WorldWideScience

Sample records for purely conformation-based survey

  1. Conformal pure radiation with parallel rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistner, Thomas; Paweł Nurowski

    2012-01-01

    We define pure radiation metrics with parallel rays to be n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian metrics that admit a parallel null line bundle K and whose Ricci tensor vanishes on vectors that are orthogonal to K. We give necessary conditions in terms of the Weyl, Cotton and Bach tensors for a pseudo-Riemannian metric to be conformal to a pure radiation metric with parallel rays. Then, we derive conditions in terms of the tractor calculus that are equivalent to the existence of a pure radiation metric with parallel rays in a conformal class. We also give analogous results for n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian pp-waves. (paper)

  2. Using the generalised invariant formalism: a class of conformally flat pure radiation metrics with a negative cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, S Brian [Department of Mathematics, Linkoepings Universitet Linkoeping, S-581 83 (Sweden); Ramos, M P Machado [Departamento de Matematica para a Ciencia e Tecnologia, Azurem 4800-058 Guimaraes, Universidade do Minho (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    We demonstrate an integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism by obtaining a subclass of conformally flat pure radiation spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant. The method used is a development of the methods used earlier for pure radiation spacetimes of Petrov types O and N respectively. This subclass of spacetimes turns out to have one degree of isotropy freedom, so in this paper we have extended the integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism to spacetimes with isotropy freedom,.

  3. Using the generalised invariant formalism: a class of conformally flat pure radiation metrics with a negative cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, S Brian; Ramos, M P Machado

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism by obtaining a subclass of conformally flat pure radiation spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant. The method used is a development of the methods used earlier for pure radiation spacetimes of Petrov types O and N respectively. This subclass of spacetimes turns out to have one degree of isotropy freedom, so in this paper we have extended the integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism to spacetimes with isotropy freedom,

  4. Dimension of non-conformal repellers: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianyu; Pesin, Yakov

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a survey of recent results on the dimension of repellers for expanding maps and limit sets for iterated function systems. While the case of conformal repellers is well understood, the study of non-conformal repellers is in its early stages though a number of interesting phenomena have been discovered, some remarkable results obtained and several interesting examples constructed. We will describe contemporary state of the art in the area with emphasis on some new emerging ideas and open problems. (invited article)

  5. Bioactive conformational generation of small molecules: A comparative analysis between force-field and multiple empirical criteria based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hualiang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformational sampling for small molecules plays an essential role in drug discovery research pipeline. Based on multi-objective evolution algorithm (MOEA, we have developed a conformational generation method called Cyndi in the previous study. In this work, in addition to Tripos force field in the previous version, Cyndi was updated by incorporation of MMFF94 force field to assess the conformational energy more rationally. With two force fields against a larger dataset of 742 bioactive conformations of small ligands extracted from PDB, a comparative analysis was performed between pure force field based method (FFBM and multiple empirical criteria based method (MECBM hybrided with different force fields. Results Our analysis reveals that incorporating multiple empirical rules can significantly improve the accuracy of conformational generation. MECBM, which takes both empirical and force field criteria as the objective functions, can reproduce about 54% (within 1Å RMSD of the bioactive conformations in the 742-molecule testset, much higher than that of pure force field method (FFBM, about 37%. On the other hand, MECBM achieved a more complete and efficient sampling of the conformational space because the average size of unique conformations ensemble per molecule is about 6 times larger than that of FFBM, while the time scale for conformational generation is nearly the same as FFBM. Furthermore, as a complementary comparison study between the methods with and without empirical biases, we also tested the performance of the three conformational generation methods in MacroModel in combination with different force fields. Compared with the methods in MacroModel, MECBM is more competitive in retrieving the bioactive conformations in light of accuracy but has much lower computational cost. Conclusions By incorporating different energy terms with several empirical criteria, the MECBM method can produce more reasonable conformational

  6. Conformal superalgebras via tractor calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-01

    We use the manifestly conformally invariant description of a Lorentzian conformal structure in terms of a parabolic Cartan geometry in order to introduce a superalgebra structure on the space of twistor spinors and normal conformal vector fields formulated in purely algebraic terms on parallel sections in tractor bundles. Via a fixed metric in the conformal class, one reproduces a conformal superalgebra structure that has been considered in the literature before. The tractor approach, however, makes clear that the failure of this object to be a Lie superalgebra in certain cases is due to purely algebraic identities on the spinor module and to special properties of the conformal holonomy representation. Moreover, it naturally generalizes to higher signatures. This yields new formulas for constructing new twistor spinors and higher order normal conformal Killing forms out of existing ones, generalizing the well-known spinorial Lie derivative. Moreover, we derive restrictions on the possible dimension of the space of twistor spinors in any metric signature.

  7. Results from a global survey of contact lens-wearer satisfaction with OPTI-FREE® PureMoist® Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemp J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jessie Lemp, Jami R Kern Global Medical Affairs, Alcon Laboratories, Inc, Fort Worth, Texas, USA Purpose: The objective of the study reported here was to obtain information on acceptance and satisfaction with OPTI-FREE® PureMoist® Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution (MPDS from contact lens wearers globally. Methods: Eligible contact lens wearers provided baseline demographic and lens-wear-regimen information, and advised their ocular dryness/discomfort level and current lens-wear experience. Volunteers received OPTI-FREE PureMoist MPDS and a survey consisting of ten statements about the trial solution. Volunteers were instructed to use the solution daily and to complete the survey after 2 weeks of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on data from the entire group, from the subset of respondents reporting ocular dryness and/or discomfort at trial initiation (symptomatic subgroup, and from each geographic region. Results: Volunteers from nine countries returned 10,610 surveys, in which 50% of respondents classified themselves as having ocular dryness/discomfort. Lens comfort and visual performance responses from the total population and the symptomatic subgroup were significantly more positive after 2 weeks of OPTI-FREE PureMoist use than at baseline, irrespective of the habitual lens-care solution. In the USA, Southeast Asia, and Europe, 14% to 20% more respondents reported that their contact lenses provided all-day comfort after 2 weeks of OPTI-FREE PureMoist use compared with baseline (P<0.0001. Australia reported 31% more patients with all-day comfort after OPTI-FREE PureMoist use (P<0.0001. Approximately four out of five respondents from both populations reported their intent to continue using OPTI-FREE PureMoist. Globally, 39% of all respondents and 58% of symptomatic respondents experienced reduced end-of-day dryness with their contact lenses after use of OPTI-FREE PureMoist (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Results from this large

  8. Broadband illusion optical devices based on conformal mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhan; Xu, Lin; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple method of illusion optics based on conformal mappings. By carefully developing designs with specific conformal mappings, one can make an object look like another with a significantly different shape. In addition, the illusion optical devices can work in a broadband of frequencies.

  9. Study of PDMS conformation in PDMS-based hybrid materials prepared by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancastre, J.J.H.; Fernandes, N.; Margaça, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcão, A.N.; Casimiro, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane-silicate based hybrid materials have recognized properties (high flexibility, low elastic modulus or high mechanical strength) for which there are a large number of applications in development, such as for the bioapplications field. The hybrids addressed in the present study were prepared by gamma irradiation of a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr) without addition of any solvent or other product. The materials are homogeneous, transparent, monolithic and flexible. The structure dependence on the PrZr content is addressed. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) was used. The results reveal that the polymer in the hybrids prepared with PrZr, in a content≤5 wt%, shows a structure similar to that in the irradiated pure polymer sample. In these samples the presence of ordered polymer regions is clearly found. For samples prepared with higher content of Zr almost no ordered polymer regions are observed. The addition of PrZr plays an important role on polymer conformation in these hybrid materials. - Highlights: ► PDMS-based hybrid materials were prepared by γ-irradiation. ► FTIR, ATR/FT-IR and XRD techniques were used to characterize the materials. ► Changes in FTIR bands reflect growth of crosslinking network. ► Above certain Zr concentration regions of Zr-silicate oxide are formed. ► Zr content determines conformation of the polymer chain network.

  10. The b ghost of the pure spinor formalism is nilpotent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo, E-mail: osvaldo.chandia@uai.c [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-01-10

    The ghost for world-sheet reparametrization invariance is not a fundamental field in the pure spinor formalism. It is written as a combination of pure spinor variables which have conformal dimension two and such that it commutes with the BRST operator to give the world-sheet stress tensor. We show that the ghost variable defined in this way is nilpotent since the OPE of b with itself does not have singularities.

  11. Effects of conformism on the cultural evolution of social behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Molleman

    Full Text Available Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours. How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner's Dilemma, conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game, conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation.

  12. Effects of conformism on the cultural evolution of social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Lucas; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J

    2013-01-01

    Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs) and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours). How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner's Dilemma), conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game) conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game), conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation.

  13. Conformal field theory in conformal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preitschopf, C.R.; Vasiliev, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a new framework for a Lagrangian description of conformal field theories in various dimensions based on a local version of d + 2-dimensional conformal space. The results include a true gauge theory of conformal gravity in d = (1, 3) and any standard matter coupled to it. An important feature is the automatic derivation of the conformal gravity constraints, which are necessary for the analysis of the matter systems

  14. Bianchi like classification of cosmologies in conformally flat space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    Solutions of Killing's equations for a conformally flat line element have been found, which are seen to correspond to the conformal group of transformations consisting of the pure conformal group, the Lorentz group, translation and dilation. A classification of the line element has been carried out, singly and combining several of them. Upon comparison with expanding universes it has been found that the Friedmann universes are a subclass with other cosmologies resulting in wider subclasses. (orig.)

  15. The Biological Bases of Conformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Joshau Henry Morgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective use of social information in decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behaviour in nonhuman animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history and ontogeny of conformity and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behaviour conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subject’s behaviour is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behaviour may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for

  16. The Biological Bases of Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T. J. H.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favor adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective copying and decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behavior in non-human animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history, and ontogeny of conformity, and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behavior conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subjects’ behavior is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behavior may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for effective social learning. PMID:22712006

  17. Conformity of LINAC-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery Using Dynamic Conformal Arcs and Micro-Multileaf Collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazard, Lisa J.; Wang, Brian; Skidmore, Thomas B.; Chern, Shyh-Shi; Salter, Bill J.; Jensen, Randy L.; Shrieve, Dennis C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the conformity of dynamic conformal arc linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery and to describe a standardized method of isodose surface (IDS) selection. Methods and Materials: In 174 targets, the conformity index (CI) at the prescription IDS used for treatment was calculated as CI = (PIV/PVTV)/(PVTV/TV), where TV is the target volume, PIV (prescription isodose volume) is the total volume encompassed by the prescription IDS, and PVTV is the TV encompassed by the IDS. In addition, a 'standardized' prescription IDS (sIDS) was chosen according to the following criteria: 95% of the TV was encompassed by the PIV and 99% of TV was covered by 95% of the prescription dose. The CIs at the sIDS were also calculated. Results: The median CI at the prescription IDS and sIDS was 1.63 and 1.47, respectively (p < 0.001). In 132 of 174 cases, the volume of normal tissue in the PIV was reduced by the prescription to the sIDS compared with the prescription IDS, in 20 cases it remained unchanged, and in 22 cases it was increased. Conclusion: The CIs obtained with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery are comparable to those previously reported for gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery. Using a uniform method to select the sIDS, adequate target coverage was usually achievable with prescription to an IDS greater than that chosen by the treating physician (prescription IDS), providing sparing of normal tissue. Thus, the sIDS might aid physicians in identifying a prescription IDS that balances coverage and conformity

  18. Modeling the adsorption of mixed gases based on pure gas adsorption properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzabar, N.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; Ter Brake, H. J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Sorption-based Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers usually operate with pure gases. A sorption-based compressor has many benefits; however, it is limited by the pressure ratios it can provide. Using a mixed-refrigerant (MR) instead of a pure refrigerant in JT cryocoolers allows working at much lower

  19. A survey on the state on the use of conformation radiotherapy units in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaru, Teizo; Onai, Yoshio; Abe, Shunsuke

    1985-01-01

    A survey on the stage on the use of conformation radiotherapy units in Japan was performed by the Radiotherapy Equipments Committee of the Japanese Association for Radiotherapy Systems. The questionnaire was sent to 34 hospitals, which are all the hospitals equipped with these units, and 13 cancer and adult disease centers. The answers were collected from 42 hospitals, of which the 31 from formers and 11 from latters. In June, 1984, 27 conformation radiotherapy units (11 units with a pair of lower jaws and 16 units with multi-leaf collimators) were being used at 26 hospitals answered to questionnaire. During a month from May 16 to June 15 in 1984, conformation radiotherapy was performed at 10 hopsitals, and mean number of patients per day treated with these irradiation techniques was 3.7 +- 3.5. Fixed beam radiotherapy with irregular shape fields using multi-leaf collimators was also performed at 8 hospitals and mean number of patients per day treated with this fixed beam was 6.6 +- 3.9. Hollow-out irradiation technique was used at 4 hospitals, and 3.8 patients per day per hospital were treated with this technique. (author)

  20. Some Progress in Conformal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Yung A. Chang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey paper of our current research on the theory of partial differential equations in conformal geometry. Our intention is to describe some of our current works in a rather brief and expository fashion. We are not giving a comprehensive survey on the subject and references cited here are not intended to be complete. We introduce a bubble tree structure to study the degeneration of a class of Yamabe metrics on Bach flat manifolds satisfying some global conformal bounds on compact manifolds of dimension 4. As applications, we establish a gap theorem, a finiteness theorem for diffeomorphism type for this class, and diameter bound of the $sigma_2$-metrics in a class of conformal 4-manifolds. For conformally compact Einstein metrics we introduce an eigenfunction compactification. As a consequence we obtain some topological constraints in terms of renormalized volumes.

  1. On a Canonical Quantization of 3D Anti de Sitter Pure Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihun

    2015-10-14

    We perform a canonical quantization of pure gravity on AdS3 using as a technical tool its equivalence at the classical level with a Chern-Simons theory with gauge group SL(2,R)xSL(2,R). We first quantize the theory canonically on an asymptotically AdS space --which is topologically the real line times a Riemann surface with one connected boundary. Using the "constrain first" approach we reduce canonical quantization to quantization of orbits of the Virasoro group and Kaehler quantization of Teichmuller space. After explicitly computing the Kaehler form for the torus with one boundary component and after extending that result to higher genus, we recover known results, such as that wave functions of SL(2,R) Chern-Simons theory are conformal blocks. We find new restrictions on the Hilbert space of pure gravity by imposing invariance under large diffeomorphisms and normalizability of the wave function. The Hilbert space of pure gravity is shown to be the target space of Conformal Field Theories with continuous sp...

  2. Open conformal systems and perturbations of transfer operators

    CERN Document Server

    Pollicott, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this book is on open conformal dynamical systems corresponding to the escape of a point through an open Euclidean ball. The ultimate goal is to understand the asymptotic behavior of the escape rate as the radius of the ball tends to zero. In the case of hyperbolic conformal systems this has been addressed by various authors. The conformal maps considered in this book are far more general, and the analysis correspondingly more involved. The asymptotic existence of escape rates is proved and they are calculated in the context of (finite or infinite) countable alphabets, uniformly contracting conformal graph-directed Markov systems, and in particular, conformal countable alphabet iterated function systems. These results have direct applications to interval maps, meromorphic maps and rational functions. Towards this goal the authors develop, on a purely symbolic level, a theory of singular perturbations of Perron--Frobenius (transfer) operators associated with countable alphabet subshifts of finite t...

  3. Bianchi type-I model with conformally invariant scalar and electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.; Vaidya, A.N.; Som, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A Bianchi type-I exact solution of the Einstein theory representing the homogeneous anisotropic models with the electromagnetic field and the conformally invariant scalar field is studied. The solution contains Kasner model, pure electromagnetic and pure scalar models as special cases. It is found that the models evolve from an initial Kasner type to a final open Friedmann type universe. (Author) [pt

  4. More on the conformal mapping of quasi-local masses: the Hawking–Hayward case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, Fayçal

    2016-01-01

    The conformal transformation of the Hawking–Hayward quasi-local mass is re-examined. It has been found recently that the conformal transformation of the latter exhibits the ‘wrong’ conformal factor compared to the way usual masses transform under conformal transformations of spacetime. We show, in analogy with what was found recently for the Misner–Sharp mass, that unlike the purely geometric definition of the Hawking–Hayward mass, the latter exhibits the ‘right’ conformal factor whenever expressed in terms of its material content via the field equations. The case of conformally invariant scalar–tensor theories of gravity is also examined. The equivalence between the Misner–Sharp mass and the Hawking–Hayward mass for spherically symmetric spacetimes manifests itself by giving identical peculiar behaviors under conformal transformations. (paper)

  5. Conformal dimension theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, John M

    2010-01-01

    Conformal dimension measures the extent to which the Hausdorff dimension of a metric space can be lowered by quasisymmetric deformations. Introduced by Pansu in 1989, this concept has proved extremely fruitful in a diverse range of areas, including geometric function theory, conformal dynamics, and geometric group theory. This survey leads the reader from the definitions and basic theory through to active research applications in geometric function theory, Gromov hyperbolic geometry, and the dynamics of rational maps, amongst other areas. It reviews the theory of dimension in metric spaces and of deformations of metric spaces. It summarizes the basic tools for estimating conformal dimension and illustrates their application to concrete problems of independent interest. Numerous examples and proofs are provided. Working from basic definitions through to current research areas, this book can be used as a guide for graduate students interested in this field, or as a helpful survey for experts. Background needed ...

  6. Web-based Surveys: Changing the Survey Process

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Holly

    2002-01-01

    Web-based surveys are having a profound influence on the survey process. Unlike other types of surveys, Web page design skills and computer programming expertise play a significant role in the design of Web-based surveys. Survey respondents face new and different challenges in completing a Web-based survey. This paper examines the different types of Web-based surveys, the advantages and challenges of using Web-based surveys, the design of Web-based surveys, and the issues of validity, error, ...

  7. Pure Play vs. Bricks-and-Clicks: Who Reaps the Benefits of Virtual Retailing?

    OpenAIRE

    Youlong Zhuang; Albert L. Lederer

    2006-01-01

    Pure play and bricks-and-clicks represent today’s two major retailing models. The current study answers four questions comparing the two models in terms of the e-commerce benefits achieved and information systems management practices used to achieve them. It applies a Web-based survey to compare 69 pure plays to 348 bricks-and-clicks retailers in terms of the market expansion, customer service, back-end efficiency, inventory management, and cost reduction benefits reaped, as well as in term...

  8. Quantifying polypeptide conformational space: sensitivity to conformation and ensemble definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, David C; Lim, Carmay

    2006-08-24

    Quantifying the density of conformations over phase space (the conformational distribution) is needed to model important macromolecular processes such as protein folding. In this work, we quantify the conformational distribution for a simple polypeptide (N-mer polyalanine) using the cumulative distribution function (CDF), which gives the probability that two randomly selected conformations are separated by less than a "conformational" distance and whose inverse gives conformation counts as a function of conformational radius. An important finding is that the conformation counts obtained by the CDF inverse depend critically on the assignment of a conformation's distance span and the ensemble (e.g., unfolded state model): varying ensemble and conformation definition (1 --> 2 A) varies the CDF-based conformation counts for Ala(50) from 10(11) to 10(69). In particular, relatively short molecular dynamics (MD) relaxation of Ala(50)'s random-walk ensemble reduces the number of conformers from 10(55) to 10(14) (using a 1 A root-mean-square-deviation radius conformation definition) pointing to potential disconnections in comparing the results from simplified models of unfolded proteins with those from all-atom MD simulations. Explicit waters are found to roughen the landscape considerably. Under some common conformation definitions, the results herein provide (i) an upper limit to the number of accessible conformations that compose unfolded states of proteins, (ii) the optimal clustering radius/conformation radius for counting conformations for a given energy and solvent model, (iii) a means of comparing various studies, and (iv) an assessment of the applicability of random search in protein folding.

  9. Rotational Spectroscopy and Conformational Studies of 4-PENTYNENITRILE, 4-PENTENENITRILE, and Glutaronitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Brian M.; Mehta-Hurt, Deepali; Jawad, Khadija M.; Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Abeysekera, Chamara; Zhang, Di; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    The pure rotational spectra of 4-pentynenitrile, 4-pentenenitrile, and glutaronitrile were acquired using chirped pulse Fouirer transform microwave spectroscopy. 4-pentynenitrile and 4-pentenenitrile are the recombination products of two resonance stabilized radicals, propargyl + cyanomethyl or allyl + cyanomethyl, respectively, and are thus anticipated to be significant among the more complex nitriles in Titan's atmosphere. Indeed, these partially unsaturated alkyl cyanides have been found in laboratory analogs of tholins and are also expected to have interesting photochemistry. The optimized structures of all conformers below predicted energies of 500 \\wn were calculated for each molecule. Both of the conformers, trans and gauche, for 4-pentynenitrile have been identified and assigned. Five conformers were assigned in 4-pentenenitrile. The eclipsed conformers, with respect to the vinyl group, dominate the spectrum but some population was found in the syn conformers including the syn-gauche conformer, calculated to be 324 \\wn above the global minimum. The glutaronitrile spectrum contained only the two conformers below 500 \\wn, with reduced amount of the gauche trans conformer. The assigned spectra and structural assignments will be presented.

  10. Cyndi: a multi-objective evolution algorithm based method for bioactive molecular conformational generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Bai, Fang; Ouyang, Sisheng; Wang, Xicheng; Li, Honglin; Jiang, Hualiang

    2009-03-31

    Conformation generation is a ubiquitous problem in molecule modelling. Many applications require sampling the broad molecular conformational space or perceiving the bioactive conformers to ensure success. Numerous in silico methods have been proposed in an attempt to resolve the problem, ranging from deterministic to non-deterministic and systemic to stochastic ones. In this work, we described an efficient conformation sampling method named Cyndi, which is based on multi-objective evolution algorithm. The conformational perturbation is subjected to evolutionary operation on the genome encoded with dihedral torsions. Various objectives are designated to render the generated Pareto optimal conformers to be energy-favoured as well as evenly scattered across the conformational space. An optional objective concerning the degree of molecular extension is added to achieve geometrically extended or compact conformations which have been observed to impact the molecular bioactivity (J Comput -Aided Mol Des 2002, 16: 105-112). Testing the performance of Cyndi against a test set consisting of 329 small molecules reveals an average minimum RMSD of 0.864 A to corresponding bioactive conformations, indicating Cyndi is highly competitive against other conformation generation methods. Meanwhile, the high-speed performance (0.49 +/- 0.18 seconds per molecule) renders Cyndi to be a practical toolkit for conformational database preparation and facilitates subsequent pharmacophore mapping or rigid docking. The copy of precompiled executable of Cyndi and the test set molecules in mol2 format are accessible in Additional file 1. On the basis of MOEA algorithm, we present a new, highly efficient conformation generation method, Cyndi, and report the results of validation and performance studies comparing with other four methods. The results reveal that Cyndi is capable of generating geometrically diverse conformers and outperforms other four multiple conformer generators in the case of

  11. Cyndi: a multi-objective evolution algorithm based method for bioactive molecular conformational generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Honglin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformation generation is a ubiquitous problem in molecule modelling. Many applications require sampling the broad molecular conformational space or perceiving the bioactive conformers to ensure success. Numerous in silico methods have been proposed in an attempt to resolve the problem, ranging from deterministic to non-deterministic and systemic to stochastic ones. In this work, we described an efficient conformation sampling method named Cyndi, which is based on multi-objective evolution algorithm. Results The conformational perturbation is subjected to evolutionary operation on the genome encoded with dihedral torsions. Various objectives are designated to render the generated Pareto optimal conformers to be energy-favoured as well as evenly scattered across the conformational space. An optional objective concerning the degree of molecular extension is added to achieve geometrically extended or compact conformations which have been observed to impact the molecular bioactivity (J Comput -Aided Mol Des 2002, 16: 105–112. Testing the performance of Cyndi against a test set consisting of 329 small molecules reveals an average minimum RMSD of 0.864 Å to corresponding bioactive conformations, indicating Cyndi is highly competitive against other conformation generation methods. Meanwhile, the high-speed performance (0.49 ± 0.18 seconds per molecule renders Cyndi to be a practical toolkit for conformational database preparation and facilitates subsequent pharmacophore mapping or rigid docking. The copy of precompiled executable of Cyndi and the test set molecules in mol2 format are accessible in Additional file 1. Conclusion On the basis of MOEA algorithm, we present a new, highly efficient conformation generation method, Cyndi, and report the results of validation and performance studies comparing with other four methods. The results reveal that Cyndi is capable of generating geometrically diverse conformers and outperforms

  12. Stochastic geometry of critical curves, Schramm-Loewner evolutions and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruzberg, Ilya A

    2006-01-01

    Conformally invariant curves that appear at critical points in two-dimensional statistical mechanics systems and their fractal geometry have received a lot of attention in recent years. On the one hand, Schramm (2000 Israel J. Math. 118 221 (Preprint math.PR/9904022)) has invented a new rigorous as well as practical calculational approach to critical curves, based on a beautiful unification of conformal maps and stochastic processes, and by now known as Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE). On the other hand, Duplantier (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 1363; Fractal Geometry and Applications: A Jubilee of Benot Mandelbrot: Part 2 (Proc. Symp. Pure Math. vol 72) (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) p 365 (Preprint math-ph/0303034)) has applied boundary quantum gravity methods to calculate exact multifractal exponents associated with critical curves. In the first part of this paper, I provide a pedagogical introduction to SLE. I present mathematical facts from the theory of conformal maps and stochastic processes related to SLE. Then I review basic properties of SLE and provide practical derivation of various interesting quantities related to critical curves, including fractal dimensions and crossing probabilities. The second part of the paper is devoted to a way of describing critical curves using boundary conformal field theory (CFT) in the so-called Coulomb gas formalism. This description provides an alternative (to quantum gravity) way of obtaining the multifractal spectrum of critical curves using only traditional methods of CFT based on free bosonic fields

  13. Effect of dipole moment and conformation on the mesophase behavior of di-laterally substituted phenylazophenyl benzoate liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoum, M.M.; Ahmed, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Four homologous series of di-laterally substituted derivatives were prepared. → Measurement of the dipole moment and comparing it with those calculated for the various planner conformations. → Binary phase diagrams were constructed for mixtures made from any two analogues of different central lateral substituents. → Mesophase behavior is related to conformation. → The two molecules in all mixtures investigated are arranged in a back-to-face pattern. - Abstract: The dipole moments of the previously prepared 4-(3'-fluoro phenylazo)-2-(or 3-) substituted phenyl-4''-alkoxybenzoates (In a-d ), have been determined in benzene at 30 o C. The data obtained were compared with those theoretically calculated by molecular modeling program to deduce the most probable conformations for each individual homologous series. Probable conformations deduced were found to vary according to type and position of the lateral substituent attached to the central benzene ring. The results were used to correlate the mesophase behavior, in pure and mixed derivatives, with the conformation deduced for each series. Each homologous series, that have in common a lateral fluorine atom on the first terminal ring, differs from the other by a second lateral group substituted on the central ring. The latter group varies between 2-CH 3 , 3-CH 3 , 2-Cl and 3-CN groups. Within each homologous series, the number of carbons in the other terminal alkoxy group varies between 8 and 16 carbons. The study aims to investigate the steric effect of the spatial orientation of the central lateral substituent, based on deduced conformations, on the mesomorphic properties in their pure or mixed states. The mesophase behavior was investigated via differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and mesophases identified by polarized light microscopy, PLM.

  14. New unified field theory based on the conformal group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessa, E [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1980-10-01

    Based on a six-dimensional generalization of Maxwell's equations, a new unified theory of the electromagnetic and gravitational field is developed. Additional space-time coordinates are interpreted only as mathematical tools in order to obtain a linear realization of the four-dimensional conformal group.

  15. Immirzi parameter without Immirzi ambiguity: Conformal loop quantization of scalar-tensor gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraguth, Olivier J.; Wang, Charles H.-T.

    2017-10-01

    Conformal loop quantum gravity provides an approach to loop quantization through an underlying conformal structure i.e. conformally equivalent class of metrics. The property that general relativity itself has no conformal invariance is reinstated with a constrained scalar field setting the physical scale. Conformally equivalent metrics have recently been shown to be amenable to loop quantization including matter coupling. It has been suggested that conformal geometry may provide an extended symmetry to allow a reformulated Immirzi parameter necessary for loop quantization to behave like an arbitrary group parameter that requires no further fixing as its present standard form does. Here, we find that this can be naturally realized via conformal frame transformations in scalar-tensor gravity. Such a theory generally incorporates a dynamical scalar gravitational field and reduces to general relativity when the scalar field becomes a pure gauge. In particular, we introduce a conformal Einstein frame in which loop quantization is implemented. We then discuss how different Immirzi parameters under this description may be related by conformal frame transformations and yet share the same quantization having, for example, the same area gaps, modulated by the scalar gravitational field.

  16. 4D Flexible Atom-Pairs: An efficient probabilistic conformational space comparison for ligand-based virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The performance of 3D-based virtual screening similarity functions is affected by the applied conformations of compounds. Therefore, the results of 3D approaches are often less robust than 2D approaches. The application of 3D methods on multiple conformer data sets normally reduces this weakness, but entails a significant computational overhead. Therefore, we developed a special conformational space encoding by means of Gaussian mixture models and a similarity function that operates on these models. The application of a model-based encoding allows an efficient comparison of the conformational space of compounds. Results Comparisons of our 4D flexible atom-pair approach with over 15 state-of-the-art 2D- and 3D-based virtual screening similarity functions on the 40 data sets of the Directory of Useful Decoys show a robust performance of our approach. Even 3D-based approaches that operate on multiple conformers yield inferior results. The 4D flexible atom-pair method achieves an averaged AUC value of 0.78 on the filtered Directory of Useful Decoys data sets. The best 2D- and 3D-based approaches of this study yield an AUC value of 0.74 and 0.72, respectively. As a result, the 4D flexible atom-pair approach achieves an average rank of 1.25 with respect to 15 other state-of-the-art similarity functions and four different evaluation metrics. Conclusions Our 4D method yields a robust performance on 40 pharmaceutically relevant targets. The conformational space encoding enables an efficient comparison of the conformational space. Therefore, the weakness of the 3D-based approaches on single conformations is circumvented. With over 100,000 similarity calculations on a single desktop CPU, the utilization of the 4D flexible atom-pair in real-world applications is feasible. PMID:21733172

  17. Surface Design Based on Discrete Conformal Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Carlos; Santangelo, Christian; Vouga, Etienne

    Conformal transformations are angle-preserving maps from one domain to another. Although angles are preserved, the lengths between arbitrary points are not generally conserved. As a consequence there is always a given amount of distortion associated to any conformal map. Different uses of such transformations can be found in various fields, but have been used by us to program non-uniformly swellable gel sheets to buckle into prescribed three dimensional shapes. In this work we apply circle packings as a kind of discrete conformal map in order to find conformal maps from the sphere to the plane that can be used as nearly uniform swelling patterns to program non-Euclidean sheets to buckle into spheres. We explore the possibility of tuning the area distortion to fit the experimental range of minimum and maximum swelling by modifying the boundary of the planar domain through the introduction of different cutting schemes.

  18. Conformations of stereoisomeric base adducts to 4-hydroxyequilenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuang; Shapiro, Robert; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Broyde, Suse

    2003-06-01

    Exposure to estrogen through estrogen replacement therapy increases the risk of women developing cancer in hormone sensitive tissues. Premarin (Wyeth), which has been the most frequent choice for estrogen replacement therapy in the United States, contains the equine estrogens equilin and equilenin as major components. 4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN) is a phase I metabolite of both of these substances. This catechol estrogen autoxidizes to potent cytotoxic quinoids that can react with dG, dA, and dC to form unusual stereoisomeric cyclic adducts (Bolton, J. L., et al. (1998) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11, 1113-1127). Like other bulky DNA adducts, these lesions may exhibit different susceptibilities to DNA repair and mutagenic potential, if not repaired in a structure-dependent manner. To ultimately gain insights into structure-function relationships, we computed conformations of stereoisomeric guanine, adenine, and cytosine base adducts using density functional theory. We find near mirror image conformations in stereoisomer adduct pairs for each modified base, suggesting opposite orientations with respect to the 5' --> 3' direction of the modified strand when the stereoisomer pairs are incorporated into duplex DNA. Such opposite orientations could cause stereoisomer pairs of lesions to respond differently to DNA replication and repair enzymes.

  19. Solving conformal contacts using multi-Hertzian techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Jean-Pierre; Soua, Brahim

    2016-06-01

    Recently, publications aiming at wheel-rail contact surveys let readers think that multi-Hertzian methods present severe drawbacks with respect to 'virtual penetration' methods. These surveys criticise multi-Hertzian solutions mainly because presenting 'larger contacts overlaps' and 'frequent secondary contacts near the border of the first contact', both obvious geometric possibilities of which the practical occurrence and eventual inconvenience would remain purely theoretical unless established over definite methods demonstrating poor practical results. Recent surveys all quote Piotrowski-Chollet 2005 survey of wheel-rail contact models that attempted to illustrate defective multi-Hertzian techniques by concentrating on the method initiated by Sauvage in the 1990s and further developed by Pascal. The 2005 paper not only gives no evidence of practical inconveniences of Sauvage's method but also confuses static geometric contact overlaps with the dynamical overlapping of forces. In reality it mixes Sauvage method up with a quite different technique. Thus a clarification is now necessary by reminding what the proper Sauvage technique really is and by showing some of its practical successful applications. The present paper, focusing on determination of normal contact forces in conformal situations, intends to explain clearly the advantages of the unequivocal localisation of secondary ellipses in that multi-Hertzian method which has been developed in INRETS VOCO codes in the 1990s and successfully used by SNCF and ALSTOM in the INRETS-SNCF code, VOCODYM, and later in Pascal's online calculation of railway elastic contacts code. It proved its effectiveness for studying freight wagons derailments as well as rail wear and head-check, unrounded wheels wear, high-speed lines' deformations or TGV comfort. While simulating American ACELA trainsets' behaviour on the US North-East Corridor tracks, prior to actual tests, as part of the commercial contract. It has been also a

  20. On induced action for conformal higher spins in curved background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.beccaria@le.infn.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica Ennio De Giorgi, Università del Salento & INFN, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Tseytlin, Arkady A., E-mail: tseytlin@imperial.ac.uk [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    We continue the investigation of the structure of the action for a tower of conformal higher spin fields in non-trivial 4d background metric recently discussed in Grigoriev and Tseytlin (2016). The action is defined as an induced one from path integral of a conformal scalar field in curved background coupled to higher spin fields. We analyze in detail the dependence of the quadratic part of the induced action on the spin 1 and spin 3 fields, determining the presence of a curvature-dependent mixed spin 1–3 term. One consequence is that the pure spin 3 kinetic term cannot be gauge-invariant on its own beyond the leading term in small curvature expansion. We also compute the non-zero contribution of the 1–3 mixing term to the conformal anomaly c-coefficient. One is thus to determine all such mixing terms before addressing the question of possible vanishing of the total c-coefficient in the conformal higher spin theory.

  1. On induced action for conformal higher spins in curved background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Beccaria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We continue the investigation of the structure of the action for a tower of conformal higher spin fields in non-trivial 4d background metric recently discussed in Grigoriev and Tseytlin (2016 [15]. The action is defined as an induced one from path integral of a conformal scalar field in curved background coupled to higher spin fields. We analyze in detail the dependence of the quadratic part of the induced action on the spin 1 and spin 3 fields, determining the presence of a curvature-dependent mixed spin 1–3 term. One consequence is that the pure spin 3 kinetic term cannot be gauge-invariant on its own beyond the leading term in small curvature expansion. We also compute the non-zero contribution of the 1–3 mixing term to the conformal anomaly c-coefficient. One is thus to determine all such mixing terms before addressing the question of possible vanishing of the total c-coefficient in the conformal higher spin theory.

  2. Galaxy rotation curves via conformal factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporea, Ciprian A.; Borowiec, Andrzej; Wojnar, Aneta

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new formula to explain circular velocity profiles of spiral galaxies obtained from the Starobinsky model in the Palatini formalism. It is based on the assumption that the gravity can be described by two conformally related metrics: one of them is responsible for the measurement of distances, while the other, the so-called dark metric, is responsible for a geodesic equation and therefore can be used for the description of the velocity profile. The formula is tested against a subset of galaxies taken from the HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS).

  3. Recent advancements in conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, James G.; Chaykov, Spasen S.; Moss, Robert J.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, due to the lack of direct observed evidence of cold dark matter, coupled with the shrinking parameter space to search for new dark matter particles, there has been increased interest in Alternative Gravitational theories. This paper, addresses three recent advances in conformal gravity, a fourth order renormalizable metric theory of gravitation originally formulated by Weyl, and later advanced by Mannheim and Kazanas. The first section of the paper applies conformal gravity to the rotation curves of the LITTLE THINGS survey, extending the total number of rotation curves successfully fit by conformal gravity to well over 200 individual data sets without the need for additional dark matter. Further, in this rotation curve study, we show how MOND and conformal gravity compare for each galaxy in the sample. Second, we look at the original Zwicky problem of applying the virial theorem to the Coma cluster in order to get an estimate for the cluster mass. However, instead of using the standard Newtonian potential, here we use the weak field approximation of conformal gravity. We show that in the conformal case we can get a much smaller mass estimate and thus there is no apparent need to include dark matter. We then show that this calculation is in agreement with the observational data from other well studied clusters. Last, we explore the calculation of the deflection of starlight through conformal gravity, as a first step towards applying conformal gravity to gravitaitonal lensing. (paper)

  4. Is the standard model saved asymptotically by conformal symmetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, A.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Tomaras, T. N.

    2015-03-01

    It is pointed out that the top-quark and Higgs masses and the Higgs VEV with great accuracy satisfy the relations 4 m {/H 2} = 2 m {/T 2} = v 2, which are very special and reminiscent of analogous ones at Argyres-Douglas points with enhanced conformal symmetry. Furthermore, the RG evolution of the corresponding Higgs self-interaction and Yukawa couplings λ(0) = 1/8 and y(0) = 1 leads to the free-field stable point in the pure scalar sector at the Planck scale, also suggesting enhanced conformal symmetry. Thus, it is conceivable that the Standard Model is the low-energy limit of a distinct special theory with (super?) conformal symmetry at the Planck scale. In the context of such a "scenario," one may further speculate that the Higgs particle is the Goldstone boson of (partly) spontaneously broken conformal symmetry. This would simultaneously resolve the hierarchy and Landau pole problems in the scalar sector and would provide a nearly flat potential with two almost degenerate minima at the electroweak and Planck scales.

  5. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a open-quotes waffle-ironclose quotes effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors

  6. Hypotrochoids in conformal restriction systems and Virasoro descendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A conformal restriction system is a commutative, associative, unital algebra equipped with a representation of the groupoid of univalent conformal maps on connected open sets of the Riemann sphere, along with a family of linear functionals on subalgebras, satisfying a set of properties including conformal invariance and a type of restriction. This embodies some expected properties of expectation values in conformal loop ensembles CLE κ (at least for 8/3 iθ and w. We find that it has an expansion in positive powers of u and u-bar , and that the coefficients of pure u ( u-bar ) powers are holomorphic in w ( w-bar ). We identify these coefficients (the ‘hypotrochoid fields’) with certain Virasoro descendants of the identity field in conformal field theory, thereby showing that they form part of a vertex operator algebraic structure. This largely generalizes works by the author (in CLE), and the author with his collaborators Riva and Cardy (in SLE 8/3 and other restriction measures), where the case of the ellipse, at the order u 2 , led to the stress–energy tensor of CFT. The derivation uses in an essential way the Virasoro vertex operator algebra structure of conformal derivatives established recently by the author. The results suggest in particular the exact evaluation of CLE expectations of products of hypotrochoid fields as well as nontrivial relations amongst them through the vertex operator algebra, and further shed light onto the relationship between CLE and CFT. (paper)

  7. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  8. On a canonical quantization of 3D Anti de Sitter pure gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Porrati, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    We perform a canonical quantization of pure gravity on AdS 3 using as a technical tool its equivalence at the classical level with a Chern-Simons theory with gauge group SL(2,{R})× SL(2,{R}) . We first quantize the theory canonically on an asymptotically AdS space -which is topologically the real line times a Riemann surface with one connected boundary. Using the "constrain first" approach we reduce canonical quantization to quantization of orbits of the Virasoro group and Kähler quantization of Teichmüller space. After explicitly computing the Kähler form for the torus with one boundary component and after extending that result to higher genus, we recover known results, such as that wave functions of SL(2,{R}) Chern-Simons theory are conformal blocks. We find new restrictions on the Hilbert space of pure gravity by imposing invariance under large diffeomorphisms and normalizability of the wave function. The Hilbert space of pure gravity is shown to be the target space of Conformal Field Theories with continuous spectrum and a lower bound on operator dimensions. A projection defined by topology changing amplitudes in Euclidean gravity is proposed. It defines an invariant subspace that allows for a dual interpretation in terms of a Liouville CFT. Problems and features of the CFT dual are assessed and a new definition of the Hilbert space, exempt from those problems, is proposed in the case of highly-curved AdS 3.

  9. On a canonical quantization of 3D Anti de Sitter pure gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihun [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics,New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Porrati, Massimo [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics,New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); CERN PH-TH, CH 1211,Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-14

    We perform a canonical quantization of pure gravity on AdS{sub 3} using as a technical tool its equivalence at the classical level with a Chern-Simons theory with gauge group SL(2,ℝ)×SL(2,ℝ). We first quantize the theory canonically on an asymptotically AdS space –which is topologically the real line times a Riemann surface with one connected boundary. Using the “constrain first” approach we reduce canonical quantization to quantization of orbits of the Virasoro group and Kähler quantization of Teichmüller space. After explicitly computing the Kähler form for the torus with one boundary component and after extending that result to higher genus, we recover known results, such as that wave functions of SL(2,ℝ) Chern-Simons theory are conformal blocks. We find new restrictions on the Hilbert space of pure gravity by imposing invariance under large diffeomorphisms and normalizability of the wave function. The Hilbert space of pure gravity is shown to be the target space of Conformal Field Theories with continuous spectrum and a lower bound on operator dimensions. A projection defined by topology changing amplitudes in Euclidean gravity is proposed. It defines an invariant subspace that allows for a dual interpretation in terms of a Liouville CFT. Problems and features of the CFT dual are assessed and a new definition of the Hilbert space, exempt from those problems, is proposed in the case of highly-curved AdS{sub 3}.

  10. An event-based account of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Diana; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    People often change their behavior and beliefs when confronted with deviating behavior and beliefs of others, but the mechanisms underlying such phenomena of conformity are not well understood. Here we suggest that people cognitively represent their own actions and others' actions in comparable ways (theory of event coding), so that they may fail to distinguish these two categories of actions. If so, other people's actions that have no social meaning should induce conformity effects, especially if those actions are similar to one's own actions. We found that female participants adjusted their manual judgments of the beauty of female faces in the direction consistent with distracting information without any social meaning (numbers falling within the range of the judgment scale) and that this effect was enhanced when the distracting information was presented in movies showing the actual manual decision-making acts. These results confirm that similarity between an observed action and one's own action matters. We also found that the magnitude of the standard conformity effect was statistically equivalent to the movie-induced effect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Conformal-Based Surface Morphing and Multi-Scale Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chun Lam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two algorithms, based on conformal geometry, for the multi-scale representations of geometric shapes and surface morphing. A multi-scale surface representation aims to describe a 3D shape at different levels of geometric detail, which allows analyzing or editing surfaces at the global or local scales effectively. Surface morphing refers to the process of interpolating between two geometric shapes, which has been widely applied to estimate or analyze deformations in computer graphics, computer vision and medical imaging. In this work, we propose two geometric models for surface morphing and multi-scale representation for 3D surfaces. The basic idea is to represent a 3D surface by its mean curvature function, H, and conformal factor function λ, which uniquely determine the geometry of the surface according to Riemann surface theory. Once we have the (λ, H parameterization of the surface, post-processing of the surface can be done directly on the conformal parameter domain. In particular, the problem of multi-scale representations of shapes can be reduced to the signal filtering on the λ and H parameters. On the other hand, the surface morphing problem can be transformed to an interpolation process of two sets of (λ, H parameters. We test the proposed algorithms on 3D human face data and MRI-derived brain surfaces. Experimental results show that our proposed methods can effectively obtain multi-scale surface representations and give natural surface morphing results.

  12. Selection of candidate wells and optimization of conformance treatment design in the Barrancas Field using a 3D conformance simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosta, Dante; Elitseche, Luis [Repsol YPF (Argentina); Gutierrez, Mauricio; Ansah, Joe; Everett, Don [Halliburton Argentina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    Minimizing the amount of unwanted water production is an important goal at the Barrancas field. This paper describes a selection process for candidate injection wells that is part of a pilot conformance project aimed at improving vertical injection profiles, reducing water cut in producing wells, and improving ultimate oil recovery from this field. The well selection process is based on a review of limited reservoir information available for this field to determine inter-well communications. The methodology focuses on the best use of available information, such as production and injection history, well intervention files, open hole logs and injectivity surveys. After the candidate wells were selected and potential water injection channels were identified, conformance treatment design and future performance of wells in the selected pilot area were evaluated using a new 3 -D conformance simulator, developed specifically for optimization of the design and placement of unwanted fluid shut-off treatments. Thus, when acceptable history match ing of the pilot area production was obtained, the 3 -D simulator was used to: evaluate the required volume of selected conformance treatment fluid; review expected pressures and rates during placement;. model temperature behavior; evaluate placement techniques, and forecast water cut reduction and incremental oil recovery from the producers in this simulated section of the pilot area. This paper outlines a methodology for selecting candidate wells for conformance treatments. The method involves application of several engineering tools, an integral component of which is a user-friendly conformance simulator. The use of the simulator has minimized data preparation time and allows the running of sensitivity cases quickly to explore different possible scenarios that best represent the reservoir. The proposed methodology provides an efficient means of identifying conformance problems and designing optimized solutions for these individual

  13. Spherically symmetric conformal gravity and ''gravitational bubbles''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.A.; Dokuchaev, V.I.; Eroshenko, Yu.N., E-mail: berezin@inr.ac.ru, E-mail: dokuchaev@inr.ac.ru, E-mail: eroshenko@inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-01

    The general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity is described. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions is found. It consists of two classes. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar of our specific metrics, and the representatives are the famous Robertson-Walker metrics. One of them we called the ''gravitational bubbles'', which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. Thus, we obtained the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant) what is absolutely impossible in General Relativity. Such a phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from ''nothing''. The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family. It appears that it can be conformally covered by the thee-parameter Mannheim-Kazanas solution. We also investigated the general structure of the energy-momentum tensor in the spherical conformal gravity and constructed the vectorial equation that reveals clearly some features of non-vacuum solutions. Two of them are explicitly written, namely, the metrics à la Vaidya, and the electrovacuum space-time metrics.

  14. Uniform stable conformal convolutional perfectly matched layer for enlarged cell technique conformal finite-difference time-domain method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yue; Wang Jian-Guo; Chen Zai-Gao

    2015-01-01

    Based on conformal construction of physical model in a three-dimensional Cartesian grid, an integral-based conformal convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) is given for solving the truncation problem of the open port when the enlarged cell technique conformal finite-difference time-domain (ECT-CFDTD) method is used to simulate the wave propagation inside a perfect electric conductor (PEC) waveguide. The algorithm has the same numerical stability as the ECT-CFDTD method. For the long-time propagation problems of an evanescent wave in a waveguide, several numerical simulations are performed to analyze the reflection error by sweeping the constitutive parameters of the integral-based conformal CPML. Our numerical results show that the integral-based conformal CPML can be used to efficiently truncate the open port of the waveguide. (paper)

  15. On ''conformal spinor geometry'': An attempt to ''understand'' internal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinich, P.

