International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortescue, Ben; Lo, H.-K.
2005-01-01
We derive lower limits on the inefficiency and classical communication costs of dilution between two-term bipartite pure states that are partially entangled. We first calculate explicit relations between the allowable error and classical communication costs of entanglement dilution using a previously described protocol, then consider a two-stage dilution from singlets with this protocol followed by some unknown protocol for conversion between partially entangled states. Applying overall lower bounds on classical communication and inefficiency to this two-stage protocol, we derive bounds for the unknown protocol. In addition we derive analogous (but looser) bounds for general pure states
Pure state condition for the semi-classical Wigner function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozorio de Almeida, A.M.
1982-01-01
The Wigner function W(p,q) is a symmetrized Fourier transform of the density matrix e(q 1 ,q 2 ), representing quantum-mechanical states or their statistical mixture in phase space. Identification of these two alternatives in the case of density matrices depends on the projection identity e 2 = e; its Wigner correspondence is the pure state condition. This criterion is applied to the Wigner functions botained from standard semiclassical wave functions, determining as pure states those whose classical invariant tori satisfy the generalized Bohr-Sommerfeld conditions. Superpositions of eigenstates are then examined and it is found that the Wigner function corresponding to Gaussian random wave functions are smoothed out in the manner of mixedstate Wigner functions. Attention is also given to the pure-state condition in the case where an angular coordinate is used. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K.; Economou, Ioannis G., E-mail: i.tsimpanogiannis@qatar.tamu.edu, E-mail: ioannis.economou@qatar.tamu.edu [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N., E-mail: i.tsimpanogiannis@qatar.tamu.edu, E-mail: ioannis.economou@qatar.tamu.edu [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos,” 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece); Stubos, Athanassios K. [Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos,” 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece)
2016-03-28
We introduce a simple correction to the calculation of the lattice constants of fully occupied structure sI methane or carbon dioxide pure hydrates that are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations using the TIP4PQ/2005 water force field. The obtained corrected lattice constants are subsequently used in order to obtain isobaric thermal expansion coefficients of the pure gas hydrates that exhibit a trend that is significantly closer to the experimental behavior than previously reported classical molecular dynamics studies.
Pure classical SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with potentials invariant under a U(1) gauge subgroup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bacry, H.
1978-07-01
The present article is devoted to pure SU(2) classical Yang-Mills theories whose potentials are invariant under a U(1) gauge subgroup. Such potentials are shown to be associated with classical Maxwell-like fields with magnetic sources as 't Hooft's monopole is associated with the Dirac magnetic monopole. Conversely, the authors give Yang-Mills potentials corresponding to some Maxwell-like fields, in particular static magnetic fields with emphasis on those with cylindrical symmetry (including the dipole and other multipoles) and the ephemerons corresponding to an instantaneous magnetic multipole
Acceptability of Musa Balbisiana (Saba Banana Puree in Two Treatments in Making Ice Cream
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario A. De Castro Jr.
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana or Saba is a variety of banana fruit that is nutritious and readily available in the market the whole year round. This experimental study aimed to determine the acceptability of the ice cream made from Saba banana puree in two treatments (treatment 1- cooked puree and treatment 2- uncooked puree. Data gathered were described and analyzed using a special Analysis of Variance. The sensory characteristics of the ice cream in two treatments were compared with one another based on the 9-point hedonic scale utilized by trained panelist in the education sector in secondary, tertiary and graduate school level that specialized in food related discipline such as Food Technology, Food Service Management, Technology and Livelihood Education- Food Trades and Hotel and Restaurant Management. Results indicated that in treatment 1( cooked puree the taste and texture of the ice cream were liked extremely however its color was rated liked very much, while in treatment 2 (uncooked puree the texture and color were rated liked moderately while its taste was rated liked very much. A comparison of the sensory characteristics between the two treatments revealed that there is a significant difference in terms of taste, texture and color and overall acceptability of the Saba banana ice cream. It is then recommended that in preparing Saba banana puree using treatment 1 (cooking method, the fruit should be subjected in numerous sieving process using a fine mesh siever or sifter to produce good quality puree texture.
Irradiation in combination of heat treatment of mango puree
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noomhorm, A.; Apintanapong, M.
1996-01-01
The effect of irradiation with heat combination treatment on the shelf life and quality of mango puree was studied. Thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme at 80 degree C and 15 min. was used as a measure of adequacy of pre-heat treatment. Irradiation of mango puree after heat treatment at dosage of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy showed no change in mc, pH, acidity, and TSS but during storage, growth of microorganisms brought changes in these values. Irradiation in combination with low temperature (5 degree C) reduced discoloration and darkening rate during storage. Irradiation dose from 0 to 8 kGy resulted in log linear reductions in microorganism levels but at 6 and 8 kGy, there was no growth of microorganisms. Products irradiated at 8 kGy showed no microorganism growth at both temperatures
Classical conditioning in the treatment of psoriasis.
Ader, R
2000-11-01
It has been argued that the placebo effect represents a learned response. Research is suggested to address the utility of applying principles derived from classical (Pavlovian) conditioning to the design of drug treatment protocols. In the present instance, it is hypothesized that, by capitalizing on conditioned pharmacotherapeutic responses, it may be possible to reduce the cumulative amount of corticosteroid medication used in the treatment of psoriasis.
Classicality in quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dreyer, Olaf [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2007-05-15
In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity.
Classicality in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dreyer, Olaf
2007-01-01
In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity
AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandia, Osvaldo; Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini
2014-01-01
In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS_5×S"5 around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background
AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)
2014-06-05
In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.
REVISITING A CLASSIC: THE PARKER–MOFFATT PROBLEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pezzi, O.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.; Parashar, T. N.; Yang, Y.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Vásconez, C. L.
2017-01-01
The interaction of two colliding Alfvén wave packets is described here by means of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and hybrid kinetic numerical simulations. The MHD evolution revisits the theoretical insights described by Moffatt, Parker, Kraichnan, Chandrasekhar, and Elsässer in which the oppositely propagating large-amplitude wave packets interact for a finite time, initiating turbulence. However, the extension to include compressive and kinetic effects, while maintaining the gross characteristics of the simpler classic formulation, also reveals intriguing features that go beyond the pure MHD treatment.
REVISITING A CLASSIC: THE PARKER–MOFFATT PROBLEM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pezzi, O.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Parashar, T. N.; Yang, Y.; Matthaeus, W. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, DE 19716 (United States); Vásconez, C. L. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito (Ecuador)
2017-01-10
The interaction of two colliding Alfvén wave packets is described here by means of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and hybrid kinetic numerical simulations. The MHD evolution revisits the theoretical insights described by Moffatt, Parker, Kraichnan, Chandrasekhar, and Elsässer in which the oppositely propagating large-amplitude wave packets interact for a finite time, initiating turbulence. However, the extension to include compressive and kinetic effects, while maintaining the gross characteristics of the simpler classic formulation, also reveals intriguing features that go beyond the pure MHD treatment.
Construction of classical and non-classical coherent photon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honegger, Reinhard; Rieckers, Alfred
2001-01-01
It is well known that the diagonal matrix elements of all-order coherent states for the quantized electromagnetic field have to constitute a Poisson distribution with respect to the photon number. The present work gives first the summary of a constructive scheme, developed previously, which determines in terms of an auxiliary Hilbert space all possible off-diagonal elements for the all-order coherent density operators in Fock space and which identifies all extremal coherent states. In terms of this formalism it is then demonstrated that each pure classical coherent state is a uniformly phase locked (quantum) coherent superposition of number states. In a mixed classical coherent state the exponential of the locked phase is shown to be replaced by a rather arbitrary unitary operator in the auxiliary Hilbert space. On the other hand classes for density operators--and for their normally ordered characteristic functions--of non-classical coherent states are obtained, especially by rather weak perturbations of classical coherent states. These illustrate various forms of breaking the classical uniform phase locking and exhibit rather peculiar properties, such as asymmetric fluctuations for the quadrature phase operators. Several criteria for non-classicality are put forward and applied to the elaborated non-classical coherent states, providing counterexamples against too simple arguments for classicality. It is concluded that classicality is only a stable concept for coherent states with macroscopic intensity
Quantum remnants in the classical limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowalski, A.M.; Plastino, A.
2016-01-01
We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt–Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit. - Highlights: • We investigate the classical limit (CL) of a well known semi classical model. • The study is made by reference to the Bandt Pompe symbolic approach. • The number and type of associated symbols changes as one proceeds towards the CL. • We ascertain which symbols pertaining to the quantum zone remain in the CL.
Quantum remnants in the classical limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, A.M., E-mail: kowalski@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Científicas (CIC) (Argentina); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); SThAR, EPFL Innovation Park, Lausanne (Switzerland)
2016-09-16
We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt–Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit. - Highlights: • We investigate the classical limit (CL) of a well known semi classical model. • The study is made by reference to the Bandt Pompe symbolic approach. • The number and type of associated symbols changes as one proceeds towards the CL. • We ascertain which symbols pertaining to the quantum zone remain in the CL.
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Lycopene Content of Tomato Puree ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Lycopene Content of Tomato Puree. MI Mohammed, DI Malami. Abstract. Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant. Epidemiological studies have associated its consumption with numerous health benefits. In this study the effects of heating on lycopene were investigated by exposing tomato ...
New derivation of quantum equations from classical stochastic arguments
Bergeron, H.
2003-01-01
In a previous article [H. Bergeron, J. Math. Phys. 42, 3983 (2001)], we presented a method to obtain a continuous transition from classical to quantum mechanics starting from the usual phase space formulation of classical mechanics. This procedure was based on a Koopman-von Neumann approach where classical equations are reformulated into a quantumlike form. In this article, we develop a different derivation of quantum equations, based on purely classical stochastic arguments, taking some elem...
Computer Solution to the Game of Pure Strategy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurent Bartholdi
2012-11-01
Full Text Available We numerically solve the classical "Game of Pure Strategy" using linear programming. We notice an intricate even-odd behaviour in the results of our computations that seems to encourage odd or maximal bids.
Constructing quantum dynamics from mixed quantum-classical descriptions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barsegov, V.; Rossky, P.J.
2004-01-01
The influence of quantum bath effects on the dynamics of a quantum two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic bath is studied when the coupling is both diagonal and off-diagonal. It is shown that the pure dephasing kernel and the non-adiabatic quantum transition rate between Born-Oppenheimer states of the subsystem can be decomposed into a contribution from thermally excited bath modes plus a zero point energy contribution. This quantum rate can be modewise factorized exactly into a product of a mixed quantum subsystem-classical bath transition rate and a quantum correction factor. This factor determines dynamics of quantum bath correlations. Quantum bath corrections to both the transition rate and the pure dephasing kernel are shown to be readily evaluated via a mixed quantum-classical simulation. Hence, quantum dynamics can be recovered from a mixed quantum-classical counterpart by incorporating the missing quantum bath corrections. Within a mixed quantum-classical framework, a simple approach for evaluating quantum bath corrections in calculation of the non-adiabatic transition rate is presented
Interconversion of pure Gaussian states requiring non-Gaussian operations
Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2015-01-01
We analyze the conditions under which local operations and classical communication enable entanglement transformations between bipartite pure Gaussian states. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions had been found [G. Giedke et al., Quant. Inf. Comput. 3, 211 (2003)] for the interconversion between such states that is restricted to Gaussian local operations and classical communication. Here, we exploit majorization theory in order to derive more general (sufficient) conditions for the interconversion between bipartite pure Gaussian states that goes beyond Gaussian local operations. While our technique is applicable to an arbitrary number of modes for each party, it allows us to exhibit surprisingly simple examples of 2 ×2 Gaussian states that necessarily require non-Gaussian local operations to be transformed into each other.
Classical Dimensional Transmutation and Confinement
Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava
2011-01-01
We observe that probing certain classical field theories by external sources uncovers the underlying renormalization group structure, including the phenomenon of dimensional transmutation, at purely-classical level. We perform this study on an example of $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory and unravel asymptotic freedom and triviality for negative and positives signs of $\\lambda$ respectively. We derive exact classical $\\beta$ function equation. Solving this equation we find that an isolated source has an infinite energy and therefore cannot exist as an asymptotic state. On the other hand a dipole, built out of two opposite charges, has finite positive energy. At large separation the interaction potential between these two charges grows indefinitely as a distance in power one third.
Safety in wastewater treatment: the pure oxygen system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giagnoni, L.
1998-01-01
Though the active sludge process represent, nowadays, the main reference system referring to installations for wastewater treatments, nevertheless systems that exploit the pure oxygen properties constitute an alternative method to the traditional cycle. The following essay is divided into two parts: the first one deals with the fundamental concepts related to the active sludge process and to the alternative system proposed, mentioned before, and includes a short account of the functional characteristics and a brief comparison with traditional methods; the second part represents the head corpus of the work and deals with the problems related to the safety with particular reference to the risk of an explosion meanwhile the process. Moreover, it's drawn attention to the fundamental role of security systems that, nowadays, get frequently used in such kind of installations. On this subject, furthermore, it's pointed out the great importance of the whole preliminary treatments in the planning phase, with particular reference to the processes used for stripping [it
Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Facchi, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Kulkarni, Ravi [Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.i [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, Franco [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy)
2010-11-01
The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.
Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Facchi, Paolo; Kulkarni, Ravi; Man'ko, V.I.; Marmo, Giuseppe; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ventriglia, Franco
2010-01-01
The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.
General entanglement-assisted transformation for bipartite pure quantum states
Song, Wei; Huang, Yan; Nai-LeLiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing
2007-01-01
We introduce the general catalysts for pure entanglement transformations under local operations and classical communications in such a way that we disregard the profit and loss of entanglement of the catalysts per se. As such, the possibilities of pure entanglement transformations are greatly expanded. We also design an efficient algorithm to detect whether a k × k general catalyst exists for a given entanglement transformation. This algorithm can also be exploited to witness the existence of standard catalysts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santilli, R.M.
2006-01-01
It was generally believed throughout the 20th century that irreversibility is a purely classical event without operator counterpart. however, a classical irreversible system cannot be consistently decomposed into a finite number of reversible quantum particles (and. vive versa), thus establishing that the origin of irreversibility is basically unknown at the dawn of the 21-st century. To resolve this problem. we adopt the historical analytical representation of irreversibility by Lagrange and Hamilton, that with external terms in their analytic equations; we show that, when properly written, the brackets of the time evolution characterize covering Lie-admissible algebras; we prove that the formalism has fully consistent operator counterpart given by the Lie-admissible branch of hadronic mechanics; we identify mathematical and physical inconsistencies when irreversible formulations are treated with the conventional mathematics used for reversible systems; we show that when the dynamical equations are treated with a novel irreversible mathematics, Lie-admissible formulations are fully consistent because invariant at both the classical and operator levels; and we complete our analysis with a number of explicit applications to irreversible processes in classical mechanics, particle physics and thermodynamics. The case of closed-isolated systems verifying conventional total conservation laws, yet possessing an irreversible structure, is treated via the simpler Lie-isotopic branch of hadronic mechanics. The analysis is conducted for both matter and antimatter at the classical and operator levels to prevent insidious inconsistencies occurring for the sole study of matter or, separately, antimatter
[Classical medications in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases].
Duvnjak, Marko; Bilić, Ante; Barsić, Neven; Tomasić, Vedran; Stojsavljević, Sanja
2013-04-01
The treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases is complex and requires individual approach to every single patient. Traditionally, the approach is based on introduction of so called "classical" medication into the treatment regimen, from ones less potent and with fewer side effects to the ones more toxic but also therapeutically more effective. Aminosalicylates were the first choice of treatment for a long time. However, the role of aminosalicylates is becoming more and more diminished, although they are still the drug of choice in the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Corticosteroids are the therapy of choice in treatment of active IBD for achieving remission in moderate to severe disease. Azathioprine and 6- mercaptopurine belong to a group of thiopurines with an immunomodulatory effect which, in Crohn's disease as well as in ulcerative colitis, primarily have a role in a steroid dependant or steroid refractory type of disease and in maintenance of remission. Lately, early introduction of these medications is proposed to enhance the number of patients that remain in remission. Methotrexate is used for the therapy of active and relapsing Crohn's disease and represents an alternative in patients who do not tolerate or do not respond to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine therapy. Cyclosporine is used in treating steroid refractory ulcerative colitis and in some patients can postpone the need for colectomy. Antibiotics do not have a proven effect on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases and their primary role is to treat septic complications. Classic medications today represent a standard in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases, and the combination of the previously mentioned drugs often has a more potent effect on the course of the disease than any medication on its own and their combination is still an object of investigations and clinical studies.
Classical approach in atomic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, E.A.
2011-01-01
The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)
Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonia Gon
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively.
Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashok k. Hemal
2008-12-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.
Plumpton, C
1968-01-01
Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t
Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism
Fields, Chris
Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantum-mechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Estevez Pastor, F.S.; Ferrer Gaztambide, J. [EDAR La China (Spain)
1995-11-01
The pilot plant for waste water treatment in La China (Spain) is described. This plant used pure oxygen for the waste water treatment. The best depuration, the flexibility to experiment the fluctuations of flow and change are studied. (Author)
Dynamics of a discoordination game with classical and quantum correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oezdemir, Sahin Kaya; Shimamura, Junichi; Morikoshi, Fumiaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2004-01-01
Effects of classical/quantum correlations and operations in simultaneous move games are analyzed using a discoordination game, known as Samaritan's dilemma, in which there is no Nash equilibrium (NE) when played with classical pure strategies. We show that although the dilemma can be resolved with quantum operations provided that there is a shared classically correlated state between the players, it is only in the presence of entanglement that the players can receive the highest possible payoff sums
Egan, Sarah J; van Noort, Emily; Chee, Abby; Kane, Robert T; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey D
2014-12-01
Previous research has shown cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) to be effective in reducing perfectionism. The present study investigated the efficacy of two formats of CBT for perfectionism (CBT-P), face-to-face and pure online self-help, in reducing perfectionism and associated psychological symptoms. Participants were randomly allocated to face-to-face CBT-P (n = 18), pure online self-help CBT-P (n = 16), or a waitlist control period (n = 18). There was no significant change for the waitlist group on any of the outcome measures at the end of treatment. Both the face-to-face and pure online self-help groups reported significant reductions at the end of treatment for the perfectionism variables which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. The face-to-face group also reported significant reductions over this time in depression, anxiety, and stress, and a significant pre-post increase in self-esteem, all of which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. In contrast, the pure online self-help group showed no significant changes on these outcomes. The face-to-face group was statistically superior to the pure online self-help group at follow-up on the perfectionism measures, concern over mistakes and personal standards. The results show promising evidence for CBT for perfectionism, especially when offered face to face, where sustained benefit across a broad range of outcomes can be expected. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trajectory description of the quantum–classical transition for wave packet interference
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Chia-Chun, E-mail: ccchou@mx.nthu.edu.tw
2016-08-15
The quantum–classical transition for wave packet interference is investigated using a hydrodynamic description. A nonlinear quantum–classical transition equation is obtained by introducing a degree of quantumness ranging from zero to one into the classical time-dependent Schrödinger equation. This equation provides a continuous description for the transition process of physical systems from purely quantum to purely classical regimes. In this study, the transition trajectory formalism is developed to provide a hydrodynamic description for the quantum–classical transition. The flow momentum of transition trajectories is defined by the gradient of the action function in the transition wave function and these trajectories follow the main features of the evolving probability density. Then, the transition trajectory formalism is employed to analyze the quantum–classical transition of wave packet interference. For the collision-like wave packet interference where the propagation velocity is faster than the spreading speed of the wave packet, the interference process remains collision-like for all the degree of quantumness. However, the interference features demonstrated by transition trajectories gradually disappear when the degree of quantumness approaches zero. For the diffraction-like wave packet interference, the interference process changes continuously from a diffraction-like to collision-like case when the degree of quantumness gradually decreases. This study provides an insightful trajectory interpretation for the quantum–classical transition of wave packet interference.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vázquez, A.; Cuello, M.; Terzieff, V.; Viola, A.
2004-01-01
The only bone metastases in pure seminoma is a biological entity extremely rare. We report a case studied since 2000, treatment and outcome. Case report: 35. Orquiectomizado in September 2000 AP: pure seminoma in the presence of a neoplastic nodule in the spermatic cord.Adjuvant lumboaorticas, left iliac and inguinal chains Rt., 3060 cGy in 3.2 sem. until December 2000 Normal tumor markers throughout the period. In Oct. 2001 TAC control morfoestructural altered posterior the sixth left costal arch. AP: puncture under TAC. Malignant germ cell tumor compatible with pure seminoma. C.O. single lesion. MDT is performed based on PEB for 4 cycles and additional RT obtaining a complete response with reduction bone lesion, asymptomatic until November 2002, again at the level falls costal, VIP x 3 New relapse dorsal paravertebral June 2003, Gemcitabine and Rt paclitaxel, dose intensification transplant. Keeps score high. Poor prognosis. Discussion: In the literature we found no reports of bone lesions only secondary to a pure seminoma. They are described in the context of a frame overall spread in advanced patients and in more than three or four including accompanying synchronous nodal, liver and lung damage. Subsequent developments mark the disease resistance to treatments performed. The three lines are Qt prior to transplantation have shown that best results for the treatment of disease. We discuss the time introduction thereof to obtain a durable complete response. If the marker not normalized but not displayed clinical or paraclinical disease prognosis is bad in the short term
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
van Maanen A
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Annette van Maanen,1 Anne Marie Meijer,1 Marcel G Smits,2 Frans J Oort1 1Research Institute Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 2Centre for Sleep-Wake Disorders and Chronobiology, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, Ede, the Netherlands Abstract: Melatonin treatment is effective in treating sleep onset problems in children with delayed melatonin onset, but effects usually disappear when treatment is discontinued. In this pilot study, we investigated whether classical conditioning might help in preserving treatment effects of melatonin in children with sleep onset problems, with and without comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or autism. After a baseline week, 16 children (mean age: 9.92 years, 31% ADHD/autism received melatonin treatment for 3 weeks and then gradually discontinued the treatment. Classical conditioning was applied by having children drink organic lemonade while taking melatonin and by using a dim red light lamp that was turned on when children went to bed. Results were compared with a group of 41 children (mean age: 9.43 years, 34% ADHD/autism who received melatonin without classical conditioning. Melatonin treatment was effective in advancing dim light melatonin onset and reducing sleep onset problems, and positive effects were found on health and behavior problems. After stopping melatonin, sleep returned to baseline levels. We found that for children without comorbidity in the experimental group, sleep latency and sleep start delayed less in the stop week, which suggests an effect of classical conditioning. However, classical conditioning seems counterproductive in children with ADHD or autism. Further research is needed to establish these results and to examine other ways to preserve melatonin treatment effects, for example, by applying morning light. Keywords: melatonin, classical conditioning, children, delayed sleep
Clinical Features, Presence of Human Herpesvirus-8 and Treatment Results in Classic Kaposi Sarcoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Özlem Su
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Background and Design: Classic Kaposi sarcoma (KS occurs predominantly among the elderly, with Jews, Italians and Greeks. Classic KS has been seen relatively frequently in Turkey. Our aim was to evaluate the demographic, clinical features of Kaposi sarcoma and etiopathological role of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8. Treatment results of 18 classic Kaposi’s sarcoma were also concluded.Material and Method: Eighteen cases of classic Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed as clinically and histopathologically between January 2001 and August 2008 in our dermatology department were taken to this study. Demographic, clinical features and treatment results were reviewed retrospectively in all patients. HHV-8 was investigated in the lesional skin of 7 patients.Results: A male/female ratio of 2/1 was found. Mean age at diagnosis was 67.2 (37-94 years. Bilaterally lower extremities were involved in 15 patients (83.3%, the trunk was involved in 3 patients (16.6%. Plaques and nodules were the common type of lesions (66.6% and 55.5%. Nine patients had no symptoms (50%. Edema was the most common symptom (38.8%. A second primary malignancy was found in 2 patients (11.1%. HHV-8 was detected in 6 of the 7 patients(85.7%. Majority of the patients were treated with interferon alfa (subcutaneously and cryotherapy as a monotherapy or a combination therapy. Imiquimod was the second agent in combined treatment (27.7%. Conclusion: We suggest that interferon alfa and imiquimod can be used as first line therapy agents with their antiviral and immunmodulatuar features in the treatment of KKS. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 122-6
History and theology of Korean pentecostalism: Sunbogeum (pure gospel) Pentecostalism
Kim, Ig-Jin
2003-01-01
The object of this study is to investigate the context and texture of Korean Pentecostalism - Sunbogeum (pure Gospel) Pentecostalism. This study shows that Sunbogeum Pentecostalism is the complex product of four factors: first, Korean religio-social circumstances; second, the doctrine of classical
Bray, C.; Jacquemart, D.; Lacome, N.; Guinet, M.; Cuisset, A.; Eliet, S.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Rohart, F.; Buldyreva, J.
2013-02-01
Rovibrational absorption spectra of methyl chloride in the spectral region between 2800 and 3200 cm-1 were recorded with a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A multispectrum fitting procedure was used to analyze 527 transitions of the ν1 band and to retrieve the self-broadening coefficients for various J- and K-values with an estimated accuracy around 8%. Pure rotational transitions of CH3Cl in the submillimeter/terahertz region (0.2-1.4 THz) were also investigated using two complementary techniques of frequency-multiplication and continuous-wave photomixing. Forty-three pure rotational self-broadening coefficients were extracted with the accuracy between 3 and 5%. The whole set of measured values was used to model the J- and K-rotational dependences of the self-broadening coefficients by second-order polynomials. In addition, semi-classical calculations were performed, based on the real symmetric-top geometry of the active molecule, an intermolecular potential model including not only the dominant electrostatic but also the short-range forces, as well as on an exact classical treatment of the relative translational motion of the colliding partners. Comparison of all experimental and theoretical results shows similar rotational dependences and no significant vibrational dependence, so that extrapolations to other spectral regions should be straightforward.
Welling, Lindsey; Bernstein, Laurie E.; Berry, Gerard T.; Burlina, Alberto B.; Eyskens, François; Gautschi, Matthias; Grünewald, Stephanie; Gubbels, Cynthia S.; Knerr, Ina; Labrune, Philippe; van der Lee, Johanna H.; MacDonald, Anita; Murphy, Elaine; Portnoi, Pat A.; Õunap, Katrin; Potter, Nancy L.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Spencer, Jessica B.; Timmers, Inge; Treacy, Eileen P.; van Calcar, Sandra C.; Waisbren, Susan E.; Bosch, Annet M.
2017-01-01
Classical galactosemia (CG) is an inborn error of galactose metabolism. Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and follow-up of CG are currently lacking, and treatment and follow-up have been demonstrated to vary worldwide. To provide patients around the world the same state-of-the-art in care,
Controlled Remote State Preparation via General Pure Three-Qubit State
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuebo Zha
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The protocols for controlled remote state preparation of a single qubit and a general two-qubit state are presented in this paper. The general pure three-qubit states are chosen as shared quantum channel, which are not Local operations and classical communication (LOCC equivalent to the mostly used GHz state. This is the first time that general pure three-qubit states have been introduced to complete remote state preparation. The probability of successful preparation is presented. Moreover, in some special cases, the successful probability could reach a unit value.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vanparys, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.vanparys@ua.ac.be [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Depiereux, Sophie; Nadzialek, Stephanie [Research Unit in Organismal Biology (URBO), University of Namur (FUNDP), Namur (Belgium); Robbens, Johan; Blust, Ronny [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Kestemont, Patrick [Research Unit in Organismal Biology (URBO), University of Namur (FUNDP), Namur (Belgium); De Coen, Wim [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), Helsinki (Finland)
2010-09-15
In vitro estrogenicity screens are believed to provide a first prioritization step in hazard characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. When applied to complex environmental matrices or mixture samples, they have been indicated valuable in estimating the overall estrogen-mimicking load. In this study, the performance of an adapted format of the classical E-screen or MCF-7 cell proliferation assay was profoundly evaluated to rank pure compounds as well as influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) according to estrogenic activity. In this adapted format, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis was used to allow evaluation of the MCF-7 cell proliferative effects after only 24 h of exposure. With an average EC{sub 50} value of 2 pM and CV of 22%, this assay appears as a sensitive and reproducible system for evaluation of estrogenic activity. Moreover, estrogenic responses of 17 pure compounds corresponded well, qualitatively and quantitatively, with other in vitro and in vivo estrogenicity screens, such as the classical E-screen (R{sup 2} = 0.98), the estrogen receptor (ER) binding (R{sup 2} = 0.84) and the ER transcription activation assay (R{sup 2} = 0.87). To evaluate the applicability of this assay for complex samples, influents and effluents of 10 STPs covering different treatment processes, were compared and ranked according to estrogenic removal efficiencies. Activated sludge treatment with phosphorus and nitrogen removal appeared most effective in eliminating estrogenic activity, followed by activated sludge, lagoon and filter bed. This is well in agreement with previous findings based on chemical analysis or biological activity screens. Moreover, ER blocking experiments indicated that cell proliferative responses were mainly ER mediated, illustrating that the complexity of the end point, cell proliferation, compared to other ER screens, does not hamper the interpretation of the results. Therefore, this study, among other E-screen studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanparys, Caroline; Depiereux, Sophie; Nadzialek, Stephanie; Robbens, Johan; Blust, Ronny; Kestemont, Patrick; De Coen, Wim
2010-01-01
In vitro estrogenicity screens are believed to provide a first prioritization step in hazard characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. When applied to complex environmental matrices or mixture samples, they have been indicated valuable in estimating the overall estrogen-mimicking load. In this study, the performance of an adapted format of the classical E-screen or MCF-7 cell proliferation assay was profoundly evaluated to rank pure compounds as well as influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) according to estrogenic activity. In this adapted format, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis was used to allow evaluation of the MCF-7 cell proliferative effects after only 24 h of exposure. With an average EC 50 value of 2 pM and CV of 22%, this assay appears as a sensitive and reproducible system for evaluation of estrogenic activity. Moreover, estrogenic responses of 17 pure compounds corresponded well, qualitatively and quantitatively, with other in vitro and in vivo estrogenicity screens, such as the classical E-screen (R 2 = 0.98), the estrogen receptor (ER) binding (R 2 = 0.84) and the ER transcription activation assay (R 2 = 0.87). To evaluate the applicability of this assay for complex samples, influents and effluents of 10 STPs covering different treatment processes, were compared and ranked according to estrogenic removal efficiencies. Activated sludge treatment with phosphorus and nitrogen removal appeared most effective in eliminating estrogenic activity, followed by activated sludge, lagoon and filter bed. This is well in agreement with previous findings based on chemical analysis or biological activity screens. Moreover, ER blocking experiments indicated that cell proliferative responses were mainly ER mediated, illustrating that the complexity of the end point, cell proliferation, compared to other ER screens, does not hamper the interpretation of the results. Therefore, this study, among other E-screen studies, supports the use of
Effect of Bound Entanglement on the Convertibility of Pure States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizaka, Satoshi
2004-01-01
I show that bound entanglement strongly influences the quantum entanglement processing of pure states: If N distant parties share appropriate bound entangled states with positive partial transpose, all N-partite pure entangled states become inter-convertible by stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) at the single copy level. This implies that the Schmidt rank of a bipartite pure entangled state can be increased, and that two incomparable tripartite entanglement of the GHZ and W type can be inter-converted by the assistance of bound entanglement. Further, I propose the simplest experimental scheme for the demonstration of the corresponding bound-entanglement-assisted SLOCC. This scheme does not need quantum gates and is feasible for the current experimental technology of linear optics
All pure bipartite entangled states can be self-tested
Coladangelo, Andrea; Goh, Koon Tong; Scarani, Valerio
2017-05-01
Quantum technologies promise advantages over their classical counterparts in the fields of computation, security and sensing. It is thus desirable that classical users are able to obtain guarantees on quantum devices, even without any knowledge of their inner workings. That such classical certification is possible at all is remarkable: it is a consequence of the violation of Bell inequalities by entangled quantum systems. Device-independent self-testing refers to the most complete such certification: it enables a classical user to uniquely identify the quantum state shared by uncharacterized devices by simply inspecting the correlations of measurement outcomes. Self-testing was first demonstrated for the singlet state and a few other examples of self-testable states were reported in recent years. Here, we address the long-standing open question of whether every pure bipartite entangled state is self-testable. We answer it affirmatively by providing explicit self-testing correlations for all such states.
Pure Gauge theory in crystal lattice and Coulomb gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchetti, D.H.U.
1985-01-01
A method for the construction of classical gases, starting from a pure gauge theory, is described. The method is applied to the U(1) gauge theory in two spatial dimensions. For this model it's seen the vaccua appearing as a consequence of the quantization ambiguity. The connection between the vaccua and the confinement is discussed. (Author) [pt
Ambitwistor pure spinor string in a type II supergravity background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello,República 220, Santiago (Chile)
2015-06-30
We construct the ambitwistor pure spinor string in a general type II supergravity background in the semi-classical regime. Almost all supergravity constraints are obtained from nilpotency of the BRST charge and further consistency conditions from additional world-sheet the case of AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} background.
Effect of couple-stress on the pure bending of a prismatic bar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tzung, F.; Kao, B.; Ho, F.; Tang, P.
1981-02-01
An evaluation of the applicability of the couple-stress theory to the stress analysis of graphite structures is performed by solving a pure bending problem. The differences between solutions from the couple-stress theory and from the classical theory of elasticity are compared. It is found that the differences are sufficient to account for the inconsistencies which have often been observed between the classical elasticity theory and actual behavior of graphite under bend and tensile loadings. An experimental procedure to measure the material constants in the couple-stress theory is also suggested. The linear couple-stress theory, the origins of which go back to the turn of the last century, adds linear relations between couple-stresses and rotation gradients to the classical stress-strain law. By adopting the classical assumption that the plane cross section remains plane after deformation, the pure-bending problem is reduced to a plane couple-stress problem with traction-free boundary conditions. A general solution for an isotropic elastic prismatic bar under pure bending is then obtained using the Airy stress function and another stress function wich accounts for the couple-stresss. For a cylindrical bar, it reduces to a simple series solution. The moment-curvature and stress-curvature relations derived for a cylindrical bar from the general solution are used to examine the effect of couple-stresses. Numerical compilation of relations indicates that the couple stress parameters can be practically determined by measuring the moment-curvature ratio of various diametered specimens under bending. Although there is not sufficient data for such evaluation at present, it appears that the theory is consistent with the limited bend and tensile strength data of cylindrical specimens for H-451 graphite
Purely cubic action for string field theory
Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.
1986-01-01
It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.
Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals
Dittrich, Walter
2017-01-01
Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.
[Apatite-forming ability of pure titanium implant after micro-arc oxidation treatment].
Tian, Zhihui; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Lichao; Nan, Kaihui
2013-10-01
To investigate the apatite forming ability of pure titanium implant after micro-arc oxidation treatment in simulated body fluid (SBF) and obtain implants with calcium phosphate (Ca-P) layers. The implants were immersed in (SBF) after micro-arc oxidation treatment for different time lengths, and their apatite forming ability and the morphology and constituents of the Ca-P layers formed on the sample surface were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive electron probe. After immersion in SBF, large quantities of Ca-P layers were induced on the surface of the samples. The Ca-P layers were composed of octacalcium phosphate and carbonated hydroxyapatite, and the crystals showed a plate-like morphology with an oriented growth. The implants with micro-arc oxidation treatment show good apatite forming ability on the surface with rich calcium and phosphorus elements. The formed layers are composed of bone-like apatite including octacalcium phosphate and carbonated hydroxyapatite.
Gaussian density matrices: Quantum analogs of classical states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mann, A.; Revzen, M.
1993-01-01
We study quantum analogs of clasical situations, i.e. quantum states possessing some specific classical attribute(s). These states seem quite generally, to have the form of gaussian density matrices. Such states can always be parametrized as thermal squeezed states (TSS). We consider the following specific cases: (a) Two beams that are built from initial beams which passed through a beam splitter cannot, classically, be distinguished from (appropriately prepared) two independent beams that did not go through a splitter. The only quantum states possessing this classical attribute are TSS. (b) The classical Cramer's theorem was shown to have a quantum version (Hegerfeldt). Again, the states here are Gaussian density matrices. (c) The special case in the study of the quantum version of Cramer's theorem, viz. when the state obtained after partial tracing is a pure state, leads to the conclusion that all states involved are zero temperature limit TSS. The classical analog here are gaussians of zero width, i.e. all distributions are δ functions in phase space. (orig.)
[Etiologies of cerebral palsy and classical treatment possibilities].
Maurer, Ute
2002-01-01
Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive disorder of the developing brain with different etiologies in the pre-, peri- or postnatal period. The most important of these diseases is cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), followed by intra- and periventricular hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, vascular disorders, infections or brain malformations. The underlying cause is always a damage of the first motor neuron. Prevalence of cerebral palsy in Europe is 2-3 per 1000 live births with a broad spectrum in different birth weight groups. Our own data concerning only pre-term infants in the NICU with birth weight below 1500 g (VLBW) are between 10%-20%. Established classical treatment methods include physiotherapy (Bobath, Vojta, Hippotherapy), methods of speech and occupational therapists (Castillo-Morales, Sensory Integration) and other therapeutical concepts (Petö, Affolter, Frostig).
Quasi-classical derivation of the Dirac and one-particle Schroedinger equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wignall, J.W.G.
1990-08-01
The quasi-classical approach, in which particles are regarded as extended periodic excitations of a classical nonlinear field, is for the first time applied quantitatively in the quantum domain. It is shown that the twofold intrinsic 'spin' degree of freedom possessed by an electron can be interpreted in a purely classical way, and that the Lorentz covariant incorporation of this degree of freedom requires that the spacetime evolution of an electron excitation in a prescribed external field be given by the Dirac equation and hence, in the nonrelativistic limit, by the Pauli or Schroedinger one-particle equations. 17 refs
Bogenschutz, Michael P
2013-03-01
Recent developments in the study of classic hallucinogens, combined with a re-appraisal of the older literature, have led to a renewal of interest in possible therapeutic applications for these drugs, notably their application in the treatment of addictions. This article will first provide a brief review of the research literature providing direct and indirect support for the possible therapeutic effects of classic hallucinogens such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of addictions. Having provided a rationale for clinical investigation in this area, we discuss design issues in clinical trials using classic hallucinogens, some of which are unique to this class of drug. We then discuss the current status of this field of research and design considerations in future randomized trials.
Effect of heat treatment on bend stress relaxation of pure tungsten
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasaki, Kenta; Nogami, Shuhei; Fukuda, Makoto; Katakai, Yasuyuki; Hasegawa, Akira
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Bend stress relaxation test was performed on the pure tungsten after heat treatment for stress relief. • The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen was larger than that of the as-received specimen at this temperature region. • Small reduction in the BSR ratio was observed at the temperatures of 500–800 °C. • The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen decreased significantly at the temperatures of 900–1000 °C. • The BSR ratio decreased significantly in a short time below 0.1 h, and then decreased slowly. -- Abstract: Bend stress relaxation (BSR) tests at temperatures of 500, 600, 800, 900 and 1000 °C for 0.1, 0.5 and 1 h in vacuum were performed on the pure tungsten after heat treatment for stress relief at 900 °C for 1 h. The degree of stress relaxation increased with test temperature. The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen was larger than that of the as-received specimen at this temperature region. Small reduction in the BSR ratio was observed at the temperatures of 500, 600 and 800 °C. The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen decreased significantly at the temperatures of 900 and 1000 °C and it was close to that of the as-received specimen. The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen and the as-received specimen exhibited similar trend of time-evolution. The stress was exponentially relaxed with increasing test time. The BSR ratio decreased significantly in a short time below 0.1 h, and then decreased slowly. Higher activation energy of stress relaxation evaluated by cross-cut method was obtained for the higher temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbaczewski, P.
1981-01-01
Both quantum and classical sine--Gordon fields can be built out of the fundamental free neutral massive excitations, which quantally obey the Bose--Einstein statistics. At the roots of the ''boson-fermion reciprocity'' invented by Coleman, lies the spin 1/2 approximation of the underlying Bose system. By generalizing the coherent state methods to incorporate non-Fock quantum structures and to give account of the so-called boson transformation theory, we construct the carrier Hilbert space H/sub SG/ for quantum soliton operators. The h→0 limit of state expectation values of these operators among pure coherentlike states in H/sub SG/ reproduces the classical sine--Gordon field. The related (classical and quantum) spin 1/2 xyz Heisenberg model field is built out of the fundamental sine--Gordon excitations, and hence can be consistently defined on the appropriate subset of the quantum soliton Hilbert space H/sub x/yz . A correct classical limit is here shown to arise for the Heisenberg system: phase manifolds of the classical Heisenberg and sine--Gordon systems cannot be then viewed independently as a consequence of the quantum relation
Modeling the quantum to classical crossover in topologically disordered networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schijven, P; Kohlberger, J; Blumen, A; Mülken, O
2012-01-01
We model transport in topologically disordered networks that are subjected to an environment that induces classical diffusion. The dynamics is phenomenologically described within the framework of the recently introduced quantum stochastic walk, allowing study of the crossover between coherent transport and purely classical diffusion. To study the transport efficiency, we connect our system with a source and a drain and provide a detailed analysis of their effects. We find that the coupling to the environment removes all effects of localization and quickly leads to classical transport. Furthermore, we find that on the level of the transport efficiency, the system can be well described by reducing it to a two-node network (a dimer). (paper)
Classical and multilinear harmonic analysis
Muscalu, Camil
2013-01-01
This two-volume text in harmonic analysis introduces a wealth of analytical results and techniques. It is largely self-contained and useful to graduates and researchers in pure and applied analysis. Numerous exercises and problems make the text suitable for self-study and the classroom alike. The first volume starts with classical one-dimensional topics: Fourier series; harmonic functions; Hilbert transform. Then the higher-dimensional Calderón-Zygmund and Littlewood-Paley theories are developed. Probabilistic methods and their applications are discussed, as are applications of harmonic analysis to partial differential equations. The volume concludes with an introduction to the Weyl calculus. The second volume goes beyond the classical to the highly contemporary and focuses on multilinear aspects of harmonic analysis: the bilinear Hilbert transform; Coifman-Meyer theory; Carleson's resolution of the Lusin conjecture; Calderón's commutators and the Cauchy integral on Lipschitz curves. The material in this vo...
Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness
Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
2015-01-01
Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as ‘D-Wave’ chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional ‘classical’ computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spin-glass theory that recognize ‘temperature chaos’ as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the D-Wave Two chip on different temperature-chaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257
Jacquet, N; Vanderghem, C; Danthine, S; Blecker, C; Paquot, M
2013-02-01
The aim of this study is to compare the effect of different homogenization treatments on the physicochemical properties and the hydrolysis rate of a pure bleached cellulose. Results obtained show that homogenization treatments improve the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of the cellulose fibers by 25 to 100 %, depending of the homogenization treatment applied. Characterization of the samples showed also that homogenization had an impact on some physicochemical properties of the cellulose. For moderate treatment intensities (pressure below 500 b and degree of homogenization below 25), an increase of water retention values (WRV) that correlated to the increase of the hydrolysis rate was highlighted. Result also showed that the overall crystallinity of the cellulose properties appeared not to be impacted by the homogenization treatment. For higher treatment intensities, homogenized cellulose samples developed a stable tridimentional network that contributes to decrease cellulase mobility and slowdown the hydrolysis process.
Surface modification of TA2 pure titanium by low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yukui
2011-01-01
Surface integrity changes of TA2 pure titanium including surface topography, microstructure and nanohardness distribution along surface layer were investigated by different techniques of low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments (LEHCPEBTs). The surface topography was characterized by SEM. Moreover, the TEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to reveal the surface modification mechanism of TA2 pure titanium by LEHCPEBTs. The surface roughness was modified by electron beam treatment and the polishing mechanism was analyzed by studying the cross section microstructure of electron beam treated specimens by SEM and TEM. The results show that the surface finish obtains good polishing quality and there is no phase transformation but the dislocations by LEHCPEBT. Furthermore, the nanohardness in the surface modified layer is improved. The remelt and fine-grain microstructure of surface layer caused by LEHCPEBTs are the main polishing mechanism and the reason of modification of surface topography and the increment in nanohardness is mainly due to the dislocations and fine grains in the modified layer induced by LEHCPEBT.
