump seal due to a corrosion product, -) damage to fuel channel closure seal, and increased radiation exposure of workers due to elevated dose rate in steam generator water chamber. Wolsung unit 3 and 4 have replaced fine filter media in PHT purification system in phases reducing the pore size of the filter media (5 μm → 2 μm → 1 μm → 0.45 μm) to solve this problem. The phased replacement of fine filter media by the one with a smaller pore size reduced CRUD in PHT system significantly and also radiation dose rate in steam generator water chamber. Accordingly, many problems related to the aging of a plant (including increased radiation exposure of workers during outage, damage to mechanical seal of PHT pump) have been solved. (author)

  5. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V.; Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Dang, Trung Thanh; Nguyen, Van Tang; Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Bowyer, Michael C.


    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf. PMID:26785074

  6. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones. Backbone capacities increased from 2.5 Gb/s to 100s of Gb/s during the 1990's. Wavelength division multiplexing with 160 waves of 10 Gb/s was commercially available. Several high-capacity backbones built in the US and Europe.

  7. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)


    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can

  8. Integrated capacity and inventory decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Tan, T.; Jeunet, J.; Klatte, D.; Lüthi, H.-J.; Schmedders, K.


    This paper deals with the simultaneous acquisition of capacity and material in a situation with uncertain demand, with non-zero lead-times for the supply of both material and capacity. Although there is a lot of literature on the time-phased acquisition of capacity and material, most of this

  9. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.


    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are

  10. Capacity Ten-Seven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The study was initiated to assemble UK solar experts who would define the parameters for the design of solar cell process plant with a capacity of about 10MWp per annum and establish the optimum substrate size, cell configuration and junction structure and show that these characteristics are suited to high volume low cost production. The study focused on proven materials and techniques rather than on innovative materials and processes. Peak production should deliver panels at a cost of less than $1 per peak watt. The study was reported under the headings of fundamental studies, front contact deposition, semiconductor deposition, rear contact deposition, cell isolation and initial design study. Since much of the work is commercially sensitive, not all findings are divulged in the report. The work, which achieved all its targets, was carried out by ICP Solar Technologies UK Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  11. Immunomodulating capacity of kefir. (United States)

    Vinderola, Celso G; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Perdigón, Gabriela; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal


    Kefir is a fermented milk produced by the action of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, trapped in a complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Beyond its inherent high nutritional value as a source of proteins and calcium, kefir has a long tradition of being regarded as good for health in countries where it is a staple in the diet. However, published human or animal feeding trials to substantiate this view are not numerous. The aim of this work was to determine the immunomodulating capacity of kefir on the intestinal mucosal immune response in mice and to demonstrate the importance of dose and cell viability on this response. BALB/c mice were fed with commercial kefir ad libitum (diluted 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 or 1/200) or pasteurized kefir (diluted 1/6, 1/10, 1/50, 1/100) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of each feeding period, the bacterial translocation assay was performed in the liver. Small intestine structure was studied by haematoxilin-eosin staining and light microscopy. The number of IgA+ and IgG+ cells was also determined. For the functional doses chosen, cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were determined. Kefir and pasteurized kefir were able to modulate the mucosal immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Kefir was administred 10-times more diluted than pasteurized kefir, but it induced an immunomodulation of similar magnitude, indicating the importance of cell viabilty. The results suggest that a Th1 response was controlled by Th2 cytokines induced by kefir feeding. Pasteurized kefir would induce both Th2 and Th1 responses. This is the first study in vivo regarding the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating capacity of the oral administration of kefir containing viable or heat-inactivated bacteria at different doses.

  12. Nucleotide-mimetic synthetic ligands for DNA-recognizing enzymes One-step purification of Pfu DNA polymerase. (United States)

    Melissis, S; Labrou, N E; Clonis, Y D


    The commercial availability of DNA polymerases has revolutionized molecular biotechnology and certain sectors of the bio-industry. Therefore, the development of affinity adsorbents for purification of DNA polymerases is of academic interest and practical importance. In the present study we describe the design, synthesis and evaluation of a combinatorial library of novel affinity ligands for the purification of DNA polymerases (Pols). Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase (Pfu Pol) was employed as a proof-of-principle example. Affinity ligand design was based on mimicking the natural interactions between deoxynucleoside-triphosphates (dNTPs) and the B-motif, a conserved structural moiety found in Pol-I and Pol-II family of enzymes. Solid-phase 'structure-guided' combinatorial chemistry was used to construct a library of 26 variants of the B-motif-binding 'lead' ligand X-Trz-Y (X is a purine derivative and Y is an aliphatic/aromatic sulphonate or phosphonate derivative) using 1,3,5-triazine (Trz) as the scaffold for assembly. The 'lead' ligand showed complementarity against a Lys and a Tyr residue of the polymerase B-motif. The ligand library was screened for its ability to bind and purify Pfu Pol from Escherichia coli extract. One immobilized ligand (oABSAd), bearing 9-aminoethyladenine (AEAd) and sulfanilic acid (oABS) linked on the triazine scaffold, displayed the highest purifying ability and binding capacity (0,55 mg Pfu Pol/g wet gel). Adsorption equilibrium studies with this affinity ligand and Pfu Pol determined a dissociation constant (K(D)) of 83 nM for the respective complex. The oABSAd affinity adsorbent was exploited in the development of a facile Pfu Pol purification protocol, affording homogeneous enzyme (>99% purity) in a single chromatography step. Quality control tests showed that Pfu Pol purified on the B-motif-complementing ligand is free of nucleic acids and contaminating nuclease activities, therefore, suitable for experimental use.

  13. Comparison of a novel TiO₂/diatomite composite and pure TiO₂ for the purification of phosvitin phosphopeptides. (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Junhua; Niu, Fuge; Sun, Jun; Dou, Yuan; Liu, Yuntao; Su, Yujie; Zhou, Bei; Xu, Qinqin; Yang, Yanjun


    A novel TiO2/diatomite composite (TD) was prepared and then characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results of SEM showed that after modification, the porous surface of diatomite was covered with TiO2. Both diatomite and TD had clear disc-shaped structures with average grain diameters of around 25 μm. Then TD and pure TiO2 were applied in the purification of phosvitin phosphopeptides (PPPs) from the digest of egg yolk protein, and a comparative study of adsorption properties of PPPs on TD and TiO2 was performed. In the study of adsorption kinetics, the adsorption equilibrium of PPPs on TD and TiO2 fitted well with the Langmuir model, and the time needed to reach adsorption equilibrium were both around 10 min. The maximum dynamic adsorption capacity of TD (8.15 mg/g) was higher than that of TiO2 (4.96 mg/g). The results of repeated use showed that TD and TiO2 were very stable after being subjected to ten repeated adsorption-elution cycles, and TD could easily be separated from aqueous solution by filtration. On the other hand, the present synthetic technology of TD was very simple, cost-effective, organic solvent-free and available for large-scale preparation. Thus, this separation method not only brings great advantages in the purification of PPPs from egg yolk protein but also provides a promising purification material for the enrichment of phosphopeptides in proteomic researches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Scalable and sustainable synthesis of carbon microspheres via a purification-free strategy for sodium-ion capacitors (United States)

    Wang, Shijie; Wang, Rutao; Zhang, Yabin; Jin, Dongdong; Zhang, Li


    Sodium-based energy storage receives a great deal of interest due to the virtually inexhaustible sodium reserve, while the scalable and sustainable strategies to synthesize carbon-based materials with suitable interlayer spaces and large sodium storage capacities are yet to be fully investigated. Carbon microspheres, with regular geometry, non-graphitic characteristic, and stable nature are promising candidates, yet the synthetic methods are usually complex and energy consuming. In this regard, we report a scalable purification-free strategy to synthesize carbon microspheres directly from 5 species of fresh juice. As-synthesized carbon microspheres exhibit dilated interlayer distance of 0.375 nm and facilitate Na+ uptake and release. For example, such carbon microsphere anodes have a specific capacity of 183.9 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1 and exhibit ultra-stability (99.0% capacity retention) after 10000 cycles. Moreover, via facile activation, highly porous carbon microsphere cathodes are fabricated and show much higher energy density at high rate than commercial activated carbon. Coupling the compelling anodes and cathodes above, novel sodium-ion capacitors show the high working potential up to 4.0 V, deliver a maximum energy density of 52.2 Wh kg-1, and exhibit an acceptable capacity retention of 85.7% after 2000 cycles.

  15. Evaluation of strategies to control Fab light chain dimer during mammalian expression and purification: A universal one-step process for purification of correctly assembled Fab. (United States)

    Spooner, Jennifer; Keen, Jenny; Nayyar, Kalpana; Birkett, Neil; Bond, Nicholas; Bannister, David; Tigue, Natalie; Higazi, Daniel; Kemp, Benjamin; Vaughan, Tristan; Kippen, Alistair; Buchanan, Andrew


    Fabs are an important class of antibody fragment as both research reagents and therapeutic agents. There are a plethora of methods described for their recombinant expression and purification. However, these do not address the issue of excessive light chain production that forms light chain dimers nor do they describe a universal purification strategy. Light chain dimer impurities and the absence of a universal Fab purification strategy present persistent challenges for biotechnology applications using Fabs, particularly around the need for bespoke purification strategies. This study describes methods to address light chain dimer formation during Fab expression and identifies a novel CH 1 affinity resin as a simple and efficient one-step purification for correctly assembled Fab. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) based magnetic nanoparticles for plasmid DNA purification from Escherichia coli lysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percin, Is Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I k [Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Karakoc, Veyis [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Akgoel, Sinan [Department of Biochemistry, Ege University, Izmir (Turkey); Aksoez, Erol [Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)


    The aim of this study is to prepare poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-histidine) [PHEMAH] magnetic nanoparticles for plasmid DNA (pDNA) purification from Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell lysate. Magnetic nanoparticles were produced by surfactant free emulsion polymerization. mPHEMAH nanoparticles were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), electron spin resonance (ESR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface area, average particle size and size distribution were also performed. Specific surface area of the mPHEMAH nanoparticles was found to be 1180 m{sup 2}/g. Elemental analysis of MAH for nitrogen was estimated as 0.18 mmol/g polymer. The amount of pDNA adsorbed onto the mPHEMAH nanoparticles first increased and then reached a saturation value at around 1.0 mg/mL of pDNA concentration. Compared with the mPHEMA nanoparticles (50 {mu}g/g polymer), the pDNA adsorption capacity of the mPHEMAH nanoparticles (154 mg/g polymer) was improved significantly due to the MAH incorporation into the polymeric matrix. The maximum pDNA adsorption was achieved at 25 Degree-Sign C. The overall recovery of pDNA was calculated as 92%. The mPHEMAH nanoparticles could be used six times without decreasing the pDNA adsorption capacity significantly. The results indicate that the PHEMAH nanoparticles promise high selectivity for pDNA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic nanoparticles have several advantages over conventional adsorbents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAH acted as the pseudospecific ligand, ligand immobilization step was eliminated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer pDNA adsorption amount was 154 mg/g. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fifty-fold capacity increase was obtained when compared to conventional matrices.

  17. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) based magnetic nanoparticles for plasmid DNA purification from Escherichia coli lysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perçin, Işık; Karakoç, Veyis; Akgöl, Sinan; Aksöz, Erol; Denizli, Adil


    The aim of this study is to prepare poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-histidine) [PHEMAH] magnetic nanoparticles for plasmid DNA (pDNA) purification from Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell lysate. Magnetic nanoparticles were produced by surfactant free emulsion polymerization. mPHEMAH nanoparticles were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), electron spin resonance (ESR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface area, average particle size and size distribution were also performed. Specific surface area of the mPHEMAH nanoparticles was found to be 1180 m 2 /g. Elemental analysis of MAH for nitrogen was estimated as 0.18 mmol/g polymer. The amount of pDNA adsorbed onto the mPHEMAH nanoparticles first increased and then reached a saturation value at around 1.0 mg/mL of pDNA concentration. Compared with the mPHEMA nanoparticles (50 μg/g polymer), the pDNA adsorption capacity of the mPHEMAH nanoparticles (154 mg/g polymer) was improved significantly due to the MAH incorporation into the polymeric matrix. The maximum pDNA adsorption was achieved at 25 °C. The overall recovery of pDNA was calculated as 92%. The mPHEMAH nanoparticles could be used six times without decreasing the pDNA adsorption capacity significantly. The results indicate that the PHEMAH nanoparticles promise high selectivity for pDNA. - Highlights: ► Magnetic nanoparticles have several advantages over conventional adsorbents. ► MAH acted as the pseudospecific ligand, ligand immobilization step was eliminated. ► pDNA adsorption amount was 154 mg/g. ► Fifty-fold capacity increase was obtained when compared to conventional matrices.

  18. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John


    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  19. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.


    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  20. Uranium hexafluoride purification; Purificacao de hexafluoreto de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de


    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF{sub 6}-HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF{sub 6}-HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  1. Fission-product transfer in the TMI-2 purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, T.E.


    The makeup purification system at TMI-2 operated during the course of the accident, processing water from the reactor coolant system cold leg at an average flow rate not exceeding 4.4 x 10 - 3 m 3 /s. The system operated through most of 28 March 1979, finally being shutdown when the system filters or demineralizers, or both, plugged and overpressured. The system was restored to service on 29 March 1979 at a flow rate of about 1.6 x 10 - 3 m 3 /s. Subsequent radiation readings of the system filters and demineralizer cubicles revealed that these components contained appreciable levels of radionuclides. One project being implemented within the Radiation and Environment Program of the Technical Integration Office is to analyze the demineralizer resins and filters, as they are removed from the makeup purification system. The object is to determine the quantity and composition of the material retained by the resins and filters

  2. Drinking water purification in the Czech Republic and worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmela, Jan; Beckova, Vera; Vlcek, Jaroslav; Marhol, Milan


    The report is structured as follows: (i) Legislative (hygienic) requirements for technologies applied to drinking water purification with focus on uranium elimination; (ii) Technological drinking water treatment processes (settling, filtration, precipitation, acidification, iron and manganese removal) ; (iii) State Office for Nuclear Safety requirements for the operation of facilities to separate uranium from drinking water and for the handling of saturated ionexes from such facilities; (iv) Material requirements for the operation of ionex filters serving to separate uranium from drinking water; (v) Effect of enhanced uranium concentrations in drinking waters on human body; (vi) Uranium speciation in ground waters; (vii) Brief description of technologies which are used worldwide for uranium removal; (viii) Technologies which are usable and are used in the Czech Republic for drinking water purification from uranium; (ix) Inorganic and organic ion exchangers and sorbents. (P.A.)

  3. Expression and purification of soluble recombinant Hexastatin in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xin; Wen Lei; Song Naling; Wang Dezhi; Zhao Qiren


    Purpose: To construct the expression vector of Hexastatin gene, to express and to purify the recombinant protein for further activity research. Methods: The human Hexastatin gene was isolated by RTPCR from EC9706 cells total RNA and cloned into pMD18-T for sequencing. Then the Hexastatin gene was subcloned into pMAL-c4x expression vector and induced to express by IPTG. The recombinant fusion protein was purified with Amylose Resin Heads. Results: RT-PCR product was about 687 bp and its sequence was the same as that of Hexastatin reported. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 with high level and the soluble protein accounted for 24.8% of the total bacterial protein. The purification of recombinant protein purified with Amylose Resin Heads reached more than 90%. Conclusion: The cloning, expression and purification of human Hexastatin have laid a foundation for its anti-angiogenesis therapy for tumor. (authors)

  4. Preparative Purification of Recombinant Proteins: Current Status and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Saraswat


    Full Text Available Advances in fermentation technologies have resulted in the production of increased yields of proteins of economic, biopharmaceutical, and medicinal importance. Consequently, there is an absolute requirement for the development of rapid, cost-effective methodologies which facilitate the purification of such products in the absence of contaminants, such as superfluous proteins and endotoxins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of a selection of key purification methodologies currently being applied in both academic and industrial settings and discuss how innovative and effective protocols such as aqueous two-phase partitioning, membrane chromatography, and high-performance tangential flow filtration may be applied independently of or in conjunction with more traditional protocols for downstream processing applications.

  5. Purification process of recombinant monoclonal antibodies with mixed mode chromatography. (United States)

    Maria, Sophie; Joucla, Gilles; Garbay, Bertrand; Dieryck, Wilfrid; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Santarelli, Xavier; Cabanne, Charlotte


    An innovative process to purify mAb from CHO cell culture supernatant was developed. This three-step process involved two mixed mode resins and an anion exchange membrane. We used a human IgG mixture to determine the optimal conditions for each purification step. Thereafter, the whole process was evaluated and improved for the purification of a recombinant mAb produced in the supernatant of CHO cells. Once optimized, yield and purity of 88% and 99.9%, respectively were comparable to those obtained in a conventional process based on a capture step using protein A. In addition, aggregates, HCPs and DNA levels in the purified fraction were below regulatory specifications. Then we used mass spectrometry to identify contaminating proteins in the antibody fraction in order to highlight the behavior of HCPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification of the functional plant membrane channel KAT1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibi, Takao; Aoki, Shiho; Oda, Keisuke; Munemasa, Shintaro; Ozaki, Shunsuke; Shirai, Osamu; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Uozumi, Nobuyuki


    The inward-rectifying K + channel KAT1 is expressed mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells. The purification of functional KAT1 has never been reported. We investigated the extraction of the plant K + channel KAT1 with different detergents, as an example for how to select detergents for purifying a eukaryotic membrane protein. A KAT1-GFP fusion protein was used to screen a library of 46 detergents for the effective solubilization of intact KAT1. Then, a 'test set' of three detergents was picked for further analysis, based on their biochemical characteristics and availability. The combination use of the selected detergents enabled the effective purification of functional KAT1 with affinity and gel-filtration chromatography

  7. Optimal purification technology of ultrapure water for instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Naoe


    Purified water is one of the most commonly utilized reagents in the laboratory. It is used throughout experimental protocols in virtually every type of laboratory application : as blanks, for the dissolution and dilution of samples, the dilution of standards, preparation of mobile phases and for media and buffer preparation. Contaminants present in purified water can therefore have a significant impact on results. Hence, it is important to ensure that the laboratory water-purification system contains a combination of purification technologies to target specific impurities related to each application. This article looks at some of these technologies and their relevance for specific applications, such as HPLC, LC/MS, and ion chromatography (IC). (author)

  8. Technical project for a new water purification solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Adina


    Full Text Available This research is part of the RO-BG Cross-Border Cooperation Program, project “CLEANDANUBE”, MIS-ETC 653, which has finalised by providing a common strategy to prevent the Danube’s pollution technological risks with oil and oil products. This paper presents a new sustainable water purification solution. A short introduction will be offered and an overview regarding the research and new methods to greening the waste is provided. The theoretical aspects of the centrifugal separation phenomenon are studied and the preliminary project bases were established. The paper conveys the possible constructive variations and the technological implications of those. Ultimately, the technical project for a new water purification solution and conclusions with critical points encountered during the designing phase are presented.

  9. Purification of simple substances by distillation with impurity hydrothermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnik, O.N.; Nisel'son, L.A.