    1981-09-01

    The natural homomorphism of pure spinors corresponding to a given Clifford algebra Csub(2n) to polarized isotropic n-planes of complex Euclidean space Esub(2n)sup(c) is taken as a starting point for the construction of a geometry called spinor geometry where pure spinors are the only elements out of which all tensors have to be constructed (analytically as bilinear polynomia of the components of a pure spinor). C 4 and C 6 spinor geometry are analyzed but it seems that C 8 spinor geometry is necessary to construct Minkowski space Msup(3,1). C 6 spinor field equations give rise in Minkowski space to a pair of Dirac equations (for conformal semispinors) presenting an SU(2) internal symmetry algebra. Mass is generated by spontaneously breaking the original O(4,2) symmetry of the spinor equation. (author)

  16. On ''conformal spinor geometry'': An attempt to ''understand'' internal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinich, P.

    1982-01-01

    The natural homomorphism of pure spinors corresponding to a given Clifford algebra Csub(2n) to polarized isotropic n-planes of complex Euclidean space Esub(2n)sup(c) is taken as a starting point for the construction of a geometry called spinor geometry where pure spinors are the only elements out of which all tensors have to be constructed (analytically as bilinear polynomials of the components of a pure spinor). C 4 and C 6 spinor geometry are analyzed, but it seems that C 8 spinor geometry is necessary to construct Minkowski space Msup(3,1). C 6 spinor field equations give rise in Minkowski space to a pair of Dirac equations (for conformal semispinors) presenting an su(2) internal symmetry algebra. Mass is generated by breaking spontaneously the original O(4,2) symmetry of the spinor equation. (author)

  17. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn

    2017-11-01

    We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  18. Literature Survey on the Effects of Pure Carbon Dioxide on Health, Comfort and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    permissible occupational exposure level to CO2 is set at 5,000 ppm (ACGIH, 2011). Although in many studies CO2 has been related with health symptoms, comfort and performance of office work and schoolwork, it in itself has traditionally been assumed innocuous at the typical levels indoors; in these studies, CO......2 was merely a proxy for elevated exposure levels to air pollutants, and an indicator of inadequate outdoor air ventilation and poor indoor air quality. Two recent experiments suggest however that the exposure to pure CO2 at the levels typically occurring indoors and lower than the levels prescribed...... as permissible by the occupational standards can have negative effects on some aspects of human performance, in particular on tasks requiring concentration (Kajtar et al., 2006) and on tasks, in which decision should be taken (Satish et al., 2012). The present paper reports the results of the literature survey...

  19. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Concha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  20. On the physical origin of galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Behroozi, Peter S.; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2016-09-01

    Correlations between the star formation rates (SFRs) of nearby galaxies (so-called galactic conformity) have been observed for projected separations up to 4 Mpc, an effect not predicted by current semi-analytic models. We investigate correlations between the mass accretion rates (dMvir/dt) of nearby haloes as a potential physical origin for this effect. We find that pairs of host haloes `know about' each others' assembly histories even when their present-day separation is greater than thirty times the virial radius of either halo. These distances are far too large for direct interaction between the haloes to explain the correlation in their dMvir/dt. Instead, halo pairs at these distances reside in the same large-scale tidal environment, which regulates dMvir/dt for both haloes. Larger haloes are less affected by external forces, which naturally gives rise to a mass dependence of the halo conformity signal. SDSS measurements of galactic conformity exhibit a qualitatively similar dependence on stellar mass, including how the signal varies with distance. Based on the expectation that halo accretion and galaxy SFR are correlated, we predict the scale-, mass- and redshift-dependence of large-scale galactic conformity, finding that the signal should drop to undetectable levels by z ≳ 1. These predictions are testable with current surveys to z ˜ 1; confirmation would establish a strong correlation between dark matter halo accretion rate and central galaxy SFR.

  1. Web-Based Surveys: Not Your Basic Survey Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys are not new to the library environment. Although such surveys began as extensions of print surveys, the Web-based environment offers a number of approaches to conducting a survey that the print environment cannot duplicate easily. Since 1994, the author and others have conducted national surveys of public library Internet…

  2. On solutions of Einstein and Einstein-Yang-Mills equations with (maximal) conformal subsymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinkayo, S.; Demaret, J.

    1985-01-01

    The maximal subgroups of the conformal group (which have in common as a subgroup the group of pure spatial rotations) are considered as isometry groups of conformally flat space-times. The corresponding cosmological solutions of Einstein's field equations are identified. For each of them, the possibility is investigated that it could be generated by an SU(2) Yang-Mills field built, via the Corrigan-Fairlie-'t Hooft-Wilczek ansatz, from a scalar field identical with the square root of the conformal factor defining the space-time metric tensor. In particular, the Einstein cosmological model can be generated in this manner, but in the framework of strong gravity only, a micro-Einstein universe being then viewed as a possible model for a hadron. (author)

  3. Conformal boundaries of warped products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2006-01-01

    In this note we prove a result on how to determine the conformal boundary of a type of warped product of two length spaces in terms of the individual conformal boundaries. In the situation, that we treat, the warping and conformal distortion functions are functions of distance to a base point....... The result is applied to produce examples of CAT(0)-spaces, where the conformal and ideal boundaries differ in interesting ways....

  4. Microscopic insights into the NMR relaxation based protein conformational entropy meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinath, Vignesh; Sharp, Kim A.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Conformational entropy is a potentially important thermodynamic parameter contributing to protein function. Quantitative measures of conformational entropy are necessary for an understanding of its role but have been difficult to obtain. An empirical method that utilizes changes in conformational dynamics as a proxy for changes in conformational entropy has recently been introduced. Here we probe the microscopic origins of the link between conformational dynamics and conformational entropy using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation of seven pro! teins gave an excellent correlation with measures of side-chain motion derived from NMR relaxation. The simulations show that the motion of methyl-bearing side-chains are sufficiently coupled to that of other side chains to serve as excellent reporters of the overall side-chain conformational entropy. These results tend to validate the use of experimentally accessible measures of methyl motion - the NMR-derived generalized order parameters - as a proxy from which to derive changes in protein conformational entropy. PMID:24007504

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance provides a quantitative description of protein conformational flexibility on physiologically important time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Loïc; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Markwick, Phineus; Blackledge, Martin

    2011-04-12

    A complete description of biomolecular activity requires an understanding of the nature and the role of protein conformational dynamics. In recent years, novel nuclear magnetic resonance-based techniques that provide hitherto inaccessible detail concerning biomolecular motions occurring on physiologically important time scales have emerged. Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) provide precise information about time- and ensemble-averaged structural and dynamic processes with correlation times up to the millisecond and thereby encode key information for understanding biological activity. In this review, we present the application of two very different approaches to the quantitative description of protein motion using RDCs. The first is purely analytical, describing backbone dynamics in terms of diffusive motions of each peptide plane, using extensive statistical analysis to validate the proposed dynamic modes. The second is based on restraint-free accelerated molecular dynamics simulation, providing statistically sampled free energy-weighted ensembles that describe conformational fluctuations occurring on time scales from pico- to milliseconds, at atomic resolution. Remarkably, the results from these two approaches converge closely in terms of distribution and absolute amplitude of motions, suggesting that this kind of combination of analytical and numerical models is now capable of providing a unified description of protein conformational dynamics in solution.

  6. Hierarchical Conformational Analysis of Native Lysozyme Based on Sub-Millisecond Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization of free energy landscape (FEL for native globular proteins has been widely accepted by the biophysics community. However, FEL of native proteins is usually projected onto one or a few dimensions. Here we generated collectively 0.2 milli-second molecular dynamics simulation trajectories in explicit solvent for hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL, and carried out detailed conformational analysis based on backbone torsional degrees of freedom (DOF. Our results demonstrated that at micro-second and coarser temporal resolutions, FEL of HEWL exhibits hub-like topology with crystal structures occupying the dominant structural ensemble that serves as the hub of conformational transitions. However, at 100 ns and finer temporal resolutions, conformational substates of HEWL exhibit network-like topology, crystal structures are associated with kinetic traps that are important but not dominant ensembles. Backbone torsional state transitions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to beyond microseconds were found to be associated with various types of molecular interactions. Even at nanoseconds temporal resolution, the number of conformational substates that are of statistical significance is quite limited. These observations suggest that detailed analysis of conformational substates at multiple temporal resolutions is both important and feasible. Transition state ensembles among various conformational substates at microsecond temporal resolution were observed to be considerably disordered. Life times of these transition state ensembles are found to be nearly independent of the time scales of the participating torsional DOFs.

  7. The unitary conformal field theory behind 2D Asymptotic Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nink, Andreas; Reuter, Martin [Institute of Physics, PRISMA & MITP, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz,Staudingerweg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-02-25

    Being interested in the compatibility of Asymptotic Safety with Hilbert space positivity (unitarity), we consider a local truncation of the functional RG flow which describes quantum gravity in d>2 dimensions and construct its limit of exactly two dimensions. We find that in this limit the flow displays a nontrivial fixed point whose effective average action is a non-local functional of the metric. Its pure gravity sector is shown to correspond to a unitary conformal field theory with positive central charge c=25. Representing the fixed point CFT by a Liouville theory in the conformal gauge, we investigate its general properties and their implications for the Asymptotic Safety program. In particular, we discuss its field parametrization dependence and argue that there might exist more than one universality class of metric gravity theories in two dimensions. Furthermore, studying the gravitational dressing in 2D asymptotically safe gravity coupled to conformal matter we uncover a mechanism which leads to a complete quenching of the a priori expected Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov (KPZ) scaling. A possible connection of this prediction to Monte Carlo results obtained in the discrete approach to 2D quantum gravity based upon causal dynamical triangulations is mentioned. Similarities of the fixed point theory to, and differences from, non-critical string theory are also described. On the technical side, we provide a detailed analysis of an intriguing connection between the Einstein-Hilbert action in d>2 dimensions and Polyakov’s induced gravity action in two dimensions.

  8. An extension of the counterion condensation theory to conformational changes of flexible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benegas, J.C.; Cesaro, A.

    1988-01-01

    A full report on a statistical model is presented in which an ionic polymer is taken as an aggregate of linear flexible segments (similar to the spring-bead model). This model is thought to represent fairly well some flexible ionic polymers in solution. The model assumes two factorizable energy contributions, one purely conformational the other electrostatic. The first contribution is calculated from distribution function of the end-to-end distances and can be obtained from numerical Monte Carlo calculations of chain conformations. The second contribution is the excess thermodynamic property and is calculated, by using Manning's theory of linear polyelectrolytes, as a function of the degree of ionization and of a number of physical variables. Procedures to evaluate changes in the chain conformation of polysaccharides and polypeptides bearing ionizable charged groups are presented. The results show excellent quantitative agreement of averaged functions and experimental data. They also show that statistical average over the conformational states is not equivalent to the thermodynamic property of the averaged conformation. (author). 37 refs, 17 figs

  9. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2015-01-01

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 20–5000 μm) and cavity height (e.g., 200–1000 nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25 000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 processes from Me 3 Al/H 2 O and TiCl 4 /H 2 O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes

  10. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-11-27

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  11. The Chevreton tensor and Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes conformal to Einstein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, Goeran; Eriksson, Ingemar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize the source-free Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes which have a trace-free Chevreton tensor. We show that this is equivalent to the Chevreton tensor being of pure radiation type and that it restricts the spacetimes to Petrov type N or O. We prove that the trace of the Chevreton tensor is related to the Bach tensor and use this to find all Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with a zero cosmological constant that have a vanishing Bach tensor. Among these spacetimes we then look for those which are conformal to Einstein spaces. We find that the electromagnetic field and the Weyl tensor must be aligned, and in the case that the electromagnetic field is null, the spacetime must be conformally Ricci-flat and all such solutions are known. In the non-null case, since the general solution is not known on a closed form, we settle by giving the integrability conditions in the general case, but we do give new explicit examples of Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes that are conformal to Einstein spaces, and we also find examples where the vanishing of the Bach tensor does not imply that the spacetime is conformal to a C-space. The non-aligned Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with vanishing Bach tensor are conformally C-spaces, but none of them are conformal to Einstein spaces

  12. Surprising conformers of the biologically important A·T DNA base pairs: QM/QTAIM proofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O.; Tsiupa, Kostiantyn S.; Hovorun, Dmytro M.

    2018-02-01

    For the first time novel high-energy conformers – A·T(wWC) (5.36), A·T(wrWC) (5.97), A·T(wH) (5.78) and A·T(wrH) (ΔG=5.82 kcal•mol-1) were revealed for each of the four biologically important A·T(WC) DNA base pairs – Watson-Crick A·T(WC), reverse Watson-Crick A·T(rWC), Hoogsteen A·T(H) and reverse Hoogsteen A·T(rH) at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of quantum-mechanical theory in the continuum with ɛ=4 under normal conditions. Each of these conformers possesses substantially non-planar wobble (w) structure and is stabilized by the participation of the two anti-parallel N6H/N6H'…O4/O2 and N3H…N6 H-bonds, involving the pyramidalized amino group of the A DNA base as an acceptor and a donor of the H-bonding. The transition states – TSA·T(WC)↔A·T(wWC), TSA·T(rWC)↔A·T(wrWC), TSA·T(H)↔A·T(wH) and TSA·T(rH)↔A·T(wrH), controlling the dipole-active transformations of the conformers from the main plane-symmetric state into the high-energy, significantly non-planar state and vice versa, were localized. They also possess wobble structures similarly to the high-energy conformers and are stabilized by the participation of the N6H/N6H'…O4/O2 and N3H…N6 H-bonds. Discovered conformers of the A·T DNA base pairs are dynamically stable short-lived structures (lifetime τ = (1.4-3.9) ps). Their possible biological significance and future perspectives have been briefly discussed.

  13. Prediction of Pure Component Adsorption Equilibria Using an Adsorption Isotherm Equation Based on Vacancy Solution Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Krøll, Annette Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    An adsorption isotherm equation for nonideal pure component adsorption based on vacancy solution theory and the Non-Random-Two-Liquid (NRTL) equation is found to be useful for predicting pure component adsorption equilibria at a variety of conditions. The isotherm equation is evaluated successfully...... adsorption systems, spreading pressure and isosteric heat of adsorption are also calculated....

  14. Conformal theories, grassmannians and soliton hierarchies. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Concini, C.; Fucito, F.; Tirozzi, B.

    1989-01-01

    We formulate conformal field theories on the infinite-dimensional grassmannian manifold. Besides recovering the known results for the central charge and correlation functions of the b-c system this formalism immediately lends itself to further generalization. The grassmannian manifold is in fact an ad hoc model for the geometrical interpretation of the irreducible representations of an infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody algebra which, in turn, admit an intertwining action of a Virasoro algebra. We further give a proof of bosonization from a purely grassmannian point of view. (orig.)

  15. Scalar field collapse in a conformally flat spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Soumya; Banerjee, Narayan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Mohanpur, West Bengal (India)

    2017-03-15

    The collapse scenario of a scalar field along with a perfect fluid distribution was investigated for a conformally flat spacetime. The theorem for the integrability of an anharmonic oscillator has been utilized. For a pure power-law potential of the form φ{sup n+1}, it was found that a central singularity is formed which is covered by an apparent horizon for n > 0 and n < -3. Some numerical results have also been presented for a combination of two different powers of φ in the potential. (orig.)

  16. A survey on conformal flatness and quasiumbilicity of submanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafindratafa, G.K.

    1989-06-01

    Presently, some confusions are made on the way of understanding the relation and the difference between the conformal flatness and the quasiumbilicity of submanifolds. The purpose of this paper is to make a clarification on these two topics: We review all the up-to-date known main results and the open related problems. (author). 18 refs

  17. Conformity index: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuvret, Loic; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear

  18. Motivation, Personal Satisfaction of Team Members and Conformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation, Personal Satisfaction of Team Members and Conformity to Team Norms as Predictors of Team Performance. ... The sample included two thousand and eighty-eight athletes (players of six sports) surveyed through a purposive ...

  19. Concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hoshang

    2005-01-01

    We propose concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states based on an orthogonal complement of a positive operator-valued measure on quantum phase. In particular, we construct W m class, GHZ m , and GHZ m-1 class concurrences for general pure m-partite states. We give explicit expressions for W 3 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure three-partite states and for W 4 , GHZ 4 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure four-partite states

  20. Quantum effects from a purely geometrical relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Homer G

    2005-01-01

    A purely geometrical relativity theory results from a construction that produces from three-dimensional space a happy unification of Kaluza's five-dimensional theory and Weyl's conformal theory. The theory can provide geometrical explanations for the following observed phenomena, among others: (a) visibility lifetimes of elementary particles of lengths inversely proportional to their rest masses; (b) the equality of charge magnitude among all charged particles interacting at an event; (c) the propensity of electrons in atoms to be seen in discretely spaced orbits; and (d) 'quantum jumps' between those orbits. This suggests the possibility that the theory can provide a deterministic underpinning of quantum mechanics like that provided to thermodynamics by the molecular theory of gases

  1. Intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This publication reports the assessment of intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR). This assessment is based on a literature survey which focussed on indications, efficiency and safety on the short term, on the risk of radio-induced cancer on the long term, on the role in the therapeutic strategy, on the conditions of execution, on the impact on morbidity-mortality and life quality, on the impact on the health system and on public health policies and program. This assessment is also based on the opinion of a group of experts regarding the technical benefit of IMCR, its indications depending on the cancer type, safety in terms of radio-induced cancers, and conditions of execution. Before this assessment, the report thus indicates indications for which the use of IMCR can be considered as sufficient or not determined. It also proposes a technical description of IMCR and helical tomo-therapy, discusses the use of this technique for various pathologies or tumours, analyses the present situation of care in France, and comments the identification of this technique in foreign classifications

  2. DICOM Standard Conformance in Veterinary Medicine in Germany: a Survey of Imaging Studies in Referral Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühschwein, Andreas; Klever, Julius; Wilkinson, Tom; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    In 2016, the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the use of veterinary identification DICOM tags had its 10th anniversary. The goal of our study was to survey veterinary DICOM standard conformance in Germany regarding the specific identification tags veterinarians should use in veterinary diagnostic imaging. We hypothesized that most veterinarians in Germany do not follow the guidelines of the DICOM Standards Committee. We analyzed the metadata of 488 imaging studies of referral cases from 115 different veterinary institutions in Germany by computer-aided DICOM header readout. We found that 25 (5.1%) of the imaging studies fully complied with the "veterinary DICOM standard" in this survey. The results confirmed our hypothesis that the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the consistent and advantageous use of veterinary identification tags have found minimal acceptance amongst German veterinarians. DICOM does not only enable connectivity between machines, DICOM also improves communication between veterinarians by sharing correct and valuable metadata for better patient care. Therefore, we recommend that lecturers, universities, societies, authorities, vendors, and other stakeholders should increase their effort to improve the spread of the veterinary DICOM standard in the veterinary world.

  3. Conformational analysis of lignin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Helio F. dos

    2001-01-01

    The conformational equilibrium for two 5,5' biphenyl lignin models have been analyzed using a quantum mechanical semiempirical method. The gas phase and solution structures are discussed based on the NMR and X-ray experimental data. The results obtained showed that the observed conformations are solvent-dependent, being the geometries and the thermodynamic properties correlated with the experimental information. This study shows how a systematic theoretical conformational analysis can help to understand chemical processes at a molecular level. (author)

  4. Hearing Tests Based on Biologically Calibrated Mobile Devices: Comparison With Pure-Tone Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalski, Marcin; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2018-01-10

    Hearing screening tests based on pure-tone audiometry may be conducted on mobile devices, provided that the devices are specially calibrated for the purpose. Calibration consists of determining the reference sound level and can be performed in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. In the case of devices provided by the manufacturer, together with bundled headphones, the reference sound level can be calculated once for all devices of the same model. This study aimed to compare the hearing threshold measured by a mobile device that was calibrated using a model-specific, biologically determined reference sound level with the hearing threshold obtained in pure-tone audiometry. Trial participants were recruited offline using face-to-face prompting from among Otolaryngology Clinic patients, who own Android-based mobile devices with bundled headphones. The hearing threshold was obtained on a mobile device by means of an open access app, Hearing Test, with incorporated model-specific reference sound levels. These reference sound levels were previously determined in uncontrolled conditions in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. An audiologist-assisted self-measurement was conducted by the participants in a sound booth, and it involved determining the lowest audible sound generated by the device within the frequency range of 250 Hz to 8 kHz. The results were compared with pure-tone audiometry. A total of 70 subjects, 34 men and 36 women, aged 18-71 years (mean 36, standard deviation [SD] 11) participated in the trial. The hearing threshold obtained on mobile devices was significantly different from the one determined by pure-tone audiometry with a mean difference of 2.6 dB (95% CI 2.0-3.1) and SD of 8.3 dB (95% CI 7.9-8.7). The number of differences not greater than 10 dB reached 89% (95% CI 88-91), whereas the mean absolute difference was obtained at 6.5 dB (95% CI 6.2-6.9). Sensitivity and specificity for a mobile-based

  5. A novel correction factor based on extended volume to complement the conformity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F; Wang, Y; Wu, Y-Z

    2012-08-01

    We propose a modified conformity index (MCI), based on extended volume, that improves on existing indices by correcting for the insensitivity of previous conformity indices to reference dose shape to assess the quality of high-precision radiation therapy and present an evaluation of its application. In this paper, the MCI is similar to the conformity index suggested by Paddick (CI(Paddick)), but with a different correction factor. It is shown for three cases: with an extended target volume, with an extended reference dose volume and without an extended volume. Extended volume is generated by expanding the original volume by 0.1-1.1 cm isotropically. Focusing on the simulation model, measurements of MCI employ a sphere target and three types of reference doses: a sphere, an ellipsoid and a cube. We can constrain the potential advantage of the new index by comparing MCI with CI(Paddick). The measurements of MCI in head-neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy provide a window on its clinical practice. The results of MCI for a simulation model and clinical practice are presented and the measurements are corrected for limited spatial resolution. The three types of MCI agree with each other, and comparisons between the MCI and CI(Paddick) are also provided. The results from our analysis show that the proposed MCI can provide more objective and accurate conformity measurement for high-precision radiation therapy. In combination with a dose-volume histogram, it will be a more useful conformity index.

  6. Separation and identification of DNA-carcinogen adduct conformers by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, G.A.; Jankowiak, R.; Farhat, J.H.; Small, G.J. (Ames Lab., IA (United States) Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The authors have developed a separation protocol utilizing high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to isolate stable anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts of oligodeoxynucleotides. Both enantiomers produced multiple adduct species. The distribution of adduct types could be quantitated by densitometry of autoradiograms or Cerenkov counting of eluted oligomers modified by anti-BPDE isomers. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of eluted adducts at 4.2 K (fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy) and 77 K revealed that bands corresponded to pure conformers of pyrene chromophore. Carcinogen-modified oligodeoxynucleotides were single-stranded, but there were often considerable stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the oligonucleotide bases, indicating that electrophoresed oligomers were single-stranded but in a native, versus random-coil conformation. The ability to identify and quantitate adducts by PAGE-LIF, coupled with the high resolution and sensitivity of both techniques, makes PAGE and LIF in tandem a potentially powerful tool in the study of chemical carcinogenesis or other ligand-DNA interactions. 43 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Surprising Conformers of the Biologically Important A·T DNA Base Pairs: QM/QTAIM Proofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ha O. Brovarets'

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time novel high-energy conformers–A·T(wWC (5.36, A·T(wrWC (5.97, A·T(wH (5.78, and A·T(wrH (ΔG = 5.82 kcal·mol−1 (See Graphical Abstract were revealed for each of the four biologically important A·T DNA base pairs – Watson-Crick A·T(WC, reverse Watson-Crick A·T(rWC, Hoogsteen A·T(H and reverse Hoogsteen A·T(rH at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p level of quantum-mechanical theory in the continuum with ε = 4 under normal conditions. Each of these conformers possesses substantially non-planar wobble (w structure and is stabilized by the participation of the two anti-parallel N6H/N6H′…O4/O2 and N3H…N6 H-bonds, involving the pyramidalized amino group of the A DNA base as an acceptor and a donor of the H-bonding. The transition states – TSA·T(WC↔A·T(wWC, TSA·T(rWC↔A·T(wrWC, TSA·T(H↔A·T(wH, and TSA·T(rH↔A·T(wrH, controlling the dipole-active transformations of the conformers from the main plane-symmetric state into the high-energy, significantly non-planar state and vice versa, were localized. They also possess wobble structures similarly to the high-energy conformers and are stabilized by the participation of the N6H/N6H′…O4/O2 and N3H…N6 H-bonds. Discovered conformers of the A·T DNA base pairs are dynamically stable short-lived structures [lifetime τ = (1.4–3.9 ps]. Their possible biological significance and future perspectives have been briefly discussed.

  8. Self-test web-based pure-tone audiometry: validity evaluation and measurement error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalski, Marcin; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2013-04-12

    Potential methods of application of self-administered Web-based pure-tone audiometry conducted at home on a PC with a sound card and ordinary headphones depend on the value of measurement error in such tests. The aim of this research was to determine the measurement error of the hearing threshold determined in the way described above and to identify and analyze factors influencing its value. The evaluation of the hearing threshold was made in three series: (1) tests on a clinical audiometer, (2) self-tests done on a specially calibrated computer under the supervision of an audiologist, and (3) self-tests conducted at home. The research was carried out on the group of 51 participants selected from patients of an audiology outpatient clinic. From the group of 51 patients examined in the first two series, the third series was self-administered at home by 37 subjects (73%). The average difference between the value of the hearing threshold determined in series 1 and in series 2 was -1.54dB with standard deviation of 7.88dB and a Pearson correlation coefficient of .90. Between the first and third series, these values were -1.35dB±10.66dB and .84, respectively. In series 3, the standard deviation was most influenced by the error connected with the procedure of hearing threshold identification (6.64dB), calibration error (6.19dB), and additionally at the frequency of 250Hz by frequency nonlinearity error (7.28dB). The obtained results confirm the possibility of applying Web-based pure-tone audiometry in screening tests. In the future, modifications of the method leading to the decrease in measurement error can broaden the scope of Web-based pure-tone audiometry application.

  9. The Aalborg Survey / Part 1 - Web Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 1 Web Base Survey The 1st part of the research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS) has been carried out during the period from December 1st 2007 to February 1st 2008 as a Web Based Survey of the 27.040 gross...... [statistikbanken.dk, a] young people aged 14-23 living in Aalborg Municipality in 2008. The web based questionnaire has been distributed among the group of young people studying at upper secondary schools in Aalborg, i.e. 7.680 young people [statistikbanken.dk, b]. The resulting data from those respondents who...

  10. Workers’ Conformism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivantchev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.

  11. The Mannheim-Kazanas solution, the conformal geometrodynamics and the dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbatenko, M. V.; Sedov, S. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Within the framework of the Einstein's standard equations of the general theory of relativity, flat galactic rotational curves of galaxies cannot be explained without hypothesis attracting the dark matter, the particles of which had not yet been identified. The vacuum central-symmetric solution of the equations of conformal gravitation is well known as metrics of Mannheim-Kazanas, on the basis of which these curves receive purely geometrical explanation. We show in our work that the metrics o...

  12. Particle versus field structure in conformal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2000-06-01

    I show that a particle structure in conformal field theory is incompatible with interactions. As a substitute one has particle-like excitations whose interpolating fields have in addition to their canonical dimension an anomalous contribution. The spectra of anomalous dimension is given in terms of the Lorentz invariant quadratic invariant (compact mass operator) of a conformal generator R μ with pure discrete spectrum. The perturbative reading of R o as a Hamiltonian in its own right, associated with an action in a functional integral setting naturally leads to the Ad S formulation. The formal service role of Ad S in order to access C QFT by a standard perturbative formalism (without being forced to understand first massive theories and then taking their scale-invariant limit) vastly increases the realm of conventionally accessible 4-dim. C QFT beyond those for which one had to use Lagrangians with supersymmetry in order to have a vanishing Beta-function. (author)

  13. Impact of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNMs) on the structural and functional conformations of hepcidin peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishna P.; Baweja, Lokesh; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Rahman, Qamar; Gupta, Shailendra K.

    2018-03-01

    Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNMs) are widely used in various industrial and biomedical applications. GBNMs of different compositions, size and shapes are being introduced without thorough toxicity evaluation due to the unavailability of regulatory guidelines. Computational toxicity prediction methods are used by regulatory bodies to quickly assess health hazards caused by newer materials. Due to increasing demand of GBNMs in various size and functional groups in industrial and consumer based applications, rapid and reliable computational toxicity assessment methods are urgently needed. In the present work, we investigate the impact of graphene and graphene oxide nanomaterials on the structural conformations of small hepcidin peptide and compare the materials for their structural and conformational changes. Our molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed conformational changes in hepcidin due to its interaction with GBMNs, which results in a loss of its functional properties. Our results indicate that hepcidin peptide undergo severe structural deformations when superimposed on the graphene sheet in comparison to graphene oxide sheet. These observations suggest that graphene is more toxic than a graphene oxide nanosheet of similar area. Overall, this study indicates that computational methods based on structural deformation, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, can be used for the early evaluation of toxicity potential of novel nanomaterials.

  14. Conformation radiotherapy and conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Kozo

    1999-01-01

    In order to coincide the high dose region to the target volume, the 'Conformation Radiotherapy Technique' using the multileaf collimator and the device for 'hollow-out technique' was developed by Prof. S. Takahashi in 1960. This technique can be classified a type of 2D-dynamic conformal RT techniques. By the clinical application of this technique, the late complications of the lens, the intestine and the urinary bladder after radiotherapy for the maxillary cancer and the cervical cancer decreased. Since 1980's the exact position and shape of the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues can be easily obtained by the tremendous development of the CT/MRI imaging technique. As a result, various kinds of new conformal techniques such as the 3D-CRT, the dose intensity modulation, the tomotherapy have been developed since the beginning of 1990'. Several 'dose escalation study with 2D-/3D conformal RT' is now under way to improve the treatment results. (author)

  15. Conformable variational iteration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Acan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  16. The Evolution of Facultative Conformity Based on Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferson, Charles; Lalive, Rafael; Cacault, Maria Paula; Kistler, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Conformist social learning can have a pronounced impact on the cultural evolution of human societies, and it can shape both the genetic and cultural evolution of human social behavior more broadly. Conformist social learning is beneficial when the social learner and the demonstrators from whom she learns are similar in the sense that the same behavior is optimal for both. Otherwise, the social learner's optimum is likely to be rare among demonstrators, and conformity is costly. The trade-off between these two situations has figured prominently in the longstanding debate about the evolution of conformity, but the importance of the trade-off can depend critically on the flexibility of one's social learning strategy. We developed a gene-culture coevolutionary model that allows cognition to encode and process information about the similarity between naive learners and experienced demonstrators. Facultative social learning strategies that condition on perceived similarity evolve under certain circumstances. When this happens, facultative adjustments are often asymmetric. Asymmetric adjustments mean that the tendency to follow the majority when learners perceive demonstrators as similar is stronger than the tendency to follow the minority when learners perceive demonstrators as different. In an associated incentivized experiment, we found that social learners adjusted how they used social information based on perceived similarity, but adjustments were symmetric. The symmetry of adjustments completely eliminated the commonly assumed trade-off between cases in which learners and demonstrators share an optimum versus cases in which they do not. In a second experiment that maximized the potential for social learners to follow their preferred strategies, a few social learners exhibited an inclination to follow the majority. Most, however, did not respond systematically to social information. Additionally, in the complete absence of information about their similarity to

  17. The Evolution of Facultative Conformity Based on Similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Efferson

    Full Text Available Conformist social learning can have a pronounced impact on the cultural evolution of human societies, and it can shape both the genetic and cultural evolution of human social behavior more broadly. Conformist social learning is beneficial when the social learner and the demonstrators from whom she learns are similar in the sense that the same behavior is optimal for both. Otherwise, the social learner's optimum is likely to be rare among demonstrators, and conformity is costly. The trade-off between these two situations has figured prominently in the longstanding debate about the evolution of conformity, but the importance of the trade-off can depend critically on the flexibility of one's social learning strategy. We developed a gene-culture coevolutionary model that allows cognition to encode and process information about the similarity between naive learners and experienced demonstrators. Facultative social learning strategies that condition on perceived similarity evolve under certain circumstances. When this happens, facultative adjustments are often asymmetric. Asymmetric adjustments mean that the tendency to follow the majority when learners perceive demonstrators as similar is stronger than the tendency to follow the minority when learners perceive demonstrators as different. In an associated incentivized experiment, we found that social learners adjusted how they used social information based on perceived similarity, but adjustments were symmetric. The symmetry of adjustments completely eliminated the commonly assumed trade-off between cases in which learners and demonstrators share an optimum versus cases in which they do not. In a second experiment that maximized the potential for social learners to follow their preferred strategies, a few social learners exhibited an inclination to follow the majority. Most, however, did not respond systematically to social information. Additionally, in the complete absence of information about their

  18. The Evolution of Facultative Conformity Based on Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferson, Charles; Lalive, Rafael; Cacault, Maria Paula; Kistler, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Conformist social learning can have a pronounced impact on the cultural evolution of human societies, and it can shape both the genetic and cultural evolution of human social behavior more broadly. Conformist social learning is beneficial when the social learner and the demonstrators from whom she learns are similar in the sense that the same behavior is optimal for both. Otherwise, the social learner’s optimum is likely to be rare among demonstrators, and conformity is costly. The trade-off between these two situations has figured prominently in the longstanding debate about the evolution of conformity, but the importance of the trade-off can depend critically on the flexibility of one’s social learning strategy. We developed a gene-culture coevolutionary model that allows cognition to encode and process information about the similarity between naive learners and experienced demonstrators. Facultative social learning strategies that condition on perceived similarity evolve under certain circumstances. When this happens, facultative adjustments are often asymmetric. Asymmetric adjustments mean that the tendency to follow the majority when learners perceive demonstrators as similar is stronger than the tendency to follow the minority when learners perceive demonstrators as different. In an associated incentivized experiment, we found that social learners adjusted how they used social information based on perceived similarity, but adjustments were symmetric. The symmetry of adjustments completely eliminated the commonly assumed trade-off between cases in which learners and demonstrators share an optimum versus cases in which they do not. In a second experiment that maximized the potential for social learners to follow their preferred strategies, a few social learners exhibited an inclination to follow the majority. Most, however, did not respond systematically to social information. Additionally, in the complete absence of information about their similarity to

  19. Maxwell equations in conformal invariant electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Avtomatiki i Ehlektrometrii); Kozhevnikov, A.A.; Palchik, M.Ya.; Pomeransky, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    We consider a conformal invariant formulation of quantum electrodynamics. Conformal invariance is achieved with a specific mathematical construction based on the indecomposable representations of the conformal group associated with the electromagnetic potential and current. As a corolary of this construction modified expressions for the 3-point Green functions are obtained which both contain transverse parts. They make it possible to formulate a conformal invariant skeleton perturbation theory. It is also shown that the Euclidean Maxwell equations in conformal electrodynamics are manifestations of its kinematical structure: in the case of the 3-point Green functions these equations follow (up to constants) from the conformal invariance while in the case of higher Green functions they are equivalent to the equality of the kernels of the partial wave expansions. This is the manifestation of the mathematical fast of a (partial) equivalence of the representations associated with the potential, current and the field tensor. (orig.)

  20. SCit: web tools for protein side chain conformation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, R.; Camproux, A.-C.; Tufféry, P.

    2004-01-01

    SCit is a web server providing services for protein side chain conformation analysis and side chain positioning. Specific services use the dependence of the side chain conformations on the local backbone conformation, which is described using a structural alphabet that describes the conformation of fragments of four-residue length in a limited library of structural prototypes. Based on this concept, SCit uses sets of rotameric conformations dependent on the local backbone conformation of each...

  1. Killing tensors and conformal Killing tensors from conformal Killing vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Raffaele; Edgar, S Brian; Barnes, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Koutras has proposed some methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give the completely general result demonstrating that this severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary. In addition, we correct and extend some results concerning Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. A number of examples demonstrate that it is possible to construct a much larger class of reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors than permitted by the Koutras algorithms. In particular, by showing that all conformal Killing tensors are reducible in conformally flat spaces, we have a method of constructing all conformal Killing tensors, and hence all the Killing tensors (which will in general be irreducible) of conformally flat spaces using their conformal Killing vectors

  2. Entanglement evolution across a conformal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xueda; Wang, Yuxuan; Ryu, Shinsei

    2018-05-01

    For two-dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) in the ground state, it is known that a conformal interface along the entanglement cut can suppress the entanglement entropy from to , where L is the length of the subsystem A, and is the effective central charge which depends on the transmission property of the conformal interface. In this work, by making use of conformal mappings, we show that a conformal interface has the same effect on entanglement evolution in non-equilibrium cases, including global, local and certain inhomogeneous quantum quenches. I.e. a conformal interface suppresses the time evolution of entanglement entropy by effectively replacing the central charge c with , where is exactly the same as that in the ground state case. We confirm this conclusion by a numerical study on a critical fermion chain. Furthermore, based on the quasi-particle picture, we conjecture that this conclusion holds for an arbitrary quantum quench in CFTs, as long as the initial state can be described by a regularized conformal boundary state.

  3. Conformal cosmological model and SNe Ia data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Pervushin, V. N.

    2012-01-01

    Now there is a huge scientific activity in astrophysical studies and cosmological ones in particular. Cosmology transforms from a pure theoretical branch of science into an observational one. All the cosmological models have to pass observational tests. The supernovae type Ia (SNe Ia) test is among the most important ones. If one applies the test to determine parameters of the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model one can conclude that observations lead to the discovery of the dominance of the Λ term and as a result to an acceleration of the Universe. However, there are big mysteries connected with an origin and an essence of dark matter (DM) and the Λ term or dark energy (DE). Alternative theories of gravitation are treated as a possible solution of DM and DE puzzles. The conformal cosmological approach is one of possible alternatives to the standard ΛCDM model. As it was noted several years ago, in the framework of the conformal cosmological approach an introduction of a rigid matter can explain observational data without Λ term (or dark energy). We confirm the claim with much larger set of observational data.

  4. Research on the Value Evaluation of Used Pure Electric Car Based on the Replacement Cost Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, zhengping; Cai, yun; Wang, yidong; Mao, pan

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the value evaluation of the used pure electric car is carried out by the replacement cost method, which fills the blank of the value evaluation of the electric vehicle. The basic principle of using the replacement cost method, combined with the actual cost of pure electric cars, puts forward the calculation method of second-hand electric car into a new rate based on the use of AHP method to construct the weight matrix comprehensive adjustment coefficient of related factors, the improved method of value evaluation system for second-hand car

  5. The Aalborg Survey / Part 3 - Interview Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm; Jensen, Maria Vestergaard

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 3 - Interview Based Survey The 3rd part of the DUS research project has been carried out during the fall of 2009 and the summer and fall of 2010 as an interview based survey of 18 selected participants (nine...

  6. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.

  7. Conformity-based cooperation in online social networks: The effect of heterogeneous social influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the conformity model by introducing heterogeneous social influence into the analysis. We associate the influence of a player in the network with its degree centrality assuming that players of higher degree exhibit more social influence on its neighbors. The results show that the equilibrium level of cooperators can be dramatically enhanced if the conformity-driven players are preferentially influenced by neighbors of higher degree. We attribute this finding to two elementary mechanisms in the evolutionary process: (1) degree-based social influence facilitates the formation of strategic clusters around hubs; and (2) payoff-heterogeneity between cooperative clusters and defective clusters contributes to the promotion of cooperation. This research reveals the important role of heterogeneous social influence on the emergence of cooperation in social networks.

  8. DOA Estimation of Cylindrical Conformal Array Based on Geometric Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the variable curvature of the conformal carrier, the pattern of each element has a different direction. The traditional method of analyzing the conformal array is to use the Euler rotation angle and its matrix representation. However, it is computationally demanding especially for irregular array structures. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm by combining the geometric algebra with Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC, termed as GA-MUSIC, to solve the direction of arrival (DOA for cylindrical conformal array. And on this basis, we derive the pattern and array manifold. Compared with the existing algorithms, our proposed one avoids the cumbersome matrix transformations and largely decreases the computational complexity. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. SCit: web tools for protein side chain conformation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, R; Camproux, A-C; Tufféry, P

    2004-07-01

    SCit is a web server providing services for protein side chain conformation analysis and side chain positioning. Specific services use the dependence of the side chain conformations on the local backbone conformation, which is described using a structural alphabet that describes the conformation of fragments of four-residue length in a limited library of structural prototypes. Based on this concept, SCit uses sets of rotameric conformations dependent on the local backbone conformation of each protein for side chain positioning and the identification of side chains with unlikely conformations. The SCit web server is accessible at http://bioserv.rpbs.jussieu.fr/SCit.

  10. Multiple receptor conformers based molecular docking study of fluorine enhanced ethionamide with mycobacterium enoyl ACP reductase (InhA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akib Mahmud; Shawon, Jakaria; Halim, Mohammad A

    2017-10-01

    A major limitation in current molecular docking method is that of failure to account for receptor flexibility. Herein we report multiple receptor conformers based molecular docking as a practical alternative to account for the receptor flexibility. Multiple (forty) conformers of Mycobacterium Enoyl ACP Reductase (InhA) are generated from Molecular Dynamics simulation and twenty crystallographic structures of InhA bound to different inhibitors are obtained from the Protein Data Bank. Fluorine directed modifications are performed to currently available anti-tuberculosis drug ethionamide. The modified drugs are optimized using B3LYP 6-31G (d,p) level of theory. Dipole moment, frontier orbital gap and thermodynamical properties such as electronic energy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of these optimized drugs are investigated. These drugs are subsequently docked against the conformers of InhA. Molecular docking against multiple InhA conformations show variation in ligand binding affinity and suggest that Ser94, Gly96, Lys165 and Ile194 amino acids play critical role on strong drug-InhA interaction. Modified drug N1 showed greater binding affinity compared to EN in most conformations. Structure of PDB ID: 2NSD and snapshot conformer at 5.5ns show most favorable binding with N1 compared to other conformers. Fluorine participates in forming fluorine bonds and contributes significantly in increasing binding affinity. Our study reveal that addition of trifluoromethyl group explicitly shows promise in improving thermodynamic properties and in enhancing hydrogen bonding and non-bonded interactions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation show that EN and N1 remained in the binding pocket similar to the docked pose of EN-InhA and E1-InhA complexes and also suggested that InhA binds to its inhibitor in inhibitor-induced folding manner. ADMET calculations predict modified drugs to have improved pharmacokinetic properties. Our study concludes that multiple receptor conformers based

  11. Tris[(6S)-6-hy-droxy-4-epi-shikimic acid] monohydrate: an enanti-omerically pure hy-droxy-lated shikimic acid derived from methyl shikimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbeck, Axel G; Miara, Claus; Neudörfl, Jörg-M

    2012-11-01

    The title compound, 3C(7)H(10)O(6)·H(2)O, is the enanti-omerically pure product of a multi-step synthesis from the enanti-omerically pure natural shikimic acid. The asymmetric unit contains three mol-ecules of the acid and one mol-ecule of water. The cyclo-hexene rings of the acids have half-chair conformations. The carboxyl-ate, the four hydroxide groups and the additional water mol-ecule form a complex three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network.

  12. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  13. Conformational Analysis of Contrast Media for X-Ray Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solieman, A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The conformational analysis of iodinated non-ionic contrast agent, Iobitridol, was carried out using theoretical calculations to explore its conformational space, and to study different aspects connected with application of different search techniques. Monte Carlo (MC), random search (RS) and molecular dynamics (MD) based conformational search techniques were used to extract a reasonable-size sample that adequately represents and has an average behavior of the entire conformational ensemble.While MC is good for quick search for lowest energy conformer, RS is better in obtaining conformational sample that cover the whole conformational space and MD is the best for investigation of isomeric preferences inside the conformational ensemble at thermal equilibrium. Conformational analysis of the produced gas phase samples reveals that RS and MD methods could sufficiently present the 18 distinct isomeric classes that constitute the total conformational space of the Iobitridol. S samples of conformational space of Iobitridol are extensively studied, as it hypothetically cover the total conformational space. They are used to test the suitability of different methods (charge distribution methods, energy calculation methods) for Iobitridol molecular computations and internal structure forces (steric hindrance, resonance interaction), as well as dependences among the internal coordinates (dihedral angles correlations and coincidences). The atomic partial charge distribution is found to greatly affect the energy calculation for the molecular mechanics based conformational energy distributions. Further energy minimization of conformational sample by the quantum molecular orbital methods is crucial to obtain charge independent as well as energy balanced conformational sample.

  14. A new topology for curved space--time which incorporates the causal, differential, and conformal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.; King, A.R.; McCarthy, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A new topology is proposed for strongly causal space--times. Unlike the standard manifold topology (which merely characterizes continuity properties), the new topology determines the causal, differential, and conformal structures of space--time. The topology is more appealing, physical, and manageable than the topology previously proposed by Zeeman for Minkowski space. It thus seems that many calculations involving the above structures may be made purely topological

  15. Methodology for performing surveys for fixed contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, J.S.; Gardner, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a methodology for performing instrument surveys for fixed contamination that can be used to support the release of material from radiological areas, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology, which is based on a fast scan survey and a series of statistical, fixed measurements, meets the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for surveys for fixed contamination and requires less time than a conventional scan survey. The confidence interval associated with the new methodology conforms to the draft national standard for surveys. The methodology that is presented applies only to surveys for fixed contamination. Surveys for removable contamination are not discussed, and the new methodology does not affect surveys for removable contamination

  16. Conformational elasticity can facilitate TALE-DNA recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongxing; Sun, Jiya; Baldwin, Enoch P; Segal, David J; Duan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Sequence-programmable transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins have emerged as a highly efficient tool for genome engineering. Recent crystal structures depict a transition between an open unbound solenoid and more compact DNA-bound solenoid formed by the 34 amino acid repeats. How TALEs switch conformation between these two forms without substantial energetic compensation, and how the repeat-variable di-residues (RVDs) discriminate between the cognate base and other bases still remain unclear. Computational analysis on these two aspects of TALE-DNA interaction mechanism has been conducted in order to achieve a better understanding of the energetics. High elasticity was observed in the molecular dynamics simulations of DNA-free TALE structure that started from the bound conformation where it sampled a wide range of conformations including the experimentally determined apo and bound conformations. This elastic feature was also observed in the simulations starting from the apo form which suggests low free energy barrier between the two conformations and small compensation required upon binding. To analyze binding specificity, we performed free energy calculations of various combinations of RVDs and bases using Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (PBSA) and other approaches. The PBSA calculations indicated that the native RVD-base structures had lower binding free energy than mismatched structures for most of the RVDs examined. Our theoretical analyses provided new insight on the dynamics and energetics of TALE-DNA binding mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Refurbishment of JMTR pure water facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Norikazu; Hanakawa, Hiroki; Kusunoki, Hidehiko; Satou, Shinichi

    2012-05-01

    In the refurbishment of JMTR, facilities were classified into which (1) were all updated, (2) were partly updated, and (3) were continuance used by the considerations of the maintenance history, the change parts availability and the latest technology. The JMTR pure water facility was classified into all updated facility based on the consideration. The Update construction was conducted in between FY2007 and FY2008. The refurbishment of JMTR pure water facility is summarized in this report. (author)

  18. Entanglement entropy of 2D conformal quantum critical points: hearing the shape of a quantum drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Moore, Joel E

    2006-08-04

    The entanglement entropy of a pure quantum state of a bipartite system A union or logical sumB is defined as the von Neumann entropy of the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over one of the two parts. In one dimension, the entanglement of critical ground states diverges logarithmically in the subsystem size, with a universal coefficient that for conformally invariant critical points is related to the central charge of the conformal field theory. We find that the entanglement entropy of a standard class of z=2 conformal quantum critical points in two spatial dimensions, in addition to a nonuniversal "area law" contribution linear in the size of the AB boundary, generically has a universal logarithmically divergent correction, which is completely determined by the geometry of the partition and by the central charge of the field theory that describes the critical wave function.

