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Sample records for purebreds

  1. Maximizing Crossbred Performance through Purebred Genomic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Pieter

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebreds for crossbred performance (CP). As dominance is the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly including dominance in the GS model may be beneficial for selection of purebreds for CP, when estimating allelic effects from pure line data...

  2. Maximizing crossbred performance through purebred genomic selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter

    2015-01-01

    Background In livestock production, many animals are crossbred, with two distinct advantages: heterosis and breed complementarity. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebred parental lines for crossbred performance (CP). Dominance being the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly...

  3. Maximizing crossbred performance through purebred genomic selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter

    2015-01-01

    Background In livestock production, many animals are crossbred, with two distinct advantages: heterosis and breed complementarity. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebred parental lines for crossbred performance (CP). Dominance being the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly...... to select purebred animals for CP, based on purebred phenotypic and genotypic information. A second objective was to compare the use of two separate pure line reference populations to that of a single reference population that combines both pure lines. These objectives were investigated under two conditions......, i.e. either a low or a high correlation of linkage disequilibrium (LD) phase between the pure lines. Results The results demonstrate that the gain in CP was higher when parental lines were selected for CP, rather than purebred performance, both with a low and a high correlation of LD phase...

  4. Maximizing crossbred performance through purebred genomic selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esfandyari, H.; Sorensen, A.C.; Bijma, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In livestock production, many animals are crossbred, with two distinct advantages: heterosis and breed complementarity. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebred parental lines for crossbred performance (CP). Dominance being the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly i

  5. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world’s dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p < 0.001 for both), which could result in the observed behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). We discuss that these differences at least partly might be due to selective forces. Our results suggest that instead of being the “average” dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits. PMID:28222103

  6. Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings

    OpenAIRE

    Oberbauer, A. M.; Belanger, J. M.; Bellumori, T.; Bannasch, D.L.; Famula, T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Analysis of 88,635 dogs seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2010 identified ten inherited conditions having greater prevalence within the purebred dog population as compared to the mixed-breed dog population: aortic stenosis, atopy/allergic dermatitis, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), and hepatic po...

  7. Identification of environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Theunissen, H.; Ducro, B.J.; Bijma, P.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands. Data contained 380 records on 88 purebred Arabian racehorses of varying age and sex. Data were collected from March 2005 through June 2006 during 52 races of varying

  8. Variance components and heritabilities for sow productivity traits estimated from purebred versus crossbred sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, M J; Mabry, J W; Bertrand, J K; Stalder, K J

    2005-10-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for number of pigs born alive (NBA), adjusted litter weaning weight (ALWT), and the interval from weaning to first service (W2E) using 2002 purebred litter records and 14 583 crossbred litter records from a swine production unit with a defined great-grandparent, grandparent, and parent stock genetic system structure. Estimation of (co)variance components was carried out by REML methods. Heritability estimates from this study for NBA were 0.155, 0.146, 0.145 for the purebred, crossbred, and pooled data, respectively. Heritability estimates for ALWT were 0.162, 0.195, and 0.183 for the purebred, crossbred and pooled data, respectively. Heritability estimates for W2E were 0.205, 0.239 and 0.202 for the purebred, crossbred and pooled data, respectively. Genetic correlations between NBA and ALWT were weak and positive for the three groups. The genetic correlation between W2E and ALWT were -0.158 for the purebred Yorkshires, 0.031 for the crossbreds and 0.051 for the pooled data. The genetic correlation between W2E and NBA was -0.027 for the purebred Yorkshires, 0.310 for the crossbreds and 0.236 for the pooled data. These similarities suggest that pooling of purebred and crossbred data may be considered, which may potentially increase the accuracy of breeding value estimates, which would result in increased genetic progress.

  9. 19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purebred of a recognized breed and duly registered in a book of record recognized by the Secretary of... Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, on ANH Form 17-338 before the animal will be examined as required...

  10. Semen characteristics of purebred and crossbred male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah; El-Bayomi, Khairy; Abdelhamid, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the semen quality traits of purebred male rabbits and their crosses under subtropical Egyptian conditions. A full 3 x 3 diallel crossing was performed for producing the first generation progeny of New Zealand White (N), Flander (F) and Rex (R) breeds. The highest ejaculate volume (p< 0.05) and percentage of live sperms (p<0.01) with the lowest percentage of sperm cell morphological abnormalities (p<0.05) had been recorded in the NF bucks. Moreover, they possessed positive estimates of direct heterosis for ejaculate volume, mass motility (Mm), individual motility (Im) and sperm cell concentration (SCC). On the contrary, pH had negative estimates of direct heterosis in all crosses and their reciprocal. Semen pH was negatively correlated with SCC (r = -0.18), Mm (r = -0.13) and Im (r = -0.23). In conclusion, the superiority of crossbreeding was particularly obvious in the New Zealand White x Flander males, which cumulated heterosis and favorable maternal effects of the Flander dams.

  11. Population parameters to compare dog breeds : differences between five Dutch purebred populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, A.L.J.; Beek, van der S.; Ubbink, G.J.; Knol, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Differences in five purebred dog populations born in 1994 in the Netherlands were evaluated using different parameters. Numerically, the Golden Retriever was the largest breed (840 litters of 234 sires) and the Kooiker Dog (101 litters of 41 sires) the smallest. The litter per sire ratio was largest

  12. Population parameters to compare dog breeds : differences between five Dutch purebred populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, A.L.J.; Beek, van der S.; Ubbink, G.J.; Knol, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Differences in five purebred dog populations born in 1994 in the Netherlands were evaluated using different parameters. Numerically, the Golden Retriever was the largest breed (840 litters of 234 sires) and the Kooiker Dog (101 litters of 41 sires) the smallest. The litter per sire ratio was largest

  13. Barcoded pyrosequencing-based metagenomic analysis of the faecal microbiome of three purebred pig lines after cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajarillo, Edward Alain B; Chae, Jong Pyo; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Kim, In Ho; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    The microbial communities in the pig gut perform a variety of beneficial functions. Along with host genetics and diet, farm management practices are an important aspect of agricultural animal production that could influence gut microbial diversity. In this study, we used barcoded pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to characterise the faecal microbiome of three common commercial purebred pig lines (Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire) before and after cohabitation. The diversity of faecal microbiota was characterised by employing phylogenetic, distance-based and multivariate-clustering approaches. Bacterial diversity tended to become more uniform after mixing of the litters. Age-related shifts were also observed at various taxonomic levels, with an increase in the proportion of the phylum Firmicutes and a decrease in Bacteroidetes over time, regardless of the purebred group. Cohabitation had a detectable effect on the microbial shift among purebred pigs. We identified the bacterial genus Parasutterella as having utility in discriminating pigs according to time. Similarly, Dialister and Bacteroides can be used to differentiate the purebred lines used. The microbial communities of the three purebred pigs became more similar after cohabitation, but retained a certain degree of breed specificity, with the microbiota of Landrace and Yorkshire remaining distinct from that of their distant relative, Duroc.