    A possibility of applying distillation method in water vapours for purification of simple substances from impurities is studied. Based on thermodynamic analysis of interaction processes in E-H 2 O system, conducted using a computer, it is as certained that SS, Se, Te, As, Cd, Hg can be purified from the majority of the impurities analysed by distillation in a water vapour flow. Behaviour of Zn, C, Ge, Al, Sb characteristic impurities under cadmium, arsenic and tellurium distillation is studied. Experiments on cadmium, arsenic and tellurium purification have confirmed, that distillation with hydrothermal oxidation of Zn, C, Ge impurities sometimes appears to be a more effective method as compared to distillation in a hydrogen flow

  10. Integration of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites for construction of a Cu MOF with rare chiral Oh type of cage for high performance of methane purification

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhan; Meng, Lingkun; Niu, Ziyuan; Liang, Chen; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Kang; Li, Guanghua; Li, Chunguang; Han, Yu; Feng, Shouhua


    A Cu MOF [Cu4(PMTD)2(H2O)3]·20H2O, 1, (Where PMTD is (1,4-phenylenebis(5-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diyl)bis(5-carboxylato-3,1-phenylene)bis(hydroperoxymethanide) with rare chiral Oh type of cage and dual functionalities of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites based on a designed U-shaped ligand was synthesized by hydrothermal method. It exhibits high-capacity of CO2, C2 and C3 hydrocarbon storage capacity under atmospheric pressure as well as high H2 (1.96% wt) adsorption capacity at 77K. Methane purification capacity was tested and verified step by step. Isosteric heats (Qst) study reveals that CH4 has the weakest van der Waals host- guest interactions among the seven gases at 298K. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) calculation reveals that compound 1 is more selective toward CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 in further calculating its separation capacity, as exemplified for CO2/CH4 (50:50, 5:95), C2H6/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) or C3H8/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) binary gas mixtures. Breakthrough experiments show that 1 has a significantly higher adsorption capacity for CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 than CH4. The selective adsorption properties of 1 make it a promising candidate for methane purification.

  11. Integration of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites for construction of a Cu MOF with rare chiral Oh type of cage for high performance of methane purification

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhan


    A Cu MOF [Cu4(PMTD)2(H2O)3]·20H2O, 1, (Where PMTD is (1,4-phenylenebis(5-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diyl)bis(5-carboxylato-3,1-phenylene)bis(hydroperoxymethanide) with rare chiral Oh type of cage and dual functionalities of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites based on a designed U-shaped ligand was synthesized by hydrothermal method. It exhibits high-capacity of CO2, C2 and C3 hydrocarbon storage capacity under atmospheric pressure as well as high H2 (1.96% wt) adsorption capacity at 77K. Methane purification capacity was tested and verified step by step. Isosteric heats (Qst) study reveals that CH4 has the weakest van der Waals host- guest interactions among the seven gases at 298K. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) calculation reveals that compound 1 is more selective toward CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 in further calculating its separation capacity, as exemplified for CO2/CH4 (50:50, 5:95), C2H6/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) or C3H8/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) binary gas mixtures. Breakthrough experiments show that 1 has a significantly higher adsorption capacity for CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 than CH4. The selective adsorption properties of 1 make it a promising candidate for methane purification.

  12. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD


    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  13. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  14. Reverse osmosis membrane of high urea rejection properties. [water purification (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)


    Polymeric membranes suitable for use in reverse osmosis water purification because of their high urea and salt rejection properties are prepared by generating a plasma of an unsaturated hydrocarbon monomer and nitrogen gas from an electrical source. A polymeric membrane is formed by depositing a polymer of the unsaturated monomer from the plasma onto a substrate, so that nitrogen from the nitrogen gas is incorporated within the polymer in a chemically combined form.

  15. Method of purification of rare gases from oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, Eh.G.; Goryashchenko, S.S.; Slovetskaya, K.I.; Rubinshtejn, A.M.; Nefedov, B.K.; Konoval'chikov, L.D.


    A method of thorough purification of inert gases from oxygen is suggested. High-silicon zeolite of the ZSM-5 type with the ratio SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 =40 in case of chromium content 1.3-3.5 mass % is used as oxygen sorbent, which ensures increased absorbability. The method permits to realize multiple regeneration of sorbent without considerable loss of absorbability. 1 tab

  16. Purification and characterization of a milk-clotting protease from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude enzymatic extract obtained from five fermentations (300 g of wheat bran) was characterized by a clotting activity of 0.34 ± 0.08 UP/ml with a strength ratio of 1/1: 200. The comparative study of the summaries from 2 purification protocols showed that it is possible to recover 6% of the initial proteins with a 44.54% activity ...

  17. On the Importance of Purification of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate


    Sen, Akhil K.; Roy, Sandip; Juvekar, Vinay A.


    Ion exchange is commonly employed for purification of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS), a molecule widely used as a model polyelectrolyte. However, the present work demonstrates that the ion exchange process itself may introduce some extraneous species into NaPSS samples by two possible mechanisms: (i) chemical transformation of polystyrene sulfonic acid (HPSS), a relatively unstable intermediate formed during ion exchange and (ii) release of small amount of “condensed” acid from cationic...

  18. Tests of alternative reductants in the second uranium purification cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.C.


    Miniature mixer-settler tests of the second uranium purification cycle show that plutonium cannot be removed by hydroxylamine-hydrazine (NH 2 OH-N 2 H 4 ) because the acidity is too high, or by 2,5-di-t-pentylhydroquinone because HNO 3 oxidizes the hydroquinone. Plutonium can be removed satisfactorily when U(IV)-hydrazine is used as the reductant

  19. Purification and characterization of nitrilase from Fusarium solani IMI196840

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Kubáč, David; Davidová, A.; Kaplan, Ondřej; Šulc, Miroslav; Šveda, Ondřej; Chaloupková, R.; Martínková, Ludmila


    Roč. 45, č. 7 (2010), s. 1115-1120 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA MŠk OC09046; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA MPO FT-TA5/043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : fusarium solani * nitrilase * purification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.648, year: 2010



    Gusti Wahdaniyah*, Purnomo Tri Prasetyo, Arif Setiabudi, Totok R. Biyanto


    The purpose of this paper is to describe the filtration or purification of transformer oil. One of the main equipment in coal-fired power generation unit is transformer. When the transformer fail to operate properly, the continuity of distribution system become interrupted. As a part of transformer, transformer oil contribute the failure of transformer due to the aging. To solve this problem, several methods is applied starting from dehydration process, degasification process, oxidation remov...

  1. Secretory immunoglobulin purification from whey by chromatographic techniques. (United States)

    Matlschweiger, Alexander; Engelmaier, Hannah; Himmler, Gottfried; Hahn, Rainer


    Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode. Diffusion of SIg into the resin particles was significantly hindered, while the main impurities, IgG and serum albumin, were bound. In this step, initial purity was increased from 66% to 89% with a step yield of 88%. In a second anion-exchange step using giga-porous material, SIg was captured and purified by step or linear gradient elution to obtain fractions with purities >95%. For the step gradient elution step yield of highly pure SIg was 54%. Elution of SIgA and SIgM with a linear gradient resulted in a step yield of 56% and 35%, respectively. Overall yields for both anion exchange steps were 43% for the combination of flow-through and step elution mode. Combination of flow-through and linear gradient elution mode resulted in a yield of 44% for SIgA and 39% for SIgM. The proposed process allows the purification of biologically active SIg from animal whey in preparative scale. For future applications, the process can easily be adopted for purification of recombinant secretory immunoglobulin species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of Flocculating and Other Emergency Water Purification Tablets (United States)


    challenge agent was Giardia muris cysts (10,11,12). Water temperatures were 5 °C, 15 °C and 25 °C. Chemical Agent Challenge The challengjng chemical...Aquapure water purification tablets for inactivation of Giardia muris cysts. Final Technical Report, W1360701503201. Environmental Ass=iates LTD, 1185...Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D. c. 20460. 27 39. Jackson, T.F.H.G. 1988. A report of the effect of Chlorfloc treabrent on Giardia muris cysts

  3. Analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids multiply labeled by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Myasoedov, N.F.


    We show the possibility of analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids triply labeled by tritium. The described methods allow us to isolate chromatographically pure products obtained by selective hydrogenatin, chemical, and enzyme methods, with radiochemical purity at least 95-97%. The following methods are used to analyze the reaction mixtures and to isolate the tritium-labeled eicosanoids: gas-liquid chromatography, high-efficiency liquid chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography on supports impregnated with silver nitrate

  4. Identification of impurities in sodium and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, B.I.; Voltchkov, L.G.; Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, E.K.


    The paper presents some investigation results on sodium technology. In particular, a description is given of a calculation method for evaluation of sodium-cover gas-impurities equilibrium compositions as well as experimental results on development of methods for sodium sampling, equipment for non-metallic impurities (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon) constant control in sodium. The investigation results on sodium purification with cold traps are presented

  5. Purification of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from fermentation of defatted rice bran extract by using ion exchange resin (United States)

    Tuan Nha, Vi; Phung, Le Thi Kim; Dat, Lai Quoc


    Rice bran is one of the significant byproducts of rice processing with 10 %w/w of constitution of whole rice grain. It is rich in nutrient compounds, including glutamic acid. Thus, it could be utilized for the fermentation with Lactobateria for synthesis of GABA, a valuable bioactive for antihypertensive effects. However, the concentration and purity of GABA in fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract is low for production of GABA drug. This research focused on the purification of GABA from the fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract by using cation exchange resin. The results indicate that, the adsorption isotherm of GABA by Purelite C100 showed the good agreement with Freundlich model, with high adsorption capacity. The effects of pH and concentration of NaCl in eluent on the elution were also investigated. The obtained results show that, at the operating conditions of elution as follows: pH 6.5, 0.8 M of NaCl in eluent, 0.43 of bed volume; concentration of GABA in accumulative eluent, the purity and recovery yield of GABA were 743.8 ppm, 44.0% and 84.2%, respectively. Results imply that, it is feasible to apply cation exchange resin for purification of GABA from fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract.

  6. The Blood Compatibilities of Blood Purification Membranes and Other Materials Developed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Abe


    Full Text Available The biocompatibilities in blood purification therapy are defined as “a concept to stipulate safety of blood purification therapy by an index based on interaction in the body arising from blood purification therapy itself.” The biocompatibilities are associated with not only materials to be used but also many factors such as sterilization method and eluted substance. It is often evaluated based on impacts on cellular pathways and on humoral pathways. Since the biocompatibilities of blood purification therapy in particular hemodialysis are not just a prognostic factor for dialysis patients but a contributory factor for long-term complications, it should be considered with adequate attention. It is important that blood purification therapy should be performed by consistently evaluating not only risks associated with these biocompatibilities but also the other advantages obtained from treatments. In this paper, the biocompatibilities of membrane and adsorption material based on Japanese original which are used for blood purification therapy are described.

  7. Breathing Air Purification for Hyperbaric Purposes, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz


    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of breathing air purification for hyperbaric purposes with the use of filtration systems is of a crucial importance. However, when the Polish Navy took samples of breathing air from their own filtration plant for quality purposes, these were found to not meet the required standard. The identification of this problem imposed the need to undertake actions aimed at the elimination of the identified disruptions in the process of breathing air production, with the objective of assuring its proper quality. This study presents the results of the initial tests on the air supply sources utilised by the Polish Navy, which were carried out for the purpose of setting a proper direction of future works and implementing corrective measures in order to optimise the breathing air production process. The obtained test results will be used in a subsequent publication devoted to the assessment of the level of efficiency of air purification with the use of a multifaceted approach consisting in the utilisation of various types of air supply sources and different configurations of purification systems.

  8. Influence of the drying method in chitosans purification step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Ana C.M.; Batista, Jorge G.S.; Bettega, Antonio; Lima, Nelson B. de


    Currently, the study of extracellular biopolymers properties has received prominence for being easy extraction and purification. Chitosan has been an attractive proposition for applications in various fields such as engineering, biotechnology, medicine and pharmacology. For such applications, it is necessary purification of chitosan to obtain a product more concentrated and free of undesirable impurities. However, at this stage of the process of obtaining the biopolymer may occur morphological and physicochemical changes. This study evaluated the influence of the drying process after purification of a commercial chitosan sample and the importance of this step and its cost/benefit in applications requiring a high degree of purity. The method of drying influenced in the organoleptic properties and in the main characteristics of material. Analysis of the crystal structure by X-ray diffraction showed that the degree of crystallinity, X (%), in the purified chitosan samples was lower when compared with the unpurified sample. The degree of acetylation, DA (%), was analyzed by spectroscopy infrared with no significant changes on the three drying methods assessed, unlike the viscosimetric molecular weight, M_v, determined by capillary viscometry. (author)

  9. Extraction, Separation, and Purification of Blueberry Anthocyanin Using Ethyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao


    Full Text Available Blueberry contains many substances that are important to the human body and can prevent cardiovascular diseases, protect the retina, and soften blood vessels. Anthocyanin, which is extracted from blueberry, can activate the retina, strengthen vision, reduce serum cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein, and protect cell nucleus tissues from radical oxidation; hence, blueberry is of importance to scientists from different countries. In this study, anthocyanin was extracted and separated from blueberry using ethyl alcohol to investigate the effects of factors, such as ethyl alcohol volume ratio on anthocyanin extraction and separation technologies. The extracting solution was then purified using the macroreticular resin purification method to investigate the effects of ethyl alcohol concentration and eluent dosage on anthocyanin extraction during purification. The research results demonstrated that 60 % ethyl alcohol volume fraction, 1 : 10 mass ratio of solid to liquid, and 60 °C ultrasonic temperature were the best conditions for anthocyanin extraction. The best purification conditions were 95 % ethyl alcohol, which had been acidized by 0.3 % hydrochloric acid and 70 ml of eluent. This work provides a reference for the application of ethyl alcohol in anthocyanin extraction.

  10. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamela O. Alegre


    Full Text Available Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS. Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters.

  11. A comprehensive review on biodiesel purification and upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bateni


    Full Text Available Serious environmental concerns regarding the use of fossil-based fuels have raised awareness regarding the necessity of alternative clean fuels and energy carriers. Biodiesel is considered a clean, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel substitute produced via the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol in the presence of a proper catalyst. After initial separation of the by-product (glycerol, the crude biodiesel needs to be purified to meet the standard specifications prior to marketing. The presence of impurities in the biodiesel not only significantly affects its engine performance but also complicates its handling and storage. Therefore, biodiesel purification is an essential step prior to marketing. Biodiesel purification methods can be classified based on the nature of the process into equilibrium-based, affinity-based, membrane-based, reaction-based, and solid-liquid separation processes. The main adverse properties of biodiesel – namely moisture absorption, corrosiveness, and high viscosity – primarily arise from the presence of oxygen. To address these issues, several upgrading techniques have been proposed, among which catalytic (hydrodeoxygenation using conventional hydrotreating catalysts, supported metallic materials, and most recently transition metals in various forms appear promising. Nevertheless, catalyst deactivation (via coking and/or inadequacy of product yields necessitate further research. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the techniques and methods used for biodiesel purification and upgrading.

  12. Antimicrobial biosurfactants from marine Bacillus circulans: extracellular synthesis and purification. (United States)

    Mukherjee, S; Das, P; Sivapathasekaran, C; Sen, R


    To purify the biosurfactant produced by a marine Bacillus circulans strain and evaluate the improvement in surface and antimicrobial activities. The study of biosurfactant production by B. circulans was carried out in glucose mineral salts (GMS) medium using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) for quantitative estimation. The biosurfactant production by this strain was found to be growth-associated showing maximum biosurfactant accumulation at 26 h of fermentation. The crude biosurfactants were purified using gel filtration chromatography with Sephadex G-50 matrix. The purification attained by employing this technique was evident from UV-visible spectroscopy and TLC analysis of crude and purified biosurfactants. The purified biosurfactants showed an increase in surface activity and a decrease in critical micelle concentration values. The antimicrobial action of the biosurfactants was also enhanced after purification. The marine B. circulans used in this study produced biosurfactants in a growth-associated manner. High degree of purification could be obtained by using gel filtration chromatography. The purified biosurfactants showed enhanced surface and antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial biosurfactant produced by B. circulans could be effectively purified using gel filtration and can serve as new potential drugs in antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  13. Large-scale functional purification of recombinant HIV-1 capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdeleine Hung

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes. Mutations in the capsid sequence that alter the stability of the capsid core are deleterious to viral infectivity and replication. Recently, capsid assembly has become an attractive target for the development of a new generation of anti-retroviral agents. Drug screening efforts and subsequent structural and mechanistic studies require gram quantities of active, homogeneous and pure protein. Conventional means of laboratory purification of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant capsid protein rely on column chromatography steps that are not amenable to large-scale production. Here we present a function-based purification of wild-type and quadruple mutant capsid proteins, which relies on the inherent propensity of capsid protein to polymerize and depolymerize. This method does not require the packing of sizable chromatography columns and can generate double-digit gram quantities of functionally and biochemically well-behaved proteins with greater than 98% purity. We have used the purified capsid protein to characterize two known assembly inhibitors in our in-house developed polymerization assay and to measure their binding affinities. Our capsid purification procedure provides a robust method for purifying large quantities of a key protein in the HIV-1 life cycle, facilitating identification of the next generation anti-HIV agents.

  14. Doping reversed-phase media for improved peptide purification. (United States)

    Khalaf, Rushd; Forrer, Nicola; Buffolino, Gianluca; Gétaz, David; Bernardi, Susanna; Butté, Alessandro; Morbidelli, Massimo


    The purification of therapeutic peptides is most often performed using one or more reversed phase chromatography steps. This ensures high purities while keeping the costs of purification under control. In this paper, a doped reversed phase chromatographic material is tested and compared to traditional reversed phase materials. The doping consists of adding limited amounts of ion exchange ligands to the surface of the material to achieve orthogonal separation and increase the non-hydrophobic interactions with the surface. These ionic groups can either be attractive (opposite charge), or repulsive (same charge) to the peptide. The benefit of this new doped reversed phase material is shown through increases in selectivity in diluted conditions and yield and productivity in overloaded (i.e. industrial) conditions. It is the conjectured that all performance characteristics should increase using repulsive doping groups, whereas these characteristics should decrease when using attractive doping groups. This conjecture is shown to be true through several examples, including purifications of industrially relevant peptide crudes, in industrially relevant conditions. Moreover, the effect of ionic strength and organic modifier concentration was explored and shown to be in line with the expected behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  16. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technology in Organic Acid Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norela Jusoh; Norasikin Othman; Nur Alina Nasruddin


    Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) process have shown a great potential in wide application of industrial separations such as in removal of many chemicals, organic compounds, metal ions, pollutants and biomolecules. This system promote many advantages including simple operation, high selectivity, low energy requirement, and single stage extraction and stripping process. One potential application of ELM is in the purification of succinic acid from fermentation broth. This study outline steps for developing emulsion liquid membrane process in purification of succinic acid. The steps include liquid membrane formulation, ELM stability and ELM extraction of succinic acid. Several carrier, diluent and stripping agent was screened to find appropriate membrane formulation. After that, ELM stability was investigated to enhance the recovery of succinic acid. Finally, the performance of ELM was evaluated in the extraction process. Results show that formulated liquid membrane using Amberlite LA2 as carrier, palm oil as diluent and sodium carbonate, Na_2CO_3 as stripping agent provide good performance in purification. On the other hand, the prepared emulsion was observed to be stable up to 1 hour and sufficient for extraction process. In conclusion, ELM has high potential to purify succinic acid from fermentation broth. (author)

  17. Composting Guilt: An Ecological Critique of Purification of Past Wrongdoing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina von Kellenbach


    Full Text Available A review of the fast growing body of literature on transitional justice (Hayner 2011, political reconciliation (Philpott 2006, Verdejo 2009, forgiveness (Amstutz 2005, apology (Celermajer 2009, guilt (Barkan 2000 repentance (Schimmel 2002, evil (Meister 2011, moral repair (Walker 2006, and cultural memory (Borneman 2011, shows that the concept of purification has so far received little attention.  But the language of purification operates in the background of diverse practices such as the exhumation and ceremonial reburial of the dead (Desbois 2009, the call for truth commissions to document wrongdoing, and reparation campaigns that apologize and offer restitution (Diner 2007. At their best, truth and reconciliation commissions create cathartic moments (Greek: katharos = pure and facilitate “performative transformations” that cleanse relations between perpetrators and victims (Cole 2010, 15. My new project, still in its early stages, asks whether the concept and ritual practice of purification can be used to enhance moral repair in individuals and to serve the restoration of social order in the aftermath of atrocity and systemic human rights abuses.