  19. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  20. Rehabilitation of pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie

    2013-01-01

    that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions like alexia severity, and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia......-designed and controlled studies of rehabilitation of pure alexia....

  1. (Invited) Pure Dopant Deposition of B and Ga for Ultrashallow Junctions in Si-based Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanver, L.K.; Sammak, A.; Mohammadi, V.; Mok, K.R.C.; Qi, L.; Sakic, A.; Golshani, N.; Darakhshandeh, J.; Scholtes, T.M.L.; De Boer, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Envisioning wide future relevance, work is reviewed here on the pure dopant deposition of boron (PureB), gallium (PureGa) and the combination of the two (PureGaB), as used in the fabrication of nanometer shallow p+n Si and/or Ge diodes. Focus is placed on the special properties that have put these

  2. Introduction to twisted conformal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A pedagogical account is given of the recent developments in the theory of twisted conformal fields. Among other things, the main part of the lecture concerns the construction of the twist-emission vertex operator, which is a generalization of the fermion emission vertex in the superstring theory. Several different forms of the vertex are derived and their mutural relationships are clarified. In this paper, the authors include a brief survey of the history of the fermion emission vertex, as it offers a good perspective in which to appreciate the logical development

  3. A FAST MORPHING-BASED INTERPOLATION FOR MEDICAL IMAGES: APPLICATION TO CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Atoui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for fast interpolation between medical images. The method is intended for both slice and projective interpolation. It allows offline interpolation between neighboring slices in tomographic data. Spatial correspondence between adjacent images is established using a block matching algorithm. Interpolation of image intensities is then carried out by morphing between the images. The morphing-based method is compared to standard linear interpolation, block-matching-based interpolation and registrationbased interpolation in 3D tomographic data sets. Results show that the proposed method scored similar performance in comparison to registration-based interpolation, and significantly outperforms both linear and block-matching-based interpolation. This method is applied in the context of conformal radiotherapy for online projective interpolation between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs.

  4. Quantum Conformal Algebras and Closed Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the quantum conformal algebras of N=2 and N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. Phenomena occurring at strong coupling are analysed using the Nachtmann theorem and very general, model-independent, arguments. The results lead us to introduce a novel class of conformal field theories, identified by a closed quantum conformal algebra. We conjecture that they are the exact solution to the strongly coupled large-N_c limit of the open conformal field theories. We study the basic properties of closed conformal field theory and work out the operator product expansion of the conserved current multiplet T. The OPE structure is uniquely determined by two central charges, c and a. The multiplet T does not contain just the stress-tensor, but also R-currents and finite mass operators. For this reason, the ratio c/a is different from 1. On the other hand, an open algebra contains an infinite tower of non-conserved currents, organized in pairs and singlets with respect to renormalization mixing. T mixes with a se...

  5. C-metric solution for conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Kun, E-mail: mengkun@tjpu.edu.cn [School of Science, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhao, Liu, E-mail: lzhao@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2017-02-15

    The C-metric solution of conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field is presented. The solution belongs to the class of Petrov type D spacetimes and is conformal to the standard AdS C-metric appeared in vacuum Einstein gravity. For all parameter ranges, we identify some of the physically interesting static regions and the corresponding coordinate ranges. The solution may contain a black hole event horizon, an acceleration horizon, either of which may be cut by the conformal infinity or be hidden behind the conformal infinity. Since the model is conformally invariant, we also discussed the possible effects of the conformal gauge choices on the structure of the spacetime.

  6. Neural signatures of social conformity: A coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Yi; Feng, Chunliang

    2016-12-01

    People often align their behaviors with group opinions, known as social conformity. Many neuroscience studies have explored the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social conformity. Here we employed a coordinate-based meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of social conformity with the purpose to reveal the convergence of the underlying neural architecture. We identified a convergence of reported activation foci in regions associated with normative decision-making, including ventral striatum (VS), dorsal posterior medial frontal cortex (dorsal pMFC), and anterior insula (AI). Specifically, consistent deactivation of VS and activation of dorsal pMFC and AI are identified when people's responses deviate from group opinions. In addition, the deviation-related responses in dorsal pMFC predict people's conforming behavioral adjustments. These are consistent with current models that disagreement with others might evoke "error" signals, cognitive imbalance, and/or aversive feelings, which are plausibly detected in these brain regions as control signals to facilitate subsequent conforming behaviors. Finally, group opinions result in altered neural correlates of valuation, manifested as stronger responses of VS to stimuli endorsed than disliked by others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Geometrical formulation of the conformal Ward identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachkachi, M.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper we use deep ideas in complex geometry that proved to be very powerful in unveiling the Polyakov measure on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces and lead to obtain the partition function of perturbative string theory for 2, 3, 4 loops. Indeed, a geometrical interpretation of the conformal Ward identity in two dimensional conformal field theory is proposed: the conformal anomaly is interpreted as a deformation of the complex structure of the basic Riemann surface. This point of view is in line with the modern trend of geometric quantizations that are based on deformations of classical structures. Then, we solve the conformal Ward identity by using this geometrical formalism. (author)

  8. Bioactive focus in conformational ensembles: a pluralistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habgood, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Computational generation of conformational ensembles is key to contemporary drug design. Selecting the members of the ensemble that will approximate the conformation most likely to bind to a desired target (the bioactive conformation) is difficult, given that the potential energy usually used to generate and rank the ensemble is a notoriously poor discriminator between bioactive and non-bioactive conformations. In this study an approach to generating a focused ensemble is proposed in which each conformation is assigned multiple rankings based not just on potential energy but also on solvation energy, hydrophobic or hydrophilic interaction energy, radius of gyration, and on a statistical potential derived from Cambridge Structural Database data. The best ranked structures derived from each system are then assembled into a new ensemble that is shown to be better focused on bioactive conformations. This pluralistic approach is tested on ensembles generated by the Molecular Operating Environment's Low Mode Molecular Dynamics module, and by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's conformation generator software.

  9. Conducting Web-based Surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Solomon

    2001-01-01

    Web-based surveying is becoming widely used in social science and educational research. The Web offers significant advantages over more traditional survey techniques however there are still serious methodological challenges with using this approach. Currently coverage bias or the fact significant numbers of people do not have access, or choose not to use the Internet is of most concern to researchers. Survey researchers also have much to learn concerning the most effective ways to conduct s...

  10. Paper based Flexible and Conformal SERS Substrate for Rapid Trace Detection on Real-world Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srikanth; Lee, Chang; Tian, Limei

    2011-03-01

    One of the important but often overlooked considerations in the design of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for trace detection is the efficiency of sample collection. Conventional designs based on rigid substrates such as silicon, alumina, and glass resist conformal contact with the surface under investigation, making the sample collection inefficient. We demonstrate a novel SERS substrate based on common filter paper adsorbed with gold nanorods, which allows conformal contact with real-world surfaces, thus dramatically enhancing the sample collection efficiency compared to conventional rigid substrates. We demonstrate the detection of trace amounts of analyte (140 pg spread over 4 cm2) by simply swabbing the surface under investigation with the novel SERS substrate. The hierarchical fibrous structure of paper serves as a 3D vasculature for easy uptake and transport of the analytes to the electromagnetic hot spots in the paper. Simple yet highly efficient and cost effective SERS substrate demonstrated here brings SERS based trace detection closer to real-world applications. We acknowledge the financial support from Center for Materials Innovation at Washington University.

  11. Non-conformable, partial and conformable transposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2013-01-01

    and the Commission regarding a directive’s outcome, play a much more strategic role than has to date acknowledged in the transposition literature. Whereas disagreement of a member state delays conformable transposition, it speeds up non-conformable transposition. Disagreement of the Commission only prolongs...... the transposition process. We therefore conclude that a stronger focus on an effective sanctioning mechanism is warranted for safeguarding compliance with directives....

  12. Conformational analysis of a covalently cross-linked Watson-Crick base pair model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erik A; Allen, Benjamin D; Kishi, Yoshito; O'Leary, Daniel J

    2008-11-15

    Low-temperature NMR experiments and molecular modeling have been used to characterize the conformational behavior of a covalently cross-linked DNA base pair model. The data suggest that Watson-Crick or reverse Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding geometries have similar energies and can interconvert at low temperatures. This low-temperature process involves rotation about the crosslink CH(2)C(5') (psi) carbon-carbon bond, which is energetically preferred over the alternate CH(2)N(3) (phi) carbon-nitrogen bond rotation.

  13. Conformal Einstein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)

  14. Advanced Small Animal Conformal Radiation Therapy Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Przybyla, Beata; Webber, Jessica; Boerma, Marjan; Clarkson, Richard; Moros, Eduardo G; Corry, Peter M; Griffin, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a small animal conformal radiation therapy device that provides a degree of geometrical/anatomical targeting comparable to what is achievable in a commercial animal irradiator. small animal conformal radiation therapy device is capable of producing precise and accurate conformal delivery of radiation to target as well as for imaging small animals. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device uses an X-ray tube, a robotic animal position system, and a digital imager. The system is in a steel enclosure with adequate lead shielding following National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 49 guidelines and verified with Geiger-Mueller survey meter. The X-ray source is calibrated following AAPM TG-61 specifications and mounted at 101.6 cm from the floor, which is a primary barrier. The X-ray tube is mounted on a custom-made "gantry" and has a special collimating assembly system that allows field size between 0.5 mm and 20 cm at isocenter. Three-dimensional imaging can be performed to aid target localization using the same X-ray source at custom settings and an in-house reconstruction software. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device thus provides an excellent integrated system to promote translational research in radiation oncology in an academic laboratory. The purpose of this article is to review shielding and dosimetric measurement and highlight a few successful studies that have been performed to date with our system. In addition, an example of new data from an in vivo rat model of breast cancer is presented in which spatially fractionated radiation alone and in combination with thermal ablation was applied and the therapeutic benefit examined.

  15. Conformal Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)

  16. Conformal special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the information loss/recovery theorem based on the ADS/CFT correspondence is not consistent with the stability of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. Nonetheless, the conformal invariance of Yang-Mills theory points to new relativity principle compatible with quantum unitarity near those black holes

  17. Conformational effects in photoelectron circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchini, S.

    2017-12-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) is a novel type of spectroscopy, which presents surprising sensitivity to conformational effects in chiral systems. While classical photoelectron spectroscopy mainly responds to conformational effects in terms of energy level shifts, PECD provides a rich and detailed response to tiny changes in electronic and structural properties by means of the intensity dispersion of the circular dichroism as a function of photoelectron kinetic energy. In this work, the basics of PECD will be outlined, emphasizing the role of interference from the l,l+/- 1 outgoing partial wave of the photoelectron in the PECD transition matrix element, which is responsible for the extreme sensitivity to conformational effects. Examples using molecular systems and interfaces will shed light on the powerful application of PECD to classical conformational effects such as group substitution, isomerism, conformer population and clustering. Moreover, the PECD results will be reported in challenging new fields where conformations play a key role, such as vibrational effects, transient chirality and time- resolved experiments. To date, PECD has mostly been based on synchrotron radiation facilities, but it also has a future as a table-top lab experiment by means of multiphoton ionization. An important application of PECD as an analytical tool will be reported. The aim of this review is to illustrate that in PECD, the presence of conformational effects is essential for understanding a wide range of effects from a new perspective, making it different from classical spectroscopy.

  18. Conformational dynamics data bank: a database for conformational dynamics of proteins and supramolecular protein assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Nyun; Altschuler, Josiah; Strong, Campbell; McGill, Gaël; Bathe, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The conformational dynamics data bank (CDDB, http://www.cdyn.org) is a database that aims to provide comprehensive results on the conformational dynamics of high molecular weight proteins and protein assemblies. Analysis is performed using a recently introduced coarse-grained computational approach that is applied to the majority of structures present in the electron microscopy data bank (EMDB). Results include equilibrium thermal fluctuations and elastic strain energy distributions that identify rigid versus flexible protein domains generally, as well as those associated with specific functional transitions, and correlations in molecular motions that identify molecular regions that are highly coupled dynamically, with implications for allosteric mechanisms. A practical web-based search interface enables users to easily collect conformational dynamics data in various formats. The data bank is maintained and updated automatically to include conformational dynamics results for new structural entries as they become available in the EMDB. The CDDB complements static structural information to facilitate the investigation and interpretation of the biological function of proteins and protein assemblies essential to cell function.

  19. Combined gauge-mediated and anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking and conformal sequestering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundrum, Raman

    2005-01-01

    Anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking in the context of 4D conformally sequestered models is combined with Poppitz-Trivedi D-type gauge-mediation. The implementation of the two mediation mechanisms naturally leads to visible soft masses at the same scale so that they can cooperatively solve the μ and flavor problems of weak scale supersymmetry, as well as the tachyonic-slepton problem of pure anomaly-mediation. The tools are developed in a modular fashion for more readily fitting into the general program of optimizing supersymmetric dynamics in hunting for the most attractive weak scale phenomenologies combined with Planck-scale plausibility

  20. Genus two partition functions of extremal conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Yin Xi

    2007-01-01

    Recently Witten conjectured the existence of a family of 'extremal' conformal field theories (ECFTs) of central charge c = 24k, which are supposed to be dual to three-dimensional pure quantum gravity in AdS 3 . Assuming their existence, we determine explicitly the genus two partition functions of k = 2 and k = 3 ECFTs, using modular invariance and the behavior of the partition function in degenerating limits of the Riemann surface. The result passes highly nontrivial tests and in particular provides a piece of evidence for the existence of the k = 3 ECFT. We also argue that the genus two partition function of ECFTs with k ≤ 10 are uniquely fixed (if they exist)

  1. Conformational Analysis of a Covalently Cross-Linked Watson-Crick Base Pair Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Erik A.; Allen, Benjamin D.; Kishi, Yoshito; O'Leary, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Low temperature NMR experiments and molecular modeling have been used to characterize the conformational behavior of a covalently cross-linked DNA base pair model. The data suggest that Watson-Crick or reverse Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding geometries have similar energies and can interconvert at low temperatures. This low-temperature process involves rotation about the crosslink CH2–C(5′) (ψ) carbon-carbon bond, which is energetically preferred over the alternate CH2–N(3) (ϕ) carbon-nitrogen ...

  2. Color Spectrum Properties of Pure and Non-Pure LATEX in Discriminating Rubber Clone Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Aishah Khairuzzaman; Hadzli Hashim; Nina Korlina Madzhi; Noor Ezan Abdullah; Faridatul Aima Ismail; Ahmad Faiz Sampian; Azhana Fatnin Che Will

    2015-01-01

    A study of color spectrum properties for pure and non-pure latex in discriminating rubber clone series has been presented in this paper. There were five types of clones from the same series being used as samples in this study named RRIM2002, RRIM2007, RRIM2008, RRIM2014, and RRIM3001. The main objective is to identify the significant color spectrum (RGB) from pure and non-pure latex that can discriminate rubber clone series. The significant information of color spectrum properties for pure and non-pure latex is determined by using spectrometer and Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Visible light spectrum (VIS) is used as a radiation light of the spectrometer to emit light to the surface of the latex sample. By using SPSS software, the further numerical analysis of color spectrum properties is being conducted. As the conclusion, blue color spectrum for non-pure is able to discriminate for all rubber clone series whereas only certain color spectrum can differentiate several clone series for pure latex. (author)

  3. The effect of conformity tendency on pedestrians' road-crossing intentions in China: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Horrey, William J; Yu, Ruifeng

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a survey investigating the effects of age, gender and conformity tendency on Chinese pedestrians' intention to cross the road in potentially dangerous situations. A sample of 426 respondents completed a demographic questionnaire, a scale measuring their tendency towards social conformity, and a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This questionnaire measured people's intentions to cross the road in two different road crossing situations, their attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, anticipated affect, moral norms, and perceived risk. The two scenarios depicted (i) a situation where the crossing was consistent with other pedestrians' behavior (Conformity scenario) and (ii) a situation where the road crossing was inconsistent with other pedestrians (Non-Conformity scenario). Pedestrians reported greater likelihood in crossing the road when other pedestrians were crossing the road. People who showed greater tendencies towards social conformity also had stronger road crossing intentions than low conformity people for both scenarios. The predictive model explained 36% and 48% of the variance in the Non-Conformity and Conformity scenarios, respectively. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and perceived risk emerged as the common predictors for both situations. The results have a number of theoretical and practical implications. In particular, interventions should focus on perceptions of risk that inform road users that crossing with other pedestrians against the signal is also unsafe and prohibited, and may lead to negative outcomes.

  4. Conformal symmetry in two-dimensional space: recursion representation of conformal block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The four-point conformal block plays an important part in the analysis of the conformally invariant operator algebra in two-dimensional space. The behavior of the conformal block is calculated in the present paper in the limit in which the dimension Δ of the intermediate operator tends to infinity. This makes it possible to construct a recursion relation for this function that connects the conformal block at arbitrary Δ to the blocks corresponding to the dimensions of the zero vectors in the degenerate representations of the Virasoro algebra. The relation is convenient for calculating the expansion of the conformal block in powers of the uniformizing parameters q = i π tau

  5. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel F. Paulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  6. Conformal Invariance in the Long-Range Ising Model

    CERN Document Server

    Paulos, Miguel F; van Rees, Balt C; Zan, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  7. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulos, Miguel F. [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Rychkov, Slava, E-mail: slava.rychkov@lpt.ens.fr [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l' École Normale Supérieure (LPTENS), Paris (France); Faculté de Physique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris (France); Rees, Balt C. van [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Zan, Bernardo [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  8. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-11-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  9. Bootstrap bound for conformal multi-flavor QCD on lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University,Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-07-08

    The recent work by Iha et al. shows an upper bound on mass anomalous dimension γ{sub m} of multi-flavor massless QCD at the renormalization group fixed point from the conformal bootstrap in SU(N{sub F}){sub V} symmetric conformal field theories under the assumption that the fixed point is realizable with the lattice regularization based on staggered fermions. We show that the almost identical but slightly stronger bound applies to the regularization based on Wilson fermions (or domain wall fermions) by studying the conformal bootstrap in SU(N{sub f}){sub L}×SU(N{sub f}){sub R} symmetric conformal field theories. For N{sub f}=8, our bound implies γ{sub m}<1.31 to avoid dangerously irrelevant operators that are not compatible with the lattice symmetry.

  10. Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1-100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S 3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities

  11. Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D¯3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1 100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities.

  12. Pure- and mixed-gas propylene/propane permeation properties of spiro- and triptycene-based microporous polyimides

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy J.; Ghanem, Bader; Swaidan, Raja; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processable polyimides of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PIs) comprising relatively inflexible and contorted backbones have demonstrated outstanding molecular-sieving behavior in membrane-based separation of gas/gas pairs. In this work, the effects of systematically increasing intra-chain rigidity on the propylene/propane separation properties were compared for PIM-PIs made from 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine (TMPD) and (i) spiro-centered dianhyride (SPDA-TMPD or PIM-PI-1) and (ii) 9,10-diisopropyltriptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA-TMPD or KAUST PI-1). Pure-gas experiments at 2 bar and 35 oC showed significant increases in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity by transitioning from PIM-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=393 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=6) to KAUST-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=817 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=16), positioning KAUST-PI-1 considerably above the experimentally observed pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 polymer upper bound. However, 50:50 C3H6/C3H8 mixed-gas feeds induced significant losses in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity relative to the 2 bar pure-gas data for PIM-PI-1 and KAUST-PI-1 as the C3H6/C3H8 selectivity dropped from 6 to 3 and 16 to 5, respectively, at 2 bar C3H6 partial pressure due to plasticization and competitive sorption.

  13. Pure- and mixed-gas propylene/propane permeation properties of spiro- and triptycene-based microporous polyimides

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy Jawdat

    2015-06-03

    Solution-processable polyimides of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PIs) comprising relatively inflexible and contorted backbones have demonstrated outstanding molecular-sieving behavior in membrane-based separation of gas/gas pairs. In this work, the effects of systematically increasing intra-chain rigidity on the propylene/propane separation properties were compared for PIM-PIs made from 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine (TMPD) and (i) spiro-centered dianhyride (SPDA-TMPD or PIM-PI-1) and (ii) 9,10-diisopropyltriptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA-TMPD or KAUST PI-1). Pure-gas experiments at 2 bar and 35 oC showed significant increases in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity by transitioning from PIM-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=393 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=6) to KAUST-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=817 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=16), positioning KAUST-PI-1 considerably above the experimentally observed pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 polymer upper bound. However, 50:50 C3H6/C3H8 mixed-gas feeds induced significant losses in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity relative to the 2 bar pure-gas data for PIM-PI-1 and KAUST-PI-1 as the C3H6/C3H8 selectivity dropped from 6 to 3 and 16 to 5, respectively, at 2 bar C3H6 partial pressure due to plasticization and competitive sorption.

  14. Conformation sensitive charge transport in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattias Andersson, L.; Hedström, Svante; Persson, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Temperature dependent charge carrier mobility measurements using field effect transistors and density functional theory calculations are combined to show how the conformation dependent frontier orbital delocalization influences the hole- and electron mobilities in a donor-acceptor based polymer. A conformationally sensitive lowest unoccupied molecular orbital results in an electron mobility that decreases with increasing temperature above room temperature, while a conformationally stable highest occupied molecular orbital is consistent with a conventional hole mobility behavior and also proposed to be one of the reasons for why the material works well as a hole transporter in amorphous bulk heterojunction solar cells

  15. Parametrization of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol based on the generalized AMBER force field provides realistic agreement between experimental and calculated properties of pure liquid as well as water-mixed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymětal, Jiří; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2014-09-04

    We present a novel force field model of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) based on the generalized AMBER force field. The model was exhaustively parametrized to reproduce liquid-state properties of pure TFE, namely, density, enthalpy of vaporization, self-diffusion coefficient, and population of trans and gauche conformers. The model predicts excellently other liquid-state properties such as shear viscosity, thermal expansion coefficient, and isotropic compressibility. The resulting model describes unexpectedly well the state equation of the liquid region in the range of 100 K and 10 MPa. More importantly, the proposed TFE model was optimized for use in combination with the TIP4P/Ew and TIP4P/2005 water models. It does not manifest excessive aggregation, which is known for other models, and therefore, it is supposed to more realistically describe the behavior of TFE/water mixtures. This was demonstrated by means of the Kirkwood-Buff theory of solutions and reasonable agreement with experimental data. We explored a considerable part of the parameter space and systematically tested individual combinations of parameters for performance in combination with the TIP4P/Ew and TIP4P/2005 water models. We observed ambiguity in parameters describing pure liquid TFE; however, most of them failed for TFE/water mixtures. We clearly demonstrated the necessity for balanced TFE-TFE, TFE-water, and water-water interactions which can be acquired only by employing implicit polarization correction in the course of parametrization.

  16. Brainstem tolerance to conformal radiotherapy of skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debus, J.; Hug, E.B.; Munzenrider, J.E.; Liebsch, N.J.; O'Farrell, D.; Efird, J.; Daly, W.; Suit, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Brainstem tolerance to inhomogenous radiation doses applied by modern conformal radiotherapy has not yet been examined. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of brainstem toxicity in patients treated for skull base tumors with high dose conformal radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Between 1974 and 1995, 367 patients with chordomas (n=195) and chondrosarcomas (n=172) of the base of skull have been treated with combined megavoltage photon and 160 MeV proton radiotherapy. All patients had previously undergone biopsy, subtotal or total tumor removal. 104 patients had two or more surgical procedures before radiotherapy. Following 3D treatment planning with delineation of target volumes and critical non-target structures, dose distributions and dose volume histograms were calculated [at the time of treatment delivery]. Radiotherapy was given once a day, 1.8 Gy or CGE (Cobalt Gy Equivalent: Proton Gy X 1.1) per fraction, 5 fractions per week, with prescribed target doses ranging from 63 CGE to 79.2 CGE (mean = 67.8 CGE). Doses to the brainstem surface were limited to ≤64 CGE and to the brainstem center to ≤53 CGE. Dose distributions were developed to limit dose to brainstem surface and center; current plans limit dose to surface and center to ≤64 CGE and ≤53 CGE, respectively. Brainstem toxicity was scored according to the RTOG grading system. Results: Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 21.4 years (mean = 42.5 months). Brainstem symptoms, attributable to the treatment, developed in 17 of 282 patients with local tumor control (6.0%), resulting in death of three patients. The mean time to onset of symptoms was 17 months (range: 4.5 to 177 months). These symptoms appeared in 89.5% within 3 years. Grading of the brainstem toxicity is listed in table 1. Actuarial rates of 5 and 10 year toxicity free survival were 87% and 82% respectively. Increased risk of brainstem toxicity was significantly associated with maximum brainstem dose

  17. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  18. Pure Surface Texture Mapping Technology and it's Application for Mirror Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of pure surface texture mapping technology, pure texture surface rendering method is proposed. The method is combined pure surface texture rendering and view mirror, real-time rendering has an index of refraction, reflection, and the flow of water ripple effect. Through the experimental verification of the validity of the algorithm.

  19. Conformal Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauendiener Jörg

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, ``conformal infinity'' is related with almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved out of physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation and how it lends itself very naturally to solve radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  20. Conformal Infinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendiener, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, "conformal infinity" is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  1. Mutation in CPT1C Associated With Pure Autosomal Dominant Spastic Paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Carlo; Schmidt, Thomas; Situ, Alan J; Johnson, Janel O; Lee, Philip R; Chen, Ke-Lian; Bott, Laura C; Fadó, Rut; Harmison, George H; Parodi, Sara; Grunseich, Christopher; Renvoisé, Benoît; Biesecker, Leslie G; De Michele, Giuseppe; Santorelli, Filippo M; Filla, Alessandro; Stevanin, Giovanni; Dürr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Casals, Núria; Traynor, Bryan J; Blackstone, Craig; Ulmer, Tobias S; Fischbeck, Kenneth H

    2015-05-01

    The family of genes implicated in hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) is quickly expanding, mostly owing to the widespread availability of next-generation DNA sequencing methods. Nevertheless, a genetic diagnosis remains unavailable for many patients. To identify the genetic cause for a novel form of pure autosomal dominant HSP. We examined and followed up with a family presenting to a tertiary referral center for evaluation of HSP for a decade until August 2014. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 4 patients from the same family and was integrated with linkage analysis. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the presence of the candidate variant in the remaining affected and unaffected members of the family and screen the additional patients with HSP. Five affected and 6 unaffected participants from a 3-generation family with pure adult-onset autosomal dominant HSP of unknown genetic origin were included. Additionally, 163 unrelated participants with pure HSP of unknown genetic cause were screened. Mutation in the neuronal isoform of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase (CPT1C) gene. We identified the nucleotide substitution c.109C>T in exon 3 of CPT1C, which determined the base substitution of an evolutionarily conserved Cys residue for an Arg in the gene product. This variant strictly cosegregated with the disease phenotype and was absent in online single-nucleotide polymorphism databases and in 712 additional exomes of control participants. We showed that CPT1C, which localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, is expressed in motor neurons and interacts with atlastin-1, an endoplasmic reticulum protein encoded by the ATL1 gene known to be mutated in pure HSPs. The mutation, as indicated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies, alters the protein conformation and reduces the mean (SD) number (213.0 [46.99] vs 81.9 [14.2]; P lipid droplets on overexpression in cells. We also observed a reduction of mean (SD) lipid droplets in primary cortical neurons

  2. Evaluation of Pure Aluminium Inoculated with Varying Grain Sizes of an Agro-waste based Inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi I. Olabisi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure Aluminium and its alloy are widely utilized in Engineering and Industrial applications due to certain significant properties such as softness, ductility, corrosion resistance, and high electrical conductivity which it possesses. Addition of an agro-waste based grain refiner to the melt can alter the characteristics positively or negatively. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the inoculating capability of an agro-waste based inoculant and the effect of adding varying sizes of its grains on some of the properties of pure aluminium after solidification. The beneficial outcome of this investigation would enhance the economic value of the selected agro-waste and also broaden the applications of aluminium in Engineering. The assessed properties include; microstructure, micro hardness, ductility, and tensile strength. The agro-waste used as the grain refiner is pulverised cocoa bean shells (CBS. Three sets of test samples were produced using dry sand moulding process, with each melt having a specified grain size of the inoculant added to it (150, 225 and 300microns respectively. Ladle inoculation method was adopted. The cast samples after solidification were machined to obtain various shapes/sizes for the different analysis. The microstructural examination showed that the mechanical properties are dependent on the matrix as the aluminium grains became more refined with increasing grain size of the inoculant. I.e. Due to increasing grain size of the inoculant, the micro hardness increased (56, 61, 72HB as the aluminium crystal size became finer. Meanwhile, the tensile strength (284, 251, 223N/mm2 and ductility (1.82, 0.91, 0.45%E decreased as grain size of the inoculant increased. The overall results showed that the used agro-waste based inoculant has the capability of refining the crystal size of pure aluminium as its grain size increases. This will make the resulting aluminium alloy applicable in areas where hardness is of

  3. Non-critical pure spinor superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Ido; Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Mazzucato, Luca; Oz, Yaron; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    We construct non-critical pure spinor superstrings in two, four and six dimensions. We find explicitly the map between the RNS variables and the pure spinor ones in the linear dilaton background. The RNS variables map onto a patch of the pure spinor space and the holomorphic top form on the pure spinor space is an essential ingredient of the mapping. A basic feature of the map is the requirement of doubling the superspace, which we analyze in detail. We study the structure of the non-critical pure spinor space, which is different from the ten-dimensional one, and its quantum anomalies. We compute the pure spinor lowest lying BRST cohomology and find an agreement with the RNS spectra. The analysis is generalized to curved backgrounds and we construct as an example the non-critical pure spinor type IIA superstring on AdS 4 with RR 4-form flux

  4. Modeling Pedestrian’s Conformity Violation Behavior: A Complex Network Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuping Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian injuries and fatalities present a problem all over the world. Pedestrian conformity violation behaviors, which lead to many pedestrian crashes, are common phenomena at the signalized intersections in China. The concepts and metrics of complex networks are applied to analyze the structural characteristics and evolution rules of pedestrian network about the conformity violation crossings. First, a network of pedestrians crossing the street is established, and the network’s degree distributions are analyzed. Then, by using the basic idea of SI model, a spreading model of pedestrian illegal crossing behavior is proposed. Finally, through simulation analysis, pedestrian’s illegal crossing behavior trends are obtained in different network structures and different spreading rates. Some conclusions are drawn: as the waiting time increases, more pedestrians will join in the violation crossing once a pedestrian crosses on red firstly. And pedestrian’s conformity violation behavior will increase as the spreading rate increases.

  5. Conformationally Preorganized Diastereomeric Norbornane-Based Maltosides for Membrane Protein Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Manabendra; Du, Yang; Ribeiro, Orquidea

    2017-01-01

    were generally better at stabilizing membrane proteins than short alkyl chain agents. Furthermore, use of one well-behaving NBM enabled us to attain a marked stabilization and clear visualization of a challenging membrane protein complex using electron microscopy. Thus, this study not only describes......Detergents are essential tools for functional and structural studies of membrane proteins. However, conventional detergents are limited in their scope and utility, particularly for eukaryotic membrane proteins. Thus, there are major efforts to develop new amphipathic agents with enhanced properties....... Here, a novel class of diastereomeric agents with a preorganized conformation, designated norbornane-based maltosides (NBMs), were prepared and evaluated for their ability to solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins. Representative NBMs displayed enhanced behaviors compared to n...

  6. Conformational Control of Energy Transfer: A Mechanism for Biocompatible Nanocrystal-Based Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Euan R.; Lee, Jungmin; Nocera, Daniel; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2012-01-01

    Fold-up fluorophore: A new paradigm for designing self-referencing fluorescent nanosensors is demonstrated by interfacing a pH-triggered molecular conformational switch with quantum dots. Analytedependent, large-amplitude conformational motion controls the distance between the nanocrystal energy donor and an organic FRET acceptor. The result is a fluorescence signal capable of reporting pH values from individual endosomes in living cells.

  7. Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.

  8. Electron induced conformational changes of an imine-based molecular switch on a Au(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotze, Christian; Henningsen, Nils; Franke, Katharina; Schulze, Gunnar; Pascual, Jose Ignacio [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Luo, Ying; Haag, Rainer [Inst. f. Organische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Azobenzene-based molecules exhibit a cis-trans configurational photoisomerisation in solution. Recently, the adsorption properties of azobenzene derivatives have been investigated on different metal surfaces in order to explore the possible changes in the film properties induced by external stimuli. In azobenzene, the diazo-bridge is a key group for the isomerization process. Its interaction with a metal surface is dominated through the N lone-pair electrons, which reduces the efficiency of the conformational change. In order to reduce the molecule-surface interaction, we explore an alternative molecular architecture by substituting the diazo-bridge (-N=N-) of azobenzene by an imine-group (-N=CH-). We have investigated the imine-based compound para-carboxyl-di-benzene-imine (PCI) adsorbed on a Au(111) surface. The carboxylic terminations mediates the formation of strongly bonded molecular dimers, which align in ordered rows preferentially following the fcc regions of the Au(111) herringbone reconstruction. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy was used to induce conformational changes between trans and cis state of individual molecules in a molecular monolayer.

  9. Visible-Light-Driven BiOI-Based Janus Micromotor in Pure Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Renfeng; Hu, Yan; Wu, Yefei; Gao, Wei; Ren, Biye; Wang, Qinglong; Cai, Yuepeng

    2017-02-08

    Light-driven synthetic micro-/nanomotors have attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications and unique performances such as remote motion control and adjustable velocity. Utilizing harmless and renewable visible light to supply energy for micro-/nanomotors in water represents a great challenge. In view of the outstanding photocatalytic performance of bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI), visible-light-driven BiOI-based Janus micromotors have been developed, which can be activated by a broad spectrum of light, including blue and green light. Such BiOI-based Janus micromotors can be propelled by photocatalytic reactions in pure water under environmentally friendly visible light without the addition of any other chemical fuels. The remote control of photocatalytic propulsion by modulating the power of visible light is characterized by velocity and mean-square displacement analysis of optical video recordings. In addition, the self-electrophoresis mechanism has been confirmed for such visible-light-driven BiOI-based Janus micromotors by demonstrating the effects of various coated layers (e.g., Al 2 O 3 , Pt, and Au) on the velocity of motors. The successful demonstration of visible-light-driven Janus micromotors holds a great promise for future biomedical and environmental applications.

  10. Conformal Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauendiener Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  11. Epigenetic dominance of prion conformers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Saijo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although they share certain biological properties with nucleic acid based infectious agents, prions, the causative agents of invariably fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie, and human Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, propagate by conformational templating of host encoded proteins. Once thought to be unique to these diseases, this mechanism is now recognized as a ubiquitous means of information transfer in biological systems, including other protein misfolding disorders such as those causing Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. To address the poorly understood mechanism by which host prion protein (PrP primary structures interact with distinct prion conformations to influence pathogenesis, we produced transgenic (Tg mice expressing different sheep scrapie susceptibility alleles, varying only at a single amino acid at PrP residue 136. Tg mice expressing ovine PrP with alanine (A at (OvPrP-A136 infected with SSBP/1 scrapie prions propagated a relatively stable (S prion conformation, which accumulated as punctate aggregates in the brain, and produced prolonged incubation times. In contrast, Tg mice expressing OvPrP with valine (V at 136 (OvPrP-V136 infected with the same prions developed disease rapidly, and the converted prion was comprised of an unstable (U, diffusely distributed conformer. Infected Tg mice co-expressing both alleles manifested properties consistent with the U conformer, suggesting a dominant effect resulting from exclusive conversion of OvPrP-V136 but not OvPrP-A136. Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed substantial conversion of OvPrP-A136. Moreover, the resulting OvPrP-A136 prion acquired the characteristics of the U conformer. These results, substantiated by in vitro analyses, indicated that co-expression of OvPrP-V136 altered the conversion potential of OvPrP-A136 from the S to

  12. Placebo use in the United kingdom: results from a national survey of primary care practitioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Howick

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Surveys in various countries suggest 17% to 80% of doctors prescribe 'placebos' in routine practice, but prevalence of placebo use in UK primary care is unknown. METHODS: We administered a web-based questionnaire to a representative sample of UK general practitioners. Following surveys conducted in other countries we divided placebos into 'pure' and 'impure'. 'Impure' placebos are interventions with clear efficacy for certain conditions but are prescribed for ailments where their efficacy is unknown, such as antibiotics for suspected viral infections. 'Pure' placebos are interventions such as sugar pills or saline injections without direct pharmacologically active ingredients for the condition being treated. We initiated the survey in April 2012. Two reminders were sent and electronic data collection closed after 4 weeks. RESULTS: We surveyed 1715 general practitioners and 783 (46% completed our questionnaire. Our respondents were similar to those of all registered UK doctors suggesting our results are generalizable. 12% (95% CI 10 to 15 of respondents used pure placebos while 97% (95% CI 96 to 98 used impure placebos at least once in their career. 1% of respondents used pure placebos, and 77% (95% CI 74 to 79 used impure placebos at least once per week. Most (66% for pure, 84% for impure respondents stated placebos were ethical in some circumstances. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Placebo use is common in primary care but questions remain about their benefits, harms, costs, and whether they can be delivered ethically. Further research is required to investigate ethically acceptable and cost-effective placebo interventions.

  13. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  14. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chengming; Fuchs, Juergen; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  15. Tris[(6S)-6-hy­droxy-4-epi-shikimic acid] monohydrate: an enanti­omerically pure hy­droxy­lated shikimic acid derived from methyl shikimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbeck, Axel G.; Miara, Claus; Neudörfl, Jörg-M.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, 3C7H10O6·H2O, is the enanti­omerically pure product of a multi-step synthesis from the enanti­omerically pure natural shikimic acid. The asymmetric unit contains three mol­ecules of the acid and one mol­ecule of water. The cyclo­hexene rings of the acids have half-chair conformations. The carboxyl­ate, the four hydroxide groups and the additional water mol­ecule form a complex three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network. PMID:23284468

  16. Logarithmic conformal field theory through nilpotent conformal dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghimi-Araghi, S.; Rouhani, S.; Saadat, M.

    2001-01-01

    We study logarithmic conformal field theories (LCFTs) through the introduction of nilpotent conformal weights. Using this device, we derive the properties of LCFTs such as the transformation laws, singular vectors and the structure of correlation functions. We discuss the emergence of an extra energy momentum tensor, which is the logarithmic partner of the energy momentum tensor

  17. TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING OF HELIX B BASED CONFORMATIONAL DISEASES IN SERPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Aman Jairajpuri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors (serpins are a unique family of protease inhibitors that are prone to polymer formation due to their metastable nature and a complex inhibition mechanism that involves large scale conformational change. Helix B is in the shutter region near the strand 2A and strand 3A of �-sheet A, where reactive centre loop inserts during the serpin inhibition mechanism. Helix B region in serpins is a mutation hotspot for naturally occurring variants that result in pathological conditions due to polymerization. Helix B residues are completely buried in the native state and loop inserted latent state but not in the inhibitory loop inserted cleaved conformation. Native to cleaved transition during inhibition forms a large cavity in the shutter region, which invariably is the largest cavity in most serpins in native state. In a recent paper we had for the first time hypothesized that exposure of helix B at the N-terminal end is important for smooth insertion of the reactive center loop during serpin inhibition mechanism. It is therefore possible that natural variant that induces conformational deformation of helix B probably alter the cavity size which increases the rate of loop-sheet interaction between the monomers resulting in increased polymerization.

  18. Viscous conformal gauge theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2017-01-01

    We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....

  19. Security Process Capability Model Based on ISO/IEC 15504 Conformant Enterprise SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitasiunas Antanas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of modern information systems, security has become one of the most critical quality attributes. The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of quality of information security. An approach to solve this problem is based on the main assumption that security is a process oriented activity. According to this approach, product quality can be achieved by means of process quality - process capability. Introduced in the paper, SPICE conformant information security process capability model is based on process capability modeling elaborated by world-wide software engineering community during the last 25 years, namely ISO/IEC 15504 that defines the capability dimension and the requirements for process definition and domain independent integrated model for enterprise-wide assessment and Enterprise SPICE improvement

  20. Software-based risk stratification of pulmonary adenocarcinomas manifesting as pure ground glass nodules on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Bankier, Alexander A. [Harvard Medical School, Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Anderson, Kevin R.; VanderLaan, Paul A. [Harvard Medical School, Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Westmore, Michael S. [Imbio, Delafield, WI (United States)

    2018-01-15

    To assess the performance of the ''Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield'' (CANARY) software in the differentiation and risk assessment of histological subtypes of lung adenocarcinomas manifesting as pure ground glass nodules on computed tomography (CT). 64 surgically resected and histologically proven adenocarcinomas manifesting as pure ground-glass nodules on CT were assessed using CANARY software, which classifies voxel-densities into three risk components (low, intermediate, and high risk). Differences in risk components between histological adenocarcinoma subtypes were analysed. To determine the optimal threshold reflecting the presence of an invasive focus, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were calculated. 28/64 (44%) were adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS); 26/64 (41%) were minimally invasive adenocarcinomas (MIA); and 10/64 (16%) were invasive ACs (IAC). The software showed significant differences in risk components between histological subtypes (P<0.001-0.003). A relative volume of 45% or less of low-risk components was associated with histological invasiveness (specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%). CANARY-based risk assessment of ACs manifesting as pure ground glass nodules on CT allows the differentiation of their histological subtypes. A threshold of 45% of low-risk components reflects invasiveness in these groups. (orig.)

  1. Software-based risk stratification of pulmonary adenocarcinomas manifesting as pure ground glass nodules on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Ursula; Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Bankier, Alexander A.; Anderson, Kevin R.; VanderLaan, Paul A.; Westmore, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    To assess the performance of the ''Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield'' (CANARY) software in the differentiation and risk assessment of histological subtypes of lung adenocarcinomas manifesting as pure ground glass nodules on computed tomography (CT). 64 surgically resected and histologically proven adenocarcinomas manifesting as pure ground-glass nodules on CT were assessed using CANARY software, which classifies voxel-densities into three risk components (low, intermediate, and high risk). Differences in risk components between histological adenocarcinoma subtypes were analysed. To determine the optimal threshold reflecting the presence of an invasive focus, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were calculated. 28/64 (44%) were adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS); 26/64 (41%) were minimally invasive adenocarcinomas (MIA); and 10/64 (16%) were invasive ACs (IAC). The software showed significant differences in risk components between histological subtypes (P<0.001-0.003). A relative volume of 45% or less of low-risk components was associated with histological invasiveness (specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%). CANARY-based risk assessment of ACs manifesting as pure ground glass nodules on CT allows the differentiation of their histological subtypes. A threshold of 45% of low-risk components reflects invasiveness in these groups. (orig.)

  2. Conformal invariance in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the author explains the role of conformal invariance in supergravity. He presents the complete structure of extended conformal supergravity for N <= 4. The outline of this work is as follows. In chapter 2 he briefly summarizes the essential properties of supersymmetry and supergravity and indicates the use of conformal invariance in supergravity. The idea that the introduction of additional symmetry transformations can make clear the structure of a field theory is not reserved to supergravity only. By means of some simple examples it is shown in chapter 3 how one can always introduce additional gauge transformations in a theory of massive vector fields. Moreover it is shown how the gauge invariant formulation sometimes explains the quantum mechanical properties of the theory. In chapter 4 the author defines the conformal transformations and summarizes their main properties. He explains how these conformal transformations can be used to analyse the structure of gravity. The supersymmetric extension of these results is discussed in chapter 5. Here he describes as an example how N=1 supergravity can be reformulated in a conformally-invariant way. He also shows that beyond N=1 the gauge fields of the superconformal symmetries do not constitute an off-shell field representation of extended conformal supergravity. Therefore, in chapter 6, a systematic method to construct the off-shell formulation of all extended conformal supergravity theories with N <= 4 is developed. As an example he uses this method to construct N=1 conformal supergravity. Finally, in chapter 7 N=4 conformal supergravity is discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Properties and distribution of pure GA-sequences of mammalian genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Albrecht-Buehler

    Full Text Available The article describes DNA sequences of mammalian genomes that are longer than 50 bases, but consist exclusively of G's and A's ('pure GA-sequences'. Although their frequency of incidence should be 10(-16 or smaller, the chromosomes of human, chimpanzee, dog, cat, rat, and mouse contained many tens of thousands of them ubiquitously located along the chromosomes with a species-dependent density, reaching sizes of up to 1300 [b]. With the exception of a small number of poly-A-, poly-G-, poly-GA-, and poly-GAAA-sequences (combined <0.5%, all pure GA-sequences of the mammals tested were unique individuals, contained several repeated short GA-containing motifs, and shared a common hexa-nucleotide spectrum. At most 2% of the human GA-sequences were transcribed into mRNAs; all others were not coding for proteins. Although this could have made them less subject to natural selection, they contained many [corrected] times fewer point mutations than one should expect from the genome at large. As to the presence of other sequences with similarly restricted base contents, there were approximately as many pure TC-sequences as pure GA-sequences, but many fewer pure AC-, TA, and TG-sequences. There were practically no pure GC-sequences. The functions of pure GA-sequences are not known. Supported by a number of observations related to heat shock phenomena, the article speculates that they serve as genomic sign posts which may help guide polymerases and transcription factors to their proper targets, and/or as spatial linkers that help generate the 3-dimensional organization of chromatin.

  4. Revisit the carpet cloak from optical conformal mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Xu, Yadong; Wu, Qiannan; Chen, Huanyang

    2013-01-01

    The original carpet cloak [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008)] was designed by a numerical method, the quasi-conformal mapping. Therefore its refractive index profile was obtained numerically. In this letter, we propose a new carpet cloak based on the optical conformal mapping, with an analytical form of a refractive index profile, thereby facilitating future experimental designs.