  14. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Czerwinski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76% reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams

  15. Imputation of genotypes in Danish purebred and two-way crossbred pigs using low-density panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, Tao; Ma, Peipei; Ostersen, Tage;

    2015-01-01

    in crossbred animals and, in particular, in pigs. The extent and pattern of linkage disequilibrium differ in crossbred versus purebred animals, which may impact the performance of imputation. In this study, first we compared different scenarios of imputation from 5 K to 8 K single nucleotide polymorphisms...

  16. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force's current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hülsmeyer, Velia-Isabel; Fischer, Andrea; Mandigers, Paul J. J.;

    2015-01-01

    Canine idiopathic epilepsy is a common neurological disease affecting both purebred and crossbred dogs. Various breed-specific cohort, epidemiological and genetic studies have been conducted to date, which all improved our knowledge and general understanding of canine idiopathic epilepsy, and in ...

  17. Accuracy of genomic prediction using deregressed breeding values estimated from purebred and crossbred offspring phenotypes in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Soares Lopes, M.; Veroneze, R.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Koning, de D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection is applied to dairy cattle breeding to improve the genetic progress of purebred (PB) animals, whereas in pigs and poultry the target is a crossbred (CB) animal for which a different strategy appears to be needed. The source of information used to estimate the breeding values, i.e.,

  18. 19 CFR 10.71 - Purebred animals; bond for production of evidence; deposit of estimated duties; stipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Animals and Birds § 10.71 Purebred animals; bond for... certificate of pure breeding. The bond shall be without surety or cash deposit unless the port director on the basis of information before him finds that a bond with surety or a cash deposit is necessary to...

  19. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  20. Freedom from equine infectious anaemia virus infection in Spanish Purebred horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fatima; Fores, Paloma; Ireland, Joanne; Moreno, Miguel A.; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction No cases of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) have been reported in Spain since 1983. Factors that could increase the risk of reintroducing equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) into Spain include the recent occurrence of the disease in Europe and the absence of compulsory serological testing before importation into Spain. Aims and objectives Given the importance of the Spanish Purebred (SP) horse breeding industry in Spain, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide evidence of freedom from EIAV in SP stud farms in Central Spain. Materials and methods Serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013, were tested using a commercially available EIAV ELISA with a published sensitivity of 100 per cent. Results All 555 samples were negative for antibody to EIAV, providing evidence of a true EIAV seroprevalence between 0 per cent and 0.53 per cent (95% CIs of the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA technique used Q10 were 100 per cent and 99.3 per cent, respectively) among the SP breeding population in Central Spain. Conclusions These findings should serve to increase confidence when exporting SP horses to other countries. PMID:26392894

  1. The effect of relaxing massage on heart rate and heart rate variability in purebred Arabian racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Sylwester; Janczarek, Iwona; Kędzierski, Witold; Stachurska, Anna; Wilk, Izabela

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of relaxing massage on the heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in young racehorses during their first racing season. In the study, 72 Purebred Arabian racehorses were included. The study was implemented during the full race season. The horses from control and experimental groups were included in regular race training 6 days a week. The horses from the experimental group were additionally subject to the relaxing massage 3 days a week during the whole study. HR and HRV were assumed as indicators of the emotional state of the horses. The measurements were taken six times, every 4-5 weeks. The HRV parameters were measured at rest, during grooming and saddling the horse and during warm-up walking under a rider. The changes of the parameters throughout the season suggest that the relaxing massage may be effectively used to make the racehorses more relaxed and calm. Moreover, the horses from the experimental group had better race performance records. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Groppetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001 and litter size (p < 0.05 increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and the lightest pups, respectively (p < 0.001. Birth weight decreased with litter size (p < 0.001, and male pups were heavier than females (p < 0.001. These results suggest that canine morphotype, not only maternal size and body weight, can affect birth weight and litter size with possible practical implications in neonatal assistance.

  3. Effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma metabolites in crossbred and purebred Australian Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.O. Malau-Aduli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing purebred and crossbred Merino lambs with Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina on plasma metabolite concentrations under pasture-based management system and the influences of sire breed and sex were investigated. A completely randomized experimental design balanced by 4 sire breeds (Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset and Black Suffolk, 3 Spirulina supplementation levels (0, 100 and 200 ml representing the control, low and high, respectively and 2 sexes (ewe and wether lambs was utilised. All lambs had ad libitum access to the basal diet of ryegrass pastures and barley. Lambs in the treatment groups were individually drenched daily with Spirulina prior to being released with the control group of lambs for grazing over a 6-week period following a 3-week adjustment phase. At the start and completion of the feeding trial, blood samples were centrifuged and plasma metabolites measured. Data were analysed with Spirulina supplementation level, sire breed, sex and their second-order interactions fitted as fixed effects and metabolite concentrations as dependent variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT concentrations decreased (from 79.40 to 69.25 UI and glucose increased (from 3.81 to 4.19 mmol/L as the level of Spirulina supplementation increased from 0 ml in the control to 200 ml in the high treatment groups (P < 0.05. Lambs supplemented at low Spirulina levels had the highest creatinine concentrations (61.75 μmol/L. Interactions between sex and supplementation level significantly affected glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Mg concentrations (P < 0.05, while sire breed and supplementation level interactions influenced albumin to globulin (A/G ratio, creatinine and GGT concentrations. It was demonstrated that Spirulina supplementation does not negatively impact lamb health and productivity.