  18. The modified swirl sedimentation tanks for water purification. (United States)

    Ochowiak, Marek; Matuszak, Magdalena; Włodarczak, Sylwia; Ancukiewicz, Małgorzata; Krupińska, Andżelika


    This paper discusses design, evaluation, and application for the use of swirl/vortex technologies as liquid purification system. A study was performed using modified swirl sedimentation tanks. The vortex separators (OW, OWK, OWR and OWKR) have been studied under laboratory conditions at liquid flow rate from 2.8⋅10 -5 to 5.1⋅10 -4 [m 3 /s]. The pressure drop and the efficiency of purification of liquid stream were analyzed. The suspended particles of different diameters were successfully removed from liquid with the application of swirl chambers of proposed constructions. It was found that damming of liquid in the tank increases alongside liquid stream at the inlet and depends on the tank construction. The efficiency of the sedimentation tanks increases alongside the diameters of solid particles and decrease in the liquid flow rate. The best construction proved to be the OWR sedimentation tank due to smallest liquid damming, even at high flow rates, and the highest efficiency of the purification liquid stream for solid particles of the smallest diameter. The proposed solution is an alternative to the classical constructions of sedimentation tanks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Review of Membranes for Helium Separation and Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Scholes


    Full Text Available Membrane gas separation has potential for the recovery and purification of helium, because the majority of membranes have selectivity for helium. This review reports on the current state of the research and patent literature for membranes undertaking helium separation. This includes direct recovery from natural gas, as an ancillary stage in natural gas processing, as well as niche applications where helium recycling has potential. A review of the available polymeric and inorganic membranes for helium separation is provided. Commercial gas separation membranes in comparable gas industries are discussed in terms of their potential in helium separation. Also presented are the various membrane process designs patented for the recovery and purification of helium from various sources, as these demonstrate that it is viable to separate helium through currently available polymeric membranes. This review places a particular focus on those processes where membranes are combined in series with another separation technology, commonly pressure swing adsorption. These combined processes have the most potential for membranes to produce a high purity helium product. The review demonstrates that membrane gas separation is technically feasible for helium recovery and purification, though membranes are currently only applied in niche applications focused on reusing helium rather than separation from natural sources.

  20. Investigation of Various LiCl Waste Salt Purification Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung-Zun Cho; Hee-Chul Yang; Han-Soo Lee; In-Tae Kim


    Various purification research of LiCl waste molten salt generated from electroreduction process were tested. The purification of the LiCl waste salt very important in a various aspects, where the purification means separation of cesium and strontium form LiCl salt melts. In this study, for the separation of cesium and strontium from LiCl salt melts, precipitant agent addition techniques such as sulfate and carbonate addition method and, as a new attempt, zone freezing technique for concentration of cesium and strontium elements was investigated. As a results of this research, only strontium was carbonated by reaction with Li 2 CO 3 (cesium did not react with Li 2 CO 3 ). In case of sulfate addition method, both cesium and strontium were converted into their sulfate that is Cs 2 S 2 O 6 and SrSO 4 and maximum sulfate efficiency of cesium and strontium were about 72% and 95%, respectively. Cesium and strontium involved in LiCl molten salt could be concentrated in the molten salt by using zone freezing method. (authors)

  1. Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty


    Paç, Mehmet Fazıl


    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...

  2. Dual-mode fluorophore-doped nickel nitrilotriacetic acid-modified silica nanoparticles combine histidine-tagged protein purification with site-specific fluorophore labeling. (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Jeyakumar, M; Katzenellenbogen, John A


    We present the first example of a fluorophore-doped nickel chelate surface-modified silica nanoparticle that functions in a dual mode, combining histidine-tagged protein purification with site-specific fluorophore labeling. Tetramethylrhodamine (TMR)-doped silica nanoparticles, estimated to contain 700-900 TMRs per ca. 23 nm particle, were surface modified with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), producing TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni2+. Silica-embedded TMR retains very high quantum yield, is resistant to quenching by buffer components, and is modestly quenched and only to a certain depth (ca. 2 nm) by surface-attached Ni2+. When exposed to a bacterial lysate containing estrogen receptor alpha ligand binding domain (ERalpha) as a minor component, these beads showed very high specificity binding, enabling protein purification in one step. The capacity and specificity of these beads for binding a his-tagged protein were characterized by electrophoresis, radiometric counting, and MALDI-TOF MS. ERalpha, bound to TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni++ beads in a site-specific manner, exhibited good activity for ligand binding and for ligand-induced binding to coactivators in solution FRET experiments and protein microarray fluorometric and FRET assays. This dual-mode type TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni2+ system represents a powerful combination of one-step histidine-tagged protein purification and site-specific labeling with multiple fluorophore species.

  3. Green spaces are not all the same for the provision of air purification and climate regulation services: The case of urban parks. (United States)

    Vieira, Joana; Matos, Paula; Mexia, Teresa; Silva, Patrícia; Lopes, Nuno; Freitas, Catarina; Correia, Otília; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro


    The growing human population concentrated in urban areas lead to the increase of road traffic and artificial areas, consequently enhancing air pollution and urban heat island effects, among others. These environmental changes affect citizen's health, causing a high number of premature deaths, with considerable social and economic costs. Nature-based solutions are essential to ameliorate those impacts in urban areas. While the mere presence of urban green spaces is pointed as an overarching solution, the relative importance of specific vegetation structure, composition and management to improve the ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation are overlooked. This avoids the establishment of optimized planning and management procedures for urban green spaces with high spatial resolution and detail. Our aim was to understand the relative contribution of vegetation structure, composition and management for the provision of ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation in urban green spaces, in particular the case of urban parks. This work was done in a large urban park with different types of vegetation surrounded by urban areas. As indicators of microclimatic effects and of air pollution levels we selected different metrics: lichen diversity and pollutants accumulation in lichens. Among lichen diversity, functional traits related to nutrient and water requirements were used as surrogates of the capacity of vegetation to filter air pollution and to regulate climate, and provide air purification and climate regulation ecosystem services, respectively. This was also obtained with very high spatial resolution which allows detailed spatial planning for optimization of ecosystem services. We found that vegetation type characterized by a more complex structure (trees, shrubs and herbaceous layers) and by the absence of management (pruning, irrigation and fertilization) had a higher capacity to provide the ecosystems services of air

  4. Active test of purification facility at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishio, Takahiro; Sato, Nobuharu; Inaba, Makoto; Itagaki, Takashi [Purification Section, Plant Operation Department, Reprocessing Plant, Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken (Japan)


    I. Introduction: At RRP, following the completion of Water Test, Chemical Test (CT) and Uranium Test (UT), the Active Test (AT) with actual spent fuel assemblies has been performed since March of 2006. This paper deals with the AT of the plutonium purification unit at RRP. II. Outline of plutonium purification unit: The plutonium purification unit purifies plutonium nitrate sent from the Separation Facility, and it has 5 pulsed columns and 4 mixer-settlers. Plutonium valence is adjusted to Pu{sup 4+} in plutonium nitrate sent from the Separation Facility, and then plutonium is extracted into organic phase (tri-butyl phosphate: TBP) in the extraction column. At this time, most of fission products remain in aqueous phase (nitric acid solution), which is discharged as raffinate through the diluent washing column. The fission products still contained in loaded organic solvent are removed in the FP scrubbing column, and then plutonium is stripped with nitric acid solution including hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) as reducer. After TBP contained in purified plutonium nitrate solution is removed in the diluent washing bank with n-dodecane, it is sent to the plutonium concentration unit. Organic solvent used in the stripping column is sent to the plutonium barrier bank in order to remove remaining plutonium with uranous nitrate and hydrazine nitrate solution, and organic solvent is sent to the solvent regeneration unit. III. Active test results: The main purpose of the AT on the plutonium purification unit is (1) checking the performance of plutonium extraction and stripping, (2) checking the efficiency of diluent washing. III.A. Plutonium Extraction and Stripping performances: As a result of the neutron monitor profile on the extraction column during the representative operation, extraction was completed at the upper part of the column. As for the neutron monitor profile on the stripping column, stripping was performed at the lower part of the column. Plutonium concentration

  5. Operating experiences of gas purification system of Heavy Water Plant Talcher (Paper No. 1.11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Mohanty, P.R.; Pandey, B.L.


    The operating experiences with the purification system installed at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher for purification of feed synthesis gas from fertilizer plant is described. The purification system has performed satisfactorily even with levels of impurities as much as 15 to 20 ppm of oxygen and carbon monoxide. The system could not however be tested at designed gas throughput and on a sustained basis. However, increase in gas throughput upto the design value is not expected to pose any problem on the performance of the purification system. (author). 5 figs

  6. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan


    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  7. Capacity competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampes, Claude; Creti, Anna


    The article analyzed a two-stage game where capacity constrained electricity generators first choose how much capacity they make available and then compete in a uniform-rice auction. It is studied how capacity withholding can be used strategically to enforce market power and how uniform auctions in the price game change the results of capacity constrained competition models. The uniform auction procedure gives strong incentives to capacity restriction. At equilibrium, however, power shortage never occurs. Though auctions in electricity markets have already been studied by several economists, yet an important feature of spot trading is the capacity availability decision. In fact, for technical reasons, such as equipment maintenance or failures, the installed capacity may not work at maximum operating level and the spot market rules oblige generators to announce which plants they are willing to use and simultaneously their offer prices. Beside technical reasons, the so-called 'capacity declarations' also offer a strategic instrument for firms: by restricting capacity, operators can benefit from scarcity rents. Assessing whether generators withhold capacity is an intriguing issue for real electricity markets, though proving it is a difficult task. Several theoretical papers show that generators are able to keep wholesale prices high as compared to their generation costs. In our model, a generator is not obliged to declare all installed capacity as available, but decides on the amount of MW of electricity that is available. Hence the available capacity is an endogenous variable while the installed one is exogenous. The distinction between installed capacities and 'available' capacities allows to explain clearly whether generators exert market power by declaring unavailable some production units. Although we find multiple sub game perfect equilibria that cannot be eliminated by Pareto-dominance, all the outcomes are characterized by market price at the highest

  8. Algorithmic complexity of quantum capacity (United States)

    Oskouei, Samad Khabbazi; Mancini, Stefano


    We analyze the notion of quantum capacity from the perspective of algorithmic (descriptive) complexity. To this end, we resort to the concept of semi-computability in order to describe quantum states and quantum channel maps. We introduce algorithmic entropies (like algorithmic quantum coherent information) and derive relevant properties for them. Then we show that quantum capacity based on semi-computable concept equals the entropy rate of algorithmic coherent information, which in turn equals the standard quantum capacity. Thanks to this, we finally prove that the quantum capacity, for a given semi-computable channel, is limit computable.

  9. Dementia, Decision Making, and Capacity. (United States)

    Darby, R Ryan; Dickerson, Bradford C

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making. While such assessments have classically focused on the capacity for complex reasoning and executive functions, research in decision making has revealed that motivational and metacognitive processes are also important. We first briefly review the neuropsychological literature on decision making and on the medical and legal assessment of capacity. Next, we discuss the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments, including the group-to-individual inference problem, the unclear role of neuroimaging in capacity assessments, and the lack of capacity measures that integrate important facets of decision making. Finally, we present several case examples where we attempt to demonstrate the potential benefits and important limitations of using decision-making research to aid in capacity determinations.

  10. Sulfur hexafluoride purification from mixtures with air: a process feasibility study for the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, J.J.


    A preliminary feasibility study was made for the purification of SF 6 vapor contaminated with air for application at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. Liquefaction appears to be a good way to recover about 90% of the SF 6 if it is badly contaminated (15% air), and even greater recovery will be possible for mixtures containing less air. Where liquefaction is insufficient alone, adsorption of SF 6 on activated carbon at -50 0 F looks promising. Two carbon beds each containing about 500 lb of carbon should be sufficient. The refrigeration system for liquefaction and adsorption would have a capacity of about 2 tons. As alternatives, the use of molecular sieves to trap out the air was investigated, but such a bed would require at least 15,000 lb of molecular sieves and very long cycle times. A large-scale desublimer was investigated and appears workable but would require some development work to permit design work to proceed with confidence

  11. Use of a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor for the continuous and simultaneous fermentation and purification of lactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E. N.; Cooper, S. P.; Clement, S. L.; Little, M. H.


    A continuous biparticle fluidized bed reactor is developed for the simultaneous fermentation and purification of lactic acid. In this processing scheme, bacteria are immobilized in gelatin beads and are fluidized in a columnar reactor. Solid particles with sorbent capacity for the product are introduced at the top of the reactor, and fall counter currently to the biocatalyst, effecting in situ removal of the inhibitory product, while also controlling reactor pH at optimal levels. Initial long-term fermentation trials using immobilized Lactobacillus delbreuckii have demonstrated a 12 fold increase in volumetric productivity during adsorbent addition as opposed to control fermentations in the same reactor. Unoptimized regeneration of the loaded sorbent has effected at least an 8 fold concentration of lactic acid, and a 68 fold enhancement in separation from glucose compared to original levels in the fermentation broth. The benefits of this reactor system as opposed to conventional batch fermentation are discussed in terms of productivity and process economics.

  12. Integrated capacity and inventory management with capacity acquisition lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mincsovics, G.Z.; Tan, T.; Alp, O.


    We model a make-to-stock production system that utilizes permanent and contingent capacity to meet non-stationary stochastic demand, where a constant lead time is associated with the acquisition of contingent capacity. We determine the structure of the optimal solution concerning both the

  13. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.


    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded...

  14. A single-ligand ultra-microporous MOF for precombustion CO2 capture and hydrogen purification. (United States)

    Nandi, Shyamapada; De Luna, Phil; Daff, Thomas D; Rother, Jens; Liu, Ming; Buchanan, William; Hawari, Ayman I; Woo, Tom K; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan


    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) built from a single small ligand typically have high stability, are rigid, and have syntheses that are often simple and easily scalable. However, they are normally ultra-microporous and do not have large surface areas amenable to gas separation applications. We report an ultra-microporous (3.5 and 4.8 Å pores) Ni-(4-pyridylcarboxylate)2 with a cubic framework that exhibits exceptionally high CO2/H2 selectivities (285 for 20:80 and 230 for 40:60 mixtures at 10 bar, 40°C) and working capacities (3.95 mmol/g), making it suitable for hydrogen purification under typical precombustion CO2 capture conditions (1- to 10-bar pressure swing). It exhibits facile CO2 adsorption-desorption cycling and has CO2 self-diffusivities of ~3 × 10(-9) m(2)/s, which is two orders higher than that of zeolite 13X and comparable to other top-performing MOFs for this application. Simulations reveal a high density of binding sites that allow for favorable CO2-CO2 interactions and large cooperative binding energies. Ultra-micropores generated by a small ligand ensures hydrolytic, hydrostatic stabilities, shelf life, and stability toward humid gas streams.

  15. Binding mechanisms for histamine and agmatine ligands in plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid purifications. (United States)

    Sousa, Ângela; Pereira, Patrícia; Sousa, Fani; Queiroz, João A


    Histamine and agmatine amino acid derivatives were immobilized into monolithic disks, in order to combine the specificity and selectivity of the ligand with the high mass transfer and binding capacity offered by monolithic supports, to purify potential plasmid DNA biopharmaceuticals. Different elution strategies were explored by changing the type and salt concentration, as well as the pH, in order to understand the retention pattern of different plasmids isoforms The pVAX1-LacZ supercoiled isoform was isolated from a mixture of pDNA isoforms by using NaCl increasing stepwise gradient and also by ammonium sulfate decreasing stepwise gradient, in both histamine and agmatine monoliths. Acidic pH in the binding buffer mainly strengthened ionic interactions with both ligands in the presence of sodium chloride. Otherwise, for histamine ligand, pH values higher than 7 intensified hydrophobic interactions in the presence of ammonium sulfate. In addition, circular dichroism spectroscopy studies revealed that the binding and elution chromatographic conditions, such as the combination of high ionic strength with extreme pH values can reversibly influence the structural stability of the target nucleic acid. Therefore, ascending sodium chloride gradients with pH manipulation can be preferable chromatographic conditions to be explored in the purification of plasmid DNA biopharmaceuticals, in order to avoid the environmental impact of ammonium sulfate. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Production, purification and utilization of biogas as fuel for internal combustion engine (United States)

    Hernandez, Noel M.; Villanueva, Eliseo P.


    This study attempts to modify a 4-cylinder gasoline engine to run with a purified compressed biogas as substitute for fossil fuels. Water scrubbing method was used as the easiest purification technique to remove CO2 and iron filing for H2S. The pressurized raw biogas was fed in a low cost made portable floating type gas holder with volume capacity of 0.74 m3. The purified biogas was compressed using a reciprocating compressor through a two stage series of enrichment and moisture removal process using activated alumina into the steel cylinder to improve the quality of the methane content. The enriched biogas was filled in the LPG tank for 20 minutes at 10 bars at an average of 73.67% CH4 with no traces of H2S as storage for engine utilization. The modification involved the installation and mounting of LPG conversion kit. A comparative analysis of the performance and combustion characteristics of the engine was evaluated separately with gasoline and purified compressed biogas using electro-dynamometer as variable loads. The findings show that power output deterioration in compressed biogas was mainly due to high percentage of CO2 and other gases impurities. It also shows that because of the calorific value of biogas, the thermal efficiency is lesser than that of gasoline. It implies that the overall engine performance can be improved by removing undesirable gases in the mixture.