  5. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Li, E-mail: dengl@bupt.edu.cn; Hong, Weijun, E-mail: hongwj@bupt.edu.cn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Network System Architecture and Convergence, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China); Wu, Yongle, E-mail: wuyongle138@gmail.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring, School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  6. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Li; Hong, Weijun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang; Wu, Yongle

    2016-01-01

    A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  7. An ill-conditioning conformal radiotherapy analysis based on singular values decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefkopoulos, D.; Grandjean, P.; Bendada, S.; Dominique, C.; Platoni, K.; Schlienger, M.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical experience in stereotactic radiotherapy of irregular complex lesions had shown that optimization algorithms were necessary to improve the dose distribution. We have developed a general optimization procedure which can be applied to different conformal irradiation techniques. In this presentation this procedure is tested on the stereotactic radiotherapy modality of complex cerebral lesions treated with multi-isocentric technique based on the 'associated targets methodology'. In this inverse procedure we use the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis which proposes several optimal solutions for the narrow beams weights of each isocentre. The SVD analysis quantifies the ill-conditioning of the dosimetric calculation of the stereotactic irradiation, using the condition number which is the ratio of the bigger to smaller singular values. Our dose distribution optimization approach consists on the study of the irradiation parameters influence on the stereotactic radiotherapy inverse problem. The adjustment of the different irradiation parameters into the 'SVD optimizer' procedure is realized taking into account the ratio of the quality reconstruction to the time calculation. It will permit a more efficient use of the 'SVD optimizer' in clinical applications for real 3D lesions. The evaluation criteria for the choice of satisfactory solutions are based on the dose-volume histograms and clinical considerations. We will present the efficiency of ''SVD optimizer'' to analyze and predict the ill-conditioning in stereotactic radiotherapy and to recognize the topography of the different beams in order to create optimal reconstructed weighting vector. The planification of stereotactic treatments using the ''SVD optimizer'' is examined for mono-isocentrically and complex dual-isocentrically treated lesions. The application of the SVD optimization technique provides conformal dose distribution for complex intracranial lesions. It is a general optimization procedure

  8. Essential role of conformational selection in ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Austin D; Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Zhiwei; Di Cera, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Two competing and mutually exclusive mechanisms of ligand recognition - conformational selection and induced fit - have dominated our interpretation of ligand binding in biological macromolecules for almost six decades. Conformational selection posits the pre-existence of multiple conformations of the macromolecule from which the ligand selects the optimal one. Induced fit, on the other hand, postulates the existence of conformational rearrangements of the original conformation into an optimal one that are induced by binding of the ligand. In the former case, conformational transitions precede the binding event; in the latter, conformational changes follow the binding step. Kineticists have used a facile criterion to distinguish between the two mechanisms based on the dependence of the rate of relaxation to equilibrium, kobs, on the ligand concentration, [L]. A value of kobs decreasing hyperbolically with [L] has been seen as diagnostic of conformational selection, while a value of kobs increasing hyperbolically with [L] has been considered diagnostic of induced fit. However, this simple conclusion is only valid under the rather unrealistic assumption of conformational transitions being much slower than binding and dissociation events. In general, induced fit only produces values of kobs that increase with [L] but conformational selection is more versatile and is associated with values of kobs that increase with, decrease with or are independent of [L]. The richer repertoire of kinetic properties of conformational selection applies to kinetic mechanisms with single or multiple saturable relaxations and explains the behavior of nearly all experimental systems reported in the literature thus far. Conformational selection is always sufficient and often necessary to account for the relaxation kinetics of ligand binding to a biological macromolecule and is therefore an essential component of any binding mechanism. On the other hand, induced fit is never necessary and

  9. Structural alphabets derived from attractors in conformational space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinjung Jens

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical and partially redundant nature of protein structures justifies the definition of frequently occurring conformations of short fragments as 'states'. Collections of selected representatives for these states define Structural Alphabets, describing the most typical local conformations within protein structures. These alphabets form a bridge between the string-oriented methods of sequence analysis and the coordinate-oriented methods of protein structure analysis. Results A Structural Alphabet has been derived by clustering all four-residue fragments of a high-resolution subset of the protein data bank and extracting the high-density states as representative conformational states. Each fragment is uniquely defined by a set of three independent angles corresponding to its degrees of freedom, capturing in simple and intuitive terms the properties of the conformational space. The fragments of the Structural Alphabet are equivalent to the conformational attractors and therefore yield a most informative encoding of proteins. Proteins can be reconstructed within the experimental uncertainty in structure determination and ensembles of structures can be encoded with accuracy and robustness. Conclusions The density-based Structural Alphabet provides a novel tool to describe local conformations and it is specifically suitable for application in studies of protein dynamics.

  10. Manufacturing and metrology for IR conformal windows and domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferralli, Ian; Blalock, Todd; Brunelle, Matt; Lynch, Timothy; Myer, Brian; Medicus, Kate

    2017-05-01

    Freeform and conformal optics have the potential to dramatically improve optical systems by enabling systems with fewer optical components, reduced aberrations, and improved aerodynamic performance. These optical components differ from standard components in their surface shape, typically a non-symmetric equation based definition, and material properties. Traditional grinding and polishing tools are unable to handle these freeform shapes. Additionally, standard metrology tools cannot measure these surfaces. Desired substrates are typically hard ceramics, including poly-crystalline alumina or aluminum oxynitride. Notwithstanding the challenges that the hardness provides to manufacturing, these crystalline materials can be highly susceptible to grain decoration creating unacceptable scatter in optical systems. In this presentation, we will show progress towards addressing the unique challenges of manufacturing conformal windows and domes. Particular attention is given to our robotic polishing platform. This platform is based on an industrial robot adapted to accept a wide range of tooling and parts. The robot's flexibility has provided us an opportunity to address the unique challenges of conformal windows. Slurries and polishing active layers can easily be changed to adapt to varying materials and address grain decoration. We have the flexibility to change tool size and shape to address the varying sizes and shapes of conformal optics. In addition, the robotic platform can be a base for a deflectometry-based metrology tool to measure surface form error. This system, whose precision is independent of the robot's positioning accuracy, will allow us to measure optics in-situ saving time and reducing part risk. In conclusion, we will show examples of the conformal windows manufactured using our developed processes.

  11. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-04

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.

  12. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-01-01

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero β function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as τ decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized

  13. Synthesis of pure monetite by heterogeneous acid-base reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carlos Moreno Aldana; Davier Olarte Cárdenas; Edgar Delgado Mejía

    2017-01-01

    Five variations of the monetite (M) synthesis were evaluated modifying the stirring, the phosphoric acid addition rate, the homogeneity and the drying temperature. Products were assessed by means of XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS analysis and chemical assay of Ca/P (calcium by titration with potassium permanganate and phosphorus by colorimetric assessment of the molybdenum blue complex). X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and Ca/P ratio indicate that the synthesized phosphate corresponds to pure mo...

  14. Watershed-based survey designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detenbeck, N.E.; Cincotta, D.; Denver, J.M.; Greenlee, S.K.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream–downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

  15. Optical characterization of pure vegetable oils and their biodiesels using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, S.; Anwar, S.; Waheed, A.; Maraj, M.

    2016-04-01

    Great concern regarding energy resources and environmental polution has increased interest in the study of alternative sources of energy. Biodiesels as an alternative fuel provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. The Raman spectra of pure biodiesels of soybean oil, olive oil, coconut oil, animal fats, and petroleum diesel are optically characterized for quality and biofuel as an alternative fuel. The most significant spectral differences are observed in the frequency range around 1457 cm-1 for pure petroleum diesel, 1427 for fats biodiesel, 1670 cm-1 for pure soybean oil, 1461 cm-1 for soybean oil based biodiesel, 1670 cm-1 for pure olive oil, 1666 cm-1 for olive oil based biodiesel, 1461 cm-1 for pure coconut oil, and 1460 cm-1 for coconut oil based biodiesel, which is used for the analysis of the phase composition of oils. A diode pump solid-state laser with a 532 nm wavelength is used as an illuminating light. It is demonstrated that the peak positions and relative intensities of the vibrations of the oils can be used to identify the biodiesel quality for being used as biofuel.

  16. Non-conformal contact mechanical characteristic analysis on spherical components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen-zhi, G.; Bin, H.; Zheng-ming, G.; Feng-mei, Y.; Jin, Q [The 2. Artillery Engineering Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2017-03-15

    Non-conformal spherical-contact mechanical problems is a three-dimensional coordination or similar to the coordination spherical contact. Due to the complexity of the problem of spherical-contact and difficulties of solving higher-order partial differential equations, problems of three-dimensional coordination or similar to the coordination spherical-contact is still no exact analytical method for solving. It is based on three-dimensional taper model is proposed a model based on the contour surface of the spherical contact and concluded of the formula of the contact pressure and constructed of finite element model by contact pressure distribution under the non-conformal spherical. The results shows spherical contact model can reflect non-conformal spherical-contacting mechanical problems more than taper-contacting model, and apply for the actual project.

  17. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  18. Corrosion of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Chen Chongmu; Shao Yawei; Meng Guozhe; Wang Fuhui; Li Xiaogang; Dong Chaofang

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure magnesium was investigated by means of cathodic polarization curve, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) under aerated and deaerated thin electrolyte layers (TEL) with various thicknesses. Based on shot noise theory and stochastic theory, the EN results were quantitatively analyzed by using the Weibull and Gumbel distribution function, respectively. The results show that the cathodic process of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layer was dominated by hydrogen reduction. With the decreasing of thin electrolyte layer thickness, cathodic process was retarded slightly while the anodic process was inhibited significantly, which indicated that both the cathodic and anodic process were inhibited in the presence of oxygen. The absence of oxygen decreased the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium in case of thin electrolyte layer. The corrosion was more localized under thin electrolyte layer than that in bulk solution. The results also demonstrate that there exist two kinds of effects for thin electrolyte layer on the corrosion behavior of pure magnesium: (1) the rate of pit initiation was evidently retarded compared to that in bulk solution; (2) the probability of pit growth oppositely increased. The corrosion model of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layer was suggested in the paper

  19. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathsman, J.

    2000-02-07

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.

  20. A pilot survey of sexual function and quality of life following 3D conformal radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Mack; Chinn, Daniel M.; Holland, John; Clarke, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of high dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) for prostate cancer on the sexual function-related quality of life of patients and their partners. Methods and Materials: Sixty of 124 consecutive patients (median age 72.3 years) treated with 3D CRT for localized prostate cancer were surveyed and reported being potent prior to treatment. The answers to survey questions assessing the impact of quality of life related to sexual function from these 60 patients and their partners forms the basis for this retrospective analysis. Results: Following 3D CRT, 37 of 60 patients (62%) retained sexual function sufficient for intercourse. Intercourse at least once per month was reduced from 71 to 40%, whereas intercourse less than once per year increased from 12 to 35%. Following treatment, 25% of patients reported that the change in sexual dysfunction negatively affected their relationship or resulted in poor self-esteem. This outcome was associated with impotence following treatment (p < 0.01). Patients who had partners and satisfactory sexual function appeared to be at a higher risk of having a negatively affected relationship or losing self-esteem if they become impotent (p < 0.05). Partners of patients who reported a negatively affected relationship or loss of self-esteem appear to be less likely to return the survey instrument used (p = 0.02). Conclusions: More work is needed to evaluate the impact of radiotherapy and other treatments on the quality of life of patients and their partners to allow adequate informed consent to be given

  1. 3D printing of shape-conformable thermoelectric materials using all-inorganic Bi2Te3-based inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Fredrick; Kwon, Beomjin; Eom, Youngho; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Sangmin; Jo, Seungki; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Bong-Seo; Im, Hye Jin; Lee, Min Ho; Min, Tae Sik; Kim, Kyung Tae; Chae, Han Gi; King, William P.; Son, Jae Sung

    2018-04-01

    Thermoelectric energy conversion offers a unique solution for generating electricity from waste heat. However, despite recent improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric materials, the widespread application of thermoelectric generators has been hampered by challenges in fabricating thermoelectric materials with appropriate dimensions to perfectly fit heat sources. Herein, we report an extrusion-based three-dimensional printing method to produce thermoelectric materials with geometries suitable for heat sources. All-inorganic viscoelastic inks were synthesized using Sb2Te3 chalcogenidometallate ions as inorganic binders for Bi2Te3-based particles. Three-dimensional printed materials with various geometries showed homogenous thermoelectric properties, and their dimensionless figure-of-merit values of 0.9 (p-type) and 0.6 (n-type) were comparable to the bulk values. Conformal cylindrical thermoelectric generators made of 3D-printed half rings mounted on an alumina pipe were studied both experimentally and computationally. Simulations show that the power output of the conformal, shape-optimized generator is higher than that of conventional planar generators.

  2. Quantitative conformational analysis of the core region of N-glycans using residual dipolar couplings, aqueous molecular dynamics, and steric alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, Andrew; Duus, Jens O.

    2001-01-01

    A method is described for quantitatively investigating the dynamic conformation of small oligosaccharides containing an α(1 → 6) linkage. It was applied to the oligosaccharide Man-α(1 → 3) {Man-α (1 → 6)}Man-α-O-Me, which is a core region frequently observed in N-linked glycans. The approach tests an aqueous molecular dynamics simulation, capable of predicting microscopic dynamics, against experimental residual dipolar couplings, by assuming that alignment is caused purely by steric hindrance. The experimental constraints were heteronuclear and homonuclear residual dipolar couplings, and in particular those within the α(1 → 6) linkage itself. Powerful spin-state-selective pulse sequences and editing schemes were used to obtain the most relevant couplings for testing the model. Molecular dynamics simulations in water over a period of 50 ns were not able to predict the correct rotamer population at the α(1 → 6) linkage to agree with the experimental data. However, this sampling problem could be corrected using a simple maximum likelihood optimisation, indicating that the simulation was modelling local dynamics correctly. The maximum likelihood prediction of the residual dipolar couplings was found to be an almost equal population of the gg and gt rotamer conformations at the α(1 → 6) linkage, and the tg conformation was predicted to be unstable and unpopulated in aqueous solution. In this case all twelve measured residual dipolar couplings could be satisfied. This conformer population could also be used to make predictions of scalar couplings with the use of a previously derived empirical equation, and is qualitatively in agreement with previous predictions based on NMR, X-ray crystallography and optical data

  3. Twelve massless flavors and three colors below the conformal window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Zoltan; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Nogradi, Daniel; Schroeder, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We report new results for a frequently discussed gauge theory with twelve fermion flavors in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group. The model, controversial with respect to its conformality, is important in non-perturbative studies searching for a viable composite Higgs mechanism beyond the Standard Model (BSM). In comparison with earlier work, our new simulations apply larger volumes and probe deeper in fermion and pion masses toward the chiral limit. Investigating the controversy, we subject the model to opposite hypotheses with respect to the conformal window. In the first hypothesis, below the conformal window, we test chiral symmetry breaking (χSB) with its Goldstone spectrum, F π , the χSB condensate, and several composite hadron states as analytic functions of the fermion mass when varied in a limited range with our best effort to control finite volume effects. In the second test, for the alternate hypothesis inside the conformal window, we probe conformal behavior driven by a single anomalous mass dimension under the assumption of unbroken chiral symmetry at vanishing fermion mass. Our results at fixed gauge coupling, based on the assumptions of the two hypotheses we define, show low level of confidence in the conformal scenario with leading order scaling analysis. Relaxing the important assumption of leading mass-deformed conformality with its conformal finite size scaling would require added theoretical understanding of the scaling violation terms in the conformal analysis and a comprehensive test of its effects on the confidence level of the fits. Results for the running coupling, based on the force between static sources, and preliminary indications for the finite temperature transition are also presented. Staggered lattice fermions with stout-suppressed taste breaking are used throughout the simulations.

  4. American Samoa Shore-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DMWR staff has also conducted shore-based creel surveys which also have 2 major sub-surveys; one to estimate participation (fishing effort), and one to provide...

  5. The Dynameomics Entropy Dictionary: A Large-Scale Assessment of Conformational Entropy across Protein Fold Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, Clare-Louise; Akke, Mikael; Daggett, Valerie

    2017-04-27

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations contain considerable information with regard to the motions and fluctuations of a protein, the magnitude of which can be used to estimate conformational entropy. Here we survey conformational entropy across protein fold space using the Dynameomics database, which represents the largest existing data set of protein MD simulations for representatives of essentially all known protein folds. We provide an overview of MD-derived entropies accounting for all possible degrees of dihedral freedom on an unprecedented scale. Although different side chains might be expected to impose varying restrictions on the conformational space that the backbone can sample, we found that the backbone entropy and side chain size are not strictly coupled. An outcome of these analyses is the Dynameomics Entropy Dictionary, the contents of which have been compared with entropies derived by other theoretical approaches and experiment. As might be expected, the conformational entropies scale linearly with the number of residues, demonstrating that conformational entropy is an extensive property of proteins. The calculated conformational entropies of folding agree well with previous estimates. Detailed analysis of specific cases identifies deviations in conformational entropy from the average values that highlight how conformational entropy varies with sequence, secondary structure, and tertiary fold. Notably, α-helices have lower entropy on average than do β-sheets, and both are lower than coil regions.

  6. Conformal flight path symbology for head-up displays: Defining the distribution of visual attention in three-dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververs, Patricia May

    An extensive investigation of the format for head-up display (HUD) instrumentation was conducted in a two-part experiment. First, a pilot's information requirements for the tasks of approach, landing, and taxi were determined through a survey administered to professional commercial pilots via the world wide web. The results of the survey were applied in the development of two symbology sets, one set for flight navigation and the second for ground navigation. Second, twenty pilots from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign were recruited to participate in a 3-day experiment. The study was designed to investigate the format for symbology on HUDs and the performance effects of using conformal and partially conformal symbology to support the pilots' tasks. In addition, two different methods were investigated for supporting the pilots' transition between the task of flying and the task of landing. A seamless transition used visual momentum techniques to smoothly guide the pilots' cognitive transition between the serial displays and the associated tasks. A seamed approach employed an abrupt change between the displays to alert the pilots of the task switch. The results indicate that incorporating a virtually conformal, tunnel-in-the-sky symbology into a complete HUD instrumentation set offers promising pilot performance effects. Pilots easily navigated the complex curved approaches with little to no deviation from the flight path (approximately 10 feet), while performing the secondary tasks of the scanning their instruments and the environment. The seamless transition between the flight and ground symbology offered the pilots a preview of the upcoming landing task, thereby preparing them for the task switch. On the ground, the perspective (scene-linked) symbology set supported landing and taxi navigation tasks with the equal efficiency to the plan view display but with much greater precision. Theories of allocation of attention were used to interpret the

  7. Fast, clash-free RNA conformational morphing using molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héliou, Amélie; Budday, Dominik; Fonseca, Rasmus; van den Bedem, Henry

    2017-07-15

    Non-coding ribonucleic acids (ncRNA) are functional RNA molecules that are not translated into protein. They are extremely dynamic, adopting diverse conformational substates, which enables them to modulate their interaction with a large number of other molecules. The flexibility of ncRNA provides a challenge for probing their complex 3D conformational landscape, both experimentally and computationally. Despite their conformational diversity, ncRNAs mostly preserve their secondary structure throughout the dynamic ensemble. Here we present a kinematics-based procedure to morph an RNA molecule between conformational substates, while avoiding inter-atomic clashes. We represent an RNA as a kinematic linkage, with fixed groups of atoms as rigid bodies and rotatable bonds as degrees of freedom. Our procedure maintains RNA secondary structure by treating hydrogen bonds between base pairs as constraints. The constraints define a lower-dimensional, secondary-structure constraint manifold in conformation space, where motions are largely governed by molecular junctions of unpaired nucleotides. On a large benchmark set, we show that our morphing procedure compares favorably to peer algorithms, and can approach goal conformations to within a low all-atom RMSD by directing fewer than 1% of its atoms. Our results suggest that molecular junctions can modulate 3D structural rearrangements, while secondary structure elements guide large parts of the molecule along the transition to the correct final conformation. The source code, binaries and data are available at https://simtk.org/home/kgs . amelie.heliou@polytechnique.edu or vdbedem@stanford.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Conformational analysis by intersection: CONAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smellie, Andrew; Stanton, Robert; Henne, Randy; Teig, Steve

    2003-01-15

    As high throughput techniques in chemical synthesis and screening improve, more demands are placed on computer assisted design and virtual screening. Many of these computational methods require one or more three-dimensional conformations for molecules, creating a demand for a conformational analysis tool that can rapidly and robustly cover the low-energy conformational spaces of small molecules. A new algorithm of intersection is presented here, which quickly generates (on average heuristics are applied after intersection to generate a small representative collection of conformations that span the conformational space. In a study of approximately 97,000 randomly selected molecules from the MDDR, results are presented that explore these conformations and their ability to cover low-energy conformational space. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 24: 10-20, 2003

  9. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Melanie; LaViers, Lisa; Prietula, Michael J; Berns, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.

  10. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Pincus

    Full Text Available Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.

  11. Representation theory of current algebra and conformal field theory on Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiko

    1989-01-01

    We study conformal field theories with current algebra (WZW-model) on general Riemann surfaces based on the integrable representation theory of current algebra. The space of chiral conformal blocks defined as solutions of current and conformal Ward identities is shown to be finite dimensional and satisfies the factorization properties. (author)

  12. Controlled synthesis of phase-pure zeolitic imidazolate framework Co-ZIF-9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öztürk, Z.; Hofmann, J.P.; Lutz, M.; Mazaj, M.; Zabukovec Logar, N.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of phase-pure Co-ZIF-9, an important cobalt-based zeolitic imidazolate framework, could be achieved by modification of the reported synthesis procedure through pH adjustment of the starting synthesis mixture. The phase-pure Co-ZIF-9 material obtained has been characterized by a

  13. Investigating ion channel conformational changes using voltage clamp fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Sahil; Lynch, Joseph W

    2015-11-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins whose functions are governed by conformational changes. The widespread distribution of ion channels, coupled with their involvement in most physiological and pathological processes and their importance as therapeutic targets, renders the elucidation of these conformational mechanisms highly compelling from a drug discovery perspective. Thanks to recent advances in structural biology techniques, we now have high-resolution static molecular structures for members of the major ion channel families. However, major questions remain to be resolved about the conformational states that ion channels adopt during activation, drug modulation and desensitization. Patch-clamp electrophysiology has long been used to define ion channel conformational states based on functional criteria. It achieves this by monitoring conformational changes at the channel gate and cannot detect conformational changes occurring in regions distant from the gate. Voltage clamp fluorometry involves labelling cysteines introduced into domains of interest with environmentally sensitive fluorophores and inferring structural rearrangements from voltage or ligand-induced fluorescence changes. Ion channel currents are monitored simultaneously to verify the conformational status. By defining real time conformational changes in domains distant from the gate, this technique provides unexpected new insights into ion channel structure and function. This review aims to summarise the methodology and highlight recent innovative applications of this powerful technique. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Fluorescent Tools in Neuropharmacology'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The conformal method and the conformal thin-sandwich method are the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, David

    2014-01-01

    The conformal method developed in the 1970s and the more recent Lagrangian and Hamiltonian conformal thin-sandwich methods are techniques for finding solutions of the Einstein constraint equations. We show that they are manifestations of a single conformal method: there is a straightforward way to convert back and forth between the parameters for these methods so that the corresponding solutions of the Einstein constraint equations agree. The unifying idea is the need to clearly distinguish tangent and cotangent vectors to the space of conformal classes on a manifold, and we introduce a vocabulary for working with these objects without reference to a particular representative background metric. As a consequence of these conceptual advantages, we demonstrate how to strengthen previous near-CMC (constant mean curvature) existence and non-existence theorems for the original conformal method to include metrics with scalar curvatures that change sign. (paper)

  15. Magic identities for conformal four-point integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, James M.; Henn, Johannes; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Sokatchev, Emery

    2007-01-01

    We propose an iterative procedure for constructing classes of off-shell four-point conformal integrals which are identical. The proof of the identity is based on the conformal properties of a subintegral common for the whole class. The simplest example are the so-called 'triple scalar box' and 'tennis court' integrals. In this case we also give an independent proof using the method of Mellin-Barnes representation which can be applied in a similar way for general off-shell Feynman integrals

  16. Astrophysical Tests of Kinematical Conformal Cosmology in Fourth-Order Conformal Weyl Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele U. Varieschi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze kinematical conformal cosmology (KCC, an alternative cosmological model based on conformal Weyl gravity (CG, and test it against current type Ia supernova (SNIa luminosity data and other astrophysical observations. Expanding upon previous work on the subject, we revise the analysis of SNIa data, confirming that KCC can explain the evidence for an accelerating expansion of the Universe without using dark energy or other exotic components. We obtain an independent evaluation of the Hubble constant, H0 = 67:53 kms-1 Mpc-1, very close to the current best estimates. The main KCC and CG parameters are re-evaluated and their revised values are found to be close to previous estimates. We also show that available data for the Hubble parameter as a function of redshift can be fitted using KCC and that this model does not suffer from any apparent age problem. Overall,

  17. Nucleotide-induced conformational dynamics in ABC transporters from structure-based coarse grained modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechsig, Holger

    2016-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins which mediate the exchange of diverse substrates across membranes powered by ATP molecules. Our understanding of their activity is still hampered since the conformational dynamics underlying the operation of such proteins cannot yet be resolved in detailed molecular dynamics studies. Here a coarse grained model which allows to mimic binding of nucleotides and follow subsequent conformational motions of full-length transporter structures in computer simulations is proposed and implemented. To justify its explanatory quality, the model is first applied to the maltose transporter system for which multiple conformations are known and we find that the model predictions agree remarkably well with the experimental data. For the MalK subunit the switching from open to the closed dimer configuration upon ATP binding is reproduced and, moreover, for the full-length maltose transporter, progression from inward-facing to the outward-facing state is correctly obtained. For the heme transporter HmuUV, for which only the free structure could yet be determined, the model was then applied to predict nucleotide-induced conformational motions. Upon binding of ATP-mimicking ligands the structure changed from a conformation in which the nucleotide-binding domains formed an open shape, to a conformation in which they were found in tight contact, while, at the same time, a pronounced rotation of the transmembrane domains was observed. This finding is supported by normal mode analysis, and, comparison with structural data of the homologous vitamin B12 transporter BtuCD suggests that the observed rotation mechanism may contribute a common functional aspect for this class of ABC transporters. Although in HmuuV noticeable rearrangement of essential transmembrane helices was detected, there are no indications from our simulations that ATP binding alone may facilitate propagation of substrate molecules in this transporter

  18. Topological M Theory from Pure Spinor Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A; Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Vanhove, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    We construct multiloop superparticle amplitudes in 11d using the pure spinor formalism. We explain how this construction reduces to the superparticle limit of the multiloop pure spinor superstring amplitudes prescription. We then argue that this construction points to some evidence for the existence of a topological M theory based on a relation between the ghost number of the full-fledged supersymmetric critical models and the dimension of the spacetime for topological models. In particular, we show that the extensions at higher orders of the previous results for the tree and one-loop level expansion for the superparticle in 11 dimensions is related to a topological model in 7 dimensions.

  19. Informational and Normative Influences in Conformity from a Neurocomputational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelch, Ulf; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    We consider two distinct influences that drive conformity behaviour. Whereas informational influences facilitate adaptive and accurate responses, normative influences bias decisions to enhance social acceptance. We explore these influences from a perspective of perceptual and value-based decision-making models and apply these models to classical works on conformity. We argue that an informational account predicts a surprising tendency to conform. Moreover, we detail how normative influences fit into this framework and interact with social influences. Finally, we explore potential neuronal substrates for informational and normative influences based on a consideration of the neurobiological literature, highlighting conceptual shortcomings particularly with regard to a failure to segregate informational and normative influences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geometric decomposition of the conformation tensor in viscoelastic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameduddin, Ismail; Meneveau, Charles; Zaki, Tamer A.; Gayme, Dennice F.

    2018-05-01

    This work introduces a mathematical approach to analysing the polymer dynamics in turbulent viscoelastic flows that uses a new geometric decomposition of the conformation tensor, along with associated scalar measures of the polymer fluctuations. The approach circumvents an inherent difficulty in traditional Reynolds decompositions of the conformation tensor: the fluctuating tensor fields are not positive-definite and so do not retain the physical meaning of the tensor. The geometric decomposition of the conformation tensor yields both mean and fluctuating tensor fields that are positive-definite. The fluctuating tensor in the present decomposition has a clear physical interpretation as a polymer deformation relative to the mean configuration. Scalar measures of this fluctuating conformation tensor are developed based on the non-Euclidean geometry of the set of positive-definite tensors. Drag-reduced viscoelastic turbulent channel flow is then used an example case study. The conformation tensor field, obtained using direct numerical simulations, is analysed using the proposed framework.

  1. Superspace conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  2. Superspace conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quella, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  3. Optical characterization of pure vegetable oils and their biodiesels using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S; Anwar, S; Waheed, A; Maraj, M

    2016-01-01

    Great concern regarding energy resources and environmental polution has increased interest in the study of alternative sources of energy. Biodiesels as an alternative fuel provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. The Raman spectra of pure biodiesels of soybean oil, olive oil, coconut oil, animal fats, and petroleum diesel are optically characterized for quality and biofuel as an alternative fuel. The most significant spectral differences are observed in the frequency range around 1457 cm −1 for pure petroleum diesel, 1427 for fats biodiesel, 1670 cm −1 for pure soybean oil, 1461 cm −1 for soybean oil based biodiesel, 1670 cm −1 for pure olive oil, 1666 cm −1 for olive oil based biodiesel, 1461 cm −1 for pure coconut oil, and 1460 cm −1 for coconut oil based biodiesel, which is used for the analysis of the phase composition of oils. A diode pump solid-state laser with a 532 nm wavelength is used as an illuminating light. It is demonstrated that the peak positions and relative intensities of the vibrations of the oils can be used to identify the biodiesel quality for being used as biofuel. (paper)

  4. Is there any advantage of CT based 3-dimensional conformal planning over conventional orthogonal x-ray based planning in HDR brachytherapy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, B.M.; Idris, N.R.; Zakaria, A.B.; Khairul, N.

    2003-01-01

    The conventional brachytherapy dose calculation is based on a particular brachytherapy rule or individual dosimetry based on the reconstruction of the sources from the orthogonal films. In the recent years many centers are using CT based 3D conformal brachytherapy in order to improve the dosimetric outcome of a given plan. Here we would like to present our experience on the use of both techniques to deliver HDR interstitial brachytherapy as boost in early breast cancer. From January 2001 to January 2003, we treated 4 breast cancer patients using conventional orthogonal x-rays and CT scan in 3 cases for the treatment plan. All patients received an external beam radiotherapy dose of 46 Gy in 23 fractions over 4.5 weeks to the whole breast using 6 MV photon beam. Subsequently the primary lesion was supplimented with HDR brachytherapy to a dose of 2.5 Gy BID for 3 consecutive days using a (192)Ir microSelectronHDR. The dose prescription was individualized to encompass the tumor volume with a 10 mm margin. The differences of the dosimetric outcome were compared. All patients completed above schedule of radiotherapy. The primary was implanted with single plane in 3 patients and multiplane implant in 4 patients. Orthogonal x-ray based localization was performed in 4 patients and CT scan based localization in 3 cases. Three patients were implanted single plane and 4 patients with multiplane implants with a median catheter number of 9 (range 6-14). The 3D conformal dose optimization was performed using Nucletron planning system (Plato). The mean 100% and 150% isodose volume was 67.3 cm 3 and 31.25cm 3 respectively. The identification of primary tumor volume, organ at risk, and identification of afterloading catheters were superior in CT based plan than conventional planning. CT scan based 3D conformal brachytherapy planning give better identification of tumor volume and its curvature, decrease the time to identify the sources and evaluate the radiation dose to organs at

  5. Conformal Infinity

    OpenAIRE

    Frauendiener, J?rg

    2000-01-01

    The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory...

  6. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinsky, A.O.

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality can be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem from the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous $O(N^0)$ tests of AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large $N$ CFT coupled to the tower of higher spin gauge fields for t...

  7. First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenay, M P; Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Lebrun, C

    2005-09-01

    At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas. Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications. We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT. All patients were symptomatic with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy or neurologic symptoms, and had been rejected for neurosurgical resection. All patients with epilepsy had a clinical improvement with reduction in seizure frequency and 60% became seizure-free. CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity. Seven were alive at the time of writing with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (3.5-12) from first recorded symptoms. The three deceased patients died 7.5, 7.5, and 8.5 years from first symptoms. These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status. This report suggests that benefits of CT on symptoms, survival, and quality of life should be prospectively compared with RT.

  8. Monte Carlo conformal treatment planning as an independent assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, M.; Leal, A.; Perucha, M.; Carrasco, E.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.; Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla; Arrans, R.; Sanchez-Calzado, J.A.; Errazquin, L.; Medrano, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The wide range of possibilities available in Radiotherapy with conformal fields cannot be covered experimentally. For this reason, dosimetrical and planning procedures are based on approximate algorithms or systematic measurements. Dose distribution calculations based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations can be used to check results. In this work, two examples of conformal field treatments are shown: A prostate carcinoma and an ocular lymphoma. The dose distributions obtained with a conventional Planning System and with MC have been compared. Some significant differences have been found. (orig.)

  9. Quantum-chemical study on the bioactive conformation of epothilones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Verónica A

    2010-12-27

    Herein, I report a DFT study on the bioactive conformation of epothilone A based on the analysis of 92 stable conformations of free and bound epothilone to a reduced model of tubulin receptor. The equilibrium structures and relative energies were studied using B3LYP and X3LYP functionals and the 6-31G(d) standard basis set, which was considered appropriate for the size of the systems under study. Calculated relative energies of free and bound epothilones led me to propose a new model for the bioactive conformation of epothilone A, which accounts for several structure-activity data.

  10. On New Families of Integrals in Analytical Studies of Superconductors within the Conformal Transformation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Gonczarek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that, by applying the conformal transformation method, strongly correlated superconducting systems can be discussed in terms of the Fermi liquid with a variable density of states function. Within this approach, it is possible to formulate and carry out purely analytical study based on a set of fundamental equations. After presenting the mathematical structure of the s-wave superconducting gap and other quantitative characteristics of superconductors, we evaluate and discuss integrals inherent in fundamental equations describing superconducting systems. The results presented here extend the approach formulated by Abrikosov and Maki, which was restricted to the first-order expansion. A few infinite families of integrals are derived and allow us to express the fundamental equations by means of analytical formulas. They can be then exploited in order to find quantitative characteristics of superconducting systems by the method of successive approximations. We show that the results can be applied in studies of high-Tc superconductors and other superconducting materials of the new generation.

  11. Spatial and null infinity via advanced and retarded conformal factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to space-time asymptotics is presented, refining Penrose's idea of conformal transformations with infinity represented by the conformal boundary of space-time. It is proposed that the Penrose conformal factor be a product of advanced and retarded conformal factors, which asymptotically relate physical and conformal null coordinates and vanish at future and past null infinity respectively. A refined definition of asymptotic flatness at both spatial and null infinity is given, including that the conformal boundary is locally a light cone, with spatial infinity as the vertex. It is shown how to choose the conformal factors so that this asymptotic light cone is locally a metric light cone. The theory is implemented in the spin-coefficient (or null-tetrad) formalism by a joint transformation of the spin-metric and spin-basis (or metric and tetrad). Asymptotic regularity conditions are proposed, based on the conformal boundary locally being a smoothly embedded metric light cone. These conditions ensure that the Bondi-Sachs energy-flux integrals of ingoing and outgoing gravitational radiation decay at spatial infinity such that the total radiated energy is finite, and that the Bondi-Sachs energy-momentum has a unique limit at spatial infinity, coinciding with the uniquely rendered ADM energy-momentum

  12. Group quenching and galactic conformity at low redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyer, M.; Kraljic, K.; Arnouts, S.; de la Torre, S.; Pichon, C.; Dubois, Y.; Vibert, D.; Milliard, B.; Laigle, C.; Seibert, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Grootes, M. W.; Wright, A. H.; Liske, J.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2018-06-01

    We quantify the quenching impact of the group environment using the spectroscopic survey Galaxy and Mass Assembly to z ˜ 0.2. The fraction of red (quiescent) galaxies, whether in groups or isolated, increases with both stellar mass and large-scale (5 Mpc) density. At fixed stellar mass, the red fraction is on average higher for satellites of red centrals than of blue (star-forming) centrals, a galactic conformity effect that increases with density. Most of the signal originates from groups that have the highest stellar mass, reside in the densest environments, and have massive, red only centrals. Assuming a colour-dependent halo-to-stellar-mass ratio, whereby red central galaxies inhabit significantly more massive haloes than blue ones of the same stellar mass, two regimes emerge more distinctly: at log (Mhalo/M⊙) ≲ 13, central quenching is still ongoing, conformity is no longer existent, and satellites and group centrals exhibit the same quenching excess over field galaxies at all mass and density, in agreement with the concept of `group quenching'; at log (Mh/M⊙) ≳ 13, a cut-off that sets apart massive (log (M⋆/M⊙) > 11), fully quenched group centrals, conformity is meaningless, and satellites undergo significantly more quenching than their counterparts in smaller haloes. The latter effect strongly increases with density, giving rise to the density-dependent conformity signal when both regimes are mixed. The star formation of blue satellites in massive haloes is also suppressed compared to blue field galaxies, while blue group centrals and the majority of blue satellites, which reside in low-mass haloes, show no deviation from the colour-stellar mass relation of blue field galaxies.

  13. Group quenching and galactic conformity at low redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyer, M.; Kraljic, K.; Arnouts, S.; de la Torre, S.; Pichon, C.; Dubois, Y.; Vibert, D.; Milliard, B.; Laigle, C.; Seibert, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Grootes, M. W.; Wright, A. H.; Liske, J.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2018-03-01

    We quantify the quenching impact of the group environment using the spectroscopic survey Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) to z ˜ 0.2. The fraction of red (quiescent) galaxies, whether in groups or isolated, increases with both stellar mass and large-scale (5 Mpc) density. At fixed stellar mass, the red fraction is on average higher for satellites of red centrals than of blue (star-forming) centrals, a galactic conformity effect that increases with density. Most of the signal originates from groups that have the highest stellar mass, reside in the densest environments, and have massive, red only centrals. Assuming a color-dependent halo-to-stellar-mass ratio, whereby red central galaxies inhabit significantly more massive halos than blue ones of the same stellar mass, two regimes emerge more distinctly: at log (Mhalo/M⊙) ≲ 13, central quenching is still ongoing, conformity is no longer existent, and satellites and group centrals exhibit the same quenching excess over field galaxies at all mass and density, in agreement with the concept of "group quenching"; at log (Mh/M⊙) ≳ 13, a cutoff that sets apart massive (log (M⋆/M⊙) > 11), fully quenched group centrals, conformity is meaningless, and satellites undergo significantly more quenching than their counterparts in smaller halos. The latter effect strongly increases with density, giving rise to the density-dependent conformity signal when both regimes are mixed. The star-formation of blue satellites in massive halos is also suppressed compared to blue field galaxies, while blue group centrals and the majority of blue satellites, which reside in low mass halos, show no deviation from the color-stellar mass relation of blue field galaxies.

  14. Conformal sequestering simplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, Martin; Sundrum, Raman

    2006-01-01

    Sequestering is important for obtaining flavor-universal soft masses in models where supersymmetry breaking is mediated at high scales. We construct a simple and robust class of hidden sector models which sequester themselves from the visible sector due to strong and conformally invariant hidden dynamics. Masses for hidden matter eventually break the conformal symmetry and lead to supersymmetry breaking by the mechanism recently discovered by Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih. We give a unified treatment of subtleties due to global symmetries of the CFT. There is enough review for the paper to constitute a self-contained account of conformal sequestering

  15. Exploiting conformational ensembles in modeling protein-protein interactions on the proteome scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Guray; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth; Keskin, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Cellular functions are performed through protein-protein interactions; therefore, identification of these interactions is crucial for understanding biological processes. Recent studies suggest that knowledge-based approaches are more useful than ‘blind’ docking for modeling at large scales. However, a caveat of knowledge-based approaches is that they treat molecules as rigid structures. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) offers a wealth of conformations. Here, we exploited ensemble of the conformations in predictions by a knowledge-based method, PRISM. We tested ‘difficult’ cases in a docking-benchmark dataset, where the unbound and bound protein forms are structurally different. Considering alternative conformations for each protein, the percentage of successfully predicted interactions increased from ~26% to 66%, and 57% of the interactions were successfully predicted in an ‘unbiased’ scenario, in which data related to the bound forms were not utilized. If the appropriate conformation, or relevant template interface, is unavailable in the PDB, PRISM could not predict the interaction successfully. The pace of the growth of the PDB promises a rapid increase of ensemble conformations emphasizing the merit of such knowledge-based ensemble strategies for higher success rates in protein-protein interaction predictions on an interactome-scale. We constructed the structural network of ERK interacting proteins as a case study. PMID:23590674

  16. A Fragment on the Emotion, “Mathesis” and Time Dimension of the Purely Musical. Marginalia with Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun by Claude Debussy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Popović Mladjenović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the dialogue What Is Music? between Carl Dahlhaus and Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht, music is defined as a “mathematized emotion” or an “emotionalized ‘mathesis’”. As emphasized by Marija Bergamo, this is the way of underlining its equal and unavoidable constitution, based on emotion and rational organization in the time dimension. So, Marija Bergamo is continuously searching for those music determinants in a musical work as an “autonomous aesthetic fact”, whose base and real essence lie “within the nature and essence of music itself”. In other words, the starting point of the author’s concern with (art music is her reflection on that which is “purely musical”, that is, on “the very nature of the musical”.The attempts to determine what the purely musical is and to understand the nature of the sense and inevitability of man’s musical dimension have been made since the beginnings of music and musical thinking. In that context, more recent knowledge and thinking about the phenomenon of music, which are derived from various disciplines, correspond closely to Marija Bergamo’s views. In a narrower sense, the notion of purely musical is closely related to aesthetic autonomy, that is, autonomous music or musical autonomy. From such a viewpoint – and in conformity with Marija Bergamo’s view – I would say that the purely musical in an art music work exists independently of non/autonomy (that is, independently of any function, except an aesthetic one, as well as independently of the origin of its content (musical or extra-musical, and that it always, whenever “one thinks in the sense of music and is seized by it” (in terms of emotion, mathesis and time, creates, brings and possesses its specific (non-conceptual perceptive musical-semantic stratum. This is shown, at least partly, on a characteristic and (in many respects paradigmatic example – the music of Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun by Claude Debussy

  17. Conformal anomaly of super Wilson loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Classically supersymmetric Wilson loop on a null polygonal contour possesses all symmetries required to match it onto non-MHV amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. However, to define it quantum mechanically, one is forced to regularize it since perturbative loop diagrams are not well defined due to presence of ultraviolet divergences stemming from integration in the vicinity of the cusps. A regularization that is adopted by practitioners by allowing one to use spinor helicity formalism, on the one hand, and systematically go to higher orders of perturbation theory is based on a version of dimensional regularization, known as Four-Dimensional Helicity scheme. Recently it was demonstrated that its use for the super Wilson loop at one loop breaks both conformal symmetry and Poincare supersymmetry. Presently, we exhibit the origin for these effects and demonstrate how one can undo this breaking. The phenomenon is alike the one emerging in renormalization group mixing of conformal operators in conformal theories when one uses dimensional regularization. The rotation matrix to the diagonal basis is found by means of computing the anomaly in the Ward identity for the conformal boost. Presently, we apply this ideology to the super Wilson loop. We compute the one-loop conformal anomaly for the super Wilson loop and find that the anomaly depends on its Grassmann coordinates. By subtracting this anomalous contribution from the super Wilson loop we restore its interpretation as a dual description for reduced non-MHV amplitudes which are expressed in terms of superconformal invariants.

  18. Polarizable Force Field for DNA Based on the Classical Drude Oscillator: I. Refinement Using Quantum Mechanical Base Stacking and Conformational Energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkul, Justin A; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-05-09

    Empirical force fields seek to relate the configuration of a set of atoms to its energy, thus yielding the forces governing its dynamics, using classical physics rather than more expensive quantum mechanical calculations that are computationally intractable for large systems. Most force fields used to simulate biomolecular systems use fixed atomic partial charges, neglecting the influence of electronic polarization, instead making use of a mean-field approximation that may not be transferable across environments. Recent hardware and software developments make polarizable simulations feasible, and to this end, polarizable force fields represent the next generation of molecular dynamics simulation technology. In this work, we describe the refinement of a polarizable force field for DNA based on the classical Drude oscillator model by targeting quantum mechanical interaction energies and conformational energy profiles of model compounds necessary to build a complete DNA force field. The parametrization strategy employed in the present work seeks to correct weak base stacking in A- and B-DNA and the unwinding of Z-DNA observed in the previous version of the force field, called Drude-2013. Refinement of base nonbonded terms and reparametrization of dihedral terms in the glycosidic linkage, deoxyribofuranose rings, and important backbone torsions resulted in improved agreement with quantum mechanical potential energy surfaces. Notably, we expand on previous efforts by explicitly including Z-DNA conformational energetics in the refinement.

  19. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-13

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  20. Fabrication challenges associated with conformal optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, John; Eichholtz, Richard A.; Sulzbach, Frank C.

    2001-09-01

    A conformal optic is typically an optical window that conforms smoothly to the external shape of a system platform to improve aerodynamics. Conformal optics can be on-axis, such as an ogive missile dome, or off-axis, such as in a free form airplane wing. A common example of conformal optics is the automotive head light window that conforms to the body of the car aerodynamics and aesthetics. The unusual shape of conformal optics creates tremendous challenges for design, manufacturing, and testing. This paper will discuss fabrication methods that have been successfully demonstrated to produce conformal missile domes and associated wavefront corrector elements. It will identify challenges foreseen with more complex free-form configurations. Work presented in this paper was directed by the Precision Conformal Optics Consortium (PCOT). PCOT is comprised of both industrial and academic members who teamed to develop and demonstrate conformal optical systems suitable for insertion into future military programs. The consortium was funded under DARPA agreement number MDA972-96-9-08000.

  1. Electrophysiological precursors of social conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieskamp, Jörg; Tugin, Sergey; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Krutitskaya, Janina; Klucharev, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. This study explored, with the use of human event-related potentials (ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke a feedback-related negativity (FRN) often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. The experimental results show that individual judgments of facial attractiveness were adjusted in line with a normative group opinion. A mismatch between individual and group opinions triggered a frontocentral negative deflection with the maximum at 200 ms, similar to FRN. Overall, a conflict with a normative group opinion triggered a cascade of neuronal responses: from an earlier FRN response reflecting a conflict with the normative opinion to a later ERP component (peaking at 380 ms) reflecting a conforming behavioral adjustment. These results add to the growing literature on neuronal mechanisms of social influence by disentangling the conflict-monitoring signal in response to the perceived violation of social norms and the neural signal of a conforming behavioral adjustment. PMID:22683703

  2. Perspectives on the Pure-Tone Audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiek, Frank E; Shinn, Jennifer; Chermak, Gail D; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    The pure-tone audiogram, though fundamental to audiology, presents limitations, especially in the case of central auditory involvement. Advances in auditory neuroscience underscore the considerably larger role of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) in hearing and related disorders. Given the availability of behavioral audiological tests and electrophysiological procedures that can provide better insights as to the function of the various components of the auditory system, this perspective piece reviews the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram and notes some of the advantages of other tests and procedures used in tandem with the pure-tone threshold measurement. To review and synthesize the literature regarding the utility and limitations of the pure-tone audiogram in determining dysfunction of peripheral sensory and neural systems, as well as the CANS, and to identify other tests and procedures that can supplement pure-tone thresholds and provide enhanced diagnostic insight, especially regarding problems of the central auditory system. A systematic review and synthesis of the literature. The authors independently searched and reviewed literature (journal articles, book chapters) pertaining to the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram. The pure-tone audiogram provides information as to hearing sensitivity across a selected frequency range. Normal or near-normal pure-tone thresholds sometimes are observed despite cochlear damage. There are a surprising number of patients with acoustic neuromas who have essentially normal pure-tone thresholds. In cases of central deafness, depressed pure-tone thresholds may not accurately reflect the status of the peripheral auditory system. Listening difficulties are seen in the presence of normal pure-tone thresholds. Suprathreshold procedures and a variety of other tests can provide information regarding other and often more central functions of the auditory system. The audiogram is a primary tool for determining type

  3. Schwarz-Christoffel Conformal Mapping based Grid Generation for Global Oceanic Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiming

    2015-04-01

    We propose new grid generation algorithms for global ocean general circulation models (OGCMs). Contrary to conventional, analytical forms based dipolar or tripolar grids, the new algorithm are based on Schwarz-Christoffel (SC) conformal mapping with prescribed boundary information. While dealing with the conventional grid design problem of pole relocation, it also addresses more advanced issues of computational efficiency and the new requirements on OGCM grids arisen from the recent trend of high-resolution and multi-scale modeling. The proposed grid generation algorithm could potentially achieve the alignment of grid lines to coastlines, enhanced spatial resolution in coastal regions, and easier computational load balance. Since the generated grids are still orthogonal curvilinear, they can be readily 10 utilized in existing Bryan-Cox-Semtner type ocean models. The proposed methodology can also be applied to the grid generation task for regional ocean modeling when complex land-ocean distribution is present.