  4. Growth and muscle development characteristics of purebred Angus and Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight purebred bulls (10 to 17 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of breed (Angus or Brahman) and slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature dam's weight for the respective breed) on growth and muscle development characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage after weaning whereas Brahman bulls were fed to simulate gains achieved on forage by Angus. Bulls were then placed in a confinement feedlot for finishing to their appropriate slaughter weight (293, 369, 411, and 469 kg for Angus and 307, 427, 464 and 520 kg for Brahman). No major differences due to breed were found for predicted carcass composition. The LD muscle from Brahman bulls contained more total DNA (2.27 v. 1.19 g), more total protein (768.22 v. 593.59 g) and generally less total lipid (70.56 v. 101.26 g) when expressed on a total muscle (wet tissue) basis. The percentages and areas for all three muscle fiber types were not affected by breed. As carcass weight increased, muscle weights, total protein, lipid, protein:DNA and muscle fiber size for the three fiber types increased. Total DNA content increased only up to the 90% weight group and then leveled off. The percentage of alpha R fibers decreased while the percentage of alpha W fibers increased with increasing carcass weight. These data suggest that slaughtering animals based on a percentage of their dam's mature weight seems to be a practical method for making comparisons of animals on an equivalent compositional basis. Moreover, it appears that histochemical and biochemical evaluations of skeletal muscle can successfully identify what point in the growth cycle an animal is in.

  5. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  6. Prevalence and genetic parameters for hip dysplasia in Italian population of purebred dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gallo

    2010-01-01

    of dogs common- ly found in Italy, and its reduction should be a goal in breeding schemes of purebred dogs. Age at screening and expe- rience of the x-raying veterinarians are disturbance factors to be considered in screening programs for HD. Heritability estimates for HD was low, but additive genetic variance seems enough for conjecturing selection programs aimed to decrease hip joints disease. Given the low heritability values, current selection schemes based on phenotypic records seem ineffective, whereas the use of breeding values estimated under BLUP animal model procedures should be recom- mended for gaining genetic progress of Italian dog populations.

  7. Frequencies of DEA blood types in a purebred canine blood donor population in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Sinnott Esteves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of canine immunohematology is very important for veterinary transfusion medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the DEA blood type frequencies in a purebred canine blood donor population from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy purebred dogs were chosen, 20 dogs from each breed (Great Dane, Rottweiler, Golden Retriever, German Shepherd and Argentine Dogo. Blood samples were taken in ACD-A tubes and the MSU hemagglutination tube test (MI, USA was used to determine the blood types. The studied population presented general frequencies of 61% for DEA 1.1, 22% for DEA 1.2, 7% for DEA 3, 100% for DEA 4, 9% for DEA 5 and 16% for DEA 7. A significant association was found between breeds and certain combinations of blood types in this population. The results are in agreement with the literature since most part of the canine population studied was positive for DEA 1.1, the most antigenic blood type in dogs. Differences were found among the studied breeds and those should be considered when selecting a blood donor. The knowledge of blood types frequencies and their combinations in different canine populations, including different breeds, is important because it shows the particularities of each group, helps to keep a data bank of local frequencies and minimizes the risks of transfusion reactions.

  8. A comparison of purebred Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × beef breed bulls for beef production and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab, 621 Hol×Blonde d’Aquitaine (Hol×Ba, 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch, 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf, 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

  9. Deregressed EBV as the response variable yield more reliable genomic predictions than traditional EBV in pure-bred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostersen, Tage; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Henryon, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomic selection can be implemented by a multi-step procedure, which requires a response variable and a statistical method. For pure-bred pigs, it was hypothesised that deregressed estimated breeding values (EBV) with the parent average removed as the response variable generate higher...... reliabilities of genomic breeding values than EBV, and that the normal, thick-tailed and mixture-distribution models yield similar reliabilities. Methods Reliabilities of genomic breeding values were estimated with EBV and deregressed EBV as response variables and under the three statistical methods, genomic...... and feed conversion ratio. Results Using deregressed EBV as the response variable yielded 18 to 39% higher reliabilities of the genomic breeding values than using EBV as the response variable. For daily gain, the increase in reliability due to deregression was significant and approximately 35%, whereas...

  10. Evaluation of birth and weaning traits of Romosinuano calves as purebreds and crosses with Brahman and Angus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate birth and weaning traits, to estimate genetic effects, including heterosis and direct and maternal breed effects, and to evaluate calving difficulty, calf vigor at birth, and calf mortality of Romosinuano as purebreds and as crosses with Brahman and Angus. Calves (n = 1,348) were spring-born from 2002 through 2005 and weaned in the fall of each year at about 7 mo of age. Traits evaluated included birth and weaning weight, ADG, BCS, and weaning hip height. Models used to analyze these traits included the fixed effects of year, sire and dam breeds, management unit, calf sex, cow age, and source of Angus sire (within or outside of the research herd). Calf age in days was investigated as a covariate for weaning traits. Sire within sire breed and dam within dam breed were random effects. Estimates of Romosinuano-Brahman and Romosinuano-Angus heterosis (P Brahman-Angus was greater (P Brahman and Romosinuano-Angus BCS. Romosinuano direct effects were negative and lowest of the breeds, except for the Angus estimate for hip height. Romosinuano maternal effects were the largest of the 3 breeds for birth weight and hip height but intermediate to the other breeds for weaning weight and ADG. A large proportion of Brahman-sired calves from Angus dams (0.09 +/- 0.03; n = 11) was born in difficult births and died before 4 d of age. Brahman and Angus purebreds and Romosinuano-sired calves from Brahman dams also had large proportions of calves that died before weaning (0.09 or greater). Results indicated that Romosinuano may be used as a source of adaptation to subtropical environments and still incorporate substantial crossbred advantage for weaning traits, although not to the extent of crosses of Brahman and Angus.

  11. Structure and genetic relationships between Brazilian naturalized and exotic purebred goat domestic goat (Capra hircus breeds based on microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelliton Domingos de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic relationships and structure of fourteen goat (Capra hircus populations were estimated based on genotyping data from 14 goat populations (n = 410 goats at 13 microsatellite loci. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, principal component analysis (PCA and F statistics (F IS, F IT and F ST to evaluate the genetic diversity (Ho, He and ad of the goats. Genetic distances between the 14 goat populations were calculated from allelic frequency data for the 13 microsatellite markers. Moderate differentiation was observed for the populations of the undefined breeds (including the Anglo-Nubian-M breed, the naturalized Brazilian breeds (Moxotó, Canindé, the exotic purebred breeds (Alpine, Saanen, Toggenbourg and Anglo-Nubian and the naturalized Brazilian Graúna group. Our AMOVA showed that a major portion (88.51% of the total genetic variation resulted from differences between individual goats within populations, while between-populations variation accounted for the remaining 11.49% of genetic variation. We used a Reynolds genetic distance matrix and PCA to produce a phenogram based on the 14 goat populations and found three clusters, or groups, consisting of the goats belonging to the undefined breed, the naturalized breeds and the exotic purebred breeds. The closer proximity of the Canindé breed from the Brazilian state of Paraíba to the Graúna breed from the same state than to the genetically conserved Canindé breed from the Brazilian state of Ceará, as well as the heterozygosity values and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that there was a high number of homozygotes in the populations studied, and indicates the importance of the State for the conservation of the local breeds. Cataloguing the genetic profile of Brazilian goat populations provides essential information for conservation and genetic improvements programs.