  17. Borax cross-linked guar gum hydrogels as potential adsorbents for water purification. (United States)

    Thombare, Nandkishore; Jha, Usha; Mishra, Sumit; Siddiqui, M Z


    With the aim to explore new adsorbents for water purification, guar gum based hydrogels were synthesized by cross-linking with borax at different percentage. The cross-linking was confirmed through characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM morphology, thermal studies and water absorption capacity. To examine the adsorption/absorption performance of different grades of hydrogels, their flocculation efficiency was studied in kaolin suspension at different pH by standard jar test procedure. The flocculation efficiency of the test materials was compared with the commercially used coagulant, alum and also residues of Al and K left in the treated water were comparatively studied. The synthesized hydrogels were also tested for their efficiency of removing Aniline Blue dye by UV-vis spectrophotometer study. The best grade hydrogel outperformed alum, at extremely low concentration and also showed dye removing efficiency up to 94%. The single step synthesized green products thus exhibited great potential as water purifying agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulfur hexafluoride purification from mixtures with air: a process feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, J.J.; Watson, J.S.


    Studies were made of the purification of SF 6 vapor contaminated with air for application at the Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility. Liquefaction appears to be a good method for recovering about 90% of the SF 6 if it is badly contaminated (15% air), and an even greater fraction can be recovered from mixtures containing less air. In cases where liquefaction is insufficient by itself, adsorption of SF 6 on activated carbon at -50 0 F is promising. Two carbon beds, each containing about 500 lb of carbon, should be sufficient. The refrigeration system for liquefaction and adsorption would have a capacity of about 2 tons. As an alternative, the use of molecular sieves to trap out the air was investigated, but such a bed would require at least 15,000 lb of molecular sieves and very long cycle times. A large-scale desublimer was also investigated and appears workable, but it would require some development effort before the design could proceed with confidence

  19. Purification of intact chloroplasts from marine plant Posidonia oceanica suitable for organelle proteomics. (United States)

    Piro, Amalia; Serra, Ilia Anna; Spadafora, Antonia; Cardilio, Monica; Bianco, Linda; Perrotta, Gaetano; Santos, Rui; Mazzuca, Silvia


    Posidonia oceanica is a marine angiosperm, or seagrass, adapted to grow to the underwater life from shallow waters to 50 m depth. This raises questions of how their photosynthesis adapted to the attenuation of light through the water column and leads to the assumption that biochemistry and metabolism of the chloroplast are the basis of adaptive capacity. In the present study, we described a protocol that was adapted from those optimized for terrestrial plants, to extract chloroplasts from as minimal tissue as possible. We obtained the best balance between tissue amount/intact chloroplasts yield using one leaf from one plant. After isopynic separations, the chloroplasts purity and integrity were evaluated by biochemical assay and using a proteomic approach. Chloroplast proteins were extracted from highly purified organelles and resolved by 1DE SDS-PAGE. Proteins were sequenced by nLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS of 1DE gel bands and identified against NCBInr green plant databases, Dr. Zompo database for seagrasses in a local customized dataset. The curated localization of proteins in sub-plastidial compartments (i.e. envelope, stroma and thylakoids) was retrieved in the AT_CHLORO database. This purification protocol and the validation of compartment markers may serve as basis for sub-cellular proteomics in P. oceanica and other seagrasses. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Installed capacity in New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.


    This presentation discussed capacity issues related to the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). The NYISO's market volume was approximately $11 billion in 2005, and it was responsible for providing 32,075 MW of electricity at peak load to its users. Regulatory uncertainty is currently discouraging investment in new generating resources. All load serving entities are required to contract for sufficient capacity in order to meet their capacity obligations. Market participants currently determine capacity and energy revenues. The NYISO market allows suppliers to recover variable costs for providing ancillary services, and the economic value of the revenue source governs decisions made in the wholesale electricity market. The installed capacity market was designed as a spot auction deficiency auction. Phased-in demand curves are used to modify the installed capacity market's design. A sloped demand curve mechanism is used to value capacity above the minimum requirement for both reliability and competition. Participation in the day-ahead market enhances competition and exerts downward pressure on energy and ancillary service market prices. It was concluded that the market structures and design features of the installed capacity markets recognize the need for system reliability in addition to encouraging robust competition and recognizing energy price caps and regulatory oversights. tabs., figs

  1. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity. (United States)

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman


    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  2. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.


    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a

  3. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I


    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  4. Fast reactor cover gas purification - The UK position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorley, A.W.


    The cover gas in the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) provides an inert gas blanket for both primary and secondary sodium circuits, ensures inert gas padding exists between the upper seals associated with penetrations through the reactor roof and provides argon to items of plant such as the control rods and the rotating shield and also to on line instruments such as the secondary circuit Katharometers. In order to meet these and other requirements purification of the argon cover gas is important to ensure: gas fed to purge gaps in the area of the magnetic hold device in the control rod mechanisms is not laden with sodium aerosols and reactive impurities (O 2 , H 2 ) which could cause blocking both within the gaps and pipelines; gas phase detection systems which provide early warning of steam generator failures or oil ingress into the sodium are not affected by the presence of gaseous impurities such as H 2 , CO/CO 2 and CH 4 ; mass transfer processes involving both corrosion products and interstitial atoms cannot be sustained in the cover gas environment due to the presence of high levels of O 2 , N 2 and carburising gases; background levels of radioactivity (eg Xe 133) are sufficiently low to enable gas phase detection of failed fuel pins, and the primary circuit gas blanket activity is sufficiently reduced so that discharges to the atmosphere are minimised. This paper describes how the PFR cover gas purification system is coping with these various items and how current thinking regarding the design of cover gas purification systems for a Civil Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR), where larger gas volumes and higher levels of radioactivity may be involved, is being guided by current experience on PFR. The paper also briefly review the experimental work planned to study aerosol and caesium behaviour in cove gas environments and discusses the behaviour of those impurities such as Zn, oil and N 2 which are potentially damaging if certain levels are exceeded in operating

  5. A Simple Slow-Sand Filter for Drinking Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Yusuf


    Full Text Available Water-borne diseases are commonly encountered when pathogen-contaminated water is consumed. In rural areas, water is usually obtained from ponds, open shallow wells, streams and rain water during rainy season. Rain water is often contaminated by pathogens due to unhygienic of physical and chemical conditions of the roofs thereby making it unsafe for consumption. A simple slow sand filter mechanism was designed and fabricated for purification of water in rural areas where electricity is not available to power water purification devices. Rain water samples were collected from aluminum roof, galvanized roof and thatched roof. The waters samples were allowed to flow through the slow sand filter. The values of turbidity, total dissolved solids, calcium, nitrite, faecal coliform and total coliform from unfiltered water through thatched roof were 0.92 NTU, 27.23 mg/l, 6 mg/l, 0.16 mg/l, 5cfu/100ml and 6.0 cfu/100ml, respectively while the corresponding values for slow sand filter from thatched roof were 0.01 NTU, 0.23 mg/l, 2.5 mg/l, 0.1 mg/l, 0 cfu/100ml and 0 cfu/100ml, respectively. The values of turbidity, total dissolved solid, nitrite, calcium, faecal coliform and total coliform from unfiltered water for aluminum roof were 0.82 NTU, 23.68 mg/l, 2.70 mg/l, 1.0 mg/l, 4 cfu/100ml and 4cfu/100ml, respectively while the corresponding values for slow sand filter were 0.01 NTU, 0.16 mg/l, 0.57 mg/l, 0.2 mg/l, 0 cfu/100ml and 0 cfu/100ml, respectively. The values obtained for galvanized roof were also satisfactory. The slow sand filter is recommended for used in rural areas for water purification to prevent risk of water-borne diseases.

  6. Designing optimal bioethanol networks with purification for integrated biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, Akshay U.; Shenoy, Uday V.


    Highlights: • An analytical method is devised for bioethanol network integration with purification. • Minimum fresh bioethanol flow and pinch are found by the Unified Targeting Algorithm. • Optimal bioethanol networks are then synthesized by the Nearest Neighbors Algorithm. • Continuous targets and networks are developed over the purifier inlet flowrate range. • Case study of a biorefinery producing bioethanol from wheat shows large savings. - Abstract: Bioethanol networks with purification for processing pathways in integrated biorefineries are targeted and designed in this work by an analytical approach not requiring graphical constructions. The approach is based on six fundamental equations involving eight variables: two balance equations for the stream flowrate and the bioethanol load over the total network system; one equation for the above-pinch bioethanol load being picked up by the minimum fresh resource and the purified stream; and three equations for the purification unit. A solution strategy is devised by specifying the two variables associated with the purifier inlet stream. Importantly, continuous targeting is then possible over the entire purifier inlet flowrate range on deriving elegant formulae for the remaining six variables. The Unified Targeting Algorithm (UTA) is utilized to establish the minimum fresh bioethanol resource flowrate and identify the pinch purity. The fresh bioethanol resource flowrate target is shown to decrease linearly with purifier inlet flowrate provided the pinch is held by the same point. The Nearest Neighbors Algorithm (NNA) is used to methodically synthesize optimal networks matching bioethanol demands and sources. A case study of a biorefinery producing bioethanol from wheat with arabinoxylan (AX) coproduction is presented. It illustrates the versatility of the approach in generating superior practical designs with up to nearly 94% savings for integrated bioethanol networks, both with and without process

  7. Fractionation for Biodiesel Purification Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yi Wei


    Full Text Available In recent years, biodegradable and alternative biodiesel has attracted increased attention worldwide. Producing biodiesel from biomass involves critical separation and purification technology. Conventional technologies such as gravitational settling, decantation, filtration, water washing, acid washing, organic solvent washing and absorbent applications are inefficient, less cost effective and environmentally less friendly. In this study supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 with few steps and a low environmental impact, was used for biodiesel fractionation from impure fatty acid methyl ester (FAME solution mixes. The method is suitable for application in a variety of biodiesel production processes requiring subsequent stages of purification. The fractionation and purification was carried out using continuous SC-CO2 fractionation equipment, consisting of three columns filled with stainless steel fragments. A 41.85% FAME content solution mix was used as the raw material in this study. Variables were a temperature range of 40–70 °C, pressure range of 10–30 MPa, SC-CO2 flow rate range of 7–21 mL/min and a retention time range of 30–90 min. The Taguchi method was used to identify optimal operating conditions. The results show that a separated FAME content of 99.94% was verified by GC-FID under optimal fractionation conditions, which are a temperature of 40 °C of, a pressure level of 30MPa and a flow rate of 7 mL/min of SC-CO2 for a retention time of 90 min.

  8. Purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from aspergillus terreus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Mannan, A.; Zubair, H.; Mirza, B.


    Proteases belong to an important class of enzymes known as hydrolases and catalyze hydrolysis of proteins. They act primarily to degrade proteins that are used for energy production and as biosynthetic precursors. In the following study, protease produced from Aspergillus terreus was found to be thermo stable and included in the category of alkaline serine and metallo protease. During partial purification, presence of enzyme in 60% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ indicated small molecular weight polypeptide; later purification with Sephadex G-75 fractionation yielded a single proteolytic active molecule. At final purification step, the increase in specific activity of the enzyme was 7.5 fold with 23% yield. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that alkaline protease of Aspergillus terreus is a monomer with approximate molecular weight of 35 kDa. Optimum pH for protease activity was found in the range of 7.5-11.0 (maximum at pH 8.5), thus apparently classified as an alkaline protease. The enzyme was thermo stable towards high temperature (60 deg. C), however it denatured irreversibly at 70 deg. C showing 80% loss of activity. The maximum proteolytic activity was found at 40 deg. C. The enzyme was effectively inhibited by PMSF, EDTA and urea whereas iodoacetamide and thiourea did not result in any loss in activity while cysteine was found to be activator molecule. The study with metal ions Mg/sup +2/, Mn/sup +2/ and Fe/sup +3/ (1 mM each) showed minute stimulatory effects on enzyme activity. Co/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/ (1 mM) had neither excitatory nor inhibitory effect while Hg/sup +2/ and Cu/sup +2/ (1 mM) slightly reduced the enzyme activity. (author)

  9. Biological response to purification and acid functionalization of carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Figarol, Agathe; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Lecompte, Jean-Pierre; Cottier, Michèle; Bernache-Assollant, Didier; Grosseau, Philippe


    Acid functionalization has been considered as an easy way to enhance the dispersion and biodegradation of carbon nanotubes (CNT). However, inconsistencies between toxicity studies of acid functionalized CNT remain unexplained. This could be due to a joint effect of the main physicochemical modifications resulting from an acid functionalization: addition of surface acid groups and purification from catalytic metallic impurities. In this study, the impact on CNT biotoxicity of these two physiochemical features was assessed separately. The in vitro biological response of RAW 264.7 macrophages was evaluated after exposure to 15-240 µg mL-1 of two types of multi-walled CNT. For each type of CNT (small: 20 nm diameter, and big: 90 nm diameter), three different surface chemical properties were studied (total of six CNT samples): pristine, acid functionalized and desorbed. Desorbed CNT were purified by the acid functionalization but presented a very low amount of surface acid groups due to a thermal treatment under vacuum. A Janus effect of acid functionalization with two opposite impacts is highlighted. The CNT purification decreased the overall toxicity, while the surface acid groups intensified it when present at a specific threshold. These acid groups especially amplified the pro-inflammatory response. The threshold mechanism which seemed to regulate the impact of acid groups should be further studied to determine its value and potential link to the other physicochemical state of the CNT. The results suggest that, for a safer-design approach, the benefit-risk balance of an acid functionalization has to be considered, depending on the CNT primary state of purification. Further research should be conducted in this direction.

  10. Purification of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Saavedra, Lucila; Castellano, Patricia; Sesma, Fernando


    Bacteriocins are antibacterial substances of a proteinaceous nature that are produced by different bacterial species. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce biologically active peptides or protein complexes that display a bactericidal mode of action almost exclusively toward Gram-positive bacteria and particularly toward closely related species. Generally they are active against food spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms including Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. There is an increased tendency to use natural occurring metabolites to prevent the growth of undesirable flora in foodstuffs. These metabolites could replace the use of chemical additives such as sorbic acid, sulfur dioxide, nitrite, nitrate, and others. For instance, bacteriocins produced by LAB may be promising for use as bio-preservaties. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria are typically cationic, hydrophobic peptides and differ widely in many characteristics including molecular weight, presence of particular groups of amino acids, pI, net positive charge, and post-translational modifications of certain amino acids. This heterogeneity within the LAB bacteriocins may explain the different procedures for isolation and purification developed so far. The methods most frequently used for isolation, concentration, and purification involve salt precipitation of bacteriocins from culture supernatants, followed by various combinations of gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In this chapter, a protocol is described that combines several methods used in our laboratory for the purification of two cationic bacteriocins, Lactocin 705AL and Enterocin CRL10, produced by Lactobacillus casei CRL705 and Enterococcus mundtii CRL10, respectively.

  11. Sodium tests on an integrated purification prototype for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, R.


    This paper describes sodium tests performed on the integrated primary sodium purification prototype of the Creys Malville Super Phenix 1 fast breeder reactor. These tests comprised: - hydrostatic test, - thermal tests, - handling tests. They enabled a number of new technological arrangements to be qualified and provided the necessary information for the design and construction of the Super Phenix 1 purification units

  12. The method of purification of waste water of NPS from petroleum oil using UV-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulemin, V.V.; Kareta, V.I.


    The main methods of concentration and purification of radioactive waste water of russian NPS are distillation and ion exchange. When waste water containing petroleum oil and washing matter is distillated, part of petroleum and washing matters go to the condensate. The purification of this condensate leads to pollution of ion exchange resins by petroleum oil and reduction of the filter cycle number. The purification of condensate of Russian NPS from petroleum oil is carried out using active carbon and polymer filters, but this process is not effective and fails to give pure condensate. Therefore, the authors began to search for more effective methods of purification of waste water from petroleum oil. They found that UV-radiation makes it possible to purify water from petroleum matter to concentration of the organic phase less than 0.5 mg/dm3. In this process of purification the air, contained in the water phase, was used as an oxidant. When purification is carried out in the absence of sorbents, the quantity of radioactive solid waste, which have to be recovered, decreases. During the study of purification of waste water it was found that increasing of the temperature of the process increases the rate of UV-radiation-induced oxidation of organic phase. The increase in the initial concentration of petroleum products also increases the rate of petroleum oil decomposition. The content of ions in water phase decreases the purification rate. The investigations were carried out on the laboratory scale with water and condensate from Tver's NPS

  13. The application of modified montmorillonite in the processes of baromembrane purification of water from U (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurlova, L.Yu.; Krivoruchko, A.P.


    The processes of uranium-containing water purification by ultra- and nanofiltration methods combined with the use of montmorillonite modified by polyethyleneimine are studied. It is shown that the application of montmorillonite allows one to obtain the high indices of the uranium-containing water purification by baromembrane methods.

  14. Item Purification Does Not Always Improve DIF Detection: A Counterexample with Angoff's Delta Plot (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno


    Item purification is an iterative process that is often advocated as improving the identification of items affected by differential item functioning (DIF). With test-score-based DIF detection methods, item purification iteratively removes the items currently flagged as DIF from the test scores to get purified sets of items, unaffected by DIF. The…

  15. Purification of a Recombinant Glutathione Transferase from the Causative Agent of Hydatidosis, "Echinococcus granulosus" (United States)

    Fleitas, Andrea L.; Randall, Lía M.; Möller, Matías N.; Denicola, Ana


    This practical class activity was designed to introduce students to recombinant protein expression and purification. The principal goal is to shed light on basic aspects concerning recombinant protein production, in particular protein expression, chromatography methods for protein purification, and enzyme activity as a tool to evaluate purity and…

  16. Method for Rapid Purification of Class IIa Bacteriocins and Comparison of Their Activities


    Guyonnet, D.; Fremaux, C.; Cenatiempo, Y.; Berjeaud, J. M.


    A three-step method was developed for the purification of mesentericin Y105 (60% yield) from the culture supernatant of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Y105. The same procedure was successfully applied to the purification of five other anti-Listeria bacteriocins identified by mass spectrometry. Specific activities of the purified bacteriocins were compared.

  17. Method for Rapid Purification of Class IIa Bacteriocins and Comparison of Their Activities (United States)

    Guyonnet, D.; Fremaux, C.; Cenatiempo, Y.; Berjeaud, J. M.


    A three-step method was developed for the purification of mesentericin Y105 (60% yield) from the culture supernatant of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Y105. The same procedure was successfully applied to the purification of five other anti-Listeria bacteriocins identified by mass spectrometry. Specific activities of the purified bacteriocins were compared. PMID:10742275

  18. Commercial ampholytes used for isoelectric focusing may interfere with bioactivity based purification of antimicrobial peptides


    Riazi, Shadi; Dover, Sara; Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Chikindas, Michael L.


    BioRad's Rotofor® system has been frequently used for the purification of proteins and smaller peptides such as bacteriocins. In this study, we report that some commercially available ampholytes used with the Rotofor® isoelectric focusing system possess antimicrobial activity, which may interfere with the purification of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-like substances.

  19. Technology of thorium concentrates purification and their transformation in pure nuclear products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, A.