  4. Analysis of conformations and ESR spectra of free radicals in carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaghyan, G.V.; Abaghyan, A.G.; Apresyan, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The conformations of free radicals arising when the unpaired electron is localized on carbon atoms in pyranose ring of carbohydrate molecule are considered. On the base of the analysis of expected conformations of radicals a possible contribution of β-protons in hyperfine structure of ESP spectra is predicted. The results of conformational analysis for different types of free radicals are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding experimental data for the liquid phase. 17 refs

  5. Reactions driving conformational movements (molecular motors) in gels: conformational and structural chemical kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Toribio F

    2017-01-18

    In this perspective the empirical kinetics of conducting polymers exchanging anions and solvent during electrochemical reactions to get dense reactive gels is reviewed. The reaction drives conformational movements of the chains (molecular motors), exchange of ions and solvent with the electrolyte and structural (relaxation, swelling, shrinking and compaction) gel changes. Reaction-driven structural changes are identified and quantified from electrochemical responses. The empirical reaction activation energy (E a ), the reaction coefficient (k) and the reaction orders (α and β) change as a function of the conformational energy variation during the reaction. This conformational energy becomes an empirical magnitude. E a , k, α and β include and provide quantitative conformational and structural information. The chemical kinetics becomes structural chemical kinetics (SCK) for reactions driving conformational movements of the reactants. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model describes empirical results and some results from the literature for biochemical reactions. In parallel the development of an emerging technological world of soft, wet, multifunctional and biomimetic tools and anthropomorphic robots driven by reactions of the constitutive material, as in biological organs, can be now envisaged being theoretically supported by the kinetic model.

  6. Imine-based [2]catenanes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprice, Kenji; Pupier, Marion; Kruve, Anneli; Schalley, Christoph A; Cougnon, Fabien B L

    2018-02-07

    We report the efficient condensation of imine-based macrocycles from dialdehyde A and aliphatic diamines B n in pure water. Within the libraries, we identified a family of homologous amphiphilic [2]catenanes, whose self-assembly is primarily driven by the hydrophobic effect. The length and odd-even character of the diamine alkyl linker dictate both the yield and the conformation of the [2]catenanes, whose particular thermodynamic stability further shifts the overall equilibrium in favour of imine condensation. These findings highlight the role played by solvophobic effects in the self-assembly of complex architectures.

  7. Optimization of Jatropha curcas pure plant oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna

    2015-01-01

    The use of pure plant oils as fuel, either directly or after conversion of the oil to bio-diesel, is considered to be one of the potential contributions to the transformation of the current fossil oil based economy to a sustainable bio-based one. The production of oil producing seeds using plants

  8. Smart Conformists: Children and Adolescents Associate Conformity With Intelligence Across Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Nicole J; Clegg, Jennifer M; Legare, Cristine H

    2017-08-24

    The current study used a novel methodology based on multivocal ethnography to assess the relations between conformity and evaluations of intelligence and good behavior among Western (U.S.) and non-Western (Ni-Vanuatu) children (6- to 11-year-olds) and adolescents (13- to 17-year-olds; N = 256). Previous research has shown that U.S. adults were less likely to endorse high-conformity children as intelligent than Ni-Vanuatu adults. The current data demonstrate that in contrast to prior studies documenting cultural differences between adults' evaluations of conformity, children and adolescents in the United States and Vanuatu have a conformity bias when evaluating peers' intelligence and behavior. Conformity bias for good behavior increases with age. The results have implications for understanding the interplay of conformity bias and trait psychology across cultures and development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Axiomatic conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.R.; Goddard, P.

    2000-01-01

    A new rigourous approach to conformal field theory is presented. The basic objects are families of complex-valued amplitudes, which define a meromorphic conformal field theory (or chiral algebra) and which lead naturally to the definition of topological vector spaces, between which vertex operators act as continuous operators. In fact, in order to develop the theory, Moebius invariance rather than full conformal invariance is required but it is shown that every Moebius theory can be extended to a conformal theory by the construction of a Virasoro field. In this approach, a representation of a conformal field theory is naturally defined in terms of a family of amplitudes with appropriate analytic properties. It is shown that these amplitudes can also be derived from a suitable collection of states in the meromorphic theory. Zhu's algebra then appears naturally as the algebra of conditions which states defining highest weight representations must satisfy. The relationship of the representations of Zhu's algebra to the classification of highest weight representations is explained. (orig.)

  10. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics

  11. Conformal description of spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, I.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of the conformal group to quantum field theory of particles with spin. After an introduction to the twistor representations of the conformal group of a conformally flat space-time and twistor flag manifolds with Su(2,2) orbits the classical phase space of conformal spinning particles is described. Thereafter the twistor description of classical zero mass fields is considered together with the quantization. (HSI)

  12. Field-Assisted Splitting of Pure Water Based on Deep-Sub-Debye-Length Nanogap Electrochemical Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Narayanan, S R; Wu, Wei

    2017-08-22

    Owing to the low conductivity of pure water, using an electrolyte is common for achieving efficient water electrolysis. In this paper, we have fundamentally broken through this common sense by using deep-sub-Debye-length nanogap electrochemical cells to achieve efficient electrolysis of pure water (without any added electrolyte) at room temperature. A field-assisted effect resulted from overlapped electrical double layers can greatly enhance water molecules ionization and mass transport, leading to electron-transfer limited reactions. We have named this process "virtual breakdown mechanism" (which is completely different from traditional mechanisms) that couples the two half-reactions together, greatly reducing the energy losses arising from ion transport. This fundamental discovery has been theoretically discussed in this paper and experimentally demonstrated in a group of electrochemical cells with nanogaps between two electrodes down to 37 nm. On the basis of our nanogap electrochemical cells, the electrolysis current density from pure water can be significantly larger than that from 1 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, indicating the much better performance of pure water splitting as a potential for on-demand clean hydrogen production.

  13. Instructional Uses of Web-Based Survey Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta A. DePaolo, Ph.D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances have led to changes in how instruction is delivered. Such technology can create opportunities to enhance instruction and make instructors more efficient in performing instructional tasks, especially if the technology is easy to use and requires no training. One such technology, web-based survey software, is extremely accessible for anyone with basic computer skills. Web-based survey software can be used for a variety of instructional purposes to streamline instructor tasks, as well as enhance instruction and communication with students. Following a brief overview of the technology, we discuss how Web Forms from nTreePoint can be used to conduct instructional surveys, collect course feedback, conduct peer evaluations of group work, collect completed assignments, schedule meeting times among multiple people, and aid in pedagogical research. We also discuss our experiences with these tasks within traditional on-campus courses and how they were enhanced or expedited by the use of web-based survey software.

  14. Isomers and conformational barriers of gas phase nicotine, nornicotine and their protonated forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tomoki; Farone, William A.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2014-07-17

    We report extensive conformational searches of the neutral nicotine, nornicotine and their protonated analogs that are based on ab-initio second order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) electronic structure calculations. Initial searches were performed with the 6-31G(d,p) and the energetics of the most important structures were further refined from geometry optimizations with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. Based on the calculated free energies at T=298 K for the gas phase molecules, neutral nicotine has two dominant trans conformers, whereas neutral nornicotine is a mixture of several conformers. For nicotine, the protonation on both the pyridine and the pyrrolidine sites is energetically competitive, whereas nornicotine prefers protonation on the pyridine nitrogen. The protonated form of nicotine is mainly a mixture of two pyridine-protonated trans conformers and two pyrrolidine-protonated trans conformers, whereas the protonated form of nornicotine is a mixture of four pyridine-protonated trans conformers. Nornicotine is conformationally more flexible than nicotine, however it is less protonated at the biologically important pyrrolidine nitrogen site. The lowest energy isomers for each case were found to interconvert via low (< 6 kcal/mol) rotational barriers around the pyridine-pyrrolidine bond.

  15. Probing Conformational Changes of Human DNA Polymerase λ Using Mass Spectrometry-Based Protein Footprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Jason D.; Brown, Jessica A.; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Suo, Zucai

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Crystallographic studies of the C-terminal, DNA polymerase β-like domain of human DNA polymerase lambda (fPolλ) suggested that the catalytic cycle might not involve a large protein domain rearrangement as observed with several replicative DNA polymerases and DNA polymerase β. To examine solution-phase protein conformation changes in fPolλ, which also contains a breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 C-terminal domain and a Proline-rich domain at its N-terminus, we used a mass spectrometry - based protein footprinting approach. In parallel experiments, surface accessibility maps for Arg residues were compared for the free fPolλ versus the binary complex of enzyme•gapped DNA and the ternary complex of enzyme•gapped DNA•dNTP. These experiments suggested that fPolλ does not undergo major conformational changes during the catalysis in the solution phase. Furthermore, the mass spectrometry-based protein footprinting experiments revealed that active site residue R386 was shielded from the surface only in the presence of both a gapped DNA substrate and an incoming nucleotide dNTP. Site-directed mutagenesis and pre-steady state kinetic studies confirmed the importance of R386 for the enzyme activity, and indicated the key role for its guanidino group in stabilizing the negative charges of an incoming nucleotide and the leaving pyrophosphate product. We suggest that such interactions could be shared by and important for catalytic functions of other DNA polymerases. PMID:19467241

  16. Conformally connected universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, M.; Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    A well-known difficulty associated with the conformal method for the solution of the general relativistic Hamiltonian constraint is the appearance of an aphysical ''bag of gold'' singularity at the nodal surface of the conformal factor. This happens whenever the background Ricci scalar is too large. Using a simple model, it is demonstrated that some of these singular solutions do have a physical meaning, and that these can be considered as initial data for Universe containing black holes, which are connected, in a conformally nonsingular way with each other. The relation between the ADM mass and the horizon area in this solution supports the cosmic censorship conjecture. (author)

  17. Magnetization oscillations and waves driven by pure spin currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, V.E. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2-4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Urazhdin, S. [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Loubens, G. de [SPEC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Demokritov, S.O., E-mail: demokrit@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2-4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of RAS, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-23

    Recent advances in the studies of pure spin currents–flows of angular momentum (spin) not accompanied by the electric currents–have opened new horizons for the emerging technologies based on the electron’s spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. The main advantage of pure spin current, as compared to the spin-polarized electric current, is the possibility to exert spin transfer torque on the magnetization in thin magnetic films without the electrical current flow through the material. In addition to minimizing Joule heating and electromigration effects, this enables the implementation of spin torque devices based on the low-loss insulating magnetic materials, and offers an unprecedented geometric flexibility. Here we review the recent experimental achievements in investigations of magnetization oscillations excited by pure spin currents in different nanomagnetic systems based on metallic and insulating magnetic materials. We discuss the spectral properties of spin-current nano-oscillators, and relate them to the spatial characteristics of the excited dynamic magnetic modes determined by the spatially-resolved measurements. We also show that these systems support locking of the oscillations to external microwave signals, as well as their mutual synchronization, and can be used as efficient nanoscale sources of propagating spin waves.

  18. On Associative Conformal Algebras of Linear Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Retakh, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Lie conformal algebras appear in the theory of vertex algebras. Their relation is similar to that of Lie algebras and their universal enveloping algebras. Associative conformal algebras play a role in conformal representation theory. We introduce the notions of conformal identity and unital associative conformal algebras and classify finitely generated simple unital associative conformal algebras of linear growth. These are precisely the complete algebras of conformal endomorphisms of finite ...

  19. Musical notation reading in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Wong, Yetta K.

    2017-01-01

    Pure alexia (PA) is an acquired reading disorder following lesions to left ventral temporo-occipital cortex. Patients with PA read slowly but correctly, and show an abnormal effect of word length on RTs. However, it is unclear how pure alexia may affect musical notation reading. We report a pure...

  20. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  1. Heterotic string solutions and coset conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Giveon, Amit; Tseytlin, Arkady A

    1993-01-01

    We discuss solutions of the heterotic string theory which are analogous to bosonic and superstring backgrounds related to coset conformal field theories. A class of exact `left-right symmetric' solutions is obtained by supplementing the metric, antisymmetric tensor and dilaton of the superstring solutions by the gauge field background equal to the generalised Lorentz connection with torsion. As in the superstring case, these backgrounds are $\\a'$-independent, i.e. have a `semiclassical' form. The corresponding heterotic string sigma model is obtained from the combination of the (1,0) supersymmetric gauged WZNW action with the action of internal fermions coupled to the target space gauge field. The pure (1,0) supersymmetric gauged WZNW theory is anomalous and does not describe a consistent heterotic string solution. We also find (to the order $\\alpha'^3$) a two-dimensional perturbative heterotic string solution with the trivial gauge field background. To the leading order in $\\alpha'$ it coincides with the kno...

  2. Space- and time-like superselection rules in conformal quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2000-11-01

    In conformally invariant quantum field theories one encounters besides the standard DHR superselection theory based on spacelike (Einstein-causal) commutation relations and their Haag duality another timelike (Huygens) based superselection structure. Whereas the DHR theory based on spacelike causality of observables confirmed the Lagrangian internal symmetry picture on the level of the physical principles of local quantum physics, the attempts to understand the timelike based superselection charges associated with the center of the conformal covering group in terms of timelike localized charges lead to a more dynamical role of charges outside the DR theorem and even outside the Coleman-Mandula setting. The ensuing plektonic timelike structure of conformal theories explains the spectrum of the anomalous scale dimensions in terms of admissible braid group representations, similar to the explanation of the possible anomalous spin spectrum expected from the extension of the DHR theory to stringlike d=1+2 plektonic fields. (author)

  3. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  4. Conformal algebra of Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafa, C.

    1988-01-01

    It has become clear over the last few years that 2-dimensional conformal field theories are a crucial ingredient of string theory. Conformal field theories correspond to vacuum solutions of strings; or more precisely we know how to compute string spectrum and scattering amplitudes by starting from a formal theory (with a proper value of central charge of the Virasoro algebra). Certain non-linear sigma models do give rise to conformal theories. A lot of progress has been made in the understanding of conformal theories. The author discusses a different view of conformal theories which was motivated by the development of operator formalism on Riemann surfaces. The author discusses an interesting recent work from this point of view

  5. HIV p24 as scaffold for presenting conformational HIV Env antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tagliamonte

    Full Text Available Heterologous protein scaffolds engrafted with structurally defined HIV Env epitopes recognized by broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs represent a promising strategy to elicit broad neutralizing antibodies. In such regards, a protein scaffold based on the HIV p24 CA protein is a highly attractive approach, providing also Gag epitopes for eliciting HIV non-neutralizing protective antibodies and specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses. In the present study, computational techniques were employed to verify the presence of acceptor sites for conformational HIV Env epitopes and, as proof of concept, the analysis of HIV p24 CA-based scaffolds using a complete V3 loop in a MAb-bound conformation is presented. The V3-p24 epitope-scaffold proteins show the formation of capsomers made of hexamers similarly to the p24 wild type protein. Moreover, the conformational V3 loop presented on p24 scaffold is recognized by a panel of anti-V3 MAbs. The results suggest that HIV p24 CA protein has suitable acceptor sites for engrafting foreign epitopes, without disrupting the formation of capsomer hexamer structures, and that the V3 epitope does retain its antibody-bound conformation. This strongly support the feasibility of developing a scaffolding strategy based on p24 CA proteins displaying conformational minimal structural, antigenic HIV Env epitopes.

  6. Ras conformational switching: simulating nucleotide-dependent conformational transitions with accelerated molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J Grant

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ras mediates signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation and development by cycling between GTP- and GDP-bound active and inactive conformational states. Understanding the complete reaction path of this conformational change and its intermediary structures is critical to understanding Ras signaling. We characterize nucleotide-dependent conformational transition using multiple-barrier-crossing accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD simulations. These transitions, achieved for the first time for wild-type Ras, are impossible to observe with classical molecular dynamics (cMD simulations due to the large energetic barrier between end states. Mapping the reaction path onto a conformer plot describing the distribution of the crystallographic structures enabled identification of highly populated intermediate structures. These structures have unique switch orientations (residues 25-40 and 57-75 intermediate between GTP and GDP states, or distinct loop3 (46-49, loop7 (105-110, and alpha5 C-terminus (159-166 conformations distal from the nucleotide-binding site. In addition, these barrier-crossing trajectories predict novel nucleotide-dependent correlated motions, including correlations of alpha2 (residues 66-74 with alpha3-loop7 (93-110, loop2 (26-37 with loop10 (145-151, and loop3 (46-49 with alpha5 (152-167. The interconversion between newly identified Ras conformations revealed by this study advances our mechanistic understanding of Ras function. In addition, the pattern of correlated motions provides new evidence for a dynamic linkage between the nucleotide-binding site and the membrane interacting C-terminus critical for the signaling function of Ras. Furthermore, normal mode analysis indicates that the dominant collective motion that occurs during nucleotide-dependent conformational exchange, and captured in aMD (but absent in cMD simulations, is a low-frequency motion intrinsic to the structure.

  7. Conformality lost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David B.; Lee, Jong-Wan; Son, Dam T.; Stephanov, Mikhail A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider zero-temperature transitions from conformal to nonconformal phases in quantum theories. We argue that there are three generic mechanisms for the loss of conformality in any number of dimensions: (i) fixed point goes to zero coupling, (ii) fixed point runs off to infinite coupling, or (iii) an IR fixed point annihilates with a UV fixed point and they both disappear into the complex plane. We give both relativistic and nonrelativistic examples of the last case in various dimensions and show that the critical behavior of the mass gap behaves similarly to the correlation length in the finite temperature Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in two dimensions, ξ∼exp(c/|T-T c | 1/2 ). We speculate that the chiral phase transition in QCD at large number of fermion flavors belongs to this universality class, and attempt to identify the UV fixed point that annihilates with the Banks-Zaks fixed point at the lower end of the conformal window.

  8. Conformal Interpolating Algorithm Based on Cubic NURBS in Aspheric Ultra-Precision Machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C G; Zhang, Q R; Cao, C G; Zhao, S L

    2006-01-01

    Numeric control machining and on-line compensation for aspheric surface are key techniques in ultra-precision machining. In this paper, conformal cubic NURBS interpolating curve is applied to fit the character curve of aspheric surface. Its algorithm and process are also proposed and imitated by Matlab7.0 software. To evaluate the performance of the conformal cubic NURBS interpolation, we compare it with the linear interpolations. The result verifies this method can ensure smoothness of interpolating spline curve and preserve original shape characters. The surface quality interpolated by cubic NURBS is higher than by line. The algorithm is benefit to increasing the surface form precision of workpieces in ultra-precision machining

  9. Fliposomes: pH-triggered conformational flip of new trans-2-aminocyclohexanol-based amphiphiles causes instant cargo release in liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Yu; Samoshina, Nataliya M; Franz, Andreas H; Guo, Xin; Samoshin, Vyacheslav V

    2012-12-01

    A new type of pH-sensitive liposomes (fliposomes) was designed based on the amphiphiles that are able to perform a pH-triggered conformational flip (flipids). This flip disrupts the liposome membrane and causes rapid release of the liposome cargo, specifically in response to lowered pH. The flipids (1) and (2) are equipped with a trans-2-aminocyclohexanol conformational switch. pH-sensitive fliposomes containing one or both of these flipids, as well as POPC and PEG ceramide, were constructed and characterized. These compositions were stable at 4°C and pH 7.4 for several months. Fliposomes loaded with ANTS/DPX performed an unusually quick content release within a few seconds at pH below 8.5 (in case of 2) and 6.0 (in case of 1). This difference in pH sensitivity demonstrates a potential for the custom design of flipids by variation of the amino group to target areas with specific pH values. The pH titration curves for the fliposome leakage parallel the curves for the acid-induced conformational flip of 1 and 2 studied by ¹H NMR. A plausible mechanism of pH sensitivity starts with an acid-triggered conformational flip of 1 or 2, which changes the molecular size and shape, shortens the lipid tails, and perturbs the liposome membrane, resulting in the content leakage.

  10. Unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism based on the conformal group SOsub(4,2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavsic, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is done a ''minimal'' change in the existing 4-dimensional relativity, by extending it to the 6-dimensional conformal (etasup(a))-space (flat or curved one) with the metric tensor gsub(ab) (a, b=0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6), where all components of the 6-vector etasup(a)=(etasup(μ)=kxsup(μ), k, lambda) are considered as independent physical degrees of freedom. All basic equations of (special and general) relativity in 6-dimensional (flat or curved) conformal (etasup(a))-space have the same form as the corresponding equations in the 4-dimensional space. The novel feature of such an extended theory (named ''conformal relativity'') is the introduction of the scale degree of freedom k, which can be different from 1 and can change along the particle world-line. However, if k=1, then the conformal relativity reduces to the usual 4-dimensional relativity. Geodesics in the curved (etasup(a))-space correspond to the motion of electrically charged test particles in gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields. The field equations for the metric tensor gsub(ab) are Einstein equations, extended to the (etasup(a))-space; they describe a gravitational and electromagnetic field

  11. Improvements to robotics-inspired conformational sampling in rosetta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Stein

    Full Text Available To accurately predict protein conformations in atomic detail, a computational method must be capable of sampling models sufficiently close to the native structure. All-atom sampling is difficult because of the vast number of possible conformations and extremely rugged energy landscapes. Here, we test three sampling strategies to address these difficulties: conformational diversification, intensification of torsion and omega-angle sampling and parameter annealing. We evaluate these strategies in the context of the robotics-based kinematic closure (KIC method for local conformational sampling in Rosetta on an established benchmark set of 45 12-residue protein segments without regular secondary structure. We quantify performance as the fraction of sub-Angstrom models generated. While improvements with individual strategies are only modest, the combination of intensification and annealing strategies into a new "next-generation KIC" method yields a four-fold increase over standard KIC in the median percentage of sub-Angstrom models across the dataset. Such improvements enable progress on more difficult problems, as demonstrated on longer segments, several of which could not be accurately remodeled with previous methods. Given its improved sampling capability, next-generation KIC should allow advances in other applications such as local conformational remodeling of multiple segments simultaneously, flexible backbone sequence design, and development of more accurate energy functions.

  12. Synthesis of pure monetite by heterogeneous acid-base reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Moreno Aldana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five variations of the monetite (M synthesis were evaluated modifying the stirring, the phosphoric acid addition rate, the homogeneity and the drying temperature. Products were assessed by means of XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS analysis and chemical assay of Ca/P (calcium by titration with potassium permanganate and phosphorus by colorimetric assessment of the molybdenum blue complex. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and Ca/P ratio indicate that the synthesized phosphate corresponds to pure monetite. It was found that the most influential factors affecting composition, crystal size and Ca/P were stoichiometry and ballmilling mechanoactivation.

  13. The use of advanced web-based survey design in Delphi research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Christopher; Gardner, Anne; McInnes, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    A discussion of the application of metadata, paradata and embedded data in web-based survey research, using two completed Delphi surveys as examples. Metadata, paradata and embedded data use in web-based Delphi surveys has not been described in the literature. The rapid evolution and widespread use of online survey methods imply that paper-based Delphi methods will likely become obsolete. Commercially available web-based survey tools offer a convenient and affordable means of conducting Delphi research. Researchers and ethics committees may be unaware of the benefits and risks of using metadata in web-based surveys. Discussion paper. Two web-based, three-round Delphi surveys were conducted sequentially between August 2014 - January 2015 and April - May 2016. Their aims were to validate the Australian nurse practitioner metaspecialties and their respective clinical practice standards. Our discussion paper is supported by researcher experience and data obtained from conducting both web-based Delphi surveys. Researchers and ethics committees should consider the benefits and risks of metadata use in web-based survey methods. Web-based Delphi research using paradata and embedded data may introduce efficiencies that improve individual participant survey experiences and reduce attrition across iterations. Use of embedded data allows the efficient conduct of multiple simultaneous Delphi surveys across a shorter timeframe than traditional survey methods. The use of metadata, paradata and embedded data appears to improve response rates, identify bias and give possible explanation for apparent outlier responses, providing an efficient method of conducting web-based Delphi surveys. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Conformational determination of [Leu]enkephalin based on theoretical and experimental VA and VCD spectral analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Jalkanen, Karl J.; Cao, X.

    2004-01-01

    Conformational determination of [Leu]enkephalin in DMSO-d6 is carried out using VA and VCD spectral analyses. Conformational energies, vibrational frequencies and VA and VCD intensities are calculated using DFT at B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. Comparison between the measured spectra...

  15. 40 CFR 93.154 - Conformity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 93.154 Section 93...) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.154 Conformity analysis. Any Federal...

  16. Conformational analysis of lignin models; Analise conformacional de modelos de lignina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio F. dos [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: helius@quimica.ufjf.br

    2001-08-01

    The conformational equilibrium for two 5,5' biphenyl lignin models have been analyzed using a quantum mechanical semiempirical method. The gas phase and solution structures are discussed based on the NMR and X-ray experimental data. The results obtained showed that the observed conformations are solvent-dependent, being the geometries and the thermodynamic properties correlated with the experimental information. This study shows how a systematic theoretical conformational analysis can help to understand chemical processes at a molecular level. (author)

  17. Conformal bi-layered perovskite/spinel coating on a metallic wire network for solid oxide fuel cells via an electrodeposition-based route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Beom-Kyeong; Song, Rak-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Bok; Lim, Tak-Hyoung; Park, Seok-Joo; Jung, WooChul; Lee, Jong-Won

    2017-04-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) require low-cost metallic components for current collection from electrodes as well as electrical connection between unit cells; however, the degradation of their electrical properties and surface stability associated with high-temperature oxidation is of great concern. It is thus important to develop protective conducting oxide coatings capable of mitigating the degradation of metallic components under SOFC operating conditions. Here, we report a conformal bi-layered coating composed of perovskite and spinel oxides on a metallic wire network fabricated by a facile electrodeposition-based route. A highly dense, crack-free, and adhesive bi-layered LaMnO3/Co3O4 coating of ∼1.2 μm thickness is conformally formed on the surfaces of wires with ∼100 μm diameter. We demonstrate that the bi-layered LaMnO3/Co3O4 coating plays a key role in improving the power density and durability of a tubular SOFC by stabilizing the surface of the metallic wire network used as a cathode current collector. The electrodeposition-based technique presented in this study offers a low-cost and scalable process to fabricate conformal multi-layered coatings on various metallic structures.

  18. Resection of highly language-eloquent brain lesions based purely on rTMS language mapping without awake surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ille, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Butenschoen, Vicki M; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    The resection of left-sided perisylvian brain lesions harbours the risk of postoperative language impairment. Therefore the individual patient's language distribution is investigated by intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS) during awake surgery. Yet, not all patients qualify for awake surgery. Non-invasive language mapping by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has frequently shown a high correlation in comparison with the results of DCS language mapping in terms of language-negative brain regions. The present study analyses the extent of resection (EOR) and functional outcome of patients who underwent left-sided perisylvian resection of brain lesions based purely on rTMS language mapping. Four patients with left-sided perisylvian brain lesions (two gliomas WHO III, one glioblastoma, one cavernous angioma) underwent rTMS language mapping prior to surgery. Data from rTMS language mapping and rTMS-based diffusion tensor imaging fibre tracking (DTI-FT) were transferred to the intraoperative neuronavigation system. Preoperatively, 5 days after surgery (POD5), and 3 months after surgery (POM3) clinical follow-up examinations were performed. No patient suffered from a new surgery-related aphasia at POM3. Three patients underwent complete resection immediately, while one patient required a second rTMS-based resection some days later to achieve the final, complete resection. The present study shows for the first time the feasibility of successfully resecting language-eloquent brain lesions based purely on the results of negative language maps provided by rTMS language mapping and rTMS-based DTI-FT. In very select cases, this technique can provide a rescue strategy with an optimal functional outcome and EOR when awake surgery is not feasible.

  19. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  20. The logarithmic conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi Tabar, M.R.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Khorrami, M.

    1997-01-01

    We study the correlation functions of logarithmic conformal field theories. First, assuming conformal invariance, we explicitly calculate two- and three-point functions. This calculation is done for the general case of more than one logarithmic field in a block, and more than one set of logarithmic fields. Then we show that one can regard the logarithmic field as a formal derivative of the ordinary field with respect to its conformal weight. This enables one to calculate any n-point function containing the logarithmic field in terms of ordinary n-point functions. Finally, we calculate the operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients of a logarithmic conformal field theory, and show that these can be obtained from the corresponding coefficients of ordinary conformal theory by a simple derivation. (orig.)

  1. Particulate Photocatalyst Sheets Based on Carbon Conductor Layer for Efficient Z-Scheme Pure-Water Splitting at Ambient Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Hisatomi, Takashi; Suzuki, Yohichi; Pan, Zhenhua; Seo, Jeongsuk; Katayama, Masao; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Seki, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Akihiko; Yamada, Taro; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-02-01

    Development of sunlight-driven water splitting systems with high efficiency, scalability, and cost-competitiveness is a central issue for mass production of solar hydrogen as a renewable and storable energy carrier. Photocatalyst sheets comprising a particulate hydrogen evolution photocatalyst (HEP) and an oxygen evolution photocatalyst (OEP) embedded in a conductive thin film can realize efficient and scalable solar hydrogen production using Z-scheme water splitting. However, the use of expensive precious metal thin films that also promote reverse reactions is a major obstacle to developing a cost-effective process at ambient pressure. In this study, we present a standalone particulate photocatalyst sheet based on an earth-abundant, relatively inert, and conductive carbon film for efficient Z-scheme water splitting at ambient pressure. A SrTiO 3 :La,Rh/C/BiVO 4 :Mo sheet is shown to achieve unassisted pure-water (pH 6.8) splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency (STH) of 1.2% at 331 K and 10 kPa, while retaining 80% of this efficiency at 91 kPa. The STH value of 1.0% is the highest among Z-scheme pure water splitting operating at ambient pressure. The working mechanism of the photocatalyst sheet is discussed on the basis of band diagram simulation. In addition, the photocatalyst sheet split pure water more efficiently than conventional powder suspension systems and photoelectrochemical parallel cells because H + and OH - concentration overpotentials and an IR drop between the HEP and OEP were effectively suppressed. The proposed carbon-based photocatalyst sheet, which can be used at ambient pressure, is an important alternative to (photo)electrochemical systems for practical solar hydrogen production.

  2. Practical guidelines for developing a smartphone-based survey instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes Holger; Albæk, Erik

    The increasing relevance of mobile surveys makes it important to gather empirical evidence on designs of such surveys. This research note presents the results of a test study conducted to identify the best set-up for a smartphone-based survey. We base our analysis on a random sample of Danish...

  3. Caring for the carer: a systematic review of pure technology-based cognitive behavioral therapy (TB-CBT) interventions for dementia carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer L; Dawkins, Sarah; Quinn, Michael G; Sanderson, Kristy; Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; Stirling, Christine; Schüz, Ben; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Face-to-face delivery of CBT is not always optimal or practical for informal dementia carers (DCs). Technology-based formats of CBT delivery (TB-CBT) have been developed with the aim to improve client engagement and accessibility, and lower delivery costs, and offers potential benefits for DCs. However, research of TB-CBT for DCs has maintained heavy reliance on therapist involvement. The efficacy of pure TB-CBT interventions for DCs is not currently established Methods: A systematic review of trials of pure TB-CBT intervention for DCs from 1995 was conducted. PsycINFO, Cochrane Reviews, Scopus and MedLine databases were searched using key terms related to CBT, carers and dementia. Four hundred and forty two articles were identified, and inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied; studies were only retained if quantitative data was available, and there was no active therapist contact. Four articles were retained; two randomized and two waitlist control trials. Methodological and reporting quality was assessed. Meta-analyses were conducted for the outcome measures of caregiver depression. Meta-analysis revealed small significant post-intervention effects of pure TB-CBT interventions for depression; equivalent to face-to-face interventions. However, there is no evidence regarding long-term efficacy of pure TB-CBT for DCs. The systematic review further identified critical methodological and reporting shortcomings pertaining to these trials Conclusions: Pure TB-CBT interventions may offer a convenient, economical method for delivering psychological interventions to DCs. Future research needs to investigate their long-term efficacy, and consider potential moderating and mediating factors underpinning the mechanisms of effect of these programs. This will help to provide more targeted interventions to this underserviced population.

  4. Purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, F I; Fahle, M

    2001-05-01

    Visual figure-ground segregation is achieved by exploiting differences in features such as luminance, colour, motion or presentation time between a figure and its surround. Here we determine the shortest delay times required for figure-ground segregation based on purely temporal features. Previous studies usually employed stimulus onset asynchronies between figure- and ground-containing possible artefacts based on apparent motion cues or on luminance differences. Our stimuli systematically avoid these artefacts by constantly showing 20 x 20 'colons' that flip by 90 degrees around their midpoints at constant time intervals. Colons constituting the background flip in-phase whereas those constituting the target flip with a phase delay. We tested the impact of frequency modulation and phase reduction on target detection. Younger subjects performed well above chance even at temporal delays as short as 13 ms, whilst older subjects required up to three times longer delays in some conditions. Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal delays down to around 10 ms even in the absence of luminance and motion artefacts, indicating a temporal precision of cortical information processing almost an order of magnitude lower than the one required for some models of feature binding in the visual cortex [e.g. Singer, W. (1999), Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, 189-194]. Hence, in our experiment, observers are unable to use temporal stimulus features with the precision required for these models.

  5. Pure homology of algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We show that for a complete complex algebraic variety the pure component of homology coincides with the image of intersection homology. Therefore pure homology is topologically invariant. To obtain slightly more general results we introduce "image homology" for noncomplete varieties.

  6. CNMI Shore-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) staff conducted shore-based creel surveys which have 2 major...

  7. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Yellowtail

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Southern New England Yellowtail Flounder Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration between the Rhode Island Division of Fish and Wildlife and the fishing...

  8. N-terminal diproline and charge group effects on the stabilization of helical conformation in alanine-based short peptides: CD studies with water and methanol as solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Bhupesh; Srivastava, Kinshuk Raj; Durani, Susheel

    2017-06-01

    Protein folding problem remains a formidable challenge as main chain, side chain and solvent interactions remain entangled and have been difficult to resolve. Alanine-based short peptides are promising models to dissect protein folding initiation and propagation structurally as well as energetically. The effect of N-terminal diproline and charged side chains is assessed on the stabilization of helical conformation in alanine-based short peptides using circular dichroism (CD) with water and methanol as solvent. A1 (Ac-Pro-Pro-Ala-Lys-Ala-Lys-Ala-Lys-Ala-NH 2 ) is designed to assess the effect of N-terminal homochiral diproline and lysine side chains to induce helical conformation. A2 (Ac-Pro-Pro-Glu-Glu-Ala-Ala-Lys-Lys-Ala-NH 2 ) and A3 (Ac-dPro-Pro-Glu-Glu-Ala-Ala-Lys-Lys-Ala-NH 2 ) with N-terminal homochiral and heterochiral diproline, respectively, are designed to assess the effect of Glu...Lys (i, i + 4) salt bridge interactions on the stabilization of helical conformation. The CD spectra of A1, A2 and A3 in water manifest different amplitudes of the observed polyproline II (PPII) signals, which indicate different conformational distributions of the polypeptide structure. The strong effect of solvent substitution from water to methanol is observed for the peptides, and CD spectra in methanol evidence A2 and A3 as helical folds. Temperature-dependent CD spectra of A1 and A2 in water depict an isodichroic point reflecting coexistence of two conformations, PPII and β-strand conformation, which is consistent with the previous studies. The results illuminate the effect of N-terminal diproline and charged side chains in dictating the preferences for extended-β, semi-extended PPII and helical conformation in alanine-based short peptides. The results of the present study will enhance our understanding on stabilization of helical conformation in short peptides and hence aid in the design of novel peptides with helical structures. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide

  9. Conformational study of glyoxal bis(amidinohydrazone) by ab initio methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannfors, B.; Koskinen, J. T.; Pietilä, L.-O.

    1997-08-01

    We report the first ab initio molecular orbital study on the ground state of the endiamine tautomer of glyoxal bis(amidinohydrazone) (or glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), GBG) free base. The calculations were performed at the following levels of theory: Hartree-Fock, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory and density functional theory (B-LYP and B3-LYP) as implemented in the Gaussian 94 software. The standard basis set 6-31G(d) was found to be sufficient. The default fine grid of Gaussian 94 was used in the density functional calculations. Molecular properties, such as optimized structures, total energies and the electrostatic potential derived (CHELPG) atomic charges, were studied as functions of C-C and N-N conformations. The lowest energy conformation was found to be all- trans, in agreement with the experimental solid-state structure. The second conformer with respect to rotation around the central C-C bond was found to be the cis conformer with an MP2//HF energy of 4.67 kcal mol -1. For rotation around the N-N bond the energy increased monotonically from the trans conformation to the cis conformation, the cis energy being very high, 22.01 kcal mol -1 (MP2//HF). The atomic charges were shown to be conformation dependent, and the bond charge increments and especially the conformational changes of the bond charge increments were found to be easily transferable between structurally related systems.

  10. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  11. Conformal and Nearly Conformal Theories at Large N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnoplskiy, Grigory M.

    In this thesis we present new results in conformal and nearly conformal field theories in various dimensions. In chapter two, we study different properties of the conformal Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in continuous dimension d. At first we study conformal QED using large Nf methods, where Nf is the number of massless fermions. We compute its sphere free energy as a function of d, ignoring the terms of order 1/Nf and higher. For finite Nf we use the epsilon-expansion. Next we use a large Nf diagrammatic approach to calculate the leading corrections to CT, the coefficient of the two-point function of the stress-energy tensor, and CJ, the coefficient of the two-point function of the global symmetry current. We present explicit formulae as a function of d and check them versus the expectations in 2 and 4 - epsilon dimensions. In chapter three, we discuss vacuum stability in 1 + 1 dimensional conformal field theories with external background fields. We show that the vacuum decay rate is given by a non-local two-form. This two-form is a boundary term that must be added to the effective in/out Lagrangian. The two-form is expressed in terms of a Riemann-Hilbert decomposition for background gauge fields, and is given by its novel "functional'' version in the gravitational case. In chapter four, we explore Tensor models. Such models possess the large N limit dominated by the melon diagrams. The quantum mechanics of a real anti-commuting rank-3 tensor has a large N limit similar to the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model. We also discuss the quantum mechanics of a complex 3-index anti-commuting tensor and argue that it is equivalent in the large N limit to a version of SYK model with complex fermions. Finally, we discuss models of a commuting tensor in dimension d. We study the spectrum of the large N quantum field theory of bosonic rank-3 tensors using the Schwinger-Dyson equations. We compare some of these results with the 4 - epsilon expansion, finding perfect agreement. We

  12. Processing of pure Ti by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Rapid prototyping based on laser cladding is an additive manufacturing (AM) process based on the overlapping of cladding tracks to produce functional components. Powder or wire are fed into a melting pool created using laser radiation as a heat source and the relative movement between the beam and the work piece makes possible to generate pieces layer-by-layer. This technique can be applied for any material which can be melted and the components can be manufactured directly according to a computer aided design (CAD) model. Additive manufacturing is particularly interesting to produce titanium components because, in this case, the loss of material produced by subtractive manufacturing methods is highly costly. Moreover, titanium and its alloys are widely used in biomedical, aircraft, chemical and marine industries due to their biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and superior strength-to-weight ratio. In this research work, a near-infrared laser delivering a maximum power of 500W is used to produce pure titanium thin parts. Dimensions and surface morphology are characterized using Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the hardness by nanoindentation and the composition by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The aim of this work is to establish the conditions under which satisfactory properties are obtained and to understand the relationship between microstructure/properties and deposition parameters.

  13. Analysis of pure maple syrup consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Sendak

    1974-01-01

    Virtually all of the pure maple syrup productim in the United States is in the northern states of Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Pure maple syrup users living in the maple production area and users living in other areas of the United States were asked a series of questions about their use of pure...

  14. A combined variable temperature 600 MHz NMR/MD study of the calcium release agent cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR): Structure, conformational analysis, and thermodynamics of the conformational equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javornik, Uroš; Plavec, Janez; Wang, Baifan; Graham, Steven M

    2018-01-02

    A combined variable temperature 600 MHz NMR/molecular dynamics study of the Ca 2+ -release agent cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (cADPR) was conducted. In addition to elucidating the major and minor orientations of the conformationally flexible furanose rings, γ- (C4'-C5'), and β- (C5'-O5') bonds, the thermodynamics (ΔH o , ΔS o ) associated with each of these conformational equilibria were determined. Both furanose rings were biased towards a south conformation (64-74%) and both β-bonds heavily favored trans conformations. The R-ring γ-bond was found to exist almost exclusively as the γ + conformer, whereas the A-ring γ-bond was a mixture of the γ + and γ t conformers, with the trans conformer being slightly favored. Enthalpic factors accounted for most of the observed conformational preferences, although the R-ring furanose exists as its major conformation based solely on entropic factors. There was excellent agreement between the NMR and MD results, particularly with regard to the conformer identities, but the MD showed a bias towards γ + conformers. The MD results showed that both N-glycosidic χ-bonds are exclusively syn. Collectively the data allowed for the construction of a model for cADPR in which many of the conformationally flexible units in fact effectively adopt single orientations and where most of the conformational diversity resides in its A-ring furanose and γ-bond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In silico Exploration of the Conformational Universe of GPCRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Espigares, Ismael; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Selent, Jana

    2016-07-01

    The structural plasticity of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a conformational universe going from inactive to active receptor states with several intermediate states. Many of them have not been captured yet and their role for GPCR activation is not well understood. The study of this conformational space and the transition dynamics between different receptor populations is a major challenge in molecular biophysics. The rational design of effector molecules that target such receptor populations allows fine-tuning receptor signalling with higher specificity to produce drugs with safer therapeutic profiles. In this minireview, we outline highly conserved receptor regions which are considered determinant for the establishment of distinct receptor states. We then discuss in-silico approaches such as dimensionality reduction methods and Markov State Models to explore the GPCR conformational universe and exploit the obtained conformations through structure-based drug design. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Web-based surveys as an alternative to traditional mail methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Christopher M; Bowden, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Environmental economists have long used surveys to gather information about people's preferences. A recent innovation in survey methodology has been the advent of web-based surveys. While the Internet appears to offer a promising alternative to conventional survey administration modes, concerns exist over potential sampling biases associated with web-based surveys and the effect these may have on valuation estimates. This paper compares results obtained from a travel cost questionnaire of visitors to Fraser Island, Australia, that was conducted using two alternate survey administration modes; conventional mail and web-based. It is found that response rates and the socio-demographic make-up of respondents to the two survey modes are not statistically different. Moreover, both modes yield similar consumer surplus estimates.

  17. Conformal radiotherapy: principles and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.C.; Gaboriaud, G.; Pontvert, D.

    1999-01-01

    'Conformal radiotherapy' is the name fixed by usage and given to a new form of radiotherapy resulting from the technological improvements observed during the last ten years. While this terminology is now widely used, no precise definition can be found in the literature. Conformal radiotherapy refers to an approach in which the dose distribution is more closely 'conformed' or adapted to the actual shape of the target volume. However, the achievement of a consensus on a more specific definition is hampered by various difficulties, namely in characterizing the degree of 'conformality'. We have therefore suggested a classification scheme be established on the basis of the tools and the procedures actually used for all steps of the process, i.e., from prescription to treatment completion. Our classification consists of four levels: schematically, at level 0, there is no conformation (rectangular fields); at level 1, a simple conformation takes place, on the basis of conventional 2D imaging; at level 2, a 3D reconstruction of the structures is used for a more accurate conformation; and level 3 includes research and advanced dynamic techniques. We have used our personal experience, contacts with colleagues and data from the literature to analyze all the steps of the planning process, and to define the tools and procedures relevant to a given level. The corresponding tables have been discussed and approved at the European level within the Dynarad concerted action. It is proposed that the term 'conformal radiotherapy' be restricted to procedures where all steps are at least at level 2. (author)

  18. Constructing Markov State Models to elucidate the functional conformational changes of complex biomolecules

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2017-10-06

    The function of complex biomolecular machines relies heavily on their conformational changes. Investigating these functional conformational changes is therefore essential for understanding the corresponding biological processes and promoting bioengineering applications and rational drug design. Constructing Markov State Models (MSMs) based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations has emerged as a powerful approach to model functional conformational changes of the biomolecular system with sufficient resolution in both time and space. However, the rapid development of theory and algorithms for constructing MSMs has made it difficult for nonexperts to understand and apply the MSM framework, necessitating a comprehensive guidance toward its theory and practical usage. In this study, we introduce the MSM theory of conformational dynamics based on the projection operator scheme. We further propose a general protocol of constructing MSM to investigate functional conformational changes, which integrates the state-of-the-art techniques for building and optimizing initial pathways, performing adaptive sampling and constructing MSMs. We anticipate this protocol to be widely applied and useful in guiding nonexperts to study the functional conformational changes of large biomolecular systems via the MSM framework. We also discuss the current limitations of MSMs and some alternative methods to alleviate them.

  19. S-Adenosylmethionine conformations in solution and in protein complexes: Conformational influences of the sulfonium group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, George D.; Norrby, Per-Ola; Bock, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and other sulfonium ions play central roles in the metabolism of all organisms. The conformational preferences of AdoMet and two other biologically important sulfonium ions, S-methylmethionine and dimethylsulfonioproprionic acid, have been investigated by NMR...... and computational studies. Molecular mechanics parameters for the sulfonium center have been developed for the AMBER force field to permit analysis of NMR results and to enable comparison of the relative energies of the different conformations of AdoMet that have been found in crystal structures of complexes...... with proteins. S-Methylmethionine and S-dimethylsulfonioproprionate adopt a variety of conformations in aqueous solution; a conformation with an electrostatic interaction between the sulfonium sulfur and the carboxylate group is not noticeably favored, in contrast to the preferred conformation found by in vacuo...

  20. Conformal Killing vectors in Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartens, R.; Maharaj, S.d.

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that Robertson-Walker spacetimes admit a conformal Killingl vector normal to the spacelike homogeneous hypersurfaces. Because these spacetimes are conformally flat, there are a further eight conformal Killing vectors, which are neither normal nor tangent to the homogeneous hypersurfaces. The authors find these further conformal Killing vectors and the Lie algebra of the full G 15 of conformal motions. Conditions on the metric scale factor are determined which reduce some of the conformal Killing vectors to homothetic Killing vectors or Killing vectors, allowing one to regain in a unified way the known special geometries. The non-normal conformal Killing vectors provide a counter-example to show that conformal motions do not, in general, map a fluid flow conformally. These non-normal vectors are also used to find the general solution of the null geodesic equation and photon Liouville equation. (author)

  1. Conducting Surveys and Data Collection: From Traditional to Mobile and SMS-based Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh, bias-free and valid data collected using different survey modes is considered an essential requirement for smooth functioning and evolution of an organization. Surveys play a major role in making in-time correct decisions and generating reports. The aim of this study is to compare and investigate state-of-the-art in different survey modes including print, email, online, mobile and SMS-based surveys. Results indicated that existing methods are neither complete nor sufficient to fulfil the overall requirements of an organization which primarily rely on surveys. Also, it shows that SMS is a dominant method for data collection due to its pervasiveness. However, existing SMS-based data collection has limitations like limited number of characters per SMS, single question per SMS and lake of multimedia support. Recent trends in data collection emphasis on data collection applications for smart phones. However, in developing countries low-end mobile devices are still extensively used which makes the data collection difficult from man in the street. The paper conclude that existing survey modes and methods should be improved to get maximum responses quickly in low cost manner. The study has contributed to the area of surveying and data collection by analysing different factors such as cost, time and response rate. The results of this study can help practitioners in creating a more successful surveying method for data collection that can be effectively used for low budget projects in developed as well as developing countries.