Diagnosis and treatment of thymoma associated with pure red cell aplasia: three cases report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Wencai; Xu Wuyin
2000-01-01
Objective: To discuss how to diagnose and treat thymoma associated with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). Methods: Three patients of thymoma associated with PRCA were treated with thymothymectomy, and the local radiotherapy was conducted after operation for avoiding the thymoma reproduction. Determining of their peripheral blood hemoglobin was used to evaluate the postoperation result in PRCA. If PRCA can not be relieved, oral prednisone and cyclosporin A were given. Results: One patient with PRCA was cured, the second patient remained in remission by treatment with prednisone and CsA, and the third patient was in progress. Conclusion: The treatment by means of 'thymothymectomy-local radiotherapy-use of prednisone and CsA', is effective for thymoma associated with PRCA
Çeçen, Kürşat; Ülker, Kahraman
2014-01-01
Objective. Management options of gestational hydronephrosis are based on the coexisting stone disease, pyelonephritis, and renal disease. However, the management option and its consequences in the absence of a coexisting disease state are not clear. In this study we aimed to compare the effectiveness of conservative treatment and double J insertion in symptomatic pure gestational hydronephrosis. Material and Methods. The data of the women with severe pure gestational hydronephrosis over a nine-year period was collected retrospectively. The included women were grouped into two according to receiving double J stent insertion or conservative treatments. Results. Double J insertion and conservative treatment groups included 24 and 29 women, respectively. Hydronephrosis was demonstrated on the right, left, or both kidneys in 37 (70%), 13 (24%), and 3 (6%) women, respectively. None of the participants gave birth prior to the 37th week. The demographics, initial pain scores, the severity of the hydronephrosis during first admission, and pain scores one week after the interventions did not differ significantly between groups (P > 0.05). Similarly, the rates of complications, postpartum pain scores, and permanent hydronephrosis did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Double J insertion in symptomatic pure gestational hydronephrosis adds no benefit to conservative treatment. PMID:24574939
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kürşat Çeçen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. Management options of gestational hydronephrosis are based on the coexisting stone disease, pyelonephritis, and renal disease. However, the management option and its consequences in the absence of a coexisting disease state are not clear. In this study we aimed to compare the effectiveness of conservative treatment and double J insertion in symptomatic pure gestational hydronephrosis. Material and Methods. The data of the women with severe pure gestational hydronephrosis over a nine-year period was collected retrospectively. The included women were grouped into two according to receiving double J stent insertion or conservative treatments. Results. Double J insertion and conservative treatment groups included 24 and 29 women, respectively. Hydronephrosis was demonstrated on the right, left, or both kidneys in 37 (70%, 13 (24%, and 3 (6% women, respectively. None of the participants gave birth prior to the 37th week. The demographics, initial pain scores, the severity of the hydronephrosis during first admission, and pain scores one week after the interventions did not differ significantly between groups (P>0.05. Similarly, the rates of complications, postpartum pain scores, and permanent hydronephrosis did not differ between groups (P>0.05. Conclusion. Double J insertion in symptomatic pure gestational hydronephrosis adds no benefit to conservative treatment.
The effect of couple-stress on the pure bending of a prismatic bar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tzung, F.K.; Kao, B.; Ho, F.; Tang, P.
1981-01-01
An evaluation of the applicability of the couple-stress theory to the stress analysis of graphite structures is performed by solving a pure bending problem. The differences between solutions from the couple-stress theory and from the classical theory of elasticity are compared. It is found that the differences are sufficient to account for the inconsistencies which have often been observed between the classical elasticity theory and actual behavior of graphite under bend and tensile loadings. An experimental procedure to measure the material constants in the couple-stress theory is also suggested. (orig.)
Quantum and classical parallelism in parity algorithms for ensemble quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stadelhofer, Ralf; Suter, Dieter; Banzhaf, Wolfgang
2005-01-01
The determination of the parity of a string of N binary digits is a well-known problem in classical as well as quantum information processing, which can be formulated as an oracle problem. It has been established that quantum algorithms require at least N/2 oracle calls. We present an algorithm that reaches this lower bound and is also optimal in terms of additional gate operations required. We discuss its application to pure and mixed states. Since it can be applied directly to thermal states, it does not suffer from signal loss associated with pseudo-pure-state preparation. For ensemble quantum computers, the number of oracle calls can be further reduced by a factor 2 k , with k is a member of {{1,2,...,log 2 (N/2}}, provided the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high. This additional speed-up is linked to (classical) parallelism of the ensemble quantum computer. Experimental realizations are demonstrated on a liquid-state NMR quantum computer
Electrophysiological correlates of purely temporal figure-ground segregation.
Kandil, Farid I; Fahle, Manfred
2003-11-01
Inhomogenous displays, in contrast to homogenous ones, evoke a specific potential in the VEP (tsVEP) which appears across different classical visual stimulus dimensions defining figure-ground segregation, such as luminance, orientation, (first-order) motion, and stereoscopic depth. This negative potential has a peak latency of about 200-300 ms and a peak amplitude of about -3 to -10 microV [Doc Ophthalmol. 95 (1998) 335]. Previously, we demonstrated that human subjects reliably segregate figure from ground, even in the absence of the classical cues, leaving time of change as the only cue for segregation. The results of the present study demonstrate that also purely temporally defined checkerboards evoke a tsVEP resembling the motion-defined tsVEP regarding polarity (negative), latency (two peaks at 180 and 270 ms, respectively), amplitude of the first negativity (-5.6 microV), and overall form of its components.
Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag
2017-02-15
The aim of this study was scientifically investigate the impact of the sequence of different thermo-mechanical treatments on the volatile profile of differently processed broccoli puree, and to investigate if any relationship persists between detected off-flavour changes and microstructural changes as a function of selected process conditions. Comparison of the headspace GC-MS fingerprinting of the differently processed broccoli purees revealed that an adequate combination of processing steps allows to reduce the level of off-flavour volatiles. Moreover, applying mechanical processing before or after the thermal processing at 90°C determines the pattern of broccoli tissue disruption, resulting into different microstructures and various enzymatic reactions inducing volatile generation. These results may aid the identification of optimal process conditions generating a reduced level of off-flavour in processed broccoli. In this way, broccoli can be incorporated as a food ingredient into mixed food products with limited implications on sensorial consumer acceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Indirect control of quantum systems via an accessor: pure coherent control without system excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, H C; Dong Hui; Sun, C P; Liu, X F
2009-01-01
A pure indirect control of quantum systems via a quantum accessor is investigated. In this control scheme, we do not apply any external classical excitation fields on the controlled system and we control a quantum system via a quantum accessor and classical control fields control the accessor only. Complete controllability is investigated for arbitrary finite-dimensional quantum systems and exemplified by two- and three-dimensional systems. The scheme exhibits some advantages; it uses less qubits in the accessor and does not depend on the energy-level structure of the controlled system
Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Kolniak, Joanna
2011-07-15
Effects of pomace maceration on yield, turbidity, cloud stability, composition of phenolics, antioxidant activity and colour properties were studied, to evaluate the potential applicability of enzyme preparations in puree-enriched cloudy apple juice production. The yield of mixed juice and puree from pomace obtained in the enzymatic processing of apple ranged from 92.3% to 95.3%, significantly higher than the yield from the control without enzymatic pomace treatment (81.8%). Higher turbidity was obtained upon pomace treatment with Pectinex XXL and Pectinex Ultra SPL enzymes. The total content of phenolic compounds in apple pomace was higher than in raw juices (1520mg/kg and 441mg/L, respectively). The total polyphenol yields were higher in juices treated with Pectinex AFP L-4, Pectinex Yield Mash and Pectinex XXL, as compared to the control treatment. During 6months of storage, a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidin fractions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Master symmetry in the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} pure spinor string
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandía, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales & Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); III, William Divine Linch [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Sazie 2212, Santiago (Chile)
2017-01-09
We lift the set of classical non-local symmetries recently studied by Klose, Loebbert, and Münkler in the context of ℤ{sub 2} cosets to the pure spinor description of the superstring in the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} background.
The quantum to classical crossover for a weak link capacitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spiller, T.P.; Clark, T.D.; Prance, H.; Prance, R.J.
1995-01-01
We consider a model weak link, an ultra-small capacitor subject to tunnelling, to ohmic dissipation and fed with an external displacement current. The framework we employ is the new approach of quantum state diffusion, which treats individual open quantum systems as well as being able to generate the conventional ensemble averages. We show how evidence, for archetypal quantum behaviour (coherent oscillations) and archetypal classical behaviour (chaos) arises, for weak links whose parameters are related by a rather modest scaling. Interestingly, the quantum behaviour can arise for a weak link with intrinsic parameter values such that it could exhibit chaos, if it were a purely classical device
Berner, Kjetil; Hall, Kirsten Sundby; Monge, Odd R; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald; Zaikova, Olga; Bruland, Øyvind S
2015-01-01
Purpose. A retrospective study of prognostic factors and treatment outcome of osteosarcoma (OS) during modern chemotherapy era with focus on patients with primary metastatic disease, nonextremity localisation, or age >40 years (nonclassical OS). Methods. A nationwide cohort, comprising 424 high-grade Norwegian bone OS patients, was based on registry sources supplemented with clinical records from hospitals involved in sarcoma management between 1975 and 2009. Results. Only 48% were younger patients with tumour in the extremities and without metastasis at diagnosis (classical OS). A considerable discrepancy in survival between classical and nonclassical OS was observed: 61% versus 26% 10-year sarcoma specific survival. Twice as many of the former received both adequate surgery and chemotherapy compared to the latter. This could only partly explain the differences in survival due to inherent chemoresistance in primary metastatic disease and a higher rate of local relapse among patients with axial tumours. Metastasis at diagnosis, increased lactate dehydrogenase, age > 40 years, and tumour size above median value were all adverse prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusion. We confirm a dramatic difference in outcome between classical and nonclassical high-grade OS patients, but treatment variables could only partly explain the dismal outcome of the latter.
Generation of Arbitrary Pure States for Three-dimensional Motion of a Trapped Ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Dachuang; Dong Ping; Cao Zhuoliang; Wang Xianping; Yang Ming
2010-01-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme for generating an arbitrary three-dimensional pure state of vibrational motion of a trapped ion. Our scheme is based on a sequence of laser pulses, which are tuned to the appropriate vibrational sidebands with respect to the appropriate electronic transition. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Mounier, Nicolas; Nicolas, Mounier; Gisselbrecht, Christian; Christian, Gisselbrecht
2015-04-01
This review discusses promising new approaches in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma that have been recently evaluated. There is a focus on the fluorodeoxyglucose PET scanning that is now considered crucial for staging and treatment evaluation, including interim evaluation after two cycles. An up-front treatment strategy is discussed, with the place of radiation therapy and the difficult choice of chemotherapy intensity emphasized. Indications for frail patients are also reviewed, particularly elderly or HIV-positive patients. Emerging data on the antibody drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and its future potential in the transplantation framework for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma is also discussed.
A semi-classical treatment of dissipative processes based on Feynman's influence functional method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moehring, K.; Smilansky, U.
1980-01-01
We develop a semi-classical treatment of dissipative processes based on Feynman's influence functional method. Applying it to deep inelastic collisions of heavy ions we study inclusive transition probabilities corresponding to a situation when only a set of collective variables is specified in the initial and final states. We show that the inclusive probabilities as well as the final energy distributions can be expressed in terms of properly defined classical paths and their corresponding stability fields. We present a uniform approximation for the study of quantal interference and focussing phenomena and discuss the conditions under which they are to be expected. For the dissipation mechanism we study three approximations - the harmonic model for the internal system, the weak coupling (diabatic) and the adiabatic coupling. We show that these three limits can be treated in the same manner. We finally compare the present formalism with other methodes as were introduced for the description of dissipation in deep inelastic collisions. (orig.)
Classical and anaplastic seminoma: Difference in survival
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobba, V.S.; Mittal, B.B.; Hoover, S.V.; Kepka, A.
1987-01-01
The authors undertook a retrospective study of seminoma patients treated with radiation therapy between 1961 and 1985. The classical group consisted of 66 patients, of whom 47 were stage I and 19 were stage II. The anaplastic group consisted of 21 patients, of whom 11 were stage I, nine were stage II, and one was stage III. The median follow-up was 66 months. The five-year crude survival rate for the entire group was 92%, for classical 96%, and for anaplastic 78% (P<.005). Similarly, there was a significant difference (P<.005) in actuarial relapse-free survival at 5 years between classical and anaplastic seminoma. For classical stage I, the relapse-free actuarial 5-year survival rate was 96; for classical stage II, 84%. For anaplastic stage I the relapse-free actuarial 5-year survival rate was 82%, and for stage II 75%. Six patients in the classical group (9%) failed treatment. In the anaplastic group, five patients or 24 failed treatment. Therefore, the authors' data suggest a difference in survival and failure rate between classical and anaplastic seminoma. Extratesticular seminoma with anaplastic histology has an even worse prognosis
Faithful remote state preparation using finite classical bits and a nonmaximally entangled state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Mingyong; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan
2004-01-01
We present many ensembles of states that can be remotely prepared by using minimum classical bits from Alice to Bob and their previously shared entangled state and prove that we have found all the ensembles in two-dimensional case. Furthermore we show that any pure quantum state can be remotely and faithfully prepared by using finite classical bits from Alice to Bob and their previously shared nonmaximally entangled state though no faithful quantum teleportation protocols can be achieved by using a nonmaximally entangled state
Is cancer a pure growth curve or does it follow a kinetics of dynamical structural transformation?
González, Maraelys Morales; Joa, Javier Antonio González; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Pupo, Ana Elisa Bergues; Schneider, Baruch; Kondakci, Suleyman; Ciria, Héctor Manuel Camué; Reyes, Juan Bory; Jarque, Manuel Verdecia; Mateus, Miguel Angel O'Farril; González, Tamara Rubio; Brooks, Soraida Candida Acosta; Cáceres, José Luis Hernández; González, Gustavo Victoriano Sierra
2017-03-07
Unperturbed tumor growth kinetics is one of the more studied cancer topics; however, it is poorly understood. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool to elucidate new mechanisms involved in tumor growth kinetics, which can be relevant to understand cancer genesis and select the most suitable treatment. The classical Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami as well as the modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models to describe unperturbed fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor growth are used and compared with the Gompertz modified and Logistic models. Viable tumor cells (1×10 5 ) are inoculated to 28 BALB/c male mice. Modified Gompertz, Logistic, Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami classical and modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models fit well to the experimental data and agree with one another. A jump in the time behaviors of the instantaneous slopes of classical and modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models and high values of these instantaneous slopes at very early stages of tumor growth kinetics are observed. The modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation can be used to describe unperturbed fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor growth. It reveals that diffusion-controlled nucleation/growth and impingement mechanisms are involved in tumor growth kinetics. On the other hand, tumor development kinetics reveals dynamical structural transformations rather than a pure growth curve. Tumor fractal property prevails during entire TGK.
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J
2012-10-13
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems.
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.
2012-01-01
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034
Surfaces in classical geometries a treatment by moving frames
Jensen, Gary R; Nicolodi, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
Designed for intermediate graduate studies, this text will broaden students' core knowledge of differential geometry providing foundational material to relevant topics in classical differential geometry. The method of moving frames, a natural means for discovering and proving important results, provides the basis of treatment for topics discussed. Its application in many areas helps to connect the various geometries and to uncover many deep relationships, such as the Lawson correspondence. The nearly 300 problems and exercises range from simple applications to open problems. Exercises are embedded in the text as essential parts of the exposition. Problems are collected at the end of each chapter; solutions to select problems are given at the end of the book. Mathematica®, Matlab™, and Xfig are used to illustrate selected concepts and results. The careful selection of results serves to show the reader how to prove the most important theorems in the subject, which may become the foundation of future progress...
On semiclassical analysis of pure spinor superstring in an AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aisaka, Yuri [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sao Paulo State Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Ibiapina Bevilaqua, L. [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal (Brazil). Esola de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Vallilo, Brenno C. [Santiago Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Fisicas
2012-06-15
Relation between semiclassical analyses of Green-Schwarz and pure spinor formalisms in an AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} background is clarified. It is shown that the two formalisms have identical semiclassical partition functions for a simple family of classical solutions. It is also shown that, when the classical string is furthermore rigid, this in turn implies that the two formalisms predict the same one-loop corrections to spacetime energies.
Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henry Kodrat
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Trigeminal neuralgia is a debilitating pain syndrome with a distinct symptom mainly excruciating facial pain that tends to come and go unpredictably in sudden shock-like attacks. Medical management remains the primary treatment for classical trigeminal neuralgia. When medical therapy failed, surgery with microvascular decompression can be performed. Radiosurgery can be offered for classical trigeminal neuralgia patients who are not surgical candidate or surgery refusal and they should not in acute pain condition. Radiosurgery is widely used because of good therapeutic result and low complication rate. Weakness of this technique is a latency period, which is time required for pain relief. It usually ranges from 1 to 2 months. This review enlightens the important role of radiosurgery in the treatment of classical trigeminal neuralgia.
Testing of newly developed functional surfaces under pure sliding conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Godi, Alessandro; Mohaghegh, Kamran; Grønbæk, J.
2013-01-01
the surfaces in an industrial context. In this paper, a number of experimental tests were performed using a novel test rig, called axial sliding test, simulating the contact of surfaces under pure sliding conditions. The aim of the experiments is to evaluate the frictional behavior of a new typology...... of textured surfaces, the so-called multifunctional surfaces, characterized by a plateau area able to bear loads and a deterministic pattern of lubricant pockets. Six surface typologies, namely three multifunctional and three machined using classical processes, were chosen to slide against a mirror....... The results comparison showed clearly how employing multifunctional surfaces can reduce friction forces up to 50 % at high normal loads compared to regularly ground or turned surfaces. Friction coefficients approximately equal to 0.12 were found for classically machined surfaces, whereas the values were 0...
Tuning the magnetic properties of pure hafnium by high pressure torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cepeda-Jiménez, C.M.; Beltrán, J.I.; Hernando, A.; García, M.A.; Ynduráin, F.; Zhilyaev, A.; Pérez-Prado, M.T.
2017-01-01
This work demonstrates that room temperature (RT) ferromagnetism might be triggered in pure hafnium (Hf), a classic paramagnet, by severe plastic deformation (SPD) via high pressure torsion (HPT). The origin of this phenomenon is elucidated by a combined approach including density functional theory (DFT) calculations and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In particular, it is shown that the elastic lattice distorsions induced in pure Hf as a consequence of grain refinement down to the nanocrystalline regime by HPT lead to the development of a new monoclinic crystalline structure that exhibits a spontaneous magnetization at RT. DFT calculations are utilized to prove that local stretching of the original pure Hf hexagonal close packed (hcp) lattice along specific pyramidal directions, due to the presence of internal stresses in the deformed nanostructure, may give rise to the emergence of the monoclinic phase, which is endowed with a net magnetic moment. An excellent agreement is found between DFT calculations and experimental TEM observations, which provide a first evidence of the presence of the pure Hf monoclinic crystal lattice. This work shows that SPD may constitute a viable, yet widely unexplored, strategy to tune the magnetic properties and, in particular, to induce RT ferromagnetism in bulk non-magnetic metals.
Pure water syndrome: Bacteriological quality of Sachet- packed ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Pure water syndrome: Bacteriological quality of Sachet- packed drinking water ... of fecal contamination and inadequate water treatment or no treatment at all. ... of hygiene criteria were present in the range of 98 and 106 cfu/100ml of water ...
Improving quality of an innovative pea puree by high hydrostatic pressure.
Klug, Tâmmila Venzke; Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Gómez, Perla A; Collado, Elena; Aguayo, Encarna; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco
2017-10-01
The food industry is continuously innovating to fulfill consumer demand for new, healthy, ready-to-eat products. Pea purees could satisfy this trend by increasing the intake of legumes, which are an important source of nutrients. Moreover, sensorial properties like viscosity could be improved by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). In this study the effect of a boiling treatment (10 min) followed by HHP at 550 kPa (0, 5 or 10 min) on the rheological properties, associated with enzymatic activity and particle size, as well as on the microbial and sensory quality of a pea-based puree stored for 36 days at 5 °C, has been assessed. The particle size of pea puree decreased after all processing treatments, but increased during storage in HHP-treated samples. Conversely, boiling treatment showed an increase in polygalacturonase activity at the end of the storage period, with a decrease in particle size, viscosity and stability. However, 5 min of 550 kPa HHP showed the highest mean particle size, mean surface diameter and viscosity regarding the remaining treatments. The microbial load remained low during storage. HHP treatment can be used by the food industry to improve the rheological properties, viscosity and stability of pea purees. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Mlosek, R K; Woźniak, W; Malinowska, S; Lewandowski, M; Nowicki, A
2012-06-01
Cellulite affects nearly 85% of the female population. Given the size of the phenomenon, we are continuously looking for effective ways to reduce cellulite. Reliable monitoring of anticellulite treatment remains a problem. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of anticellulite treatment carried out using radiofrequency (RF), which was monitored by classical and high-frequency ultrasound. Twenty-eight women underwent anticellulite treatment using RF, 17 women were in the placebo group. The therapy was monitored by classical and high-frequency ultrasound. The examinations evaluated the thickness of the epidermal echo, dermis thickness, dermis echogenicity, the length of the subcutaneous tissue bands growing into the dermis, the presence or absence of oedema, the thickness of subcutaneous tissue as well as thigh circumference and the stage of cellulite (according to the Nürnberger-Müller scale). Cellulite was reduced in 89.286% of the women who underwent RF treatment. After the therapy, the following observations were made: a decrease in the thickness of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, an increase in echogenicity reflecting on the increase in the number of collagen fibres, decreased subcutaneous tissue growing into bands in the dermis, and the reduction of oedema. In the placebo group, no statistically significant changes of the above parameters were observed. Radiofrequency enables cellulite reduction. A crucial aspect is proper monitoring of the progress of such therapy, which ultrasound allows. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Unified treatment of the classical and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirokov, Yu.M.
1979-01-01
Classical and Quantum Mechanics are unified in the sense that almost all axioms of both mechanics are identical. The only distinction is the explicit form of one algebraic identity. The unified theory is applied to scattering problem. (Z.M.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gharbi Yahyaoui, Asma
2010-01-01
In this study, we were interested to the application of a series of combined physical treatments (blanching, vacuum packaging and irradiation) on carrot puree. The results showed that with sub-lethal dose of 3 kGy in combination with moderate heat treatment and moderate pressure vacuum we can achieve an undetectable level of bacteria while preserving the antioxidant activity and the phenolic content. The combination of mild irradiation doses with other physical or biological preservation methods can be used to provide more dietary variety for immunocompromised patients and other groups since it ensures stable sterile foods.
Classical dynamics of particles and systems
Marion, Jerry B
1965-01-01
Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems presents a modern and reasonably complete account of the classical mechanics of particles, systems of particles, and rigid bodies for physics students at the advanced undergraduate level. The book aims to present a modern treatment of classical mechanical systems in such a way that the transition to the quantum theory of physics can be made with the least possible difficulty; to acquaint the student with new mathematical techniques and provide sufficient practice in solving problems; and to impart to the student some degree of sophistication in handl
The relation between classical and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, Peter.
1984-01-01
The thesis examines the relationship between classical and quantum mechanics from philosophical, mathematical and physical standpoints. Arguments are presented in favour of 'conjectural realism' in scientific theories, distinguished by explicit contextual structure and empirical testability. The formulations of classical and quantum mechanics, based on a general theory of mechanics is investigated, as well as the mathematical treatments of these subjects. Finally the thesis questions the validity of 'classical limits' and 'quantisations' in intertheoretic reduction. (UK)
On a Canonical Quantization of 3D Anti de Sitter Pure Gravity
Kim, Jihun
2015-10-14
We perform a canonical quantization of pure gravity on AdS3 using as a technical tool its equivalence at the classical level with a Chern-Simons theory with gauge group SL(2,R)xSL(2,R). We first quantize the theory canonically on an asymptotically AdS space --which is topologically the real line times a Riemann surface with one connected boundary. Using the "constrain first" approach we reduce canonical quantization to quantization of orbits of the Virasoro group and Kaehler quantization of Teichmuller space. After explicitly computing the Kaehler form for the torus with one boundary component and after extending that result to higher genus, we recover known results, such as that wave functions of SL(2,R) Chern-Simons theory are conformal blocks. We find new restrictions on the Hilbert space of pure gravity by imposing invariance under large diffeomorphisms and normalizability of the wave function. The Hilbert space of pure gravity is shown to be the target space of Conformal Field Theories with continuous sp...
Classical and statistical thermodynamics
Rizk, Hanna A
2016-01-01
This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.
Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for Purely Intrathird Ventricle Craniopharyngioma.
Nishioka, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Noriaki; Yamaguchi-Okada, Mitsuo; Yamada, Shozo
2016-07-01
Extended endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) is a safe and effective treatment for many suprasellar craniopharyngiomas, including those with third-ventricle involvement. Craniopharyngioma entirely within the third ventricle (purely intraventricular type), however, is generally regarded unsuitable for treatment with EETS. Three patients underwent total removal of a purely intraventricular craniopharyngioma with inferior extension via EETS by direct incision of the bulging, stretched ventricular floor and fine dissection from the ventricular wall. In 2 patients with an anteriorly displaced chiasm, the space between the chiasm and pituitary stalk created a wide corridor to the ventricle, whereas in the third case, in which the infrachiasmal space was somewhat narrowed, partial sacrifice of the pituitary gland was necessary to obtain sufficient space. Despite preservation of the stalk in 2 patients, hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus developed after surgery. There was no other complication including obesity. Selected patients with purely intraventricular craniopharyngioma can be treated effectively and safely with EETS. Those with inferior extension in the interpeduncular fossa and anterior displacement of the chiasm may be suitable candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Shaoliang; Zhang, Junjie; Ye, Fei; Zhu, Zhongsheng; Lin, Song; Shan, Shoujie; Kwan, Tak W
2007-04-01
Classic crush has a lower success rate compared to final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI). We previously reported the double-kissing (DK) crush technique that involves double-kissing along with double-crushing for the treatment of true bifurcation coronary lesions in 2005. This is a consecutive, nonrandomized, open-label study. Eighty-eight consecutive patients with single, true coronary bifurcation lesions according to Lefevre Classification2 and side branch diameter >2.0 mm were enrolled. The first 44 patients (from October 2004 to January 2005) were assigned to the classic crush treatment arm and the next 44 patients (from February 2005 to June 2005) were assigned to the DK crush technique arm, respectively. Data within 30 days were analyzed. Patients in the DK crush group, compared to those in classic crush group, were characterized by longer lesion length in the side branch (13.5 +/- 3.4 mm vs 7.8 +/- 3.1 mm; p DK crush group, as well as longer lesion length in the main vessel (24.3 +/- 8.6 mm vs 21.1 +/- 7.3 mm), though without significant differences (p >0.05). Subacute stent thrombosis was detected in 2 patients with failure of FKBI in the classic crush group (4.3%). In addition, patients in the classic crush group were characterized by a smaller minimum lumen diameter (MLD) at the side branch ostium (2.74 +/- 0.12 mm vs 3.01 +/- 0.13 mm; p DK crush has the potential to improve the clinical outcome in patients with coronary bifurcation lesions. Further randomized, prospective, multicenter studies are required to confirm these differences between the classic crush and DK crush techniques.
The synthesis of nanostructured, phase pure catalysts by hydrodynamic cavitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moser, W.R.; Sunstrom, J.E.; Marshik-Geurts, B.J. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)
1995-12-01
A new process for the synthesis of advanced catalytic materials based on performing the synthesis under hydrodynamic cavitation conditions has been discovered. This continuous process for catalyst synthesis resulted in the formation of both supported and unsupported catalysts. The advantage of the process over classical methods of synthesis is that it permits the formation of a wide variety of nanostructured catalysts in exceptionally high phase purities. The synthesis of platinum and palladium catalysts supported on alumina and other supports resulted in high dispersions of the noble metals. The synthesis of alpha, beta- and gamma-bismuth molybdates resulted in catalysts having superior phase purities as compared to several other classical methods of synthesis. The beta-bismuth molybdate was synthesized directly onto Cabosil. These studies showed that the particle size of the active component could be varied from a few manometers to much larger grains. The process enabled the synthesis of other complex metal oxides like perovskites as pure phases. The process uses a commercially available Microfluidizer.
General treatment of quantum and classical spinning particles in external fields
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.
2017-11-01
We develop the general theory of spinning particles with electric and magnetic dipole moments moving in arbitrary electromagnetic, inertial, and gravitational fields. Both the quantum-mechanical and classical dynamics is investigated. We start from the covariant Dirac equation extended to a spin-1/2 fermion with anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments and then perform the relativistic Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. This transformation allows us to obtain the quantum-mechanical equations of motion for the physical operators in the Schrödinger form and to establish the classical limit of relativistic quantum mechanics. The results obtained are then compared to the general classical description of the spinning particle interacting with electromagnetic, inertial and gravitational fields. The complete agreement between the quantum mechanics and the classical theory is proven in the general case. As an application of the results obtained, we consider the dynamics of a spinning particle in a gravitational wave and analyze the prospects of using the magnetic resonance setup to find possible manifestations of the gravitational wave on spin.
Zamberlin, Šimun; Samaržija, Dubravka
2017-06-15
Classical and probiotic set yogurt were made using non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk at 60°C/5min. Physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the viability of bacteria that originated from cultures in classical and probiotic yogurt were analysed during 21days of storage at 4°C. For the production of yogurt, a standard yogurt culture and a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used. At the end of storage time of the classical and probiotic yogurt the totals of non-denatured whey proteins were 92.31 and 91.03%. The viability of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were higher than 10 6 cfu/g. The total sensory score (maximum - 20) was 18.49 for the classical and 18.53 for the probiotic. In nutritional and functional terms it is possible to produce classical and probiotic sheep's milk yogurt by using a non-standard temperature of heat treatment with a shelf life of 21days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Microscopic and semi-classical treatments of octupole deformation in the light actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chasman, R.R.
1984-01-01
Microscopic and semi-classical descriptions of octupole deformation are compared. New semi-classical results, obtained with the use of a Woods-Saxon potential are presented. Comparisons with experiment are made. 21 references
Gondim, Jackson A; Almeida, João Paulo; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne F; Gomes, Erika; Schops, Michele; Ferraz, Tania
2010-10-01
Acromegaly is a chronic disease related to the excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor–I secretion, usually by pituitary adenomas. Traditional treatment of acromegaly consists of surgery, drug therapy, and eventually radiotherapy. The introduction of endoscopy as an additional tool for surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas and, therefore, acromegaly represents an important advance of pituitary surgery in the recent years. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the results of pure transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery in a series of patients with acromegaly who were operated on by a pituitary specialist surgeon. The authors discuss the advantages, outcome, complications, and factors related to the success of the endoscopic approach in cases of GHsecreting adenomas. The authors retrospectively analyzed data from cases involving patients with GH-secreting adenomas who underwent pure transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery at the Department of Neurosurgery of the General Hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil, between 2000 and 2009. Tumors were classified according to size as micro- or macroadenomas, and tumor extension was analyzed based on suprasellar/parasellar extension and sella floor destruction. All patients were followed up for at least 1 year. The criteria of disease control were GH levels transsphenoidal surgery for treatment of acromegaly. Disease control was obtained in 50 cases (74.6%). The rate of treatment success was higher in patients with microadenomas (disease control achieved in 12 [85.7%] of 14 cases) than in those with larger lesions. Suprasellar/parasellar extension and high levels of sella floor erosion were associated with lower rates of disease control (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Complications related to the endoscopic surgery included epistaxis (6.0%), transitory diabetes insipidus (4.5%), and 1 case of seizure (1.5%). Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery represents an effective option for treatment of patients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haris Vukas
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.
Interferometric weak value deflections: Quantum and classical treatments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howell, John C.; Starling, David J.; Dixon, P. Ben; Vudyasetu, Praveen K.; Jordan, Andrew N.
2010-01-01
We derive the weak value deflection given in an article by Dixon et al.[P. B. Dixon et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 173601 (2009)] both quantum mechanically and classically, including diffraction effects. This article is meant to cover some of the mathematical details omitted in that article owing to space constraints.
Zhang, Baosen; Dong, Qiangsheng; Ba, Zhixin; Wang, Zhangzhong; Shi, Hancheng; Xue, Yanting
2018-01-01
Plasma nitriding was conducted as post-treatment for surface texture on pure titanium to obtain a continuous nitriding layer. Supersonic fine particles bombarding (SFPB) was carried out to prepare surface texture. The surface morphologies and chemical composition were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscopy. The microstructures of modified layers were characterized by transmission electron microscope. The tribological properties of surface-textured and duplex-treated pure titanium under oil lubrication condition were systematically investigated in the ball-on-plate reciprocating mode. The effects of applied load and sliding velocity on the tribological behavior were analyzed. The results show that after duplex treatments, the grains size in modified layer becomes slightly larger, and hardness is obviously improved. Wear resistance of duplex-treated pure titanium is significantly improved referenced to untreated and surface-textured pure titanium, which is 3.22 times as much as untreated pure titanium and 2.15 times of that for surface-textured pure titanium, respectively.
Ligare, Martin
2016-05-01
Multiple-pulse NMR experiments are a powerful tool for the investigation of molecules with coupled nuclear spins. The product operator formalism provides a way to understand the quantum evolution of an ensemble of weakly coupled spins in such experiments using some of the more intuitive concepts of classical physics and semi-classical vector representations. In this paper I present a new way in which to interpret the quantum evolution of an ensemble of spins. I recast the quantum problem in terms of mixtures of pure states of two spins whose expectation values evolve identically to those of classical moments. Pictorial representations of these classically evolving states provide a way to calculate the time evolution of ensembles of weakly coupled spins without the full machinery of quantum mechanics, offering insight to anyone who understands precession of magnetic moments in magnetic fields.
Super-Maxwellian helium evaporation from pure and salty water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, Christine; Kann, Zachary R.; Faust, Jennifer A.; Skinner, J. L.; Nathanson, Gilbert M.
2016-01-01
Helium atoms evaporate from pure water and salty solutions in super-Maxwellian speed distributions, as observed experimentally and modeled theoretically. The experiments are performed by monitoring the velocities of dissolved He atoms that evaporate from microjets of pure water at 252 K and 4–8.5 molal LiCl and LiBr at 232–252 K. The average He atom energies exceed the flux-weighted Maxwell-Boltzmann average of 2RT by 30% for pure water and 70% for 8.5m LiBr. Classical molecular dynamics simulations closely reproduce the observed speed distributions and provide microscopic insight into the forces that eject the He atoms from solution. Comparisons of the density profile and He kinetic energies across the water-vacuum interface indicate that the He atoms are accelerated by He–water collisions within the top 1-2 layers of the liquid. We also find that the average He atom kinetic energy scales with the free energy of solvation of this sparingly soluble gas. This free-energy difference reflects the steeply decreasing potential of mean force on the He atoms in the interfacial region, whose gradient is the repulsive force that tends to expel the atoms. The accompanying sharp decrease in water density suppresses the He–water collisions that would otherwise maintain a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, allowing the He atom to escape at high energies. Helium is especially affected by this reduction in collisions because its weak interactions make energy transfer inefficient
Super-Maxwellian helium evaporation from pure and salty water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hahn, Christine; Kann, Zachary R.; Faust, Jennifer A.; Skinner, J. L., E-mail: skinner@chem.wisc.edu, E-mail: nathanson@chem.wisc.edu; Nathanson, Gilbert M., E-mail: skinner@chem.wisc.edu, E-mail: nathanson@chem.wisc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2016-01-28
Helium atoms evaporate from pure water and salty solutions in super-Maxwellian speed distributions, as observed experimentally and modeled theoretically. The experiments are performed by monitoring the velocities of dissolved He atoms that evaporate from microjets of pure water at 252 K and 4–8.5 molal LiCl and LiBr at 232–252 K. The average He atom energies exceed the flux-weighted Maxwell-Boltzmann average of 2RT by 30% for pure water and 70% for 8.5m LiBr. Classical molecular dynamics simulations closely reproduce the observed speed distributions and provide microscopic insight into the forces that eject the He atoms from solution. Comparisons of the density profile and He kinetic energies across the water-vacuum interface indicate that the He atoms are accelerated by He–water collisions within the top 1-2 layers of the liquid. We also find that the average He atom kinetic energy scales with the free energy of solvation of this sparingly soluble gas. This free-energy difference reflects the steeply decreasing potential of mean force on the He atoms in the interfacial region, whose gradient is the repulsive force that tends to expel the atoms. The accompanying sharp decrease in water density suppresses the He–water collisions that would otherwise maintain a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, allowing the He atom to escape at high energies. Helium is especially affected by this reduction in collisions because its weak interactions make energy transfer inefficient.
Stochastic simulations of conditional states of partially observed systems, quantum and classical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gambetta, Jay; Wiseman, H M
2005-01-01
In a partially observed quantum or classical system the information that we cannot access results in our description of the system becoming mixed, even if we have perfect initial knowledge. That is, if the system is quantum the conditional state will be given by a state matrix ρ r (t), and if classical, the conditional state will be given by a probability distribution P r (x,t), where r is the result of the measurement. Thus to determine the evolution of this conditional state, under continuous-in-time monitoring, requires a numerically expensive calculation. In this paper we demonstrate a numerical technique based on linear measurement theory that allows us to determine the conditional state using only pure states. That is, our technique reduces the problem size by a factor of N, the number of basis states for the system. Furthermore we show that our method can be applied to joint classical and quantum systems such as arise in modelling realistic (finite bandwidth, noisy) measurement
Classical and recent advances in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Sales-Campos
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are intestinal disorders that comprise the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. These disorders have a significant effect on the quality of life of affected patients and the increasing number of IBD cases worldwide is a growing concern. Because of the overall burden of IBD and its multifactorial etiology, efforts have been made to improve the medical management of these inflammatory conditions. The classical therapeutic strategies aim to control the exacerbated host immune response with aminosalicylates, antibiotics, corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF biological agents. Although successful in the treatment of several CD or UC conditions, these drugs have limited effectiveness, and variable responses may culminate in unpredictable outcomes. The ideal therapy should reduce inflammation without inducing immunosuppression, and remains a challenge to health care personnel. Recently, a number of additional approaches to IBD therapy, such as new target molecules for biological agents and cellular therapy, have shown promising results. A deeper understanding of IBD pathogenesis and the availability of novel therapies are needed to improve therapeutic success. This review describes the overall key features of therapies currently employed in clinical practice as well as novel and future alternative IBD treatment methods.
Classical randomness in quantum measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Presti, Paoloplacido Lo; Perinotti, Paolo
2005-01-01
Similarly to quantum states, also quantum measurements can be 'mixed', corresponding to a random choice within an ensemble of measuring apparatuses. Such mixing is equivalent to a sort of hidden variable, which produces a noise of purely classical nature. It is then natural to ask which apparatuses are indecomposable, i.e. do not correspond to any random choice of apparatuses. This problem is interesting not only for foundations, but also for applications, since most optimization strategies give optimal apparatuses that are indecomposable. Mathematically the problem is posed describing each measuring apparatus by a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), which gives the statistics of the outcomes for any input state. The POVMs form a convex set, and in this language the indecomposable apparatuses are represented by extremal points-the analogous of 'pure states' in the convex set of states. Differently from the case of states, however, indecomposable POVMs are not necessarily rank-one, e.g. von Neumann measurements. In this paper we give a complete classification of indecomposable apparatuses (for discrete spectrum), by providing different necessary and sufficient conditions for extremality of POVMs, along with a simple general algorithm for the decomposition of a POVM into extremals. As an interesting application, 'informationally complete' measurements are analysed in this respect. The convex set of POVMs is fully characterized by determining its border in terms of simple algebraic properties of the corresponding POVMs
Are safe results obtained when the PC-SAFT equation of state is applied to ordinary pure chemicals?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Privat, Romain; Gani, Rafiqul; Jaubert, Jean-Noël
2010-01-01
The PC-SAFT equation of state is a very popular and promising model for fluids that employs a complicated pressure-explicit mathematical function (and can therefore not be solved analytically at a specified pressure and temperature, contrary to classical cubic equations). In this work, we...... demonstrate that in case of pure fluids, the PC-SAFT equation may exhibit up to five different volume-roots whereas cubic equations give at the most three volume-roots (and yet, only one or two volume roots have real significance). The consequence of this strongly atypical behaviour is the existence of two...... different fluid-fluid coexistence lines (the vapour pressure-curve and an additional liquid-liquid equilibrium curve) and two critical points for a same pure component, which is obviously physically inconsistent. In addition to n-alkanes, nearly sixty very common pure components (branched alkanes...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie
2013-01-01
that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions like alexia severity, and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia......-designed and controlled studies of rehabilitation of pure alexia....
Impossibility criterion for obtaining pure entangled states from mixed states by purifying protocols
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Pingxing; Liang Linmei; Li Chengzu; Huang Mingqiu
2002-01-01
Purifying noisy entanglement is a protocol that can increase the entanglement of a mixed state (as a source) at the expense of the entanglement of others (such as an ancilla) by collective measurement. A protocol with which one can get a pure entangled state from a mixed state is defined as purifying mixed states. We address a basic question: can one get a pure entangled state from a mixed state? We give a necessary and sufficient condition of purifying a mixed state by fit local operations and classical communication and show that for a class of source states and ancilla states in arbitrary bipartite systems purifying mixed states is impossible by finite rounds of purifying protocols. For 2x2 systems, it is proved that arbitrary states cannot be purified by individual measurement. The possible application and meaning of the conclusion are discussed
Matemathical description of solidification cooling curves of pure metals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arno Müller
1998-10-01
Full Text Available The introduction of an "incubation time" to the Schwarz classical mathematical description of metals solidification, resulted in a new model called Modified Schwarz Model. By doing so it was possible to identify and quantify the "delay time" that separates the two heat waves traveling independently in a casting during the solidification: the Supercooled / Superheated Liquid and the Solid / Liquid. The thermal shock produced in the initial stage of the undercooling generation process, can be used as an important parameter in the forecasting of the solidification's behavior of pure metals and alloys, when changing mold's materials, pouring and ambient temperatures. The hypercooling proneness degree of metals and alloys, can also be calculated.
Classical treatments of quantum mechanical effects in collisions of weakly bound complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez, Jose G.; McCoy, Anne B.
2005-01-01
Classical and quantum simulations of Ne + Ar 2 collision dynamics are performed in order to investigate where quantum mechanical effects are most important and where classical simulations provide good descriptions of the dynamics. It is found that when Ar 2 is in a low-lying vibrational state, the differences between the results of quantum and quasiclassical simulations are profound. However, excellent agreement between the results of the quantum and classical simulations can be achieved when the initial conditions for the classical trajectories are sampled from the quantum phase space distribution given by the Wigner function. These effects are largest when collisions occur under constrained geometries or when Ar 2 is in its ground vibrational state. The results of this work suggest that sampling the initial conditions using the Wigner function provides a straightforward way to incorporate the most important quantum mechanical effects in simulations of collisions involving very cold weakly bound complexes
Classical and semi-classical treatments of Li3+, Ne10++H(1s) collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Errea, L F; Illescas, Clara; Mendez, L; Pons, B; Riera, A; Suarez, J
2004-01-01
We perform molecular close-coupling and impact-parameter classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations of total and partial cross sections for capture and ionization in collisions of highly charged ions on H(1s). We first consider Li 3+ +H(1s) as a benchmark to ascertain the complementarity of the methods, and then Ne 10+ +H(1s), which has been scarcely studied up to now, and has recently become of interest for fusion plasma research
Immunomodulation of classical and non-classical HLA molecules by ionizing radiation.