    An experimental study for the purification of thorium concentrates by solvent extraction is presented. The product of purification is appropriate for utilization in the fabrication of nuclear reactor fuel elements. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory scale and the following operations are studied: dissolution, extraction-scrubbing, stripping-scrubbing, thorium oxalate precipitation, and thorium nitrate coagulation [pt

  20. Early days of tRNA research: Discovery, function, purification and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Oct 4, 2006 ... function in protein synthesis and methods for its purification ... intermediate carrier of the amino acid in protein synthesis. (table 1). .... 14C-leucine were incubated with GTP, PEP, and pyruvate kinase as indicated (adapted from: Hoagland et al 1958). .... Purification of N. crassa mitochondrial initiator tRNA.

  1. The MIMIC Method with Scale Purification for Detecting Differential Item Functioning (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin; Yang, Chih-Chien


    This study implements a scale purification procedure onto the standard MIMIC method for differential item functioning (DIF) detection and assesses its performance through a series of simulations. It is found that the MIMIC method with scale purification (denoted as M-SP) outperforms the standard MIMIC method (denoted as M-ST) in controlling…

  2. NASA - Johnson Space Center's New Capabilities for Air Purification (United States)

    Graf, John


    NASA has some unique and challenging air purification problems that cannot be adequately met with COTS technology: 1) ammonia removal from air, 2) hydrazine removal from air, 3) CO conversion to CO2 in low temperature, high humidity environments. NASA has sponsored the development of new sorbents and new catalysts. These new sorbents and catalysts work better than COTS technology for our application. If attendees have a need for an effective ammonia sorbent, an effective hydrazine sorbent, or an effective CO conversion catalyst, we should learn to see if NASA sponsored technology development can help.

  3. Cover gas purification in the German LMFBR-programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillings, K.-L.; Wagner, J.; Stade, K. Ch.


    A specific problem of sodium-cooled reactor plants is the purity of the noble gas argon which is used to protect the liquid alkali metal sodium in its systems in order to avoid or reduce disagreeable reactions between sodium and gaseous compounds like moisture or air and organic products like oil and grease. But as this contact cannot completely be excluded, we have to recycle such soiled cover gas. Simultaneously this procedure has to correct the release of radioactivity. Therefore the cover gas purification of primary systems of reactor plants contains the removal of the inorganic chemical disposal and of the nuclear waste. (author)

  4. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson


    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  5. Systems and methods for separation and purification of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Michael Joseph; Gilliam, Ryan J.; Self, Kyle; Mariansky, Gal; Leclerc, Margarete K.; Shipchandler, Riyaz Mohammed; Nagar, Jacob


    There are provided methods and systems for an electrochemical cell including an anode and a cathode where the anode is contacted with a metal ion that converts the metal ion from a lower oxidation state to a higher oxidation state. The metal ion in the higher oxidation state is reacted with an unsaturated hydrocarbon and/or a saturated hydrocarbon to form products. Separation and/or purification of the products as well as of the metal ions in the lower oxidation state and the higher oxidation state, is provided herein.

  6. Polyamide membranes with nanoscale Turing structures for water purification (United States)

    Tan, Zhe; Chen, Shengfu; Peng, Xinsheng; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Congjie


    The emergence of Turing structures is of fundamental importance, and designing these structures and developing their applications have practical effects in chemistry and biology. We use a facile route based on interfacial polymerization to generate Turing-type polyamide membranes for water purification. Manipulation of shapes by control of reaction conditions enabled the creation of membranes with bubble or tube structures. These membranes exhibit excellent water-salt separation performance that surpasses the upper-bound line of traditional desalination membranes. Furthermore, we show the existence of high water permeability sites in the Turing structures, where water transport through the membranes is enhanced.

  7. Simple purification for E. coli putrescine aminopropyl-transferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavagan, J.E.; Anton, D.L.


    Putrescine aminopropyltransferase transfers an aminopropyl group from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine forming spermidine. They have recently developed a rapid assay based on the separation of the spermidine product from the unreacted [ 14 C-met] labeled decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine substrate by charcoal adsorption. Using this assay they have developed a simple protocol for the purification of putrescine aminopropyltransferase from E. coli HT 527. The procedure involves ammonium sulfate fractionation, phenyl Sepharose chromatography, and FPLC. The enzyme is greater than 80% pure as judged by SDS-PAGE and has an apparent subunit molecular weight of 35,000. The kinetics of this enzyme are being reinvestigated

  8. Interim report on the TMI-2 purification filter examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; Cook, B.A.; MacDonald, P.E.


    Filters from the purification/makeup system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor were examined after the March 28, 1979, accident to determine the character of the debris transported to the filters. The general condition of the filters is presented. Material was removed from the filters and examined. The elemental and radionuclide makeup of the debris is discussed. Distribution of particle size and shape is presentd for some of the material examined. This is an interim report. When the investigation is completed, another report summarizing all of the data will be issued

  9. Use of microphytoalgae for purification of radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al.; Palamaru, Ileana; Humelnicu, Doina; Popa, K.; Rudic, V.; Cepoi, Liliana; Gulea, A.


    This work deals with a study on the purification of some radioactive waters, simulating radioactive waste waters, by some microbial collectors. For a given ion the retaining degree varies as 134 Cs - > 60 Co 2- > 51 Cr 3- > 55-59 Fe 3- , but for same algae types, this parameter decreases as follows: Scenedesmus quadricauda > Cylindrospermum major > Nostoc microscopicum. Furthermore, using the radioactive 60 Co 2- ions, the biochemical mechanism of retaining for such cations by different separated components of living cells was established. More retention is observed in proteins, pigments and polysaccharides, but the glycides are not able to keep such cations. (authors)

  10. Recovering of thorium contained in wastes from Thorium Purification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao Filho, D.; Hespanhol, E.C.B.; Baba, S.; Miranda, L.E.T.; Araujo, J.A. de.


    A study has been developed in order to establish a chemical process for recovering thorium from wastes produced at the Thorium Purification Plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The recovery of thorium in this process will be made by means of solvent extraction technique. Solutions of TBP/Varsol were employed as extracting agent during the runs. The influence of thorium concentration in the solution, aqueous phase acidity, volume ratio of the phases, percentage of TBP/Varsol and the contact time of the phases on the extraction of thorium and lanthanides was determined. (author)

  11. Semiconductor Grade, Solar Silicon Purification Project. [photovoltaic solar energy conversion (United States)

    Ingle, W. M.; Rosler, R. S.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E.


    A low cost by-product, SiF4, is reacted with mg silicon to form SiF2 gas which is polymerized. The (SiF2)x polymer is heated forming volatile SixFy homologues which disproportionate on a silicon particle bed forming silicon and SiF4. The silicon analysis procedure relied heavily on mass spectroscopic and emission spectroscopic analysis. These analyses demonstrated that major purification had occured and some samples were indistinguishable from semiconductor grade silicon (except possibly for phosphorus). However, electrical analysis via crystal growth reveal that the product contains compensated phosphorus and boron.

  12. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite Membrane for Bioethanol Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari


    Full Text Available The use of bioethanol as an alternative fuel with a purity of more than 99.5% wt has prompted research on bioethanol purification. One of the promising methods used for bioethanol purification is pervaporation membrane. This research is aimed to prepare and characterize zeolite membranes for pervaporation membrane. The membrane preparation consisted of two stages, namely support preparation and zeolite deposition on the support. In support preparation, α- alumina and kaolin with specific composition (50:30; 40:40; 50:30 was mixed with additives and water. After pugging and aging process, the mixture became paste and extruded into tubular shape. The tube was then calcined at temperature of 1250 °C for 3 hours. After that, zeolite 4A was deposited on the tubes using clear solution made of 10 %wt zeolite and 90 %wt water and heated at temperature of 80 °C for 3 hours. Furthermore, the resulting zeolite membranes was washed with deionized water for 5 minutes and dried in oven at temperature of 100 °C for 24 hours. Characterization of zeolite membranes included mechanical strength test, XRD, and SEM. In the mechanical strength test, the membrane sample with α- alumina:kaolin = 50:30 (membrane A has the highest mechanical strength of 46.65 N/mm2. Result of XRD analysis for the membrane A indicated that mullite and corundum phases were formed, which mullite phase was more dominant. Meanwhile the result of SEM analysis shows that zeolite crystals have been formed and covered the pores support, but the deposition of zeolite has not been optimal yet. The performance examination for bioethanol purification showed that the membrane could increase the purity of bioethanol from 95% to 98.5% wt. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd October 2012; Revised: 15th February 2013; Accepted: 16th February 2013[How to Cite: Purbasari, A., Istirokhatun, T., Devi, A.M., Mahsunnah, L. , Susanto, H. (2013. Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite

  14. Molecular Techniques for Dicistrovirus Detection without RNA Extraction or Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F. B. Querido


    Full Text Available Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, nonenveloped, and +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests as well. Triatoma virus (TrV, a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. In this work, we report a single-step method to identify TrV, a dicistrovirus, isolated from fecal samples of triatomines. The identification method proved to be quite sensitive, even without the extraction and purification of RNA virus.

  15. Chromatographic analysis and purification of multiply tritium-labelled eicosanoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Myasoedov, N.F.


    A comparative study of different chromatographic techniques (gas-liquid (GLC), thin-layer (TLC), liquid (LC), high-pressure liquid (HPLC) chromatography) is presented. They were applied to the analysis and preparative purification of tritium-labelled eicosanoids with a molar radioactivity of 1.8-8.8 TBq/mmol, obtained by selective hydrogenation and by chemical or enzymic methods. The possibility of analyzing reaction mixtures and isolating individual multiply labelled eicosanoids with a chemical and radiochemical purity of 95-98% was demonstrated. Special features of HPLC for high molar radioactivity eicosanoids are considered. (author) 9 refs.; 6 tabs

  16. Recovery and purification of americium from molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Martella, L.L.; Thompson, G.H.


    Americium recovery and purification development at Rocky Flats involves the testing of a combined anion exchange - bidentate organophosphorus liquid - liquid extraction or extraction chromatography process for separating americium from molten salt extraction residues. Laboratory-scale and preliminary pilot-plant results have shown that americium can be effectively recovered and purified from impurity elements such as aluminum, calcium, magnesium, plutonium, potassium, sodium, and zinc. The purified americium oxide product from the liquid - liquid extraction process contained greater than 95% AmO 2 with less than 1% of any individual impurity element

  17. Proliferative and phenotypical characteristics of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells: comparison of Ficoll gradient centrifugation and red blood cell lysis buffer treatment purification methods. (United States)

    Najar, Mehdi; Rodrigues, Robim M; Buyl, Karolien; Branson, Steven; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Lagneaux, Laurence; Rogiers, Vera; De Kock, Joery


    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue harbors a multipotent stem cell population, the so-called human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs). These cells are able to differentiate in vitro into various cell types and possess immunomodulatory features. Yet procedures to obtain AT-MSCs can vary significantly. The two most extensively used AT-MSC purification techniques are (i) density gradient centrifugation using Ficoll and (ii) red blood cell (RBC) lysis buffer treatment of the stromal vascular fraction. In the context of potential clinical cell therapy, the stem cell yield after purification and upon consecutive passages, as well as the purity of the obtained cell population, are of utmost importance. We investigated the expansion capacity and purity of AT-MSCs purified by both procedures immediately after isolation and upon consecutive passages. We also investigated possible purification-dependent differences in their expression of immune-inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. We found that RBC lysis buffer treatment is a more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs than density gradient fractionation. However, the resulting AT-MSC-RBC population contains a significantly higher number of CD34(+) cells, particularly during the first passages after plating. From passage 4 onward, no significant differences could be observed between both populations with respect to the immunophenotype, expansion capacity and expression of immune inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. Our data show that RBC lysis buffer treatment may be a good alternative to density fractionation, providing a faster, more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs with biologically preserved characteristics. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interference and memory capacity limitations. (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd


    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Experimental investigation of CO_2 separation by adsorption methods in natural gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.J.; Fu, Y.; Huang, Y.X.; Tao, Z.C.; Zhu, M.


    Highlights: • The ideal swing adsorption tank can improve the adsorption performance. • Pure CO_2 adsorption experimental data agrees well with extended Langmuir model. • Langmuir-Freundlich model correlates CO_2/CH_4 mixture adsorption data fairly well. • The temperature increases in the order swing 2 > swing1 > static for pure CO_2 adsorption. • Swinging the adsorption tank can improve the separation efficiency. - Abstract: CO_2 separation for natural gas purification by the adsorption method was studied in detail using volumetric adsorption apparatus. The crystalline phase and microstructure of the experimental sample were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Micromeritics ASAP 2020 instrument. The XRD pattern proves that the experimental sample consists of 13X zeolites. The SEM images show that the 13X zeolites expose a large number of micro-channels on the surface of the particles. The microporous volume is 0.22 cm"3 (STP)/g. The ideal swing frequency for the adsorption tank can improve the adsorption performance of an adsorbent compared with a static adsorption tank. The pure CO_2 adsorption experimental data agrees well with the extended Langmuir model. The Langmuir-Freundlich model correlates the CO_2/CH_4 mixture adsorption experimental data fairly well. The relative errors between the simulated results and the experimental data are very little, which indicates that these fitted models are correct. The average selectivity of CO_2/CH_4 in a static and swing adsorption tank are, respectively, 3.57 and 3.93, considerably higher than 1, indicating preferential CO_2 adsorption over CH_4 in CO_2/CH_4 mixtures. This also shows that the swing can improve CO_2 separation for natural gas purification. For the three types of motion status, the temperature of the adsorption tank increased in the order swing 2 > swing1 > static state for pure CO_2 adsorption in 13X zeolites. The temperature variation decreased as the

  20. Large capacity temporary visual memory (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.


    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  1. Small scale extraction and purification of human prolactin for the preparation of radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, L.E.M.F.


    Purification of human prolactin from pituitaries was carried out in our laboratory to obtain a pure reagent for use in RIA. The extraction and purification procedure was adapted from the method of Mc. Lean et al., and it involves the following steps: 1. Extraction of frozen pituitaries in buffers 0.14M phosphate/citrate pH 4.0 and 0.05M ammonium acetate pH 10.0. 2. Purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B in the presence of acetonitrile. 3. Purification by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Cl-68. The purification method is considered effective for obtaining a hPrl of the purity needed for radioassay purposes, having the advantage of rapidity and relative simplicity. (author) [pt

  2. Purification of radiolabeled RNA using sephadex G-15 or G-50 chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu; Lee, Jong Seok


    We attempted to purify radiolabeled RNA using Sephadex G-15 and G-50 chromatography instead of commercial RNA purification kit. In the Sephadex G-15 chromatography the major portion of RNA was eluted in the fractions ranging from 3rd to 5th whereas broad elution profile of RNA was obtained from the Sephadex G-50 chromatography. The elution profile and purity of RNA obtained from Sephadex G-15 chromatography was very similar to that by commercial RNA purification kit. Furthermore, operating time required for purification of RNA by Sephadex G-15 was rather smaller than that by commercial kit. Overall results suggest that the purification of radiolabeled RNA using Sephadex G-15 is more money and time saving than using commercial RNA purification kit

  3. Magnetic purification of curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome by novel naked maghemite nanoparticles. (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, Rene; Baratella, Davide; Ferreira, Maria Izabela; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Corraducci, Vittorino; Uliana, Maíra Rodrigues; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Santagata, Silvia; Sambo, Paolo; Vianello, Fabio


    Naked maghemite nanoparticles, namely, surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), characterized by a diameter of about 10 nm, possessing peculiar colloidal stability, surface chemistry, and superparamagnetism, present fundamental requisites for the development of effective magnetic purification processes for biomolecules in complex matrices. Polyphenolic molecules presenting functionalities with different proclivities toward iron chelation were studied as probes for testing SAMN suitability for magnetic purification. Thus, the binding efficiency and reversibility on SAMNs of phenolic compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries, namely, catechin, tyrosine, hydroxytyrosine, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, naringenin, curcumin, and cyanidin-3-glucoside, were evaluated. Curcumin emerged as an elective compound, suitable for magnetic purification by SAMNs from complex matrices. A combination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin was recovered by a single magnetic purification step from extracts of Curcuma longa rhizomes, with a purity >98% and a purification yield of 45%, curcumin being >80% of the total purified curcuminoids.

  4. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes


    Perotti, Alberto; Tarable, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido


    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The s...

  5. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Worldwide, there were 249 power reactors in operation at the end of 1980, with a net electrical capacity of about 142 GW. In Canada the ten reactors in operation had a combined capacity of about 5.5 GW. Another 14 under construction will produce an additional 9.9 GW. Four Canadian reactors were in the world's top ten in terms of capacity factor in 1980, and six were in the top ten in terms of lifetime performance. Data tabulated for the Canadian reactors are: location, power, operator, date of first power. For the rest of the world, a table gives the number of reactors of each type and their capacity. (N.D.H.)

  6. Production and Purification of Peroxidase from Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Jebor


    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the laboratories of Biology Department, College of Science, which deals with isolation and purification of peroxidase and optimization of process parameters to achieve maximum yield of peroxidase by Aspergillus niger. Solid-state fermentation of Aspergillus niger was carried out for enhanced production of peroxidase using hydrogen peroxide as the substrate of enzyme maximum activity of the enzyme was achieved under optimum growth conditions. The optimum conditions were the isolated of Aspergillus niger from soil and growth in synthetic medium, it gave high titer of peroxidase activity, the fructose as carbon source, peptone as nitrogen source, after 12 days of incubation, incubation temperature 25 °C and pH = 6.5. Peroxidase purified in four purification steps; precipitation with 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate, step of dialysis, the third by ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-Cellulose and fourth by gel filtration throughout Sephadex G-100. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 150U/mg with 7.75 folds. The peroxidase was shown to have molecular weight of 40kDa in SDS-PAGA and about 40kDa in gel filtration.The optimum pH and temperature for peroxidase activity 7 and 35 C0 respectively.

  7. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems (United States)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.


    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  8. Control of water absorption by purification of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, J.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Uckan, T.


    It is well known that graphite can absorb large quantities of water, which can represent an abundant source of oxygen impurities in fusion plasmas if the corresponding components are not properly outgassed. We have outgassed various fusion-relevant graphites (e.g., POCO AXF-5Q) for 1.5 h at 1500/degree/C to release absorbed water and have subsequently exposed the samples to air for various periods of time. Re-absorption of water during the air exposure was estimated by measuring the amount of water produced in subsequent outgassing runs. The results show that the amount of water re-absorbed increases by a factor of approximately 10 within 8 h compared to the sample in the outgassed state but with no air exposure. The water content of the 'as received' material is reached after approximately 30 days. Re-absorption of water was significantly reduced by purification of the investigated graphite samples. This purification process, which consists of heating the sample at 2800/degree/C for 30 min in an argon atmosphere, reduces the levels of trace impurities which can be responsible for catalytic surface reactions on the internal surfaces of the graphite. After exposing an outgassed sample to an electron cyclotron heated plasma followed by 1 h air exposure, the amount of water desorbed was observed to increase by a factor of 6. Data will be presented to correlate this effect with trace impurities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Isolation and Purification of Jacalin from Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Othman


    Full Text Available This paper presents investigation results of saturation conditions needed for purification of jacalin lectin from the extract seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus by ammonium precipitation and affinity chromatography on Galactose-Affi gel Hz. Three different aspects of parameters encompassing the percentage of saturation of ammonium sulfate precipitation, the presence of ammonium sulfate on Lowry method and the suitable galactose concentration for optimum elution of the protein from Galactose-Affi gel Hz were investigated. With three different sets of fractional saturation of jacalin purification using ammonium sulfate precipitation, the maximum yield of 0.463 g/g was achieved at 0-90% saturation range in the absence of dialysis. Maximum yield of 0.425 g/g was obtained at 30-60% and 0-90% saturation range in the presence of dialysis. The result from this work also indicates that excessive quantity of NH4SO4 interferes with Lowry method for protein determination substantially. The 0-90% saturation range was found to be more potentially appropriate for large scale application than 30-60% saturation, since the former involves only 1 step NH4SO4 addition. From the affinity chromatography, elution of 0.2 M galactose (in 0.15 M NaCl from Galactose-Affi gel Hz produced the maximum peak profile and jacalin concentration. A reduction or increase in galactose concentration of more than 0.2 M did not increase concentration of purified jacalin purified using this method.