  2. Conformal transformations in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao Vong Duc

    1977-01-01

    The spinor extension of the conformal algebra is investigated. The transformation law of superfields under the conformal coordinate inversion R defined in the superspace is derived. Using R-technique, the superconformally covariant two-point and three-point correlation functions are found

  3. Towards conformal loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Charles H-T

    2006-01-01

    A discussion is given of recent developments in canonical gravity that assimilates the conformal analysis of gravitational degrees of freedom. The work is motivated by the problem of time in quantum gravity and is carried out at the metric and the triad levels. At the metric level, it is shown that by extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) phase space of general relativity (GR), a conformal form of geometrodynamics can be constructed. In addition to the Hamiltonian and Diffeomorphism constraints, an extra first class constraint is introduced to generate conformal transformations. This phase space consists of York's mean extrinsic curvature time, conformal three-metric and their momenta. At the triad level, the phase space of GR is further enlarged by incorporating spin-gauge as well as conformal symmetries. This leads to a canonical formulation of GR using a new set of real spin connection variables. The resulting gravitational constraints are first class, consisting of the Hamiltonian constraint and the canonical generators for spin-gauge and conformorphism transformations. The formulation has a remarkable feature of being parameter-free. Indeed, it is shown that a conformal parameter of the Barbero-Immirzi type can be absorbed by the conformal symmetry of the extended phase space. This gives rise to an alternative approach to loop quantum gravity that addresses both the conceptual problem of time and the technical problem of functional calculus in quantum gravity

  4. Supergravity, Non-Conformal Field Theories and Brane-Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Gherghetta, Tony; Gherghetta, Tony; Oz, Yaron

    2002-01-01

    We consider the supergravity dual descriptions of non-conformal super Yang-Mills theories realized on the world-volume of Dp-branes. We use the dual description to compute stress-energy tensor and current correlators. We apply the results to the study of dilatonic brane-worlds described by non-conformal field theories coupled to gravity. We find that brane-worlds based on D4 and D5 branes exhibit a localization of gauge and gravitational fields. We calculate the corrections to the Newton and Coulomb laws in these theories.

  5. Conformance test development with the Java modeling language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders P.

    2017-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a Java Specification Request, a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents a model-based development of a TCK test suite and a test execution tool for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ......) profile specification. The Java Modeling Language (JML) is used to model conformance constraints for the profile. JML annotations define contracts for classes and interfaces. The annotations are translated by a tool into runtime assertion checks.Hereby the design and elaboration of the concrete test cases...

  6. Methodology of the National School-based Health Survey in Malaysia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings. © 2014 APJPH.

  7. The neuroanatomy of pure apraxia of speech in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Jones, David T; Strand, Edythe A; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Duffy, Joseph R; Josephs, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    The left insula or Broca's area have been proposed as the neuroanatomical correlate for apraxia of speech (AOS) based on studies of patients with both AOS and aphasia due to stroke. Studies of neurodegenerative AOS suggest the premotor area and the supplementary motor areas as the anatomical correlates. The study objective was to determine the common infarction area in patients with pure AOS due to stroke. Patients with AOS and no or equivocal aphasia due to ischemic stroke were identified through a pre-existing database. Seven subjects were identified. Five had pure AOS, and two had equivocal aphasia. MRI lesion analysis revealed maximal overlap spanning the left premotor and motor cortices. While both neurodegenerative AOS and stroke induced pure AOS involve the premotor cortex, further studies are needed to establish whether stroke-induced AOS and neurodegenerative AOS share a common anatomic substrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Refinement of protein termini in template-based modeling using conformational space annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Julian; Seok, Chaok; Lee, Jooyoung

    2011-09-01

    The rapid increase in the number of experimentally determined protein structures in recent years enables us to obtain more reliable protein tertiary structure models than ever by template-based modeling. However, refinement of template-based models beyond the limit available from the best templates is still needed for understanding protein function in atomic detail. In this work, we develop a new method for protein terminus modeling that can be applied to refinement of models with unreliable terminus structures. The energy function for terminus modeling consists of both physics-based and knowledge-based potential terms with carefully optimized relative weights. Effective sampling of both the framework and terminus is performed using the conformational space annealing technique. This method has been tested on a set of termini derived from a nonredundant structure database and two sets of termini from the CASP8 targets. The performance of the terminus modeling method is significantly improved over our previous method that does not employ terminus refinement. It is also comparable or superior to the best server methods tested in CASP8. The success of the current approach suggests that similar strategy may be applied to other types of refinement problems such as loop modeling or secondary structure rearrangement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Guam Boat-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Similar to other boat-based survey in basic design, this system is run by the Div. of Aquatic and Wildlife Resources (DAWR) and has been in operation since about...

  10. Low-Mode Conformational Search Method with Semiempirical Quantum Mechanical Calculations: Application to Enantioselective Organocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamachi, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2016-02-22

    A conformational search program for finding low-energy conformations of large noncovalent complexes has been developed. A quantitatively reliable semiempirical quantum mechanical PM6-DH+ method, which is able to accurately describe noncovalent interactions at a low computational cost, was employed in contrast to conventional conformational search programs in which molecular mechanical methods are usually adopted. Our approach is based on the low-mode method whereby an initial structure is perturbed along one of its low-mode eigenvectors to generate new conformations. This method was applied to determine the most stable conformation of transition state for enantioselective alkylation by the Maruoka and cinchona alkaloid catalysts and Hantzsch ester hydrogenation of imines by chiral phosphoric acid. Besides successfully reproducing the previously reported most stable DFT conformations, the conformational search with the semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations newly discovered a more stable conformation at a low computational cost.

  11. Fundamentals of the Pure Spinor Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Hoogeveen, Joost

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents recent developments within the pure spinor formalism, which has simplified amplitude computations in perturbative string theory, especially when spacetime fermions are involved. Firstly the worldsheet action of both the minimal and the non-minimal pure spinor formalism is derived from first principles, i.e. from an action with two dimensional diffeomorphism and Weyl invariance. Secondly the decoupling of unphysical states in the minimal pure spinor formalism is proved

  12. Survey of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Japan by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Onishi, Hiroshi; Shirato, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To recognize the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in Japan, using a nationwide survey conducted by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group. Methods and Materials: The questionnaire was sent by mail to 117 institutions. Ninety-four institutions (80%) responded by the end of November 2005. Fifty-three institutions indicated that they have already started SBRT, and 38 institutions had been reimbursed by insurance. Results: A total of 1111 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer were treated. Among these patients, 637 had T1N0M0 and 272 had T2N0M0 lung cancer. Metastatic lung cancer was found in 702 and histologically unconfirmed lung tumor in 291 patients. Primary liver cancer was found in 207 and metastatic liver cancer in 76 patients. The most frequent schedule used for primary lung cancer was 48Gy in 4 fractions at 22 institutions (52%), followed by 50Gy in 5 fractions at 11 institutions (26%) and 60Gy in 8 fractions at 4 institutions (10%). The tendency was the same for metastatic lung cancer. The average number of personnel involved in SBRT was 1.8 radiation oncologists, including 1.1 certified radiation oncologists, 2.8 technologists, 0.7 nurses, and 0.6 certified quality assurance personnel and 0.3 physicists. The most frequent amount of time for treatment planning was 61-120min, for quality assurance was 50-60min, and for treatment was 30min. There were 14 (0.6% of all cases) reported Grade 5 complications: 11 cases of radiation pneumonitis, 2 cases of hemoptysis, and 1 case of radiation esophagitis. Conclusion: The current status of SBRT in Japan was surveyed.

  13. Introduction to conformal field theory. With applications to string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Plauschinn, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Based on class-tested notes, this text offers an introduction to Conformal Field Theory with a special emphasis on computational techniques of relevance for String Theory. It introduces Conformal Field Theory at a basic level, Kac-Moody algebras, one-loop partition functions, Superconformal Field Theories, Gepner Models and Boundary Conformal Field Theory. Eventually, the concept of orientifold constructions is explained in detail for the example of the bosonic string. In providing many detailed CFT calculations, this book is ideal for students and scientists intending to become acquainted with CFT techniques relevant for string theory but also for students and non-specialists from related fields. (orig.)

  14. Mass generation within conformal invariant theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flato, M.; Guenin, M.

    1981-01-01

    The massless Yang-Mills theory is strongly conformally invariant and renormalizable; however, when masses are introduced the theory becomes nonrenormalizable and weakly conformally invariant. Conditions which recover strong conformal invariance are discussed in the letter. (author)

  15. Conformal group actions and Segal's cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werth, J.-E.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical description of Segal's cosmological model in the framework of conformal group actions is presented. The relation between conformal and causal group actions on time-orientable Lorentzian manifolds is analysed and several examples are discussed. A criterion for the conformality of a map between Lorentzian manifolds is given. The results are applied to Segal's 'conformal compactification' of Minkowski space. Furthermore, the 'unitary formulation' of Segal's cosmology is regarded. (Author) [pt

  16. Conformal field theories and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bowei

    1993-01-01

    In this article we present a brief review of the conformal symmetry and the two dimensional conformal quantum field theories. As concrete applications of the conformal theories to the critical phenomena in statistical systems, we calculate the value of central charge and the anomalous scale dimensions of the Z 2 symmetric quantum chain with boundary condition. The results are compatible with the prediction of the conformal field theories

  17. New conformations of linear polyubiquitin chains from crystallographic and solution-scattering studies expand the conformational space of polyubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Trung Thanh; Shin, Donghyuk; Han, Seungsu; Lee, Sangho

    2016-04-01

    The conformational flexibility of linkage-specific polyubiquitin chains enables ubiquitylated proteins and their receptors to be involved in a variety of cellular processes. Linear or Met1-linked polyubiquitin chains, associated with nondegradational cellular signalling pathways, have been known to adopt multiple conformations from compact to extended conformations. However, the extent of such conformational flexibility remains open. Here, the crystal structure of linear Ub2 was determined in a more compact conformation than that of the previously known structure (PDB entry 3axc). The two structures differ significantly from each other, as shown by an r.m.s.d. between C(α) atoms of 3.1 Å. The compactness of the linear Ub2 structure in comparison with PDB entry 3axc is supported by smaller values of the radius of gyration (Rg; 18 versus 18.9 Å) and the maximum interatomic distance (Dmax; 55.5 versus 57.8 Å). Extra intramolecular hydrogen bonds formed among polar residues between the distal and proximal ubiquitin moieties seem to contribute to stabilization of the compact conformation of linear Ub2. An ensemble of three semi-extended and extended conformations of linear Ub2 was also observed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis in solution. In addition, the conformational heterogeneity in linear polyubiquitin chains is clearly manifested by SAXS analyses of linear Ub3 and Ub4: at least three distinct solution conformations are observed in each chain, with the linear Ub3 conformations being compact. The results expand the extent of conformational space of linear polyubiquitin chains and suggest that changes in the conformational ensemble may be pivotal in mediating multiple signalling pathways.

  18. Comparative in vitro biocompatibility of nickel-titanium, pure nickel, pure titanium, and stainless steel: genotoxicity and atomic absorption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, M; Lemieux, N; Rivard, C H; Yahia, L H

    1999-01-01

    The genotoxicity level of nickel-titanium (NiTi) was compared to that of its pure constituents, pure nickel (Ni) and pure titanium (Ti) powders, and also to 316L stainless steel (316L SS) as clinical reference material. In order to do so, a dynamic in vitro semiphysiological extraction was performed with all metals using agitation and ISO requirements. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were then cultured in the presence of all material extracts, and their comparative genotoxicity levels were assessed using electron microscopy-in situ end-labeling (EM-ISEL) coupled to immunogold staining. Cellular chromatin exposition to pure Ni and 316L SS demonstrated a significantly stronger gold binding than exposition to NiTi, pure Ti, or the untreated control. In parallel, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was also performed on all extraction media. The release of Ni atoms took the following decreasing distribution for the different resulting semiphysiological solutions: pure Ni, 316L SS, NiTi, Ti, and controls. Ti elements were detected after elution of pure titanium only. Both pure titanium and nickel-titanium specimens obtained a relative in vitro biocompatibility. Therefore, this quantitative in vitro study provides optimistic results for the eventual use of nickel-titanium alloys as surgical implant materials.

  19. Halo histories versus galaxy properties at z = 0 II: large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Hahn, ChangHoon; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2018-06-01

    Using group catalogues from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we measure galactic conformity in the local universe. We measure the quenched fraction of neighbour galaxies around isolated primary galaxies, dividing the isolated sample into star-forming and quiescent objects. We restrict our measurements to scales >1 Mpc to probe the correlations between halo formation histories. Over the stellar mass range 109.7 ≤ M*/M⊙ ≤ 1010.9, we find minimal evidence for conformity. We further compare these data to predictions of the halo age-matching model, in which the oldest galaxies are associated with the oldest haloes. For models with strong correlations between halo and stellar age, the conformity is too large to be consistent with the data. Weaker implementations of the age-matching model would not produce a detectable signal in SDSS data. We reproduce the results of Kauffmann et al., in which the star formation rates of neighbour galaxies are reduced around primary galaxies when the primaries are low star formers. However, we find this result is mainly driven by contamination in the isolation criterion; when removing the small fraction of satellite galaxies in the sample, the conformity signal largely goes away. Lastly, we show that small conformity signals, i.e. 2-5 per cent differences in the quenched fractions of neighbour galaxies, can be produced by mechanisms other than halo assembly bias. For example, if passive galaxies occupy more massive haloes than star-forming galaxies of the same stellar mass, a conformity signal that is consistent with recent measurements from PRIMUS (Berti et al.) can be produced.

  20. Ward identities for conformal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarini, S.; Stora, R.

    1988-01-01

    Ward identities which express the symmetry of conformal models are treated. Diffeomorphism invariance or locally holomorphic coordinate transformations are used. Diffeomorphism invariance is then understood in terms of Riemannian geometry. Two different sets of Ward identities expressing diffeomorphism invariance in a conformally invariant way are found for the free bosonic string. Using a geometrical argument, the correct invariance for a large class of conformal models is given

  1. Geotechnical survey procedures for a repository mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, C.

    1993-01-01

    The approach to the survey involves the operational realisation of an information process beginning with the definition of the survey programme and ending with the presentation of the survey results in the form of planning and assessment documents. - The survey methods must conform with the mine regulations, provide reliable predictions and produce the maximum possible salient information. The recording of large and varied amounts of data, and the complex interpretation procedures that follow require effective data and information management to allow the presentation of the results in accordance with the planning specifications. (orig.) [de

  2. Is Conformity a Mediating Variable on Increased Risk-Taking Behavior Across Years of Membership in the Greek System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHLOË ELIZABETH LEE-ZORN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the college subculture of Greek Life, members adhere to specific rules and norms in order to remain accepted, which could beindicative of conformity. This notion raises the question: what is the role of conformity on the risk taking behaviors of alcoholusage and sexual promiscuity as well as on the academic performance across years of membership? The article examines conformityin 31 fraternity members, cross-sectionally, using a compressed longitudinal design and hypothesizes members develop lower levelsof conformity after initiation, making them less susceptible to risk taking behaviors such as binge drinking, sexual promiscuityand decreased academic performance. Surveys were administered in paper format, and results were evaluated using a series ofanalysis of variance equations. The results indicated an interaction effect between peer conformity (high, low and alcoholicbeverages consumed as well as a main effects for between peer involvement (high, low and time on college GPA.

  3. Conformity and statistical tolerancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Laurent; Pillet, Maurice

    2018-02-01

    Statistical tolerancing was first proposed by Shewhart (Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product, (1931) reprinted 1980 by ASQC), in spite of this long history, its use remains moderate. One of the probable reasons for this low utilization is undoubtedly the difficulty for designers to anticipate the risks of this approach. The arithmetic tolerance (worst case) allows a simple interpretation: conformity is defined by the presence of the characteristic in an interval. Statistical tolerancing is more complex in its definition. An interval is not sufficient to define the conformance. To justify the statistical tolerancing formula used by designers, a tolerance interval should be interpreted as the interval where most of the parts produced should probably be located. This tolerance is justified by considering a conformity criterion of the parts guaranteeing low offsets on the latter characteristics. Unlike traditional arithmetic tolerancing, statistical tolerancing requires a sustained exchange of information between design and manufacture to be used safely. This paper proposes a formal definition of the conformity, which we apply successively to the quadratic and arithmetic tolerancing. We introduce a concept of concavity, which helps us to demonstrate the link between tolerancing approach and conformity. We use this concept to demonstrate the various acceptable propositions of statistical tolerancing (in the space decentring, dispersion).

  4. Dissecting the large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongu

    2018-01-01

    Galactic conformity is an observed phenomenon that galaxies located in the same region have similar properties such as star formation rate, color, gas fraction, and so on. The conformity was first observed among galaxies within in the same halos (“one-halo conformity”). The one-halo conformity can be readily explained by mutual interactions among galaxies within a halo. Recent observations however further witnessed a puzzling connection among galaxies with no direct interaction. In particular, galaxies located within a sphere of ~5 Mpc radius tend to show similarities, even though the galaxies do not share common halos with each other ("two-halo conformity" or “large-scale conformity”). Using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, Illustris, we investigate the physical origin of the two-halo conformity and put forward two scenarios. First, back-splash galaxies are likely responsible for the large-scale conformity. They have evolved into red galaxies due to ram-pressure stripping in a given galaxy cluster and happen to reside now within a ~5 Mpc sphere. Second, galaxies in strong tidal field induced by large-scale structure also seem to give rise to the large-scale conformity. The strong tides suppress star formation in the galaxies. We discuss the importance of the large-scale conformity in the context of galaxy evolution.

  5. Conformational regulation of urokinase receptor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Kriegbaum, Mette C

    2011-01-01

    PA per se into the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of uPAR that modulates the function of this receptor. Based on these data, we now propose a model in which the inherent interdomain mobility in uPAR plays a major role in modulating its function. Particularly one uPAR conformation, which is stabilized...

  6. Transgastric pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography for staging of gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Vilmann, Peter; Meisner, Søren

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has mainly been based on simultaneous laparoscopic assistance (hybrid NOTES), forgoing the theoretical benefits of the NOTES technique. This is due to a lack of NOTES-specific instruments and endoscopes, making pure-NOTES...... procedures difficult and time consuming. An area where pure NOTES could be adopted at its present stage of development is minimally invasive staging of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of combining transgastric (TG) pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy...... and intraperitoneal endoscopic ultrasonography (ip-EUS) with intraluminal EUS (il-EUS) for peritoneal evaluation. METHODS: This was a feasibility and survival study where il-EUS followed by ip-EUS and peritoneoscopy was performed in 10 pigs subjected to TG pure NOTES. A score was given with regard to achieved...

  7. Biodegradable materials based on silk fibroin and keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Freddi, Giuliano; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2008-04-01

    Wool and silk were dissolved and used for the preparation of blended films. Two systems are proposed: (1) blend films of silk fibroin and keratin aqueous solutions and (2) silk fibroin and keratin dissolved in formic acid. The FTIR spectra of pure films cast from aqueous solutions indicated that the keratin secondary structure mainly consists of alpha-helix and random coil conformations. The IR spectrum of pure SF is characteristic of films with prevalently amorphous structure (random coil conformation). Pure keratin film cast from formic acid shows an increase in the amount of beta-sheet and disordered keratin structures. The FTIR pattern of SF dissolved in formic acid is characteristic of films with prevalently beta-sheet conformations with beta-sheet crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix. The thermal behavior of the blends confirmed the FTIR results. DSC curve of pure SF is typical of amorphous SF and the curve of pure keratin show the characteristic melting peak of alpha-helices for the aqueous system. These patterns are no longer observed in the films cast from formic acid due to the ability of formic acid to induce crystallization of SF and to increase the amount of beta-sheet structures on keratin. The nonlinear trend of the different parameters obtained from FTIR analysis and DSC curves of both SF/keratin systems indicate that when proteins are mixed they do not follow additives rules but are able to establish intermolecular interactions. Degradable polymeric biomaterials are preferred candidates for medical applications. It was investigated the degradation behavior of both SF/keratin systems by in vitro enzymatic incubation with trypsin. The SF/keratin films cast from water underwent a slower biological degradation than the films cast from formic acid. The weight loss obtained is a function of the amount of keratin in the blend. This study encourages the further investigation of the type of matrices presented here to be applied whether in scaffolds

  8. Long, partial-short, and special conformal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metsaev, R.R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-17

    In the framework of metric-like approach, totally symmetric arbitrary spin bosonic conformal fields propagating in flat space-time are studied. Depending on the values of conformal dimension, spin, and dimension of space-time, we classify all conformal field as long, partial-short, short, and special conformal fields. An ordinary-derivative (second-derivative) Lagrangian formulation for such conformal fields is obtained. The ordinary-derivative Lagrangian formulation is realized by using double-traceless gauge fields, Stueckelberg fields, and auxiliary fields. Gauge-fixed Lagrangian invariant under global BRST transformations is obtained. The gauge-fixed BRST Lagrangian is used for the computation of partition functions for all conformal fields. Using the result for the partition functions, numbers of propagating D.o.F for the conformal fields are also found.

  9. Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, V.B., E-mail: vic5907@mail.r [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaia St., 13, Bd. 2. Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Trigger, S.A., E-mail: satron@mail.r [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaia St., 13, Bd. 2. Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-18

    Highlights: The review of the critical opalescence problem is presented. Light scattering in a two-component electron-nuclear system is studied. The exact relations between the structure factors and compressibility are found. The obtained relations are valid for strong interaction for the Coulomb systems. The experimental verification of these relations is possible for various elements. - Abstract: Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.

  10. Polarized ensembles of random pure states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    A new family of polarized ensembles of random pure states is presented. These ensembles are obtained by linear superposition of two random pure states with suitable distributions, and are quite manageable. We will use the obtained results for two purposes: on the one hand we will be able to derive an efficient strategy for sampling states from isopurity manifolds. On the other, we will characterize the deviation of a pure quantum state from separability under the influence of noise.

  11. Optimization of stereotactically-guided conformal treatment planning of sellar and parasellar tumors, based on normal brain dose volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perks, Julian R.; Jalali, Rakesh; Cosgrove, Vivian P.; Adams, Elizabeth J.; Shepherd, Stephen F.; Warrington, Alan P.; Brada, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the optimal treatment plan for stereo tactically-guided conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) of sellar and parasellar lesions, with respect to sparing normal brain tissue, in the context of routine treatment delivery, based on dose volume histogram analysis. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography (CT) data sets for 8 patients with sellar- and parasellar-based tumors (6 pituitary adenomas and 2 meningiomas) have been used in this study. Treatment plans were prepared for 3-coplanar and 3-, 4-, 6-, and 30-noncoplanar-field arrangements to obtain 95% isodose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) for each plan. Conformal shaping was achieved by customized blocks generated with the beams eye view (BEV) facility. Dose volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the normal brain (excluding the PTV), and comparisons made for normal tissue sparing for all treatment plans at ≥80%, ≥60%, and ≥40% of the prescribed dose. Results: The mean volume of normal brain receiving ≥80% and ≥60% of the prescribed dose decreased by 22.3% (range 14.8-35.1%, standard deviation σ = 7.5%) and 47.6% (range 25.8-69.1%, σ 13.2%), respectively, with a 4-field noncoplanar technique when compared with a conventional 3-field coplanar technique. Adding 2 further fields, from 4-noncoplanar to 6-noncoplanar fields reduced the mean normal brain volume receiving ≥80% of the prescribed dose by a further 4.1% (range -6.5-11.8%, σ = 6.4%), and the volume receiving ≥60% by 3.3% (range -5.5-12.2%, σ = 5.4%), neither of which were statistically significant. Each case must be considered individually however, as a wide range is seen in the volume spared when increasing the number of fields from 4 to 6. Comparing the 4- and 6-field noncoplanar techniques to a 30-field conformal field approach (simulating a dynamic arc plan) revealed near-equivalent normal tissue sparing. Conclusion: Four to six widely spaced, fixed-conformal fields provide the optimum class solution

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of pizotefin maleate in pure form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two simple, quick and sensitive methods were described for the spectrophotometric determination of pizotefin maleate (PZT) either in pure form or pharmaceutical form (tablets). The methods were based on the reaction of pizotefin maleate as 'n' electron donor with chloranilic acid (p-CLA) and 7,7,8 ...

  13. Conformal symmetries of FRW accelerating cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.

    2014-01-01

    We show that any accelerating Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) cosmology with equation of state w<−1/3 (and therefore not only a de Sitter stage with w=−1) exhibits three-dimensional conformal symmetry on future constant-time hypersurfaces if the bulk theory is invariant under bulk conformal Killing vectors. We also offer an alternative derivation of this result in terms of conformal Killing vectors and show that long wavelength comoving curvature perturbations of the perturbed FRW metric are just conformal Killing motions of the FRW background. We then extend the boundary conformal symmetry to the bulk for accelerating cosmologies. Our findings indicate that one can easily generate perturbations of scalar fields which are not only scale invariant, but also fully conformally invariant on super-Hubble scales. Measuring a scale-invariant power spectrum for the cosmological perturbation does not automatically imply that the universe went through a de Sitter stage

  14. Thermodynamic equilibrium of hydroxyacetic acid in pure and binary solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiaoyin; Xie, Chuang; Li, Yang; Su, Nannan; Lou, Yajing; Hu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yongli; Bao, Ying; Hou, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of hydroxyacetic acid in mono-solvents and binary solvent mixtures was measured. • Modified Apelblat, NRTL and Wilson model were used to correlate the solubility data in pure solvents. • CNIBS/R-K and Jouyban-Acree model were used to correlate the solubility in binary solvent mixtures. • The mixing properties were calculated based on the NRTL model. - Abstract: The solubility of hydroxyacetic acid in five pure organic solvents and two binary solvent mixtures were experimentally measured from 273.15 K to 313.15 K at atmospheric pressure (p = 0.1 MPa) by using a dynamic method. The order of solubility in pure organic solvents is ethanol > isopropanol > n-butanol > acetonitrile > ethyl acetate within the investigated temperature range, except for temperature lower than 278 K where the solubility of HA in ethyl acetate is slightly larger than that in acetonitrile. Furthermore, the solubility data in pure solvents were correlated with the modified Apelblat model, NRTL model, and Wilson model and that in the binary solvents mixtures were fitted to the CNIBS/R-K model and Jouyban-Acree model. Finally, the mixing thermodynamic properties of hydroxyacetic acid in pure and binary solvent systems were calculated and discussed.

  15. 3 tons pure electric vehicles power system design based on Cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure electric minivan is different from electric car. Combined with a given vehicle, vehicle simulation model established in Cruise software, complete simulation by setting tasks for the selected models designed drivetrain. Simulation results show that: The design of the transmission ratio can best meet the performance requirements of the matching target power analysis and simulation of electric minivan provides a new way, with practical guidance.

  16. Crystallisation and chain conformation of long chain n-alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorce, J.

    2000-06-01

    Hydrocarbon chains are a basic component in a number of systems as diverse as biological membranes, phospholipids and polymers. A better understanding of the physical properties of n-alkane chains should provide a better understanding of these more complex systems. With this aim, vibrational spectroscopy has been extensively used. This technique, sensitive to molecular details, is the only one able to both identify and quantify conformational disorder present in paraffinic systems. To achieve this, methyl deformations have been widely used as ''internal standards'' for the normalisation of peak areas. However, in the case of n-alkanes with short chain length, such as n-C 44 H 90 for example, the infrared spectra recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature and reported here show the sensitivity of these latter peaks to the various crystal structures formed. Indeed, the main frequencies of the symmetric methyl bending mode were found between 1384 cm -1 and 1368 cm -1 as a function of the crystal form. Changes in the frequency of the first order of the L.A.M. present in the Raman spectra were also observed. At higher temperatures, non all-trans conformers, inferred from different infrared bands present in the wagging mode region, were found to be essentially placed at the end of the n-alkane chains. At the monoclinic phase transition, the concentration of end-gauche conformers, proportional to the area of the infrared band at 1342 cm -1 , increases abruptly. On the contrary, in the spectra recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature no such band is observed. We also studied the degree of disorder in two purely monodisperse long chain n-alkanes, namely n-C 198 H 398 and n-C 246 H 494 . The chain conformation as well as the tilt angle of the chains from the crystal surfaces were determined by means of low frequency Raman spectroscopy and S.A.X.S. measurements on solution-crystallised samples. The increase in the number of end-gauche conformers which was expected to occur with

  17. Pure white OLED based on an organic small molecule: 2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (DBIP) was synthesized. The single-crystal structure of DBIP was resolved. DBIP-based OLED was fabricated. The electroluminescence for the device corresponds to a pure white emission. In addition, thermal stability, UV-vis, photoluminescence and electrochemical behaviors of DBIP were investigated as well.

  18. Towards multidimensional radiotherapy (MD-CRT): biological imaging and biological conformality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John; Larson, Steven; Amols, Howard; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to survey and summarize the advances in imaging that have potential applications in radiation oncology, and to explore the concept of integrating physical and biological conformality in multidimensional conformal radiotherapy (MD-CRT). Methods and Materials: The advances in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) have greatly improved the physical conformality of treatment planning and delivery. The development of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has provided the 'dose painting' or 'dose sculpting' ability to further customize the delivered dose distribution. The improved capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, and of positron emission tomography, are beginning to provide physiological and functional information about the tumor and its surroundings. In addition, molecular imaging promises to reveal tumor biology at the genotype and phenotype level. These developments converge to provide significant opportunities for enhancing the success of radiotherapy. Results: The ability of IMRT to deliver nonuniform dose patterns by design brings to fore the question of how to 'dose paint' and 'dose sculpt', leading to the suggestion that 'biological' images may be of assistance. In contrast to the conventional radiological images that primarily provide anatomical information, biological images reveal metabolic, functional, physiological, genotypic, and phenotypic data. Important for radiotherapy, the new and noninvasive imaging methods may yield three-dimensional radiobiological information. Studies are urgently needed to identify genotypes and phenotypes that affect radiosensitivity, and to devise methods to image them noninvasively. Incremental to the concept of gross, clinical, and planning target volumes (GTV, CTV, and PTV), we propose the concept of 'biological target volume' (BTV) and hypothesize that BTV can be derived from biological images and that their use may incrementally improve

  19. Neural Basis of Two Kinds of Social Influence: Obedience and Conformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eXie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs were used in this study to explore the neural mechanism of obedience and conformity on the model of online book purchasing. Participants were asked to decide as quickly as possible whether to buy a book based on limited information including its title, keywords and number of positive and negative reviews. Obedience was induced by forcing participants to buy books which received mostly negative reviews. In contrast, conformity was aroused by majority influence (caused by positive and negative comments. P3 and N2, two kinds of ERP components related to social cognitive process, were measured and recorded with electroencephalogram (EEG test. The results show that compared with conformity decisions, obedience decisions induced greater cognitive conflicts. In ERP measurements, greater amplitudes of N2 component were observed in the context of obedience. However, consistency level did not make a difference on P3 peak latency for both conformity and obedience. This shows that classification process is implicit in both conformity and obedience decision-making. In addition, for both conformity and obedience decisions, augmented P3 was observed when the reviews consistency (either negative or positive was higher.

  20. Neural Basis of Two Kinds of Social Influence: Obedience and Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Chen, Mingliang; Lai, Hongxia; Zhang, Wuke; Zhao, Zhen; Anwar, Ch Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used in this study to explore the neural mechanism of obedience and conformity on the model of online book purchasing. Participants were asked to decide as quickly as possible whether to buy a book based on limited information including its title, keywords and number of positive and negative reviews. Obedience was induced by forcing participants to buy books which received mostly negative reviews. In contrast, conformity was aroused by majority influence (caused by positive and negative comments). P3 and N2, two kinds of ERP components related to social cognitive process, were measured and recorded with electroencephalogram (EEG) test. The results show that compared with conformity decisions, obedience decisions induced greater cognitive conflicts. In ERP measurements, greater amplitudes of N2 component were observed in the context of obedience. However, consistency level did not make a difference on P3 peak latency for both conformity and obedience. This shows that classification process is implicit in both conformity and obedience decision-making. In addition, for both conformity and obedience decisions, augmented P3 was observed when the reviews consistency (either negative or positive) was higher.

  1. Conformers, infrared spectrum, UV-induced photochemistry, and near-IR-induced generation of two rare conformers of matrix-isolated phenylglycine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2014-10-01

    The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N-H...O=C, type II by a strong O-H...N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N-H...O-H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O...H-C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O-H...N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N2 matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm-1, respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that PG undergoes facile photofragmentation

  2. Conformers, infrared spectrum, UV-induced photochemistry, and near-IR-induced generation of two rare conformers of matrix-isolated phenylglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Ana; Fausto, Rui; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N–H···O=C, type II by a strong O–H···N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N–H···O–H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O···H–C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O–H···N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N 2 matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm −1 , respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that PG

  3. 40 CFR 52.2133 - General conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.2133 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2133 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations adopted into the South Carolina State Implementation Plan which...

  4. 40 CFR 91.106 - Certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 91.106... Provisions § 91.106 Certificate of conformity. (a) Every manufacturer of a new marine SI engine produced... obtain a certificate of conformity covering each engine family. The certificate of conformity must be...

  5. Polarized ensembles of random pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunden, Fabio Deelan; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    A new family of polarized ensembles of random pure states is presented. These ensembles are obtained by linear superposition of two random pure states with suitable distributions, and are quite manageable. We will use the obtained results for two purposes: on the one hand we will be able to derive an efficient strategy for sampling states from isopurity manifolds. On the other, we will characterize the deviation of a pure quantum state from separability under the influence of noise. (paper)

  6. SNE's methodological basis - web-based software in entrepreneurial surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning

    This overhead based paper gives an introduction to the research methodology applied in the surveys carried out in the SNE-project.......This overhead based paper gives an introduction to the research methodology applied in the surveys carried out in the SNE-project....

  7. Quality of web based information on treatment of depression: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, K M; Christensen, H

    2000-12-16

    To evaluate quality of web based information on treatment of depression, to identify potential indicators of content quality, and to establish if accountability criteria are indicators of quality. Cross sectional survey. 21 frequently accessed websites about depression. (i) Site characteristics; (ii) quality of content-concordance with evidence based depression guidelines (guideline score), appropriateness of other relevant site information (issues score), and subjective rating of site quality (global score); and (iii) accountability-conformity with core accountability standards (Silberg score) and quality of evidence cited in support of conclusions (level of evidence score). Although the sites contained useful information, their overall quality was poor: the mean guideline, issues, and global scores were only 4.7 (range 0-13) out of 43, 9.8 (6-14) out of 17, and 3 (0.5-7. 5) out of 10 respectively. Sites typically did not cite scientific evidence in support of their conclusions. The guideline score correlated with the two other quality of content measures, but none of the content measures correlated with the Silberg accountability score. Content quality was superior for sites owned by organisations and sites with an editorial board. There is a need for better evidence based information about depression on the web, and a need to reconsider the role of accountability criteria as indicators of site quality and to develop simple valid indicators of quality. Ownership by an organisation and the involvement of a professional editorial board may be useful indicators. The study methodology may be useful for exploring these issues in other health related subjects.

  8. 40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations were submitted on November 10, 1995, and adopted into the Kentucky State...

  9. 40 CFR 51.854 - Conformity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 51.854 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.854 Conformity analysis. Link to an...

  10. Lie algebra of conformal Killing–Yano forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We provide a generalization of the Lie algebra of conformal Killing vector fields to conformal Killing–Yano forms. A new Lie bracket for conformal Killing–Yano forms that corresponds to slightly modified Schouten–Nijenhuis bracket of differential forms is proposed. We show that conformal Killing–Yano forms satisfy a graded Lie algebra in constant curvature manifolds. It is also proven that normal conformal Killing–Yano forms in Einstein manifolds also satisfy a graded Lie algebra. The constructed graded Lie algebras reduce to the graded Lie algebra of Killing–Yano forms and the Lie algebras of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields in special cases. (paper)

  11. Universal hydrodynamics of non-conformal branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Skenderis, Kostas

    2009-01-01

    We examine the hydrodynamic limit of non-conformal branes using the recently developed precise holographic dictionary. We first streamline the discussion of holography for backgrounds that asymptote locally to non-conformal brane solutions by showing that all such solutions can be obtained from higher dimensional asymptotically locally AdS solutions by suitable dimensional reduction and continuation in the dimension. As a consequence, many holographic results for such backgrounds follow from the corresponding results of the Asymptotically AdS case. In particular, the hydrodynamics of non-conformal branes is fully determined in terms of conformal hydrodynamics. Using previous results on the latter we predict the form of the non-conformal hydrodynamic stress tensor to second order in derivatives. Furthermore we show that the ratio between bulk and shear viscosity is fixed by the generalized conformal structure to be ζ/η = 2(1/(d-1)-c s 2 ), where c s is the speed of sound in the fluid.

  12. Operator algebras and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbiani, F.; Froehlich, J.

    1993-01-01

    We define and study two-dimensional, chiral conformal field theory by the methods of algebraic field theory. We start by characterizing the vacuum sectors of such theories and show that, under very general hypotheses, their algebras of local observables are isomorphic to the unique hyperfinite type III 1 factor. The conformal net determined by the algebras of local observables is proven to satisfy Haag duality. The representation of the Moebius group (and presumably of the entire Virasoro algebra) on the vacuum sector of a conformal field theory is uniquely determined by the Tomita-Takesaki modular operators associated with its vacuum state and its conformal net. We then develop the theory of Mebius covariant representations of a conformal net, using methods of Doplicher, Haag and Roberts. We apply our results to the representation theory of loop groups. Our analysis is motivated by the desire to find a 'background-independent' formulation of conformal field theories. (orig.)

  13. 47 CFR 2.906 - Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Declaration of Conformity. 2.906 Section 2.906... Conformity. (a) A Declaration of Conformity is a procedure where the responsible party, as defined in § 2.909... of Conformity attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party which are...

  14. Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Vladislav E; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O

    2016-01-28

    Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics.

  15. COMPUTER-BASED PREDICTION OF TOXICITY USING THE ELECTRON-CONFORMATIONAL METHOD. APPLICATION TO FRAGRANCE ALLERGENS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Gorinchoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron-conformational (EC method is employed for the toxicophore (Tph identification and quantitative prediction of toxicity using the training set of 24 compounds that are considered as fragrance allergens. The values of a=LD50 in oral exposure of rats were chosen as a measure of toxicity. EC parameters are evaluated on the base of conformational analysis and ab initio electronic structure calculations (including solvent influence. The Tph consists of four sites which in this series of compounds are represented by three carbon and one oxygen atoms, but may be any other atoms that have the same electronic and geometric features within the tolerance limits. The regression model taking into consideration the Tph flexibility, anti-Tph shielding, and influence of out-of-Tph functional groups predicts well the experimental values of toxicity (R2 = 0.93 with a reasonable leaveone- out cross-validation.

  16. Experience of micromultileaf collimator linear accelerator based single fraction stereotactic radiosurgery: Tumor dose inhomogeneity, conformity, and dose fall off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Linda X.; Garg, Madhur; Lasala, Patrick; Kim, Mimi; Mah, Dennis; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Mynampati, Dinesh; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Sharp dose fall off outside a tumor is essential for high dose single fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plans. This study explores the relationship among tumor dose inhomogeneity, conformity, and dose fall off in normal tissues for micromultileaf collimator (mMLC) linear accelerator (LINAC) based cranial SRS plans. Methods: Between January 2007 and July 2009, 65 patients with single cranial lesions were treated with LINAC-based SRS. Among them, tumors had maximum diameters {<=}20 mm: 31; between 20 and 30 mm: 21; and >30 mm: 13. All patients were treated with 6 MV photons on a Trilogy linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with a tertiary m3 high-resolution mMLC (Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany), using either noncoplanar conformal fixed fields or dynamic conformal arcs. The authors also created retrospective study plans with identical beam arrangement as the treated plan but with different tumor dose inhomogeneity by varying the beam margins around the planning target volume (PTV). All retrospective study plans were normalized so that the minimum PTV dose was the prescription dose (PD). Isocenter dose, mean PTV dose, RTOG conformity index (CI), RTOG homogeneity index (HI), dose gradient index R{sub 50}-R{sub 100} (defined as the difference between equivalent sphere radius of 50% isodose volume and prescription isodose volume), and normal tissue volume (as a ratio to PTV volume) receiving 50% prescription dose (NTV{sub 50}) were calculated. Results: HI was inversely related to the beam margins around the PTV. CI had a ''V'' shaped relationship with HI, reaching a minimum when HI was approximately 1.3. Isocenter dose and mean PTV dose (as percentage of PD) increased linearly with HI. R{sub 50}-R{sub 100} and NTV{sub 50} initially declined with HI and then reached a plateau when HI was approximately 1.3. These trends also held when tumors were grouped according to their maximum diameters. The smallest tumor group

  17. CT-image-based conformal brachytherapy of breast cancer. The significance of semi-3-D and 3-D treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, C; Major, T; Somogyi, A; Takácsi-Nagy, Z; Mangel, L C; Forrai, G; Sulyok, Z; Fodor, J; Németh, G

    2000-03-01

    To compare the conventional 2-D, the simulator-guided semi-3-D and the recently developed CT-guided 3-D brachytherapy treatment planning in the interstitial radiotherapy of breast cancer. In 103 patients with T1-2, N0-1 breast cancer the tumor bed was clipped during breast conserving surgery. Fifty-two of them received boost brachytherapy after 46 to 50 Gy teletherapy and 51 patients were treated with brachytherapy alone via flexible implant tubes. Single, double and triple plane implant was used in 6, 89 and 8 cases, respectively. The dose of boost brachytherapy and sole brachytherapy prescribed to dose reference points was 3 times 4.75 Gy and 7 times 5.2 Gy, respectively. The positions of dose reference points varied according to the level (2-D, semi-3-D and 3-D) of treatment planning performed. The treatment planning was based on the 3-D reconstruction of the surgical clips, implant tubes and skin points. In all cases the implantations were planned with a semi-3-D technique aided by simulator. In 10 cases a recently developed CT-guided 3-D planning system was used. The semi-3-D and 3-D treatment plans were compared to hypothetical 2-D plans using dose-volume histograms and dose non-uniformity ratios. The values of mean central dose, mean skin dose, minimal clip dose, proportion of underdosaged clips and mean target surface dose were evaluated. The accuracy of tumor bed localization and the conformity of planning target volume and treated volume were also analyzed in each technique. With the help of conformal semi-3-D and 3-D brachytherapy planning we could define reference dose points, active source positions and dwell times individually. This technique decreased the mean skin dose with 22.2% and reduced the possibility of geographical miss. We could achieve the best conformity between the planning target volume and the treated volume with the CT-image based 3-D treatment planning, at the cost of worse dose homogeneity. The mean treated volume was reduced by 25

  18. Ward identities for scale and special conformal transformations in inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Nilay; Shukla, Ashish; Trivedi, Sandip P.

    2016-01-01

    We derive the general Ward identities for scale and special conformal transformations in theories of single field inflation. Our analysis is model independent and based on symmetry considerations alone. The identities we obtain are valid to all orders in the slow roll expansion. For special conformal transformations, the Ward identities include a term which is non-linear in the fields that arises due to a compensating spatial reparametrization. Some observational consequences are also discussed.

  19. Naturality in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Seiberg, N.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss constraints on the operator product coefficients in diagonal and nondiagonal rational conformal field theories. Nondiagonal modular invariants always arise from automorphisms of the fusion rule algebra or from extensions of the chiral algebra. Moreover, when the chiral algebra has been maximally extended a strong form of the naturality principle of field theory can be proven for rational conformal field theory: operator product coefficients vanish if and only if the corresponding fusion rules vanish; that is, if and only if the vanishing can be understood in terms of a symmetry. We illustrate these ideas with several examples. We also generalize our ideas about rational conformal field theories to a larger class of theories: 'quasi-rational conformal field theories' and we explore some of their properties. (orig.)

  20. 21 CFR 26.70 - Conformity assessment bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity assessment bodies. 26.70 Section 26.70...Frameworkâ Provisions § 26.70 Conformity assessment bodies. Each party recognizes that the conformity... conformity in relation to its requirements as specified in subpart B of this part. The parties shall specify...

  1. On the linear conformal gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal'chik, M.Ya.; Fradkin, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Conformal gravitation is analyzed under the assumption that its solution possesses the property of conformal symmetry. This assumption has sense in the case of small distances and only for definite types of matter fields, namely: at special choice of matter fields and their interactions, providing a lack of conformal anomalies; or at definite magnitudes of binding constants, coinciding with the zeroes of the Gell-Mann-Low function. The field equations, of the group-theoretical natura are obtained

  2. Conformal Symmetry Patterns in Baryon Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchbach, Mariana; Compean, Cliffor B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is drawn to the fact that the spectra of the baryons of the lightest flavors, the nucleon and the Δ, carry quantum numbers characteristic for an unitary representation of the conformal group. We show that the above phenomenon is well explained for baryons whose internal structure is dominated by a quark-diquark configuration that resides in a conformally compactified Minkowski space time, R 1 x S 3 , and is described by means of the conformal scale equation there. The R 1 x S 3 space-time represents the boundary of the conformally compactified AdS 5 , on which one expects to encounter a conformal theory in accord with the gauge-gravity duality. Within this context, our model is congruent with AdS 5 /CFT 4 .

  3. Tensor modes in pure natural inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2018-05-01

    We study tensor modes in pure natural inflation [1], a recently-proposed inflationary model in which an axionic inflaton couples to pure Yang-Mills gauge fields. We find that the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is naturally bounded from below. This bound originates from the finiteness of the number of metastable branches of vacua in pure Yang-Mills theories. Details of the model can be probed by future cosmic microwave background experiments and improved lattice gauge theory calculations of the θ-angle dependence of the vacuum energy.

  4. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  5. Conformational cooling and conformation selective aggregation in dimethyl sulfite isolated in solid rare gases

    OpenAIRE

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfite has three conformers of low energy, GG, GT and GG0, which have significant populations in the gas phase at room temperature. According to theoretical predictions, the GT and GG0 conformers are higher in energy than the GG conformer by 0.83 and 1.18 kJ molK1, respectively, while the barriers associated with the GG0/GT and GT/GG isomerizations are 1.90 and 9.64 kJ molK1, respectively. Experimental data obtained for the compound isolated in solid argon, krypton and xenon demonst...

  6. Conformational Clusters of Phosphorylated Tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrasoul, Maha; Ponniah, Komala; Mao, Alice; Warden, Meghan S; Elhefnawy, Wessam; Li, Yaohang; Pascal, Steven M

    2017-12-06

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in many cellular and intercellular processes including signal transduction, subcellular localization, and regulation of enzymatic activity. In 1999, Blom et al., using the limited number of protein data bank (PDB) structures available at that time, reported that the side chain structures of phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) are partitioned into two conserved conformational clusters ( Blom, N.; Gammeltoft, S.; Brunak, S. J. Mol. Biol. 1999 , 294 , 1351 - 1362 ). We have used the spectral clustering algorithm to cluster the increasingly growing number of protein structures with pY sites, and have found that the pY residues cluster into three distinct side chain conformations. Two of these pY conformational clusters associate strongly with a narrow range of tyrosine backbone conformation. The novel cluster also highly correlates with the identity of the n + 1 residue, and is strongly associated with a sequential pYpY conformation which places two adjacent pY side chains in a specific relative orientation. Further analysis shows that the three pY clusters are associated with distinct distributions of cognate protein kinases.