Gallegos, Cristina E; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Carosella, Edgardo D
2016-05-01
Radiotherapy has been employed for the treatment of oncological patients for nearly a century, and together with surgery and chemotherapy, radiation oncology constitutes one of the three pillars of cancer therapy. Ionizing radiation has complex effects on neoplastic cells and on tumor microenvironment: beyond its action as a direct cytotoxic agent, tumor irradiation triggers a series of alterations in tumoral cells, which includes the de novo synthesis of particular proteins and the up/down-regulation of cell surface molecules. Additionally, ionizing radiation may induce the release of "danger signals" which may, in turn lead to cellular and molecular responses by the immune system. This immunomodulatory action of ionizing radiation highlights the importance of the combined use (radiotherapy plus immunotherapy) for cancer healing. Major histocompatibility complex antigens (also called Human Leukocyte Antigens, HLA in humans) are one of those molecules whose expression is modulated after irradiation. This review summarizes the modulatory properties of ionizing radiation on the expression of HLA class I (classical and non-classical) and class II molecules, with special emphasis in non-classical HLA-I molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Higher-order gravity and the classical equivalence principle
Accioly, Antonio; Herdy, Wallace
2017-11-01
As is well known, the deflection of any particle by a gravitational field within the context of Einstein’s general relativity — which is a geometrical theory — is, of course, nondispersive. Nevertheless, as we shall show in this paper, the mentioned result will change totally if the bending is analyzed — at the tree level — in the framework of higher-order gravity. Indeed, to first order, the deflection angle corresponding to the scattering of different quantum particles by the gravitational field mentioned above is not only spin dependent, it is also dispersive (energy-dependent). Consequently, it violates the classical equivalence principle (universality of free fall, or equality of inertial and gravitational masses) which is a nonlocal principle. However, contrary to popular belief, it is in agreement with the weak equivalence principle which is nothing but a statement about purely local effects. It is worthy of note that the weak equivalence principle encompasses the classical equivalence principle locally. We also show that the claim that there exists an incompatibility between quantum mechanics and the weak equivalence principle, is incorrect.
Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing
Zielnicki, Kevin
Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on
On the scaling of magnetic plasma confinement under classical conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1979-04-01
Present magnetic confinement schemes based on tokamaks and similar devices are characterized by relatively large losses and low beta values. As a consequence, thermonuclear conditions can only be reached in such devices at large linear dimensions or by means of very strong magnetic fields, in combination with large heating powers. This does not rule out the possibility of realizing the same conditions on a smaller scale, i.e. by finding alternative schemes which provide classical and stable confinement of a pure plasma in a closed magnetic bottle. (author)
Classical- and quantum mechanical Coulomb scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gratzl, W.
1987-01-01
Because in textbooks the quantum mechanical Coulomb scattering is either ignored or treated unsatisfactory, the present work attempts to present a physically plausible, mathematically correct but elementary treatment in a way that it can be used in textbooks and lectures on quantum mechanics. Coulomb scattering is derived as a limiting case of a screened Coulomb potential (finite range) within a time dependent quantum scattering theory. The difference in the asymptotic conditions for potentials of finite versus infinite range leads back to the classical Coulomb scattering. In the classical framework many concepts of the quantum theory can be introduced and are useful in an intuitive understanding of the quantum theory. The differences between classical and quantum scattering theory are likewise useful for didactic purposes. (qui)
Comparison of adaptive critic-based and classical wide-area controllers for power systems.
Ray, Swakshar; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar; Chaudhuri, Balarko; Majumder, Rajat
2008-08-01
An adaptive critic design (ACD)-based damping controller is developed for a thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) installed in a power system with multiple poorly damped interarea modes. The performance of this ACD computational intelligence-based method is compared with two classical techniques, which are observer-based state-feedback (SF) control and linear matrix inequality LMI-H(infinity) robust control. Remote measurements are used as feedback signals to the wide-area damping controller for modulating the compensation of the TCSC. The classical methods use a linearized model of the system whereas the ACD method is purely measurement-based, leading to a nonlinear controller with fixed parameters. A comparative analysis of the controllers' performances is carried out under different disturbance scenarios. The ACD-based design has shown promising performance with very little knowledge of the system compared to classical model-based controllers. This paper also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of ACDs, SF, and LMI-H(infinity).
How Incorrect Is the Classical Partition Function for the Ideal Gas?
Kroemer, Herbert
1980-01-01
Discussed is the classical partition function for the ideal gas and how it differs from the exact value for bosons or fermions in the classical regime. The differences in the two values are negligible hence the classical treatment leads in the end to correct answers for all observables. (Author/DS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budinich, Paolo
2009-03-01
In a previous paper we proposed a purely mathematical way to quantum mechanics based on Cartan's simple spinors in their most elementary form of 2 components spinors. Here we proceed along that path proposing, this time, a symmetric tensor, quadrilinear in simple spinors, as a candidate for the symmetric tensor of general relativity. The procedure resembles closely that in which one builds bilinearly from simple spinors an asymmetric electromagnetic tensor, from which easily descend Maxwell's equations and the photon can be seen as a bilinear combination of neutrinos. Here Lorentzian spaces result compact, building up spheres, where hopefully the problems of the Standard Model could be solved. (author)
Su, Zhaofeng; Guan, Ji; Li, Lvzhou
2018-01-01
Quantum entanglement is an indispensable resource for many significant quantum information processing tasks. However, in practice, it is difficult to distribute quantum entanglement over a long distance, due to the absorption and noise in quantum channels. A solution to this challenge is a quantum repeater, which can extend the distance of entanglement distribution. In this scheme, the time consumption of classical communication and local operations takes an important place with respect to time efficiency. Motivated by this observation, we consider a basic quantum repeater scheme that focuses on not only the optimal rate of entanglement concentration but also the complexity of local operations and classical communication. First, we consider the case where two different two-qubit pure states are initially distributed in the scenario. We construct a protocol with the optimal entanglement-concentration rate and less consumption of local operations and classical communication. We also find a criterion for the projective measurements to achieve the optimal probability of creating a maximally entangled state between the two ends. Second, we consider the case in which two general pure states are prepared and general measurements are allowed. We get an upper bound on the probability for a successful measurement operation to produce a maximally entangled state without any further local operations.
Rodríguez, Amparo; Ezquieta, Begoña; Labarta, José Igancio; Clemente, María; Espino, Rafael; Rodriguez, Amaia; Escribano, Aranzazu
2017-08-01
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. Cortisol and aldosterone synthesis are impaired in the classic forms (adrenal insufficiency and salt-wasting crisis). Females affected are virilised at birth, and are at risk for genital ambiguity. In this article we give recommendations for an early as possible diagnosis and an appropriate and individualised treatment. A patient and family genetic study is essential for the diagnosis of the patient, and allows genetic counselling, as well as a prenatal diagnosis and treatment for future pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Color Spectrum Properties of Pure and Non-Pure LATEX in Discriminating Rubber Clone Series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noor Aishah Khairuzzaman; Hadzli Hashim; Nina Korlina Madzhi; Noor Ezan Abdullah; Faridatul Aima Ismail; Ahmad Faiz Sampian; Azhana Fatnin Che Will
2015-01-01
A study of color spectrum properties for pure and non-pure latex in discriminating rubber clone series has been presented in this paper. There were five types of clones from the same series being used as samples in this study named RRIM2002, RRIM2007, RRIM2008, RRIM2014, and RRIM3001. The main objective is to identify the significant color spectrum (RGB) from pure and non-pure latex that can discriminate rubber clone series. The significant information of color spectrum properties for pure and non-pure latex is determined by using spectrometer and Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Visible light spectrum (VIS) is used as a radiation light of the spectrometer to emit light to the surface of the latex sample. By using SPSS software, the further numerical analysis of color spectrum properties is being conducted. As the conclusion, blue color spectrum for non-pure is able to discriminate for all rubber clone series whereas only certain color spectrum can differentiate several clone series for pure latex. (author)
Trading quantum for classical resources in quantum data compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayden, Patrick; Jozsa, Richard; Winter, Andreas
2002-01-01
We study the visible compression of a source E={|φ i >,p i } of pure quantum signal states or, more formally, the minimal resources per signal required to represent arbitrarily long strings of signals with arbitrarily high fidelity, when the compressor is given the identity of the input state sequence as classical information. According to the quantum source coding theorem, the optimal quantum rate is the von Neumann entropy S(E) qubits per signal. We develop a refinement of this theorem in order to analyze the situation in which the states are coded into classical and quantum bits that are quantified separately. This leads to a trade-off curve Q * (R), where Q * (R) qubits per signal is the optimal quantum rate for a given classical rate of R bits per signal. Our main result is an explicit characterization of this trade-off function by a simple formula in terms of only single-signal, perfect fidelity encodings of the source. We give a thorough discussion of many further mathematical properties of our formula, including an analysis of its behavior for group covariant sources and a generalization to sources with continuously parametrized states. We also show that our result leads to a number of corollaries characterizing the trade-off between information gain and state disturbance for quantum sources. In addition, we indicate how our techniques also provide a solution to the so-called remote state preparation problem. Finally, we develop a probability-free version of our main result which may be interpreted as an answer to the question: ''How many classical bits does a qubit cost?'' This theorem provides a type of dual to Holevo's theorem, insofar as the latter characterizes the cost of coding classical bits into qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruzzone, E.
2009-01-01
In this paper two methods for determination of suspended solids in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (activated, thickened and dry, in a range from 0.1 to 20-25%) are compared. Results are similar from statistic point of view between classic gravimetric method and thermo balance method. However the later seems better for its rapid and easy execution. [it
Serati, Maurizio; Bauer, Ricarda; Cornu, Jean Nicolas; Cattoni, Elena; Braga, Andrea; Siesto, Gabriele; Lizée, Daphné; Haab, François; Torella, Marco; Salvatore, Stefano
2013-05-01
Inside-out tension-free vaginal transobturator tape (TVT-O) is currently one of the most effective and popular procedures for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI), but data reporting long-term outcomes are scarce. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of TVT-O 5-yr implantation for management of pure SUI in women. A prospective observational study was conducted in four tertiary reference centers. Consecutive women presenting with urodynamically proven, pure SUI treated by TVT-O were included. Patients with mixed incontinence and/or anatomic evidence of pelvic organ prolapse were excluded. TVT-O implantation without any associated procedure. Data regarding subjective outcomes (International Consultation on Incontinence-Short Form [ICIQ-SF], Patient Global Impression of Improvement, patient satisfaction scores), objective cure (stress test) rates, and adverse events were collected during follow-up. Multivariable analyses were performed to investigate outcomes. Of the 191 women included, 21 (11.0%) had previously undergone a failed anti-incontinence surgical procedure. Six (3.1%) patients were lost to follow-up. The 5-yr subjective and objective cure rates were 90.3% and 90.8%, respectively. De novo overactive bladder (OAB) was reported by 24.3% of patients at 5-yr follow-up. Median ICIQ-SF score significantly improved from 17 (interquartile range [IQR]:16-17) preoperatively to 0 (IQR: 0-2) (pTVT-O implantation is a highly effective option for the treatment of women with pure SUI, showing a very high cure rate and a low incidence of complications after 5-yr follow-up. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Welling, Lindsey; Bernstein, Laurie E; Berry, Gerard T; Burlina, Alberto B; Eyskens, François; Gautschi, Matthias; Grünewald, Stephanie; Gubbels, Cynthia S; Knerr, Ina; Labrune, Philippe; van der Lee, Johanna H; MacDonald, Anita; Murphy, Elaine; Portnoi, Pat A; Õunap, Katrin; Potter, Nancy L; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Spencer, Jessica B; Timmers, Inge; Treacy, Eileen P; Van Calcar, Sandra C; Waisbren, Susan E; Bosch, Annet M
2017-03-01
Classical galactosemia (CG) is an inborn error of galactose metabolism. Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and follow-up of CG are currently lacking, and treatment and follow-up have been demonstrated to vary worldwide. To provide patients around the world the same state-of-the-art in care, members of The Galactosemia Network (GalNet) developed an evidence-based and internationally applicable guideline for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of CG. The guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. A systematic review of the literature was performed, after key questions were formulated during an initial GalNet meeting. The first author and one of the working group experts conducted data-extraction. All experts were involved in data-extraction. Quality of the body of evidence was evaluated and recommendations were formulated. Whenever possible recommendations were evidence-based, if not they were based on expert opinion. Consensus was reached by multiple conference calls, consensus rounds via e-mail and a final consensus meeting. Recommendations addressing diagnosis, dietary treatment, biochemical monitoring, and follow-up of clinical complications were formulated. For all recommendations but one, full consensus was reached. A 93 % consensus was reached on the recommendation addressing age at start of bone density screening. During the development of this guideline, gaps of knowledge were identified in most fields of interest, foremost in the fields of treatment and follow-up.
Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise
Poor, H; Scully, Marlan
2012-01-01
David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engel, V.; Bacic, Z.; Schinke, R.; Shapiro, M.
1985-01-01
Absorption spectra for the collinear (nonreactive) H+H 2 →H/sup number-sign/ 3 →H+H 2 are calculated quantum mechanically, using the Siegbahn--Liu--Truhlar--Horowitz (SLTH) ab initio potential and a model H( 3 surface as the ground and excited H 3 surface, respectively. They are compared to classical spectra previously computed by Mayne, Poirier, and Polanyi using the same potential energy surfaces [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4025 (1984)]. The spectra are calculated at several collision energies and for both H+H 2 (v = 0) and H+H 2 (v = 1). The quantal and classical spectra are shown to agree with respect to basic features and trends. Nevertheless, the two sets of spectra differ considerably in their overall appearance because of some purely quantum aspects of the H+H 2 system
Non-critical pure spinor superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, Ido; Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Mazzucato, Luca; Oz, Yaron; Yankielowicz, Shimon
2007-01-01
We construct non-critical pure spinor superstrings in two, four and six dimensions. We find explicitly the map between the RNS variables and the pure spinor ones in the linear dilaton background. The RNS variables map onto a patch of the pure spinor space and the holomorphic top form on the pure spinor space is an essential ingredient of the mapping. A basic feature of the map is the requirement of doubling the superspace, which we analyze in detail. We study the structure of the non-critical pure spinor space, which is different from the ten-dimensional one, and its quantum anomalies. We compute the pure spinor lowest lying BRST cohomology and find an agreement with the RNS spectra. The analysis is generalized to curved backgrounds and we construct as an example the non-critical pure spinor type IIA superstring on AdS 4 with RR 4-form flux
Quantum versus classical integrability in Calogero-Moser systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corrigan, E.; Sasaki, R.
2002-01-01
Calogero-Moser systems are classical and quantum integrable multiparticle dynamics defined for any root system Δ. The quantum Calogero systems having 1/q 2 potential and a confining q 2 potential and the Sutherland systems with 1/sin 2 q potentials have 'integer' energy spectra characterized by the root system Δ. Various quantities of the corresponding classical systems, e.g. minimum energy, frequencies of small oscillations, the eigenvalues of the classical Lax pair matrices etc, at the equilibrium point of the potential are investigated analytically as well as numerically for all root systems. To our surprise, most of these classical data are also 'integers', or they appear to be 'quantized'. To be more precise, these quantities are polynomials of the coupling constant(s) with integer coefficients. The close relationship between quantum and classical integrability in Calogero-Moser systems deserves fuller analytical treatment, which would lead to better understanding of these systems and of integrable systems in general. (author)
Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals
Dittrich, Walter
2016-01-01
Graduate students who want to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find here both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name a few. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate the perturbation theory, canonical transformations, the action principle and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. This new edition has been revised and enlarged with chapters on quantum electrodynamics, high energy physics, Green’s functions and strong interaction.
A unified treatment of dynamics and scattering in classical and quantum statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prugovecki, E.
1978-01-01
The common formal features of classical and quantum statistical mechanics are investigated at three separate levels: at the level of L 2 spaces of wave-packets on GAMMA-space, of Liouville spaces B 2 consisting of density operators constructed from such wave-packets, and of phase-space representation spaces P of GAMMA distribution functions. It is shown that at the last level the formal similarities become so outstanding that all key quantities in P-space, such as Liouville operators, Hamiltonian functions, position and momentum observables, etc., are represented by expressions which to the zeroth order in (h/2π) coincide in the classical and quantum case, and in some instances coincide completely. Scattering theory on the B 2 Liouville spaces takes on the same formal appearance for classical and quantum statistical mechanics, and to the zeroth order in (h/2π) it coincides in both cases. This makes possible the formulation of a classical approximation to quantum scattering, and of a computational scheme for determining rhosup(out) from rhosup(in) for successive order of (h/2π). (Auth.)
Alternative diets to the classical ketogenic diet-Can we be more liberal?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miranda, Maria J; Turner, Zahava; Magrath, Gwyneth
2012-01-01
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, adequate protein, low-carbohydrate diet has been used since 1921 for the treatment of severe medically refractory epilepsy. In the past 15 years, the use of the KD has expanded enormously and a huge amount of clinical evidence of its efficacy is available....... The classical KD is however restrictive and therefore alternative more liberal varieties of the classical KD have been developed within the last 8 years. The purpose of this report is to summarise the principles and evidence of effectiveness of the alternative ketogenic diets: Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT......)-KD, modified Atkins diet (MAD) and low glycaemic index treatment (LGIT), compared to the classical KD. The clinical evidence to date suggests that the more liberal versions of the classical KD such as MCT KD, MAD and LGIT have an efficacy close to the classical KD; however, no RCT data are available for MAD...
RAACFDb: Rheumatoid arthritis ayurvedic classical formulations database.
Mohamed Thoufic Ali, A M; Agrawal, Aakash; Sajitha Lulu, S; Mohana Priya, A; Vino, S
2017-02-02
In the past years, the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has undergone remarkable changes in all therapeutic modes. The present newfangled care in clinical research is to determine and to pick a new track for better treatment options for RA. Recent ethnopharmacological investigations revealed that traditional herbal remedies are the most preferred modality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, several ayurvedic modes of treatments and formulations for RA are not much studied and documented from Indian traditional system of medicine. Therefore, this directed us to develop an integrated database, RAACFDb (acronym: Rheumatoid Arthritis Ayurvedic Classical Formulations Database) by consolidating data from the repository of Vedic Samhita - The Ayurveda to retrieve the available formulations information easily. Literature data was gathered using several search engines and from ayurvedic practitioners for loading information in the database. In order to represent the collected information about classical ayurvedic formulations, an integrated database is constructed and implemented on a MySQL and PHP back-end. The database is supported by describing all the ayurvedic classical formulations for the treatment rheumatoid arthritis. It includes composition, usage, plant parts used, active ingredients present in the composition and their structures. The prime objective is to locate ayurvedic formulations proven to be quite successful and highly effective among the patients with reduced side effects. The database (freely available at www.beta.vit.ac.in/raacfdb/index.html) hopefully enables easy access for clinical researchers and students to discover novel leads with reduced side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
BioSmalltalk: a pure object system and library for bioinformatics.
Morales, Hernán F; Giovambattista, Guillermo
2013-09-15
We have developed BioSmalltalk, a new environment system for pure object-oriented bioinformatics programming. Adaptive end-user programming systems tend to become more important for discovering biological knowledge, as is demonstrated by the emergence of open-source programming toolkits for bioinformatics in the past years. Our software is intended to bridge the gap between bioscientists and rapid software prototyping while preserving the possibility of scaling to whole-system biology applications. BioSmalltalk performs better in terms of execution time and memory usage than Biopython and BioPerl for some classical situations. BioSmalltalk is cross-platform and freely available (MIT license) through the Google Project Hosting at http://code.google.com/p/biosmalltalk hernan.morales@gmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Thomaes, K; Dorrepaal, E; Draijer, N; de Ruiter, M B; Elzinga, B M; van Balkom, A J; Smit, J H; Veltman, D J
2012-11-01
Functional neuroimaging studies have shown increased Stroop interference coupled with altered anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula activation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These brain areas are associated with error detection and emotional arousal. There is some evidence that treatment can normalize these activation patterns. At baseline, we compared classic and emotional Stroop performance and blood oxygenation level-dependent responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) of 29 child abuse-related complex PTSD patients with 22 non-trauma-exposed healthy controls. In 16 of these patients, we studied treatment effects of psycho-educational and cognitive behavioural stabilizing group treatment (experimental treatment; EXP) added to treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU only, and correlations with clinical improvement. At baseline, complex PTSD patients showed a trend for increased left anterior insula and dorsal ACC activation in the classic Stroop task. Only EXP patients showed decreased dorsal ACC and left anterior insula activation after treatment. In the emotional Stroop contrasts, clinical improvement was associated with decreased dorsal ACC activation and decreased left anterior insula activation. We found further evidence that successful treatment in child abuse-related complex PTSD is associated with functional changes in the ACC and insula, which may be due to improved selective attention and lower emotional arousal, indicating greater cognitive control over PTSD symptoms.
Comparison of Classical and Quantum Bremsstrahlung
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, R.H.; Uskov, D.B.; Korol, A.V.; Obolensky, O.I.
2003-01-01
Classical features persist in bremsstrahlung at surprisingly high energies, while quantum features are present at low energies. For Coulomb bremsstrahlung this is related to the similar properties of Coulomb scattering. For bremsstrahlung in a screened potential, the low energy spectrum and angular distribution exhibit structures. In quantum mechanics these structures are associated with zeroes of particular angular-momentum transfer matrix elements at particular energies, a continuation of the Cooper minima in atomic photoeffect. They lead to transparency windows in free-free absorption. The trajectories of these zeroes in the plane of initial and final transition energies (bound and continuum) has been explored. Corresponding features have now been seen in classical bremsstrahlung, resulting from reduced contributions from particular impact parameters at particular energies. This has suggested the possibility of a more unified treatment of classical and quantum bremsstrahlung, based on the singularities of the scattering amplitude in angular momentum
Prequantum classical statistical field theory: background field as a source of everything?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-01-01
Prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT) is a new attempt to consider quantum mechanics (QM) as an emergent phenomenon, cf. with De Broglie's 'double solution' approach, Bohmian mechanics, stochastic electrodynamics (SED), Nelson's stochastic QM and its generalization by Davidson, 't Hooft's models and their development by Elze. PCSFT is a comeback to a purely wave viewpoint on QM, cf. with early Schrodinger. There is no quantum particles at all, only waves. In particular, photons are simply wave-pulses of the classical electromagnetic field, cf. SED. Moreover, even massive particles are special 'prequantum fields': the electron field, the neutron field, and so on. PCSFT claims that (sooner or later) people will be able to measure components of these fields: components of the 'photonic field' (the classical electromagnetic field of low intensity), electronic field, neutronic field, and so on. At the moment we are able to produce quantum correlations as correlations of classical Gaussian random fields. In this paper we are interested in mathematical and physical reasons of usage of Gaussian fields. We consider prequantum signals (corresponding to quantum systems) as composed of a huge number of wave-pulses (on very fine prequantum time scale). We speculate that the prequantum background field (the field of 'vacuum fluctuations') might play the role of a source of such pulses, i.e., the source of everything.
Diffusion in a pure, high-vacancy-content crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKee, R.A.
1981-01-01
The idea that vacancies can follow a nonrandom walk in a solid has been developed and put into a quantitative form for diffusion in a pure, high-vacancy-content crystal. Intrinsic and tracer diffusion in a metal have been analyzed, and the electrical mobility in an ionic solid has been expressed in terms of the tracer diffusion coefficient and the separate correlation factors for atoms and vacancies. The description uses classical methods of diffusion theory, and generalized results that account for nonrandom vacancy walk have been shown to reduce to those obtained by Howard and Lidiard in a system where the vacancy moves randomly as an isolated point defect. Experimental data for carbon diffusion in fcc iron have been examined to illustrate an interstitial-vacancy analogy that was used in this analysis, and the general result has been applied specifically to discuss vacancy diffusion in Fe/sub 1-x/S
Decoherence and thermalization of a pure quantum state in quantum field theory.
Giraud, Alexandre; Serreau, Julien
2010-06-11
We study the real-time evolution of a self-interacting O(N) scalar field initially prepared in a pure, coherent quantum state. We present a complete solution of the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics from a 1/N expansion of the two-particle-irreducible effective action at next-to-leading order, which includes scattering and memory effects. We demonstrate that, restricting one's attention (or ability to measure) to a subset of the infinite hierarchy of correlation functions, one observes an effective loss of purity or coherence and, on longer time scales, thermalization. We point out that the physics of decoherence is well described by classical statistical field theory.
Roughness as classicality indicator of a quantum state
Lemos, Humberto C. F.; Almeida, Alexandre C. L.; Amaral, Barbara; Oliveira, Adélcio C.
2018-03-01
We define a new quantifier of classicality for a quantum state, the Roughness, which is given by the L2 (R2) distance between Wigner and Husimi functions. We show that the Roughness is bounded and therefore it is a useful tool for comparison between different quantum states for single bosonic systems. The state classification via the Roughness is not binary, but rather it is continuous in the interval [ 0 , 1 ], being the state more classic as the Roughness approaches to zero, and more quantum when it is closer to the unity. The Roughness is maximum for Fock states when its number of photons is arbitrarily large, and also for squeezed states at the maximum compression limit. On the other hand, the Roughness approaches its minimum value for thermal states at infinite temperature and, more generally, for infinite entropy states. The Roughness of a coherent state is slightly below one half, so we may say that it is more a classical state than a quantum one. Another important result is that the Roughness performs well for discriminating both pure and mixed states. Since the Roughness measures the inherent quantumness of a state, we propose another function, the Dynamic Distance Measure (DDM), which is suitable for measure how much quantum is a dynamics. Using DDM, we studied the quartic oscillator, and we observed that there is a certain complementarity between dynamics and state, i.e. when dynamics becomes more quantum, the Roughness of the state decreases, while the Roughness grows as the dynamics becomes less quantum.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sifain, Andrew E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Wang, Linjun [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Prezhdo, Oleg V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States)
2016-06-07
Surface hopping is the most popular method for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Many have reported that it does not rigorously attain detailed balance at thermal equilibrium, but does so approximately. We show that convergence to the Boltzmann populations is significantly improved when the nuclear velocity is reversed after a classically forbidden hop. The proposed prescription significantly reduces the total number of classically forbidden hops encountered along a trajectory, suggesting that some randomization in nuclear velocity is needed when classically forbidden hops constitute a large fraction of attempted hops. Our results are verified computationally using two- and three-level quantum subsystems, coupled to a classical bath undergoing Langevin dynamics.
Classical geometry to quantum behavior correspondence in a virtual extra dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolce, Donatello
2012-01-01
In the Lorentz invariant formalism of compact space–time dimensions the assumption of periodic boundary conditions represents a consistent semi-classical quantization condition for relativistic fields. In Dolce (2011) we have shown, for instance, that the ordinary Feynman path integral is obtained from the interference between the classical paths with different winding numbers associated with the cyclic dynamics of the field solutions. By means of the boundary conditions, the kinematical information of interactions can be encoded on the relativistic geometrodynamics of the boundary, see Dolce (2012) . Furthermore, such a purely four-dimensional theory is manifestly dual to an extra-dimensional field theory. The resulting correspondence between extra-dimensional geometrodynamics and ordinary quantum behavior can be interpreted in terms of AdS/CFT correspondence. By applying this approach to a simple Quark–Gluon–Plasma freeze-out model we obtain fundamental analogies with basic aspects of AdS/QCD phenomenology. - Highlights: ► Quantum behavior is related to the intrinsic periodicity of isolated systems. ► A periodic phenomenon can be parameterized by a virtual extra dimension. ► KK modes are used to describe the quantum excitations. ► 5D classical geometry encodes 4D quantum behavior. ► Geometrodynamical description of AdS/QCD as modulation of space–time periodicity.
Comprehensive study of the dynamics of a classical Kitaev Spin Liquid
Samarakoon, Anjana; Banerjee, Arnab; Batista, Cristian; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Tennant, Alan; Nagler, Stephen
Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) have achieved great interest in both theoretical and experimental condensed matter physics due to their remarkable topological properties. Among many different candidates, the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice is a 2D prototypical QSL which can be experimentally studied in materials based on iridium or ruthenium.Here we study the spin-1/2 Kitaev model using classical Monte-Carlo and semiclassical spin dynamics of classical spins on a honeycomb lattice. Both real and reciprocal space pictures highlighting the differences and similarities of the results to the linear spin wave theory will be discussed in terms dispersion relations of the pure-Kitaev limit and beyond. Interestingly, this technique could capture some of the salient features of the exact quantum solution of the Kitaev model, such as features resembling the Majorana-like mode comparable to the Kitaev energy, which is spectrally narrowed compared to the quantum result, can be explained by magnon excitations on fluctuating onedimensional manifolds (loops). Hence the difference from the classical limit to the quantum limit can be understood by the fractionalization of a magnon to Majorana fermions. The calculations will be directly compared with our neutron scattering data on α-RuCl3 which is a prime candidate for experimental realization of Kitaev physics.
A critical review of classical bouncing cosmologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Battefeld, Diana, E-mail: dbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Institut for Astrophysics, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 (Germany); Peter, Patrick, E-mail: peter@iap.fr [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)
2015-04-01
Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The PLANCK data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scale-invariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary non-Gaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and also assess the fitness of different proposals with respect to the data. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be fine-tuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large non-Gaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing dangerous instabilities at the classical and/or quantum level. If primordial gravitational waves are observed, certain bouncing cosmologies, such as the cyclic scenario, are in trouble, while others remain valid. We conclude that, while most bouncing cosmologies are far from providing an alternative to the inflationary paradigm, a handful of interesting proposals have surfaced, which warrant further research. The constraints and lessons learned as laid out in this review might guide future research.
The Classic: On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV.
Hilton, John
2009-09-01
This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by John Hilton, On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV. An accompanying biographical sketch on John Hilton, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-0927-2 . The Classic Article is reprinted with courtesy from Hilton J. On The Influence of Mechanical and Physiological Rest in the Treatment of Accidents and Surgical Diseases, and the Diagnostic Value of Pain. London, England: Bell and Daldy; 1863.
Alabdulwahab, Amal S; Elsayed, Hussein G; Sherisher, Mohamed A; Zeeneldin, Ahmed; Alghamdi, Khalofa; Elbjeirami, Wafaa M
2017-09-01
The use of intensive pediatric protocols for the treatment of ALL is being extended to older adults. Analysis of the efficacy and toxicity results of pediatric DFCP vs. classic Hyper-CVAD protocol for the treatment of patients with ALL Hyper-CVAD for first line treatment of patients with ALL Hyper-CVAD protocol. CR rate was 90.7% for DFCP vs. 83.7 for Hyper-CVAD (p 0.7). 3 Y Leukemia free survival was 57.4% (70.9% for DFCP vs. 41.6% Hyper-CVAD P 0.1) while 3Y OS was 62.6%% for the whole group, 72.6% DFCP vs. 48.5% Hyper-CVAD, P 0.04. Those with age Hyper-CVAD related to gall stones. Osteonecrosis affected 5 patients on DFCP. pediatric protocols are feasible in patients younger than 50 Y and they are more active than classic adult protocols. Although modifications of adult protocols may improve their results, this had to be investigated in randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyer, Timothy H
2016-01-01
Electromagnetism is a relativistic theory, and one must exercise care in coupling this theory with nonrelativistic classical mechanics and with nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics. Indeed historically, both the blackbody radiation spectrum and diamagnetism within classical theory have been misunderstood because of two crucial failures: (1) the neglect of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the use of erroneous combinations of nonrelativistic mechanics with relativistic electrodynamics. Here we review the treatment of classical blackbody radiation, and show that the presence of Lorentz-invariant classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation can explain both the Planck blackbody spectrum and Landau diamagnetism at thermal equilibrium within classical electromagnetic theory. The analysis requires that relativistic electromagnetism is joined appropriately with simple nonrelativistic mechanical systems which can be regarded as the zero-velocity limits of relativistic systems, and that nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics is applied only in the low-frequency limit when zero-point energy makes no contribution. (paper)
Bi, Xiufang; Hemar, Yacine; Balaban, Murat O; Liao, Xiaojun
2015-11-01
The effect of ultrasound treatment on particle size, color, viscosity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and microstructure in diluted avocado puree was investigated. The treatments were carried out at 20 kHz (375 W/cm(2)) for 0-10 min. The surface mean diameter (D[3,2]) was reduced to 13.44 μm from an original value of 52.31 μm by ultrasound after 1 min. A higher L(∗) value, ΔE value and lower a(∗) value was observed in ultrasound treated samples. The avocado puree dilution followed pseudoplastic flow behavior, and the viscosity of diluted avocado puree (at 100 s(-1)) after ultrasound treatment for 1 min was 6.0 and 74.4 times higher than the control samples for dilution levels of 1:2 and 1:9, respectively. PPO activity greatly increased under all treatment conditions. A maximum increase of 25.1%, 36.9% and 187.8% in PPO activity was found in samples with dilution ratios of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:9, respectively. The increase in viscosity and measured PPO activity might be related to the decrease in particle size. The microscopy images further confirmed that ultrasound treatment induced disruption of avocado puree structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nonrelativistic Schroedinger equation in quasi-classical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wignall, J.W.G.
1987-01-01
The author has recently proposed a quasi-classical theory of particles and interactions in which particles are pictured as extended periodic disturbances in a universal field chi(x,t), interacting with each other via nonlinearity in the equation of motion for chi. The present paper explores the relationship of this theory to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics; as a first step, it is shown how it is possible to construct from chi a configuration-space wave function Psi(x 1 , X 2 , t), and that the theory requires that Psi satisfy the two-particle Schroedinger equation in the case where the two particles are well separated from each other. This suggests that the multiparticle Schroedinger equation can be obtained as a direct consequence of the quasi-classical theory without any use of the usual formalism (Hilbert space, quantization rules, etc.) of conventional quantum theory and in particular without using the classical canonical treatment of a system as a crutch theory which has subsequently to be quantized. The quasi-classical theory also suggests the existence of a preferred absolute gauge for the electromagnetic potentials
On a canonical quantization of 3D Anti de Sitter pure gravity
Kim, Jihun; Porrati, Massimo
2015-10-01
We perform a canonical quantization of pure gravity on AdS 3 using as a technical tool its equivalence at the classical level with a Chern-Simons theory with gauge group SL(2,{R})× SL(2,{R}) . We first quantize the theory canonically on an asymptotically AdS space -which is topologically the real line times a Riemann surface with one connected boundary. Using the "constrain first" approach we reduce canonical quantization to quantization of orbits of the Virasoro group and Kähler quantization of Teichmüller space. After explicitly computing the Kähler form for the torus with one boundary component and after extending that result to higher genus, we recover known results, such as that wave functions of SL(2,{R}) Chern-Simons theory are conformal blocks. We find new restrictions on the Hilbert space of pure gravity by imposing invariance under large diffeomorphisms and normalizability of the wave function. The Hilbert space of pure gravity is shown to be the target space of Conformal Field Theories with continuous spectrum and a lower bound on operator dimensions. A projection defined by topology changing amplitudes in Euclidean gravity is proposed. It defines an invariant subspace that allows for a dual interpretation in terms of a Liouville CFT. Problems and features of the CFT dual are assessed and a new definition of the Hilbert space, exempt from those problems, is proposed in the case of highly-curved AdS 3.
On a canonical quantization of 3D Anti de Sitter pure gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jihun [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics,New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Porrati, Massimo [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics,New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); CERN PH-TH, CH 1211,Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2015-10-14
We perform a canonical quantization of pure gravity on AdS{sub 3} using as a technical tool its equivalence at the classical level with a Chern-Simons theory with gauge group SL(2,ℝ)×SL(2,ℝ). We first quantize the theory canonically on an asymptotically AdS space –which is topologically the real line times a Riemann surface with one connected boundary. Using the “constrain first” approach we reduce canonical quantization to quantization of orbits of the Virasoro group and Kähler quantization of Teichmüller space. After explicitly computing the Kähler form for the torus with one boundary component and after extending that result to higher genus, we recover known results, such as that wave functions of SL(2,ℝ) Chern-Simons theory are conformal blocks. We find new restrictions on the Hilbert space of pure gravity by imposing invariance under large diffeomorphisms and normalizability of the wave function. The Hilbert space of pure gravity is shown to be the target space of Conformal Field Theories with continuous spectrum and a lower bound on operator dimensions. A projection defined by topology changing amplitudes in Euclidean gravity is proposed. It defines an invariant subspace that allows for a dual interpretation in terms of a Liouville CFT. Problems and features of the CFT dual are assessed and a new definition of the Hilbert space, exempt from those problems, is proposed in the case of highly-curved AdS{sub 3}.
Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com
2016-09-15
We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.
Kinetics of heterogeneous nucleation on intrinsic nucleants in pure fcc transition metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilde, G; Bokeloh, J; Santhaweesuk, C; Perepezko, J H; Sebright, J L
2009-01-01
Nucleation during solidification is heterogeneous in nature in an overwhelmingly large fraction of all solidification events. Yet, most often the identity of the heterogeneous nucleants that initiate nucleation remains a matter of speculation. In fact, a series of dedicated experiments needs to be designed in order to verify if nucleation of the material under study is based on one type of heterogeneous nucleant and if the potency of that nucleant is constant, e.g. for a population of individual droplets, or stays constant over time, e.g. throughout repeated melting/solidification cycles. In this work it is demonstrated that one way to circumvent ambiguities and analyze nucleation kinetics under well-defined conditions experimentally is given by performing statistically significant numbers of repeated single-droplet experiments. The application of proper statistics analyses based upon a non-homogeneous Poisson process is shown to yield nucleation rates that are independent of a specific nucleation model. Based upon this approach nucleation undercooling measurements on pure Au, Cu and Ni as model materials have confirmed that the experimental strategy and analysis method are valid. The results are comparable to those obtained by classical nucleation theory applied to experimental data that has been verified to comply with the assertions that are necessary for applying this model framework. However, the results reveal also other complex nucleant-sample interactions such as an initial transient undercooling behavior and impurity removal during repeated cycling treatments. The transient undercooling behavior has been analyzed by a nucleant refining model to provide new insight on the operation of melt fluxing treatments.
Citation classics in neuro-oncology: assessment of historical trends and scientific progress.
Hachem, Laureen D; Mansouri, Alireza; Juraschka, Kyle; Taslimi, Shervin; Pirouzmand, Farhad; Zadeh, Gelareh
2017-09-01
Citation classics represent the highest cited works in a field and are often regarded as the most influential literature. Analyzing thematic trends in citation classics across eras enables recognition of important historical advances within a field. We present the first analysis of the citation classics in neuro-oncology. The Web of Science database was searched using terms relevant to "neuro-oncology." Articles with >400 citations were identified and the top 100 cited articles were evaluated. The top 100 neuro-oncology citation classics consisted of 43 clinical studies (17 retrospective, 10 prospective, 16 randomized trials), 43 laboratory investigations, 8 reviews/meta-analyses, and 6 guidelines/consensus statements. Articles were classified into 4 themes: 13 pertained to tumor classification, 37 to tumor pathogenesis/clinical presentation, 6 to imaging, 44 to therapy (15 chemotherapy, 10 radiotherapy, 5 surgery, 14 new agents). Gliomas were the most common tumor type examined, with 70 articles. There was a significant increase in the number of citation classics in the late 1990s, which was paralleled by an increase in studies examining tumor pathogenesis, chemotherapy, and new agents along with laboratory and randomized studies. The majority of citation classics in neuro-oncology are related to gliomas and pertain to tumor pathogenesis and treatment. The rise in citation classics in recent years investigating tumor biology, new treatment agents, and chemotherapeutics may reflect increasing scientific interest in nonsurgical treatments for CNS tumors and the need for fundamental investigations into disease processes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
Classical gluon and graviton radiation from the bi-adjoint scalar double copy
Goldberger, Walter D.; Prabhu, Siddharth G.; Thompson, Jedidiah O.
2017-09-01
We find double-copy relations between classical radiating solutions in Yang-Mills theory coupled to dynamical color charges and their counterparts in a cubic bi-adjoint scalar field theory which interacts linearly with particles carrying bi-adjoint charge. The particular color-to-kinematics replacements we employ are motivated by the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson double-copy correspondence for on-shell amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. They are identical to those recently used to establish relations between classical radiating solutions in gauge theory and in dilaton gravity. Our explicit bi-adjoint solutions are constructed to second order in a perturbative expansion, and map under the double copy onto gauge theory solutions which involve at most cubic gluon self-interactions. If the correspondence is found to persist to higher orders in perturbation theory, our results suggest the possibility of calculating gravitational radiation from colliding compact objects, directly from a scalar field with vastly simpler (purely cubic) Feynman vertices.
Yu, Byung Chul; Bae, Ki-Chang; Jung, Je Ki; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Park, Yong Ho
2018-03-01
This study examined the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and wear properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/in-situ Al-9Si-SiCp/pure Al composites. Pure Al powder was used to increase densification but it resulted in heterogeneous precipitation as well as differences in hardness among the grains. Heat treatment was conducted to solve this problem. The heat treatment process consisted of three stages: solution treatment, quenching, and aging treatment. After the solution treatment, the main dissolved phases were η'(Mg4Zn7), η(MgZn2), and Al2Cu phase. An aging treatment was conducted over the temperature range, 100-240 °C, for various times. The GP zone and η'(Mg4Zn7) phase precipitated at a low aging temperature of 100-160 °C, whereas the η(MgZn2) phase precipitated at a high aging temperature of 200-240 °C. The hardness of the sample aged at 100-160 °C was higher than that aged at 200-240 °C. The wear test was conducted under various linear speeds with a load of 100 N. The aged composite showed a lower wear rate than that of the as-sintered composite under all conditions. As the linear speed was increased to 1.0 m/s, the predominant wear behavior changed from abrasive to adhesive wear in all composites.
Yu, Byung Chul; Bae, Ki-Chang; Jung, Je Ki; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Park, Yong Ho
2018-05-01
This study examined the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and wear properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/in-situ Al-9Si-SiCp/pure Al composites. Pure Al powder was used to increase densification but it resulted in heterogeneous precipitation as well as differences in hardness among the grains. Heat treatment was conducted to solve this problem. The heat treatment process consisted of three stages: solution treatment, quenching, and aging treatment. After the solution treatment, the main dissolved phases were η'(Mg4Zn7), η(MgZn2), and Al2Cu phase. An aging treatment was conducted over the temperature range, 100-240 °C, for various times. The GP zone and η'(Mg4Zn7) phase precipitated at a low aging temperature of 100-160 °C, whereas the η(MgZn2) phase precipitated at a high aging temperature of 200-240 °C. The hardness of the sample aged at 100-160 °C was higher than that aged at 200-240 °C. The wear test was conducted under various linear speeds with a load of 100 N. The aged composite showed a lower wear rate than that of the as-sintered composite under all conditions. As the linear speed was increased to 1.0 m/s, the predominant wear behavior changed from abrasive to adhesive wear in all composites.
Anatomising proton NMR spectra with pure shift 2D J-spectroscopy: A cautionary tale
Kiraly, Peter; Foroozandeh, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A.
2017-09-01
Analysis of proton NMR spectra has been a key tool in structure determination for over 60 years. A classic tool is 2D J-spectroscopy, but common problems are the difficulty of obtaining the absorption mode lineshapes needed for accurate results, and the need for a 45° shear of the final 2D spectrum. A novel 2D NMR method is reported here that allows straightforward determination of homonuclear couplings, using a modified version of the PSYCHE method to suppress couplings in the direct dimension. The method illustrates the need for care when combining pure shift data acquisition with multiple pulse methods.
Transverse confinement of an ion beam in a purely electrostatic configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correa, J.R.; Ordonez, C.A.; Weathers, D.L.