  10. Preparation, purification, and characterization of aminopropyl-functionalized silica sol. (United States)

    Pálmai, Marcell; Nagy, Lívia Naszályi; Mihály, Judith; Varga, Zoltán; Tárkányi, Gábor; Mizsei, Réka; Szigyártó, Imola Csilla; Kiss, Teréz; Kremmer, Tibor; Bóta, Attila


    A new, simple, and "green" method was developed for the surface modification of 20 nm diameter Stöber silica particles with 3-aminopropyl(diethoxy)methylsilane in ethanol. The bulk polycondensation of the reagent was inhibited and the stability of the sol preserved by adding a small amount of glacial acetic acid after appropriate reaction time. Centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and dialysis were compared in order to choose a convenient purification technique that allows the separation of unreacted silylating agent from the nanoparticles without destabilizing the sol. The exchange of the solvent to acidic water during the purification yielded a stable colloid, as well. Structural and morphological analysis of the obtained aminopropyl silica was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), (13)C and (29)Si MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, as well as small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our investigations revealed that the silica nanoparticle surfaces were partially covered with aminopropyl groups, and multilayer adsorption followed by polycondensation of the silylating reagent was successfully avoided. The resulting stable aminopropyl silica sol (ethanolic or aqueous) is suitable for biomedical uses due to its purity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Purification of power plant waters with high gradient magnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.


    This is a report of a literature survey. Magnetic high gradient filtration is suitable for separations in difficult surroundings because it can be used in high pressure and temperature, the filtration can be automated and the filter does not contain components which have to be replaced. Magnetic separators for purification of power plant waters have been manufactured commercially for a long time, but they have not always worked satisfactorily especially when separating small particles. The corrosion products in power plant waters are usually ferrimagnetic or paramagnetic and are well suited for magnetic separation. The particle sizes varies considerable but at least in nuclear power plants they are mostly in the range 0.1-30 μ, some even smaller. According to different publications most 60 Co is in particles, while other publications indicate that more than 70 % is in solution. Similarly the data on the purification efficiency of 60 Co varies significantly. Even small magnetic fields are sufficient to separate large ferrimagnetic particles, but the separation of small and paramagnetic particles requires a field more than 20 kT and the high gradient. Presently available commercial separators are so efficient that its seems not to be economically worthwhile to develop them further to improve the filtration efficiency for small particles. Instead it might be worthwhile to investigate methods to increase the particle size by water chemistry methods. (Au). (25 refs., 2 figs.)

  12. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assenberg, René [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Delmas, Olivier [UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15 (France); Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J. [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Bourhy, Hervé [UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15 (France); Grimes, Jonathan M., E-mail: [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom)


    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress.

  13. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Hervé; Grimes, Jonathan M.


    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6 1 22 or P6 5 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Satheeskumar


    Full Text Available Partial purification and characterization of alkalophilic protease production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the gut of marine and coastal waters shrimp Penaeus monodon. The protease production was assayed in submerged fermentation to produce maximum protease activity (423 ± 0.09 U/ml. The enzyme was precipitated with ammonium sulphate and partially purified by ion exchange chromatography through DEAE Sephadex A-50 column. In 10th fraction showed maximum protease activity (734 ± 0.18 U/ml with increase in purification fold. The molecular weight of protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recorded as 60 kDa. The stability of protease was tested at various pH and temperature; it showed maximum protease activity at pH-9 and temperature 50ºC. Among the various surfactants tested for enzyme stability, maximum activity was retained in poly ethylene glycol. The compatibility of protease enzyme with various commercial detergents; the enzyme retained maximum protease activity in tide. The results are indicated that all these properties make the bacterial proteases are most suitable for wide industrial applications.

  15. EUV tools: hydrogen gas purification and recovery strategies (United States)

    Landoni, Cristian; Succi, Marco; Applegarth, Chuck; Riddle Vogt, Sarah


    The technological challenges that have been overcome to make extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) a reality have been enormous1. This vacuum driven technology poses significant purity challenges for the gases employed for purging and cleaning the scanner EUV chamber and source. Hydrogen, nitrogen, argon and ultra-high purity compressed dry air (UHPCDA) are the most common gases utilized at the scanner and source level. Purity requirements are tighter than for previous technology node tools. In addition, specifically for hydrogen, EUV tool users are facing not only gas purity challenges but also the need for safe disposal of the hydrogen at the tool outlet. Recovery, reuse or recycling strategies could mitigate the disposal process and reduce the overall tool cost of operation. This paper will review the types of purification technologies that are currently available to generate high purity hydrogen suitable for EUV applications. Advantages and disadvantages of each purification technology will be presented. Guidelines on how to select the most appropriate technology for each application and experimental conditions will be presented. A discussion of the most common approaches utilized at the facility level to operate EUV tools along with possible hydrogen recovery strategies will also be reported.

  16. Design of laboratory cyclone separator for biogas purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Fodora


    Full Text Available This article deals with calculation of a cyclone separator for biogas purification using physical and chemical methods. There is presented a methodology for determination of operating dimensions of the cyclone separator and description of principal features of the cyclone separator model. Calculations have been performed for the diameter of the cylindrical part of cyclone separator 175 mm and for the biogas volume flow rate 6.9∙10−5 m3∙s−1. The calculations can be used in practice for the design of cyclone separator depending on the flow rate of biogas, size of the biogas plants respectively. The developed cyclone separator has been used for the cleaning of biogas in operating conditions at the biogas plant in Kolinany (Slovakia. The presented method of biogas purification has been used for the removing of hydrogen sulphide, particulate matter and carbon dioxide from the raw biogas at the biogas plant. Removal of these undesirable impurities from the biogas is an important step in the production of a fully valued fuel, biomethane.

  17. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants (United States)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun


    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  18. Modeling Xenon Purification Systems in a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (United States)

    Hopkins, Ann; Gentile, Charles


    A Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) is a proposed method to employ fusion energy to produce electricity for consumers. However, before it can be built and used as such, each aspect of a LIFE power plant must first be meticulously planned. We are in the process of developing and perfecting models for an exhaust processing and fuel recovery system. Such a system is especially essential because it must be able to recapture and purify expensive materials involved in the reaction so they may be reused. One such material is xenon, which is to be used as an intervention gas in the target chamber. Using Aspen HYSYS, we have modeled several subsystems for exhaust processing, including a subsystem for xenon recovery and purification. After removing hydrogen isotopes using lithium bubblers, we propose to use cryogenic distillation to purify the xenon from remaining contaminants. Aspen HYSYS allows us to analyze predicted flow rates, temperatures, pressures, and compositions within almost all areas of the xenon purification system. Through use of Aspen models, we hope to establish that we can use xenon in LIFE efficiently and in a practical manner.

  19. Determination of the self purification of streams using tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salviano, J.S.


    A methodology for the 'in situ' evaluation of the self purification of streams is discussed. It consists of the simultaneous injection of two tracers into the stream. One of the tracers is oxidized by biochemical processes. It can be either artificially supplied to the stream or a naturally present component can be used. This tracer is used for the determination of the self purification parameters. The other tracer is conservative and allows for the hydrodynamic effects. Tests have been carried out in two streams with quite different hydrodynamic and physicochemical conditions. In the first stream, with a flow-rate of about 0.9 m 3 /s, urea was used as the nonconservative tracer. In the other stream, which had a flow-rate of about 5 m 3 /s, only a radioactive tracer has been used, and the rate of biochemical oxidation has been determined from BOD measurements. Calculations have been implemented on a digital computer. In both cases it was found that the reoxygenation rate is more conveniently determined by empirical formulas. Results from both tests have been deemed realistic by comparison with similar experiments. (Author) [pt

  20. Reactor coolant purification system circulation pumps (CUW pumps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, Toshiaki


    Coolant purification equipments for BWRs have been improved, and the high pressure purifying system has become the main type. The quantity of purifying treatment also changed to 2% of the flow rate of reactor feed water. As for the circulation pumps, canned motor pumps are adopted recently, and the improvements of reliability and safety are attempted. The impurities carried in by reactor feed water and the corrosion products generated in reactors and auxiliary equipments are activated by neutron irradiation or affect heat transfer adversely, adhering to fuel claddings are core structures. Therefore, a part of reactor coolant is led to the purification equipments, and returned to reactors after the impurities are eliminated perfectly. At the time of starting and stopping reactors, excess reactor water and the contaminated water from reactors are transferred to main condenser hot wells or waste treatment systems. Thus the prescribed water quality is maintained. The operational modes of and the requirements for the CUW pumps, the construction and the features of the canned motor type CUW pumps are explained. Recently, a pump operated for 11 months without any maintenance has been disassembled and inspected, but the wear of bearings has not been observed, and the high reliability of the pump has been proved. (Kako, I.)

  1. Specificities of micro-reactors for hydrogen production and purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirodatos, C.; Dupont, N.; Germani, G.; Veen, A. C. ven; Schuurman, Y.


    Sustainable chemistry and exploitation of energy sources for the next decades requires considerable progress in process intensification. A development of new tools and equipments meeting the objectives of high efficiency, improved safety, compactness and low implementation costs is therefore subject of intensive research effort. Among the various scenarios tested in R and D, micro-structured reactors appear as a highly promising technology 1 and perspectives of mass production are already announced by technology providers 2. These reactors are based on assembly/stacking of micro structured plates or fibres. Due to their high heat and/or mass transfer, low pressure drop and good phase contacting, they sound particularly adapted to the large domain of hydrogen production by fuel reforming and purification. This presentation aims at outlining the state of the art, the advantages and drawbacks of using micro-structured reactors to intensify hydrogen production and purification. Two case studies will illustrate this approach: i) comparison between fixed bed and micro-structured reactor for the reforming of methanol into hydrogen and carbon oxides and ii) use of those devices in kinetic studies on the WGS reaction. (Author)

  2. CO 2-scrubbing and methanation as purification system for PEFC (United States)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Roes, J.; Wolters, R.

    Hydrogen is usually produced by steam reforming of natural gas in large-scale processes. The reformate consists of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and residues of hydrocarbons. Since the anode catalyst of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEFC) is usually based on platinum, which is easily poisoned by carbon monoxide, the conditioned feed gas should contain less than 100 ppmv CO, and preferably, less than 10 ppmv. Depending on the design and operating conditions of the hydrogen production process, the CO content of a typical reformate gas, even after the CO shift reactor may be in the range of 0.2-1.0 vol.%; this is far higher than a PEFC can tolerate. A CO management system is required to lower the CO concentration to acceptable levels. In many cases, the CO purification system consists of a combination of physical or chemical processes to achieve the necessary reduction in CO content. A promising alternative for hydrogen purification is a combined process consisting of a carbon dioxide scrubber with subsequent methanation to reduce the carbon monoxide content to an acceptable level of less than 10 ppmv.

  3. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fooladsaz K


    Full Text Available Nowadays immunochemical techniques have played a very important and valuable role in quantitative and qualitative assays of liquid compounds of the body. Producing antibody against immunogenes is the first step to make immunochemical kits. In this study production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin has been considered. This hormone which has several important functions in physiological conditions such as migraine, cirrhosis, mammary gland cancer and other diseases, is the most important pineal gland secretion. This gland is a circumventricular organ of brain and according to histological and anatomical studies, it is a high secretory organ, that secretes active biological substances like melatonin, oxytocin, serotonin and ect. In this study, melatonin has been considered as hapten and has become an immunogen by being linked to the bovine serum Albumin. Then, by the immunization of three white New Zeland rabbits that had the booster injections in regular intervals, the antibody titer was detected to be 1/2000, by using checkboard curves, and with the use of melatonin linked to penicillinase as a labeled antigen, the titer was detected 1/200. Finally an antibody with high purification rate has been obtained, which can be used in immunochemical assays like RIA, ELISA, and EIA.

  4. Electrochemical alkaline Fe(VI) water purification and remediation. (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Yu, Xingwen


    Fe(VI) is an unusual and strongly oxidizing form of iron, which provides a potentially less hazardous water-purifying agent than chlorine. A novel on-line electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification methodology is introduced. Fe(VI) addition had been a barrier to its effective use in water remediation, because solid Fe(VI) salts require complex (costly) syntheses steps and solutions of Fe(VI) decompose. Online electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification avoids these limitations, in which Fe(VI) is directly prepared in solution from an iron anode as the FeO42- ion, and is added to the contaminant stream. Added FeO42- decomposes, by oxidizing a wide range of water contaminants including sulfides (demonstrated in this study) and other sulfur-containing compounds, cyanides (demonstrated in this study), arsenic (demonstrated in this study), ammonia and other nitrogen-containing compounds (previously demonstrated), a wide range of organics (phenol demonstrated in this study), algae, and viruses (each previously demonstrated).

  5. Development of tantalum–zirconium alloy for hydrogen purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjay, E-mail: [Fusion Reactor Materials Section, MG, BARC, Mumbai 85 (India); IAMR, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Singh, Anamika [GSASM Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Jain, Uttam; Dey, Gautam Kumar [Fusion Reactor Materials Section, MG, BARC, Mumbai 85 (India)


    Highlights: • Terminal solid solubility of Ta increases with Zr addition. • Increase in lattice parameters of Ta due to Zr addition may be the possible reason. • Enhance H solubility could also be explained on the change in e-DOS of Ta–Zr alloys. • Ta–Zr alloys could be possible combination for hydrogen purification membrane. - Abstract: Terminal solid solubility of hydrogen in Ta–Zr alloys has been studied in connection with the development of tantalum based metallic membrane for hydrogen/tritium purification. The alloys were prepared by vacuum arc melting technique and subsequently cold rolled to 0.2 mm thickness. The terminal solid solubility of hydrogen in these cold rolled samples was investigated in a modified Sieverts apparatus. The terminal solid solubility of hydrogen was marginally increased with zirconium content. The change in the lattices parameter of tantalum upon zirconium addition and the higher affinity of zirconium for hydrogen as compared to tantalum could be the possible reasons.

  6. Purification of bacteriophage M13 by anion exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Monjezi, Razieh; Tey, Beng Ti; Sieo, Chin Chin; Tan, Wen Siang


    M13 is a non-lytic filamentous bacteriophage (phage). It has been used widely in phage display technology for displaying foreign peptides, and also for studying macromolecule structures and interactions. Traditionally, this phage has been purified by cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient ultracentrifugation which is highly laborious and time consuming. In the present study, a simple, rapid and efficient method for the purification of M13 based on anion exchange chromatography was established. A pre-packed SepFast Super Q column connected to a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system was employed to capture released phages in clarified Escherichia coli fermented broth. An average yield of 74% was obtained from a packed bed mode elution using citrate buffer (pH 4), containing 1.5 M NaCl at 1 ml/min flow rate. The purification process was shortened substantially to less than 2 h from 18 h in the conventional ultracentrifugation method. SDS-PAGE revealed that the purity of particles was comparable to that of CsCl gradient density ultracentrifugation method. Plaque forming assay showed that the purified phages were still infectious. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Capillary Ion Concentration Polarization for Power-Free Salt Purification (United States)

    Park, Sungmin; Jung, Yeonsu; Cho, Inhee; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Sung Jae


    In this presentation, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrated the capillary based ion concentration polarization for power-free salt purification system. Traditional ion concentration polarization phenomenon has been studied for a decade for both fundamental nanoscale fluid dynamics and novel engineering applications such as desalination, preconcentration and energy harvesting devices. While the conventional system utilizes an external power source, the system based on capillary ion concentration polarization is capable of perm-selective ion transportation only by capillarity so that the same ion depletion zone can be formed without any external power sources. An ion concentration profile near the nanostructure was tracked using fluorescent probes and analyzed by solving the modified Nernst-Planck equation. As a result, the concentration in the vicinity of the nanostructure was at least 10 times lower than that of bulk electrolyte and thus, the liquid absorbed into the nanostructure had the low concentration. This mechanism can be used for the power free salt purification system which would be significantly useful in underdeveloped and remote area. This work was supported by Samsung Research Funding Center of Samsung Electronics under Project Number SRFC-MA1301-02.

  8. Polarization entanglement purification for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo


    Entanglement purification plays a fundamental role in long-distance quantum communication. In the paper, we put forward the first polarization entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for one type of nonlocal logic-qubit entanglement, i.e., concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity. In contrast to existing EPPs, this protocol can purify the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in both physic and logic level. Instead of measuring the photons directly, this protocol only requires to measure the atom states to judge whether the protocol is successful. In this way, the purified logic entangled states can be preserved for further application. Moreover, it makes this EPP repeatable so as to obtain a higher fidelity of logic entangled states. As the logic-qubit entanglement utilizes the quantum error correction (QEC) codes, which has an inherent stability against noise and decoherence, this EPP combined with the QEC codes may provide a double protection for the entanglement from the channel noise and may have potential applications in long-distance quantum communication.

  9. Purification and characterization of a thylakoid protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlan, S.J.; Hind, G.