  7. A high-precision system for conformal intracranial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Wolfgang A.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Buatti, John M.; Bova, Francis J.; Friedman, William A.; Li Zuofeng

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Currently, optimally precise delivery of intracranial radiotherapy is possible with stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. We report on an optimally precise optically guided system for three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy using multiple noncoplanar fixed fields. Methods and Materials: The optically guided system detects infrared light emitting diodes (IRLEDs) attached to a custom bite plate linked to the patient's maxillary dentition. The IRLEDs are monitored by a commercially available stereo camera system, which is interfaced to a personal computer. An IRLED reference is established with the patient at the selected stereotactic isocenter, and the computer reports the patient's current position based on the location of the IRLEDs relative to this reference position. Using this readout from the computer, the patient may be dialed directly to the desired position in stereotactic space. The patient is localized on the first day and a reference file is established for 5 different couch positions. The patient's image data are then imported into a commercial convolution-based 3D radiotherapy planning system. The previously established isocenter and couch positions are then used as a template upon which to design a conformal 3D plan with maximum beam separation. Results: The use of the optically guided system in conjunction with noncoplanar radiotherapy treatment planning using fixed fields allows the generation of highly conformal treatment plans that exhibit a high degree of dose homogeneity and a steep dose gradient. To date, this approach has been used to treat 28 patients. Conclusion: Because IRLED technology improves the accuracy of patient localization relative to the linac isocenter and allows real-time monitoring of patient position, one can choose treatment-field margins that only account for beam penumbra and image resolution without adding margin to account for larger and poorly defined setup uncertainty. This

  8. Thickenings and conformal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Claude

    1991-07-01

    A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason [B-M].

  9. Thickenings and conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBrun, C.

    1991-01-01

    A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason [B-M]. (orig.)

  10. Conformal symmetry and nonlinear extensions of nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cusin, Giulia; Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We study two nonlinear extensions of the nonlocal $R\\,\\Box^{-2}R$ gravity theory. We extend this theory in two different ways suggested by conformal symmetry, either replacing $\\Box^{-2}$ with $(-\\Box + R/6)^{-2}$, which is the operator that enters the action for a conformally-coupled scalar field, or replacing $\\Box^{-2}$ with the inverse of the Paneitz operator, which is a four-derivative operator that enters in the effective action induced by the conformal anomaly. We show that the former modification gives an interesting and viable cosmological model, with a dark energy equation of state today $w_{\\rm DE}\\simeq -1.01$, which very closely mimics $\\Lambda$CDM and evolves asymptotically into a de Sitter solution. The model based on the Paneitz operator seems instead excluded by the comparison with observations. We also review some issues about the causality of nonlocal theories, and we point out that these nonlocal models can be modified so to nicely interpolate between Starobinski inflation in the primordia...

  11. Conformal symmetry inheritance in null fluid spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupper, B O J; Keane, A J; Hall, G S; Coley, A A; Carot, J

    2003-01-01

    We define inheriting conformal Killing vectors for null fluid spacetimes and find the maximum dimension of the associated inheriting Lie algebra. We show that for non-conformally flat null fluid spacetimes, the maximum dimension of the inheriting algebra is seven and for conformally flat null fluid spacetimes the maximum dimension is eight. In addition, it is shown that there are two distinct classes of non-conformally flat generalized plane wave spacetimes which possess the maximum dimension, and one class in the conformally flat case

  12. Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, V.B.; Trigger, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The review of the critical opalescence problem is presented. → Light scattering in a two-component electron-nuclear system is studied. → The exact relations between the structure factors and compressibility are found. → The obtained relations are valid for strong interaction for the Coulomb systems. → The experimental verification of these relations is possible for various elements. - Abstract: Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.

  13. Conformal maps between pseudo-Finsler spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Nicoleta

    The paper aims to initiate a systematic study of conformal mappings between Finsler spacetimes and, more generally, between pseudo-Finsler spaces. This is done by extending several results in pseudo-Riemannian geometry which are necessary for field-theoretical applications and by proposing a technique that reduces some problems involving pseudo-Finslerian conformal vector fields to their pseudo-Riemannian counterparts. Also, we point out, by constructing classes of examples, that conformal groups of flat (locally Minkowskian) pseudo-Finsler spaces can be much richer than both flat Finslerian and pseudo-Euclidean conformal groups.

  14. High-resolution NMR studies of chimeric DNA-RNA-DNA duplexes, heteronomous base pairing, and continuous base stacking at junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Shanho; Flynn, P.; Wang, A.; Reid, B.

    1991-01-01

    Two symmetrical DNA-RNA-DNA duplex chimeras, d(CGCG)r(AAUU)d(CGCG) (designated rAAUU) and d(CGCG)r(UAUA)d(CGCG) (designated rUAUA), and a nonsymmetrical chimeric duplex, d(CGTT)r(AUAA)d(TGCG)/d(CGCA)r(UUAU)d(AACG) (designated rAUAA), as well as their pure DNA analogues, containing dU instead of T, have been synthesized by solid-phase phosphoramidite methods and studied by high-resolution NMR techniques. The 1D imino proton NOE spectra of these d-r-d chimeras indicate normal Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding and base stacking at the junction region. Preliminary qualitative NOESY, COSY, and chemical shift data suggest that the internal RNA segment contains C3'-endo (A-type) sugar conformations except for the first RNA residues (position 5 and 17) following the 3' end of the DNA block, which, unlike the other six ribonucleotides, exhibit detectable H1'-H2' J coupling. The nucleosides of the two flanking DNA segments appear to adopt a fairly normal C2'-endo B-DNA conformation except at the junction with the RNA blocks (residues 4 and 16), where the last DNA residue appears to adopt an intermediate sugar conformation. The data indicate that A-type and B-type conformations can coexist in a single short continuous nucleic acid duplex, but these results differ somewhat from previous theoretical model studies

  15. ActionScript Developer's Guide to PureMVC

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    Gain hands-on experience with PureMVC, the popular open source framework for developing maintainable applications with a Model-View-Controller architecture. In this concise guide, PureMVC creator Cliff Hall teaches the fundamentals of PureMVC development by walking you through the construction of a complete non-trivial Adobe AIR application. Through clear explanations and numerous ActionScript code examples, you'll learn best practices for using the framework's classes in your day-to-day work. Discover how PureMVC enables you to focus on the purpose and scope of your application, while the f

  16. Transportation Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section provides information on: current laws, regulations and guidance, policy and technical guidance, project-level conformity, general information, contacts and training, adequacy review of SIP submissions

  17. Extended conformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The algebra of the group of conformal transformations in two dimensions consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra. In many mathematical and physical contexts, the representations of ν which are relevant satisfy two conditions: they are unitary and they have the ''positive energy'' property that L o is bounded below. In an irreducible unitary representation the central element c takes a fixed real value. In physical contexts, the value of c is a characteristic of a theory. If c < 1, it turns out that the conformal algebra is sufficient to ''solve'' the theory, in the sense of relating the calculation of the infinite set of physically interesting quantities to a finite subset which can be handled in principle. For c ≥ 1, this is no longer the case for the algebra alone and one needs some sort of extended conformal algebra, such as the superconformal algebra. It is these algebras that this paper aims at addressing. (author)

  18. Families and degenerations of conformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggenkamp, D.

    2004-09-01

    In this work, moduli spaces of conformal field theories are investigated. In the first part, moduli spaces corresponding to current-current deformation of conformal field theories are constructed explicitly. For WZW models, they are described in detail, and sigma model realizations of the deformed WZW models are presented. The second part is devoted to the study of boundaries of moduli spaces of conformal field theories. For this purpose a notion of convergence of families of conformal field theories is introduced, which admits certain degenerated conformal field theories to occur as limits. To such a degeneration of conformal field theories, a degeneration of metric spaces together with additional geometric structures can be associated, which give rise to a geometric interpretation. Boundaries of moduli spaces of toroidal conformal field theories, orbifolds thereof and WZW models are analyzed. Furthermore, also the limit of the discrete family of Virasoro minimal models is investigated. (orig.)

  19. Thickenings and conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBrun, C. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1991-07-01

    A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason (B-M). (orig.).

  20. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Trandum, C.; Larsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (T-m) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal a-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  1. Programmed Switching of Single Polymer Conformation on DNA Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Madsen, Mikael; Knudsen, Jakob Bach

    2016-01-01

    -molecule conjugated polymer. The polymer is functionalized with short single-stranded (ss) DNA strands that extend from the backbone of the polymer and serve as handles. The DNA polymer conjugate can be aligned on DNA origami in three well-defined geometries (straight line, left-turned, and right-turned pattern......) by DNA hybridization directed by single-stranded guiding strands and ssDNA tracks extending from the origami surface and polymer handle. We demonstrate switching of a conjugated organic polymer conformation between left- and right-turned conformations of the polymer on DNA origami based on toehold...

  2. Conformational Fluctuations in G-Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael F.

    2014-03-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise almost 50% of pharmaceutical drug targets, where rhodopsin is an important prototype and occurs naturally in a lipid membrane. Rhodopsin photoactivation entails 11-cis to all-trans isomerization of the retinal cofactor, yielding an equilibrium between inactive Meta-I and active Meta-II states. Two important questions are: (1) Is rhodopsin is a simple two-state switch? Or (2) does isomerization of retinal unlock an activated conformational ensemble? For an ensemble-based activation mechanism (EAM) a role for conformational fluctuations is clearly indicated. Solid-state NMR data together with theoretical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations detect increased local mobility of retinal after light activation. Resultant changes in local dynamics of the cofactor initiate large-scale fluctuations of transmembrane helices that expose recognition sites for the signal-transducing G-protein. Time-resolved FTIR studies and electronic spectroscopy further show the conformational ensemble is strongly biased by the membrane lipid composition, as well as pH and osmotic pressure. A new flexible surface model (FSM) describes how the curvature stress field of the membrane governs the energetics of active rhodopsin, due to the spontaneous monolayer curvature of the lipids. Furthermore, influences of osmotic pressure dictate that a large number of bulk water molecules are implicated in rhodopsin activation. Around 60 bulk water molecules activate rhodopsin, which is much larger than the number of structural waters seen in X-ray crystallography, or inferred from studies of bulk hydrostatic pressure. Conformational selection and promoting vibrational motions of rhodopsin lead to activation of the G-protein (transducin). Our biophysical data give a paradigm shift in understanding GPCR activation. The new view is: dynamics and conformational fluctuations involve an ensemble of substates that activate the cognate G-protein in the amplified visual

  3. Conformity in Christ | Waaijman | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay investigates the notion of conformity in Christ as it is part of a comprehensive, multilayered process of transformation. In the first part it focuses on the process of transformation in creation, re-creation, conformity, love and glory. In the second part it discusses transformation in Christ by looking at conformation and ...

  4. Gauge fixing problem in the conformal QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shoichi

    1986-01-01

    The gauge fixing problem in the conformal (spinor and scalar) QED is examined. For the analysis, we generalize Dirac's manifestly conformal-covariant formalism. It is shown that the (vector and matter) fields must obey a certain mixed (conformal and gauge) type of transformation law in order to fix the local gauge symmetry preserving the conformal invariance in the Lagrangian. (orig.)

  5. Book-tax conformity in Polish private companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify whether financial income differs significantly from the tax base in Poland and what determines these differences between accounting and taxable results in Polish private entities that are not listed on the stock exchange. In this paper, besides examining the level of book-tax conformity in Poland, we investigate the determinants of book-tax differences in the one-book and twobook accounting systems, with deferred income tax. We use the single factor ANOVA variance analysis, robust fixed effects estimator and the fixed effects linear model with an AR(1 disturbance estimator for panel data of 26,657 private limited liability and non-public joint-stock companies for the period of 2003–2014 (177,667 firm-year observations. The originality of this paper results from the deep quantita-tive analysis of the determinants of book-tax conformity on a novel dataset of Polish private firms. We confirm a strong significant influence of tax law on the shape of the one-book accounting system in Poland. Larger enterprises show fewer book-tax differences. Book-tax conformity is lower in private companies that incur financial losses and in private companies conducting the one-book accounting system. Family-owned companies have higher mean and median book-tax conformity than businessgroups members, due to higher demand for information from their accounts to support stewardship func-tions and to monitor the activities of the management board in the business groups.

  6. A Survey of Technologies Supporting Virtual Project Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of technologies and to what extent they support virtual project based learning. The paper argues that a survey of learning technologies should be related to concrete learning tasks and processes. Problem oriented project pedagogy (POPP) is discussed, and a framework...... for evaluation is proposed where negotiation of meaning, coordination and resource management are identified as the key concepts in virtual project based learning. Three e-learning systems are selected for the survey, Virtual-U, Lotus Learningspace and Lotus Quickplace, as each system offers different strategies...... for e-learning. The paper concludes that virtual project based learning may benefit from facilities of all these systems....

  7. Transportation Conformity Training and Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's OTAQ has provided multiple conformity training sessions in the past to assist state and local governments in implementing conformity requirements. As training information is prepared for other venues, it will be posted on this page.

  8. Local Order in the Unfolded State: Conformational Biases and Nearest Neighbor Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Toal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, which contain significant levels of disorder yet perform complex biologically functions, as well as unwanted aggregation, has motivated numerous experimental and theoretical studies aimed at describing residue-level conformational ensembles. Multiple lines of evidence gathered over the last 15 years strongly suggest that amino acids residues display unique and restricted conformational preferences in the unfolded state of peptides and proteins, contrary to one of the basic assumptions of the canonical random coil model. To fully understand residue level order/disorder, however, one has to gain a quantitative, experimentally based picture of conformational distributions and to determine the physical basis underlying residue-level conformational biases. Here, we review the experimental, computational and bioinformatic evidence for conformational preferences of amino acid residues in (mostly short peptides that can be utilized as suitable model systems for unfolded states of peptides and proteins. In this context particular attention is paid to the alleged high polyproline II preference of alanine. We discuss how these conformational propensities may be modulated by peptide solvent interactions and so called nearest-neighbor interactions. The relevance of conformational propensities for the protein folding problem and the understanding of IDPs is briefly discussed.

  9. Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs

  10. Virtual and solution conformations of oligosaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, D.A.; Carver, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that observed nuclear Overhauser enhancements and bulk longitudinal relaxation times, parameters measured by 1 H NMR and often employed in determining the preferred solution conformation of biologically important molecules, are the result of averaging over many conformational states is quantitatively evaluated. Of particular interest was to ascertain whether certain 1 H NMR determined conformations are virtual in nature; i.e., the fraction of the population of molecules actually found at any time within the subset of conformational space defined as the solution conformation is vanishingly small. A statistical mechanics approach was utilized to calculate an ensemble average relaxation matrix from which (NOE)'s and (T 1 )'s are calculated. Model glycosidic linkages in four oligosaccharides were studied. The nature of the resultant population distributions is such that 50% of the molecular population is found within 1% of available microstates, while 99% of the molecular population occupies about 10% of the ensemble microstates, a number roughly equal to that sterically allowed. From this analysis the authors conclude that in many cases quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation data, which attempts to define a single set of allowable torsion angle values consistent with the observed data, will lead to solution conformations that are either virtual or reflect torsion angle values possessed by a minority of the molecular population. Observed values of NMR relaxation data are the result of the complex interdependence of the population distribution and NOE (or T 1 ) surfaces in conformational space. In conformational analyses, NMR data can therefore be used to test different population distributions calculated from empirical potential energy functions

  11. Conformation of antifreeze glycoproteins as determined from conformational energy calculations and fully assigned proton NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, C.A.; Rao, B.N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The 1 H NMR spectra of AFGP's ranging in molecular weight from 2600 to 30,000 Daltons isolated from several different species of polar fish have been measured. The spectrum of AFGP 1-4 from Pagothenia borchgrevinki with an average of 30 repeating subunits has a single resonance for each proton of the glycotripeptide repeating unit, (ala-[gal-(β-1→3) galNAc-(α--O-]thr-ala)/sub n/. Its 1 H NMR spectrum including resonances of the amide protons has been completely assigned. Coupling constants and nuclear Overhauser enhancements (n.O.e.) between protons on distant residues imply conformational order. The 2600 dalton molecular weight glycopeptides (AFGP-8) have pro in place of ala at certain specific points in the sequence and AFGP-8R of Eleginus gracilis has arg in place of one thr. The resonances of pro and arg were assigned by decoupling. The resonances of the carboxy and amino terminals have distinct chemical shifts and were assigned in AFGP-8 of Boreogadus saida by titration. n.O.e. between α--protons and amide protons of the adjacent residue (sequential n.O.e.) were used in assignments of additional resonances and to assign the distinctive resonances of thr followed by pro. Conformational energy calculations on the repeating glycotripeptide subunit of AFGP show that the α--glucosidic linkage has a fixed conformation while the β--linkage is less rigid. A conformational model for AFGP 1-4, which is based on the calculations has the peptide in an extended left-handed helix with three residues per turn similar to polyproline II. The model is consistent with CD data, amide proton coupling constants, temperature dependence of amide proton chemical shifts

  12. Modelling antibody side chain conformations using heuristic database search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, D W; Kemp, G J

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a knowledge-based system which models the side chain conformations of residues in the variable domains of antibody Fv fragments. The system is written in Prolog and uses an object-oriented database of aligned antibody structures in conjunction with a side chain rotamer library. The antibody database provides 3-dimensional clusters of side chain conformations which can be copied en masse into the model structure. The object-oriented database architecture facilitates a navigational style of database access, necessary to assemble side chains clusters. Around 60% of the model is built using side chain clusters and this eliminates much of the combinatorial complexity associated with many other side chain placement algorithms. Construction and placement of side chain clusters is guided by a heuristic cost function based on a simple model of side chain packing interactions. Even with a simple model, we find that a large proportion of side chain conformations are modelled accurately. We expect our approach could be used with other homologous protein families, in addition to antibodies, both to improve the quality of model structures and to give a "smart start" to the side chain placement problem.

  13. Zero curvature conditions and conformal covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, G.; Grimm, R.

    1992-05-01

    Two-dimensional zero curvature conditions were investigated in detail, with special emphasis on conformal properties, and the appearance of covariant higher order differential operators constructed in terms of a projective connection was elucidated. The analysis is based on the Kostant decomposition of simple Lie algebras in terms of representations with respect to their 'principal' SL(2) subalgebra. (author) 27 refs

  14. Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlock, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra

  15. Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-02-01

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  16. Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astronomy; Schomerus, Volker [DESY Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  17. Watching Conformations of Biomolecules: a Microwave Spectroscopy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    The combination of laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets (LA-MB-FTMW) has made possible the gas-phase study of solid biomolecules with high melting points. In the experiment, solids are efficiently vaporized by a high-energy laser pulse, supersonically expanded into a evacuated Fabry-Perot cavity and characterised by their rotational spectra. Recent improvements such as the use of picosecond pulse lasers, new ablation nozzles and the extension of the range of the spectrometers to low frequecy have notably increased the sensitivity of our experimental setup. To date different α-, β- and γ-amino acids have been studied using this technique, making possible the characterization of their preferred conformations and gaining insight in the role of intramolecular interactions. Even in conformationally challenging systems the different rotamers of such biomolecules can be identified by rotational spectroscopy as can be illustrated by the assignment of six low-energy conformers in cysteine and aspartic acid, seven in serine and threonine,^a and nine in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA). In all cases the low-energy conformers have been conclusive identified from their experimental rotational and 14N quadrupole coupling constants. The spectra of neurotransmitters and of the nucleic acid bases uracil, thymine, cytosine and guanine have also been studied and their preferred conformers or tautomeric forms determined. The complexes between amino acids and nucleic acid bases with water have also been investigated to obtain information on the possible changes induced in the conformational or tautomeric preferences by the addition of solvent molecules. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 617-627 (2009) and references therein M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 3573-3578 (2010) S. Blanco, J. C. López, S. Mata and J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9187

  18. Induced quantum conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.

    1988-11-01

    Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs

  19. Advantages and limitations of web-based surveys: evidence from a child mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Web-based surveys may have advantages related to the speed and cost of data collection as well as data quality. However, they may be biased by low and selective participation. We predicted that such biases would distort point-estimates such as average symptom level or prevalence but not patterns of associations with putative risk-factors. A structured psychiatric interview was administered to parents in two successive surveys of child mental health. In 2003, parents were interviewed face-to-face, whereas in 2006 they completed the interview online. In both surveys, interviews were preceded by paper questionnaires covering child and family characteristics. The rate of parents logging onto the web site was comparable to the response rate for face-to-face interviews, but the rate of full response (completing all sections of the interview) was much lower for web-based interviews. Full response was less frequent for non-traditional families, immigrant parents, and less educated parents. Participation bias affected point estimates of psychopathology but had little effect on associations with putative risk factors. The time and cost of full web-based interviews was only a quarter of that for face-to-face interviews. Web-based surveys may be performed faster and at lower cost than more traditional approaches with personal interviews. Selective participation seems a particular threat to point estimates of psychopathology, while patterns of associations are more robust.

  20. Effect of microcrystallization on pitting corrosion of pure aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Guozhe; Wei Liyan; Zhang Tao; Shao Yawei; Wang Fuhui; Dong Chaofang; Li Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    A microcrystalline aluminium film with grain size of about 400 nm was prepared by magnetron sputtering technique. Its corrosion behaviour was investigated in NaCl containing acidic solution by means of potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical noise (EN). The polarization results indicated that the corrosion potential of the sample shifted towards more positive direction, while its corrosion current density decreased compared with that of pure coarse-grain Al. The EN analysis based on stochastic model demonstrated that there existed two kinds of effect of microcrystallization on the pitting behaviour of pure aluminium: (1) the rate of pit initiation is accelerated, (2) the pit growth process was impeded. This leads to the enhancement of pitting resistance for the microcrystallized aluminium.

  1. Chromatin conformation capture strategies in molecular diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vree, Pauline J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis I have explored the clinical potential of the 4C-technology and worked on development of a novel chromatin conformation capture based technology, called TLA. In chapter 2 I describe how the 4C-technology can be applied as a targeted strategy to identify putative fusion-genes or

  2. Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present paper we show how the N = 2 superconformal group is realised in harmonic superspace and examine conformal invariance of N = 2 off-shell theories. We believe that the example of N = O self-dual Yang-Mills equations can serve as an instructive introduction to the subject of harmonic superspace and this is examined. The rigid N = 2 conformal supersymmetry and its local version, i.e. N = 2 conformal supergravity is also discussed. The paper is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. (author)

  3. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sobko, Evgeny [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics

    2016-12-07

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  4. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sobko, Evgeny [Nordita and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  5. Conformational cooling and conformation selective aggregation in dimethyl sulfite isolated in solid rare gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2006-08-01

    Dimethyl sulfite has three conformers of low energy, GG, GT and GG', which have significant populations in the gas phase at room temperature. According to theoretical predictions, the GT and GG' conformers are higher in energy than the GG conformer by 0.83 and 1.18 kJ mol -1, respectively, while the barriers associated with the GG'→GT and GT→GG isomerizations are 1.90 and 9.64 kJ mol -1, respectively. Experimental data obtained for the compound isolated in solid argon, krypton and xenon demonstrated that the GG'→GT energy barrier is low enough to allow an extensive conversion of the GG' form into the GT conformer during deposition of the matrices, the extent of the conversion increasing along the series Arconformers could be trapped in both argon and krypton matrices, but, at a given temperature, the amount of GG' form trapped in krypton is considerably smaller than in argon, while the amount of GT form increases in relation to the most stable GG form. In addition, when xenon is used, no bands due to GG' are observed in the as-deposited spectra ( Tsubstrate≥10 K, the minimum substrate temperature accessible to our experimental set up), indicating that when the best relaxant gas is used the GG'→GT conversion during deposition of the matrix is complete even at 10 K. Annealing of the argon and krypton matrices shows that the increase of the temperature of the matrix first promotes the GG'→GT isomerization, and only at higher temperatures the GT→GG conversion starts to occur, in consonance with the relative energy barriers associated with these two processes. The results also indicate that dimethyl sulfite exhibits conformation selective aggregation, with the most stable form, which has the highest dipole moment, aggregating more easily than the remaining experimentally relevant conformers (GT and GG').

  6. Unitary evolution between pure and mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, B.

    1996-01-01

    We propose an extended quantum mechanical formalism that is based on a wave operator d, which is related to the ordinary density matrix via ρ=dd degree . This formalism allows a (generalized) unitary evolution between pure and mixed states. It also preserves much of the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. The new formalism is illustrated for the case of a two-level system. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Performance evaluation and modeling of a conformal filter (CF) based real-time standoff hazardous material detection sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew P.; Tazik, Shawna K.; Bangalore, Arjun S.; Treado, Patrick J.; Klem, Ethan; Temple, Dorota

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems can provide detection and identification of a variety of targets in the presence of complex backgrounds. However, current generation sensors are typically large, costly to field, do not usually operate in real time and have limited sensitivity and specificity. Despite these shortcomings, HSI-based intelligence has proven to be a valuable tool, thus resulting in increased demand for this type of technology. By moving the next generation of HSI technology into a more adaptive configuration, and a smaller and more cost effective form factor, HSI technologies can help maintain a competitive advantage for the U.S. armed forces as well as local, state and federal law enforcement agencies. Operating near the physical limits of HSI system capability is often necessary and very challenging, but is often enabled by rigorous modeling of detection performance. Specific performance envelopes we consistently strive to improve include: operating under low signal to background conditions; at higher and higher frame rates; and under less than ideal motion control scenarios. An adaptable, low cost, low footprint, standoff sensor architecture we have been maturing includes the use of conformal liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTFs). These Conformal Filters (CFs) are electro-optically tunable, multivariate HSI spectrometers that, when combined with Dual Polarization (DP) optics, produce optimized spectral passbands on demand, which can readily be reconfigured, to discriminate targets from complex backgrounds in real-time. With DARPA support, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS™) in collaboration with Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International are developing a novel, real-time, adaptable, compressive sensing short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging technology called the Reconfigurable Conformal Imaging Sensor (RCIS) based on DP-CF technology. RCIS will address many shortcomings of current generation systems and offer improvements in

  8. Conformal hyperbolicity of Lorentzian warped products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A space-time M is said to be conformally hyperbolic if the intrinsic conformal Lorentz pseudodistance dsub(M) is a true distance. In this paper criteria are derived which insure the conformal hyperbolicity of certain space-times which are generalizations of the Robertson-Walker spaces. Then dsub(M) is determined explicitly for Einstein-de Sitter space, and important cosmological model. (author)

  9. Conformal hyperbolicity of Lorentzian warped products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, M.J. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1982-12-01

    A space-time M is said to be conformally hyperbolic if the intrinsic conformal Lorentz pseudodistance dsub(M) is a true distance. In this paper criteria are derived which insure the conformal hyperbolicity of certain space-times which are generalizations of the Robertson-Walker spaces. Then dsub(M) is determined explicitly for Einstein-de Sitter space, and important cosmological model.

  10. Conformational states of N-acylalanine dithio esters: correlation of resonance Raman spectra with structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Angus, R.H.; Storer, A.C.; Varughese, K.I.; Carey, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    The conformational states of N-acylalanine dithio esters, involving rotational isomers about the RC(=O)NH-CH(CH 3 ) and NHCH(CH 3 )-C(=S) bonds, are defined and compared to those of N-acylglycine dithio esters. The structure of N-(p-nitrobenzoyl)-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester has been determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis; it is a B-type conformer with the amide N atom cis to the thiol sulfur. Raman and resonance Raman (RR) measurements on this compound and for the B conformers of solid N-benzoyl-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester and N-(β-phenylpropionyl)-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester and its NHCH(CD 3 )C(=S) and NHCH(CH 3 ) 13 C(=S) analogues are used to set up a library of RR data for alanine-based dithio esters in a B-conformer state. RR data for this solid material in its isotopically unsubstituted and CH(C-D 3 )C(=S) and CH(CH 3 ) 13 C(=S) forms provide information on the RR signatures of alanine dithio esters in A-like conformations. RR spectra are compared for the solid compounds, for N-(p-nitrobenzoyl)-DL-alanine, N-(β-phenylpropionyl)-DL-alanine, and (methyloxycarbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester, and for several 13 C=S- and CD 3 -substituted analogues in CCl 4 or aqueous solutions. The RR data demonstrate that the alanine-based dithio esters take up A, B, and C 5 conformations in solution. The RR spectra of these conformers are clearly distinguishable from those for the same conformers of N-acylglycine dithio esters. However, the crystallographic and spectroscopic results show that the results show that the conformational properties of N-acylglycine and N-acylalanine dithio esters are very similar

  11. Extensions of conformal symmetry in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoutens, C.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Conformal symmetry extensions in a two-dimensional quantum field theory are the main theme of the work presented in this thesis. After a brief exposition of the formalism for conformal field theory, the motivation for studying extended symmetries in conformal field theory is presented in some detail. Supersymmetric extensions of conformal symmetry are introduced. An overview of the algebraic superconformal symmetry is given. The relevance of higher-spin bosonic extensions of the Virasoro algebra in relation to the classification program for so-called rational conformal theories is explained. The construction of a large class of bosonic extended algebras, the so-called Casimir algebras, are presented. The representation theory of these algebras is discussed and a large class of new unitary models is identified. The superspace formalism for O(N)-extended superconformal quantum field theory is presented. It is shown that such theories exist for N ≤ 4. Special attention is paid to the case N = 4 and it is shown that the allowed central charges are c(n + ,n - ) = 6n + n - /(n + ,n - ), where n + and n - are positive integers. A different class of so(N)-extended superconformal algebras is analyzed. The representation theory is studied and it is established that certain free field theories provide realizations of the algebras with level S = 1. Finally the so-called BRST construction for extended conformal algebras is considered. A nilpotent BRST charge is constructed for a large class of algebras, which contains quadratically nonlinear algebras that fall outside the traditional class if finitely generated Lie (super)algebras. The results are especially relevant for the construction of string models based on extended conformal symmetry. (author). 118 refs.; 7 tabs

  12. Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok k. Hemal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.

  13. Evaluation of conformity of a first prescription of lipid-based formulation of amphotericin B in a university-teaching pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogué, Claire; Bussières, Jean-François; Dehaut, Catherine; Lebel, Denis; Brochet, Marie-Sophie

    2006-04-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunodeficient children. Amphotericin B is an important therapeutic agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections but is associated with significant toxicities and high acquisition costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate physician adherence to a local guideline for the use of lipid-based amphotericin B. The study was approved through Pharmacology & Therapeutics (P&T) committee activities. A retrospective drug utilization review (DUR) was conducted. All orders written between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004, were reviewed. Demographic and descriptive clinical data were collected as well as variables related to the drug order process. Conformity rates were calculated for the primary objective criteria (authorized prescribers - infectious disease members; recommended drug of choice-Abelcet; accepted indications; and presence of underlying conditions). A total of 109 orders for 70 patients were reviewed by a single research assistant for a 2-year period. Global conformity rate for all four criteria was calculated at 7.3%. Non-conformity was mostly associated with the absence of underlying conditions (e.g., prerenal insufficiency or presence of nephrotoxicity due to amphotericin B desoxycholate) in 84.5% of the cases. Infusionrelated adverse drug reactions partly explained a switch to a non-formulary lipid-based amphotericin B product. External factors (newly published results since the adoption of the guideline and continuous marketing practices) and internal factors (availability of non-formulary process, inefficient DUR process) could have contributed to non-adherence to a local guideline. This study shows low adherence to P&T committee drug guidelines on lipid-based amphotericin B. Continuous and efficient DUR processes should be in place to monitor drug guideline adherence.

  14. Non-linear realizations of conformal symmetry and effective field theory for the pseudo-conformal universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The pseudo-conformal scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the early universe is described by an approximate conformal field theory on flat, Minkowski space. Some fields acquire a time-dependent expectation value, which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal algebra to its so(4,1) de Sitter subalgebra. As a result, weight-0 fields acquire a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. The scenario is very general, and its essential features are determined by the symmetry breaking pattern, irrespective of the details of the underlying microphysics. In this paper, we apply the well-known coset technique to derive the most general effective lagrangian describing the Goldstone field and matter fields, consistent with the assumed symmetries. The resulting action captures the low energy dynamics of any pseudo-conformal realization, including the U(1)-invariant quartic model and the Galilean Genesis scenario. We also derive this lagrangian using an alternative method of curvature invariants, consisting of writing down geometric scalars in terms of the conformal mode. Using this general effective action, we compute the two-point function for the Goldstone and a fiducial weight-0 field, as well as some sample three-point functions involving these fields

  15. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  16. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  17. Vacuum evaporation of pure metals

    OpenAIRE

    Safarian, Jafar; Engh, Thorvald Abel

    2013-01-01

    Theories on the evaporation of pure substances are reviewed and applied to study vacuum evaporation of pure metals. It is shown that there is good agreement between different theories for weak evaporation, whereas there are differences under intensive evaporation conditions. For weak evaporation, the evaporation coefficient in Hertz-Knudsen equation is 1.66. Vapor velocity as a function of the pressure is calculated applying several theories. If a condensing surface is less than one collision...

  18. Conformal invariance in hydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkovich, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    This short survey is written by a physicist. It contains neither theorems nor precise definitions. Its main content is a description of the results of numerical solution of the equations of fluid mechanics in the regime of developed turbulence. Due to limitations of computers, the results are not very precise. Despite being neither exact nor rigorous, the findings may nevertheless be of interest for mathematicians. The main result is that the isolines of some scalar fields (vorticity, temperature) in two-dimensional turbulence belong to the class of conformally invariant curves called SLE (Scramm-Loewner evolution) curves. First, this enables one to predict and find a plethora of quantitative relations going far beyond what was known previously about turbulence. Second, it suggests relations between phenomena that seemed unrelated, like the Euler equation and critical percolation. Third, it shows that one is able to get exact analytic results in statistical hydrodynamics. In short, physicists have found something unexpected and hope that mathematicians can help to explain it.

  19. Proton irradiation studies on pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta Gupta, A. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, P., E-mail: paramita@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata (India); Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Bhattacharya, M. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata (India); Sarkar, Apu [Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Sen, S. [Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Mitra, M.K. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)

    2016-11-15

    Post irradiated microstructural characterisation of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V has been done as a function of dose using different model based techniques of X-ray diffraction line profile analysis. There is a systematic change of domain size for both the materials with dose but the microstrain within the domain remains almost unaltered. The domain size appears to be lower for pure Ti at all doses as compared to Ti-6Al-4V alloy. XRD peaks became highly asymmetric particularly at a dose of 5 × 10{sup 21} p/m{sup 2} for Ti-6Al-4V samples which is not observed for pure Ti at the same dose. This may be attributed to the segregation of alloying elements as a result of irradiation. Microhardness values increases with dose for pure Ti and then saturates at higher doses whereas microhardness values are found to decrease at higher doses for Ti-6Al-4V.

  20. Solution conformation of 2-aminopurine dinucleotide determined by ultraviolet two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widom, Julia R; Marcus, Andrew H; Johnson, Neil P; Von Hippel, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the conformation-dependent electronic coupling between the monomeric subunits of a dinucleotide of 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analogue of the nucleic acid base adenine. This was accomplished by extending two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D FS)—a fluorescence-detected variation of 2D electronic spectroscopy—to excite molecular transitions in the ultraviolet (UV) regime. A collinear sequence of four ultrafast laser pulses centered at 323 nm was used to resonantly excite the coupled transitions of 2-AP dinucleotide. The phases of the optical pulses were continuously swept at kilohertz frequencies, and the ensuing nonlinear fluorescence was phase-synchronously detected at 370 nm. Upon optimization of a point–dipole coupling model to our data, we found that in aqueous buffer the 2-AP dinucleotide adopts an average conformation in which the purine bases are non-helically stacked (center-to-center distance R 12 = 3.5 ± 0.5 Å , twist angle θ 12 = 5° ± 5° ), which differs from the conformation of such adjacent bases in duplex DNA. These experiments establish UV–2D FS as a method for examining the local conformations of an adjacent pair of fluorescent nucleotides substituted into specific DNA or RNA constructs, which will serve as a powerful probe to interpret, in structural terms, biologically significant local conformational changes within the nucleic acid framework of protein–nucleic acid complexes. (paper)

  1. Conformal Dimensions via Large Charge Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasish; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Orlando, Domenico

    2018-02-09

    We construct an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm that overcomes the severe signal-to-noise ratio problems and helps us to accurately compute the conformal dimensions of large-Q fields at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the O(2) universality class. Using it, we verify a recent proposal that conformal dimensions of strongly coupled conformal field theories with a global U(1) charge can be obtained via a series expansion in the inverse charge 1/Q. We find that the conformal dimensions of the lowest operator with a fixed charge Q are almost entirely determined by the first few terms in the series.

  2. A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF COOL WHITE DWARFS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Kowalski, Piotr M.; Von Hippel, Ted

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared photometric observations of 15 and spectroscopic observations of 38 cool white dwarfs (WDs). This is the largest near-infrared spectroscopic survey of cool WDs to date. Combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry and our near-infrared data, we perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. The spectral energy distributions of our objects are explained fairly well by model atmospheres with temperatures ranging from 6300 K down to 4200 K. Two WDs show significant absorption in the infrared, and are best explained with mixed H/He atmosphere models. Based on the up-to-date model atmosphere calculations by Kowalski and Saumon, we find that the majority of the stars in our sample have hydrogen-rich atmospheres. We do not find any pure helium atmosphere WDs below 5000 K, and we find a trend of increasing hydrogen to helium ratio with decreasing temperature. These findings present an important challenge to understanding the spectral evolution of WDs.

  3. Pure natural inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Watari, Taizan; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    We point out that a simple inflationary model in which the axionic inflaton couples to a pure Yang-Mills theory may give the scalar spectral index (ns) and tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) in complete agreement with the current observational data.

  4. Brainstem tolerance to conformal radiotherapy of skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debus, J.; Hug, E.B.; Liebsch, N.J.; O'Farrel, D.; Finkelstein, D.; Efird, J.; Munzenrider, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term incidence of brainstem toxicity in patients treated for skull base tumors with high dose conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 1995, 367 patients with chordomas (n = 195) and chondrosarcomas (n = 172) of the base of skull have been treated with combined megavoltage photon and 160 MeV proton radiotherapy. Following 3D treatment planning with delineation of target volumes and critical nontarget structures dose distributions and dose-volume histograms were calculated. Radiotherapy was given an 1.8 Gy or CGE (=Cobalt Gray Equivalent) dose per fraction, with prescribed target doses ranging from 63 CGE to 79.2 CGE (mean = 67.8 CGE). Doses to the brainstem surface were limited to ≤64 CGE and to the brainstem center to ≤53 CGE. Results: Follow-up time ranged from 6 months to 21.4 years (mean = 42.5 months). Brainstem toxicity was observed in 17 of 367 patients attributable to treatment, resulting in death of three patients. Actuarial rates of 5 and 10-year high-grade toxicity-free survival were 94 and 88%, respectively. Increased risk of brainstem toxicity was significantly associated with maximum dose to brainstem, volume of brainstem receiving ≥50 CGE, ≥55 CGE, and ≥60 CGE, number of surgical procedures, and prevalence of diabetes or high blood pressure. Multivariate analysis identified three independent factors as important prognosticators: number of surgical procedures (p < 0.001), volume of the brainstem receiving 60 CGE (p < 0.001), and prevalence of diabetes (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Tolerance of brainstem to fractionated radiotherapy appears to be a steep function of tissue volume included in high dose regions rather than the maximum dose of brainstem alone. In addition, presence of predisposing factors as well as extent of surgical manipulation can significantly lower brainstem tolerance in the individual patient

  5. Asymptotic conformal invariance in a non-Abelian Chern-Simons-matter model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acebal, J.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: acebal@cbpf.br

    2002-08-01

    One shows here the existence of solutions to the Callan-Symanzik equation for the non-Abelian SU(2) Chern-Simons-matter model which exhibits asymptotic conformal invariance to every order in perturbative theory. The conformal symmetry in the classical domain is shown to hold by means of a local criteria based on the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. By using recently exhibited regimes for the dependence between the several couplings in which the set of {beta}-functions vanish, the asymptotic conformal invariance of the model appears to be valid in the quantum domain. By considering the SU (n) case the possible non validity of the proof for a particular {eta} would be merely accidental. (author)

  6. Inclinations to Conformity as a Potential Social Limit of Giftedness Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kočvarová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of gifted pupils´ conformity, which may form a social barrier to their development during school teaching. The aim of the research is to analyse the inclination to conformity of gifted pupils during the application of differentiated enriching curriculum. The research sample consists of 86 diagnosed gifted pupils from the level of education ISCED2. The research instrument is semantically differentially based on the principle of the tool ATER. The study results suggest non-conformal inclinations of gifted pupils, which are subjectively declared in relation to the five statements describing work on a task during the application of differentiated enriching curriculum in school lessons.

  7. Chain conformational and physicochemical properties of fucoidans from sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Kunhao

    2016-11-05

    Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7.4). Based on the worm-like cylinder model and atomic force microscopy, the chain stiffness of SC-FUCs was further evaluated as Am-FUC≈Ib-FUC>Aj-FUC. It was suggested that the existence of branch structure increased the chain flexibility, while sulfated pattern exerted limited influence. SC-FUCs demonstrated shear-thinning rheological behavior and negative charge. Am-FUC possessed a higher thermostability than Ib-FUC and Aj-FUC. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular characteristics of SC-FUCs, which could facilitate their further application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Algebraic conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1991-11-01

    Many conformal field theory features are special versions of structures which are present in arbitrary 2-dimensional quantum field theories. So it makes sense to describe 2-dimensional conformal field theories in context of algebraic theory of superselection sectors. While most of the results of the algebraic theory are rather abstract, conformal field theories offer the possibility to work out many formulae explicitly. In particular, one can construct the full algebra A-bar of global observables and the endomorphisms of A-bar which represent the superselection sectors. Some explicit results are presented for the level 1 so(N) WZW theories; the algebra A-bar is found to be the enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra L-bar which is an extension of the chiral symmetry algebra of the WZW theory. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  9. 47 CFR 68.320 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. 68.320... Approval § 68.320 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. (a) Supplier's Declaration of Conformity is a... Supplier's Declaration of Conformity attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party...

  10. Computer-aided Framework for Design of Pure, Mixed and Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for computer-aided design of pure, mixed and blended chemical based products. The framework is a systematic approach to convert a Computer-aided Molecular, Mixture and Blend Design (CAMbD) formulation, based on needs and target properties, into a mixed integer non...

  11. Understanding modern magnets through conformal mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1989-10-01

    I want to show with the help of a number of examples that conformal mapping is a unique and enormously powerful tool for thinking about, and solving, problems. Usually one has to write down only a few equations, and sometimes none at all exclamation point When I started getting involved in work for which conformal mapping seemed to be a powerful tool, I did not think that I would ever be able to use that technique successfully because it seemed to require a nearly encyclopedic memory, an impression that was strengthened when I saw K. Kober's Dictionary of Conformal Representations. This attitude changed when I started to realize that beyond the basics of the theory of a function of a complex variable, I needed to know only about a handful of conformal maps and procedures. Consequently, my second goal for this talk is to show that in most cases conformal mapping functions can be obtained by formulating the underlying physics appropriately. This means particularly that encyclopedic knowledge of conformal maps is not necessary for successful use of conformal mapping techniques. To demonstrate these facts I have chosen examples from an area of physics/engineering in which I am active, namely accelerator physics. In order to do that successfully I start with a brief introduction into high energy charged particle storage ring technology, even though not all examples used in this paper to elucidate my points come directly from this particular field of accelerator technology

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in pure dysarthria. A 3D-SSP study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kensho; Kamogawa, Kenji; Okuda, Bungo; Kawabata, Keita; Tachibana, Hisao

    2007-01-01

    Pure dysarthria from brain infarction is a rare condition, and its pathophysiology remains unclear. To clarify the underlying mechanism of pure dysarthria, we investigated the lesion sites and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with pure dysarthria. We examined 18 consecutive patients with pure dysarthria (9 men and 9 women; mean age, 71 years) who underwent MRI and cerebral blood flow studies. To visualize the regional cerebral blood flow, we generated Z score images using the three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and N-isopropyl-p [ 123 I]iodoamphetamine. Data on the brain surface perfusion extracted by the 3D-SSP analysis were compared between the pure dysarthria (PD) patients and 9 control subjects. MRI revealed multiple lacunar infarctions involving the internal capsule and/or corona radiata in 11 patients, left internal capsule-corona radiata infarction in 4 patients, and pontine infarction in 3 patients. SPECT with 3D-SSP demonstrated bilateral frontal cortical hypoperfusion in all patients, particularly in the anterior opercular region. Based on intergroup comparisons, the PD group exhibited pronounced cortical hypoperfusion in the opercular and medial frontal regions, left more than right. In conclusion, pure dysarthria is considered to originate from frontal cortical hypoperfusion, mainly in the anterior opercular and medial frontal regions, which is probably due to interruption of the corticosubcortical neural networks relevant to speech expression and articulation. In addition, it is suggested that left hemispheric lesions may make a greater contribution to the development of pure dysarthria than do right ones. (author)

  13. Conformal geometry and invariants of 3-strand Brownian braids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, Sergei; Voituriez, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    We propose a simple geometrical construction of topological invariants of 3-strand Brownian braids viewed as world lines of 3 particles performing independent Brownian motions in the complex plane z. Our construction is based on the properties of conformal maps of doubly-punctured plane z to the universal covering surface. The special attention is paid to the case of indistinguishable particles. Our method of conformal maps allows us to investigate the statistical properties of the topological complexity of a bunch of 3-strand Brownian braids and to compute the expectation value of the irreducible braid length in the non-Abelian case

  14. Pure spinor partition function and the massive superstring spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Yuri; Arroyo, E. Aldo; Berkovits, Nathan; Nekrasov, Nikita

    2008-01-01

    We explicitly compute up to the fifth mass-level the partition function of ten-dimensional pure spinor worldsheet variables including the spin dependence. After adding the contribution from the (x μ , θ α , p α ) matter variables, we reproduce the massive superstring spectrum. Even though pure spinor variables are bosonic, the pure spinor partition function contains fermionic states which first appear at the second mass-level. These fermionic states come from functions which are not globally defined in pure spinor space, and are related to the b ghost in the pure spinor formalism. This result clarifies the proper definition of the Hilbert space for pure spinor variables.

  15. {beta}-Ray angular distribution from purely nuclear spin aligned {sup 20}F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, T., E-mail: nagatomo@riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Matsuta, K. [Osaka University (Japan); Minamisono, K. [NSCL/MSU (United States); Sumikama, T. [Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Mihara, M. [Osaka University (Japan); Ozawa, A.; Tagishi, Y. [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ogura, M.; Matsumiya, R.; Fukuda, M. [Osaka University (Japan); Yamaguchi, M.; Yasuno, T.; Ohta, H.; Hashizume, Y. [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Fujiwara, H. [Osaka University (Japan); Chiba, A. [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Minamisono, T. [Fukui University of Technology (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    The alignment correlation term in the {beta}-ray angular distribution from purely nuclear spin aligned {sup 20}F has been measured to test the G-parity conservation law which is one of the fundamental symmetries in the weak nucleon current. We utilized the hyperfine interaction of {sup 20}F in an MgF{sub 2} single crystal and successfully created the pure alignment from the polarization by means of the spin manipulation technique based on the {beta}-NMR method.

  16. Testing effects in mixed- versus pure-list designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Christopher A; Littrell-Baez, Megan K; Sensenig, Amanda E; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of list composition in the testing effect. Across three experiments, participants learned items through study and initial testing or study and restudy. List composition was manipulated, such that tested and restudied items appeared either intermixed in the same lists (mixed lists) or in separate lists (pure lists). In Experiment 1, half of the participants received mixed lists and half received pure lists. In Experiment 2, all participants were given both mixed and pure lists. Experiment 3 followed Erlebacher's (Psychological Bulletin, 84, 212-219, 1977) method, such that mixed lists, pure tested lists, and pure restudied lists were given to independent groups. Across all three experiments, the final recall results revealed significant testing effects for both mixed and pure lists, with no reliable difference in the magnitude of the testing advantage across list designs. This finding suggests that the testing effect is not subject to a key boundary condition-list design-that impacts other memory phenomena, including the generation effect.

  17. Higher-derivative generalization of conformal mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovsky, Oleg

    2017-08-01

    Higher-derivative analogs of multidimensional conformal particle and many-body conformal mechanics are constructed. Their Newton-Hooke counterparts are derived by applying appropriate coordinate transformations.