2005-01-01
The transverse confinement of an ion beam in a purely electrostatic configuration is studied. Analytical expressions for the electric potential of three different electrode configurations are found. Each configuration may be described as consisting of many closely spaced Einzel lenses, such that the focusing periodicity length is much smaller than the transverse size of the beam. Classical trajectory computer simulations are used to obtain a map of the phase space co-ordinates for which transverse electrostatic confinement occurs with one of the configurations. The results indicate that confinement should occur for a large range of conditions. It is speculated that the configurations studied can be used for transverse confinement of ion beams in either electrostatic ion traps or electrostatic ion storage rings
Valley, Lois
1989-01-01
The SPS product, Classic-Ada, is a software tool that supports object-oriented Ada programming with powerful inheritance and dynamic binding. Object Oriented Design (OOD) is an easy, natural development paradigm, but it is not supported by Ada. Following the DOD Ada mandate, SPS developed Classic-Ada to provide a tool which supports OOD and implements code in Ada. It consists of a design language, a code generator and a toolset. As a design language, Classic-Ada supports the object-oriented principles of information hiding, data abstraction, dynamic binding, and inheritance. It also supports natural reuse and incremental development through inheritance, code factoring, and Ada, Classic-Ada, dynamic binding and static binding in the same program. Only nine new constructs were added to Ada to provide object-oriented design capabilities. The Classic-Ada code generator translates user application code into fully compliant, ready-to-run, standard Ada. The Classic-Ada toolset is fully supported by SPS and consists of an object generator, a builder, a dictionary manager, and a reporter. Demonstrations of Classic-Ada and the Classic-Ada Browser were given at the workshop.
Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Sokorai, Kimberly; Ukuku, Dike; Fan, Xuetong; Juneja, Vijay
2017-01-01
The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) applied to cantaloupe puree (CP) on microbial loads and product quality during storage for 10days at 4°C. Freshly prepared, double sealed and double bagged CP (ca. 5g) was pressure treated at 300, 400 and 500MPa at 8°C and 15°C for 5min. Microflora populations, soluble solid content, pH, color, antioxidant activity, appearance and aroma were measured at 1, 6, and 10d of storage. Results showed that high pressure treatment of 300MPa (8°C and 15°C) resulted in reduction of total aerobic plate count from 3.3 to 1.8logCFU/g. The treatment reduced the populations of native aerobic plate count to non-detectable levels (detection limit 1logCFU/g) at 400MPa and 500MPa pressures at 15°C. Pressure treatment completely inactivated mold and yeast in puree below the limits of detection at day 1 and no regrowth was observed during 10days of storage at 4°C while mold and yeast in untreated puree survived during the storage. High pressure treatment did not show any adverse impact on physical properties as soluble solid content (SSC, 11.2°Brix) and acidity (pH, 6.9). The instrumental color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were affected due to HHP treatment creating a slightly lighter product, compared to control, as indicated by higher L.* and lower a* values. However the change was not detected by the sensory panel while evaluating appearance scores. Pressure treatment did not affect the antioxidant capacity of puree product compared to control. Visual appearance and sniffing aroma test by panel revealed no adverse changes in the sensory parameters as a result of HHP treatment. HHP method described in this study appears to be a promising way to inactivate spoilage microorganisms in the cantaloupe puree and maintain quality. This study provides a viable option for preservation and marketing this product. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2006-01-01
We lay a comprehensive foundation for the study of redundant information storage in decoherence processes. Redundancy has been proposed as a prerequisite for objectivity, the defining property of classical objects. We consider two ensembles of states for a model universe consisting of one system and many environments: the first consisting of arbitrary states, and the second consisting of 'singly branching' states consistent with a simple decoherence model. Typical states from the random ensemble do not store information about the system redundantly, but information stored in branching states has a redundancy proportional to the environment's size. We compute the specific redundancy for a wide range of model universes, and fit the results to a simple first-principles theory. Our results show that the presence of redundancy divides information about the system into three parts: classical (redundant); purely quantum; and the borderline, undifferentiated or 'nonredundant', information
Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2006-06-01
We lay a comprehensive foundation for the study of redundant information storage in decoherence processes. Redundancy has been proposed as a prerequisite for objectivity, the defining property of classical objects. We consider two ensembles of states for a model universe consisting of one system and many environments: the first consisting of arbitrary states, and the second consisting of “singly branching” states consistent with a simple decoherence model. Typical states from the random ensemble do not store information about the system redundantly, but information stored in branching states has a redundancy proportional to the environment’s size. We compute the specific redundancy for a wide range of model universes, and fit the results to a simple first-principles theory. Our results show that the presence of redundancy divides information about the system into three parts: classical (redundant); purely quantum; and the borderline, undifferentiated or “nonredundant,” information.
From classical to quantum mechanics: ``How to translate physical ideas into mathematical language''
Bergeron, H.
2001-09-01
Following previous works by E. Prugovečki [Physica A 91A, 202 (1978) and Stochastic Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Space-time (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1986)] on common features of classical and quantum mechanics, we develop a unified mathematical framework for classical and quantum mechanics (based on L2-spaces over classical phase space), in order to investigate to what extent quantum mechanics can be obtained as a simple modification of classical mechanics (on both logical and analytical levels). To obtain this unified framework, we split quantum theory in two parts: (i) general quantum axiomatics (a system is described by a state in a Hilbert space, observables are self-adjoints operators, and so on) and (ii) quantum mechanics proper that specifies the Hilbert space as L2(Rn); the Heisenberg rule [pi,qj]=-iℏδij with p=-iℏ∇, the free Hamiltonian H=-ℏ2Δ/2m and so on. We show that general quantum axiomatics (up to a supplementary "axiom of classicity") can be used as a nonstandard mathematical ground to formulate physical ideas and equations of ordinary classical statistical mechanics. So, the question of a "true quantization" with "ℏ" must be seen as an independent physical problem not directly related with quantum formalism. At this stage, we show that this nonstandard formulation of classical mechanics exhibits a new kind of operation that has no classical counterpart: this operation is related to the "quantization process," and we show why quantization physically depends on group theory (the Galilei group). This analytical procedure of quantization replaces the "correspondence principle" (or canonical quantization) and allows us to map classical mechanics into quantum mechanics, giving all operators of quantum dynamics and the Schrödinger equation. The great advantage of this point of view is that quantization is based on concrete physical arguments and not derived from some "pure algebraic rule" (we exhibit also some limit of the correspondence
Classical limit of irregular blocks and Mathieu functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piątek, Marcin; Pietrykowski, Artur R.
2016-01-01
The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the N = 2 SU(2) pure gauge (Ω-deformed) super Yang-Mills theory encodes the information about the spectrum of the Mathieu operator. On the other hand, the Mathieu equation emerges entirely within the frame of two-dimensional conformal field theory (2d CFT) as the classical limit of the null vector decoupling equation for some degenerate irregular block. Therefore, it seems to be possible to investigate the spectrum of the Mathieu operator employing the techniques of 2d CFT. To exploit this strategy, a full correspondence between the Mathieu equation and its realization within 2d CFT has to be established. In our previous paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)032, we have found that the expression of the Mathieu eigenvalue given in terms of the classical irregular block exactly coincides with the well known weak coupling expansion of this eigenvalue in the case in which the auxiliary parameter is the noninteger Floquet exponent. In the present work we verify that the formula for the corresponding eigenfunction obtained from the irregular block reproduces the so-called Mathieu exponent from which the noninteger order elliptic cosine and sine functions may be constructed. The derivation of the Mathieu equation within the formalism of 2d CFT is based on conjectures concerning the asymptotic behaviour of irregular blocks in the classical limit. A proof of these hypotheses is sketched. Finally, we speculate on how it could be possible to use the methods of 2d CFT in order to get from the irregular block the eigenvalues of the Mathieu operator in other regions of the coupling constant.
Invitation to classical analysis
Duren, Peter
2012-01-01
This book gives a rigorous treatment of selected topics in classical analysis, with many applications and examples. The exposition is at the undergraduate level, building on basic principles of advanced calculus without appeal to more sophisticated techniques of complex analysis and Lebesgue integration. Among the topics covered are Fourier series and integrals, approximation theory, Stirling's formula, the gamma function, Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, the Riemann zeta function, Tauberian theorems, elliptic integrals, ramifications of the Cantor set, and a theoretical discussion of differ
How far can radiation from atoms be represented by classical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haar, D. Ter; Wergeland, H.
1978-01-01
In recent years some phenomena currently assumed to be essentially quantal have found an accurate description in classical terms. An example is Lamb's semiclassical theory of the laser. Consequently many physicists are discussing in how far a full quantum mechanical treatment is necessary. A good many of the formulae for the radiation from atoms can certainly be obtained by classical methods. But these methods fail already at the question of the line profiles. Even though the damping is a simple mechanism - classically speaking. It seems inevitible that the semi-classical formulae must be limited to those phenomena which essentially only involve the averages of photon numbers. (JIW)
Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, R A
1977-01-01
A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...
Loire Classics: Reviving Classicism in some Loire Poets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wim Verbaal
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The term 'Loire poets' has come to refer to a rather undefinable group of poets that in the second half of the eleventh century distinguishes itself through its refined poetics. They are often characterized as medieval humanists thanks to their renewed interest in the classics. Sometimes their movement is labelled a 'classicist' one. But what does this 'classicism' mean? Is it even permitted to speak of medieval 'classicisms'? This contribution approaches the question of whether we can apply this modern label to pre-modern phenomena. Moreover, it explores the changes in attitude towards the classics that sets the Loire poets off from their predecessors and contemporaries. The article focuses on poems by Hildebert of Lavardin, Baudri of Bourgueil, Marbod of Rennes, and Geoffrey of Reims. They are compared with some contemporary poets, such as Reginald of Canterbury and Sigebert of Gembloux.
Hu, Chia-Ren
2004-03-01
We present classical macroscopic, microscopic, and quantum mechanical arguments to show that in a metallic or electron/hole-doped semiconducting sheet thinner than the screening length, a displacement current applied normal to it can induce a spinomotive force along it. The magnitude is weak but clearly detectable. The classical arguments are purely electromagnetic. The quantum argument, based on the Dirac equation, shows that the predicted effect originates from the spin-orbit interaction, but not of the usual kind. That is, it relies on an external electric field, whereas the usual S-O interaction involves the electric field generated by the ions. Because the Dirac equation incorporatesThomas precession, which is due to relativistic kinematics, the quantum prediction is a factor of two smaller than the classical prediction. Replacing the displacement current by a charge current, and one obtains a new source for the spin-Hall effect. Classical macroscopic argument also predicts its existence, but the other two views are controversial.
Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sgobba, S. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kuenzi, H.U. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Ilschner, B. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))
1993-11-01
Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.).
Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sgobba, S.; Kuenzi, H.U.; Ilschner, B.
1993-01-01
Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.
1997-03-01
We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors)
Classical and quantum mechanics of the damped harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dekker, H.
1981-01-01
The relations between various treatments of the classical linearly damped harmonic oscillator and its quantization are investigated. In the course of a historical survey typical features of the problem are discussed on the basis of Havas' classical Hamiltonian and the quantum mechanical Suessmann-Hasse-Albrecht models as coined by the Muenchen/Garching nuclear physics group. It is then shown how by imposing a restriction on the classical trajectories in order to connect the Hamiltonian with the energy, the time-independent Bateman-Morse-Feshbach-Bopp Hamiltonian leads to the time-dependent Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian. Canonical quantization of either formulation entails a violation of Heisenberg's principle. By means of a unified treatment of both the electrical and mechanical semi-infinite transmission line, this defect is related to the disregard of additional quantum fluctuations that are intrinsically connected with the dissipation. The difficulties of these models are discussed. Then it is proved that the Bateman dual Hamiltonian is connected to a recently developed complex symplectic formulation by a simple canonical transformation. (orig.)
Luria-Delbrück, revisited: the classic experiment does not rule out Lamarckian evolution
Holmes, Caroline M.; Ghafari, Mahan; Abbas, Anzar; Saravanan, Varun; Nemenman, Ilya
2017-10-01
We re-examined data from the classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment, which is often credited with establishing a Darwinian basis for evolution. We argue that, for the Lamarckian model of evolution to be ruled out by the experiment, the experiment must favor pure Darwinian evolution over both the Lamarckian model and a model that allows both Darwinian and Lamarckian mechanisms (as would happen for bacteria with CRISPR-Cas immunity). Analysis of the combined model was not performed in the original 1943 paper. The Luria-Delbrück paper also did not consider the possibility of neither model fitting the experiment. Using Bayesian model selection, we find that the Luria-Delbrück experiment, indeed, favors the Darwinian evolution over purely Lamarckian. However, our analysis does not rule out the combined model, and hence cannot rule out Lamarckian contributions to the evolutionary dynamics.
Perspectives on the Pure-Tone Audiogram.
Musiek, Frank E; Shinn, Jennifer; Chermak, Gail D; Bamiou, Doris-Eva
The pure-tone audiogram, though fundamental to audiology, presents limitations, especially in the case of central auditory involvement. Advances in auditory neuroscience underscore the considerably larger role of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) in hearing and related disorders. Given the availability of behavioral audiological tests and electrophysiological procedures that can provide better insights as to the function of the various components of the auditory system, this perspective piece reviews the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram and notes some of the advantages of other tests and procedures used in tandem with the pure-tone threshold measurement. To review and synthesize the literature regarding the utility and limitations of the pure-tone audiogram in determining dysfunction of peripheral sensory and neural systems, as well as the CANS, and to identify other tests and procedures that can supplement pure-tone thresholds and provide enhanced diagnostic insight, especially regarding problems of the central auditory system. A systematic review and synthesis of the literature. The authors independently searched and reviewed literature (journal articles, book chapters) pertaining to the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram. The pure-tone audiogram provides information as to hearing sensitivity across a selected frequency range. Normal or near-normal pure-tone thresholds sometimes are observed despite cochlear damage. There are a surprising number of patients with acoustic neuromas who have essentially normal pure-tone thresholds. In cases of central deafness, depressed pure-tone thresholds may not accurately reflect the status of the peripheral auditory system. Listening difficulties are seen in the presence of normal pure-tone thresholds. Suprathreshold procedures and a variety of other tests can provide information regarding other and often more central functions of the auditory system. The audiogram is a primary tool for determining type
Generalized pure Lovelock gravity
Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn
2017-11-01
We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.
About the elaboration of pure uranium dicarbide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besson, J.; Blum, P.; Guinet, Ph.; Spitz, J.
1963-01-01
In order to develop methods for the elaboration of as pure as possible uranium dicarbide, the authors report the study of different elaboration processes based on the reaction between uranium and carbon, or between uranium and hydrocarbon, or between uranium oxide and carbon. They finally choose a method which comprises an arc-induced fusion of a mixture of uranium dioxide and carbon. The fusion process is described. The influence of thermal treatments is discussed as well as the graphite electrode carburization
Optimal estimate of a pure qubit state from Uhlmann-Josza fidelity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aoki, Manuel Avila, E-mail: manvlk@yahoo.com [Centro Universitario UAEM Valle de Chalco, UAEMex, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)
2012-04-15
In the framework of collective measurements, efforts have been made to reconstruct one-qubit states. Such schemes find an obstacle in the no-cloning theorem, which prevents full reconstruction of a quantum state. Quantum Mechanics thus restricts to obtain estimates of the reconstruction of a pure qubit. We discuss the optimal estimate on the basis of the Uhlmann-Josza fidelity, respecting the limitations imposed by the no-cloning theorem. We derive a realistic optimal expression for the average fidelity. Our formalism also introduces an optimization parameter L. Values close to zero imply full reconstruction of the qubit (i. e., the classical limit), while larger L's represent good quantum optimization of the qubit estimate. The parameter L is interpreted as the degree of quantumness of the average fidelity associated with the reconstruction. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deb, Prasenjit; Banik, Manik
2015-01-01
Quantum correlation lies at the very heart of almost all of the non-classical phenomena exhibited by quantum systems composed of two or more subsystems. In recent times it has been pointed out that there is a kind of quantum correlation, namely discord, which is more general than entanglement. Some authors have investigated the phenomenon that for certain initial states the quantum correlations as well as the classical correlations exhibit sudden change under simple Markovian noise. We show that this dynamical behavior of the correlations of both types can be explained using the idea of complementary correlations. We also show that though a certain class of mixed entangled states can resist the monotonic decay of quantum correlations, this is not true for all mixed states. Moreover, pure entangled states of two qubits will never exhibit such sudden change. (paper)
A classical treatment of the quadratic Zeeman effect in atomic hydrogen
Al-Laithy, M. A.; Farmer, C. M.; McDowell, M. R. C.
1985-03-01
A description of the non-relativistic classical motion of the electron of a hydrogen atom in the presence of a static magnetic field of arbitrary (non-relativistic) strength is given for arbitrary angular momentum. Applications are given to m = 0 and m = 3 at B = 26.877 kG.
Generalized pure Lovelock gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Concha
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.
Biosorpsi Tanaman Puring (Codiaeum variegatum Terhadap Emisi Timbal (Pb Pada Kendaraan Bermotor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nur Amalia P
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Enhancement the motorized vehicle number will be potential for air pollution in the big cities. One of the pollutant which is resulted from burning process fuel is timbale (Pb metal. Alternative effort that is used to decrease the higher timbale (Pb metal pollutantmaterial is with manner biosorption use puring plant (codiaeumvariegatum.The aim of this research is to know the puring plantability in absorbs Pb metal. The treatment methodis used to sprinkling plant and without sprinkling and than directly exposure to plant with period 3,6 and 9 days. The result of research that puring leaves ability can absorb Pb concentration metal between (1 until 1,5 ppm or 0,304 mg/Kg at nine days of period exposure, it order can be considered as biosorption agent Pb metal pollution.
Depth concentrations of deuterium ions implanted into some pure metals and alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Didyk, A.Yu.; Wisniewski, R.; Kitowski, K.; Wilczynska, T.; Hofman, A.; Kulikauskas, V.; Shiryaev, A.A.; Zubavichyus, Ya.V.
2011-01-01
Pure metals (Cu, Ti, Zr, V, Pd) and diluted Pd alloys (Pd-Ag, Pd-Pt, Pd-Ru, Pd-Rh) were implanted by 25-keV deuterium ions at fluences in the range (1.2-2.3) x 10 22 D + /m 2 . The post-treatment depth distributions of deuterium ions were measured 10 days and three months after the implantation by using Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). Comparison of the obtained results allowed us to make conclusions about relative stability of deuterium and hydrogen gases in pure metals and diluted Pd alloys. Very high diffusion rates of implanted deuterium ions from V and Pd pure metals and Pd alloys were observed. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed formation of nanosized defects in implanted corundum and titanium
Investigation of classical radiation reaction with aligned crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Piazza, A., E-mail: dipiazza@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 (Germany); Wistisen, Tobias N.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark)
2017-02-10
Classical radiation reaction is the effect of the electromagnetic field emitted by an accelerated electric charge on the motion of the charge itself. The self-consistent underlying classical equation of motion including radiation–reaction effects, the Landau–Lifshitz equation, has never been tested experimentally, in spite of the first theoretical treatments of radiation reaction having been developed more than a century ago. Here we show that classical radiation reaction effects, in particular those due to the near electromagnetic field, as predicted by the Landau–Lifshitz equation, can be measured in principle using presently available facilities, in the energy emission spectrum of 30-GeV electrons crossing a 0.55-mm thick diamond crystal in the axial channeling regime. Our theoretical results indicate the feasibility of the suggested setup, e.g., at the CERN Secondary Beam Areas (SBA) beamlines.
A Rare Prostatic Diagnosis of an Old Man: A Pure Prostatic Leiomyoma
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W. M. van Ulden-Bleumink
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A pure leiomyoma of the prostate is a rare benign tumor. An 82-year-old man was referred to our urology department with gross hematuria and complete urinary retention. Examination revealed a benign prostatic hyperplasia. Transrectal ultrasound showed a prostate of 125 mL. Serum PSA was 1.9 µg/L. A simple retropubic prostatectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed a pure leiomyoma of the prostate, without the presence of glandular prostate tissue. The diagnosis, characteristics, and treatment of this tumor are described.
On the consistency of classical and quantum supergravity theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hack, Thomas-Paul [II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg (Germany); Makedonski, Mathias [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Schenkel, Alexander [Department of Stochastics, University of Wuppertal (Germany)
2012-07-01
It is known that pure N=1 supergravity in d=4 spacetime dimensions is consistent at a classical and quantum level, i.e. that in a particular gauge the field equations assume a hyperbolic form - ensuring causal propagation of the degrees of freedom - and that the associated canonical quantum field theory satisfies unitarity. It seems, however, that it is yet unclear whether these properties persist if one considers the more general and realistic case of N=1, d=4 supergravity theories including arbitrary matter fields. We partially clarify the issue by introducing novel hyperbolic gauges for the gravitino field and proving that they commute with the resulting equations of motion. Moreover, we review recent partial results on the unitarity of these general supergravity theories and suggest first steps towards a comprehensive unitarity proof.
CLASSICAL AND NON-CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
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T. A. Kozlova
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The goals and values of human life, the search for the meaning of human existence contain the potential for a meaningful, progressive development of philosophical and anthropological ideas at any time in history. One of the tasks of philosophical anthropology is the formation of the image of man, the choice of ways to achieve the ideal, the methods of comprehension and resolution of universal problems. The increasing processes of differentiation in science led to the formation of different views on the nature of man, to the distinction between classical and non-classical philosophical anthropology. А comparative analysis of these trends is given in this article.Materials and methods: The dialectical method is preferred in the question of research methodology, the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches are used.Results: The development of philosophical anthropology correlates with the challenges of modernity. By tracking the trends of human change, philosophical anthropology changes the approach to the consideration of its main subject of research. The whole array of disciplines that study man comes to new discoveries, new theories, and philosophical anthropology changes its view of the vision, challenging the principles of classical philosophical anthropology.Classical philosophical anthropology elevates the biological nature of man to a pedestal, non-classical philosophical anthropology actualizes questions of language, culture, thinking, understanding, actualizes the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches. The desire to understand a person in classical philosophical anthropology is based on the desire to fully reveal the biological mechanisms in a person. The perspective of treating a person in nonclassical philosophical anthropology is polyformen: man as a text, as a dreaming self, as an eternal transition. Non-classical philosophical anthropology, goes from the idea of identity to the idea of variability, from
Musical notation reading in pure alexia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Starrfelt, Randi; Wong, Yetta K.
2017-01-01
Pure alexia (PA) is an acquired reading disorder following lesions to left ventral temporo-occipital cortex. Patients with PA read slowly but correctly, and show an abnormal effect of word length on RTs. However, it is unclear how pure alexia may affect musical notation reading. We report a pure...
The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolivar, A.O. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2001-08-01
Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2{pi} {yields} 0. (author)
The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolivar, A.O.
2001-08-01
Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2π → 0. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabeza, R.; Bargallo, J.; Crespi, M.
2005-07-01
The use of pure oxygen in biological waste water treatment plants offers a number of advantages due to its physicochemical properties in relation to Henry's Law Flick's Law. Pure oxygen is employed in addition to, or instead of, the existing oxygenation system for treating waste in plants in industrial sectors such as foods, chemicals, paper-making, textiles and others. Its main application is in heavy load treatments and when there are problems of space for siting or enlarging the plant, as it combines well with membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequence batch reactor (SBR) treatments, as has been shown in several plants in operation. (Author) 4 refs.
A comparative trial of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for "pure" dysthymic patients.
Markowitz, John C; Kocsis, James H; Bleiberg, Kathryn L; Christos, Paul J; Sacks, Michael
2005-12-01
Psychotherapy of "pure" dysthymic disorder remains understudied. This article reports outcomes of an acute randomized trial of 94 subjects treated for 16 weeks with either interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP), sertraline, or sertraline plus IPT. Recruited by clinical referral and advertising, subjects met DSM-IV criteria for early onset dysthymic disorder, with no episode of major depression in the prior six months. They were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments, with options for crossover or continuation treatment. Results were analyzed from the intention-to-treat sample by ANCOVA, controlling for baseline depressive severity. Subjects improved in all conditions over time, with the cells including sertraline pharmacotherapy showing superiority over psychotherapy alone for response and remission. Response rates were 58% for sertraline alone, 57% for combined treatment, 35% for IPT, and 31% for BSP. The study was underpowered and may have employed too "active" a control condition. Follow-up data were unobtainable. In this acute trial for "pure" dysthymic disorder, sertraline with or without IPT showed advantages relative to IPT and BSP. Methodological difficulties may have limited differential outcome findings. This study bolsters a small but growing literature on the treatment of dysthymic disorder, suggesting that pharmacotherapy may acutely benefit patients more than psychotherapy.
Scale covariant physics: a 'quantum deformation' of classical electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, Yehonatan; Yavneh, Irad
2010-01-01
We present a deformation of classical electrodynamics, continuously depending on a 'quantum parameter', featuring manifest gauge, Poincare and scale covariance. The theory, dubbed extended charge dynamics (ECD), associates a certain length scale with each charge which, due to scale covariance, is an attribute of a solution, not a parameter of the theory. When the EM field experienced by an ECD charge is slowly varying over that length scale, the dynamics of the charge reduces to classical dynamics, its emitted radiation reduces to the familiar Lienard-Wiechert potential and the above length scale is identified as the charge's Compton length. It is conjectured that quantum mechanics describes statistical aspects of ensembles of ECD solutions, much like classical thermodynamics describes statistical aspects of ensembles of classical solutions. A unique 'remote sensing' feature of ECD, supporting that conjecture, is presented, along with an explanation for the illusion of a photon within a classical treatment of the EM field. Finally, a novel conservation law associated with the scale covariance of ECD is derived, indicating that the scale of a solution may 'drift' with time at a constant rate, much like translation covariance implies a uniform drift of the (average) position.
Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities*
de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Santos Paim; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Duarte, Gleison Vieira
2015-01-01
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis. PMID:25672294
Why aortic elasticity differs among classical and non-classical mitral valve prolapsed?
Unlu, Murat; Demirkol, Sait; Aparci, Mustafa; Arslan, Zekeriya; Balta, Sevket; Dogan, Umuttan; Kilicarslan, Baris; Ozeke, Ozcan; Celik, Turgay; Iyisoy, Atila
2014-01-01
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valvular heart disease and characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. There are two types of MVP, broadly classified as classic (thickness ≥5 mm) and non-classic (thickness elastic properties of the aorta in young male patients with classical and non-classical MVP. In the present study, 63 young adult males (mean age: 22.7 ± 4.2) were included. Patients were divided into classic MVP (n = 27) and non-classic MVP (n = 36) groups. Aortic strain, aortic distensibility and aortic stiffness index were calculated by using aortic diameters obtained by echocardiography and blood pressures measured by sphygmomanometer. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, body mass index, left ventricular mass and ejection fraction. When comparing the MVP group it was found that aortic strain and aortic distensibility were increased (p = 0.0027, p = 0.016, respectively) whereas the aortic stiffness index was decreased (p = 0.06) in the classical MVP group. We concluded that the elastic properties of the aorta is increased in patients with classic MVP. Further large scale studies should be performed to understand of morphological and physiological properties of the aorta in patients with MVP.
A Comparison of Kinetic Energy and Momentum in Special Relativity and Classical Mechanics
Riggs, Peter J.
2016-01-01
Kinetic energy and momentum are indispensable dynamical quantities in both the special theory of relativity and in classical mechanics. Although momentum and kinetic energy are central to understanding dynamics, the differences between their relativistic and classical notions have not always received adequate treatment in undergraduate teaching.…
Pure culture response of ectomycorrhizal fungi to imposed water stress
Mark D. Coleman; Caroline S. Bledsoe; William Lopushinsky
1989-01-01
The ability of ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates to tolerate imposed water stress in pure culture was examined in 55 isolates of 18 species. Water potential treatments, adjusted with polyethylene glycol, were applied to Petri dish units. These units allowed colony diameter measurements of fungi grown on liquid media. Delayed growth initiation and inhibition of growth...
Classical and semiclassical treatments of highly charged ions + H(1s) collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Errea, L.F.; Illescas, C.; Mendez, L.; Pons, B.; Riera, A.; Suarez, J.
2005-01-01
We present impact-parameter classical trajectory Monte-Carlo and molecular close-coupling calculations for total and partial cross sections for Ne 10+ , Ar 18 + H(1s) collisions, which have recently became of interest in fusion plasma research
Pure homology of algebraic varieties
Weber, Andrzej
2003-01-01
We show that for a complete complex algebraic variety the pure component of homology coincides with the image of intersection homology. Therefore pure homology is topologically invariant. To obtain slightly more general results we introduce "image homology" for noncomplete varieties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu.G.Rudoy
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The concept of effective temperature (ET T*(T0, T is used in order to approximately "quantize" the thermodynamic functions of the dynamical object which is in the thermal equilibrium with thermal bath being at constant temperature T (T0=E0/kB, where E0 is the ground-state energy, kB - Boltzmann constant, is the characteristic ``quantum'' temperature of the system itself. On these grounds the extensive comparative investigation is carried out for the ``standard model'' of statistical mechanics - the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator (HO. Three well-known approaches are considered and their thermodynamic consequences thoroughly studied. These are: the exact quantum, or non-classical Planck-Einstein approach, intermediate, or semiclassical Bloch-Wigner approach and, finally, the pure classical, or Maxwell-Boltzmann approach.
Classical treatment of Li2++Ar and He2++Ar collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jorge, A; Illescas, Clara; Pons, B
2015-01-01
Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo calculations are carried out for Li 2+ +Ar and He 2+ +Ar collisions, motivated by recent experiments on these systems. Cross sections for electron capture, projectile electron loss and target multiple ionization processes are evaluated and compared to the experimental values in the 75-500 keV/amy impact energy range. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyer, T.H.
1975-01-01
The theory of classical electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation is outlined here under the title random electrodynamics. The work represents a reanalysis of the bounds of validity of classical electron theory which should sharpen the understanding of the connections and distinctions between classical and quantum theories. The new theory of random electrodynamics is a classical electron theory involving Newton's equations for particle motion due to the Lorentz force, and Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields with point particles as sources. However, the theory departs from the classical electron theory of Lorentz in that it adopts a new boundary condition on Maxwell's equations. It is assumed that the homogeneous boundary condition involves random classical electromagnetic radiation with a Lorentz-invariant spectrum, classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. The implications of random electrodynamics for atomic structure, atomic spectra, and particle-interference effects are discussed on an order-of-magnitude or heuristic level. Some detailed mathematical connections and some merely heuristic connections are noted between random electrodynamics and quantum theory. (U.S.)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma
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Afonso José Pereira Cortez
2011-02-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hodgkin's lymphoma has high rates of cure, but in 15% to 20% of general patients and between 35% and 40% of those in advanced stages, the disease will progress or will relapse after initial treatment. For this group, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered one option of salvage therapy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a group of 106 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, who suffered relapse or who were refractory to treatment, submitted to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a single transplant center. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with data collected from patient charts. The analysis involved 106 classical Hodgkin's lymphoma patients who were consecutively submitted to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous transplants in a single institution from April 1993 to December 2006. RESULTS: The overall survival rates of this population at five and ten years were 86% and 70%, respectively. The disease-free survival was approximately 60% at five years. Four patients died of procedure-related causes but relapse of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma after transplant was the most frequent cause of death. Univariate analysis shows that sensitivity to pre-transplant treatment and hemoglobin < 10 g/dL at diagnosis had an impact on patient survival. Unlike other studies, B-type symptoms did not seem to affect overall survival. Lactic dehydrogenase and serum albumin concentrations analyzed at diagnosis did not influence patient survival either. CONCLUSION: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment strategy for early and late relapse in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma for cases that were responsive to pre-transplant chemotherapy. Refractory to treatment is a sign of worse prognosis. Additionally, a hemoglobin concentration below 10 g/dL at diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma has a negative impact on the survival of patients after transplant. As far as we know this relationship has not
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José, E-mail: aljomarvechiatoflo@gmail.com [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ. Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Silva Vieira Marques, Isabella da [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Santos, Daniela Micheline dos [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ. Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira Matos, Adaias [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da [Laboratory of Technological Plasmas (LaPTec), Engineering College, Univ. Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2016-03-01
The effect of nonthermal plasma on the surface characteristics of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti), and on the shear bond strength between an autopolymerizing acrylic resin and cp-Ti was investigated. A total of 96 discs of cp-Ti were distributed into four groups (n = 24): Po (no surface treatment), SB (sandblasting), Po + NTP and SB + NTP (methane plasma). Surface characterization was performed through surface energy, surface roughness, scanning microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction tests. Shear bond strength test was conducted immediately and after thermocycling. Surface treatment affected the surface energy and roughness of cp-Ti discs (P < .001). SEM–EDS showed the presence of the carbide thin film. XRD spectra revealed no crystalline phase changes. The SB + NTP group showed the highest bond strength values (6.76 ± 0.70 MPa). Thermocycling reduced the bond strength of the acrylic resin/cp-Ti interface (P < .05), except for Po group. NTP is an effective treatment option for improving the shear bond strength between both materials. - Highlights: • We tested the bond strength between two widely used materials in dentistry (acrylic and titanium). • We performed an innovative surface treatment with nonthermal plasma. • Increasing adhesion will avoid complications of full-arch implant-retained prostheses.
Analysis of pure maple syrup consumers
Paul E. Sendak
1974-01-01
Virtually all of the pure maple syrup productim in the United States is in the northern states of Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Pure maple syrup users living in the maple production area and users living in other areas of the United States were asked a series of questions about their use of pure...
A history of seafaring in the classical world (routledge revivals)
Meijer, Fik
2014-01-01
A History of Seafaring in the Classical World, first published in 1986, presents a complete treatment of all aspects of the maritime history of the Classical world, designed for the use of students as well as scholars. Beginning with Crete and Mycenae in the third millennium BC, the author expounds a concise history of seafaring up to the sixth century AD. The development of ship design and of the different types of ship, the varied purposes of shipping, and the status and conditions of sailors are all discussed. Many of the most important sea battles are investigated, and the book is illustrated with a number of line drawings and photographs. Greek and Latin word are only used if they are technical terms, ensuring A History of Seafaring in the Classical World is accessible to students of ancient history who are not familiar with the Classical languages.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Labbadia
2012-09-01
Full Text Available A case of pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy is reported here. The patient presented with anemia unresponsive to erythropoietin treatment. Bone marrow cytomorphology was highly suggestive of parvovirus pure red cell aplasia, which was confirmed with serology and polymerase chain reaction positive for parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. After the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin the anemia improved with a rising number of the reticulocytes.
Classical model for nuclear collisions including the meson degree of freedom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babinet, R.; Kunz, J.; Mosel, U.; Wilets, L.
1980-01-01
Many different approaches have been taken to describe high energy heavy ion collisions. L. Wilets et al proposed a classical treatment of the problem. In his model non-relativistic nucleons move on classical trajectories. However, the Pauli-principle is simulated by a momentum dependent potential acting between the nucleons. This model is extended in two ways. The nucleons are coupled to a pionfield, which enables us to describe inelastic processes. Nucleons and pionfiled are treated completely relativistically, this also assures Lorentz invariance. We aim at a set of classical equations of motion describing the interacting system of nucleons and pionfield. These classical equations should have a quantum mechanical basis. Further, they should contain such fundamental properties of the pion-nucleon system as the Δ(3,3)-resonance, at least in a qualitative manner. (orig./FKS)
A many-particle adiabatic invariant of strongly magnetized pure electron plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hjorth, P.G.
1988-01-01
A pure electron plasma is said to be strongly magnetized if the cyclotron radius of the electrons is much smaller than the classical distance of closest approach. In this parameter regime a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional dynamics. For the case of a uniform magnetic field, the adiabatic invariant is the total kinetic energy associated with the electron velocity components that are perpendicular to the magnetic field (i.e., Σ j mv 2 j perpendicular/2). Were the adiabatic invariant an exact constant of the motion, no exchange of energy would be possible between the parallel and the perpendicular degrees of freedom, and the plasma could develop and maintain two different temperatures T parallel and T perpendicular. An adiabatic invariant, however, is not strictly conserved. In the present case, each collision produces an exponentially small exchange of energy between the parallel and the perpendicular degrees of freedom, and these act cumulatively in such a way that T parallel and T perpendicular eventually relax to a common value. The rate of equilibrium is calculated, both in the case where the collisions are described by classical mechanics and in the case where the collisions are described by quantum mechanics, the two calculations giving essentially the same result. A molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out, verifying the existence of this unusual invariant, and verifying the theoretically predicted rate equation
Classical monsters in new Doctor Who fan fiction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amanda Potter
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Although a number of classic Doctor Who episodes featured story lines and characters drawn from Greek myth, no new Who episodes based on Greek myth appeared until seasons 5 and 6, in 2010 and 2011. These episodes featured Pandora's box, the Minotaur, and a Siren. They all use the mythical monster or artifact outside of its ancient Greek context, and I argue that the mythical monsters were additions to earlier story ideas. I compare this with the treatment of the myths of the Minotaur and the Sirens in five stories posted to FanFiction.net between 2008 and 2013. These stories all engage with classical myths, and the longest, "Lure of the Sirens," even engages with different versions of the myth of the Sirens. In this article I discuss how the writers use the classical myths within their stories, and how the myths fit in with the primary aims of the writers, for example in developing romantic relationships between characters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monika Sadeck
2017-11-01
Conclusions: Classical massage treatments affect the changing parameters of blood pressure and heart rate immediately after the massage and 5 minutes after the massage. Aromatherapy massage exhibits superior analgesic effect than classic massage, what to look for when selecting treatment for patients with back pain.
Non-Abelian Yang-Mills analogue of classical electromagnetic duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, Hong-Mo; Faridani, J.; Tsun, T.S.
1995-01-01
The classic question of non-Abelian Yang-Mills analogue to electromagnetic duality is examined here in a minimalist fashion at the strictly four-dimensional, classical field, and point charge level. A generalization of the Abelian Hodge star duality is found which, though not yet known to give dual symmetry, reproduces analogues to many dual properties of the Abelian theory. For example, there is a dual potential, but it is a two-indexed tensor T μν of the Freedman-Townsend-type. Though not itself functioning as such, T μν gives rise to a dual parallel transport A μ for the phase of the wave function of the color magnetic charge, this last being a monopole of the Yang-Mills field but a source of the dual field. The standard color (electric) charge itself is found to be a monpole of A μ . At the same time, the gauge symmetry is found doubled from say SU(N) to SU(N)xSU(N). A novel feature is that all equations of motion, including the standard Yang-Mills and Wong equations, are here derived from a ''universal'' principle, namely, the Wu-Yang criterion for monpoles, where interactions arise purely as a consequence of the topological definition of the monopole charge. The technique used is the loop space formulation of Polyakov
Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem
Van Meter, Rodney
2013-01-01
Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classica...
Fundamentals of the Pure Spinor Formalism
Hoogeveen, Joost
2010-01-01
This thesis presents recent developments within the pure spinor formalism, which has simplified amplitude computations in perturbative string theory, especially when spacetime fermions are involved. Firstly the worldsheet action of both the minimal and the non-minimal pure spinor formalism is derived from first principles, i.e. from an action with two dimensional diffeomorphism and Weyl invariance. Secondly the decoupling of unphysical states in the minimal pure spinor formalism is proved
Thermal and viscous effects on sound waves: revised classical theory.
Davis, Anthony M J; Brenner, Howard
2012-11-01
In this paper the recently developed, bi-velocity model of fluid mechanics based on the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics (LIT) is applied to sound propagation in gases taking account of first-order thermal and viscous dissipation effects. The results are compared and contrasted with the classical Navier-Stokes-Fourier results of Pierce for this same situation cited in his textbook. Comparisons are also made with the recent analyses of Dadzie and Reese, whose molecularly based sound propagation calculations furnish results virtually identical with the purely macroscopic LIT-based bi-velocity results below, as well as being well-supported by experimental data. Illustrative dissipative sound propagation examples involving application of the bi-velocity model to several elementary situations are also provided, showing the disjoint entropy mode and the additional, evanescent viscous mode.
Assad, M; Lemieux, N; Rivard, C H; Yahia, L H
1999-01-01
The genotoxicity level of nickel-titanium (NiTi) was compared to that of its pure constituents, pure nickel (Ni) and pure titanium (Ti) powders, and also to 316L stainless steel (316L SS) as clinical reference material. In order to do so, a dynamic in vitro semiphysiological extraction was performed with all metals using agitation and ISO requirements. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were then cultured in the presence of all material extracts, and their comparative genotoxicity levels were assessed using electron microscopy-in situ end-labeling (EM-ISEL) coupled to immunogold staining. Cellular chromatin exposition to pure Ni and 316L SS demonstrated a significantly stronger gold binding than exposition to NiTi, pure Ti, or the untreated control. In parallel, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was also performed on all extraction media. The release of Ni atoms took the following decreasing distribution for the different resulting semiphysiological solutions: pure Ni, 316L SS, NiTi, Ti, and controls. Ti elements were detected after elution of pure titanium only. Both pure titanium and nickel-titanium specimens obtained a relative in vitro biocompatibility. Therefore, this quantitative in vitro study provides optimistic results for the eventual use of nickel-titanium alloys as surgical implant materials.
Concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heydari, Hoshang
2005-01-01
We propose concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states based on an orthogonal complement of a positive operator-valued measure on quantum phase. In particular, we construct W m class, GHZ m , and GHZ m-1 class concurrences for general pure m-partite states. We give explicit expressions for W 3 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure three-partite states and for W 4 , GHZ 4 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure four-partite states
Quality of life in purely ocular myasthenia in Japan
2014-01-01
Background Since there has been no conclusive evidence regarding the treatment of ocular myasthenia, treatment guidelines were recently issued by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/European Neurological Society (EFNS/ENS). However, the therapeutic outcomes concerning the quality-of-life (QOL) of patients with ocular myasthenia are not yet fully understood. Methods We investigated the therapeutic outcomes of patients with purely ocular myasthenia in a multicenter cross-sectional survey in Japan. To evaluate the severity of ocular symptoms, we used the ocular-quantitative MG (QMG) score advocated by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. We used the Japanese translated version of the MG-QOL15, a self-appraised scoring system. Results Of 607 myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with an observation-duration of illness ≥ 2 years, the cases of 123 patients (20%) were limited to ocular muscles (purely ocular myasthenia). During the entire clinical course, 81 patients experienced both ptosis and diplopia, 36 had ptosis alone, and six had diplopia alone. Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors and prednisolone were used in 98 and 52 patients, respectively. Treatment improved ocular symptoms, with the mean reduction in ocular-QMG score of 2.3 ± 1.8 points. However, 47 patients (38%) failed to gain minimal manifestation or a better status. Patients with unfavorable outcomes also self-reported severe QOL impairment. Multivariate analyses showed that the pretreatment ocular-QMG score was associated with unfavorable outcomes, but not associated with the patient’s QOL. Conclusion A treatment strategy designed in accord with a patient's ocular presentation must be considered in order to improve ocular symptoms and the patient's QOL. PMID:24996227
Yilmaz, Ali; Kizilay, Zahir; Ozkul, Ayca; Çirak, Bayram
2016-03-15
The recurrent Heubner's artery is the distal part of the medial striate artery. Occlusion of the recurrent artery of Heubner, classically contralateral hemiparesis with fasciobrachiocrural predominance, is attributed to the occlusion of the recurrent artery of Heubner and is widely known as a stroke syndrome in adults. However, isolated occlusion of the deep perforating arteries following mild head trauma also occurs extremely rarely in childhood. Here we report the case of an 11-year-old boy with pure motor stroke. The brain MRI showed an acute ischemia in the recurrent artery of Heubner supply area following mild head trauma. His fasciobrachial hemiparesis and dysarthria were thought to be secondary to the stretching of deep perforating arteries leading to occlusion of the recurrent artery of Heubner. Post-traumatic pure motor ischemic stroke can be secondary to stretching of the deep perforating arteries especially in childhood.
Role of classical conditioning in learning gastrointestinal symptoms.