  12. Comparison of growth performance of Berkshire purebreds and crossbreds sired by Hereford and Tamworth breeds raised in alternative production system

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    Hyeon-Suk Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of the present study was to compare growth performance of Berkshire purebred pigs (BB, Hereford (HB and/or Tamworth (TB sired Berkshire crossbred pigs reared in a hoop structure in two experiments. Methods In the first experiment, BB was compared to TB while HB and TB were compared in the second. Body weights (BW were recorded at 3 days of age and every 28 days from birth until 140 days of age. There was no significant difference between the BW of BB and TB, but HB was heavier than TB by 84 days of age. Least square means of average daily gain (ADG were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance. Results The mean parity (±standard deviation of the sows was 3.42±2.14 and a total of 45 farrowing occurred from year 2012 to 2014. The mean number of total born, number born alive, number of mummies, and number weaned were 9.23±2.52, 7.87±2.53, 0.04±0.21, and 5.94±2.74, respectively. Parity did not have a significant effect on the growth performance of the pigs. For BB and TB, there was only one time frame in which there was a significant difference in the ADG: between 28 and 56 days of age. For HB and TB, the overall ADG of HB was significantly greater than the total ADG of TB. Conclusion The breed of the sire did not affect the growth performance of the progeny between Berkshire purebreds and Tamworth×Berkshire crossbreds. The breed of the sire did have an effect between Hereford and Tamworth sired Berkshire crossbreds (p<0.05. The Hereford sired pigs were found to have increased growth performance compared to Tamworth sired.

  13. Study of Blood Metabolites Changes of Purebred Ghezel and Crossbred Arkhar Merinos × Ghezel Ewes during Late Pregnancy

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    Leila Ahmadzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction As pregnancy progresses, nutrient requirements of fetus and thereby ewe increases and some changes in the levels of blood metabolites including glucose, cholesterol and total protein may occur. During gestation, maternal tissues contribute to supplying energy that required for fetus resulting in changes of ewe blood metabolites; however other factors such as breed, age, feeding type of ewes during gestation and season may influence them. The study of blood metabolic changes in different phases of reproductive cycle can be helpful in detecting abnormal situations of ewes and preventing of metabolic disorders such as pregnancy toxemia and fatty liver syndrome. There is little information about the effect of different genotypes on blood metabolites and the occurrence of metabolic disorders in late pregnancy. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine changes in blood metabolites of purebred Ghezel and ArkharMerino× Ghezel crossbred ewes during late pregnancy and effect of crossbreeding of Iranian purebred sheep with Merino sheep on metabolite level changes in these two groups of sheep and study of susceptibility to metabolic disease in late pregnancy. Materials and Methods In the present study, fifty five pregnant Ghezel ewes (36 singles and 15 twins and 34 pregnant crossbred ewes (20 singles and 14 twins were used. Estrus synchronization of all ewes was done using CIDR. CIDR were removed 14 days later and all ewes were injected PMSG intramuscularly and then mated with rams. All of the ewes were grazing in the pasture during pregnancy, but in the last two months of pregnancy, feeding of ewes was manually. Blood samples were collected by vacuum tubes during four hours after feeding from the jugular vein of ewes on 15 days prior to mating period and on days 90, 120 and 140 of the pregnancy. Blood samples were centrifuged with 4000 rpm for 12 minutes to extract blood serum and then sera were frozen in -20oC until further

  14. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

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    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits.

  15. Seroprevalence and factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

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    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, J R

    2016-04-16

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4) have a worldwide distribution and cause respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and myeloencephalopathy in susceptible horses. Given the scarcity of serological EHV-1/EHV-4 data in Spain, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of EHV-1/EHV-4 and to identify potential horse-level and stud farm-level factors associated with EHV-1/EHV-4 in the breeding Spanish Purebred (SP) horse population in central Spain. Serum samples from 334 SP unvaccinated horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 30 stud farms, were tested using a commercially available EHV-1/EHV-4 antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EHV-1/EHV-4 were collected via a questionnaire and examined using logistic regression analysis. EHV-1/EHV-4 seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain, standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was 53.9 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 44.0 per cent to 63.8 per cent). Increasing age, southern location of the stud farm, temperate climate during the summer, and a smaller surface area used for breeding activities in the farm were associated with increased odds for EHV-1/EHV-4 seropositivity, whereas EHV-1/EHV-4 vaccination of other resident horses and separation of breeding mares from youngsters were protective factors.

  16. Sex chromosomal abnormalities associated with equine infertility: validation of a simple molecular screening tool in the Purebred Spanish Horse.

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    Anaya, G; Molina, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M; Azor, P; Peral-García, P; Demyda-Peyrás, S

    2017-08-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities in the sex chromosome pair (ECAX and ECAY) are widely associated with reproductive problems in horses. However, a large proportion of these abnormalities remains undiagnosed due to the lack of an affordable diagnostic tool that allows for avoiding karyotyping tests. Hereby, we developed an STR (single-tandem-repeat)-based molecular method to determine the presence of the main sex chromosomal abnormalities in horses in a fast, cheap and reliable way. The frequency of five ECAX-linked (LEX026, LEX003, TKY38, TKY270 and UCDEQ502) and two ECAY-linked (EcaYH12 and SRY) markers was characterized in 261 Purebred Spanish Horses to determine the efficiency of the methodology developed to be used as a chromosomal diagnostic tool. All the microsatellites analyzed were highly polymorphic, with a sizeable number of alleles (polymorphic information content > 0.5). Based on this variability, the methodology showed 100% sensitivity and 99.82% specificity to detect the most important sex chromosomal abnormalities reported in horses (chimerism, Turner's syndrome and sex reversal syndromes). The method was also validated with 100% efficiency in 10 individuals previously diagnosed as chromosomally aberrant. This STR screening panel is an efficient and reliable molecular-cytogenetic tool for the early detection of sex chromosomal abnormalities in equines that could be included in breeding programs to save money, effort and time of veterinary practitioners and breeders. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors.