    Control of state transitions in the thylakoid by reversible phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is modulated by a kinase. The kinase catalyzing this phosphorylation is associated with the thylakoid membrane, and is regulated by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. The isolation and partial purification from spinach thylakoids of two protein kinases (CPK1, CPK2) of apparent molecular masses 25 kDa and 38 kDa has been reported. Neither enzyme utilizes isolated LHC-II as a substrate. The partial purification of a third protein kinase (LHCK) which can utilize both lysine-rich histones (IIIs and Vs) and isolated LHC-II as substrate has now been purified to homogeneity and characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a 64 kDa peptide. From a comparison of the two isolation procedures we have concluded that CPK1 is indeed a protein kinase, but has a lower specific activity than that of LHCK. 8 refs., 4 figs

  10. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tommi A.; Tanner, John J., E-mail: [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)


    Cloning, purification and crystallization of T. thermophilus proline dehydrogenase is reported. The detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside was used to reduce polydispersity, which enabled crystallization. Nature recycles l-proline by converting it to l-glutamate. This four-electron oxidation process is catalyzed by the two enzymes: proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. This note reports the cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus PRODH, which is the prototype of a newly discovered superfamily of bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. The results presented here include production of a monodisperse protein solution through use of the detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and the growth of native crystals that diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. The space group is P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.2, b = 89.6, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules and 46% solvent. Molecular-replacement trials using a fragment of the PRODH domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein as the search model (24% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of T. thermophilus PRODH will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  11. [Column chromatography purification and analysis of biodiesel by transesterification]. (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yi, Huai-feng; Chen, Yu; Wu, Yu-long; Yang, Ming-de; Chen, Zeng; Tong, Jun-mao


    In the present paper, crude biodiesel prepared with sorbifolia oil as raw material by transesterification was purified by column chromatography, then the composition of biodiesel was analyzed by gas chromatography, FTIR, GC-MS and 1H NMR. Column chromatography can separate the crude biodiesel into two fractions: petroleum ether eluted fraction (A1) and methanol eluted fraction (A2). Petroleum ether eluted fraction was mainly biodiesel fraction, which was produced from sorbifolia oil by transesterification, including methyl linoleate, methyl cis-9-octadecenoate and so on; methanol eluted fraction was mainly glycerol fraction, which came from the side reaction of transesterification. The results show that the purity of refined biodiesel increased from 77.51% to 93.872, and the product recovery rate reached up to 91.04% after the purification by column chromatography. The results obtained by FTIR and 1H NMR further showed that the column chromatography can effectively improve the purity of biodiesel. This paper provides a basis for industrialization of purification of biodiesel.

  12. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Tommi A.; Tanner, John J.


    Cloning, purification and crystallization of T. thermophilus proline dehydrogenase is reported. The detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside was used to reduce polydispersity, which enabled crystallization. Nature recycles l-proline by converting it to l-glutamate. This four-electron oxidation process is catalyzed by the two enzymes: proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. This note reports the cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus PRODH, which is the prototype of a newly discovered superfamily of bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. The results presented here include production of a monodisperse protein solution through use of the detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and the growth of native crystals that diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. The space group is P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 82.2, b = 89.6, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules and 46% solvent. Molecular-replacement trials using a fragment of the PRODH domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein as the search model (24% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of T. thermophilus PRODH will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative

  13. Bismuth Oxysulfide and Its Polymer Nanocomposites for Efficient Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Luo


    Full Text Available The danger of toxic organic pollutants in both aquatic and air environments calls for high-efficiency purification material. Herein, layered bismuth copper oxychalcogenides, BiCuSO, nanosheets of high photocatalytic activity were introduced to the PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride. The fibrous membranes provide an easy, efficient, and recyclable way to purify organic pollutant. The physical and photophysical properties of the BiCuSO and its polymer composite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electron spin resonance (EPR. Photocatalysis of Congo Red reveals that the BiCuSO/PVDF shows a superior photocatalytic activity of a 55% degradation rate in 70 min at visible light. The high photocatalytic activity is attributed to the exposed active {101} facets and the triple vacant associates V B i ‴ V O • • V B i ‴ . By engineering the intrinsic defects on the surface of bismuth oxysulfide, high solar-driven photocatalytic activity can be approached. The successful fabrication of the bismuth oxysulfide and its polymer nanocomposites provides an easy and general approach for high-performance purification materials for various applications.

  14. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD


    Full Text Available Organizations 2010 Building a capacity building manual Daniel D. Clinton, Jr., P.E., F.NSPE Chair, WFEO Capacity Building Committee Dr Andrew Cleland, FIPENZ, Chief Executive, IPENZ, NZ Eng David Botha, FSAICE, Executive Director, SAICE, SA Dawit... 2010 Tertiary level University curricula Coaches and mentors Facilities EXCeeD Remuneration of Academics Experiential training Outreach to Students Students chapters Young members forum World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Post...

  15. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff


    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  16. Maximizing the optical network capacity. (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I


    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Use of a moving-bed ion-exchange column for plutonium purification; Utilisation d'une colonne echangeuse d'ions a lit mobile pour la purification du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    When large amounts of fissile matter have to be purified on ion exchange resins, it is difficult to use a fixed bed because of its limiting maximum size. With a moving bed it is possible to ensure a continuous production which can easily be integrated into a purification line on account of its large production capacity. The installation described in this report is derived from an American prototype designed for uranium separation. As a result of many modifications, it is suitable for the purification of plutonium several such columns will shortly be operating in various French centres. The moving bed column, which has a diameter of 25 mm, was first tried with the uranium-thorium mixture; then, after modifications on the plutonium-uranium mixture. The production capacity will depend on the plutonium concentration which can be tolerated in the effluents. It is possible to treat 150 gm/day of plutonium alone; the effluents obtained have a concentration of around of 1 mg/l. The plutonium-uranium separation is improved by a 5 N acidic rinsing as well as by a temperature increase. The decontamination factor increased from 14 in 7 N nitric acid solution to 115 in 5 N nitric acid solution. A temperature increase of about 20 C leads to a decontamination factor of over 500. This result is sufficient encouraging for the possibility of future installations operating in optimum temperature conditions, i.e. 60-65 C, to be considered. (author) [French] Des que l'on desire purifier sur resine echangeuse d'ions des quantites importantes de matieres fissiles, le lit fixe devient difficilement exploitable par suite des dimensions maximum possibles. Le lit mobile permet une production continue pouvant s'integrer facilement par sa capacite de traitement dans une chaine de purification. L'installation decrite dans ce rapport est derivee d'un prototype americain destine a la separation de l'uranium. De nombreuses modifications en font un ensemble utilisable pour la purification du

  18. Integrated project for increasing the capacity of spent fuel pools at Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo Garcia, C.; Arana, S.


    The current storage capacity of the Cofrentes NPP will have reached its limit by the end of its 15th cycle, in the year 2005. The works performed by Empresarios Agrupados for IBERDROLA show that it is possible to increase this capacity in successive phases, so as to make the Power Plant self-sufficient for 16 more years (up to 2021) in the case of compact storage, or for 50 more years (2055) in the case of consolidated storage or second level storage. Optimisation of the management of high-activity wastes goes with a series of tasks which come under the group referred to as Integrated Project for Increasing the Capacity of Spent Fuel Pools. The main activities of the project can be summarised under the following three items: increase of storage capacity (feasibility study, specification for the purchase of racks, manufacture, assembly and tests), improvement of the capacity of the pool cooling system and modification of the components and accessories located inside the pools which interfere with the new racks. Another series of activities with less technical and economic impact are: modification of fuel handling machines, management of generated radwaste, licensing and modification of plant documentation (seismic analysis, radiation areas, as-built drawings and verification of the validation of purification and HVAC systems). (Author)

  19. The Protein Maker: an automated system for high-throughput parallel purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Eric R.; Begley, Darren W.; Anderson, Vanessa; Raymond, Amy C.; Haffner, Taryn E.; Robinson, John I.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Duncan, Natalie; Gerdts, Cory J.; Mixon, Mark B.; Nollert, Peter; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J.


    The Protein Maker instrument addresses a critical bottleneck in structural genomics by allowing automated purification and buffer testing of multiple protein targets in parallel with a single instrument. Here, the use of this instrument to (i) purify multiple influenza-virus proteins in parallel for crystallization trials and (ii) identify optimal lysis-buffer conditions prior to large-scale protein purification is described. The Protein Maker is an automated purification system developed by Emerald BioSystems for high-throughput parallel purification of proteins and antibodies. This instrument allows multiple load, wash and elution buffers to be used in parallel along independent lines for up to 24 individual samples. To demonstrate its utility, its use in the purification of five recombinant PB2 C-terminal domains from various subtypes of the influenza A virus is described. Three of these constructs crystallized and one diffracted X-rays to sufficient resolution for structure determination and deposition in the Protein Data Bank. Methods for screening lysis buffers for a cytochrome P450 from a pathogenic fungus prior to upscaling expression and purification are also described. The Protein Maker has become a valuable asset within the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) and hence is a potentially valuable tool for a variety of high-throughput protein-purification applications

  20. Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification reaction of palm oil using direct method and multistep method (United States)

    Nasir, N. F.; Mirus, M. F.; Ismail, M.


    Crude glycerol which produced from transesterification reaction has limited usage if it does not undergo purification process. It also contains excess methanol, catalyst and soap. Conventionally, purification method of the crude glycerol involves high cost and complex processes. This study aimed to determine the effects of using different purification methods which are direct method (comprises of ion exchange and methanol removal steps) and multistep method (comprises of neutralization, filtration, ion exchange and methanol removal steps). Two crude glycerol samples were investigated; the self-produced sample through the transesterification process of palm oil and the sample obtained from biodiesel plant. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The results of this study for both samples after purification have showed that the pure glycerol was successfully produced and fatty acid salts were eliminated. Also, the results indicated the absence of methanol in both samples after purification process. In short, the combination of 4 purification steps has contributed to a higher quality of glycerol. Multistep purification method gave a better result compared to the direct method as neutralization and filtration steps helped in removing most excess salt, fatty acid and catalyst.

  1. Waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry and energy management (United States)

    Stepanov, Sergey; Solkina, Olga; Stepanov, Alexander; Zhukova, Maria


    The paper presents results of engineering and economical comparison of waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry. Three methods of purification are compared: traditional biological purification with the use of secondary clarifiers and afterpurification through granular-bed filters, biomembrane technology and physical-and-chemical treatment together with biomembrane technology for new construction conditions. The improvement of the biological purification technology using nitro-denitrification and membrane un-mixing of sludge mixture is a promising trend in this area. In these calculations, an energy management which is widely applied abroad was used. The descriptions of the three methods are illustrated with structural schemes. Costs of equipment and production areas are taken from manufacturers’ data. The research is aimed at an engineering and economical comparison of new constructions of waste water purification of dairy products industry. The experiment demonstrates advantages of biomembrane technology in waste water purification. This technology offers prospects of 122 million rubles cost saving during 25 years of operation when compared with of the technology of preparatory reagent flotation and of 13.7 million rubles cost saving compared to the option of traditional biological purification.

  2. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González


    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  3. Fast reactor cover gas purification - The UK position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorley, A W


    The cover gas in the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) provides an inert gas blanket for both primary and secondary sodium circuits, ensures inert gas padding exists between the upper seals associated with penetrations through the reactor roof and provides argon to items of plant such as the control rods and the rotating shield and also to on line instruments such as the secondary circuit Katharometers. In order to meet these and other requirements purification of the argon cover gas is important to ensure: gas fed to purge gaps in the area of the magnetic hold device in the control rod mechanisms is not laden with sodium aerosols and reactive impurities (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}) which could cause blocking both within the gaps and pipelines; gas phase detection systems which provide early warning of steam generator failures or oil ingress into the sodium are not affected by the presence of gaseous impurities such as H{sub 2}, CO/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}; mass transfer processes involving both corrosion products and interstitial atoms cannot be sustained in the cover gas environment due to the presence of high levels of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and carburising gases; background levels of radioactivity (eg Xe 133) are sufficiently low to enable gas phase detection of failed fuel pins, and the primary circuit gas blanket activity is sufficiently reduced so that discharges to the atmosphere are minimised. This paper describes how the PFR cover gas purification system is coping with these various items and how current thinking regarding the design of cover gas purification systems for a Civil Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR), where larger gas volumes and higher levels of radioactivity may be involved, is being guided by current experience on PFR. The paper also briefly review the experimental work planned to study aerosol and caesium behaviour in cove gas environments and discusses the behaviour of those impurities such as Zn, oil and N{sub 2} which are potentially damaging if certain

  4. 123I and 13I purification for biomolecules labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catanoso, Marcela Forli


    The 123 I and 131 I are iodine radioisotopes widely used in Nuclear Medicine. The radioisotope 123 I is used in diagnosis through the SPECT technique and is routinely produced at IPEN in cyclotron through the reaction: '1 24 Xe (p, 2n) '1 23 Cs -> 123 Xe -> 123 I. The radioisotope 131 I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by β - and its γ-ray emissions that are softened with the use of specific collimators for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN using the nuclear reactor through the indirect reaction: 130 Te (n, γ) -> 131 Te -> 131 I, irradiating compounds containing Te. The radiopharmaceuticals prepared with these radioisotopes go through rigorous quality control tests and the chemical purity of the primary radioisotopes 123 I and 131 I are within the permissible limits currently defined. However, the presence of some chemical contaminants can prejudice the biomolecules labeling (monoclonal antibodies and peptides), that will produce radiopharmaceuticals of first generation to the oncology area. The aim of this work was to obtain a new purification method of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules and also to established a process control on those radioisotopes. The methodology was separated on 3 steps: Evaluation of '1 23 I e 131 I radionuclidic purity using a hyper pure germanium detector, chemical purity using ICP-OES and the retention and elution study of 131 I in several absorbers to choose the most appropriate for the purification tests analyzing the behavior of the possible contaminants. The radionuclidic analyses showed the presence of Te and Co on 131 I samples and Te, Tc e Co on 123 I samples. The chemical purity analyses showed the presence of Al and Mo in 123 I, coming from the window material of the target holder and the presence of Al and Te in 131 I samples, coming from the target holder and the target, respectively. The retention and elution study selected the most

  5. Synthesis of zeolite from rice husk ash waste of brick industries as hydrophobic adsorbent for fuel grade ethanol purification (United States)

    Purnomo, A.; Alhanif, M.; Khotimah, C.; Zuhra, UA; Putri, BR; Kumoro, AC


    A lot of researchers have devoted on ethanol utilization as renewable energy to substitute petroleum based gasoline. When ethanol is being used as a new fuel candidate, it should have at least of 99.5% purity. Usually produced via sugar fermentation process, further purification of ethanol from other components in fermentation broth to obtain its fuel grade is a crucial step. The purpose of this research is to produce synthetic zeolite as hydrophobic adsorbent from rice husk ash for ethanol-water separation and to investigate the influence of weight, adsorption time and initial ethanol concentration on zeolite adsorption capacity. This research consisted of rice husk silica extraction, preparation of hydrophobic zeolite adsorbent, physical characterization using SEM, EDX and adsorption test for an ethanol-water solution. Zeolite with highest adsorption capacity was obtained with 15: 1 alumina silica composition. The best adsorption condition was achieved when 4-gram hydrophobic zeolite applied for adsorption of 100 mL of 10% (v/v) ethanol-water solution for 120 minutes, which resulted in ethanol with 98.93% (v/v) purity. The hydrophobic zeolite from rice husk ash is a potential candidate as an efficient adsorbent to purify raw ethanol into fuel grade ethanol. Implementation of this new adsorbent for ethanol production in commercial scale may reduce the energy consumption of that usually used for the distillation processes.

  6. Removal of cationic pollutants from water by xanthated corn cob: optimization, kinetics, thermodynamics, and prediction of purification process. (United States)

    Kostić, Miloš; Đorđević, Miloš; Mitrović, Jelena; Velinov, Nena; Bojić, Danijela; Antonijević, Milan; Bojić, Aleksandar


    The removal of Cr(III) ions and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions by xanthated corn cob (xCC) in batch conditions was investigated. The sorption capacity of xCC strongly depended of the pH, and increase when the pH rises. The kinetics was well fitted by pseudo-second-order and Chrastil's model. Sorption of Cr(III) ions and MB on xCC was rapid during the first 20 min of contact time and, thereafter, the biosorption rate decrease gradually until reaching equilibrium. The maximum sorption capacity of 17.13 and 83.89 mg g -1 for Cr(III) ions and MB, respectively, was obtained at 40 °C, pH 5, and sorbent dose 4 g dm -3 for removal of Cr(III) ions and 1 g dm -3 for removal of MB. The prediction of purification process was successfully carried out, and the verification of theoretically calculated amounts of sorbent was confirmed by using packed-bed column laboratory system with recirculation of the aqueous phase. The wastewater from chrome plating industry was successfully purified, i.e., after 40 min concentration of Cr(III) ions was decreased lower than 0.1 mg dm -3 . Also, removal of MB from the river water was successfully carried out and after 40 min, removal efficiency was about 94%.

  7. Nanospines incorporation into the structure of the hydrophobic cryogels via novel cryogelation method: an alternative sorbent for plasmid DNA purification. (United States)

    Üzek, Recep; Uzun, Lokman; Şenel, Serap; Denizli, Adil


    In this study, it was aimed to prepare hydrophobic cryogels for plasmid DNA (pDNA) purification from Escherichia coli lysate. The hydrophobicity was achieved by incorporating a hydrophobic ligand, N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine (MAPA), into the cryogel backbone. In addition to the conventional cryogelation process, freeze-drying step was included to create nanospines. Three different cryogels {poly(2-hydoxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine)-freeze dried, [P(HEMA-MAPA)-FD]; poly(2-hydoxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine, [P(HEMA-MAPA)] and poly(2-hydoxyethyl methacrylate)-freeze dried, [P(HEMA)-FD]} were prepared, characterized, and used for DNA (salmon sperm DNA) adsorption studies from aqueous solution. The specific surface areas of cryogels were determined to be 21.4 m(2)/g for P(HEMA)-FD, 17.65 m(2)/g for P(HEMA-MAPA) and 36.0 m(2)/g for P(HEMA-MAPA)-FD. The parameters affecting adsorption such as temperature, initial DNA concentration, salt type and concentration were examined in continuous mode. The maximum adsorption capacities were observed as 45.31 mg DNA/g, 27.08 mg DNA/g and 1.81 mg DNA/g for P(HEMA-MAPA)-FD, P(HEMA-MAPA) and P(HEMA)-FD, respectively. Desorption process was performed using acetate buffer (pH 5.50) without salt. First, pDNA was isolated from E. coli lysate and the purity of pDNA was then determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Finally, the chromatographic performance of P(HEMA-MAPA)-FD cryogel for pDNA purification was tested in FPLC. The resolution (R(s)) was 2.84, and the specific selectivity for pDNA was 237.5-folds greater than all impurities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Purification of Microbially Expressed Recombinant Proteins via a Dual ELP Split Intein System. (United States)

    Shi, Changhua; Han, Tzu-Chiang; Wood, David W


    Fusions of elastin-like peptide (ELP) purification tags and self-cleaving inteins provide a powerful platform for purifying tagless recombinant proteins without the need for conventional packed-bed columns. A drawback to this method has been premature cleaving of the ELP tag during expression, before the purification procedure can take place. Here we demonstrate a split-intein method, where the self-cleaving intein is divided into two inactive segments during expression and purification. Spontaneous assembly of the purified intein segments then restores self-cleaving activity to deliver the tagless target protein.

  9. Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuai-Shuai; Shu Qi; Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan


    Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. (paper)

  10. Final Report: Air Purification: Nanostructured Media for Individual Protection (United States)

    linker. A main focus of this overall work was to evaluate MOFs for selective removal of ammonia from air . We found that UiO-66-OH has a capacity of...and high selectivity and high capacity for ammonia is crucial to developing new adsorbents for ammonia removal from air .

  11. Anomalous heat capacity of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, V.N.; Vinogradov, G.A.; Alymov, M.I.