Stockhorst, Ursula; Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle
2007-07-07
Nausea and/or vomiting are aversive gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Nausea and vomiting manifest unconditionally after a nauseogenic experience. However, there is correlative, quasiexperimental and experimental evidence that nausea and vomiting can also be learned via classical (Pavlovian) conditioning and might occur in anticipation of the nauseogenic event. Classical conditioning of nausea can develop with chemotherapy in cancer patients. Initially, nausea and vomiting occur during and after the administration of cytotoxic drugs (post-treatment nausea and vomiting) as unconditioned responses (UR). In addition, 20%-30% of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy report these side effects, despite antiemetic medication, when being re-exposed to the stimuli that usually signal the chemotherapy session and its drug infusion. These symptoms are called anticipatory nausea (AN) and/or anticipatory vomiting (ANV) and are explained by classical conditioning. Moreover, there is recent evidence for the assumption that post-chemotherapy nausea is at least partly influenced by learning. After summarizing the relevant assumptions of the conditioning model, revealing that a context can become a conditioned stimulus (CS), the present paper summarizes data that nausea and/or vomiting is acquired by classical conditioning and, consequently, may be alleviated by conditioning techniques. Our own research has focussed on two aspects and is emphasized here. First, a conditioned nausea model was established in healthy humans using body rotation as the nausea-inducing treatment. The validity of this motion-sickness model to examine conditioning mechanisms in the acquisition and alleviation of conditioned nausea and associated endocrine and immunological responses is summarized. Results from the rotation-induced motion sickness model showed that gender is an important moderator variable to be considered in further studies. This paper concludes with a review of the application of the
Polarized ensembles of random pure states
Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe
2013-08-01
A new family of polarized ensembles of random pure states is presented. These ensembles are obtained by linear superposition of two random pure states with suitable distributions, and are quite manageable. We will use the obtained results for two purposes: on the one hand we will be able to derive an efficient strategy for sampling states from isopurity manifolds. On the other, we will characterize the deviation of a pure quantum state from separability under the influence of noise.
Fermions from classical statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wetterich, C.
2010-01-01
We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states τ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p τ amounts to a rotation of the wave function q τ (t)=±√(p τ (t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.
Díaz-Ferrer, Sandra; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen
2015-09-01
Body exposure improves body image problems in women with eating disorders. However it has almost always been combined with other interventions. Thus, the efficacy of body exposure alone (i.e., pure exposure) remains largely unclear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of two body exposure techniques through psychological and neuroendocrine indices recorded within and between successive sessions. Twenty-nine women with high body dissatisfaction and diagnosis of bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Pure Exposure (n = 14) or Guided Exposure (n = 15). Participants received 6 exposure sessions. After each session, changes in thoughts (positive/negative) and body satisfaction were assessed. Also, we assessed the body discomfort experienced by participants within and between sessions. Finally, the changes in salivary cortisol levels within and between the initial and final treatment sessions were measured. Both groups showed a reduction in negative thoughts and a progressive increase in positive thoughts throughout the treatment. However, the increase in body satisfaction and the reduction in subjective discomfort within the sessions were greater in the pure exposure group. The cortisol levels during the initial and final treatment sessions decreased in both groups. Methodological limitations are reported. These results suggest that pure and guided exposures are effective interventions for improving thoughts and neuroendocrine responses, although pure exposure increased more body satisfaction feelings in bulimic women. Subjective discomfort also showed different patterns of change within and along sessions for each treatment. Reasons for these results are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benacquista, Matthew J
2018-01-01
This textbook provides an introduction to classical mechanics at a level intermediate between the typical undergraduate and advanced graduate level. This text describes the background and tools for use in the fields of modern physics, such as quantum mechanics, astrophysics, particle physics, and relativity. Students who have had basic undergraduate classical mechanics or who have a good understanding of the mathematical methods of physics will benefit from this book.
Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Haloperidol.
Tyler, Marshall W; Zaldivar-Diez, Josefa; Haggarty, Stephen J
2017-03-15
The discovery of haloperidol catalyzed a breakthrough in our understanding of the biochemical basis of schizophrenia, improved the treatment of psychosis, and facilitated deinstitutionalization. In doing so, it solidified the role for chemical neuroscience as a means to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, we will cover aspects of haloperidol's synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism, pharmacology, approved and off-label indications, and adverse effects. We will also convey the fascinating history of this classic molecule and the influence that it has had on the evolution of neuropsychopharmacology and neuroscience.
Polarized ensembles of random pure states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunden, Fabio Deelan; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
A new family of polarized ensembles of random pure states is presented. These ensembles are obtained by linear superposition of two random pure states with suitable distributions, and are quite manageable. We will use the obtained results for two purposes: on the one hand we will be able to derive an efficient strategy for sampling states from isopurity manifolds. On the other, we will characterize the deviation of a pure quantum state from separability under the influence of noise. (paper)
a Classical Isodual Theory of Antimatter and its Prediction of Antigravity
Santilli, Ruggero Maria
An inspection of the contemporary physics literature reveals that, while matter is treated at all levels of study, from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory, antimatter is solely treated at the level of second quantization. For the purpose of initiating the restoration of full equivalence in the treatment of matter and antimatter in due time, and as the classical foundations of an axiomatically consistent inclusion of gravitation in unified gauge theories recently appeared elsewhere, in this paper we present a classical representation of antimatter which begins at the primitive Newtonian level with corresponding formulations at all subsequent levels. By recalling that charge conjugation of particles into antiparticles is antiautomorphic, the proposed theory of antimatter is based on a new map, called isoduality, which is also antiautomorphic (and more generally, antiisomorphic), yet it is applicable beginning at the classical level and then persists at the quantum level where it becomes equivalent to charge conjugation. We therefore present, apparently for the first time, the classical isodual theory of antimatter, we identify the physical foundations of the theory as being the novel isodual Galilean, special and general relativities, and we show the compatibility of the theory with all available classical experimental data on antimatter. We identify the classical foundations of the prediction of antigravity for antimatter in the field of matter (or vice-versa) without any claim on its validity, and defer its resolution to specifically identified experiments. We identify the novel, classical, isodual electromagnetic waves which are predicted to be emitted by antimatter, the so-called space-time machine based on a novel non-Newtonian geometric propulsion, and other implications of the theory. We also introduce, apparently for the first time, the isodual space and time inversions and show that they are nontrivially different than the conventional ones, thus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meiser, Jerome; Urbassek, Herbert M., E-mail: urbassek@rhrk.uni-kl.de [Physics Department and Research Center OPTIMAS, University Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)
2016-08-15
Using classical molecular dynamics simulations and the Meyer-Entel interaction potential, we study the martensitic transformation pathway in a pure iron bi-crystal containing a symmetric tilt grain boundary. Upon cooling the system from the austenitic phase, the transformation starts with the nucleation of the martensitic phase near the grain boundary in a plate-like arrangement. The Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relations are fulfilled at the plates. During further cooling, the plates expand and merge. In contrast to the orientation relation in the plate structure, the complete transformation proceeds via the Pitsch pathway.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meiser, Jerome; Urbassek, Herbert M.
2016-01-01
Using classical molecular dynamics simulations and the Meyer-Entel interaction potential, we study the martensitic transformation pathway in a pure iron bi-crystal containing a symmetric tilt grain boundary. Upon cooling the system from the austenitic phase, the transformation starts with the nucleation of the martensitic phase near the grain boundary in a plate-like arrangement. The Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relations are fulfilled at the plates. During further cooling, the plates expand and merge. In contrast to the orientation relation in the plate structure, the complete transformation proceeds via the Pitsch pathway.
Nestler, B.; Danilov, D.; Galenko, P.
2005-07-01
A phase-field model for non-isothermal solidification in multicomponent systems [SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64 (3) (2004) 775-799] consistent with the formalism of classic irreversible thermodynamics is used for numerical simulations of crystal growth in a pure material. The relation of this approach to the phase-field model by Bragard et al. [Interface Science 10 (2-3) (2002) 121-136] is discussed. 2D and 3D simulations of dendritic structures are compared with the analytical predictions of the Brener theory [Journal of Crystal Growth 99 (1990) 165-170] and with recent experimental measurements of solidification in pure nickel [Proceedings of the TMS Annual Meeting, March 14-18, 2004, pp. 277-288; European Physical Journal B, submitted for publication]. 3D morphology transitions are obtained for variations in surface energy and kinetic anisotropies at different undercoolings. In computations, we investigate the convergence behaviour of a standard phase-field model and of its thin interface extension at different undercoolings and at different ratios between the diffuse interface thickness and the atomistic capillary length. The influence of the grid anisotropy is accurately analyzed for a finite difference method and for an adaptive finite element method in comparison.
Tensor modes in pure natural inflation
Nomura, Yasunori; Yamazaki, Masahito
2018-05-01
We study tensor modes in pure natural inflation [1], a recently-proposed inflationary model in which an axionic inflaton couples to pure Yang-Mills gauge fields. We find that the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is naturally bounded from below. This bound originates from the finiteness of the number of metastable branches of vacua in pure Yang-Mills theories. Details of the model can be probed by future cosmic microwave background experiments and improved lattice gauge theory calculations of the θ-angle dependence of the vacuum energy.
Method of producing vegetable puree
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2004-01-01
A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuan, Chao; Wang, Yunpeng; Sang, Deli; Li, Yijun; Jing, Lei; Fu, Ruidong, E-mail: rdfu@ysu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiangyi
2015-01-15
Highlights: • The microstructure and mechanical properties of DCT-treated Zr were investigated. • DCT induced a change in grain orientation and improved internal stress. • Changes in grain orientation and internal stress increased dislocation density. • Hardness in basal planes was significantly larger than that in prism planes. • Strength levels were high and good ductility could still be achieved after DCT. - Abstract: The effects of deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of commercial pure zirconium were investigated. Experimental results indicated that DCT induced a change in grain orientation and improved internal stress, which in turn increased dislocation density that led to improved hardness. Hardness in basal planes was found to be significantly larger than that in prism planes. Moreover, strength was enhanced in DCT-treated zirconium and the ductility was comparable to that of as-annealed zirconium. This phenomenon was due to the increase in dislocation density and the good ductility resulting from the motion of pre-existing dislocations and specific dislocation configurations. DCT led to the transformation of tensile fracture mode from mixed-rupture characteristics of quasi-cleavage and dimples to quasi-cleavage, thereby increasing compatible deformation capabilities. The possible mechanisms underlying microstructural modification, tensile strength, and hardness improvement were discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Chao; Wang, Yunpeng; Sang, Deli; Li, Yijun; Jing, Lei; Fu, Ruidong; Zhang, Xiangyi
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The microstructure and mechanical properties of DCT-treated Zr were investigated. • DCT induced a change in grain orientation and improved internal stress. • Changes in grain orientation and internal stress increased dislocation density. • Hardness in basal planes was significantly larger than that in prism planes. • Strength levels were high and good ductility could still be achieved after DCT. - Abstract: The effects of deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of commercial pure zirconium were investigated. Experimental results indicated that DCT induced a change in grain orientation and improved internal stress, which in turn increased dislocation density that led to improved hardness. Hardness in basal planes was found to be significantly larger than that in prism planes. Moreover, strength was enhanced in DCT-treated zirconium and the ductility was comparable to that of as-annealed zirconium. This phenomenon was due to the increase in dislocation density and the good ductility resulting from the motion of pre-existing dislocations and specific dislocation configurations. DCT led to the transformation of tensile fracture mode from mixed-rupture characteristics of quasi-cleavage and dimples to quasi-cleavage, thereby increasing compatible deformation capabilities. The possible mechanisms underlying microstructural modification, tensile strength, and hardness improvement were discussed
Dynamics of unitarization by classicalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Pirtskhalava, David
2011-01-01
We study dynamics of the classicalization phenomenon suggested in G. Dvali et al. , according to which a class of non-renormalizable theories self-unitarizes at very high-energies via creation of classical configurations (classicalons). We study this phenomenon in an explicit model of derivatively-self-coupled scalar that serves as a prototype for a Nambu-Goldstone-Stueckelberg field. We prepare the initial state in form of a collapsing wave-packet of a small occupation number but of very high energy, and observe that the classical configuration indeed develops. Our results confirm the previous estimates, showing that because of self-sourcing the wave-packet forms a classicalon configuration with radius that increases with center of mass energy. Thus, classicalization takes place before the waves get any chance of probing short-distances. The self-sourcing by energy is the crucial point, which makes classicalization phenomenon different from the ordinary dispersion of the wave-packets in other interacting theories. Thanks to this, unlike solitons or other non-perturbative objects, the production of classicalons is not only unsuppressed, but in fact dominates the high-energy scattering. In order to make the difference between classicalizing and non-classicalizing theories clear, we use a language in which the scattering cross section in a generic theory can be universally understood as a geometric cross section set by a classical radius down to which waves can propagate freely, before being scattered. We then show, that in non-classicalizing examples this radius shrinks with increasing energy and becomes microscopic, whereas in classicalizing theories expands and becomes macroscopic. We study analogous scattering in a Galileon system and discover that classicalization also takes place there, although somewhat differently. We thus observe, that classicalization is source-sensitive and that Goldstones pass the first test.
Quantum mechanics from classical statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wetterich, C.
2010-01-01
Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.
On second quantization methods applied to classical statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matos Neto, A.; Vianna, J.D.M.
1984-01-01
A method of expressing statistical classical results in terms of mathematical entities usually associated to quantum field theoretical treatment of many particle systems (Fock space, commutators, field operators, state vector) is discussed. It is developed a linear response theory using the 'second quantized' Liouville equation introduced by Schonberg. The relationship of this method to that of Prigogine et al. is briefly analyzed. The chain of equations and the spectral representations for the new classical Green's functions are presented. Generalized operators defined on Fock space are discussed. It is shown that the correlation functions can be obtained from Green's functions defined with generalized operators. (Author) [pt
ActionScript Developer's Guide to PureMVC
Hall, Cliff
2011-01-01
Gain hands-on experience with PureMVC, the popular open source framework for developing maintainable applications with a Model-View-Controller architecture. In this concise guide, PureMVC creator Cliff Hall teaches the fundamentals of PureMVC development by walking you through the construction of a complete non-trivial Adobe AIR application. Through clear explanations and numerous ActionScript code examples, you'll learn best practices for using the framework's classes in your day-to-day work. Discover how PureMVC enables you to focus on the purpose and scope of your application, while the f
Classical and semi-classical solutions of the Yang--Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackiw, R.; Nohl, C.; Rebbi, C.
1977-12-01
This review summarizes what is known at present about classical solutions to Yang-Mills theory both in Euclidean and Minkowski space. The quantal meaning of these solutions is also discussed. Solutions in Euclidean space expose multiple vacua and tunnelling of the quantum theory. Those in Minkowski space-time provide a semi-classical spectrum for a conformal generator
Azevedo de Lima, Patricia; Baldini Prudêncio, Mariana; Murakami, Daniela Kawamoto; Pereira de Brito Sampaio, Leticia; Figueiredo Neto, Antônio Martins; Teixeira Damasceno, Nágila Raquel
2017-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the classic ketogenic diet (KD) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. This prospective study recruited children and adolescents of either sex, whose epilepsy was refractory to treatment with multiple drugs. To be included, the patient had to have an indication for treatment with the KD and be treated as an outpatient. At baseline and after 3 and 6 mo of the KD, lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], triacylglycerols [TG], LDL cholesterol [LDL-C], and HDL cholesterol [HDL-C]), apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB), 10 subfractions of HDL, 7 subfractions of LDL, LDL phenotype, and LDL size were analyzed using the Lipoprint system. The lipid profile components (TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoA-I, and apoB) increased during the 3-mo follow-up, and remained consistent after 6 mo of treatment. Similarly, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios, representing atherogenic particles, significantly increased. In contrast, qualitative lipoprotein characteristics progressively changed during the follow-up period. Small LDL subfractions increased, and this profile was related with reduced LDL size (27.3 nm to 26.7 nm). The LDL phenotype became worse; 52.1% of the patients had a non-A phenotype after 6 mo of the KD. Small HDL subfractions decreased only after 6 mo of the KD. KD treatment promotes negative changes in lipoprotein size and phenotype, contributing to atherogenic risk in these patients. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quantum flesh on classical bones: Semiclassical bridges across the quantum-classical divide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bokulich, Alisa [Center for Philosophy and History of Science, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)
2014-07-01
Traditionally quantum mechanics is viewed as having made a sharp break from classical mechanics, and the concepts and methods of these two theories are viewed as incommensurable with one another. A closer examination of the history of quantum mechanics, however, reveals that there is a strong sense in which quantum mechanics was built on the backbone of classical mechanics. As a result, there is a considerable structural continuity between these two theories, despite their important differences. These structural continuities provide a ground for semiclassical methods in which classical structures, such as trajectories, are used to investigate and model quantum phenomena. After briefly tracing the history of semiclassical approaches, I show how current research in semiclassical mechanics is revealing new bridges across the quantum-classical divide.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isamu Hosokawa
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The number of patients undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy has rapidly increased in recent years, and indications for this procedure are gradually expanding. Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy is reportedly useful in cases with severe liver cirrhosis. A 55-year-old woman under observation for liver cirrhosis was found to have hepatocellular carcinoma in liver segment III and was referred to our hospital for surgery. The tumor was located in the edge of liver segment III, where percutaneous ablation therapy was unsuitable. Since her hepatic functional reserve was poor, pure laparoscopic partial hepatectomy was performed. The postoperative course was favorable, with no ascites retention, edema or weight gain. The greatest advantage of pure laparoscopic hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma with concomitant liver cirrhosis is that postoperative ascites retention is minimal, meaning that there is little risk of water-electrolyte imbalance associated with ascites retention or hypoproteinemia. This is believed to be because the abdominal incision is small and mobilization of the liver is minimized, reducing the destruction of the routes of collateral lymph flow and blood flow generated in patients with liver cirrhosis. Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy may be a treatment choice for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and concomitant severe liver cirrhosis.
Ateto, M. S.
2017-11-01
The nonlinear time-dependent two-photon Hamiltonian of a couple of classically pumped independent qubits is analytically solved, and the corresponding time evolution unitary operator, in an exact form, is derived. Using the concurrence, entanglement dynamics between the qubits under the influence of a wide range of effective parameters are examined and, in detail, analyzed. Observations analysis is documented with aid of the field phase-space distribution Wigner function. A couple of initial qubit states is considered, namely similar excited states and a Bell-like pure state. It is demonstrated that an initial Bell-like pure state is as well typical initial qubits setting for robust, regular and a high degree of entanglement. Moreover, it is established that high-constant Kerr media represent an effective tool for generating periodical entanglement at fixed time cycles of maxima reach unity forever when qubits are initially in a Bell-like pure state. Further, it is showed that the medium strength of the classical pumping stimulates efficiently qubits entanglement, specially, when the interaction occurs off resonantly. However, the high-intensity pumping thermalizes the coherent distribution of photons, thus, the least photons number is used and, hence, the least minimum degree of qubits entanglement could be created. Furthermore, when the cavity field and external pumping are detuned, the external pumping acts like an auxiliary effective frequency for the cavity, as a result, the field Gaussian distribution acquires linear chirps, and consequently, more entanglement revivals appear in the same cycle during timescale.
Classic galactosemia: features of diagnosis and treatment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.O. Pichkur
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Background. Galactosemia type I, or classic galactosemia (CG, is the most severe form of hereditary disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, in particular, galactose. Galactosemia is not included in the program of massive neonatal screening in Ukraine. The CG is characterized by the non-specific onset symptoms and leads to high mortality among infants in the neonatal period. The problem of early diagnosis and treatment of infants with CG in the absence of a program for massive neonatal screening in Ukraine requires solution. The purpose was to analyse the clinical and laboratory, molecular genetic features of patients with CG; to define a set of clinical symptoms and to form selective groups of patients for administration of diet therapy and laboratory diagnosis; to develop schemes-stages of effective early diagnosis and treatment of patients with CG in the absence of mass neonatal screening in order to reduce infant mortality and prevent the disability of patients with this pathology. Materials and methods. In 2014–2017, 317 patients with a diagnosis of hepatitis of uncertain origin were examined. The age of patients ranged from 3 days to 16 years; 145 (45 % of them were males, 172 (55 % — females. In all patients, a polysyndromic clinical picture with predominant lesion in the liver function was observed. All patients were examined for the activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT enzyme in the red blood cells and underwent DNA diagnosis for the detection of major mutations in the GALT gene. All patients were examined for viral hepatitis, underwent biochemical blood tests for hepatic transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin levels, and coagulopathy. Tandem mass spectrometry was also performed to exclude or confirm the metabolic imbalance of amino acids, organic acids, and mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Five patients with suspected glycogenosis have been subjected to a quantitative glycogen test in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Jingqing; Shen, Yifu; Yao, Xin; Xu, Haisheng; Li, Bo
2014-01-01
Highlights: • 6061-T6 Al and pure Cu were successfully underwater friction stir lap welded. • The underwater weld was analyzed via comparing with the classical weld. • The oxidation of Cu was prevented via the external water. • The amount of Al–Cu intermetallic was decreased by the external water. • The thickness of Al–Cu diffusion interlayer was decreased by the external water. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (classical FSW) is considered to offer advantages over the traditional fusion welding techniques in terms of dissimilar welding. However, some challenges still exist in the dissimilar friction stir lap welding of the aluminum/copper (Al/Cu) metallic couple, among which the formation of the Al–Cu intermetallic compounds is the major problem. In the present research, due to the fact that the formation and growth of the intermetallic are significantly controlled by the thermal history, the underwater friction stir welding (underwater FSW) was employed for fabricating the weld, and the weld obtained by underwater FSW (underwater weld) was analyzed via comparing with the weld obtained under same parameters by classical FSW (classical weld). In order to investigate the effect of the external water on the thermal history, the K-type thermocouple was utilized to measure the weld temperature, and it is found that the water could decrease the peak temperature and shorten the thermal cycle time. The XRD results illustrate that the interface of the welds mainly consist of the Al–Cu intermetallic compounds such as CuAl 2 and Cu 9 Al 4 together with some amounts of Al and Cu, and it is also found that the amount of the intermetallic in the underwater weld is obvious less than in the classical weld. The SEM images and the EDS line scan results also illustrate that the Al–Cu diffusion interlayer at the Al–Cu interface of the underwater weld was obviously thinner than that of the classical weld
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, P.; Riesch, J.; Höschen, T.
2017-01-01
Plastic deformation of tungsten wire is an effective source of toughening tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W) and other tungsten fibre-reinforced composites. To provide a reference for optimization of those composites, unconstrained pure tungsten wire is studied after various hea...... a rather different microstructure. As-fabricated wire and wire recrystallized at 1273 K for 3 h show fine grains with a high aspect ratio and a substantial plastic deformability: a clearly defined tensile strength, high plastic work, similar necking shape, and the characteristic knife...
Quantum models of classical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hájíček, P
2015-01-01
Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. (paper)
Living with classical galactosemia: health-related quality of life consequences
Bosch, Annet M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Bakker, Henk D.; Heijmans, Hugo S. A.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Last, Bob F.
2004-01-01
Objective. Classical galactosemia (McKusick 230400) is an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism caused by a deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (EC 2.7.712). Treatment, consisting of a severe restriction of dietary galactose, is life saving, but most patients develop
Classical molecular dynamics simulation of electronically non-adiabatic processes.
Miller, William H; Cotton, Stephen J
2016-12-22
Both classical and quantum mechanics (as well as hybrids thereof, i.e., semiclassical approaches) find widespread use in simulating dynamical processes in molecular systems. For large chemical systems, however, which involve potential energy surfaces (PES) of general/arbitrary form, it is usually the case that only classical molecular dynamics (MD) approaches are feasible, and their use is thus ubiquitous nowadays, at least for chemical processes involving dynamics on a single PES (i.e., within a single Born-Oppenheimer electronic state). This paper reviews recent developments in an approach which extends standard classical MD methods to the treatment of electronically non-adiabatic processes, i.e., those that involve transitions between different electronic states. The approach treats nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom (DOF) equivalently (i.e., by classical mechanics, thereby retaining the simplicity of standard MD), and provides "quantization" of the electronic states through a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing model. The approach is seen to be capable of treating extreme regimes of strong and weak coupling between the electronic states, as well as accurately describing coherence effects in the electronic DOF (including the de-coherence of such effects caused by coupling to the nuclear DOF). A survey of recent applications is presented to illustrate the performance of the approach. Also described is a newly developed variation on the original SQC model (found universally superior to the original) and a general extension of the SQC model to obtain the full electronic density matrix (at no additional cost/complexity).
Sum rules in classical scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.
1981-01-01
This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients
Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik
2015-07-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.
Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.
Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M
2014-01-01
Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.
Vacuum evaporation of pure metals
Safarian, Jafar; Engh, Thorvald Abel
2013-01-01
Theories on the evaporation of pure substances are reviewed and applied to study vacuum evaporation of pure metals. It is shown that there is good agreement between different theories for weak evaporation, whereas there are differences under intensive evaporation conditions. For weak evaporation, the evaporation coefficient in Hertz-Knudsen equation is 1.66. Vapor velocity as a function of the pressure is calculated applying several theories. If a condensing surface is less than one collision...
Metal release behavior of surface oxidized stainless steels into flowing high temperature pure water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, Kazuo; Tomari, Haruo; Nakayama, Takenori; Shimogori, Kazutoshi; Ishigure, Kenkichi; Matsuura, Chihiro; Fujita, Norihiko; Ono, Shoichi.
1987-01-01
In order to clarify the effect of oxidation treatment of Type 304 SS on the inhibition of metal release into high temperature pure water, metal release rate of individual alloying element into flowing deionized water containing 50 ppb dissolved oxygen was measured as the function of exposure time on representative specimens oxidized in air and steam. The behavior of metal release was also discussed in relation to the structure of surface films. Among the alloying elements the amount of Fe ion, Cr ion and Fe crud in high temperature pure water tended to saturate with the exposure time and that of Ni ion and Co ion tended to increase monotonously with the exposure time for all specimens tested. And the treatment of steam-oxidation was the most effective to decrease the metal release of alloying elements and the treatment by air-oxidation also decreased the metal release. These tendencies were confirmed to correlate well with the structure of the surface films as it was in the results in the static autoclave test. (author)
Nomura, Yasunori; Watari, Taizan; Yamazaki, Masahito
2018-01-01
We point out that a simple inflationary model in which the axionic inflaton couples to a pure Yang-Mills theory may give the scalar spectral index (ns) and tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) in complete agreement with the current observational data.
Model predictive control classical, robust and stochastic
Kouvaritakis, Basil
2016-01-01
For the first time, a textbook that brings together classical predictive control with treatment of up-to-date robust and stochastic techniques. Model Predictive Control describes the development of tractable algorithms for uncertain, stochastic, constrained systems. The starting point is classical predictive control and the appropriate formulation of performance objectives and constraints to provide guarantees of closed-loop stability and performance. Moving on to robust predictive control, the text explains how similar guarantees may be obtained for cases in which the model describing the system dynamics is subject to additive disturbances and parametric uncertainties. Open- and closed-loop optimization are considered and the state of the art in computationally tractable methods based on uncertainty tubes presented for systems with additive model uncertainty. Finally, the tube framework is also applied to model predictive control problems involving hard or probabilistic constraints for the cases of multiplic...
Takeoka, Masahiro; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P; Wilde, Mark M
2017-10-13
We consider quantum key distribution (QKD) and entanglement distribution using a single-sender multiple-receiver pure-loss bosonic broadcast channel. We determine the unconstrained capacity region for the distillation of bipartite entanglement and secret key between the sender and each receiver, whenever they are allowed arbitrary public classical communication. A practical implication of our result is that the capacity region demonstrated drastically improves upon rates achievable using a naive time-sharing strategy, which has been employed in previously demonstrated network QKD systems. We show a simple example of a broadcast QKD protocol overcoming the limit of the point-to-point strategy. Our result is thus an important step toward opening a new framework of network channel-based quantum communication technology.
Takeoka, Masahiro; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.
2017-10-01
We consider quantum key distribution (QKD) and entanglement distribution using a single-sender multiple-receiver pure-loss bosonic broadcast channel. We determine the unconstrained capacity region for the distillation of bipartite entanglement and secret key between the sender and each receiver, whenever they are allowed arbitrary public classical communication. A practical implication of our result is that the capacity region demonstrated drastically improves upon rates achievable using a naive time-sharing strategy, which has been employed in previously demonstrated network QKD systems. We show a simple example of a broadcast QKD protocol overcoming the limit of the point-to-point strategy. Our result is thus an important step toward opening a new framework of network channel-based quantum communication technology.
Conformal pure radiation with parallel rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leistner, Thomas; Paweł Nurowski
2012-01-01
We define pure radiation metrics with parallel rays to be n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian metrics that admit a parallel null line bundle K and whose Ricci tensor vanishes on vectors that are orthogonal to K. We give necessary conditions in terms of the Weyl, Cotton and Bach tensors for a pseudo-Riemannian metric to be conformal to a pure radiation metric with parallel rays. Then, we derive conditions in terms of the tractor calculus that are equivalent to the existence of a pure radiation metric with parallel rays in a conformal class. We also give analogous results for n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian pp-waves. (paper)
Mathematical physics classical mechanics
Knauf, Andreas
2018-01-01
As a limit theory of quantum mechanics, classical dynamics comprises a large variety of phenomena, from computable (integrable) to chaotic (mixing) behavior. This book presents the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory and asymptotic completeness in classical scattering. Including a wealth of fascinating examples in physics, it offers not only an excellent selection of basic topics, but also an introduction to a number of current areas of research in the field of classical mechanics. Thanks to the didactic structure and concise appendices, the presentation is self-contained and requires only knowledge of the basic courses in mathematics. The book addresses the needs of graduate and senior undergraduate students in mathematics and physics, and of researchers interested in approaching classical mechanics from a modern point of view.
Pure spinor partition function and the massive superstring spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aisaka, Yuri; Arroyo, E. Aldo; Berkovits, Nathan; Nekrasov, Nikita
2008-01-01
We explicitly compute up to the fifth mass-level the partition function of ten-dimensional pure spinor worldsheet variables including the spin dependence. After adding the contribution from the (x μ , θ α , p α ) matter variables, we reproduce the massive superstring spectrum. Even though pure spinor variables are bosonic, the pure spinor partition function contains fermionic states which first appear at the second mass-level. These fermionic states come from functions which are not globally defined in pure spinor space, and are related to the b ghost in the pure spinor formalism. This result clarifies the proper definition of the Hilbert space for pure spinor variables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bindu Kulshreshtha
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH provide us an opportunity to study the clinical effects of androgen excess in humans. We studied the sequence of pubertal development in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages, to assess the effects of androgen exposure on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian (HPO axis. Materials and Methods: Girls more than 18 years of age, with CAH, on follow-up at this hospital were the subjects for this study. Details of history, physical findings, laboratory evaluation, and medication were noted from their case records and verified from the patients and their / parents, in addition to assessment of their present health status. Result: We studied 24 patients of classical CAH (SW-2, SV-22, average age - 24.5 ± 6.6 years. All had varying degrees of genital ambiguity (Prader stage 3 (n = 13, Prader stage 2 (n = 10, Prader stage 1 (n = 1. Among them were13 girls, who were started on steroids after eight years of age. Girls who received treatment from infancy and early childhood had normal pubertal development (mean age at menarche 11.4 ± 1.7 years. Hirsutism was not a problem among them. Untreated children had progressive clitoral enlargement throughout childhood, developed pubic hair at around three to six years of age, and facial hair between nine and eleven years. Plasma testosterone ranged from 3 to 6 ng / ml prior to treatment. Six of the 13 untreated CAH girls had subtle breast development starting at ages 11 - 16 years and three had spontaneous infrequent vaginal bleeding starting at ages 11 - 17. Steroid supplementation initiated pubertal changes in older girls in two-to-six months′ time. Conclusion: There was a delay in HPO axis maturation (as evidenced by delayed pubertal development in the absence of treatment in girls with CAH. This could be corrected with steroid supplementation.
Testing effects in mixed- versus pure-list designs.
Rowland, Christopher A; Littrell-Baez, Megan K; Sensenig, Amanda E; DeLosh, Edward L
2014-08-01
In the present study, we investigated the role of list composition in the testing effect. Across three experiments, participants learned items through study and initial testing or study and restudy. List composition was manipulated, such that tested and restudied items appeared either intermixed in the same lists (mixed lists) or in separate lists (pure lists). In Experiment 1, half of the participants received mixed lists and half received pure lists. In Experiment 2, all participants were given both mixed and pure lists. Experiment 3 followed Erlebacher's (Psychological Bulletin, 84, 212-219, 1977) method, such that mixed lists, pure tested lists, and pure restudied lists were given to independent groups. Across all three experiments, the final recall results revealed significant testing effects for both mixed and pure lists, with no reliable difference in the magnitude of the testing advantage across list designs. This finding suggests that the testing effect is not subject to a key boundary condition-list design-that impacts other memory phenomena, including the generation effect.
Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and puberty.
Charmandari, Evangelia; Brook, Charles G D; Hindmarsh, Peter C
2004-11-01
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from deficiency of one of the five enzymes required for synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal cortex. The most common form of the disease is classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased synthesis of glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids, adrenal hyperandrogenism and impaired development and function of the adrenal medulla. The clinical management of classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency is often suboptimal, and patients are at risk of developing in tandem iatrogenic hypercortisolism and/or hyperandogenism. Limitations of current medical therapy include the inability to control hyperandrogenism without employing supraphysiologic doses of glucocorticoid, hyperresponsiveness of the hypertrophied adrenal glands to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and difficulty in suppressing ACTH secretion from the anterior pituitary. Puberty imposes increased difficulty in attaining adrenocortical suppression despite optimal substitution therapy and adherence to medical treatment. Alterations in the endocrine milieu at puberty may influence cortisol pharmacokinetics and, consequently, the handling of hydrocortisone used as replacement therapy. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in cortisol clearance at puberty and a shorter half-life of free cortisol in pubertal females compared with males. Furthermore, children with classic CAH have elevated fasting serum insulin concentrations and insulin resistance. The latter may further enhance adrenal and/or ovarian androgen secretion, decrease the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoids and contribute to later development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications.
Stokes-Einstein relation for pure simple fluids
Cappelezzo, M.; Capellari, C. A.; Pezzin, S. H.; Coelho, L. A. F.
2007-06-01
The authors employed the equilibrium molecular dynamics technique to calculate the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity for simple fluids that obey the Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential in order to investigate the validity of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation for pure simple fluids. They performed calculations in a broad range of density and temperature in order to test the SE relation. The main goal of this work is to exactly calculate the constant, here denominated by α, present in the SE relation. Also, a modified SE relation where a fluid density is raised to a power in the usual expression is compared to the classical expression. According to the authors' simulations slip boundary conditions (α=4) can be satisfied in some state points. An intermediate value of α =5 was found in some regions of the phase diagram confirming the mode coupling theory. In addition depending on the phase diagram point and the definition of hydrodynamics radius, stick boundary condition (α=6) can be reproduced. The authors investigated the role of the hydrodynamic radius in the SE relation using three different definitions. The authors also present calculations for α in a hard-sphere system showing that the slip boundary conditions hold at very high density. They discuss possible explanations for their results and the role of the hydrodynamic radius for different definitions in the SE relation.
Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment
Marcus, R. A.
1964-01-01
In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.
Classical aspects of higher spin topologically massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiandong
2012-01-01
We study the classical solutions of three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and its higher spin generalization, in the first-order formulation. The action of higher spin TMG has been proposed by Chen and Long (2011 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP12(2011)114) to be of a Chern–Simons-like form. The equations of motion are more complicated than the ones in pure higher spin AdS 3 gravity, but are still tractable. As all the solutions in higher spin gravity are automatically the solutions of higher spin TMG, we focus on other solutions. We manage to find the AdS pp-wave solutions with higher spin hair and find that the non-vanishing higher spin fields may or may not modify the pp-wave geometry. In order to discuss the warped spacetime, we introduce the notion of a special Killing vector, which is defined to be the symmetry on the frame-like fields. We reproduce various warped spacetimes of TMG in our framework, with the help of special Killing vectors. (paper)
Tractable Quantification of Entanglement for Multipartite Pure States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nian-Quan, Jiang; Yu-Jian, Wang; Yi-Zhuang, Zheng; Gen-Chang, Cai
2008-01-01
We present kth-order entanglement measure and global kth-order entanglement measure for multipartite pure states, and extend Bennett's measure of partial entropy for bipartite pure states to a multipartite case. These measures are computable and can effectively classify and quantify the entanglement of multipartite pure states. (general)
The meaning of “anomalous weak values” in quantum and classical theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolovski, D.
2015-01-01
The readings of a highly inaccurate “weak” quantum meter, employed to determine the value of a dichotomous variable S without destroying the interference between the alternatives, may take arbitrary values. We show that the expected values of its readings may take any real value, depending on the choice of the states in which the system is pre- and post-selected. Some of these values must fall outside the range of eigenvalues of S, in which case they may be expressed as “anomalous” averages obtained with negative probability weights, constructed from available probability amplitudes. This behaviour is a natural consequence of the Uncertainty Principle. The phenomenon of “anomalous weak values” has no non-trivial analogue in classical statistics. - Highlights: • Average reading of a weak meter can take any value, depending on the transition. • No information about intrinsic properties of the measured system, e.g., the size of a spin. • This is a direct consequence of the Uncertainty Principle, which forbids distinguishing between interfering alternatives. • Some of the average have to lie outside the spectrum of the measured operator, i.e., be “anomalous”. • There can be no anomalous averages in a purely classical theory
Classical Galactosaemia and CDG, the N-Glycosylation Interface. A Review
Maratha, Ashwini; Colhoun, Hugh-Owen; Knerr, Ina; Coss, Karen P.; Doran, Peter; Treacy, Eileen P.
2016-01-01
Classical galactosaemia is a rare disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency (EC 2.7.7.12). The disease is life threatening if left untreated in neonates and the only available treatment option is a long-term galactose restricted diet. While this is lifesaving in the neonate, complications persist in treated individuals, and the cause of these, despite early initiation of treatment, and shared GALT genotypes remain poorly understood...
Gate-Driven Pure Spin Current in Graphene
Lin, Xiaoyang; Su, Li; Si, Zhizhong; Zhang, Youguang; Bournel, Arnaud; Zhang, Yue; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Fert, Albert; Zhao, Weisheng
2017-09-01
The manipulation of spin current is a promising solution for low-power devices beyond CMOS. However, conventional methods, such as spin-transfer torque or spin-orbit torque for magnetic tunnel junctions, suffer from large power consumption due to frequent spin-charge conversions. An important challenge is, thus, to realize long-distance transport of pure spin current, together with efficient manipulation. Here, the mechanism of gate-driven pure spin current in graphene is presented. Such a mechanism relies on the electrical gating of carrier-density-dependent conductivity and spin-diffusion length in graphene. The gate-driven feature is adopted to realize the pure spin-current demultiplexing operation, which enables gate-controllable distribution of the pure spin current into graphene branches. Compared with the Elliott-Yafet spin-relaxation mechanism, the D'yakonov-Perel spin-relaxation mechanism results in more appreciable demultiplexing performance. The feature of the pure spin-current demultiplexing operation will allow a number of logic functions to be cascaded without spin-charge conversions and open a route for future ultra-low-power devices.
Multicopy and stochastic transformation of multipartite pure states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Lin; Hayashi, Masahito
2011-01-01
Characterizing the transformation and classification of multipartite entangled states is a basic problem in quantum information. We study the problem under the two most common environments, local operations and classical communications (LOCC), stochastic LOCC and two more general environments, multicopy LOCC (MCLOCC), and multicopy SLOCC (MCSLOCC). We show that two transformable multipartite states under LOCC or SLOCC are also transformable under MCLOCC and MCSLOCC. What is more, these two environments are equivalent in the sense that two transformable states under MCLOCC are also transformable under MCSLOCC, and vice versa. Based on these environments we classify the multipartite pure states into a few inequivalent sets and orbits, between which we build the partial order to decide their transformation. In particular, we investigate the structure of SLOCC-equivalent states in terms of tensor rank, which is known as the generalized Schmidt rank. Given the tensor rank, we show that Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states can be used to generate all states with a smaller or equivalent tensor rank under SLOCC, and all reduced separable states with a cardinality smaller than or equivalent to the tensor rank under LOCC. Using these concepts, we extended the concept of the ''maximally entangled state'' in the multipartite system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasunori Nomura
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We point out that a simple inflationary model in which the axionic inflaton couples to a pure Yang–Mills theory may give the scalar spectral index (ns and tensor-to-scalar ratio (r in complete agreement with the current observational data.
Poladian, L; Straton, M; Docherty, A; Argyros, A
2011-01-17
We investigate the properties of optical fibres made from chiral materials, in which a contrast in optical activity forms the waveguide, rather than a contrast in the refractive index; we refer to such structures as pure chiral fibres. We present a mathematical formulation for solving the modes of circularly symmetric examples of such fibres and examine the guidance and polarisation properties of pure chiral step-index, Bragg and photonic crystal fibre designs. Their behaviour is shown to differ for left- and right-hand circular polarisation, allowing circular polarisations to be isolated and/or guided by different mechanisms, as well as differing from equivalent non-chiral fibres. The strength of optical activity required in each case is quantified.
Classical trajectory methods in molecular collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porter, R.N.; Raff, L.M.
1976-01-01
The discussion of classical trajectory methods in molecular collisions includes classical dynamics, Hamiltonian mechanics, classical scattering cross sections and rate coefficients, statistical averaging, the selection of initial states, integration of equations of motion, analysis of final states, consecutive collisions, and the prognosis for classical molecular scattering calculations. 61 references
Semi-classical approximation to path integrals - phases and catastrophes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levit, S.
1977-01-01
Problems of phases and catastrophes were encountered when trying to apply the classical S-matrix theory to the scattering phenomena in nuclear physics. The path integral formulation provided a suitable basis for the treatment of these and related problems. Within conventional mathematical language it was possible to give practical prescriptions and discuss their limitations. Since the semi-classical (stationary phase) approximation is commonly used in any application of the path integral method, the results are not restricted to the scattering problems and may be of general interest. The derivation of the uniform approximations in the energy representation should use the exact path integral expression as the starting point, rather than performing Fourier transforms on the expressions derived in the present lecture. (B.G.)
Multidisciplinary conservative management in classical Volkmann's contracture: A case report
Reinders, M.F.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Eisma, W.H.
1996-01-01
This clinical note describes the case of a nine-year-old girl with classical Volkmann's contracture of the left forearm. The report demonstrates the results and follow-up of conservative orthotic management used as a mode of treatment by a multidisciplinary team. When using an orthosis it is
Zwitters: Particles between quantum and classical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wetterich, C.
2012-01-01
We describe both quantum particles and classical particles in terms of a classical statistical ensemble, with a probability distribution in phase space. By use of a wave function in phase space both can be treated in the same quantum formalism. Quantum particles are characterized by a specific choice of observables and time evolution of the probability density. Then interference and tunneling are found within classical statistics. Zwitters are (effective) one-particle states for which the time evolution interpolates between quantum and classical particles. Experimental bounds on a small parameter can test quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: ► Quantum particles can be described within classical statistics. ► Classical particles are formulated in quantum formalism. ► Zwitters interpolate between classical and quantum particles. ► Zwitters allow for quantitative tests of quantum mechanics. ► Zwitters could be effective one-particle descriptions of droplets.
Classical Exchange Algebra of the Nonlinear Sigma Model on a Supercoset Target with Z2n Grading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ke San-Min; Li Xin-Ying; Wang Chun; Yue Rui-Hong
2011-01-01
The classical exchange algebra satisfied by the monodromy matrix of the nonlinear sigma model on a supercoset target with Z 2n grading is derived using a first-order Hamiltonian formulation and by adding to the Lax connection terms proportional to constraints. This enables us to show that the conserved charges of the theory are in involution. When n = 2, our results coincide with the results given by Magro for the pure spinor description of AdS 5 × S 5 string theory (when the ghost terms are omitted). (the physics of elementary particles and fields)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zha Xin-Wei; Ma Gang-Long
2011-01-01
It is a recent observation that entanglement classification for qubits is closely related to stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) invariants. Verstraete et al.[Phys. Rev. A 65 (2002) 052112] showed that for pure states of four qubits there are nine different degenerate SLOCC entanglement classes. Li et al.[Phys. Rev. A 76 (2007) 052311] showed that there are at feast 28 distinct true SLOCC entanglement classes for four qubits by means of the SLOCC invariant and semi-invariant. We give 16 different entanglement classes for four qubits by means of basic SLOCC invariants. (general)
Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra
Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.