  18. Accuracy of genomic prediction using deregressed breeding values estimated from purebred and crossbred offspring phenotypes in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, A M; Bastiaansen, J W M; Lopes, M S; Veroneze, R; Groenen, M A M; de Koning, D-J

    2015-07-01

    Genomic selection is applied to dairy cattle breeding to improve the genetic progress of purebred (PB) animals, whereas in pigs and poultry the target is a crossbred (CB) animal for which a different strategy appears to be needed. The source of information used to estimate the breeding values, i.e., using phenotypes of CB or PB animals, may affect the accuracy of prediction. The objective of our study was to assess the direct genomic value (DGV) accuracy of CB and PB pigs using different sources of phenotypic information. Data used were from 3 populations: 2,078 Dutch Landrace-based, 2,301 Large White-based, and 497 crossbreds from an F1 cross between the 2 lines. Two female reproduction traits were analyzed: gestation length (GLE) and total number of piglets born (TNB). Phenotypes used in the analyses originated from offspring of genotyped individuals. Phenotypes collected on CB and PB animals were analyzed as separate traits using a single-trait model. Breeding values were estimated separately for each trait in a pedigree BLUP analysis and subsequently deregressed. Deregressed EBV for each trait originating from different sources (CB or PB offspring) were used to study the accuracy of genomic prediction. Accuracy of prediction was computed as the correlation between DGV and the DEBV of the validation population. Accuracy of prediction within PB populations ranged from 0.43 to 0.62 across GLE and TNB. Accuracies to predict genetic merit of CB animals with one PB population in the training set ranged from 0.12 to 0.28, with the exception of using the CB offspring phenotype of the Dutch Landrace that resulted in an accuracy estimate around 0 for both traits. Accuracies to predict genetic merit of CB animals with both parental PB populations in the training set ranged from 0.17 to 0.30. We conclude that prediction within population and trait had good predictive ability regardless of the trait being the PB or CB performance, whereas using PB population(s) to predict

  19. Morphometric evaluation of seminiferous tubule and proportionate numerical analysis of Sertoli and spermatogenic cells indicate differences between crossbred and purebred bulls

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    Utkarsh K. Tripathi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study compared the testicular cytology and histology between crossbred (Holstein–Friesian [HF] × Tharparkar and purebred (HF and Tharparkar bulls to find out differences if any. Materials and Methods: Four peripubertal bulls from each breed were utilized for the study. Through percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy, Sertoli and spermatogenic cells were extracted, and morphometry was studied. For histological studies, testicular tissues obtained through unilateral castration were utilized. Sertoli cells specific GATA4 antibody was used to study the population of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubule through immunofluorescence. Results: The testicular weight, volume, and scrotal circumference differed significantly among the breeds. The diameter and area of the seminiferous tubule was high in HF, followed by Karan Fries (KF, and Tharparkar bulls. However, the degree of compactness, based on qualitative evaluation, was high in Tharparkar followed by KF and HF bulls. The intensity of Leydig cells was higher in Tharparkar bulls followed by KF and HF. The proportion of Sertoli cells was higher (p<0.05 in HF and Tharparkar bulls compared to KF bulls. Conclusion: It may be concluded that variations exist in testicular components of the breeds studied and the proportion of Sertoli cells in relation to spermatogenic cells was significantly lower in crossbred bulls compared to purebred bulls.

  20. Effect of Polish and foreign purebred Arabian stallions on conformation traits of their progeny participating in shows in the last decade

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    Rafal Czarnecki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations confirm correctness of the statement that the best recommendation for a stallion is his progeny. The aim of this study was indicating purebred Arabian stallions passing on to their progeny best conformation traits, assessed in Polish shows, in the past decade, taking into consideration their origin. The analysis included national and foreign stallions used in Polish breeding of purebred Arabian horses, which are fathers of at least 5 heads of progeny. The authors own research proved that progeny of foreign stallions statistically differed significantly from the progeny sired by Polish stallions within all conformation traits tested in shows. In the studied period, the highest final score (91.37 points and note for the trait type (19.11 points was characteristic of the progeny of QR Marc. The best head was passed on by stallions: QR Marc (19.06 points and WH Justice (18.78 points, born in the United States and owned by the European breeders. In the Top Ten of producers passing on a refined head to their progeny, there was only one Polish stallion bred in the Horse Stud Michalw, Ekstern (18.29 points. Progeny with the most correct body structure was sired by foreign stallions, Eden C (18.13 points and QR Marc (18.13 points, and by the Polish stallion, Zlocien (17.95 points. The highest score for the trait legs was obtained by the progeny of the Qatar stallion Gazal Al Shaqab (16.30 points. However, the title of the father of the best movers got an Israeli stallion, Laheeb (18.91 points.

  1. The genetic background affects composition, oxidative stability and quality traits of Iberian dry-cured hams: purebred Iberian versus reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory properties of Iberian cry-cured hams as affected by the genetic background of the pigs: purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs vs reciprocal cross-bred Iberian × Duroc pigs (IB × D pigs: Iberian dams × Duroc sires; D × IB pigs: Duroc dams × Iberian sires). Samples from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, monounsaturated fatty acids, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. The extent of lipid and protein oxidation was significantly larger in dry-cured hams of crossbred pigs than in those from PBI pigs. Dry-cured hams from PBI pigs were defined by positive sensory properties (i.e. redness, brightness and juiciness) while hams from crossbred pigs were ascribed to negative ones (i.e. hardness, bitterness and sourness). Hams from PBI pigs displayed a superior quality than those from crossbred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crosses had no effect on the quality of Iberian hams.

  2. Inferior cerebellar hypoplasia resembling a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in purebred Eurasier dogs with familial non-progressive ataxia: a retrospective and prospective clinical cohort study.