  18. Gluon amplitudes as 2 d conformal correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Recently, spin-one wave functions in four dimensions that are conformal primaries of the Lorentz group S L (2 ,C ) were constructed. We compute low-point, tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in the space of these conformal primary wave functions. The answers have the same conformal covariance as correlators of spin-one primaries in a 2 d CFT. The Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relation between three- and four-point gluon amplitudes is recast into this conformal basis.

  19. The communication of "pure" group-based anger reduces tendencies toward intergroup conflict because it increases out-group empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H; Postmes, Tom

    2013-08-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining a positive long-term intergroup relationship, thereby increasing understanding for the situation (in contrast to the communication of the closely related emotion of contempt). Three experiments demonstrate that the communication of group-based anger indeed reduces destructive conflict intentions compared with (a) a control condition (Experiments 1-2), (b) the communication of group-based contempt (Experiment 2), and (c) the communication of a combination of group-based anger and contempt (Experiments 2-3). Moreover, results from all three experiments reveal that empathy mediated the positive effect of communicating "pure" group-based anger. We discuss the implications of these findings for the theory and practice of communicating emotions in intergroup conflicts.

  20. Competing Intramolecular vs. Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonds in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter I. Nagy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A hydrogen bond for a local-minimum-energy structure can be identified according to the definition of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC recommendation 2011 or by finding a special bond critical point on the density map of the structure in the framework of the atoms-in-molecules theory. Nonetheless, a given structural conformation may be simply favored by electrostatic interactions. The present review surveys the in-solution competition of the conformations with intramolecular vs. intermolecular hydrogen bonds for different types of small organic molecules. In their most stable gas-phase structure, an intramolecular hydrogen bond is possible. In a protic solution, the intramolecular hydrogen bond may disrupt in favor of two solute-solvent intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The balance of the increased internal energy and the stabilizing effect of the solute-solvent interactions regulates the new conformer composition in the liquid phase. The review additionally considers the solvent effects on the stability of simple dimeric systems as revealed from molecular dynamics simulations or on the basis of the calculated potential of mean force curves. Finally, studies of the solvent effects on the type of the intermolecular hydrogen bond (neutral or ionic in acid-base complexes have been surveyed.

  1. Relating the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David

    2013-01-01

    Logarithmic conformal field theory is a rich and vibrant area of modern mathematical physics with well-known applications to both condensed matter theory and string theory. Our limited understanding of these theories is based upon detailed studies of various examples that one may regard as archetypal. These include the c=−2 triplet model, the Wess–Zumino–Witten model on SL(2;R) at level k=−1/2 , and its supergroup analogue on GL(1|1). Here, the latter model is studied algebraically through representation theory, fusion and modular invariance, facilitating a subsequent investigation of its cosets and extended algebras. The results show that the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory are in fact all very closely related, as are many other examples including, in particular, the SL(2|1) models at levels 1 and −1/2 . The conclusion is then that the archetypal examples of logarithmic conformal field theory are practically all the same, so we should not expect that their features are in any way generic. Further archetypal examples must be sought

  2. Relating the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, Thomas, E-mail: tcreutzig@mathematik.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Fachbereich Mathematik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ridout, David, E-mail: david.ridout@anu.edu.au [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-07-21

    Logarithmic conformal field theory is a rich and vibrant area of modern mathematical physics with well-known applications to both condensed matter theory and string theory. Our limited understanding of these theories is based upon detailed studies of various examples that one may regard as archetypal. These include the c=−2 triplet model, the Wess–Zumino–Witten model on SL(2;R) at level k=−1/2 , and its supergroup analogue on GL(1|1). Here, the latter model is studied algebraically through representation theory, fusion and modular invariance, facilitating a subsequent investigation of its cosets and extended algebras. The results show that the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory are in fact all very closely related, as are many other examples including, in particular, the SL(2|1) models at levels 1 and −1/2 . The conclusion is then that the archetypal examples of logarithmic conformal field theory are practically all the same, so we should not expect that their features are in any way generic. Further archetypal examples must be sought.

  3. Conformally compactified homogeneous spaces (Possible Observable Consequences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinich, P.

    1995-01-01

    Some arguments based on the possible spontaneous violation of the Cosmological Principles (represented by the observed large-scale structures of galaxies), the Cartan-geometry of simple spinors and on the Fock-formulation of hydrogen-atom wave-equation in momentum-space, are presented in favour of the hypothesis that space-time and momentum-space should be both conformally compactified and represented by the two four-dimensional homogeneous spaces of the conformal group, both isomorphic to (S 3 X S 1 )/Z 2 and correlated by conformal inversion. Within this framework, the possible common origin for the S0(4) symmetry underlying the geometrical structure of the Universe, of Kepler orbits and of the H-atom is discussed. On of the consequences of the proposed hypothesis could be that any quantum field theory should be naturally free from both infrared and ultraviolet divergences. But then physical spaces defined as those where physical phenomena may be best described, could be different from those homogeneous spaces. A simple, exactly soluble, toy model, valid for a two-dimensional space-time is presented where the conjecture conformally compactified space-time and momentum-space are both isomorphic to (S 1 X S 1 )/Z 2 , while the physical spaces are two finite lattice which are dual since Fourier transforms, represented by finite, discrete, sums may be well defined on them. Furthermore, a q-deformed SU q (1,1) may be represented on them if q is a root of unity. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs

  4. Multichannel conformal blocks for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    By performing resummation of small fermion-antifermion pairs within the pentagon form factor program to scattering amplitudes in planar N = 4 superYang-Mills theory, we construct multichannel conformal blocks within the flux-tube picture for N-sided NMHV polygons. This procedure is equivalent to summation of descendants of conformal primaries in the OPE framework. The resulting conformal partial waves are determined by multivariable hypergeometric series of Lauricella-Saran type.

  5. Tractable Quantification of Entanglement for Multipartite Pure States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian-Quan, Jiang; Yu-Jian, Wang; Yi-Zhuang, Zheng; Gen-Chang, Cai

    2008-01-01

    We present kth-order entanglement measure and global kth-order entanglement measure for multipartite pure states, and extend Bennett's measure of partial entropy for bipartite pure states to a multipartite case. These measures are computable and can effectively classify and quantify the entanglement of multipartite pure states. (general)

  6. Conformation Generation: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul C D

    2017-08-28

    The generation of conformations for small molecules is a problem of continuing interest in cheminformatics and computational drug discovery. This review will present an overview of methods used to sample conformational space, focusing on those methods designed for organic molecules commonly of interest in drug discovery. Different approaches to both the sampling of conformational space and the scoring of conformational stability will be compared and contrasted, with an emphasis on those methods suitable for conformer sampling of large numbers of drug-like molecules. Particular attention will be devoted to the appropriate utilization of information from experimental solid-state structures in validating and evaluating the performance of these tools. The review will conclude with some areas worthy of further investigation.

  7. Conformance Testing of SGSF-064-1 Using CANoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intaek Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors describe a conformance testing system for SGSF-064-1, the communication protocol between electric vehicles and conductive DC (direct current chargers in Korea. Since the SGSF-064-1 is based on CAN (controller area network, the testing system was developed by CANoe. The DC charger known as EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment is the system being tested and the developed system implemented in PC (personal computer. The developed system performs as a tester to ensure that the DC chargers from various manufactures can conform to the communication protocol in SGSF-064-1. The testing system contains four testing modes which also consist of several test cases.

  8. The pseudo-conformal universe: scale invariance from spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel theory of the very early universe which addresses the traditional horizon and flatness problems of big bang cosmology and predicts a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. Unlike inflation, this scenario requires no exponential accelerated expansion of space-time. Instead, the early universe is described by a conformal field theory minimally coupled to gravity. The conformal fields develop a time-dependent expectation value which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal symmetry down to so(4,1), the symmetries of de Sitter, giving perturbations a scale invariant spectrum. The solution is an attractor, at least in the case of a single time-dependent field. Meanwhile, the metric background remains approximately flat but slowly contracts, which makes the universe increasingly flat, homogeneous and isotropic, akin to the smoothing mechanism of ekpyrotic cosmology. Our scenario is very general, requiring only a conformal field theory capable of developing the appropriate time-dependent expectation values, and encompasses existing incarnations of this idea, specifically the U(1) model of Rubakov and the Galileon Genesis scenario. Its essential features depend only on the symmetry breaking pattern and not on the details of the underlying lagrangian. It makes generic observational predictions that make it potentially distinguishable from standard inflation, in particular significant non-gaussianities and the absence of primordial gravitational waves

  9. How Diverse are the Protein-Bound Conformations of Small-Molecule Drugs and Cofactors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; Simsir, Méliné; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge of the bioactive conformations of small molecules or the ability to predict them with theoretical methods is of key importance to the design of bioactive compounds such as drugs, agrochemicals and cosmetics. Using an elaborate cheminformatics pipeline, which also evaluates the support of individual atom coordinates by the measured electron density, we compiled a complete set (“Sperrylite Dataset”) of high-quality structures of protein-bound ligand conformations from the PDB. The Sperrylite Dataset consists of a total of 10,936 high-quality structures of 4548 unique ligands. Based on this dataset, we assessed the variability of the bioactive conformations of 91 small molecules—each represented by a minimum of ten structures—and found it to be largely independent of the number of rotatable bonds. Sixty-nine molecules had at least two distinct conformations (defined by an RMSD greater than 1 Å). For a representative subset of 17 approved drugs and cofactors we observed a clear trend for the formation of few clusters of highly similar conformers. Even for proteins that share a very low sequence identity, ligands were regularly found to adopt similar conformations. For cofactors, a clear trend for extended conformations was measured, although in few cases also coiled conformers were observed. The Sperrylite Dataset is available for download from http://www.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/sperrylite_dataset.

  10. Arbitrary spin conformal fields in (A)dS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metsaev, R.R.

    2014-01-01

    Totally symmetric arbitrary spin conformal fields in (A)dS space of even dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. Ordinary-derivative and gauge invariant Lagrangian formulation for such fields is obtained. Gauge symmetries are realized by using auxiliary fields and Stueckelberg fields. We demonstrate that Lagrangian of conformal field is decomposed into a sum of gauge invariant Lagrangians for massless, partial-massless, and massive fields. We obtain a mass spectrum of the partial-massless and massive fields and confirm the conjecture about the mass spectrum made in the earlier literature. In contrast to conformal fields in flat space, the kinetic terms of conformal fields in (A)dS space turn out to be diagonal with respect to fields entering the Lagrangian. Explicit form of conformal transformation which maps conformal field in flat space to conformal field in (A)dS space is obtained. Covariant Lorentz-like and de-Donder like gauge conditions leading to simple gauge-fixed Lagrangian of conformal fields are proposed. Using such gauge-fixed Lagrangian, which is invariant under global BRST transformations, we explain how the partition function of conformal field is obtained in the framework of our approach

  11. Theoretical and Spectroscopic investigations of conformations, rotational barriers and scaled vibrations of 2,3-dimethyl hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Aboulmouhajir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2,3-dimethyl hexane conformational isomerism has been investigated in detail, based on HF, Post-HF and DFT calculations at different basis set. The effect of size of basis, ZPE, thermal contributions, electronic correlation and optimization methods on the conformational stability was discussed. The rotational barriers from the most stable conformer to the lowest energy secondary conformers and their correspondent inversion barriers at both HF and MP2 methods using 6-31G* basis set have also been approached. A normal mode calculation of the most and less-stable conformers using a scaled ab initio force field in terms of non-redundant local symmetry coordinates have been made to elucidate the conformational dependence of the vibrational spectra.

  12. Genetic relationship between methane emissions and conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetouni, Larissa; Kargo, Morten; Lassen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Conformation traits have been widely explored in dairy cattle evaluation, being a part of the total merit index for Holstein cows in different countries. They have been used as a way to access the cow’s condition in general, based on its body features. Lots of studies have analyzed the relationship...... traits in Holstein cows: height (H), body depth (BD), chest width (CW), dairy character (DC) and body condition score (BCS). Data was collected on 1114 Holstein cows from 11 commercial herds in Denmark. Methane emission was measured during milking in milking robots, and then quantifed using information...... between conformation traits and other traits of interest in dairy cattle, such as fertility, longevity and feed effciency, but little is known about how methane emissions correlate with conformation traits. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate the genetic correlations between methane and six conformation...

  13. Inversion theory and conformal mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, David E

    2000-01-01

    It is rarely taught in an undergraduate or even graduate curriculum that the only conformal maps in Euclidean space of dimension greater than two are those generated by similarities and inversions in spheres. This is in stark contrast to the wealth of conformal maps in the plane. The principal aim of this text is to give a treatment of this paucity of conformal maps in higher dimensions. The exposition includes both an analytic proof in general dimension and a differential-geometric proof in dimension three. For completeness, enough complex analysis is developed to prove the abundance of conformal maps in the plane. In addition, the book develops inversion theory as a subject, along with the auxiliary theme of circle-preserving maps. A particular feature is the inclusion of a paper by Carath�odory with the remarkable result that any circle-preserving transformation is necessarily a M�bius transformation, not even the continuity of the transformation is assumed. The text is at the level of advanced undergr...

  14. Inverse bootstrapping conformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenliang

    2018-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to study conformal field theories (CFTs) in general dimensions. In the conformal bootstrap program, one usually searches for consistent CFT data that satisfy crossing symmetry. In the new method, we reverse the logic and interpret manifestly crossing-symmetric functions as generating functions of conformal data. Physical CFTs can be obtained by scanning the space of crossing-symmetric functions. By truncating the fusion rules, we are able to concentrate on the low-lying operators and derive some approximate relations for their conformal data. It turns out that the free scalar theory, the 2d minimal model CFTs, the ϕ 4 Wilson-Fisher CFT, the Lee-Yang CFTs and the Ising CFTs are consistent with the universal relations from the minimal fusion rule ϕ 1 × ϕ 1 = I + ϕ 2 + T , where ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 are scalar operators, I is the identity operator and T is the stress tensor.

  15. Synthesis and conformational analysis of linear homo- and heterooligomers from novel 2-C-branched sugar amino acids (SAAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guang-Zong; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Heng-Xi; Rademacher, Christoph; Zou, Xiao-Peng; Zheng, Hong-Ning; Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Li; Linker, Torsten; Yin, Jian

    2018-04-26

    Sugar amino acids (SAAs), as biologically interesting structures bearing both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups represent an important class of multifunctional building blocks. In this study, we develop an easy access to novel SAAs in only three steps starting from nitro compounds in high yields in analytically pure form, easily available by ceric (IV) mediated radical additions. Such novel SAAs have been applied in the assembly of total nine carbopeptoids with the form of linear homo- and heterooligomers for the structural investigations employing circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, which suggest that the carbopeptoids emerge a well-extended, left (or right)-handed conformation similar to polyproline II (PPII) helices. NMR studies also clearly demonstrated the presence of ordered secondary structural elements. 2D-ROESY spectra were acquired to identify i+1 NH ↔  i C 1 H, i C 2 H correlations which support the conformational analysis of tetramers by CD spectroscopy. These findings provide interesting information of SAAs and their oligomers as potential scaffolds for discovering new drugs and materials.

  16. Gate-Driven Pure Spin Current in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyang; Su, Li; Si, Zhizhong; Zhang, Youguang; Bournel, Arnaud; Zhang, Yue; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Fert, Albert; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-09-01

    The manipulation of spin current is a promising solution for low-power devices beyond CMOS. However, conventional methods, such as spin-transfer torque or spin-orbit torque for magnetic tunnel junctions, suffer from large power consumption due to frequent spin-charge conversions. An important challenge is, thus, to realize long-distance transport of pure spin current, together with efficient manipulation. Here, the mechanism of gate-driven pure spin current in graphene is presented. Such a mechanism relies on the electrical gating of carrier-density-dependent conductivity and spin-diffusion length in graphene. The gate-driven feature is adopted to realize the pure spin-current demultiplexing operation, which enables gate-controllable distribution of the pure spin current into graphene branches. Compared with the Elliott-Yafet spin-relaxation mechanism, the D'yakonov-Perel spin-relaxation mechanism results in more appreciable demultiplexing performance. The feature of the pure spin-current demultiplexing operation will allow a number of logic functions to be cascaded without spin-charge conversions and open a route for future ultra-low-power devices.

  17. On functional representations of the conformal algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, Oliver J.

    2017-07-15

    Starting with conformally covariant correlation functions, a sequence of functional representations of the conformal algebra is constructed. A key step is the introduction of representations which involve an auxiliary functional. It is observed that these functionals are not arbitrary but rather must satisfy a pair of consistency equations corresponding to dilatation and special conformal invariance. In a particular representation, the former corresponds to the canonical form of the exact renormalization group equation specialized to a fixed point whereas the latter is new. This provides a concrete understanding of how conformal invariance is realized as a property of the Wilsonian effective action and the relationship to action-free formulations of conformal field theory. Subsequently, it is argued that the conformal Ward Identities serve to define a particular representation of the energy-momentum tensor. Consistency of this construction implies Polchinski's conditions for improving the energy-momentum tensor of a conformal field theory such that it is traceless. In the Wilsonian approach, the exactly marginal, redundant field which generates lines of physically equivalent fixed points is identified as the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. (orig.)

  18. Revealing time bunching effect in single-molecule enzyme conformational dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H Peter

    2011-04-21

    In this perspective, we focus our discussion on how the single-molecule spectroscopy and statistical analysis are able to reveal enzyme hidden properties, taking the study of T4 lysozyme as an example. Protein conformational fluctuations and dynamics play a crucial role in biomolecular functions, such as in enzymatic reactions. Single-molecule spectroscopy is a powerful approach to analyze protein conformational dynamics under physiological conditions, providing dynamic perspectives on a molecular-level understanding of protein structure-function mechanisms. Using single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, we have probed T4 lysozyme conformational motions under the hydrolysis reaction of a polysaccharide of E. coli B cell walls by monitoring the fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) between a donor-acceptor probe pair tethered to T4 lysozyme domains involving open-close hinge-bending motions. Based on the single-molecule spectroscopic results, molecular dynamics simulation, a random walk model analysis, and a novel 2D statistical correlation analysis, we have revealed a time bunching effect in protein conformational motion dynamics that is critical to enzymatic functions. Bunching effect implies that conformational motion times tend to bunch in a finite and narrow time window. We show that convoluted multiple Poisson rate processes give rise to the bunching effect in the enzymatic reaction dynamics. Evidently, the bunching effect is likely common in protein conformational dynamics involving in conformation-gated protein functions. In this perspective, we will also discuss a new approach of 2D regional correlation analysis capable of analyzing fluctuation dynamics of complex multiple correlated and anti-correlated fluctuations under a non-correlated noise background. Using this new method, we are able to map out any defined segments along the fluctuation trajectories and determine whether they are correlated, anti-correlated, or non-correlated; after which, a

  19. Pure natural inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Nomura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We point out that a simple inflationary model in which the axionic inflaton couples to a pure Yang–Mills theory may give the scalar spectral index (ns and tensor-to-scalar ratio (r in complete agreement with the current observational data.

  20. 40 CFR 89.105 - Certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 89.105... and Certification Provisions § 89.105 Certificate of conformity. Every manufacturer of a new nonroad compression-ignition engine must obtain a certificate of conformity covering the engine family, as described...

  1. Conformation-independent structural comparison of macromolecules with ProSMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Fischer, Marcus; McNicholas, Stuart; Murshudov, Garib N.

    2014-01-01

    The Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed to allow local comparative structural analyses independent of the global conformations and sequence homology of the compared macromolecules. This allows quick and intuitive visualization of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations, providing complementary information to existing methods. The identification and exploration of (dis)similarities between macromolecular structures can help to gain biological insight, for instance when visualizing or quantifying the response of a protein to ligand binding. Obtaining a residue alignment between compared structures is often a prerequisite for such comparative analysis. If the conformational change of the protein is dramatic, conventional alignment methods may struggle to provide an intuitive solution for straightforward analysis. To make such analyses more accessible, the Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed, which achieves a conformation-independent structural alignment, as well as providing such additional functionalities as the generation of restraints for use in the refinement of macromolecular models. Sensible comparison of protein (or DNA/RNA) structures in the presence of conformational changes is achieved by enforcing neither chain nor domain rigidity. The visualization of results is facilitated by popular molecular-graphics software such as CCP4mg and PyMOL, providing intuitive feedback regarding structural conservation and subtle dissimilarities between close homologues that can otherwise be hard to identify. Automatically generated colour schemes corresponding to various residue-based scores are provided, which allow the assessment of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations relative to the local coordinate frame. Structural comparison tools such as ProSMART can help to break the complexity that accompanies the constantly growing

  2. Conformation-independent structural comparison of macromolecules with ProSMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, Robert A., E-mail: nicholls@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Fischer, Marcus [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); McNicholas, Stuart [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Murshudov, Garib N. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    The Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed to allow local comparative structural analyses independent of the global conformations and sequence homology of the compared macromolecules. This allows quick and intuitive visualization of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations, providing complementary information to existing methods. The identification and exploration of (dis)similarities between macromolecular structures can help to gain biological insight, for instance when visualizing or quantifying the response of a protein to ligand binding. Obtaining a residue alignment between compared structures is often a prerequisite for such comparative analysis. If the conformational change of the protein is dramatic, conventional alignment methods may struggle to provide an intuitive solution for straightforward analysis. To make such analyses more accessible, the Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed, which achieves a conformation-independent structural alignment, as well as providing such additional functionalities as the generation of restraints for use in the refinement of macromolecular models. Sensible comparison of protein (or DNA/RNA) structures in the presence of conformational changes is achieved by enforcing neither chain nor domain rigidity. The visualization of results is facilitated by popular molecular-graphics software such as CCP4mg and PyMOL, providing intuitive feedback regarding structural conservation and subtle dissimilarities between close homologues that can otherwise be hard to identify. Automatically generated colour schemes corresponding to various residue-based scores are provided, which allow the assessment of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations relative to the local coordinate frame. Structural comparison tools such as ProSMART can help to break the complexity that accompanies the constantly growing

  3. A note on fashion cycles, novelty and conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Alberti

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model in which novelty and conformity motivate fashion behavior. Fashion cycles occur if conformity is not too high. The duration of fashion cycles depends on individual-specific conformity, novelty, and the number of available styles. The use of individual-specific novelty and conformity allows us to also identify fashion leaders.

  4. Nonperturbative results for two-index conformal windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, Georg [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco [CP-Origins and the Danish IAS, University of Southern Denmark,5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2015-12-10

    Via large and small N{sub c} relations we derive nonperturbative results about the conformal window of two-index theories. Using Schwinger-Dyson methods as well as four-loops results we estimate subleading corrections and show that naive large number of colors extrapolations are unreliable when N{sub c} is less than about six. Nevertheless useful nonperturbative inequalities for the size of the conformal windows, for any number of colors, can be derived. By further observing that the adjoint conformal window is independent of the number of colors we argue, among other things, that: the large N{sub c} two-index conformal window is twice the conformal window of the adjoint representation (which can be determined at small N{sub c}) expressed in terms of Dirac fermions; lattice results for adjoint matter can be used to provide independent information on the conformal dynamics of two-index theories such as SU(N{sub c}) with two and four symmetric Dirac flavors.

  5. Nonperturbative results for two-index conformal windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, Georg; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Via large and small N c relations we derive nonperturbative results about the conformal window of two-index theories. Using Schwinger-Dyson methods as well as four-loops results we estimate subleading corrections and show that naive large number of colors extrapolations are unreliable when N c is less than about six. Nevertheless useful nonperturbative inequalities for the size of the conformal windows, for any number of colors, can be derived. By further observing that the adjoint conformal window is independent of the number of colors we argue, among other things, that: the large N c two-index conformal window is twice the conformal window of the adjoint representation (which can be determined at small N c ) expressed in terms of Dirac fermions; lattice results for adjoint matter can be used to provide independent information on the conformal dynamics of two-index theories such as SU(N c ) with two and four symmetric Dirac flavors.

  6. Measuring the mechanical properties of molecular conformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S. P.; Taylor, S.; Baran, J. D.; Champness, N. R.; Larsson, J. A.; Moriarty, P.

    2015-09-01

    Scanning probe-actuated single molecule manipulation has proven to be an exceptionally powerful tool for the systematic atomic-scale interrogation of molecular adsorbates. To date, however, the extent to which molecular conformation affects the force required to push or pull a single molecule has not been explored. Here we probe the mechanochemical response of two tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin conformers using non-contact atomic force microscopy where we find a large difference between the lateral forces required for manipulation. Remarkably, despite sharing very similar adsorption characteristics, variations in the potential energy surface are capable of prohibiting probe-induced positioning of one conformer, while simultaneously permitting manipulation of the alternative conformational form. Our results are interpreted in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations which reveal significant differences in the diffusion barriers for each conformer. These results demonstrate that conformational variation significantly modifies the mechanical response of even simple porpyhrins, potentially affecting many other flexible molecules.

  7. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  8. Peer influence: neural mechanisms underlying in-group conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallen, Mirre; Smidts, Ale; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    People often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed a perceptual decision-making task while undergoing fMRI, during which they were exposed to the judgments of both in-group and out-group members. Our data suggest that conformity to the in-group is mediated by both positive affect as well as the cognitive capacity of perspective taking. Examining the processes that drive in-group conformity by utilizing a basic decision-making paradigm combined with neuroimaging methods provides important insights into the potential mechanisms of conformity. These results may provide an integral step in developing more effective campaigns using group conformity as a tool for behavioral change.

  9. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a termination...

  10. Conformity index for brain cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovska, Sonja; Tolevska, Cveta; Kraleva, Slavica; Petreska, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the level of conformity achieved by using 3D conformal radiotherapy for brain cancer patients. Conformity index is a helpful quantitative tool for assessing (evaluating) the quality of a treatment plan. Treatment plans made for ninety patients with brain tumor are worked on this paper. The patients are in supine position and immobilized with thermoplastic masks for the head. Computed tomography data sets with 5 mm scan thickness are used to create a 3D image. All structures of interest are contoured. In order to obtain an optimal dose distribution, treatment fields are fit around target volume with set-up margins of 7mm in each direction. The conformity index values are between 1.21 and 2.04. Value of 1.8 is exceeded in eighteen cases; nine of them are bigger than 1.9 and only three of them are above 2. The target volume for each of these extreme CI values is ideal covered (between 95% and 105% of the prescribed dose). The most acceptable conformity index value in this paper belongs to the plan with the lowest minimal dose (84.7%). It can be concluded that conformity index is necessary but not sufficient factor for assessing radiation treatment plan conformity. To be able to estimate the acceptability of some treatment plan in daily practice, additional information as minimal, maximal and mean dose into target volume, as well as health tissues coverage must be taken into account.(Author)

  11. Conformal field theories, Coulomb gas picture and integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present the links between some results of conformal field theory, the conventional Coulomb gas picture in statistical mechanics and the approach of integrable models. It is shown that families of conformal theories, related by the coset construction to the SU(2) Kac-Moody algebra, may be regarded as obtained from some free field, and modified by the coupling of its winding numbers to floating charges. This representation reflects the procedure of restriction of the corresponding integrable lattice models. The work may be generalized to models based on the coset construction with higher rank algebras. The corresponding integrable models are identified. In the conformal field description, generalized parafermions appear, and are coupled to free fields living on a higher-dimensional torus. The analysis is not as exhaustive as in the SU(2) case: all the various restrictions have not been identified, nor the modular invariants completely classified

  12. Renormalization, conformal ward identities and the origin of a conformal anomaly pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corianò, Claudio; Maglio, Matteo Maria

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the emergence of a conformal anomaly pole in conformal field theories in the case of the TJJ correlator. We show how it comes to be generated in dimensional renormalization, using a basis of 13 form factors (the F-basis), where only one of them requires renormalization (F13), extending previous studies. We then combine recent results on the structure of the non-perturbative solutions of the conformal Ward identities (CWI's) for the TJJ in momentum space, expressed in terms of a minimal set of 4 form factors (A-basis), with the properties of the F-basis, and show how the singular behaviour of the corresponding form factors in both basis can be related. The result proves the centrality of such massless effective interactions induced by the anomaly, which have recently found realization in solid state, in the theory of topological insulators and of Weyl semimetals. This pattern is confirmed in massless abelian and nonabelian theories (QED and QCD) investigated at one-loop.

  13. Interactions Controlling the Slow Dynamic Conformational Motions of Ubiquitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Kitazawa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rational mutation of proteins based on their structural and dynamic characteristics is a useful strategy for amplifying specific fluctuations in proteins. Here, we show the effects of mutation on the conformational fluctuations and thermodynamic stability of ubiquitin. In particular, we focus on the salt bridge between K11 and E34 and the hydrogen bond between I36 and Q41, which are predicted to control the fluctuation between the basic folded state, N1, and the alternatively folded state, N2, of the protein, using high-pressure NMR spectroscopy. The E34A mutation, which disrupts the salt bridge, did not alter picosecond–to–nanosecond, microsecond–to–millisecond dynamic motions, and stability of the protein, while the Q41N mutation, which destabilizes the hydrogen bond, specifically amplified the N1–N2 conformational fluctuation and decreased stability. Based on the observed thermodynamic stabilities of the various conformational states, we showed that in the Q41N mutant, the N1 state is more significantly destabilized than the N2 state, resulting in an increase in the relative population of N2. Identifying the interactions controlling specific motions of a protein will facilitate molecular design to achieve functional dynamics beyond native state dynamics.

  14. Nature vs. nurture in human sociality: multi-level genomic analyses of social conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biqing; Zhu, Zijian; Wang, Yingying; Ding, Xiaohu; Guo, Xiaobo; He, Mingguang; Fang, Wan; Zhou, Qin; Zhou, Shanbi; Lei, Han; Huang, Ailong; Chen, Tingmei; Ni, Dongsheng; Gu, Yuping; Liu, Jianing; Rao, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Social conformity is fundamental to human societies and has been studied for more than six decades, but our understanding of its mechanisms remains limited. Individual differences in conformity have been attributed to social and cultural environmental influences, but not to genes. Here we demonstrate a genetic contribution to conformity after analyzing 1,140 twins and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies of 2,130 young adults. A two-step genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed replicable associations in 9 genomic loci, and a meta-analysis of three GWAS with a sample size of ~2,600 further confirmed one locus, corresponding to the NAV3 (Neuron Navigator 3) gene which encodes a protein important for axon outgrowth and guidance. Further multi-level (haplotype, gene, pathway) GWAS strongly associated genes including NAV3, PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D), ARL10 (ADP ribosylation factor-like GTPase 10), and CTNND2 (catenin delta 2), with conformity. Magnetic resonance imaging of 64 subjects shows correlation of activation or structural features of brain regions with the SNPs of these genes, supporting their functional significance. Our results suggest potential moderate genetic influence on conformity, implicate several specific genetic elements in conformity and will facilitate further research on cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying human conformity.

  15. Pure chiral optical fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poladian, L; Straton, M; Docherty, A; Argyros, A

    2011-01-17

    We investigate the properties of optical fibres made from chiral materials, in which a contrast in optical activity forms the waveguide, rather than a contrast in the refractive index; we refer to such structures as pure chiral fibres. We present a mathematical formulation for solving the modes of circularly symmetric examples of such fibres and examine the guidance and polarisation properties of pure chiral step-index, Bragg and photonic crystal fibre designs. Their behaviour is shown to differ for left- and right-hand circular polarisation, allowing circular polarisations to be isolated and/or guided by different mechanisms, as well as differing from equivalent non-chiral fibres. The strength of optical activity required in each case is quantified.

  16. Referral for Outpatients Urological Services: Poor Conformity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was aimed at establishing the degree of conformity with the referral system, level of pre-referral investigative evaluations and degree of diagnosis concordance between the referring centres and the referral hospital in Western region of Kenya. Methods: This was a hospital based descriptive, ...

  17. 40 CFR 90.106 - Certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 90.106... Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.106 Certificate of conformity. (a)(1) Except as provided in § 90... certificate of conformity covering such engines; however, engines manufactured during an annual production...

  18. Local supertwistors and N=2 conformal supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    N = 2 sypersymmetric extension of the local twistor theory is formulated. A supertwistor superconnection determined by the superconformal structure of the base superspace is introduced on the bundle of N = 2 local supertwistors. It is proved that the Yang - Mills equations for this superconnection coincide exactly with the Bach equations describing the dynamics of N 2 conformal supergravity

  19. Identification of key residues for protein conformational transition using elastic network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji Guo; Xu, Xian Jin; Li, Chun Hua; Chen, Wei Zu; Wang, Cun Xin

    2011-11-07

    Proteins usually undergo conformational transitions between structurally disparate states to fulfill their functions. The large-scale allosteric conformational transitions are believed to involve some key residues that mediate the conformational movements between different regions of the protein. In the present work, a thermodynamic method based on the elastic network model is proposed to predict the key residues involved in protein conformational transitions. In our method, the key functional sites are identified as the residues whose perturbations largely influence the free energy difference between the protein states before and after transition. Two proteins, nucleotide binding domain of the heat shock protein 70 and human/rat DNA polymerase β, are used as case studies to identify the critical residues responsible for their open-closed conformational transitions. The results show that the functionally important residues mainly locate at the following regions for these two proteins: (1) the bridging point at the interface between the subdomains that control the opening and closure of the binding cleft; (2) the hinge region between different subdomains, which mediates the cooperative motions between the corresponding subdomains; and (3) the substrate binding sites. The similarity in the positions of the key residues for these two proteins may indicate a common mechanism in their conformational transitions.

  20. Quantum deformations of conformal algebras with mass-like deformation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frydryszak, Andrzej; Lukierski, Jerzy; Mozrzymas, Marek; Minnaert, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We recall the mathematical apparatus necessary for the quantum deformation of Lie algebras, namely the notions of coboundary Lie algebras, classical r-matrices, classical Yang-Baxter equations (CYBE), Froebenius algebras and parabolic subalgebras. Then we construct the quantum deformation of D=1, D=2 and D=3 conformal algebras, showing that this quantization introduce fundamental mass parameters. Finally we consider with more details the quantization of D=4 conformal algebra. We build three classes of sl(4,C) classical r-matrices, satisfying CYBE and depending respectively on 8, 10 and 12 generators of parabolic subalgebras. We show that only the 8-dimensional r-matrices allow to impose the D=4 conformal o(4,2)≅su(2,2) reality conditions. Weyl reflections and Dynkin diagram automorphisms for o(4,2) define the class of admissible bases for given classical r-matrices

  1. Evaluating conformational free energies: the colony energy and its application to the problem of loop prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhexin; Soto, Cinque S; Honig, Barry

    2002-05-28

    In this paper, we introduce a method to account for the shape of the potential energy curve in the evaluation of conformational free energies. The method is based on a procedure that generates a set of conformations, each with its own force-field energy, but adds a term to this energy that favors conformations that are close in structure (have a low rmsd) to other conformations. The sum of the force-field energy and rmsd-dependent term is defined here as the "colony energy" of a given conformation, because each conformation that is generated is viewed as representing a colony of points. The use of the colony energy tends to select conformations that are located in broad energy basins. The approach is applied to the ab initio prediction of the conformations of all of the loops in a dataset of 135 nonredundant proteins. By using an rmsd from a native criterion based on the superposition of loop stems, the average rmsd of 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-residue long loops is 0.85, 0.92, 1.23, and 1.45 A, respectively. For 8-residue loops, 60 of 61 predictions have an rmsd of less than 3.0 A. The use of the colony energy is found to improve significantly the results obtained from the potential function alone. (The loop prediction program, "Loopy," can be downloaded at http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu.)

  2. Conformal Killing horizons and their thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alex B.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2018-05-01

    Certain dynamical black hole solutions can be mapped to static spacetimes by conformal metric transformations. This mapping provides a physical link between the conformal Killing horizon of the dynamical black hole and the Killing horizon of the static spacetime. Using the Vaidya spacetime as an example, we show how this conformal relation can be used to derive thermodynamic properties of such dynamical black holes. Although these horizons are defined quasi-locally and can be located by local experiments, they are distinct from other popular notions of quasi-local horizons such as apparent horizons. Thus in the dynamical Vaidya spacetime describing constant accretion of null dust, the conformal Killing horizon, which is null by construction, is the natural horizon to describe the black hole.

  3. Molecular dynamics studies of the conformation of sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerbret, A.; Mason, P.E.; Venable, R.M.; Cesàro, A.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Pastor, R.W.; Brady, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a 3 m aqueous solution of D-sorbitol (also called D-glucitol) have been performed at 300 K, as well as at two elevated temperatures to promote conformational transitions. In principle, sorbitol is more flexible than glucose since it does not contain a constraining ring. However, a conformational analysis revealed that the sorbitol chain remains extended in solution, in contrast to the bent conformation found experimentally in the crystalline form. While there are 243 staggered conformations of the backbone possible for this open-chain polyol, only a very limited number were found to be stable in the simulations. Although many conformers were briefly sampled, only eight were significantly populated in the simulation. The carbon backbones of all but two of these eight conformers were completely extended, unlike the bent crystal conformation. These extended conformers were stabilized by a quite persistent intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl groups of carbon C-2 and C-4. The conformational populations were found to be in good agreement with the limited available NMR data except for the C-2–C-3 torsion (spanned by the O-2–O-4 hydrogen bond), where the NMR data supports a more bent structure. PMID:19744646

  4. Living a Fairy Tale: The Educational Experiences of Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Youth in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ruari-Santiago; Schubotz, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates educational experiences of transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) youth living in Northern Ireland (NI) through a mixed-methods research design and analytical framework of heteronormativity. It draws on large-scale survey data which, for the first time in NI, captured the experiences of 16 year olds who identify as…

  5. Lattice models and conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical studies concerning the connection between critical physical systems and the conformal theories are reviewed. The conformal theory associated to a critical (integrable) lattice model is derived. The obtention of the central charge, critical exponents and torus partition function, using renormalization group arguments, is shown. The quantum group structure, in the integrable lattice models, and the theory of Visaro algebra representations are discussed. The relations between off-critical integrable models and conformal theories, in finite geometries, are studied

  6. Online Detection of Anomalous Sub-trajectories: A Sliding Window Approach Based on Conformal Anomaly Detection and Local Outlier Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Laxhammar , Rikard; Falkman , Göran

    2012-01-01

    Part 4: First Conformal Prediction and Its Applications Workshop (COPA 2012); International audience; Automated detection of anomalous trajectories is an important problem in the surveillance domain. Various algorithms based on learning of normal trajectory patterns have been proposed for this problem. Yet, these algorithms suffer from one or more of the following limitations: First, they are essentially designed for offline anomaly detection in databases. Second, they are insensitive to loca...

  7. Implementation of intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy for cervical cancers at the Alexis Vautrin Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard-Oldrini, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    As platinum salt based concomitant conformational radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been used as a standard treatment for cervical cancers but resulted in digestive and haematological toxicities, this research thesis reports the application of intensity-modulated conformational radiation therapy. After having recalled some epidemiological, anatomical aspects, diagnosis and treatments aspects regarding cervical cancer, the author presents this last treatment technique (principles, benefits, practical implementation). The author discusses results obtained by an experiment during which seven patients have been treated by simple conformational radiation therapy, and four by intensity-modulated conformational radiation therapy. Results are discussed in terms of volumes (clinical target volume, growth target volume, planned target volume), dosimetric results, toxicities (urine and skin), weight loss [fr

  8. The impact of base stacking on the conformations and electrostatics of single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Alex; Meisburger, Steve P; Andresen, Kurt; Pollack, Lois

    2017-04-20

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is notable for its interactions with ssDNA binding proteins (SSBs) during fundamentally important biological processes including DNA repair and replication. Previous work has begun to characterize the conformational and electrostatic properties of ssDNA in association with SSBs. However, the conformational distributions of free ssDNA have been difficult to determine. To capture the vast array of ssDNA conformations in solution, we pair small angle X-ray scattering with novel ensemble fitting methods, obtaining key parameters such as the size, shape and stacking character of strands with different sequences. Complementary ion counting measurements using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy are employed to determine the composition of the ion atmosphere at physiological ionic strength. Applying this combined approach to poly dA and poly dT, we find that the global properties of these sequences are very similar, despite having vastly different propensities for single-stranded helical stacking. These results suggest that a relatively simple mechanism for the binding of ssDNA to non-specific SSBs may be at play, which explains the disparity in binding affinities observed for these systems. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. 14 CFR 21.130 - Statement of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of conformity. 21.130 Section 21... conformity. Each holder or licensee of a type certificate only, for a product manufactured in the United... Administrator a statement of conformity (FAA Form 317). This statement must be signed by an authorized person...

  10. 14 CFR 21.53 - Statement of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of conformity. 21.53 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.53 Statement of conformity. Link to an... conformity (FAA Form 317) to the Administrator for each aircraft engine and propeller presented to the...

  11. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  12. Chain conformations of the component polymers and the microphase separation structures of homopolymer/block coplymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, Naoya; Mogi, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Yushu; Noda, Ichiro; Han, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Microdomain spacings of lamellar structures formed by styrene homopolymer/styrene-2-vinylpyridine diblock copolymer/2-vinylpyridine homopolymer blends were measured by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and single chain conformations of block copolymers in the same blend system were measured by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The molecular weight of diblock copolymers is 78K-72K, and three kinds of styrene homopolymer (S H ) and 2-vinylpyridine homopolymer (P H ) pairs were blended, their molecular weight ratios to that of host block chains were 0.17, 0.38, and 0.78, respectively. Two blend ratios of homopolymer (H)/block copolymer (B), i.e. 1/2 and 1/1 were examined. It was found that the domain spacings of all blends are larger than that of pure block copolymer and that they are increasing with increasing the molecular weight of homopolymers and/or with increasing the volume fraction of homopolymers. Further, block chains in the blends were confirmed to have almost the same chain dimension as that of block chain in pure block copolymer system in the direction parallel to the domain interface irrespective of molecular weight and volume fraction of homopolymers. (author)

  13. Conformal collineations and anisotropic fluids in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, K.L.; Sharma, R.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, Herrera et al. [L. Herrera, J. Jimenez, L. Leal, J. Ponce de Leon, M. Esculpi, and V. Galino, J. Math. Phys. 25, 3274 (1984)] studied the consequences of the existence of a one-parameter group of conformal motions for anisotropic matter. They concluded that for special conformal motions, the stiff equation of state (p = μ) is singled out in a unique way, provided the generating conformal vector field is orthogonal to the four-velocity. In this paper, the same problem is studied by using conformal collineations (which include conformal motions as subgroups). It is shown that, for a special conformal collineation, the stiff equation of state is not singled out. Non-Einstein Ricci-recurrent spaces are considered as physical models for the fluid matter

  14. Enrichment of Druggable Conformations from Apo Protein Structures Using Cosolvent-Accelerated Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kalenkiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the development of an improved workflow for utilizing experimental and simulated protein conformations in the structure-based design of inhibitors for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Traditional structure-based approaches on similar targets are often constrained by the sparsity of available structures and difficulties in finding lead compounds that dock against flat, flexible protein-protein interaction surfaces. By employing computational docking of known small molecule inhibitors, we have demonstrated that structural ensembles derived from either accelerated MD (aMD or MD in the presence of an organic cosolvent generally give better scores than those assessed from analogous conventional MD. Furthermore, conformations obtained from combined cosolvent aMD simulations started with the apo-Bcl-xL structure yielded better average and minimum docking scores for known binders than an ensemble of 72 experimental apo- and ligand-bound Bcl-xL structures. A detailed analysis of the simulated conformations indicates that the aMD effectively enhanced conformational sampling of the flexible helices flanking the main Bcl-xL binding groove, permitting the cosolvent acting as small ligands to penetrate more deeply into the binding pocket and shape ligand-bound conformations not evident in conventional simulations. We believe this approach could be useful for identifying inhibitors against other protein-protein interaction systems involving highly flexible binding sites, particularly for targets with less accumulated structural data.

  15. A probabilistic model of RNA conformational space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frellsen, Jes; Moltke, Ida; Thiim, Martin

    2009-01-01

    , the discrete nature of the fragments necessitates the use of carefully tuned, unphysical energy functions, and their non-probabilistic nature impairs unbiased sampling. We offer a solution to the sampling problem that removes these important limitations: a probabilistic model of RNA structure that allows...... conformations for 9 out of 10 test structures, solely using coarse-grained base-pairing information. In conclusion, the method provides a theoretical and practical solution for a major bottleneck on the way to routine prediction and simulation of RNA structure and dynamics in atomic detail.......The increasing importance of non-coding RNA in biology and medicine has led to a growing interest in the problem of RNA 3-D structure prediction. As is the case for proteins, RNA 3-D structure prediction methods require two key ingredients: an accurate energy function and a conformational sampling...

  16. Accurate kinematic measurement at interfaces between dissimilar materials using conforming finite-element-based digital image correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Ran

    2016-02-11

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is now an extensively applied full-field measurement technique with subpixel accuracy. A systematic drawback of this technique, however, is the smoothening of the kinematic field (e.g., displacement and strains) across interfaces between dissimilar materials, where the deformation gradient is known to be large. This can become an issue when a high level of accuracy is needed, for example, in the interfacial region of composites or joints. In this work, we described the application of global conforming finite-element-based DIC technique to obtain precise kinematic fields at interfaces between dissimilar materials. Speckle images from both numerical and actual experiments processed by the described global DIC technique better captured sharp strain gradient at the interface than local subset-based DIC. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultraviolet stability of three-dimensional lattice pure gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, T.

    1985-01-01

    We prove the ultraviolet stability for three-dimensional lattice gauge field theories. We consider only the Wilson lattice approximation for pure Yang-Mills field theories. The proof is based on results of the previous papers on renormalization group method for lattice gauge theories. (orig.)

  18. chemf: A purely functional chemistry toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höck, Stefan; Riedl, Rainer

    2012-12-20

    Although programming in a type-safe and referentially transparent style offers several advantages over working with mutable data structures and side effects, this style of programming has not seen much use in chemistry-related software. Since functional programming languages were designed with referential transparency in mind, these languages offer a lot of support when writing immutable data structures and side-effects free code. We therefore started implementing our own toolkit based on the above programming paradigms in a modern, versatile programming language. We present our initial results with functional programming in chemistry by first describing an immutable data structure for molecular graphs together with a couple of simple algorithms to calculate basic molecular properties before writing a complete SMILES parser in accordance with the OpenSMILES specification. Along the way we show how to deal with input validation, error handling, bulk operations, and parallelization in a purely functional way. At the end we also analyze and improve our algorithms and data structures in terms of performance and compare it to existing toolkits both object-oriented and purely functional. All code was written in Scala, a modern multi-paradigm programming language with a strong support for functional programming and a highly sophisticated type system. We have successfully made the first important steps towards a purely functional chemistry toolkit. The data structures and algorithms presented in this article perform well while at the same time they can be safely used in parallelized applications, such as computer aided drug design experiments, without further adjustments. This stands in contrast to existing object-oriented toolkits where thread safety of data structures and algorithms is a deliberate design decision that can be hard to implement. Finally, the level of type-safety achieved by Scala highly increased the reliability of our code as well as the productivity of

  19. CONFORMITY IN CHRIST 1. THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay investigates the notion of conformity in Christ as it is part of a compre- hensive, multilayered process of transformation. In the first part it focuses on the process of transformation in creation, re-creation, conformity, love and glory. In the second part it discusses transformation in Christ by looking at conformation and ...

  20. Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1985-01-01

    N=2 conformal supersymmetry is realized in harmonic superspace, its peculiarities are analyzed. The coordinate group and analytical prepotentials for N=2 conformal supergravity are found. A new version of the N=2 Einstein supergravity with infinite number of auxiliary fields is suggested. A hypermultiplet without central charges and constraints is used as a compensator