1996-01-01
A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.
The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.
Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S
2009-12-01
This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.
On the importance of PURE - Public Understanding of Renewable Energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broman, Lars; Kandpal, Tara C.
2013-09-15
Public understanding of science (PUS) is a central concept among science communicators. Public understanding of renewable energy (PURE) is proposed as an important sub-concept of PUS. The aim of this paper is to interest and invite renewable energy scientists to join a PURE research project. Four separate important questions for a PURE research project can be identified: (A) Is PURE important? (B) Which issues of PURE are the most important ones, according to renewable energy scientists? (C) What understanding of renewable energy has the general public today, worldwide? (D) How to achieve PURE?.
Bi-orderings on pure braided Thompson's groups
Burillo, Jose; Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan
2006-01-01
In this paper it is proved that the pure braided Thompson’s group BF admits a bi-order, analog to the bi-order of the pure braid groups. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional
Quantum classical correspondence in nonrelativistic electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, B.; Weatherford, C.A.
1999-01-01
A form of classical electrodynamic field exists which gives exact agreement with the operator field of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for the Lamb shift of a harmonically bound point electron. Here it is pointed out that this form of classical theory, with its physically acceptable interpretation, is the result of an unconventional resolution of a mathematically ambiguous term in classical field theory. Finally, a quantum classical correspondence principle is shown to exist in the sense that the classical field and expectation value of the QED operator field are identical, if retardation is neglected in the latter
Amarante Andrade, Pedro; Švec, Jan G
2016-07-01
Differences in classical and non-classical singing are due primarily to aesthetic style requirements. The head position can affect the sound quality. This study aimed at comparing the head position for famous classical and non-classical male singers performing high notes. Images of 39 Western classical and 34 non-classical male singers during live performances were obtained from YouTube. Ten raters evaluated the frontal rotational head position (depression versus elevation) and transverse head position (retraction versus protraction) visually using a visual analogue scale. The results showed a significant difference for frontal rotational head position. Most non-classical singers in the sample elevated their heads for high notes while the classical singers were observed to keep it around the neutral position. This difference may be attributed to different singing techniques and phonatory system adjustments utilized by each group.
Isotopically pure single crystal epitaxial diamond films and their preparation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banholzer, W.F.; Anthony, T.R.; Williams, D.M.
1992-01-01
The present invention is directed to the production of single crystal diamond consisting of isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. In the present invention, isotopically pure single crystal diamond is grown on a single crystal substrate directly from isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. One method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises the steps of placing in a reaction chamber a single substrate heated to an elevated diamond forming temperature. Another method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises diffusing isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13 through a metallic catalyst under high pressure to a region containing a single crystal substrate to form an isotopically pure single crystal diamond layer on said single crystal substrate
PSYCHE Pure Shift NMR Spectroscopy.
Foroozandeh, Mohammadali; Morris, Gareth; Nilsson, Mathias
2018-03-13
Broadband homodecoupling techniques in NMR, also known as "pure shift" methods, aim to enhance spectral resolution by suppressing the effects of homonuclear coupling interactions to turn multiplet signals into singlets. Such techniques typically work by selecting a subset of "active" nuclear spins to observe, and selectively inverting the remaining, "passive", spins to reverse the effects of coupling. Pure Shift Yielded by Chirp Excitation (PSYCHE) is one such method; it is relatively recent, but has already been successfully implemented in a range of different NMR experiments. Paradoxically, PSYCHE is one of the trickiest of pure shift NMR techniques to understand but one of the easiest to use. Here we offer some insights into theoretical and practical aspects of the method, and into the effects and importance of the experimental parameters. Some recent improvements that enhance the spectral purity of PSYCHE spectra will be presented, and some experimental frameworks including examples in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, for the implementation of PSYCHE will be introduced. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma : Classic Coffee Oy
Eerola, Laura
2015-01-01
Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli laatia markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma kalenterivuodelle 2016 vuosikellon muodossa, toimintansa jo vakiinnuttaneelle Classic Coffee Oy:lle. Classic Coffee Oy on vuonna 2011 perustettu, Tampereella toimiva kahvila-alan yritys joka tarjoaa lounaskahvilatoiminnan lisäksi laadukkaita konditoria-palveluita, yritys- ja kokoustarjoiluja sekä tilavuokrausta. Classic Coffee Oy:llä on yksi kahvila, Classic Coffee Tampella. Kahvila sijaitsee Tampellassa, Tampereen keskustan vä...
Classical higher-order processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Montesi, Fabrizio
2017-01-01
Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired by ...
Semiclassical approach to mesoscopic systems classical trajectory correlations and wave interference
Waltner, Daniel
2012-01-01
This volume describes mesoscopic systems with classically chaotic dynamics using semiclassical methods which combine elements of classical dynamics and quantum interference effects. Experiments and numerical studies show that Random Matrix Theory (RMT) explains physical properties of these systems well. This was conjectured more than 25 years ago by Bohigas, Giannoni and Schmit for the spectral properties. Since then, it has been a challenge to understand this connection analytically. The author offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. He extends previous semiclassical approaches that treated spectral and conductance properties. He shows that RMT results can in general only be obtained semiclassically when taking into account classical configurations not considered previously, for example those containing multiply traversed periodic orbits. Furthermore, semiclassics is capable of describing effects beyond RMT. In this context he studies the effect of a non-zero Eh...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bieda M.
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Pure aluminium (6N and commercially pure aluminium (99.7 was deformed by KOBO method. Microstructure and texture of both materials after deformation was analyzed by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Advanced methods of crystallographic orientations measurements like Electron Backscatter Diffraction - EBSD (SEM and microdiffraction (TEM was used. Grain size distribution and misorientation between grains in cross and longitudinal sections of the samples were analyzed. Differences in size and homogeneity of the grains were observed in both materials. Pure aluminium was characterized by larger grain size in both sections of extruded material. Whereas commercially pure aluminium reveals smaller grain size and more homogeneous and stable microstructure.
Crowder, Martin J
2001-01-01
If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...
Local quantum channels preserving classical correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Zhihua; Cao Huaixin
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to discuss local quantum channels that preserve classical correlations. First, we give two equivalent characterizations of classical correlated states. Then we obtain the relationships among classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels, commutativity-preserving local quantum channels and commutativity-preserving quantum channels on each subsystem. Furthermore, for a two-qubit system, we show the general form of classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels. (paper)
A classical density functional theory of ionic liquids.
Forsman, Jan; Woodward, Clifford E; Trulsson, Martin
2011-04-28
We present a simple, classical density functional approach to the study of simple models of room temperature ionic liquids. Dispersion attractions as well as ion correlation effects and excluded volume packing are taken into account. The oligomeric structure, common to many ionic liquid molecules, is handled by a polymer density functional treatment. The theory is evaluated by comparisons with simulations, with an emphasis on the differential capacitance, an experimentally measurable quantity of significant practical interest.
Classicalization of Gravitons and Goldstones
Dvali, Gia; Kehagias, Alex
2011-01-01
We establish a close parallel between classicalization of gravitons and derivatively-coupled Nambu-Goldstone-type scalars. We show, that black hole formation in high energy scattering process represents classicalization with the classicalization radius given by Schwarzschild radius of center of mass energy, and with the precursor of black hole entropy being given by number of soft quanta composing this classical configuration. Such an entropy-equivalent is defined for scalar classicalons also and is responsible for exponential suppression of their decay into small number of final particles. This parallel works in both ways. For optimists that are willing to hypothesize that gravity may indeed self-unitarize at high energies via black hole formation, it illustrates that the Goldstones may not be much different in this respect, and they classicalize essentially by similar dynamics as gravitons. In the other direction, it may serve as an useful de-mystifier of via-black-hole-unitarization process and of the role...
Classical dynamics a modern perspective
Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George
2016-01-01
Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...
Lectures on the theory of pure motives
Murre, Jacob P; A, Chris
2013-01-01
The theory of motives was created by Grothendieck in the 1960s as he searched for a universal cohomology theory for algebraic varieties. The theory of pure motives is well established as far as the construction is concerned. Pure motives are expected to have a number of additional properties predicted by Grothendieck's standard conjectures, but these conjectures remain wide open. The theory for mixed motives is still incomplete. This book deals primarily with the theory of pure motives. The exposition begins with the fundamentals: Grothendieck's construction of the category of pure motives and examples. Next, the standard conjectures and the famous theorem of Jannsen on the category of the numerical motives are discussed. Following this, the important theory of finite dimensionality is covered. The concept of Chow-K�nneth decomposition is introduced, with discussion of the known results and the related conjectures, in particular the conjectures of Bloch-Beilinson type. We finish with a chapter on relative m...
Feasibility of purely endoscopic intramedullary fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.
Frake, Paul C; Goodman, Joseph F; Joshi, Arjun S
2015-01-01
The investigators of this study hypothesized that fractures of the mandibular condyle can be repaired using short-segment intramedullary implants and purely endoscopic surgical technique, using a basic science, human cadaver model in an academic center. Endoscopic instrumentation was used through a transoral mucosal incision to place intramedullary implants of 2 cm in length into osteotomized mandibular condyles. The surgical maneuvers that required to insert these implants, including condyle positioning, reaming, implant insertion, and seating of the mandibular ramus, are described herein. Primary outcome was considered as successful completion of the procedure. Ten cadaveric mandibular condyles were successfully repaired with rigid intramedullary internal fixation without the use of external incisions. Both insertion of a peg-type implant and screwing a threaded implant into the condylar head were possible. The inferior portion of the implant remained exposed, and the ramus of the mandible was manipulated into position on the implant using retraction at the sigmoid notch. The results of this study suggest that purely endoscopic repair of fractures of the mandibular condyle is possible by using short-segment intramedullary titanium implants and a transoral endoscopic approach without the need for facial incisions or punctures. The biomechanical advantages of these intramedullary implants, including improved strength and resistance to mechanical failure compared with miniplates, have been recently established. The combination of improved implant design and purely endoscopic technique may allow for improved fixation and reduced surgical- and implant-related morbidity in the treatment of condylar fractures.
Classical spins in superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K
1968-08-01
It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.
Thomas, H P
2001-04-01
Coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease are still the most common causes of death in Western countries. A number of risk factors have been identified in young and middle-aged adults, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Their prevalence and importance, however, are less clear in the elderly. In terms of dyslipedemia it is questionable whether hypercholesterolemia is a definite risk factor. On the other hand, mortality can be reduced by lowering LDL cholesterol, but the benefit in the oldest old is not yet known. Systolic blood pressure rises with age and is discussed controversely as a potential risk factor in the elderly. Some large trials could show a clear relationship between high blood pressure while others did not see any association. Similar to the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, antihypertensive drugs showed beneficial effects in elderly people until the age of 80. But the treatment of the oldest old cannot be recommended in general. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are some of the most common diseases in elderly people. They are considered to be an important risk factor until the age of 75. Their role in the oldest old is still under debate. Until now, we do not know anything about possible treatment effects because of the lack of controlled trials. Elderly people seem to have a risk profile different from younger people; especially in extreme ages the predictive role of classical risk factors is unclear. On the other hand, drug treatment could reduce mortality and morbidity in patients with hypercholesterolemia or hypertension. There are no studies which investigated the effects of blood glucose control in the elderly. The collection of sufficient data is a geriatric challange in order to decide whether treatment is useful or not.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-11-11
Nov 11, 2013 ... Polanyi's classic paper, co-authored by Henry Eyring, reproduced in this ... spatial conf guration of the atoms in terms of the energy function of the diatomic .... The present communication deals with the construction of such .... These three contributions are complemented by a fourth term if one takes into.
Classical field theory. On electrodynamics, non-Abelian gauge theories and gravitation. 2. ed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheck, Florian
2018-04-01
Scheck's successful textbook presents a comprehensive treatment, ideally suited for a one-semester course. The textbook describes Maxwell's equations first in their integral, directly testable form, then moves on to their local formulation. The first two chapters cover all essential properties of Maxwell's equations, including their symmetries and their covariance in a modern notation. Chapter 3 is devoted to Maxwell's theory as a classical field theory and to solutions of the wave equation. Chapter 4 deals with important applications of Maxwell's theory. It includes topical subjects such as metamaterials with negative refraction index and solutions of Helmholtz' equation in paraxial approximation relevant for the description of laser beams. Chapter 5 describes non-Abelian gauge theories from a classical, geometric point of view, in analogy to Maxwell's theory as a prototype, and culminates in an application to the U(2) theory relevant for electroweak interactions. The last chapter 6 gives a concise summary of semi-Riemannian geometry as the framework for the classical field theory of gravitation. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the Schwarzschild solution of Einstein's equations and the classical tests of general relativity. The new concept of this edition presents the content divided into two tracks: the fast track for master's students, providing the essentials, and the intensive track for all wanting to get in depth knowledge of the field. Cleary labeled material and sections guide students through the preferred level of treatment. Numerous problems and worked examples will provide successful access to Classical Field Theory.
Pure energy solutions - pure tomorrows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allison, J.
2006-01-01
HTC is an energy technology company whose mandate is to deliver 'Carbon Clear Solutions' to address the pending challenges the energy sector is facing in meeting the environmental impact of Greenhouse Gas emissions, and energy security. HTC will speak on its comprehensive suite of technologies including hydrogen production, CO 2 capture and CO 2 sequestration. HTC has patented technologies that produce H 2 from a broad variety of feedstocks such as Natural gas, Diesel, Gasoline, Bio-fuels i.e. ethanol, methanol and Coal Gasification. HTC Hydrogen reformation systems are unique in their method of delivering pure Hydrogen. Dry Reformation Reactor - New catalyst system designed to eliminate contamination problems (i.e. coking) while at the same time operate at a low temperature. Water Gas Shift Reactor - Plus - improved and redesigned catalyst that improves operating temperature and hydrogen production efficiency. Two stage catalyst reactor that provides near balance of the endothermic and exothermic reaction temperatures for efficient energy balance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunaevskii, A.M.
1977-01-01
The subject of this work are pure gamma families consisting of the gamma quanta produced in the early stages of cosmic cascades. The criteria of selecting these families from the all measured families are presented. The characteristics of these families are given and some conclusions about the mechanism of the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades are extracted. (S.B.)
Child, M S
2010-01-01
This high-level monograph offers an excellent introduction to the theory required for interpretation of an increasingly sophisticated range of molecular scattering experiments. There are five helpful appendixes dealing with continuum wavefunctions, Green's functions, semi-classical connection formulae, curve-crossing in the momentum representation, and elements of classical mechanics.The contents of this volume have been chosen to emphasize the quantum mechanical and semi-classical nature of collision events, with little attention given to purely classical behavior. The treatment is essentiall
Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Brunelli, Matteo; Marcolini, Lisa; Nortilli, Rolando; Pilotto, Sara; Zampiva, Ilaria; Merler, Sara; Fiorio, Elena; Filippi, Elisa; Manfrin, Erminia; Pellini, Francesca; Bonetti, Franco; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio
2016-03-22
The aim of this analysis was to investigate the potential impact of Ki67 assay in a series of patients affected by early stage invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) undergone surgery. Clinical-pathological data were correlated with disease-free and overall survival (DFS/OS). The maximally selected Log-Rank statistics analysis was applied to the Ki67 continuous variable to estimate appropriate cut-offs. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was performed to assess the interaction between 'pure' or 'mixed' histology ILC and Ki67. At a median follow-up of 67 months, 10-years DFS and OS of 405 patients were 67.8 and 79.8%, respectively. Standardized Log-Rank statistics identified 2 optimal cut-offs (6 and 21%); 10-years DFS and OS were 75.1, 66.5, and 30.2% (p = 0.01) and 84.3, 76.4 and 59% (p = 0.003), for patients with a Ki67 21%, respectively. Ki67 and lymph-node status were independent predictor for longer DFS and OS at the multivariate analysis, with radiotherapy (for DFS) and age (for OS). Ki67 highly replicated at the internal cross-validation analysis (DFS 85%, OS 100%). The STEPP analysis showed that DFS rate decreases as Ki67 increases and those patients with 'pure' ILC performed worse than 'mixed' histology. Despite the retrospective and exploratory nature of the study, Ki67 was able to significantly discriminate the prognosis of patients with ILC, and the effect was more pronounced for patients with 'pure' ILC.
Pure spinor integration from the collating formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassi, P.A.; Sommovigo, L.
2011-01-01
We use the technique developed by Becchi and Imbimbo to construct a well-defined BRST-invariant path integral formulation of pure spinor amplitudes. The space of pure spinors can be viewed from the algebraic geometry point of view as a collection of open sets where the constraints can be solved and a set of free and independent variables can be defined. On the intersections of those open sets, the functional measure jumps and one has to add boundary terms to construct a well-defined path integral. The result is the definition of the pure spinor integration measure constructed in terms of differential forms on each single patch.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruining WANG,Yubao ZHI,Junqing GUO,Qingmei LI,Li WANG,Jifei YANG,Qianyue JIN,Yinbiao WANG,Yanyan YANG,Guangxu XING,Songlin QIAO,Mengmeng ZHAO,Ruiguang DENG,Gaiping ZHANG
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Large-scale production of cell culture-based classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccine is hampered by the adverse reactions caused by contaminants from host cell and culture medium. Hence, we have developed an efficient method for purifying CSFV from cell-culture medium. Pure viral particles were obtained with two steps of tangential-flow filtration (TFF and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC, and were compared with particles from ultracentrifugation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, infectivity and recovery test, and real time fluorescent quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR. TFF concentrated the virus particles effectively with a retention rate of 98.5%, and 86.2% of viral particles were obtained from the ultrafiltration retentate through a Sepharose 4 F F column on a biological liquid chromatography system. CSFV purified by TFF-SEC or ultracentrifugation were both biologically active from 1.0×10-4.25 TCID50·mL-1 to 3.0×10-6.25 TCID50·mL-1, but the combination of TFF and SEC produced more pure virus particles than by ultracentrifugation alone. In addition, pure CSFV particles with the expected diameter of 40—60 nm were roughly spherical without any visible contamination. Mice immunized with CSFV purified by TFF-SEC produced higher antibody levels compared with immunization with ultracentrifugation-purified CSFV (P<0.05. The purification procedures in this study are reliable technically and feasible for purification of large volumes of viruses.
Pure erythrocytosis: reappraisal of a study of 51 cases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Najean, Y.; Triebel, F.; Dresch, C.
1981-01-01
Fifty-one cases of pure, primary erythrocytosis were identified and followed at Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris, and compared with 350 cases of polycythemia vera (PV) observed during the same period. At the initial evaluation, these cases did not differ from PV cases with respect to age, sex ratio, degree of red cell volume increase, and clinical symptoms. They did differ by the absence of splenomegaly, granulocytosis and thrombocytosis. At a late stage of evolution only a few cases developed classical criteria of PV. From this group of apparently homogeneous cases, two subgroups evolved. Sixty percent of the cases were highly responsive to myelosuppression with 32 P. The median duration of the first remission was greater than five years, the mean yearly dose of 32 P was very low, and there was a low incidence of complications. The other group (40% of cases) was relatively resistant to myelosuppressive agents. The development of better methods of investigate this disorder might help in discriminating these two groups from both an etiological and pathophysiological viewpoint. The thromboembolic risk of these diseases suggests that myelosuppressive therapy should be utilized in older patients with higher risk of vascular accidents, reserving phlebotomy for younger patients and those who are shown to be resistant to 32 P therapy
Twisted classical Poincare algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.
1993-11-01
We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)
Chaos, scaling and existence of a continuum limit in classical non-Abelian lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, H.B.; Rugh, H.H.; Rugh, S.E.
1996-01-01
We discuss space-time chaos and scaling properties for classical non-Abelian gauge fields discretized on a spatial lattice. We emphasize that there is a open-quote no goclose quotes for simulating the original continuum classical gauge fields over a long time span since there is a never ending dynamical cascading towards the ultraviolet. We note that the temporal chaotic properties of the original continuum gauge fields and the lattice gauge system have entirely different scaling properties thereby emphasizing that they are entirely different dynamical systems which have only very little in common. Considered as a statistical system in its own right the lattice gauge system in a situation where it has reached equilibrium comes closest to what could be termed a open-quotes continuum limitclose quotes in the limit of very small energies (weak non-linearities). We discuss the lattice system both in the limit for small energies and in the limit of high energies where we show that there is a saturation of the temporal chaos as a pure lattice artifact. Our discussion focuses not only on the temporal correlations but to a large extent also on the spatial correlations in the lattice system. We argue that various conclusions of physics have been based on monitoring the non-Abelian lattice system in regimes where the fields are correlated over few lattice units only. This is further evidenced by comparison with results for Abelian lattice gauge theory. How the real time simulations of the classical lattice gauge theory may reach contact with the real time evolution of (semi-classical aspects of) the quantum gauge theory (e.g. Q.C.D.) is left an important question to be further examined
The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Bacelar Valente
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bell, Ian H.; Wronski, Jorrit; Quoilin, Sylvain
2014-01-01
property correlations described here have been implemented into CoolProp, an open-source thermophysical property library. This library is written in C++, with wrappers available for the majority of programming languages and platforms of technical interest. As of publication, 110 pure and pseudo-pure fluids...... are included in the library, as well as properties of 40 incompressible fluids and humid air. The source code for the CoolProp library is included as an electronic annex....
Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics publishes papers of the highest quality and significance in specific areas of physics, pure and applied, as listed below. The journal content reflects core physics disciplines, but is also open to a broad range of topics whose central theme falls within the bounds of physics.
Quantum symmetries of classical spaces
Bhowmick, Jyotishman; Goswami, Debashish; Roy, Subrata Shyam
2009-01-01
We give a general scheme for constructing faithful actions of genuine (noncommutative as $C^*$ algebra) compact quantum groups on classical topological spaces. Using this, we show that: (i) a compact connected classical space can have a faithful action by a genuine compact quantum group, and (ii) there exists a spectral triple on a classical connected compact space for which the quantum group of orientation and volume preserving isometries (in the sense of \\cite{qorient}) is a genuine quantum...
Refurbishment of JMTR pure water facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asano, Norikazu; Hanakawa, Hiroki; Kusunoki, Hidehiko; Satou, Shinichi
2012-05-01
In the refurbishment of JMTR, facilities were classified into which (1) were all updated, (2) were partly updated, and (3) were continuance used by the considerations of the maintenance history, the change parts availability and the latest technology. The JMTR pure water facility was classified into all updated facility based on the consideration. The Update construction was conducted in between FY2007 and FY2008. The refurbishment of JMTR pure water facility is summarized in this report. (author)
Doing classical theology in context
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerrit Neven
2007-05-01
Full Text Available This article is about doing classical theology in context. The weight of my argument is that classical text of Karl Barth’s theology is great intellectual text means: being addressed by this text in the context in which one lives. The basic keywords that constitute a rule for reading those texts are “equality”, “event” and “re-contextualisation”. The article contains two sections: The first section elaborates statements about the challenge of the event and the project of rereading classics by way of recontextualisation. The word “event” refers to true and innovating moments in history which one can share, or which one can betray. Classical texts always share in those liberative moments. The question then is in what sense do they present a challenge to the contemporary reader. The second section elaborates the position of man as central and all decisive for doing theology in context now. In this section, the author appeals for a renewal of the classical anthropology as an anthropology of hope. This anthropology contradicts postmodern concepts of otherness.
Quantum dynamics in open quantum-classical systems.
Kapral, Raymond
2015-02-25
Often quantum systems are not isolated and interactions with their environments must be taken into account. In such open quantum systems these environmental interactions can lead to decoherence and dissipation, which have a marked influence on the properties of the quantum system. In many instances the environment is well-approximated by classical mechanics, so that one is led to consider the dynamics of open quantum-classical systems. Since a full quantum dynamical description of large many-body systems is not currently feasible, mixed quantum-classical methods can provide accurate and computationally tractable ways to follow the dynamics of both the system and its environment. This review focuses on quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, one of several quantum-classical descriptions, and discusses the problems that arise when one attempts to combine quantum and classical mechanics, coherence and decoherence in quantum-classical systems, nonadiabatic dynamics, surface-hopping and mean-field theories and their relation to quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, as well as methods for simulating the dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taehyung Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Throughout the history of East Asian medicine, different kinds of acupuncture treatment experiences have been accumulated in classical medical texts. Reexamining knowledge from classical medical texts is expected to provide meaningful information that could be utilized in current medical practices. In this study, we used data mining methods to analyze the association between acupoints and patterns of disorder with the classical medical book DongUiBoGam of Korean medicine. Using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf method, we quantified the significance of acupoints to its targeting patterns and, conversely, the significance of patterns to acupoints. Through these processes, we extracted characteristics of each acupoint based on its treating patterns. We also drew practical information for selecting acupoints on certain patterns according to their association. Data analysis on DongUiBoGam’s acupuncture treatment gave us an insight into the main idea of DongUiBoGam. We strongly believe that our approach can provide a novel understanding of unknown characteristics of acupoint and pattern identification from the classical medical text using data mining methods.
Quantum-Classical Correspondence: Dynamical Quantization and the Classical Limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, L
2004-01-01
In only 150 pages, not counting appendices, references, or the index, this book is one author's perspective of the massive theoretical and philosophical hurdles in the no-man's-land separating the classical and quantum domains of physics. It ends with him emphasizing his own theoretical contribution to this area. In his own words, he has attempted to answer: 1. How can we obtain the quantum dynamics of open systems initially described by the equations of motion of classical physics (quantization process) 2. How can we retrieve classical dynamics from the quantum mechanical equations of motion by means of a classical limiting process (dequantization process). However, this monograph seems overly ambitious. Although the publisher's description refers to this book as an accessible entre, we find that this author scrambles too hastily over the peaks of information that are contained in his large collection of 272 references. Introductory motivating discussions are lacking. Profound ideas are glossed over superficially and shoddily. Equations morph. But no new convincing understanding of the physical world results. The author takes the viewpoint that physical systems are always in interaction with their environment and are thus not isolated and, therefore, not Hamiltonian. This impels him to produce a method of quantization of these stochastic systems without the need of a Hamiltonian. He also has interest in obtaining the classical limit of the quantized results. However, this reviewer does not understand why one needs to consider open systems to understand quantum-classical correspondence. The author demonstrates his method using various examples of the Smoluchowski form of the Fokker--Planck equation. He then renders these equations in a Wigner representation, uses what he terms an infinitesimality condition, and associates with a constant having the dimensions of an action. He thereby claims to develop master equations, such as the Caldeira-Leggett equation, without
Computational physics simulation of classical and quantum systems
Scherer, Philipp O J
2017-01-01
This textbook presents basic numerical methods and applies them to a large variety of physical models in multiple computer experiments. Classical algorithms and more recent methods are explained. Partial differential equations are treated generally comparing important methods, and equations of motion are solved by a large number of simple as well as more sophisticated methods. Several modern algorithms for quantum wavepacket motion are compared. The first part of the book discusses the basic numerical methods, while the second part simulates classical and quantum systems. Simple but non-trivial examples from a broad range of physical topics offer readers insights into the numerical treatment but also the simulated problems. Rotational motion is studied in detail, as are simple quantum systems. A two-level system in an external field demonstrates elementary principles from quantum optics and simulation of a quantum bit. Principles of molecular dynamics are shown. Modern bounda ry element methods are presented ...
Archives: Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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Archives: Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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The Invention of Infertility in the Classical Greek World:
Flemming, Rebecca
2013-01-01
Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276
Locking classical correlations in quantum States.
DiVincenzo, David P; Horodecki, Michał; Leung, Debbie W; Smolin, John A; Terhal, Barbara M
2004-02-13
We show that there exist bipartite quantum states which contain a large locked classical correlation that is unlocked by a disproportionately small amount of classical communication. In particular, there are (2n+1)-qubit states for which a one-bit message doubles the optimal classical mutual information between measurement results on the subsystems, from n/2 bits to n bits. This phenomenon is impossible classically. However, states exhibiting this behavior need not be entangled. We study the range of states exhibiting this phenomenon and bound its magnitude.
Citation Classics from Industrial Marketing Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgreen, Adam; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony
2017-01-01
, system sellers and systems integrator, third-party logistics providers, and value). Finally, each of the 30 citation classics is introduced, and the classics' theoretical implications to business-to-business marketing management and fields related to (e.g., supply chain management, strategic management......This article proposes a categorization of what constitutes a citation classic. General observations reveal, with regard to the top 30 citation classics from Industrial Marketing Management, the number of authors per article, country of origin of the lead author, and type of article (literature...... review, qualitative methodology, or quantitative methodology). In addition, these citation classics can be classified by topic (firm performance, goods-dominant and service-dominant logics, Internet and high-technology markets, product innovation, relationships and business networks, supply chains...
Elementary classical hydrodynamics
Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C
1967-01-01
Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c
Thermomechanical characterization of pure polycrystalline tantalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rittel, D.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Poon, B.; Zhao, J.; Ravichandran, G.
2007-01-01
The thermomechanical behavior of pure polycrystalline tantalum has been characterized over a wide range of strain rates, using the recently developed shear compression specimen [D. Rittel, S. Lee, G. Ravichandran, Experimental Mechanics 42 (2002) 58-64]. Dynamic experiments were carried out using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, and the specimen's temperature was monitored throughout the tests using an infrared radiometer. The results of the mechanical tests confirm previous results on pure Ta. Specifically, in addition to its significant strain rate sensitivity, it was observed that pure Ta exhibits very little strain hardening at high strain rates. The measured temperature rise in the specimen's gauge was compared to theoretical predictions which assume a total conversion of the mechanical energy into heat (β = 1) [G.I. Taylor, H. Quinney, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. A, 1934, pp. 307-326], and an excellent agreement was obtained. This result confirms the previous result of Kapoor and Nemat-Nasser [R. Kapoor, S. Nemat-Nasser, Mech. Mater. 27 (1998) 1-12], while a different experimental approach was adopted here. The assumption that β = 1 is found to be justified in this specific case by the lack of dynamic strain hardening of pure Ta. However, this assumption should be limited to non-hardening materials, to reflect the fact that strain hardening implies that part of the mechanical energy is stored into the material's microstructure
Gauge-fields and integrated quantum-classical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1986-01-01
Physical situations in which quantum systems communicate continuously to their classically described environment are not covered by contemporary quantum theory, which requires a temporary separation of quantum degrees of freedom from classical ones. A generalization would be needed to cover these situations. An incomplete proposal is advanced for combining the quantum and classical degrees of freedom into a unified objective description. It is based on the use of certain quantum-classical structures of light that arise from gauge invariance to coordinate the quantum and classical degrees of freedom. Also discussed is the question of where experimenters should look to find phenomena pertaining to the quantum-classical connection. 17 refs
Classical limit for quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, D.; Sengupta, S.
2004-01-01
The classical limit problem is discussed for the quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, free from the problem at the classical turning points. A proper perspective of the whole issue is sought to appreciate the significance of the discussion. It is observed that for bound states in arbitrary potential, appropriate limiting condition is definable in terms of a dimensionless classical limit parameter leading smoothly to all observable classical results. Most important results are the emergence of classical phase space, keeping the observable distribution functions non-zero only within the so-called classical region at the limit point and resolution of some well-known paradoxes. (author)
Pure transvaginal excision of mesh erosion involving the bladder.
Firoozi, Farzeen; Goldman, Howard B
2013-06-01
We present a pure transvaginal approach to the removal of eroded mesh involving the bladder secondary to placement of transvaginal mesh for management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) using a mesh kit. Although technically challenging, we demonstrate the feasibility of a purely transvaginal approach, avoiding a potentially more morbid transabdominal approach. The video presents the surgical technique of pure transvaginal excision of mesh erosion involving the bladder after mesh placement using a prolapse kit was performed. This video shows that purely transvaginal removal of mesh erosion involving the bladder can be done safely and is feasible.
De la Flor-Martínez, Maria; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena; Piattelli, Adriano; Cobo, Manuel Jesus; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique
2016-10-01
The study of classic papers permits analysis of the past, present, and future of a specific area of knowledge. This type of analysis is becoming more frequent and more sophisticated. Our objective was to use the H-classics method, based on the h-index, to analyze classic papers in Implant Dentistry, Periodontics, and Oral Surgery (ID, P, and OS). First, an electronic search of documents related to ID, P, and OS was conducted in journals indexed in Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2014 within the category 'Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine'. Second, Web of Knowledge databases were searched using Mesh terms related to ID, P, and OS. Finally, the H-classics method was applied to select the classic articles in these disciplines, collecting data on associated research areas, document type, country, institutions, and authors. Of 267,611 documents related to ID, P, and OS retrieved from JCR journals (2014), 248 were selected as H-classics. They were published in 35 journals between 1953 and 2009, most frequently in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (18.95%), the Journal of Periodontology (18.54%), International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants (9.27%), and Clinical Oral Implant Research (6.04%). These classic articles derived from the USA in 49.59% of cases and from Europe in 47.58%, while the most frequent host institution was the University of Gothenburg (17.74%) and the most frequent authors were J. Lindhe (10.48%) and S. Socransky (8.06%). The H-classics approach offers an objective method to identify core knowledge in clinical disciplines such as ID, P, and OS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The management of patients with limited-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Gospodarowicz, Mary K; Meyer, Ralph M
2006-01-01
The term limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma refers to those patients with stage I-II disease and an absence of bulky disease. Among those patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma, approximately one-third of patients will fall into this category. As long-term disease control can now be anticipated in more than 90% of these patients, management strategies must increasingly address the need to reduce the long-term treatment-related risks. Current treatment options include use of combined modality therapy that includes an abbreviated course of chemotherapy and involved-field radiation or treatment with chemotherapy, currently consisting of ABVD, as a single modality. The choice of treatment between these two options involves specific trade-offs that must balance issues of disease control against long-term risk of late effects.
Classical orbits in power-law potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grant, A.K.; Rosner, J.L.
1994-01-01
The motion of bodies in power-law potentials of the form V(r)=λr α has been of interest ever since the time of Newton and Hooke. Aspects of the relation between powers α and bar α, where (α+2)(bar α+2)=4, are derived for classical motion and the relation to the quantum-mechanical problem is given. An improvement on a previous expression for the WKB quantization condition for nonzero orbital angular momenta is obtained. Relations with previous treatments, such as those of Newton, Bertrand, Bohlin, Faure, and Arnold, are noted, and a brief survey of the literature on the problem over more than three centuries is given
Seven steps towards the classical world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allori, Valia; Duerr, Detlef; Goldstein, Shelly; Zanghi, Nino
2002-01-01
Classical physics is about real objects, like apples falling from trees, whose motion is governed by Newtonian laws. In standard quantum mechanics only the wavefunctions or the results of measurements exist, and to answer the question of how the classical world can be part of the quantum world is a rather formidable task. However, this is not the case for Bohmian mechanics which, like classical mechanics, is a theory about real objects. In Bohmian terms, the problem of the classical limit becomes very simple: when do the Bohmian trajectories look Newtonian?
Creep mechanisms and constitutive relations in pure metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nix, W.D.
1979-01-01
The mechanisms of creep of pure metals is briefly reviewed and divided into two parts: steady state flow mechanisms, and non-steady state flow mechanisms and constitutive relations. Creep by diffusional flow is now reasonably well understood, with theory and experiment in good agreement. The closely related phenomenon of Harper--Dorn creep can also be understood in terms of diffusion between dislocations. Power law creep involves the climb of edge disloctions controlled by lattice self diffusion. Theoretical treatments of this process invariably give a power law exponent of 3. This natural creep law is compared with the data for FCC and BCC metals. It is suggested that diffusion controlled climb is the controlling process in BCC metals at very high temperatures. Stacking fault energy effects may preclude the possibility that creep is controlled entirely by lattice self diffusion in some FCC metals. The subject of power law breakdown is presented as a natural consequence of the transition to low temperature flow phenomena. The role of core diffusion in this transition is briefly discussed. The mechanisms are presented by which pure metals creep at elevated temperatures. While most of this review deals with the mechanisms of steady state flow, some discussion is devoted to creep flow under non-steady state conditions. This topic is discussed in connection with the development of constitutive equations for describing plastic flow in metals
Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates, pure Mg was ground under hydrogen atmosphere (reactive .... Hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled pure Mg. 833. Figure 3. ... elongated and flat shapes via collisions with the steel.
Low-Temperature Blanching as a Tool to Modulate the Structure of Pectin in Blueberry Purees.
Chevalier, Laura M; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Angers, Paul; Turgeon, Sylvie L
2017-09-01
Blueberry composition was characterized for 6 cultivars. It contains a good amount of dietary fiber (10% to 20%) and pectin (4% to 7%) whose degree of methylation (DM) is sensitive to food processing. A low temperature blanching (LTB: 60 °C/1 h) was applied on blueberry purees to decrease pectin DM, in order to modulate puree properties and functionalities (that is, viscosity and stability), and to enhance pectin affinity toward other components within food matrices. Fiber content, viscosity, pectin solubility, DM, and monosaccharide composition were determined for both pasteurized, and LTB+pasteurized blueberry purees. The results showed that neither the amount of fiber, nor the viscosity were affected by LTB, indicating that this treatment did not result in any significant pectin depolymerization and degradation. LTB caused a decrease both in pectin DM from 58-67% to 45-47% and in the amount of water-soluble pectin fraction, the latter remaining the major fraction of total pectin at 52% to 57%. A LTB is a simple and mild process to produce blueberry purees with mostly soluble and low-methylated pectin in order to extend functionality and opportunities for interactions with other food ingredients. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Method for the recovery of uranium from a concentrate using pure phosphoric acid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-01-01
Procedure for the recovery of an uranium bearing concentrate and pure phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid from the treatment fluid with a precipitation means in conjunction with an organic diluent, the thus formed precipitate to separate and from the remaining mixture of phosphoric acid and diluent the phosphoric acid to extract, characterised in that one applies an inorganic fluorine compound. (G.C.)
Quantum formalism for classical statistics
Wetterich, C.
2018-06-01
In static classical statistical systems the problem of information transport from a boundary to the bulk finds a simple description in terms of wave functions or density matrices. While the transfer matrix formalism is a type of Heisenberg picture for this problem, we develop here the associated Schrödinger picture that keeps track of the local probabilistic information. The transport of the probabilistic information between neighboring hypersurfaces obeys a linear evolution equation, and therefore the superposition principle for the possible solutions. Operators are associated to local observables, with rules for the computation of expectation values similar to quantum mechanics. We discuss how non-commutativity naturally arises in this setting. Also other features characteristic of quantum mechanics, such as complex structure, change of basis or symmetry transformations, can be found in classical statistics once formulated in terms of wave functions or density matrices. We construct for every quantum system an equivalent classical statistical system, such that time in quantum mechanics corresponds to the location of hypersurfaces in the classical probabilistic ensemble. For suitable choices of local observables in the classical statistical system one can, in principle, compute all expectation values and correlations of observables in the quantum system from the local probabilistic information of the associated classical statistical system. Realizing a static memory material as a quantum simulator for a given quantum system is not a matter of principle, but rather of practical simplicity.
Kern, Philippe; Ramelet, Albert-Adrien; Wutschert, Robert; Mazzolai, Lucia
2011-11-01
Chromated glycerin (CG) is an effective, although painful, sclerosing agent for telangiectasias and reticular leg veins treatment. To determine pain level and relative efficacy of pure or one-third lidocaine-epinephrine 1% mixed chromated glycerin in a prospective randomized double-blind trial. Patients presenting with telangiectasias and reticular leg veins on the lateral aspect of the thigh (C(1A) or (S) E(P) A(S) P(N1) ) were randomized to receive pure CG or CG mixed with one-third lidocaine-epinephrine 1% (CGX) treatment. Lower limb photographs were taken before and after treatment and analyzed by blinded expert reviewers for efficacy assessment (visual vein disappearance). Patients' pain and satisfaction were assessed using visual analogue scales. Data from 102 of 110 randomized patients could be evaluated. Patient pain scores were significantly higher when pure CG was used than with CGX (psclerotherapy pain without affecting efficacy when treating telangiectasias and reticular leg veins. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
Modeling classical and quantum radiation from laser-plasma accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Chen
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The development of models and the “Virtual Detector for Synchrotron Radiation” (vdsr code that accurately describe the production of synchrotron radiation are described. These models and code are valid in the classical and linear (single-scattering quantum regimes and are capable of describing radiation produced from laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs through a variety of mechanisms including betatron radiation, undulator radiation, and Thomson/Compton scattering. Previous models of classical synchrotron radiation, such as those typically used for undulator radiation, are inadequate in describing the radiation spectra from electrons undergoing small numbers of oscillations. This is due to an improper treatment of a mathematical evaluation at the end points of an integration that leads to an unphysical plateau in the radiation spectrum at high frequencies, the magnitude of which increases as the number of oscillation periods decreases. This is important for betatron radiation from LPAs, in which the betatron strength parameter is large but the number of betatron periods is small. The code vdsr allows the radiation to be calculated in this regime by full integration over each electron trajectory, including end-point effects, and this code is used to calculate betatron radiation for cases of experimental interest. Radiation from Thomson scattering and Compton scattering is also studied with vdsr. For Thomson scattering, radiation reaction is included by using the Sokolov method for the calculation of the electron dynamics. For Compton scattering, quantum recoil effects are considered in vdsr by using Monte Carlo methods. The quantum calculation has been benchmarked with the classical calculation in a classical regime.
Diminuendo: Classical Music and the Academy
Asia, Daniel
2010-01-01
How is the tradition of Western classical music faring on university campuses? Before answering this question, it is necessary to understand what has transpired with classical music in the wider culture, as the relationship between the two is so strong. In this article, the author discusses how classical music has taken a big cultural hit in…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rana, Swapan; Parashar, Preeti [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 BT Road, Kolkata (India)
2011-11-15
We show that all multipartite pure states that are stochastic local operation and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalent to the N-qubit W state can be uniquely determined (among arbitrary states) from their bipartite marginals. We also prove that only (N-1) of the bipartite marginals are sufficient and that this is also the optimal number. Thus, contrary to the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class, W-type states preserve their reducibility under SLOCC. We also study the optimal reducibility of some larger classes of states. The generic Dicke states |GD{sub N}{sup l}> are shown to be optimally determined by their (l+1)-partite marginals. The class of ''G'' states (superposition of W and W) are shown to be optimally determined by just two (N-2)-partite marginals.
Pure Science and Applied Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert J. Aumann
2011-01-01
Full Text Available (Excerpt The name of my talk is Pure Science and Applied Science, and the idea I would like to sell to you today is that there is no such thing as “pure” or “applied” science. In other words, there is such a thing as science, but there is no difference between pure and applied science. Science is one entity and cannot be separated into different categories. In order to back that up, I would like to tell you a little story. As an undergraduate, I studied mathematics at City College in New York. At that time, what was called Pure Mathematics was in vogue, and the more prominent mathematicians were a little contemptuous of any kind of application. A very famous, prominent mathematician in the first half of the previous century by the name of G. H. Hardy, who was in a branch of mathematics called number theory, said that the only thing he regretted was that he unwittingly did some important work in mathematical genetics that eventually turned out to have some application. … Such was the atmosphere in the late ’40s of the previous century and, being a young man and impressionable, I was swept up in this atmosphere.