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    Filipa Bernardino

    Full Text Available Cerebellar malformations can be inherited or caused by insults during cerebellar development. To date, only sporadic cases of cerebellar malformations have been reported in dogs, and the genetic background has remained obscure. Therefore, this study`s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics, imaging features and pedigree data of a familial cerebellar hypoplasia in purebred Eurasier dogs. A uniform cerebellar malformation characterized by consistent absence of the caudal portions of the cerebellar vermis and, to a lesser degree, the caudal portions of the cerebellar hemispheres in association with large retrocerebellar fluid accumulations was recognized in 14 closely related Eurasier dogs. Hydrocephalus was an additional feature in some dogs. All dogs displayed non-progressive ataxia, which had already been noted when the dogs were 5-6 weeks old. The severity of the ataxia varied between dogs, from mild truncal sway, subtle dysmetric gait, dysequilibrium and pelvic limb ataxia to severe cerebellar ataxia in puppies and episodic falling or rolling. Follow-up examinations in adult dogs showed improvement of the cerebellar ataxia and a still absent menace response. Epileptic seizures occurred in some dogs. The association of partial vermis agenesis with an enlarged fourth ventricle and an enlarged caudal (posterior fossa resembled a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in some dogs. Pedigree analyses were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

  3. Inferior Cerebellar Hypoplasia Resembling a Dandy-Walker-Like Malformation in Purebred Eurasier Dogs with Familial Non-Progressive Ataxia: A Retrospective and Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, Filipa; Rentmeister, Kai; Schmidt, Martin J.; Bruehschwein, Andreas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Matiasek, Lara A.; Lauda, Alexander; Schoon, Heinz A.; Fischer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar malformations can be inherited or caused by insults during cerebellar development. To date, only sporadic cases of cerebellar malformations have been reported in dogs, and the genetic background has remained obscure. Therefore, this study`s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics, imaging features and pedigree data of a familial cerebellar hypoplasia in purebred Eurasier dogs. A uniform cerebellar malformation characterized by consistent absence of the caudal portions of the cerebellar vermis and, to a lesser degree, the caudal portions of the cerebellar hemispheres in association with large retrocerebellar fluid accumulations was recognized in 14 closely related Eurasier dogs. Hydrocephalus was an additional feature in some dogs. All dogs displayed non-progressive ataxia, which had already been noted when the dogs were 5 – 6 weeks old. The severity of the ataxia varied between dogs, from mild truncal sway, subtle dysmetric gait, dysequilibrium and pelvic limb ataxia to severe cerebellar ataxia in puppies and episodic falling or rolling. Follow-up examinations in adult dogs showed improvement of the cerebellar ataxia and a still absent menace response. Epileptic seizures occurred in some dogs. The association of partial vermis agenesis with an enlarged fourth ventricle and an enlarged caudal (posterior) fossa resembled a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in some dogs. Pedigree analyses were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:25668516

  4. Quality traits in muscle biceps femoris and back-fat from purebred Iberian and reciprocal Iberian×Duroc crossbred pigs.

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    Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Jurado, Angela; Estévez, Mario

    2006-08-01

    The present study evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics of muscle biceps femoris and back-fat from purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs and reciprocal crossbred Iberian×Duroc pigs (IB×D pigs: Iberian dams×Duroc sires; D×IB pigs: Duroc dams×Iberian sires). Muscles from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. In addition, muscles from PBI pigs were darker (lower L(∗)-values) and redder (higher a(∗)-values) and exhibited a more intense colour (higher chroma value) which was closer to the true red axis (lower hue value) than muscles from crossbred pigs. Back-fat from PBI pigs had significantly higher percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and significantly smaller percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than those from crossbred pigs. Regarding the fatty acid profiles of the muscle lipid fractions, the genetic background particularly affected the composition of the polar lipid (PL) fraction. PL in muscles from PBI pigs contained significantly higher proportions of oleic acid and total MUFA and significantly lower amounts of arachidonic acid, certain long-chain PUFA (ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids) and total amount of PUFA than PL in muscles from crossbred pigs. The results obtained indicate that tissues from PBI pigs would be more suitable for the production of dry-cured meats than those from cross-bred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian×Duroc crosses had no clear effects on meat quality.

  5. Epidemiological analysis of reproductive performances and kitten mortality rates in 5,303 purebred queens of 45 different breeds and 28,065 kittens in France.

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    Fournier, A; Masson, M; Corbière, F; Mila, H; Mariani, C; Grellet, A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2016-11-03

    Reproduction management and performances are evaluated in the feline species only through a limited number of animals and studies. Our objective was to provide reference figures in purebred cats, from a large-scale sample. Data were collected from an online software dedicated to cattery management (Breeding Management System®, BMS, Royal Canin, Aimargues, France). Information was recorded on a voluntary basis by French breeders between 2011 and 2014. Data were anonymously transferred for analysis. A total of 9,063 oestrous periods (in contact with a male) from 5,303 queens (45 breeds) were recorded from 1,521 breeders. Most matings (70.1%) occurred during increasing day length periods. The mean age at mating (±SD) was 2.7 ± 1.6 years for queens and 2.9 ± 1.9 years for tomcats. Pregnancy rate (based on breeders declaration) was 85.2%. Among queens declared pregnant, 8.4% failed to maintain pregnancy. Globally, 78% of the mated females gave birth to 28,065 kittens within 7,075 L. Mean litter size was 4.0 ± 1.9 kittens among which 8.5% were stillborn. Neonatal and paediatric mortality rate was 8.2%. In total, 16.0% of kittens born died before weaning. The results of this study are based on the largest feline database ever analysed. The figures collected can thus be used as reference to define average reproductive performances in numerous breeds for cat breeders. Further analysis will identify factors influencing reproductive performances and early mortality in the feline species.

  6. Differences in testosterone, androstenone, and skatole levels in plasma and fat between pubertal purebred Duroc and Landrace boars in response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation.