    The heat capacity of nanosized particles exceeds (from few to tenth percents) the same values of the corresponding bulk materials, and this difference increases with the diminishing of the sizes. In the present Letter we give an explanation of this phenomenon on an example of a nanocrystal with simple cubic lattice and an arbitrary shape. The simplest harmonic interaction potential of the nearest neighbors is used. A qualitative agreement with experimental data is obtained. The decisive role is attributed to the choice of boundary conditions: free boundaries provide the 'softening' of vibrational spectrum thus giving larger contribution to the heat capacity. The increase in heat capacity depends on the particle size, shape and sample perfection

  12. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo


    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  13. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toru; Abe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichi


    Seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is an available method to evaluate residual risks of nuclear plants that are designed on definitive seismic conditions. From our preliminary seismic PSA analysis, horizontal shaft pumps are important components that have significant influences on the core damage frequency (CDF). An actual horizontal shaft pump and some kinds of elements were tested to evaluate realistic fragility capacities. Our test results showed that the realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as high as a current value, 1.6 x 9.8 m/s 2 , used for our seismic PSA. We are going to incorporate the fragility capacity data that were obtained from those tests into our seismic PSA analysis, and we expect that the reliability of seismic PSA should increase. (author)

  14. On risk and decisional capacity. (United States)

    Checkland, D


    Limits to paternalism are, in the liberal democracies, partially defined by the concepts of decision-making capacity/incapacity (mental competence/incompetence). The paper is a response to Ian Wilks's (1997) recent attempt to defend the idea that the standards for decisional capacity ought to vary with the degree of risk incurred by certain choices. Wilks's defense is based on a direct appeal to the logical features of examples and analogies, thus attempting to by-pass earlier criticisms (e.g., Culver & Gert, 1990) of risk-based standards. Wilks's argument is found wanting on the grounds that he misconstrues the logic of such capacity, especially in accounting for conceptual and pragmatic ties with issues of decisional authority. A diagnosis is offered as to the source of Wilks's error (the assumption that mental competence is a species of wider genus of "competence"), and an alternative way of accounting for risk within the predominant contemporary legal framework is sketched.

  15. Capacitated dynamic lot sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern


    One of the fundamental problems in operations management is determining the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision, once made, is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory...

  16. Computational Chemistry Capacity Building in an Underprivileged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bridging the gap with the other continents requires the identification of capacity ... university in South Africa), where computational chemistry research capacity has ... testifies the feasibility of such capacity building also in conditions of limited ...

  17. A purification process for an inert gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, S.S.; Samanta, S.K.; Jain, N.G.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Ramaswamy, M.


    Special inert atmosphere is desired inside hot cells used for handling radioactive materials. In this report, details of experiments conducted to generate data required for the design of a system for maintaining very low levels of organic and acid vapours, oxygen and moisture in a nitrogen gas inert atmosphere, are described. Several grades of activated charcoals impregnated with 1% KOH were studied for the adsorption of acidic and organic vapours. A Pd/Al 2 O 3 catalyst was developed to remove oxygen with greater than 90% efficiency. For the removal of moisture, a regenerable molecular sieve 4A dual-bed was provided. Based on the performance data thus generated, an integrated purification system for nitrogen gas is proposed. (author)

  18. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control (United States)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)


    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  19. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production (United States)

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James J.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Knox, Kevin J.


    A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

  20. Influence of Water Salinity on Air Purification from Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leybovych L.I.


    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of «sliding» water drop motion in the air flow was performed in software package FlowVision. The result of mathematical modeling of water motion in a droplet with diameter 100 microns at the «sliding» velocity of 15 m/s is shown. It is established that hydrogen sulfide oxidation occurs at the surface of phases contact. The schematic diagram of the experimental setup for studying air purification from hydrogen sulfide is shown. The results of the experimental research of hydrogen sulfide oxidation by tap and distilled water are presented. The dependence determining the share of hydrogen sulfide oxidized at the surface of phases contact from the dimensionless initial concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the air has been obtained.

  1. Purification and Autoactivation Method for Recombinant Coagulation Factor VII. (United States)

    Granovski, Vladimir; Freitas, Marcela C C; Abreu-Neto, Mario Soares; Covas, Dimas T


    Recombinant coagulation factor VII is a very important and complex protein employed for treatment of hemophiliac patients (hemophilia A/B) who develop inhibitors antibodies to conventional treatments (FVIII and FIX). The rFVII is a glycosylated molecule and circulates in plasma as zymogen of 50 kDa. When activated the molecule is cleaved to 20-30 kDa and has a half-life of about 3 h, needing to be processed fast and efficiently until freeze-drying. Here, we describe a very simple and fast purification sequence for rFVII using affinity FVII Select resin and a dialysis system that can be easily scaled up.

  2. Gas purification by use of hot metal getter beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.


    An experimental program is described which was performed in the frame of a tritium technology task for the NET/ITER fusion fuel cycle. The aim was to investigate commercial gas purifiers containing metallic getters for the purification of gas streams such as the plasma exhaust gas. Five purifiers with up to 3000g of getter material were tested in the PEGASUS facility mainly with respect to the removal of methane, which is known to be much more difficult to remove than other impurities like O 2 , N 2 , or CO. A proposal for a fuel cleanup method based on a combination of getter beds and Pd/Ag diffusors is presented as the main conclusion of the test program. The discussion of this method includes the aspects of flow rates, tritium inventory, and consumption of getter material. (orig.) [de

  3. Surfactin – A Review on Biosynthesis, Fermentation, Purification and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S. Shaligram


    Full Text Available Surfactin, a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide, is produced by various strains of Bacillus subtilis and is primarily recognized as one of the most effective biosurfactants. It has the ability to reduce surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m at a concentration as low as 0.005 %. The structure of surfactin consists of seven amino acids bonded to the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of a 14-carbon fatty acid. Surfactin possesses a number of biological activities such as the ability to lyse erythrocytes, inhibit clot formation, lyse bacterial spheroplasts and protoplasts, and inhibit cyclic 3',5-monophosphate diesterase. The high cost of production and low yields have limited its use in various commercial applications. Both submerged and solid-state fermentation have been investigated with the mutational approach to improve the productivity. In this review, current state of knowledge on biosynthesis of surfactin, its fermentative production, purification, analytical methods and biomedical applications is presented.

  4. Simplified Method for Rapid Purification of Soluble Histones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ivić


    Full Text Available Functional and structural studies of histone-chaperone complexes, nucleosome modifications, their interactions with remodelers and regulatory proteins rely on obtaining recombinant histones from bacteria. In the present study, we show that co-expression of Xenopus laevis histone pairs leads to production of soluble H2AH2B heterodimer and (H3H42 heterotetramer. The soluble histone complexes are purified by simple chromatographic techniques. Obtained H2AH2B dimer and H3H4 tetramer are proficient in histone chaperone binding and histone octamer and nucleosome formation. Our optimized protocol enables rapid purification of multiple soluble histone variants with a remarkable high yield and simplifies histone octamer preparation. We expect that this simple approach will contribute to the histone chaperone and chromatin research. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  5. Continuous electrophoretic purification of individual analytes from multicomponent mixtures. (United States)

    McLaren, David G; Chen, David D Y


    Individual analytes can be isolated from multicomponent mixtures and collected in the outlet vial by carrying out electrophoretic purification through a capillary column. Desired analytes are allowed to migrate continuously through the column under the electric field while undesired analytes are confined to the inlet vial by application of a hydrodynamic counter pressure. Using pressure ramping and buffer replenishment techniques, 18% of the total amount present in a bulk sample can be purified when the resolution to the adjacent peak is approximately 3. With a higher resolution, the yield could be further improved. Additionally, by periodically introducing fresh buffer into the sample, changes in pH and conductivity can be mediated, allowing higher purity (>or=99.5%) to be preserved in the collected fractions. With an additional reversed cycle of flow counterbalanced capillary electrophoresis, any individual component in a sample mixture can be purified providing it can be separated in an electrophoresis system.

  6. Membranes with Surface-Enhanced Antifouling Properties for Water Purification (United States)

    Shahkaramipour, Nima; Tran, Thien N.; Ramanan, Sankara; Lin, Haiqing


    Membrane technology has emerged as an attractive approach for water purification, while mitigation of fouling is key to lower membrane operating costs. This article reviews various materials with antifouling properties that can be coated or grafted onto the membrane surface to improve the antifouling properties of the membranes and thus, retain high water permeance. These materials can be separated into three categories, hydrophilic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol), polydopamine and zwitterions, hydrophobic materials, such as fluoropolymers, and amphiphilic materials. The states of water in these materials and the mechanisms for the antifouling properties are discussed. The corresponding approaches to coat or graft these materials on the membrane surface are reviewed, and the materials with promising performance are highlighted. PMID:28273869

  7. Production, purification, crystallization and structure determination of H-1 Parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Sujata; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Vogel, Michèle; Dinsart, Christiane; Salomé, Nathalie; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis


    The production, purification, crystallization and crystallographic analysis of H-1 Parvovirus, a gene-therapy vector, are reported. Crystals of H-1 Parvovirus (H-1PV), an antitumor gene-delivery vector, were obtained for DNA-containing capsids and diffracted X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 255.4, b = 350.4, c = 271.6 Å, β = 90.34°. The unit cell contained two capsids, with one capsid per crystallographic asymmetric unit. The H-1PV structure has been determined by molecular replacement and is currently being refined

  8. Concept of off-gas purification in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; von Ammon, R.


    Concepts and individual processes for the off-gas purification in reprocessing plants are described which are suited to achieve a better retention of the gaseous and volatile radionuclides 129 I, 85 Kr, 14 C, and tritium. Improved and new process steps have been developed to the cold pilot plant scale. Essential individual process steps are an efficient iodine desorption from the dissolver solution, improved and new off-gas scrubs with nitric acid, a cryogenic as well as a selective absorption process for rare gas recovery plus the required prepurification steps and a process for the continuous and pressure-free fixation and storage of krypton in a metal matrix. Individual facilities have been selected and combined to investigate integrated dissolver off-gas systems. Advanced concepts based on a process using low flows and loads of all off-gas streams including the cell ventilation off-gas are briefly discussed

  9. Pressure regulation in the dry-boxes. Argon purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascard, R.; Fabre, R.


    Each dry-box is equipped with an autonomous installation for circulation and purification of argon and for pressure regulation. This installation consists essentially of a ballast tank, a compressor and two valves electromagnetically controlled by a contact manometer. The compressor and the valves are enclosed in the tank to form a system as compact as possible. The argon is purified by passing it over a furnace filled with titanium-zirconium turnings brought to about 800 deg. C, branching off the main system. With this set-up as well as the automatic maintenance of a constant depression in the box, a quality of argon is obtained whose oxygen contact is undetectable by the manganous hydroxide method. (author) [fr

  10. Purification of Arp2/3 complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (United States)

    Doolittle, Lynda K.; Rosen, Michael K.; Padrick, Shae B.


    Summary Much of cellular control over actin dynamics comes through regulation of actin filament initiation. At the molecular level, this is accomplished through a collection of cellular protein machines, called actin nucleation factors, which position actin monomers to initiate a new actin filament. The Arp2/3 complex is a principal actin nucleation factor used throughout the eukaryotic family tree. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be not only an excellent genetic platform for the study of the Arp2/3 complex, but also an excellent source for the purification of endogenous Arp2/3 complex. Here we describe a protocol for the preparation of endogenous Arp2/3 complex from wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This protocol produces material suitable for biochemical study, and yields milligram quantities of purified Arp2/3 complex. PMID:23868593

  11. Modular microfluidics for point-of-care protein purifications. (United States)

    Millet, L J; Lucheon, J D; Standaert, R F; Retterer, S T; Doktycz, M J


    Biochemical separations are the heart of diagnostic assays and purification methods for biologics. On-chip miniaturization and modularization of separation procedures will enable the development of customized, portable devices for personalized health-care diagnostics and point-of-use production of treatments. In this report, we describe the design and fabrication of miniature ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography modules for on-chip clean-up of recombinantly-produced proteins. Our results demonstrate that these common separations techniques can be implemented in microfluidic modules with performance comparable to conventional approaches. We introduce embedded 3-D microfluidic interconnects for integrating micro-scale separation modules that can be arranged and reconfigured to suit a variety of fluidic operations or biochemical processes. We demonstrate the utility of the modular approach with a platform for the enrichment of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) from Escherichia coli lysate through integrated affinity and size-exclusion chromatography modules.

  12. Purification and characterization of Escherichia coli MreB protein. (United States)

    Nurse, Pearl; Marians, Kenneth J


    The actin homolog MreB is required in rod-shaped bacteria for maintenance of cell shape and is intimately connected to the holoenzyme that synthesizes the peptidoglycan layer. The protein has been reported variously to exist in helical loops under the cell surface, to rotate, and to move in patches in both directions around the cell surface. Studies of the Escherichia coli protein in vitro have been hampered by its tendency to aggregate. Here we report the purification and characterization of native E. coli MreB. The protein requires ATP hydrolysis for polymerization, forms bundles with a left-hand twist that can be as long as 4 μm, forms sheets in the presence of calcium, and has a critical concentration for polymerization of 1.5 μM.

  13. Purification and Characterization of Escherichia coli MreB Protein* (United States)

    Nurse, Pearl; Marians, Kenneth J.


    The actin homolog MreB is required in rod-shaped bacteria for maintenance of cell shape and is intimately connected to the holoenzyme that synthesizes the peptidoglycan layer. The protein has been reported variously to exist in helical loops under the cell surface, to rotate, and to move in patches in both directions around the cell surface. Studies of the Escherichia coli protein in vitro have been hampered by its tendency to aggregate. Here we report the purification and characterization of native E. coli MreB. The protein requires ATP hydrolysis for polymerization, forms bundles with a left-hand twist that can be as long as 4 μm, forms sheets in the presence of calcium, and has a critical concentration for polymerization of 1.5 μm. PMID:23235161

  14. Chemical absorption of H2S for biogas purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horikawa M.S.


    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of purification of a biogas by removal of its hydrogen sulphide (H2S content. The H2S was removed by means of chemical absorption in an iron-chelated solution catalyzed by Fe/EDTA, which converts H2S into elemental sulphur (S. Preparation of the catalyst solution and the results of biogas component absorption in the catalyst solution (0.2 mol/L are presented. These results are compared with those for physical absorption into pure water under similar conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that, under the same experimental conditions, a higher percentage of H2S can be removed in the catalytic solution than in water. In a continuous counter current using adequate flow-rate phases contact at room temperature and low gas pressure, the results demonstrate that is possible to totally remove the H2S from the biogas with the prepared catalytic solution.

  15. Functional characteristics of vitreous membranes used in biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Viera, Lianys; Ponce Abreu, Kizzy Diarelys; Fernández Santana, Elina; Muñoz, Susana Rodríguez; Bárcenas Pérez, Liuver


    The removal of hydrogen sulfide (H_2S(g)) present in the biogas using vitreous membranes, is a method that has satisfactory results at a laboratory scale. To this end 10 membranes with different masses of zinc oxide (ZnO(s)) and particle diameters coal (Dpc) are applied. Therefore, the objective of this work is to perform the functional characterization of vitreous membranes used in the purification of biogas. The results indicate that the permeability and effective diffusivity of H_2S(g) in the vitreous membranes vary with respect to its composition and structural features. In addition, by Pareto diagram it can be shown that the mass of ZnO(s) as well as the Dpc and the operation flow (Qop) significantly influence the removal of H_2S(g). (author)

  16. Analytical methods used in plutonium purification cycles by trilaurylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.


    The utilisation of trilaurylamine as a solvent extractant for the purification of plutonium has entailed to perfect a set of analytical methods which involves, various techniques. The organic impurities of the solvent can be titrated by gas-liquid chromatography. The titration of the main degradation product, the di-laurylamine, can be accomplished also by spectro-colorimetry. Potentiometry is used for the analysis of the different salts of amine-nitrate-sulfate-bisulfate as also the extracted nitric acid. The determination of the nitrate in aqueous phase is carried out by constant current potentiometry. The range of application, the accuracy and the procedure of these analysis are related in the present report. (author) [fr

  17. Mechanical damage and corrosion in the primary system purification cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, R.A.; Fiorini, R.H.; Semino, C.J.


    Through the routine measurements of tritium activity and isotopic content in the exchanger's cooling water, a loss of heavy water was detected. During the decommissioning programmed for October 1986, the equipment was dismantled and the tubes losses were identified through helium fugue tests; subsequently, a 100% inspection of the tubes by atmospheric currents were performed, verifying reductions exceeding 50% of the original width in 70 tubes of the first section at the top plate level. These indications were verified through the study of the two extracted tubes, one of them observing a passing failure where marks appeared at all levels of the support and corrosion plates through splits at the top plates level. The corrosion causes were due to the low cooling flow which results from the primary system's reduction regarding the purification flow design, thus permitting the deposits accumulation. (Author)

  18. Bacterial expression of human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase: solubility, activity, purification. (United States)

    Wilson, K; Mole, D J; Binnie, M; Homer, N Z M; Zheng, X; Yard, B A; Iredale, J P; Auer, M; Webster, S P


    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an enzyme central to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. KMO has been implicated as a therapeutic target in several disease states, including Huntington's disease. Recombinant human KMO protein production is challenging due to the presence of transmembrane domains, which localise KMO to the outer mitochondrial membrane and render KMO insoluble in many in vitro expression systems. Efficient bacterial expression of human KMO would accelerate drug development of KMO inhibitors but until now this has not been achieved. Here we report the first successful bacterial (Escherichia coli) expression of active FLAG™-tagged human KMO enzyme expressed in the soluble fraction and progress towards its purification. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo phosphorylation of a peptide tag for protein purification. (United States)

    Goux, Marine; Fateh, Amina; Defontaine, Alain; Cinier, Mathieu; Tellier, Charles


    To design a new system for the in vivo phosphorylation of proteins in Escherichia coli using the co-expression of the α-subunit of casein kinase II (CKIIα) and a target protein, (Nanofitin) fused with a phosphorylatable tag. The level of the co-expressed CKIIα was controlled by the arabinose promoter and optimal phosphorylation was obtained with 2 % (w/v) arabinose as inductor. The effectiveness of the phosphorylation system was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (NUT-PAGE) and staining with a specific phosphoprotein-staining gel. The resulting phosphorylated tag was also used to purify the phosphoprotein by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, which relies on the specific interaction of phosphate moieties with Fe(III). The use of a single tag for both the purification and protein array anchoring provides a simple and straightforward system for protein analysis.

  20. Installation for gas purification and gas mixture preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciortea, Constantin; Dumitrescu, Ioana; Armeanu, Adrian


    The Gas Production Division of ICSI at Rm. Valcea developed advanced facilities for purification of hydrogen, nitrogen, methane gases, etc, with concentrations up to 99.999 % vol. Pure and ultrapure gases are used for analytical purposes in food industry, biology, medicine, research laboratories, chemical and metallurgical industries. In the frame of ICSI the purified gases are used for preparation of usual and special mixtures of gases as for instance for production of Ar + CO 2 , Ar + CH 4 , Ar + H 2 , Ar + N 2 , N 2 + CO 2 , N 2 + O 2 etc. These mixtures are required in diverse sectors of chemical, electrical, machine and food industry, in nuclear power plants for monitoring, in laboratories of equipment calibrations, etc. (authors)