Symmetrical Windowing for Quantum States in Quasi-Classical Trajectory Simulations
Cotton, Stephen Joshua
a range of standard benchmark models of electronically non-adiabatic processes, including applications where "quantum" coherence effects are significant. Notably, among these benchmarks was the well-studied "spin-boson" model of condensed phase non-adiabatic dynamics, in both its symmetric and asymmetric forms---the latter of which many classical approaches fail to treat successfully. The SQC/MM approach to the treatment of non-adiabatic dynamics was next applied [S.J. Cotton, K. Igumenshchev, and W.H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys., 141, 084104 (2014)] to several recently proposed models of condensed phase electron transfer (ET) processes. For these problems, a flux-side correlation function framework modified for consistency with the SQC approach was developed for the calculation of thermal ET rate constants, and excellent accuracy was seen over wide ranges of non-adiabatic coupling strength and energetic bias/exothermicity. Significantly, the "inverted regime" in thermal rate constants (with increasing bias) known from Marcus Theory was reproduced quantitatively for these models---representing the successful treatment of another regime that classical approaches generally have difficulty in correctly describing. Relatedly, a model of photoinduced proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) was also addressed, and it was shown that the SQC/MM approach could reasonably model the explicit population dynamics of the photoexcited electron donor and acceptor states over the four parameter regimes considered. The potential utility of the SQC/MM technique lies in its stunning simplicity and the ease by which it may readily be incorporated into "ordinary" molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In short, a typical MD simulation may be augmented to take non-adiabatic effects into account simply by introducing an auxiliary pair of classical "electronic" action-angle variables for each energetically viable Born-Oppenheimer surface, and time-evolving these auxiliary variables via Hamilton
Arias-González, Felipe; del Val, Jesús; Comesaña, Rafael; Penide, Joaquín; Lusquiños, Fernando; Quintero, Félix; Riveiro, Antonio; Boutinguiza, Mohamed; Gil, Francisco Javier; Pou, Juan
2018-01-01
In this paper, the microstructure and crystallographic texture of pure Ti thin walls generated by Additive Manufacturing based on Laser Cladding (AMLC) are analyzed in depth. From the results obtained, it is possible to better understand the AMLC process of pure titanium. The microstructure observed in the samples consists of large elongated columnar prior β grains which have grown epitaxially from the substrate to the top, in parallel to the building direction. Within the prior β grains, α-Ti lamellae and lamellar colonies are the result of cooling from above the β-transus temperature. This transformation follows the Burgers relationship and the result is a basket-weave microstructure with a strong crystallographic texture. Finally, a thermal treatment is proposed to transform the microstructure of the as-deposited samples into an equiaxed microstructure of α-Ti grains.
State-dependent classical potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Amico, M.
2001-01-01
As alternative treatment to the potential operators of standard quantum mechanics is presented. The method is derived from Bohm's mechanics. The operator scalar (V) and vector (A) potential functions are replaced by a quantum potential. It is argued that the classical potential is a special limiting case of a more general quantum potential. The theory is illustrated by deriving an equivalent single-particle equation for the i-th particle of an n-body Bohmian system. The resulting effective state-dependent potential holds the interaction between the single-particle self-wave ψ s and the environment wave ψ e of the n - 1 remaining particles. The effective state-dependent potential is offered as a resolution to the Aharonov-Bohm effect where the phase difference is shown to result from the presence of ψ e . Finally, the interaction between ψ s and ψ e is illustrated graphically
Ramachandran, Balaji; Jayavelu, Subramani; Murhekar, Kanchan; Rajkumar, Thangarajan
2016-01-01
EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate) is the major active principle catechin found in green tea. Skepticism regarding the safety of consuming EGCG is gaining attention, despite the fact that it is widely being touted for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. The lack of scientific data on safe dose levels of pure EGCG is of concern, while EGCG has been commonly studied as a component of GTE (Green tea extract) and not as a single active constituent. This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal)] and limited [p.o (oral)] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1 mg/kg for i.p and 67.8 mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced effects by both treatment routes are reversible, subsequent to an observation period for further fourteen days after cessation of treatment. It was demonstrated that the severity of EGCG induced toxicity appears to be a function of dose, route of administration and period of treatment.
Graph Theory to Pure Mathematics: Some Illustrative Examples
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Graph Theory to Pure Mathematics: Some. Illustrative Examples v Yegnanarayanan is a. Professor of Mathematics at MNM Jain Engineering. College, Chennai. His research interests include graph theory and its applications to both pure maths and theoretical computer science. Keywords. Graph theory, matching theory,.
'Leonard pairs' in classical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhedanov, Alexei; Korovnichenko, Alyona
2002-01-01
Leonard pairs (LP) are matrices with the property of mutual tri-diagonality. We introduce and study a classical analogue of LP. We show that corresponding classical 'Leonard' dynamical variables satisfy non-linear relations of the AW-type with respect to Poisson brackets. (author)
Rapid hardening induced by electric pulse annealing in nanostructured pure aluminum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeng, Wei; Shen, Yao; Zhang, Ning
2012-01-01
Nanostructured pure aluminum was fabricated by heavy cold-rolling and then subjected to recovery annealing either by applying electric pulse annealing or by traditional air furnace annealing. Both annealing treatments resulted in an increase in yield strength due to the occurrence of a “dislocation...... source-limited hardening” mechanism. However, the hardening kinetics was substantially faster for the electric pulse annealed material. Detailed microstructural characterization suggested that the rapid hardening during electric pulse annealing is related to an enhanced rate of recovery of dislocation...
[Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection for the Treatment of Occult and Classic CNV in Exsudative AMD].
Maier, M M; Feucht, N; Fegert, C; Fiore, B; Winkler von Mohrenfels, C; Lohmann, C
2011-02-01
Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled and multicentre studies have proven an increase in visual acuity in one-third of the patients receiving Ranibizumab (0.5 mg) injections, who suffer from exsudative AMD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early effects of intravitreal Ranibizumab therapy in patients with mainly occult neovascular AMD in clinical applications. In a retrospective cohort study, 91 eyes with occult and classic neovascular AMD were treated with intravitreal injections of Ranibizumab (0.5 mg) at 30-day intervals. The treatment effects were evaluated according to best corrected visual acuity, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intraocular pressure at baseline as well as 1, 3 and 6 months after the beginning of therapy. Furthermore, fluorescein angiography (FLA) was performed at baseline as well as 3 and 6 months after therapy. 74 % of the patients lost fewer than 15 letters on the EDTRS-scale 6 months after the beginning of therapy. Visual acuity improved by more than 15 letters in 11 % of the patients. Central retinal thickness, measured by OCT, decreased statistically significantly in each control compared to baseline (1 month: p = 0.045; 3 months: p = 0.001; 6 months: p = 0.006). Leakage and membranes, evaluated in FA, worsened in 31 % of the patients; in 67 % the findings were stable. No increase in intraocular pressure was detected. Intravitreal application of Ranibizumab was safe and well tolerated. In the clinical situation, visual acuity was stabilised in the short term. As opposed to phase-III studies, no improvement in visual acuity could be accomplished. Cental retinal thickness decreased and findings in fluorescein angiography were stable within a 6-month follow-up period. It is necessary to perform monthly controls and proceed with VA- and OCT-based injections in order to maintain the therapeutic effect. Futher clinical evaluations of Ranibizumab will be necessary to evaluate its long-term treatment effects.
Expander graphs in pure and applied mathematics
Lubotzky, Alexander
2012-01-01
Expander graphs are highly connected sparse finite graphs. They play an important role in computer science as basic building blocks for network constructions, error correcting codes, algorithms and more. In recent years they have started to play an increasing role also in pure mathematics: number theory, group theory, geometry and more. This expository article describes their constructions and various applications in pure and applied mathematics.
Classical Limit and Quantum Logic
Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico
2018-02-01
The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.
Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, S.K.
1982-08-01
Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H 2 C 2 → HC 2 H, HNC → HCN, and H 2 CO → H 2 + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I → Na + + I - is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features
Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation
Cveticanin, L.
2011-02-01
In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cavallaro Roberto
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of reports showed en encouraging remediation in some patients' executive deficits thanks to the use of 'information processing strategies'. Moreover the impact of antipsychotics on cognitive functions of the schizophrenics is an important issue, especially if an integrated psychosocial treatment is needed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different executive performance and response to verbalization, a strategy of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST remediation, in subjects on classical vs atypical antipsychotic (AP treatment. Methods Sixty-three schizophrenic subjects undertook the WCST under standard and modified (verbalization administration. Subjects were stratified by the kind of WCST response (i.e. good, poor and remediable and AP treatment (i.e. atypical vs. classical. Results Subjects on atypical APs showed a better performance than those on classical ones. More poor performers who did not remediate were seen in the sample with classical Aps while subjects who remediated the performance were seen in the subgroup with atypical APs only. An increase of perseverative and total errors was seen in poor performers subjects on classical APs. Conclusion Subjects on atypicals showed a better cognitive pattern in terms of WCST performance. Since the naturalistic assignment of medication we cannot draw conclusions about its effect on cognitive performance and its interaction with cognitive remediation potential. However the data lead us to hypothesize that subjects with potential room for remediation did so with the atypical APs.
Mangina, Constantine A; Beuzeron-Mangina, Helen
2009-08-01
This research pursues the crucial question of the differentiation of preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD, comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities, "Pure" learning disabilities and age-matched normal controls. For this purpose, Topographic Mapping of Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) to a Memory Workload Paradigm with visually presented words, Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance were used. The analysis of Topographic distribution of amplitudes revealed that normal preadolescents were significantly different from "Pure" ADHD (Plearning disabilities (Plearning disabilities (Plearning disabilities have shown a marked reduction of prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). As for the "Pure" Learning Disabled preadolescents, very small positivities (P450) in prefrontal and frontal regions were obtained as compared to the other pathological groups. Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload revealed a significant main effect for groups (P<0.00001), Left versus Right (P=0.0029) and sessions (P=0.0136). A significant main effect for the Mangina-Test performance which separated the four groups was found (P<0.000001). Overall, these data support the existence of clear differences and similarities between the pathological preadolescent groups as opposed to age-matched normal controls. The psychophysiological differentiation of these groups, provides distinct biological markers which integrate central, autonomic and neuropsychometric variables by targeting the key features of these pathologies for diagnosis and intervention strategies and by providing knowledge for the understanding of normal neurocognitive processes and functions.
Classical-driving-assisted entanglement dynamics control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Ying-Jie, E-mail: yingjiezhang@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Han, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Xia, Yun-Jie, E-mail: yjxia@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100190 (China)
2017-04-15
We propose a scheme of controlling entanglement dynamics of a quantum system by applying the external classical driving field for two atoms separately located in a single-mode photon cavity. It is shown that, with a judicious choice of the classical-driving strength and the atom–photon detuning, the effective atom–photon interaction Hamiltonian can be switched from Jaynes–Cummings model to anti-Jaynes–Cummings model. By tuning the controllable atom–photon interaction induced by the classical field, we illustrate that the evolution trajectory of the Bell-like entanglement states can be manipulated from entanglement-sudden-death to no-entanglement-sudden-death, from no-entanglement-invariant to entanglement-invariant. Furthermore, the robustness of the initial Bell-like entanglement can be improved by the classical driving field in the leaky cavities. This classical-driving-assisted architecture can be easily extensible to multi-atom quantum system for scalability.
Corrosion of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Tao; Chen Chongmu; Shao Yawei; Meng Guozhe; Wang Fuhui; Li Xiaogang; Dong Chaofang
2008-01-01
The corrosion behavior of pure magnesium was investigated by means of cathodic polarization curve, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) under aerated and deaerated thin electrolyte layers (TEL) with various thicknesses. Based on shot noise theory and stochastic theory, the EN results were quantitatively analyzed by using the Weibull and Gumbel distribution function, respectively. The results show that the cathodic process of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layer was dominated by hydrogen reduction. With the decreasing of thin electrolyte layer thickness, cathodic process was retarded slightly while the anodic process was inhibited significantly, which indicated that both the cathodic and anodic process were inhibited in the presence of oxygen. The absence of oxygen decreased the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium in case of thin electrolyte layer. The corrosion was more localized under thin electrolyte layer than that in bulk solution. The results also demonstrate that there exist two kinds of effects for thin electrolyte layer on the corrosion behavior of pure magnesium: (1) the rate of pit initiation was evidently retarded compared to that in bulk solution; (2) the probability of pit growth oppositely increased. The corrosion model of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layer was suggested in the paper
Engineering arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pechen, Alexander
2011-01-01
Controlled manipulation by atomic- and molecular-scale quantum systems has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years. A fundamental problem is to provide deterministic methods for controlled engineering of arbitrary quantum states. This work proposes a deterministic method for engineering arbitrary pure and mixed states of a wide class of quantum systems. The method exploits a special combination of incoherent and coherent controls (incoherent and coherent radiation) and has two properties which are specifically important for manipulating by quantum systems: it realizes the strongest possible degree of their state control, complete density matrix controllability, meaning the ability to steer arbitrary pure and mixed initial states into any desired pure or mixed final state, and it is all-to-one, such that each particular control transfers all initial system states into one target state.
Classicality of quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poulin, David
2002-01-01
The ultimate goal of the classicality program is to quantify the amount of quantumness of certain processes. Here, classicality is studied for a restricted type of process: quantum information processing (QIP). Under special conditions, one can force some qubits of a quantum computer into a classical state without affecting the outcome of the computation. The minimal set of conditions is described and its structure is studied. Some implications of this formalism are the increase of noise robustness, a proof of the quantumness of mixed state quantum computing, and a step forward in understanding the very foundation of QIP
Digital Classics Outside the Echo-Chamber
Bodard, Gabriel; Romanello, Matteo
2016-01-01
This volume, edited by the organizers of the “Digital Classicist” seminars series, presents research in classical studies, digital classics and digital humanities, bringing together scholarship that addresses the impact of the study of classical antiquity through computational methods on audiences such as scientists, heritage professionals, students and the general public. Within this context, chapters tackle particular aspects, from epigraphy, papyrology and manuscripts, via Greek language, ...
Origin of classical structure in the Universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiefer, Claus [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Lohmar, Ingo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Polarski, David [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, UMR 5207 CNRS, Universite de Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Starobinsky, Alexei A [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygina St. 2, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation)
2007-05-15
We address the quantum-to-classical transition for primordial fluctuations, that is, the emergence of classical stochastic properties for these fluctuations. We discuss in particular the entanglement entropy for these fluctuations, the decoherence time, and the question of the classical basis (pointer basis) for them. The decoherence time for modes outside the Hubble scale is set by the Hubble parameter. The classical states are narrow Gaussians in the field amplitude.
About the modern house - and the classical
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hauberg, Jørgen
2010-01-01
In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965).......In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965)....
Classical algebraic chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, S.L.
1978-01-01
I develop an extension of the usual equations of SU(n) chromodynamics which permits the consistent introduction of classical, noncommuting quark source charges. The extension involves adding a singlet gluon, giving a U(n) -based theory with outer product P/sup a/(u,v) = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc)(u/sup b/v/sup c/ - v/sup b/u/sup c/) which obeys the Jacobi identity, inner product S (u,v) = (1/2)(u/sup a/v/sup a/ + v/sup a/u/sup a/), and with the n 2 gluon fields elevated to algebraic fields over the quark color charge C* algebra. I show that provided the color charge algebra satisfies the condition S (P (u,v),w) = S (u,P (v,w)) for all elements u,v,w of the algebra, all the standard derivations of Lagrangian chromodynamics continue to hold in the algebraic chromodynamics case. I analyze in detail the color charge algebra in the two-particle (qq, qq-bar, q-barq-bar) case and show that the above consistency condition is satisfied for the following unique (and, interestingly, asymmetric) choice of quark and antiquark charges: Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi/sup a/, Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi-bar/sup a/ + delta/sup a/0(n/2)/sup 3/2/1, with xi/sup a/xi/sup b/ = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc) xi/sup c/, xi-bar/sup a/xi-bar/sup b/ = -(1/2)(d/sup a/bc - if/sup a/bc) xi-bar/sup c/. The algebraic structure of the two-particle U(n) force problem, when expressed on an appropriately diagonalized basis, leads for all n to a classical dynamics problem involving an ordinary SU(2) Yang-Mills field with uniquely specified classical source charges which are nonparallel in the color-singlet state. An explicit calculation shows that local algebraic U(n) gauge transformations lead only to a rigid global rotation of axes in the overlying classical SU(2) problem, which implies that the relative orientations of the classical source charges have physical significance
Classical monsters in new Doctor Who fan fiction
Amanda Potter
2016-01-01
Although a number of classic Doctor Who episodes featured story lines and characters drawn from Greek myth, no new Who episodes based on Greek myth appeared until seasons 5 and 6, in 2010 and 2011. These episodes featured Pandora's box, the Minotaur, and a Siren. They all use the mythical monster or artifact outside of its ancient Greek context, and I argue that the mythical monsters were additions to earlier story ideas. I compare this with the treatment of the myths of the Minotaur and the ...
Anti-corrosion layer prepared by plasma electrolytic carbonitriding on pure aluminum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Jie; Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Run; Wang, Bin; Hua, Ming; Xue, Wenbin
2015-01-01
Highlights: • PEC/N can be applied to low melting point metal. • The spectroscopic characterization of plasma discharge is investigated. • Electron concentration and electron temperature are evaluated for PEC/N. • Phase composition of the carbonitrided layer is determined. • PEC/N improves the corrosion resistance of aluminum greatly. - Abstract: In this paper, plasma electrolytic carbonitriding (PEC/N) method was applied to pure aluminum for the first time. The spectroscopic characterization of plasma discharge during PEC/N process was analyzed and the electron temperature was calculated in terms of optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed the discharge plasma was in local thermal equilibrium (LTE) state. Electron concentration and electron temperature were about 6 × 10 21 m −3 and 4000 K, respectively. The carbonitrided layer contained Al 4 C 3 , AlN and Al 7 C 3 N 3 phases. After PEC/N treatment, the corrosion resistance of pure aluminum was significantly improved, which was related to the formation of nitride phases. This work expands the application of plasma electrolysis technology on the surface modification of low melting point metal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Benedikte
The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...
Is tapentadol different from classical opioids? A review of the evidence.
Langford, Richard M; Knaggs, Roger; Farquhar-Smith, Paul; Dickenson, Anthony H
2016-11-01
Tapentadol is a single molecule able to deliver analgesia by two distinct mechanisms, a feature which differentiates it from many other analgesics. Pre-clinical data demonstrate two mechanisms of action: mu-opioid receptor agonist activity and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibition. From these, one may predict that tapentadol would be applicable across a broad spectrum of pain from nociceptive to neuropathic. The evidence in animal models suggests that norepinephrine re-uptake inhibition (NRI) is a key mechanism and may even predominate over opioid actions in chronic (and especially neuropathic) pain states, reinforcing that tapentadol is different to classical opioids and may, therefore, be an a priori choice for the treatment of neuropathic and mixed pain. The clinical studies and subsequent practice experience and surveillance support the concept of opioid and non-opioid mechanisms of action. The reduced incidence of some of the typical opioid-induced side effects, compared to equianalgesic doses of classical opioids, supports the hypothesis that tapentadol analgesia is only partially mediated by opioid agonist mechanisms. Both the pre-clinical and clinical profiles appear to be differentiated from those of classical opioids.
Harada, Hiromitsu; Mouchet, Amaury; Shudo, Akira
2017-10-01
The topology of complex classical paths is investigated to discuss quantum tunnelling splittings in one-dimensional systems. Here the Hamiltonian is assumed to be given as polynomial functions, so the fundamental group for the Riemann surface provides complete information on the topology of complex paths, which allows us to enumerate all the possible candidates contributing to the semiclassical sum formula for tunnelling splittings. This naturally leads to action relations among classically disjoined regions, revealing entirely non-local nature in the quantization condition. The importance of the proper treatment of Stokes phenomena is also discussed in Hamiltonians in the normal form.
Complex windmill transformation producing new purely magnetic fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lozanovski, C; Wylleman, L
2011-01-01
Minimal complex windmill transformations of G 2 IB(ii) spacetimes (admitting a two-dimensional Abelian group of motions of the so-called Wainwright B(ii) class) are defined and the compatibility with a purely magnetic Weyl tensor is investigated. It is shown that the transformed spacetimes cannot be perfect fluids or purely magnetic Einstein spaces. We then determine which purely magnetic perfect fluids (PMpfs) can be windmill-transformed into purely magnetic anisotropic fluids (PMafs). Assuming separation of variables, complete integration produces two, algebraically general, G 2 I-B(ii) PMpfs: a solution with zero 4-acceleration vector and spatial energy-density gradient, previously found by the authors, and a new solution in terms of Kummer's functions, where these vectors are aligned and non-zero. The associated windmill PMafs are rotating but non-expanding. Finally, an attempt to relate the spacetimes to each other by a simple procedure leads to a G 2 I-B(ii) one-parameter PMaf generalization of the previously found metric.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gourdin, M.
1976-01-01
In most gauge theories weak neutral currents appear as a natural consequence of the models, but the specific properties are not predicted in a general way. In purely leptonic interactions the structure of these currents can be tested without making assumptions about the weak couplings of the hadrons. The influence of neutral currents appearing in the process e + e - → μ + μ - can be measured using the polarization of the outgoing myons. (BJ) [de
Park, Joseph Sung-Yul
2016-01-01
Language occupies a crucial position in neoliberalism, due to the reimagination of language as commodified skill. This paper studies the role of language ideology in this transformation by identifying a particular ideology that facilitates this process, namely the ideology which views language as pure potential. Neoliberalism treats language as a…
Mackenzie, Jim
2016-01-01
This article responds to Johan Dahlbeck's "Towards a pure ontology: Children's bodies and morality" ["Educational Philosophy and Theory," vol. 46 (1), 2014, pp. 8-23 (EJ1026561)]. His arguments from Nietzsche and Spinoza do not carry the weight he supposes, and the conclusions he draws from them about pedagogy would be…
Quantum locking of classical correlations and quantum discord of classical-quantum states
BOIXO, S.; AOLITA, L.; CAVALCANTI, D.; MODI, K.; WINTER, A.
2011-01-01
A locking protocol between two parties is as follows: Alice gives an encrypted classical message to Bob which she does not want Bob to be able to read until she gives him the key. If Alice is using classical resources, and she wants to approach unconditional security, then the key and the message must have comparable sizes. But if Alice prepares a quantum state, the size of the key can be comparatively negligible. This effect is called quantum locking. Entanglement does not play a role in thi...
Classical and post-classical stages of development of ideas on global conflicts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. S. Pilipenko
2016-06-01
Thus, in the history of the development of ideas about the nature of the conflict, it is possible to allocate three stages. The first stage is a classic, it representatives of which are O. Conte, K. Marx, G. Zimmel. The second stage is post-classical, represented by such scholars as P. Sztompka, G. lutsishin, N. Luhmann, M. Zelenkov, V. Zavalniuk. The third stage is multi-paradigmal, not formed yet, but actively developed by modern sociologists as I. Bekeshkina, Ye. Golovakha, A. Ruchka and other.
Classical correlations, Bell inequalities, and communication complexity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilms, Johannes; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Percival, Ian C. [Department of Physics, Univ. of London (United Kingdom)
2007-07-01
A computer program is presented which is capable of exploring generalizations of Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of classical inputs and outputs. Thereby, polytopes can be described which represent classical local realistic theories, classical theories without signaling, or classical theories with explicit signaling. These latter polytopes may also be of interest for exploring basic problems of communication complexity. As a first application the influence of non-perfect detectors is discussed in simple Bell experiments.
Interaction between classical and quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherry, T.N.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1977-10-01
An unconventional approach to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is considered--the apparatus is treated as a classical system, belonging to the macro-world. In order to have a measurement the apparatus must interact with the quantum system. As a first step, the classical apparatus is embedded into a large quantum mechanical structure, making use of a superselection principle. The apparatus and system are coupled such that the apparatus remains classical (principle of integrity), and unambiguous information of the values of a quantum observable are transferred to the variables of the apparatus. Further measurement of the classical apparatus can be done, causing no problems of principle. Thus interactions causing pointers to move (which are not treated) can be added. The restrictions placed by the principle of integrity on the form of the interaction between classical and quantum systems are examined and illustration is given by means of a simple example in which one sees the principle of integrity at work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamanaka, Kazuo; Matsuda, Yasushi.
1990-01-01
The effect of various oxidation conditions on metal release of SUS304L stainless steels in deaerated pure water at 488 K was investigated. The behavior of metal release was also discussed in relation to the surface films which were formed by various oxidation treatments. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The oxidation treatment in high purity argon gas at high temperatures for short time such as 1273 K - 2 min (120S) was effective to decrease the metal dissolution, and the oxide films primarily consisted of spinel type double oxide layer containing high concentration of Mn and Cr. (2) The oxidation treatments in non-deaerated pure water at 561 K for 24∼336 h (86.4∼1209.6 ks) were furthermore effective to decrease the metal dissolution. (3) It may be concluded that the key factors controlling the metal release are thickness, structure and compactness together with compositions of surface oxide films. (author)
Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders
1997-01-01
Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....
COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW
Mihaela Cornelia Sandu
2013-01-01
Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.
Boesten, L.G.J.; Bonsen, T.F.M.
1975-01-01
Angular distributions of electrons ejected from helium by 100 and 300 keV protons have been calculated by a method which is a comination of the classical three-body collision theory and the quantum-mechanical Born approximation. The results of this theory have been compared with the corresponding
Beyond quantum-classical analogies: high time for agreement?
Marrocco, Michele
Lately, many quantum-classical analogies have been investigated and published in many acknowledged journals. Such a surge of research on conceptual connections between quantum and classical physics forces us to ask whether the correspondence between the quantum and classical interpretation of the reality is deeper than the correspondence principle stated by Bohr. Here, after a short introduction to quantum-classical analogies from the recent literature, we try to examine the question from the perspective of a possible agreement between quantum and classical laws. A paradigmatic example is given in the striking equivalence between the classical Mie theory of electromagnetic scattering from spherical scatterers and the corresponding quantum-mechanical wave scattering analyzed in terms of partial waves. The key features that make the correspondence possible are examined and finally employed to deal with the fundamental blackbody problem that marks the initial separation between classical and quantum physics. The procedure allows us to recover the blackbody spectrum in classical terms and the proof is rich in consequences. Among them, the strong analogy between the quantum vacuum and its classical counterpart.
Quantum manifestations of classical resonance zones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Leon, N.; Davis, M.J.; Heller, E.J.
1984-01-01
We examine the concept of nodal breakup of wave functions as a criterion for quantum mechanical ergodicity. We find that complex nodal structure of wave functions is not sufficient to determine quantum mechanical ergodicity. The influence of classical resonances [which manifest themselves as classical resonance zones (CRZ)] may also be responsible for the seeming complexity of nodal structure. We quantify this by reexamining one of the two systems studied by Stratt, Handy, and Miller [J. Chem. Phys. 71, 3311 (1974)] from both a quantum mechanical and classical point of view. We conclude that quasiperiodic classical motion can account for highly distorted quantum eigenstates. One should always keep this in mind when addressing questions regarding quantum mechanical ergodicity
The classical limit of W-algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Ramos, E.
1992-01-01
We define and compute explicitly the classical limit of the realizations of W n appearing as hamiltonian structures of generalized KdV hierarchies. The classical limit is obtained by taking the commutative limit of the ring of pseudodifferential operators. These algebras - denoted w n - have free field realizations in which the generators are given by the elementary symmetric polynomials in the free fields. We compute the algebras explicitly and we show that they are all reductions of a new algebra w KP , which is proposed as the universal classical W-algebra for the w n series. As a deformation of this algebra we also obtain w 1+∞ , the classical limit of W 1+∞ . (orig.)
Pure Red Cell Aplasia and Hypogammaglobulinemia in a Patient with Thymoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen-Sung Lin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Both pure red cell aplasia (PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia are rarer conditions than myasthenia gravis (MG in thymoma patients. Several articles have discussed the relation between PRCA and thymoma or hypogammaglobulinemia and thymoma, and their proper treatments. Instances of both PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia in a thymoma patient are few and reported sporadically in the literature. We discuss a 46-year-old woman with thymoma and simultaneous PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia who achieved complete remission from PRCA after perioperative steroid administration and extended thymectomy, and review the literature.
Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.; May, C. E. (Inventor)
1974-01-01
A process for depositing elements by irradiating liquids is reported. Ultra pure elements are precipitated from aqueous solutions or suspensions of compounds. A solution of a salt of a metal to be prepared is irradiated, and the insoluble reaction product settles out. Some chemical compounds may also be prepared in this manner.
Mathematical methods of classical physics
Cortés, Vicente
2017-01-01
This short primer, geared towards students with a strong interest in mathematically rigorous approaches, introduces the essentials of classical physics, briefly points out its place in the history of physics and its relation to modern physics, and explains what benefits can be gained from a mathematical perspective. As a starting point, Newtonian mechanics is introduced and its limitations are discussed. This leads to and motivates the study of different formulations of classical mechanics, such as Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which are the subjects of later chapters. In the second part, a chapter on classical field theories introduces more advanced material. Numerous exercises are collected in the appendix.
Entropy balance in pure interactions of open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urigu, R.
1989-01-01
Processes are considered in which a statistical ensemble w of quantum systems is split into ensembles, or channels (w i ), conditional to the occurrence, with respective probabilities (p i w ), of associated macroscopic effects. These processes are described here by a family of operations T i : w → p i w w iT , which remarkably generalize the usual state reductions of the nondestructive measurements. In a previous work it was proved that the microscopic entropy of the given open system decreases or at most remains constant if all the T i are pure operations, i.e., they transform pure states into pure states; it is proved here that the increase in entropy of the external world, computed as S Tm (w) = - Σ i p i w lg p i w , is sufficient to compensate for such an entropy decrease whenever the T i are all pure operations of the first kind, whereas whenever some T i is pure of the second kind (or nonpure, too), the total entropy, computed as above, may decrease
Dynamics of quantum-classical differences for chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballentine, L.E.
2002-01-01
The differences between quantum and classical dynamics can be studied through the moments and correlations of the position and momentum variables in corresponding quantum and classical statistical states. In chaotic states the quantum-classical differences grow exponentially with an exponent that exceeds the classical Lyapunov exponent. It is shown analytically that the quantum-classical differences scale as (ℎ/2π) 2 , and that the exponent for the growth of these differences is independent of (ℎ/2π). The quantum-classical difference exponent is studied for two quartic potential models, and the results are compared with previous work on the Henon-Heiles model
Quantum-classical hybrid dynamics – a summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2013-01-01
A summary of a recently proposed description of quantum-classical hybrids is presented, which concerns quantum and classical degrees of freedom of a composite object that interact directly with each other. This is based on notions of classical Hamiltonian mechanics suitably extended to quantum mechanics.
Karlimah
2018-05-01
This study examines the application of classical music backsound in mathematics learning. The method used is quasi experimental design nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group in elementary school students in Tasikmalaya city, Indonesia. The results showed that classical music contributed significantly to the mathematical intelligence of elementary school students. The mathematical intelligence shown is in the cognitive ability ranging from the level of knowledge to evaluation. High level mathematical intelligence is shown by students in reading and writing integers with words and numbers. The low level of mathematical intelligence exists in projecting the story into a mathematical problem. The implication of this research is the use of classical music backsound on learning mathematics should pay attention to the level of difficulty of mathematics material being studied.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arvind, E-mail: arvind@iisermohali.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education & Research (IISER) Mohali, Sector 81 SAS Nagar, Manauli PO 140306, Punjab (India); Chaturvedi, S., E-mail: subhash@iiserbhopal.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education & Research (IISER) Bhopal, Bhopal Bypass Road, Bhauri, Bhopal 462066 (India); Mukunda, N., E-mail: nmukunda@gmail.com [Indian Academy of Sciences, C V Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)
2017-04-11
Highlights: • Pancharatnam-like phase in HBT correlations. • Mach–Zehnder type setup to clarify that the phases involved are not geometric phases. • No nonlocality involved since the treatment is classical. - Abstract: We examine a recent proposal to show the presence of nonlocal Pancharatnam type geometric phases in a quantum mechanical treatment of intensity interferometry measurements upon inclusion of polarizing elements in the setup. It is shown that a completely classical statistical treatment of such effects is adequate for practical purposes. Further we show that the phase angles that appear in the correlations, while at first sight appearing to resemble Pancharatnam phases in their mathematical structure, cannot actually be interpreted in that manner. We also describe a simpler Mach–Zehnder type setup where similar effects can be observed without use of the paraxial approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arvind; Chaturvedi, S.; Mukunda, N.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Pancharatnam-like phase in HBT correlations. • Mach–Zehnder type setup to clarify that the phases involved are not geometric phases. • No nonlocality involved since the treatment is classical. - Abstract: We examine a recent proposal to show the presence of nonlocal Pancharatnam type geometric phases in a quantum mechanical treatment of intensity interferometry measurements upon inclusion of polarizing elements in the setup. It is shown that a completely classical statistical treatment of such effects is adequate for practical purposes. Further we show that the phase angles that appear in the correlations, while at first sight appearing to resemble Pancharatnam phases in their mathematical structure, cannot actually be interpreted in that manner. We also describe a simpler Mach–Zehnder type setup where similar effects can be observed without use of the paraxial approximation.
Emergence of quantum mechanics from classical statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wetterich, C
2009-01-01
The conceptual setting of quantum mechanics is subject to an ongoing debate from its beginnings until now. The consequences of the apparent differences between quantum statistics and classical statistics range from the philosophical interpretations to practical issues as quantum computing. In this note we demonstrate how quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistical systems. We discuss conditions and circumstances for this to happen. Quantum systems describe isolated subsystems of classical statistical systems with infinitely many states. While infinitely many classical observables 'measure' properties of the subsystem and its environment, the state of the subsystem can be characterized by the expectation values of only a few probabilistic observables. They define a density matrix, and all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem.
Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szymanowski, J.
2000-01-01
Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilisation abilities are also discussed. (author)
Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szymanowski, J.
1999-01-01
Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilization abilities are also discussed. (author)
Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Journal Sponsorship
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Site Map
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Iselin, F Christoph
1996-01-01
Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Clas Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty.
Classical region of a trapped Bose gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blakie, P Blair [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultra-Cold Atoms, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Davis, Matthew J [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)
2007-06-14
The classical region of a Bose gas consists of all single particle modes that have a high average occupation and are well described by a classical field. Highly occupied modes only occur in massive Bose gases at ultra-cold temperatures, in contrast to the photon case where there are highly occupied modes at all temperatures. For the Bose gas the number of these modes is dependent on the temperature, the total number of particles and their interaction strength. In this paper, we characterize the classical region of a harmonically trapped Bose gas over a wide parameter regime. We use a Hartree-Fock approach to account for the effects of interactions, which we observe to significantly change the classical region as compared to the idealized case. We compare our results to full classical field calculations and show that the Hartree-Fock approach provides a qualitatively accurate description of a classical region for the interacting gas.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balaji Ramachandran
Full Text Available EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is the major active principle catechin found in green tea. Skepticism regarding the safety of consuming EGCG is gaining attention, despite the fact that it is widely being touted for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. The lack of scientific data on safe dose levels of pure EGCG is of concern, while EGCG has been commonly studied as a component of GTE (Green tea extract and not as a single active constituent. This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal] and limited [p.o (oral] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1 mg/kg for i.p and 67.8 mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced effects by both treatment routes are reversible, subsequent to an observation period for further fourteen days after cessation of treatment. It was demonstrated that the severity of EGCG induced toxicity appears to be a function of dose, route of administration and period of treatment. Keywords: EGCG, Green tea, Serum lipids, Dose dependant toxicity, Route dependant toxicity, Liver toxicity, Dyslipidemia
Effects of classical resonances on the chaotic microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, R V
1987-05-01
Experimental measurements of the microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms with principal quantum numbers ranging from n = 32 to 90 are well described by a classical treatment of the nonlinear electron dynamics. In particular, the measurements of the threshold field for the onset of significant ionization exhibits a curious dependence on the microwave frequency with distinct peaks at rational values of the scaled frequency, n/sup 3/..cap omega.. = 1, 2/3, 1/2, 2/5, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, which is in excellent agreement with the predictions for the onset of classical chaos in a one-dimensional model of the experiment. In the classical theory this frequency dependence of the threshold fields is due to the stabilizing effect of nonlinear resonances (''islands'') in the classical phase space which is greatly enhanced when the microwave perturbation is turned on slowly (adiabatically) as in the experiments. Quantum calculations for this one-dimensional model also exhibit this stabilizing effect due to the preferential excitation of localized quasi-energy states.
Gliemmo, María F; Latorre, María E; Narvaiz, Patricia; Campos, Carmen A; Gerschenson, Lía N
2014-01-01
The effect of gamma irradiation (0-2 kGy) and storage time (0-28 days) on microbial growth and physicochemical characteristics of a packed pumpkin puree was studied. For that purpose, a factorial design was applied. The puree contained potassium sorbate, glucose and vanillin was stored at 25°C . Gamma irradiation diminished and storage time increased microbial growth. A synergistic effect between both variables on microbial growth was observed. Storage time decreased pH and color of purees. Sorbate content decreased with storage time and gamma irradiation. Mathematical models of microbial growth generated by the factorial design allowed estimating that a puree absorbing 1.63 kGy would have a shelf-life of 4 days. In order to improve this time, some changes in the applied hurdles were assayed. These included a thermal treatment before irradiation, a reduction of irradiation dose to 0.75 kGy and a decrease in storage temperature at 20°C . As a result, the shelf-life of purees increased to 28 days.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ullah, Z.
2015-01-01
A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)
Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.
Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco
2014-03-21
By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryann Wilson
2013-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.
Classical tokamak transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nocentini, Aldo
1982-01-01
A qualitative treatment of the classical transport theory of a magnetically confined, toroidal, axisymmetric, two-species plasma is presented. The 'weakly collisional' ('banana' and 'plateau') and 'collision dominated' ('Pfirsch-Schlueter' and 'highly collisional') regimes, as well as the Ware effect are discussed. The method used to evaluate the diffusion coffieicnts of particles and heat in the weakly collisional regime is based on stochastic argument, that requires an analysis of the characteristic collision frequencies and lengths for particles moving in a tokamak-like magnetic field. The same method is used to evaluate the Ware effect. In the collision dominated regime on the other hand, the particle and heat fluxes across the magnetic field lines are dominated by macroscopic effects so that, although it is possible to present them as diffusion (in fact, the fluxes turn out to be proportional to the density and temperature gradients), a macroscopic treatment is more appropriate. Hence, fluid equations are used to inveatigate the collision dominated regime, to which particular attention is devoted, having been shown relatively recently that it is more complicated than the usual Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The whole analysis presented here is qualitative, aiming to point out the relevant physical mechanisms involved in the various regimes more than to develop a rigorous mathematical derivation of the diffusion coefficients, for which appropriate references are given. (author)
Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell
Garg, Anupam
2012-01-01
This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.
Black hole attractors and pure spinors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Jonathan P.; Maloney, Alexander; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2006-01-01
We construct black hole attractor solutions for a wide class of N = 2 compactifications. The analysis is carried out in ten dimensions and makes crucial use of pure spinor techniques. This formalism can accommodate non-Kaehler manifolds as well as compactifications with flux, in addition to the usual Calabi-Yau case. At the attractor point, the charges fix the moduli according to Σf k = Im(CΦ), where Φ is a pure spinor of odd (even) chirality in IIB (A). For IIB on a Calabi-Yau, Φ = Ω and the equation reduces to the usual one. Methods in generalized complex geometry can be used to study solutions to the attractor equation
Black Hole Attractors and Pure Spinors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Jonathan P.; Maloney, Alexander; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2006-01-01
We construct black hole attractor solutions for a wide class of N = 2 compactifications. The analysis is carried out in ten dimensions and makes crucial use of pure spinor techniques. This formalism can accommodate non-Kaehler manifolds as well as compactifications with flux, in addition to the usual Calabi-Yau case. At the attractor point, the charges fix the moduli according to Σf k = Im(CΦ), where Φ is a pure spinor of odd (even) chirality in IIB (A). For IIB on a Calabi-Yau, Φ = (Omega) and the equation reduces to the usual one. Methods in generalized complex geometry can be used to study solutions to the attractor equation
Classical models for Regge trajectories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biedenharn, L.C.; Van Dam, H.; Marmo, G.; Morandi, G.; Mukunda, N.; Samuel, J.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1987-01-01
Two classical models for particles with internal structure and which describe Regge trajectories are developed. The remarkable geometric and other properties of the two internal spaces are highlighted. It is shown that the conditions of positive time-like four-velocity and energy momentum for the classical system imply strong and physically reasonable conditions on the Regge mass-spin relationship
Classic romance in electronic arrangement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kizin M.M.
2017-03-01
Full Text Available this article analyses the transformation of the performing arts of classical romance in the terms of electronic sound and performance via electronic sounds arrangements. The author focuses on the problem of synthesis of electronic sound arrangements and classical romance, offering to acquire the skills of the creative process in constantly changing conditions of live performances.
Dispersions in Semi-Classical Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zielinska-Pfabe, M.; Gregoire, C.
1987-01-01
Dispersions around mean values of one-body observables are obtained by restoring classical many-body correlations in Vlasov and Landau-Vlasov dynamics. The method is applied to the calculation of fluctuations in mass, charge and linear momentum in heavy-ion collisions. Results are compared to those obtained by the Balian-Veneroni variational principle in semi-classical approximation
Classical Mechanics as Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolic, Hrvoje
2007-01-01
All measurable predictions of classical mechanics can be reproduced from a quantum-like interpretation of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The key observation leading to classical physics is the fact that a wave function that satisfies a linear equation is real and positive, rather than complex. This has profound implications on the role of the Bohmian classical-like interpretation of linear quantum mechanics, as well as on the possibilities to find a consistent interpretation of arbitrary nonlinear generalizations of quantum mechanics
van Bommel, S.P.
2013-01-01
Classical humanism was a living tradition until far into the nineteenth century. In scholarship, classical (Renaissance) humanism is usually strictly distinguished from so-called ‘neo-humanism,’ which, especially in Germany, reigned supreme at the beginning of the nineteenth century. While most
Driven topological systems in the classical limit
Duncan, Callum W.; Öhberg, Patrik; Valiente, Manuel
2017-03-01
Periodically driven quantum systems can exhibit topologically nontrivial behavior, even when their quasienergy bands have zero Chern numbers. Much work has been conducted on noninteracting quantum-mechanical models where this kind of behavior is present. However, the inclusion of interactions in out-of-equilibrium quantum systems can prove to be quite challenging. On the other hand, the classical counterpart of hard-core interactions can be simulated efficiently via constrained random walks. The noninteracting model, proposed by Rudner et al. [Phys. Rev. X 3, 031005 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevX.3.031005], has a special point for which the system is equivalent to a classical random walk. We consider the classical counterpart of this model, which is exact at a special point even when hard-core interactions are present, and show how these quantitatively affect the edge currents in a strip geometry. We find that the interacting classical system is well described by a mean-field theory. Using this we simulate the dynamics of the classical system, which show that the interactions play the role of Markovian, or time-dependent disorder. By comparing the evolution of classical and quantum edge currents in small lattices, we find regimes where the classical limit considered gives good insight into the quantum problem.
Semi-classical quantization of chaotic billiards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smilansky, U.
1992-02-01
The semi-classical quantization of chaotic billiards will be developed using scattering theory approach. This will be used to introduce and explain the inherent difficulties in the semi-classical quantization of chaos, and to show some of the modern tools which were developed recently to overcome these difficulties. To this end, we shall first obtain a semi-classical secular equation which is based on a finite number of classical periodic orbits. We shall use it to derive some spectral properties, and in particular to investigate the relationship between spectral statistics of quantum chaotic systems and the predictions of random-matrix theory. We shall finally discuss an important family of chaotic billiard, whose statistics does not follow any of the canonical ensembles, (GOE,GUE,...) but rather, corresponds to a new universality class. (author)
Does classical liberalism imply democracy?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Ellerman
2015-12-01
Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.
Pure Air`s Bailly scrubber: A four-year retrospective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manavi, G.B.; Vymazal, D.C. [Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States); Sarkus, T.A. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
1997-12-31
Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project has completed four highly successful years of operation at NIPSCO`s Bailly Station. As part of their program, Pure Air has concluded a six-part study of system performance. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration program, including AFGD performance on coals ranging from 2.0--2.4% sulfur. The paper highlights novel aspects of the Bailly facility, including pulverized limestone injection, air rotary sparger for oxidation, wastewater evaporation system and the production of PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum. Operations and maintenance which have led to the facility`s notable 99.47% availability record are also discussed. A project company, Pure Air on the Lake Limited Partnership, owns the AFGD facility. Pure Air was the turn key contractor and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is the operator of the AFGD system.
Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator Program Book
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lesky, Marcia [Optical Society of America, Washington, DC (United States)
2016-11-06
The Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator was a scientific meeting held in Washington, DC on 6-8 November 2016. This Incubator provided unique and focused experiences and valuable opportunities to discuss advances, challenges and opportunities regarding this important area of research. Quantum optics and classical optics have coexisted for nearly a century as two distinct, but consistent descriptions of light in their respective domains. Recently, a number of detailed examinations of the structure of classical light beams have revealed that effects widely thought to be solely quantum in origin also have a place in classical optics. These new quantum-classical connections are informing classical optics in meaningful ways specifically by expanding understanding of optical coherence. Simultaneously, relationships discovered with classical light beams now also serve as a vehicle to illuminate concepts that no longer solely belong to the quantum realm. Interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement are a partial list of elementary notions that now appear to belong to both quantum and classical optics. The goal of this meeting was to bring emerging quantum-classical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work would promote discussion and lead to a more unified understanding of optics.
Recent Advances and Perspectives on Nonadiabatic Mixed Quantum-Classical Dynamics.
Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Barbatti, Mario
2018-05-16
Nonadiabatic mixed quantum-classical (NA-MQC) dynamics methods form a class of computational theoretical approaches in quantum chemistry tailored to investigate the time evolution of nonadiabatic phenomena in molecules and supramolecular assemblies. NA-MQC is characterized by a partition of the molecular system into two subsystems: one to be treated quantum mechanically (usually but not restricted to electrons) and another to be dealt with classically (nuclei). The two subsystems are connected through nonadiabatic couplings terms to enforce self-consistency. A local approximation underlies the classical subsystem, implying that direct dynamics can be simulated, without needing precomputed potential energy surfaces. The NA-MQC split allows reducing computational costs, enabling the treatment of realistic molecular systems in diverse fields. Starting from the three most well-established methods-mean-field Ehrenfest, trajectory surface hopping, and multiple spawning-this review focuses on the NA-MQC dynamics methods and programs developed in the last 10 years. It stresses the relations between approaches and their domains of application. The electronic structure methods most commonly used together with NA-MQC dynamics are reviewed as well. The accuracy and precision of NA-MQC simulations are critically discussed, and general guidelines to choose an adequate method for each application are delivered.
Pseudoclassical fermionic model and classical solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smailagic, A.
1981-08-01
We study classical limit of fermionic fields seen as Grassmann variables and deduce the proper quantization prescription using Dirac's method for constrained systems and investigate quantum meaning of classical solutions for the Thirring model. (author)
Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)
2012-02-15
A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.
Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.
Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y
2012-02-01
A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.
Corrosion of pure OFHC-copper in simulated repository conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aaltonen, P.
1990-04-01
The research program 'Corrosion of pure OFHC-copper in simulated repository conditions' was planned to provide an experimental evaluation with respect to the theoretical calculations and forecasts made for the corrosion behaviour of pure copper in bentonite groundwater environments at temperatures between 20-80 deg C. The aim of this study in the first place is to evaluate the effects of groundwater composition, bentonite and temperature on the equilibrium and possible corrosion reactions between pure copper and the simulated repository environment. The progress report includes the results obtained after 36 months exposure time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aisaka, Yuri; Kazama, Yoichi
2006-01-01
In a previous work, we have constructed a reparametrization invariant worldsheet action from which one can derive the super-Poincare covariant pure spinor formalism for the superstring at the fully quantum level. The main idea was the doubling of the spinor degrees of freedom in the Green-Schwarz formulation together with the introduction of a new compensating local fermionic symmetry. In this paper, we extend this 'double spinor' formalism to the case of the supermembrane in 11 dimensions at the classical level. The basic scheme works in parallel with the string case and we are able to construct the closed algebra of first class constraints which governs the entire dynamics of the system. A notable difference from the string case is that this algebra is first order reducible and the associated BRST operator must be constructed accordingly. The remaining problems which need to be solved for the quantization will also be discussed
Bekiroğlu, Tansel; Ovayolu, Nimet; Ergün, Yusuf; Ekerbiçer, Hasan Çetin
2013-06-01
Existing studies suggest that music therapy can have favorable effects on hypertension and anxiety. We therefore set out to investigate the effect of Turkish classical music. To investigate whether Turkish classical music has positive effects on blood pressures and anxiety levels in elderly patients. This was a randomized controlled trial performed on 60 hypertensive patients living in a local elderly home in Adana, Turkey. Following the completion of a socio-demographic form for each patient, Hamilton anxiety scale was applied. Thereafter, the subjects were randomly divided into two equal-size groups and were allowed to either listen to Turkish classical music (music therapy group) or have a resting period (control group) for 25 min. The primary and secondary outcome measures were blood pressure and Hamilton anxiety scale scores, respectively. The mean reduction in systolic blood pressure was 13.00 mmHg in the music therapy group and 6.50 mmHg in the control group. The baseline adjusted between treatment group difference was not statistically significant (95% CI 6.80-9.36). The median reductions in diastolic blood pressures were 10 mmHg both in the music therapy and control groups. The between treatment group difference was not statistically significant (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.839). The mean reduction in HAMA-A was 1.63 in the music therapy group and 0.77 in the control group. The baseline adjusted between treatment group difference was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.82-1.92). The study demonstrated that both Turkish classical music and resting alone have positive effects on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Zhi-Shen; Pan Jian; Chen Zhuo; Zhan Peng; Min Nai-Ben; Wang Zhen-Lin
2011-01-01
We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. We demonstrate that each double-triangle can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator. It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions, individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance, but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase. For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band. Therefore, switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays. Moreover, both the electric and magnetic resonances are shown to allow for a tunability over a large spectral range down to near-infrared. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iselin, F. Christoph
1997-01-01
Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Class Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator design. It includes modules for building accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty
A Comparative Study of Quantum and Classical Deletion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Yao; Hao Liang; Long Guilu
2010-01-01
Here in this letter, we study the difference between quantum and classical deletion. We point out that the linear mapping deletion operation used in the impossibility proof for quantum systems applies also to classical system. The general classical deletion operation is a combined operation of measurement and transformation, i.e., first read the state and then transfer the state to the standard blank state. Though both quantum information and classical information can be deleted in an open system, quantum information cannot be recovered while classical information can be recovered. (general)
Roszak, Katarzyna; Cywiński, Łukasz
2018-01-01
We find that when a qubit initialized in a pure state experiences pure dephasing due to interaction with an environment, separable qubit-environment states generated during the evolution also have zero quantum discord with respect to the environment. What follows is that the set of separable states which can be reached during the evolution has zero volume, and hence, such effects as sudden death of qubit-environment entanglement are very unlikely. In the case of the discord with respect to the qubit, a vast majority of qubit-environment separable states is discordant, but in specific situations zero-discord states are possible. This is conceptually important since there is a connection between the discordance with respect to a given subsystem and the possibility of describing the evolution of this subsystem using completely positive maps. Finally, we use the formalism to find an exemplary evolution of an entangled state of two qubits that is completely positive, and occurs solely due to interaction of only one of the qubits with its environment (so one could guess that it corresponds to a local operation, since it is local in a physical sense), but which nevertheless causes the enhancement of entanglement between the qubits. While this simply means that the considered evolution is completely positive, but does not belong to local operations and classical communication, it shows how much caution has to be exercised when identifying evolution channels that belong to that class.
Classical and quantum fingerprinting strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, A.; Walgate, J.; Sanders, B.
2005-01-01
Full text: Fingerprinting enables two parties to infer whether the messages they hold are the same or different when the cost of communication is high: each message is associated with a smaller fingerprint and comparisons between messages are made in terms of their fingerprints alone. When the two parties are forbidden access to a public coin, it is known that fingerprints composed of quantum information can be made exponentially smaller than those composed of classical information. We present specific constructions of classical fingerprinting strategies through the use of constant-weight codes and provide bounds on the worst-case error probability with the help of extremal set theory. These classical strategies are easily outperformed by quantum strategies constructed from line packings and equiangular tight frames. (author)
Scaling, scattering, and blackbody radiation in classical physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyer, Timothy H
2017-01-01
Here we discuss blackbody radiation within the context of classical theory. We note that nonrelativistic classical mechanics and relativistic classical electrodynamics have contrasting scaling symmetries which influence the scattering of radiation. Also, nonrelativistic mechanical systems can be accurately combined with relativistic electromagnetic radiation only provided the nonrelativistic mechanical systems are the low-velocity limits of fully relativistic systems. Application of the no-interaction theorem for relativistic systems limits the scattering mechanical systems for thermal radiation to relativistic classical electrodynamic systems, which involve the Coulomb potential. Whereas the naive use of nonrelativistic scatterers or nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics leads to the Rayleigh–Jeans spectrum, the use of fully relativistic scatterers leads to the Planck spectrum for blackbody radiation within classical physics. (paper)
Superposing pure quantum states with partial prior information
Dogra, Shruti; Thomas, George; Ghosh, Sibasish; Suter, Dieter
2018-05-01
The principle of superposition is an intriguing feature of quantum mechanics, which is regularly exploited in many different circumstances. A recent work [M. Oszmaniec et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.110403] shows that the fundamentals of quantum mechanics restrict the process of superimposing two unknown pure states, even though it is possible to superimpose two quantum states with partial prior knowledge. The prior knowledge imposes geometrical constraints on the choice of input states. We discuss an experimentally feasible protocol to superimpose multiple pure states of a d -dimensional quantum system and carry out an explicit experimental realization for two single-qubit pure states with partial prior information on a two-qubit NMR quantum information processor.
Classical mechanics with Maxima
Timberlake, Todd Keene
2016-01-01
This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.
Learning Classical Music Club
2010-01-01
There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starrfield, S.G.
1988-01-01
The classical nova outburst occurs on the white dwarf component in a close binary system. Nova systems are members of the general class of cataclysmic variables and other members of the class are the Dwarf Novae, AM Her variables, Intermediate Polars, Recurrent Novae, and some of the Symbiotic variables. Although multiwavelength observations have already provided important information about all of these systems, in this review I will concentrate on the outbursts of the classical and recurrent novae and refer to other members of the class only when necessary. 140 refs., 1 tab
Classic Problems of Probability
Gorroochurn, Prakash
2012-01-01
"A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin
Quasiclassical treatment of the Auger effect in slow ion-atom collisions
Frémont, F.
2017-09-01
A quasiclassical model based on the resolution of Hamilton equations of motion is used to get evidence for Auger electron emission following double-electron capture in 150-keV N e10 ++He collisions. Electron-electron interaction is taken into account during the collision by using pure Coulombic potential. To make sure that the helium target is stable before the collision, phenomenological potentials for the electron-nucleus interactions that simulate the Heisenberg principle are included in addition to the Coulombic potential. First, single- and double-electron captures are determined and compared with previous experiments and theories. Then, integration time evolution is calculated for autoionizing and nonautoionizing double capture. In contrast with single capture, the number of electrons originating from autoionization slowly increases with integration time. A fit of the calculated cross sections by means of an exponential function indicates that the average lifetime is 4.4 ×10-3a .u . , in very good agreement with the average lifetime deduced from experiments and a classical model introduced to calculate individual angular momentum distributions. The present calculation demonstrates the ability of classical models to treat the Auger effect, which is a pure quantum effect.
Comparison of the classic TVT and TVT-Secur.
Abduljabbar, H S O; Al-Shamrany, H M A; Al-Basri, S F; Abduljabar, H H; Tawati, D A; Owidhah, S P
2013-01-01
Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) is a well-established surgical procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and TVT-Secur was designed to reduce the undesired complications and to minimize the operative procedure as much as possible. To present the authors' experience in using the classic TVT and TVT-Secur and to evaluate and compare complications and short- and long-term results. A retrospective study and analysis of 230 patients presented with SUI at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) and United Doctor Hospital (UDH) from March 1, 2007 until July 3, 2010. Classical TVT and TVT-Secur with or without associated operation were performed. All patients were controlled at six months and complications, as well as objective results, have been reported. The study was approved by ethical committee of KAUH. All patients with SUI admitted to KAUH and UDH for sub-urethral tape were analyzed (230 patients); 149 had classical TVT and 81 had TVT-Secur. Their age ranged from 30 years to 73 years with a mean of 49.8 years and std of 9.4. Their parity ranged from two to 15 with a mean of 6.2 and std of 2.4. One hundred eighty patients had SUI and 50 patients had mixed incontinence. The type of anesthesia used was general anesthesia in 69.6% (160) of cases and regional anesthesia in form of epidural or spine in 30.4% (70) of cases. Operative complications revealed a bladder perforation in 3.5% (eight) of cases and 2.2% had bleeding of more than 200 ml, and 53 patients which contribute to 23% had retention and required a catheter for 48 hours or more. After three months, it was observed that erosion of the mesh occurred in three cases. Fourteen cases (7%) continue to have SUI failure rate. The classical TVT and TVT-Secur were found to be very effective, easy, and safe procedures and with excellent results.
Vacuum polarization and classical self-action near higher-dimensional defects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grats, Yuri V.; Spirin, Pavel [Moscow State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-02-15
We analyze the gravity-induced effects associated with a massless scalar field in a higher-dimensional spacetime being the tensor product of (d - n)-dimensional Minkowski space and n-dimensional spherically/cylindrically symmetric space with a solid/planar angle deficit. These spacetimes are considered as simple models for a multidimensional global monopole (if n ≥ 3) or cosmic string (if n = 2) with (d - n - 1) flat extra dimensions. Thus, we refer to them as conical backgrounds. In terms of the angular-deficit value, we derive the perturbative expression for the scalar Green function, valid for any d ≥ 3 and 2 ≤ n ≤ d - 1, and compute it to the leading order. With the use of this Green function we compute the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the field square left angle φ{sup 2}(x) right angle {sub ren} and the renormalized vacuum averaged of the scalar-field energy-momentum tensor left angle T{sub MN}(x) right angle {sub ren} for arbitrary d and n from the interval mentioned above and arbitrary coupling constant to the curvature ξ. In particular, we revisit the computation of the vacuum polarization effects for a non-minimally coupled massless scalar field in the spacetime of a straight cosmic string. The same Green function enables to consider the old purely classical problem of the gravity-induced self-action of a classical point-like scalar or electric charge, placed at rest at some fixed point of the space under consideration. To deal with divergences, which appear in consideration of the two problems, we apply the dimensional-regularization technique, widely used in quantum field theory. The explicit dependence of the results upon the dimensionalities of both the bulk and conical submanifold is discussed. (orig.)
Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
2013-09-02
It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.
Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system
Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.
2011-04-01
Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.
Anti-corrosion layer prepared by plasma electrolytic carbonitriding on pure aluminum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Jie; Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Run; Wang, Bin; Hua, Ming [Key Laboratory for Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Xue, Wenbin, E-mail: xuewb@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)
2015-08-30
Highlights: • PEC/N can be applied to low melting point metal. • The spectroscopic characterization of plasma discharge is investigated. • Electron concentration and electron temperature are evaluated for PEC/N. • Phase composition of the carbonitrided layer is determined. • PEC/N improves the corrosion resistance of aluminum greatly. - Abstract: In this paper, plasma electrolytic carbonitriding (PEC/N) method was applied to pure aluminum for the first time. The spectroscopic characterization of plasma discharge during PEC/N process was analyzed and the electron temperature was calculated in terms of optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed the discharge plasma was in local thermal equilibrium (LTE) state. Electron concentration and electron temperature were about 6 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3} and 4000 K, respectively. The carbonitrided layer contained Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}, AlN and Al{sub 7}C{sub 3}N{sub 3} phases. After PEC/N treatment, the corrosion resistance of pure aluminum was significantly improved, which was related to the formation of nitride phases. This work expands the application of plasma electrolysis technology on the surface modification of low melting point metal.
Can classical noise enhance quantum transmission?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilde, Mark M
2009-01-01
A modified quantum teleportation protocol broadens the scope of the classical forbidden-interval theorems for stochastic resonance. The fidelity measures performance of quantum communication. The sender encodes the two classical bits for quantum teleportation as weak bipolar subthreshold signals and sends them over a noisy classical channel. Two forbidden-interval theorems provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the occurrence of the nonmonotone stochastic resonance effect in the fidelity of quantum teleportation. The condition is that the noise mean must fall outside a forbidden interval related to the detection threshold and signal value. An optimal amount of classical noise benefits quantum communication when the sender transmits weak signals, the receiver detects with a high threshold and the noise mean lies outside the forbidden interval. Theorems and simulations demonstrate that both finite-variance and infinite-variance noise benefit the fidelity of quantum teleportation.
Introduction to modern theoretical physics. Volume I. Classical physics and relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, E.G.
1975-01-01
The treatment covers vectors, tensors, and the structure of space, Newton's laws of motion and the law of gravitation, analytical mechanics, oscillatory motion, mechanics of a rigid body and of continuous media, classical fields, electromagnetic waves and radiation, the principle of relativity, relativistic electrodynamics and mechanics, general relativity theory and some of its consequences, and unified field theories and other modifications of the general theory of relativity
A classical model for the electron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, M.
1989-01-01
The construction of classical and semi-classical models for the electron has had a long and distinguished history. Such models are useful more for what they teach us about field theory than what they teach us about the electron. In this Letter I exhibit a classical model of the electron consisting of ordinary electromagnetism coupled with a self-interacting version of Newtonian gravity. The gravitational binding energy of the system balances the electrostatic energy in such a manner that the total rest mass of the electron is finite. (orig.)
In vitro corrosion, cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility of bulk nanocrystalline pure iron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie, F L; Zheng, Y F; Wei, S C; Hu, C; Yang, G
2010-01-01
Bulk nanocrystalline pure iron rods were fabricated by the equal channel angular pressure (ECAP) technique up to eight passes. The microstructure and grain size distribution, natural immersion and electrochemical corrosion in simulated body fluid, cellular responses and hemocompatibility were investigated in this study. The results indicate that nanocrystalline pure iron after severe plastic deformation (SPD) would sustain durable span duration and exhibit much stronger corrosion resistance than that of the microcrystalline pure iron. The interaction of different cell lines reveals that the nanocrystalline pure iron stimulates better proliferation of fibroblast cells and preferable promotion of endothelialization, while inhibits effectively the viability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The burst of red cells and adhesion of the platelets were also substantially suppressed on contact with the nanocrystalline pure iron in blood circulation. A clear size-dependent behavior from the grain nature deduced by the gradual refinement microstructures was given and well-behaved in vitro biocompatibility of nanocrystalline pure iron was concluded.
Calogero, Francesco
2001-01-01
This book focuses on exactly treatable classical (i.e. non-quantal non-relativistic) many-body problems, as described by Newton's equation of motion for mutually interacting point particles. Most of the material is based on the author's research and is published here for the first time in book form. One of the main novelties is the treatment of problems in two- and three-dimensional space. Many related techniques are presented, e.g. the theory of generalized Lagrangian-type interpolation in higher-dimensional spaces. This book is written for students as well as for researchers; it works out detailed examples before going on to treat more general cases. Many results are presented via exercises, with clear hints pointing to their solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vlcek, Lukas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uhlik, Filip [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Moucka, Filip [Purkinje Univ. (Czech Republic); Nezbeda, Ivo [Purkinje Univ. (Czech Republic); Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic); Chialvo, Ariel A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-12-16
We evaluate the ability of selected classical molecular models to describe the thermodynamic and structural aspects of gas-phase hydration of alkali halide ions and the formation of small water clusters. To understand the effect of many-body interactions (polarization) and charge penetration effects on the accuracy of a force field, we perform Monte Carlo simulations with three rigid water models using different functional forms to account for these effects: (i) point charge non-polarizable SPC/E, (ii) Drude point charge polarizable SWM4- DP, and (iii) Drude Gaussian charge polarizable BK3. Model predictions are compared with experimental Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of ion hydration, and with microscopic structural properties obtained from quantum DFT calculations. We find that all three models provide comparable predictions for pure water clusters and cation hydration, but differ significantly in their description of anion hydration. None of the investigated classical force fields can consistently and quantitatively reproduce the experimental gas phase hydration thermodynamics. The outcome of this study highlights the relation between the functional form that describes the effective intermolecular interactions and the accuracy of the resulting ion hydration properties.
Quantum and classical behavior in interacting bosonic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hertzberg, Mark P. [Institute of Cosmology & Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2016-11-21
It is understood that in free bosonic theories, the classical field theory accurately describes the full quantum theory when the occupancy numbers of systems are very large. However, the situation is less understood in interacting theories, especially on time scales longer than the dynamical relaxation time. Recently there have been claims that the quantum theory deviates spectacularly from the classical theory on this time scale, even if the occupancy numbers are extremely large. Furthermore, it is claimed that the quantum theory quickly thermalizes while the classical theory does not. The evidence for these claims comes from noticing a spectacular difference in the time evolution of expectation values of quantum operators compared to the classical micro-state evolution. If true, this would have dramatic consequences for many important phenomena, including laboratory studies of interacting BECs, dark matter axions, preheating after inflation, etc. In this work we critically examine these claims. We show that in fact the classical theory can describe the quantum behavior in the high occupancy regime, even when interactions are large. The connection is that the expectation values of quantum operators in a single quantum micro-state are approximated by a corresponding classical ensemble average over many classical micro-states. Furthermore, by the ergodic theorem, a classical ensemble average of local fields with statistical translation invariance is the spatial average of a single micro-state. So the correlation functions of the quantum and classical field theories of a single micro-state approximately agree at high occupancy, even in interacting systems. Furthermore, both quantum and classical field theories can thermalize, when appropriate coarse graining is introduced, with the classical case requiring a cutoff on low occupancy UV modes. We discuss applications of our results.
Compact objects in pure Lovelock theory
Dadhich, Naresh; Hansraj, Sudan; Chilambwe, Brian
For static fluid interiors of compact objects in pure Lovelock gravity (involving only one Nth order term in the equation), we establish similarity in solutions for the critical odd and even d = 2N + 1, 2N + 2 dimensions. It turns out that in critical odd d = 2N + 1 dimensions, there cannot exist any bound distribution with a finite radius, while in critical even d = 2N + 2 dimensions, all solutions have similar behavior. For exhibition of similarity, we would compare star solutions for N = 1, 2 in d = 4 Einstein and d = 6 in Gauss-Bonnet theory, respectively. We also obtain the pure Lovelock analogue of the Finch-Skea model.
Primary anterior vaginal wall pure ammonium acid urate stone. Case report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sherif M. Khattab
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Vaginal stones are extremely rare and are classified as primary and secondary. A 45 year-old female presented with an unexplained dyspareunia and vaginal discomfort for 2 years unresponsive to traditional treatment. Vaginal examination revealed no prolapse or vaginal fistula. Digital examination revealed multiple small rounded firm to hard or tender masses varying in size from 0.5 to 1.5 cm anterior to the vagina. Patient was treated with midline anterior vaginal wall incision with the extraction of eight smooth surfaced stones with uneventful postoperative course. Stone analysis revealed that they were composed of pure ammonium acid urate (AU. We recommend that for any patient with unexplained dyspareunia or vaginal discomfort that has proved to be unresponsive to traditional treatment, the possibility of anterior vaginal wall stones should be kept in mind.
Supersymmetric classical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, S.N.; Soni, S.K.
1986-01-01
The purpose of the paper is to construct a supersymmetric Lagrangian within the framework of classical mechanics which would be regarded as a candidate for passage to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. 5 refs. (author)
Thermal behaviour of pure and binary Fe(NO3)3.9H2O and (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaheen, W.M.
2007-01-01
Thermal behaviour of pure ferric nitrate, ammonium molybdate and their mixtures in different ratios were investigated by means of thermal analysis (TG, DTG and DTA) techniques. Relative thermal analysis (RTA) graphical treatment of derivatographic curves of the components in the pure and binary system has been carried out as well. A series of Fe 2 O 3 -MoO 3 systems were prepared from pure and binary salts by heating at 350, 550, 750 and 1000 deg. C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to characterize the phases produced from thermal treatment of investigated solids. The results revealed that pure ferric nitrate decomposed to Fe 2 O 3 at 250, while pure ammonium molybdate decomposed into MoO 3 and 340 deg. C and then melted at 790 deg. C. For the binary components, crystalline ferric or molybdenum oxides were detected beside ferric molybdate Fe 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 phase starting from 350 deg. C. Fe 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 phase was formed as a result of solid-solid interactions between the produced oxides. The thermal stability of the formed compound was significantly affected by the composition of the mixture and treatment temperature. The presence of two-component solids in the binary systems affected the thermal decomposition of their individual salt and affected their physical and chemical behaviour. The catalytic activity of the obtained pure and mixed oxides was measured using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide reaction as a model reaction at 20-50 deg. C. It was found that the mixed oxide solids had catalytic activity higher than single oxides thermally treated at 350 and 550 deg. C. This is attributed to the increase in the concentration of active sites via creation of new ion pairs in case of binary systems. The rise in calcination temperature up to 750 and 1000 deg. C brought about drastic decrease in the activity of all solids because of changing catalyst composition and/or sintering process. The activation energies of H 2 O 2 decomposition were determined
On pure spinor formalism for quantum superstring and spinor moving frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandos, Igor A
2013-01-01
The D = 10 pure spinor constraint can be solved in terms of spinor moving frame variables v -α q and eight-component complex null vector Λ + q , Λ + q Λ + q =0, which can be related to the κ-symmetry ghost. Using this and similar solutions for the conjugate pure spinor and other elements of the non-minimal pure spinor formalism, we present a (hopefully useful) reformulation of the measure of the pure spinor path integral for superstring in terms of products of Cartan forms corresponding to the coset of 10D Lorentz group and to the coset of complex orthogonal group SO(8, C). Our study suggests a possible complete reformulation of the pure spinor superstring in terms of new irreducible set of variable. (paper)
Cohomology in the Pure Spinor Formalism for the Superstring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkovits, Nathan
2000-01-01
A manifestly super-Poincare covariant formalism for the superstring has recently been constructed using a pure spinor variable. Unlike the covariant Green-Schwarz formalism, this new formalism is easily quantized with a BRST operator and tree-level scattering amplitudes have been evaluated in a manifestly covariant manner. In this paper, the cohomology of the BRST operator in the pure spinor formalism is shown to give the usual light-cone Green-Schwarz spectrum. Although the BRST operator does not directly involve the Virasoro constraint, this constraint emerges after expressing the pure spinor variable in terms of SO(8) variables. (author)
Frenay, M P; Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Lebrun, C
2005-09-01
At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas. Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications. We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT. All patients were symptomatic with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy or neurologic symptoms, and had been rejected for neurosurgical resection. All patients with epilepsy had a clinical improvement with reduction in seizure frequency and 60% became seizure-free. CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity. Seven were alive at the time of writing with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (3.5-12) from first recorded symptoms. The three deceased patients died 7.5, 7.5, and 8.5 years from first symptoms. These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status. This report suggests that benefits of CT on symptoms, survival, and quality of life should be prospectively compared with RT.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Pugalenthi, Ganesan [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe [Centre for Structural and Cell Biology in Medicine, Institute of Biology, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Moeller, Steffen [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Suganthan, P.N. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Martinetz, Thomas, E-mail: martinetz@inb.uni-luebeck.de [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany)
2010-01-15
Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Moeller, Steffen; Suganthan, P.N.; Martinetz, Thomas
2010-01-01
Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).
Properties and distribution of pure GA-sequences of mammalian genomes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guenter Albrecht-Buehler
Full Text Available The article describes DNA sequences of mammalian genomes that are longer than 50 bases, but consist exclusively of G's and A's ('pure GA-sequences'. Although their frequency of incidence should be 10(-16 or smaller, the chromosomes of human, chimpanzee, dog, cat, rat, and mouse contained many tens of thousands of them ubiquitously located along the chromosomes with a species-dependent density, reaching sizes of up to 1300 [b]. With the exception of a small number of poly-A-, poly-G-, poly-GA-, and poly-GAAA-sequences (combined <0.5%, all pure GA-sequences of the mammals tested were unique individuals, contained several repeated short GA-containing motifs, and shared a common hexa-nucleotide spectrum. At most 2% of the human GA-sequences were transcribed into mRNAs; all others were not coding for proteins. Although this could have made them less subject to natural selection, they contained many [corrected] times fewer point mutations than one should expect from the genome at large. As to the presence of other sequences with similarly restricted base contents, there were approximately as many pure TC-sequences as pure GA-sequences, but many fewer pure AC-, TA, and TG-sequences. There were practically no pure GC-sequences. The functions of pure GA-sequences are not known. Supported by a number of observations related to heat shock phenomena, the article speculates that they serve as genomic sign posts which may help guide polymerases and transcription factors to their proper targets, and/or as spatial linkers that help generate the 3-dimensional organization of chromatin.
Bohmian mechanics and the emergence of classicality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matzkin, A
2009-01-01
Bohmian mechanics is endowed with an ontological package that supposedly allows to solve the main interpretational problems of quantum mechanics. We are concerned in this work by the emergence of classicality from the quantum mechanical substrate. We will argue that although being superficially attractive, the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation does not shed new light on the quantum-to-classical transition. This is due to nature of the dynamical law of Bohmian mechanics by which the particles follow the streamlines of the probability flow. As a consequence, Bohmian trajectories can be highly non-classical even when the wavefunction propagates along classical trajectories, as happens in semiclassical systems. In order to account for classical dynamics, Bohmian mechanics needs non-spreading and non-interfering wave packets: this is achieved for practical purposes by having recourse to decoherence and dense measurements. However one then faces the usual fundamental problems associated with the meaning of reduced density matrices. Moreover the specific assets of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation - in particular the existence of point-like particles pursuing well-defined trajectories - would play no role in accounting for the emergence of classical dynamics.
On obtaining classical mechanics from quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Date, Ghanashyam
2007-01-01
Constructing a classical mechanical system associated with a given quantum-mechanical one entails construction of a classical phase space and a corresponding Hamiltonian function from the available quantum structures and a notion of coarser observations. The Hilbert space of any quantum-mechanical system naturally has the structure of an infinite-dimensional symplectic manifold ('quantum phase space'). There is also a systematic, quotienting procedure which imparts a bundle structure to the quantum phase space and extracts a classical phase space as the base space. This works straightforwardly when the Hilbert space carries weakly continuous representation of the Heisenberg group and one recovers the linear classical phase space R 2N . We report on how the procedure also allows extraction of nonlinear classical phase spaces and illustrate it for Hilbert spaces being finite dimensional (spin-j systems), infinite dimensional but separable (particle on a circle) and infinite dimensional but non-separable (polymer quantization). To construct a corresponding classical dynamics, one needs to choose a suitable section and identify an effective Hamiltonian. The effective dynamics mirrors the quantum dynamics provided the section satisfies conditions of semiclassicality and tangentiality
The Diversity of Classical Archaeology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
, settlement patterns, landscape archaeology, historiography, and urban archaeology. Additionally, essays on topics such as the early Islamic period and portraiture in the Near East serve to broaden the themes encompassed by this work, and demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary knowledge in the field......This book is the first volume in the series Studies in Classical Archaeology, founded and edited by professors of classical archaeology, Achim Lichtenberger and Rubina Raja. This volume sets out the agenda for this series. It achieves this by familiarizing readers with a wide range of themes...... and material groups, and highlighting them as core areas of traditional classical archaeology, despite the fact that some have hitherto been neglected. Themes presented in this volume include Greek and Roman portraiture and sculpture, iconography, epigraphy, archaeology, numismatics, the Mediterranean...
Some Remarks on Classical and Classical-Quantum Sphere Packing Bounds: Rényi vs. Kullback–Leibler
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Dalai
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We review the use of binary hypothesis testing for the derivation of the sphere packing bound in channel coding, pointing out a key difference between the classical and the classical-quantum setting. In the first case, two ways of using the binary hypothesis testing are known, which lead to the same bound written in different analytical expressions. The first method historically compares output distributions induced by the codewords with an auxiliary fixed output distribution, and naturally leads to an expression using the Renyi divergence. The second method compares the given channel with an auxiliary one and leads to an expression using the Kullback–Leibler divergence. In the classical-quantum case, due to a fundamental difference in the quantum binary hypothesis testing, these two approaches lead to two different bounds, the first being the “right” one. We discuss the details of this phenomenon, which suggests the question of whether auxiliary channels are used in the optimal way in the second approach and whether recent results on the exact strong-converse exponent in classical-quantum channel coding might play a role in the considered problem.
Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre
, one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...
Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre
, one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...
Posterior magnetic effect on the pure and doped Fe-Ni alloy under neutron irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, Iris
1974-01-01
Polycrystalline specimens of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Fe-Ni alloys have been studied in the temperature range RT - 500 deg C. The study was carried out in pure (50-50) as well as in Si, A1, Cr and Mo doped samples. Initial magnetic permeability was measured in unirradiated (virgin)and in neutron irradiated samples, during isochronal and linear thermal treatments. The main results are: a magnetic After Effect (MAE) is detected in the temperature range 370 deg C - Tc, where Tc is the Curie Temperature. In this range an activation energy of 3.2 ± 0.2 eV was determined for the Cr doped Fe-Ni alloy (impurity content: 0.1%); measurements made in the irradiated samples, during a linear temperature treatment, show the existence of several MAE zones in the temperature range RT - Tc. The isochronal annealing experiments show that these MAE zones are accompanied by a decrease in the room temperature value of the magnetic permeability, for zones between RT and a certain temperature T 1 . Above this range there is a steep increase in the room temperature permeability. Activation energies were determined for pure and Mo-doped (0.1%) samples for the first MAE zone (50 deg C - 120 deg C). The values obtained 1.25 - 0.08 eV and 1.42 ± 0.09 eV, respectively; the impurity - doped samples show a different behaviour relative to the pure ones: samples with low impurity content (0.1% and 0.5% of Si, Al or Mo) present an enhancement in the amplitude and also an overlapping of the diffusion stages. On the other hand, samples with higher impurity content (2 and 4% of Mo) show a decrease in these amplitudes. (author)
Beneficial effects of oral pure caffeine on oxidative stress
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Metro
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Ingestion of coffee (which is a mixture of over 1000 hydrosoluble substances is known to protect from type-2 diabetes mellitus and its complications, and other chronic disorders associated with increased oxidative damage in blood and tissues. This protection is generally attributed to polyphenols and melanoidins. Very few studies were conducted on the amelioration of classic blood markers of oxidative stress induced after a few days of caffeine administration, but results vary.To assess whether caffeine per se could account for antioxidant properties of coffee in the short-term, we tested the ability of pure caffeine ingestion (5â¯mg/kg body weight/day in two daily doses for seven consecutive days to improve plasma levels of six biochemical indices in healthy male volunteers (nâ¯=â¯15. These indices were total antioxidant capacity (TAC, glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG, GSH to GSSG ratio, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH and malondialdehyde (MDA.We found that all indices changed significantly (Pâ¯<â¯.05 or <â¯.01 in a favourable manner, ranging from â41% for GSSG to â70% for LHP levels, and +106% for GSH levels to +249% for the GSG/GSSG ratio. Changes of any given index were uniform across subjects, with no outliers.We conclude that caffeine has unequivocal, consistent antioxidant properties. Keyword: Oxidative stress, Coffee, Caffeine, Lipid peroxidation, Gluthathione, Malondialdehyde
Classics in the Cloud : A discussion of the problems of classical music and streaming
Olsen, Tone Cecilie
2017-01-01
Master's thesis Music Management MU501 - University of Agder 2017 Streaming services have become the main method of music consumption the last couple of years, and the classical audience have moved to the cloud as well. This paper aims to uncover some of the issues that classical consumers encounter while using streaming services, what the reasons may be that there are problems, and discussing possible solution to benefit either the connoisseur or the novice listener. It brings...
The effect of pure state structure on nonequilibrium dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, C M; Stein, D L
2008-01-01
Motivated by short-range Ising spin glasses, we review some rigorous results and their consequences for the relation between the number/nature of equilibrium pure states and nonequilibrium dynamics. Two of the consequences for spin glass dynamics following an instantaneous deep quench to a temperature with broken spin flip symmetry are: (1) almost all initial configurations lie on the boundary between the basins of attraction of multiple pure states; (2) unless there are uncountably many pure states with almost all pairs having zero overlap, there can be no equilibration to a pure state as time t → ∞. We discuss the relevance of these results to the difficulty of equilibration of spin glasses. We also review some results concerning the 'nature versus nurture' problem of whether the large-t behavior of both ferromagnets and spin glasses following a deep quench is determined more by the initial configuration (nature) or by the dynamics realization (nurture)
Hojnik, Nataša; Cvelbar, Uroš; Tavčar-Kalcher, Gabrijela; Walsh, James L; Križaj, Igor
2017-04-28
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi, which frequently contaminate our food, and can result in human diseases affecting vital systems such as the nervous and immune systems. They can also trigger various forms of cancer. Intensive food production is contributing to incorrect handling, transport and storage of the food, resulting in increased levels of mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are structurally very diverse molecules necessitating versatile food decontamination approaches, which are grouped into physical, chemical and biological techniques. In this review, a new and promising approach involving the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma is considered, which may overcome multiple weaknesses associated with the classical methods. In addition to its mycotoxin destruction efficiency, cold atmospheric pressure plasma is cost effective, ecologically neutral and has a negligible effect on the quality of food products following treatment in comparison to classical methods.
The classicality and quantumness of a quantum ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Xuanmin; Pang Shengshi; Wu Shengjun; Liu Quanhui
2011-01-01
In this Letter, we investigate the classicality and quantumness of a quantum ensemble. We define a quantity called ensemble classicality based on classical cloning strategy (ECCC) to characterize how classical a quantum ensemble is. An ensemble of commuting states has a unit ECCC, while a general ensemble can have a ECCC less than 1. We also study how quantum an ensemble is by defining a related quantity called quantumness. We find that the classicality of an ensemble is closely related to how perfectly the ensemble can be cloned, and that the quantumness of the ensemble used in a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol is exactly the attainable lower bound of the error rate in the sifted key. - Highlights: → A quantity is defined to characterize how classical a quantum ensemble is. → The classicality of an ensemble is closely related to the cloning performance. → Another quantity is also defined to investigate how quantum an ensemble is. → This quantity gives the lower bound of the error rate in a QKD protocol.
There is no quantum ontology without classical ontology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fink, Helmut [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)
2011-07-01
The relation between quantum physics and classical physics is still under debate. In his recent book ''Rational Reconstructions of Modern Physics'', Peter Mittelstaedt explores a route from classical to quantum mechanics by reduction and elimination of (some of) the ontological hypotheses underlying classical mechanics. While, according to Mittelstaedt, classical mechanics describes a fictitious world that does not exist in reality, he claims to achieve a universal quantum ontology that can be improved by incorporating unsharp properties and equipped with Planck's constant without any need to refer to classical concepts. In this talk, we argue that quantum ontology in Mittelstaedt's sense is not enough. Quantum ontology can never be universal as long as the difference between potential and real properties is not represented adequately. Quantum properties are potential, not (yet) real, be they sharp or unsharp. Hence, preparation and measurement presuppose classical concepts, even in quantum theory. We end up with a classical-quantum sandwich ontology, which is still less extravagant than Bohmian or many-worlds ontologies are.
Quantum money with classical verification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)
2014-12-04
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.
Quantum money with classical verification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavinsky, Dmitry
2014-01-01
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it
Takebe, Jun; Ito, Shigeki; Miura, Shingo; Miyata, Kyohei; Ishibashi, Kanji
2012-01-01
A method of coating commercially pure titanium (cpTi) implants with a highly crystalline, thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer using discharge anodic oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment (Spark discharged Anodic oxidation treatment ; SA-treated cpTi) has been reported for use in clinical dentistry. We hypothesized that a thin HA layer with high crystallinity and nanostructured anodic titanium oxide film on such SA-treated cpTi implant surfaces might be a crucial function of their surface-specific potential energy. To test this, we analyzed anodic oxide (AO) cpTi and SA-treated cpTi disks by SEM and AFM. Contact angles and surface free energy of each disk surface was measured using FAMAS software. High-magnification SEM and AFM revealed the nanotopographic structure of the anodic titanium oxide film on SA-treated cpTi; however, this was not observed on the AO cpTi surface. The contact angle and surface free energy measurements were also significantly different between AO cpTi and SA-treated cpTi surfaces (Tukey's, P<0.05). These data indicated that the change of physicochemical properties of an anodic titanium oxide film with HA crystals on an SA-treated cpTi surface may play a key role in the phenomenon of osteoconduction during the process of osseointegration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Quantum-Classical Correspondence Principle for Work Distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Jarzynski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available For closed quantum systems driven away from equilibrium, work is often defined in terms of projective measurements of initial and final energies. This definition leads to statistical distributions of work that satisfy nonequilibrium work and fluctuation relations. While this two-point measurement definition of quantum work can be justified heuristically by appeal to the first law of thermodynamics, its relationship to the classical definition of work has not been carefully examined. In this paper, we employ semiclassical methods, combined with numerical simulations of a driven quartic oscillator, to study the correspondence between classical and quantal definitions of work in systems with 1 degree of freedom. We find that a semiclassical work distribution, built from classical trajectories that connect the initial and final energies, provides an excellent approximation to the quantum work distribution when the trajectories are assigned suitable phases and are allowed to interfere. Neglecting the interferences between trajectories reduces the distribution to that of the corresponding classical process. Hence, in the semiclassical limit, the quantum work distribution converges to the classical distribution, decorated by a quantum interference pattern. We also derive the form of the quantum work distribution at the boundary between classically allowed and forbidden regions, where this distribution tunnels into the forbidden region. Our results clarify how the correspondence principle applies in the context of quantum and classical work distributions and contribute to the understanding of work and nonequilibrium work relations in the quantum regime.
A Classical Introduction to Galois Theory
Newman, Stephen C
2012-01-01
This book provides an introduction to Galois theory and focuses on one central theme - the solvability of polynomials by radicals. Both classical and modern approaches to the subject are described in turn in order to have the former (which is relatively concrete and computational) provide motivation for the latter (which can be quite abstract). The theme of the book is historically the reason that Galois theory was created, and it continues to provide a platform for exploring both classical and modern concepts. This book examines a number of problems arising in the area of classical mathematic
Bohmian measures and their classical limit
Markowich, Peter
2010-09-01
We consider a class of phase space measures, which naturally arise in the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. We study the classical limit of these so-called Bohmian measures, in dependence on the scale of oscillations and concentrations of the sequence of wave functions under consideration. The obtained results are consequently compared to those derived via semi-classical Wigner measures. To this end, we shall also give a connection to the theory of Young measures and prove several new results on Wigner measures themselves. Our analysis gives new insight on oscillation and concentration effects in the semi-classical regime. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Lagrangian formulation of classical BMT-theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey; Deriglazov, Alexei; Guzman, Walberto
2013-01-01
Full text: The most popular classical theory of electron has been formulated by Bargmann, Michel and Telegdi (BMT) in 1959. The BMT equations give classical relativistic description of a charged particle with spin and anomalous magnetic momentum moving in homogeneous electro-magnetic field. This allows to study spin dynamics of polarized beams in uniform fields. In particular, first experimental measurements of muon anomalous magnetic momentum were done using changing of helicity predicted by BMT equations. Surprisingly enough, a systematic formulation and the analysis of the BMT theory are absent in literature. In the present work we particularly fill this gap by deducing Lagrangian formulation (variational problem) for BMT equations. Various equivalent forms of Lagrangian will be discussed in details. An advantage of the obtained classical model is that the Lagrangian action describes a relativistic spinning particle without Grassmann variables, for both free and interacting cases. This implies also the possibility of canonical quantization. In the interacting case, an arbitrary electromagnetic background may be considered, which generalizes the BMT theory formulated to the case of homogeneous fields. The classical model has two local symmetries, which gives an interesting example of constrained classical dynamics. It is surprising, that the case of vanishing anomalous part of the magnetic momentum is naturally highlighted in our construction. (author)