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    Oskam, I C; Lervik, S; Tajet, H; Dahl, E; Ropstad, E; Andresen, Ø

    2010-10-01

    The concentrations of the boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole in plasma and fat, together with those of testosterone in plasma, were investigated in pubertal purebred Duroc and Landrace boars following stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Higher initial levels of androstenone and testosterone were found in Duroc than Landrace boars. Duroc boars, which were approximately ten days older than the Landrace boars, also showed a more advanced stage of spermatogenesis than Landrace boars. While Landrace boars had the highest skatole levels. Following stimulation with hCG the relative increases in testosterone, androstenone, and skatole concentrations were highest in Landrace boars. The level of androstenone in fat three days after hCG stimulation exceeded 1 microg/g fat in all stimulated boars. The decreases in plasma levels of androstenone and testosterone on Days 2 and 3 after hCG stimulation were more pronounced in Landrace than Duroc boars. However, unlike the plasma androstenone and testosterone levels, the plasma concentrations of skatole did not decrease on Days 2 and 3 following stimulation, but remained elevated on Day 3. These results indicate that the lower levels of testicular steroids in Landrace boars compared with Duroc boars was not due to a lower production capacity, but more likely to a faster disappearance of steroids in Landrace boars. In the present study, age, live weight, and testicular development did not significantly contribute to the variation in fat androstenone. The present data and previous reports on candidate genes related to androstenone biosynthesis and metabolism suggests that future selection against factors associated with boar taint remains a possible solution for the problem of boar taint in the swine industry.

  7. Detrimental effect of selection for milk yield on genetic tolerance to heat stress in purebred Zebu cattle: Genetic parameters and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; Filho, A E Vercesi; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; El Faro, L

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the possible detrimental effects of continuous selection for milk yield on the genetic tolerance of Zebu cattle to heat stress, genetic parameters and trends of the response to heat stress for 86,950 test-day (TD) milk yield records from 14,670 first lactations of purebred dairy Gir cows were estimated. A random regression model with regression on days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) values was applied to the data. The most detrimental effect of THI on milk yield was observed in the stage of lactation with higher milk production, DIM 61 to 120 (-0.099kg/d per THI). Although modest variations were observed for the THI scale, a reduction in additive genetic variance as well as in permanent environmental and residual variance was observed with increasing THI values. The heritability estimates showed a slight increase with increasing THI values for any DIM. The correlations between additive genetic effects across the THI scale showed that, for most of the THI values, genotype by environment interactions due to heat stress were less important for the ranking of bulls. However, for extreme THI values, this type of genotype by environment interaction may lead to an important error in selection. As a result of the selection for milk yield practiced in the dairy Gir population for 3 decades, the genetic trend of cumulative milk yield was significantly positive for production in both high (51.81kg/yr) and low THI values (78.48kg/yr). However, the difference between the breeding values of animals at high and low THI may be considered alarming (355kg in 2011). The genetic trends observed for the regression coefficients related to general production level (intercept of the reaction norm) and specific ability to respond to heat stress (slope of the reaction norm) indicate that the dairy Gir population is heading toward a higher production level at the expense of lower tolerance to heat stress. These trends reflect the genetic

  8. Milk quality, coagulation properties, and curd firmness modeling of purebred Holsteins and first- and second-generation crossbred cows from Swedish Red, Montbéliarde, and Brown Swiss bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchiodi, F; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how the crossbreeding of Holstein (HO) cows with bulls from Nordic and Alpine European breeds affect milk quality traits, traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), and curd firmness modeling obtained from individual milk samples. A total of 506 individual milk samples were collected from evening milking at 3 commercial farms located in Northern Italy. Over the past decade, the 3 farms have followed crossbreeding programs in part of their herds, whereas the remainder of the animals consisted of purebred HO. The basic scheme was a 3-breed rotation based on the use of Swedish Red (SR) semen on HO cows (SR × HO), the use of Montbéliarde (MO) semen on first-cross cows [MO × (SR × HO)], and the use of HO semen in the third cross. In all herds, a smaller proportion of purebred HO were mated to M and Brown Swiss (BS) bulls, and these first crosses were mated to SR and MO bulls, respectively. Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and MCP, and parameters for curd firmness were modeled. Compared with purebred HO, crossbred cows produced less milk with lower lactose content, higher fat and protein content, and a tendency for higher casein content. Crossbred cows generally produced milk with a more favorable curd-firming rate (k₂₀) and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition, among traditional MCP, and better trends of curd firmness measures as shown by model parameters: estimated rennet coagulation time, asymptotical potential value of curd firmness, and curd-firming instant rate constant. Among crossbred cows, SR × HO presented longer rennet coagulation time compared with MO × HO and BS × HO cows, and MO × HO showed shorter k₂₀ compared with BS × HO cows. Among second-generation cows, those sired by SR bulls showed a lower incidence of noncoagulated samples, higher curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition and asymptotical potential value of curd firmness, and faster curd-firming instant

  9. The use of molecular and cytogenetic methods as a valuable tool in the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in horses: a case of sex chromosome chimerism in a Spanish purebred colt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyda-Peyrás, S; Membrillo, A; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Anaya, G; Moreno-Millán, M

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities associated to sex chromosomes are reported as a problem more common than believed to be in horses. Most of them remain undiagnosed due to the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of interest of breeders and veterinarians in this type of diagnosis. Approximately 10 years ago, the Spanish Purebred Breeders Association implemented a DNA paternity test to evaluate the pedigree of every newborn foal. All candidates who showed abnormal or uncertain results are routinely submitted to cytogenetical analysis to evaluate the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. We studied the case of a foal showing 3 and even 4 different alleles in several loci in the short tandem repeat (STR) -based DNA parentage test. To confirm these results, a filiation test was repeated using follicular hair DNA showing normal results. A complete set of conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis was performed to determine their chromosomal complements. C-banding and FISH had shown that the foal presents a sex chimerism 64,XX/64,XY with a cellular percentage of approximately 70/30, diagnosed in blood samples. The use of a diagnostic approach combining routine parentage QF-PCR-based STR screening tested with classical or molecular cytogenetic analysis could be a powerful tool that allows early detection of foals that will have a poor or even no reproductive performance due to chromosomal abnormalities, saving time, efforts and breeders' resources.

  10. 重复超排技术在纯种和牛核心群建立中的应用%Establishing of Nucleus Herd of Purebred Wagyu by the Repeated Superovulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 张诺; 刘潇; 毕江华; 余文莉

    2012-01-01

    为了快速扩繁纯种和牛核心群,以最大限度发挥其繁殖潜力.试验以南北方3个典型地区的纯种和牛为试验对象,采用CIDR+FSH+PG方法进行超数排卵,探索合理的重复超排次数及此技术在不同地域环境下的应用状况.高强度重复超排试验表明:初次超排获得的可用胚胎数最理想,随着超排次数的增加,可用胚胎数量有所降低,但是差异不显著(P>0.05);地域间不同超排间隔的超排数据比较,不同地区超排效果差异不显著(7.38±4.27)、(7.88±5.95)、(7.45±5.24)(P>0.05).在良好的饲养管理前提下,高强度重复超排以1个月为超排间隔,超排3~4次为宜;纯种和牛的适应能力较强,超排间隔在1-2个月,超排3次的常规超排方案可以应用于南北方地区和牛核心群的建立.%In order to establish the core group of the purebred Wagyu and maximize their reproductive potential, which from three typical regions in South and North have been superovulated using the method of CIDR + FSH + PG, to explore the reasonable number of repeated superovulation and applied status in the different environment. The results showed that: the experiment of high strength repeated superovulation showed that the most of the transferable embryos have been recovered in the first superovulation, the increased superovulated times have a negative influence on the number of transferable embryos, however, the influence was not significant (P>0.05); there were no significant differences among different regions for the transferable embryos (7.38±4.27, 7.88±5.95, 7.45±5.24, P>0.05). In good breeding management, the suitable number of superovulation times were 3 to 4 when the interval was 1 month for high strength repeated super ovulation. The conventional superovulated program, which have 1 to 2 months interval and 3 times could be used to establish the core group of purebred Wagyu in our country.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms related to meat traits in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle Polimorfismos genéticos relacionados às características da carne em bovinos Nelore puros e cruzados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of CAST/XmnI, a calpastatin gene polymorphism, and CAPN530, a calpain 1 large subunit gene polymorphism, in different beef genetic groups (Nelore and Nelore x Bos taurus, and to investigate associations between these polymorphisms and carcass and meat traits. Three hundred animals - comprising 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way cross and 15 Braunvieh three-way cross- were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and phenotyped for rib-eye area (REA, back-fat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The occurrence of the two alleles of the CAST/XmnI and CAPN530 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a B. indicus breed, which permitted association studies in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle, was first shown in the present work. No relationship was found between the CAST or CAPN1 SNPs and growth-related traits (REA or fat deposition (BT and IF, since calpastatin and µ-calpain are not physiologically involved with these traits. Moreover, the association results between genotypes and aged meat tenderness (assessed by SF and MFI showed that these markers are useless in assisted selection for purebred Nelore and their crosses with B. taurus.O presente trabalho objetivou estimar, em bovinos de corte de diferentes grupos genéticos (Nelore e Nelore x Bos taurus, as frequências alélicas e genotípicas dos polimorfismos CAST/XmnI, do gene da calpastatina, e CAPN530, do gene da calpaína, bem como avaliar a ocorrência de associações entre esses polimorfismos e características da carcaça e da carne produzida. Trezentos animais - 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Galega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 tricross Brangus e 15 tricross Braunvieh - foram genotipados por PCR-RFLP e fenotipados para área de olho de lombo (AOL, cobertura de gordura subcutânea (CGS, gordura

  12. Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Glaze, J B; Welch, C M; Kerley, M; Hill, R A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). RFI_Regress was calculated using ADG_Regress (ADG calculated as the response of BW gain and DOF) and MMWT_PWG (metabolic midweight calculated throughout the postweaning gain test), considered the control in Red Angus. A similar calculation served as control for Charolais; RFI was calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weights (RFI_Calc). The RFI weaning weight (RFI_WW) was calculated using ADG_WW (ADG from weaning till the final out weight of the postweaning gain test) and MMWT_WW, calculated similarly. Overall average estimated DMI was highly correlated to the measurements derived over shorter periods, with 10 d being the least correlated and 60 d being the most correlated. The ADG_Calc (calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weight/DOF) and ADG_WW were highly correlated in Charolais. The ADG_Regress and ADG_Calc were highly correlated, and ADG_Regress and ADG_WW were moderately correlated in Red Angus. The control measures of RFI were highly correlated with the RFI_WW in Charolais and Red Angus. The outcomes of including abbreviated period DMI in the model with the weaning weight gain measurements showed that the model using 10 d of intake (RFI WW_10) was the least correlated with the control measures. The model with 60 d of intake had

  13. Fatores de ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura na raça Holandesa para idade e núcleo de controle leiteiro Age of calving and region adjustment factors for milk and fat yields for graded and purebred Holstein in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Durães

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados fatores de ajustamento para produção de leite e de gordura em rebanhos da raça Holandesa do Estado de Minas Gerais, segundo a idade da vaca ao parto, a composição racial e o núcleo de controle leiteiro onde ocorreu o parto. Utilizou-se a metodologia dos modelos mistos, usando-se a máxima verossimilhança restrita em um modelo animal com os efeitos fixos de rebanho-ano, época do parto e classes idade-composição racial-núcleo de controle leiteiro, e os efeitos aleatórios de animal e resíduo. Utilizaram-se 46.971 lactações de 26.822 vacas, sendo 17.354 vacas puras por cruzamento (PC e 9.468 puras de origem (PO. Nos cinco núcleos regionais, denominados 1545, 2585, 5565, 35 e 75, formaram-se 21 classes de idade, sendo a menor constituída de vacas que pariram com menos de 24 meses e a maior pelas vacas com mais de 99 meses de idade. Para as vacas PO, os fatores para ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura tenderam a ser menores do que os correspondentes valores estimados para as vacas PC; todavia, a variabilidade foi maior nas vacas PO em relação às PC nos núcleos 75, 2585 e 5565. Os fatores para vacas jovens foram maiores do que para vacas de maior idade. Os fatores de ajustamento para produção de gordura foram maiores que os correspondentes para produção de leite. É recomendável utilizar fatores específicos para o ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura em cada núcleo e grupo racial.Adjustment factors were estimated for milk and fat yields for Holstein herds according to age of cow at calving, genetic group (purebred or graded cows and region of recorded milk yield (nucleus in Minas Gerais State. Statistical analyses used mixed model methodologies by restricted maximum likelihood using animal model. Herd-year, season of calving, age of cow classes, genetic group, and region of recorded milk records were used as fixed effects, and cows and residuals as random effects. Analyses used 46

  14. Actividad física y cambios cardiovasculares y bioquímicos del caballo chileno a la competencia de rodeo Physical activity, cardiovascular and biochemical changes of Chilean purebred horses to rodeo competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PEREZ

    1997-01-01

    que el rodeo constituye un ejercicio de fuerza, velocidad y resistencia, que determina importantes modificaciones en la actividad cardiovascular, metabólica y endocrina, que corresponden a adaptaciones observadas en caballos sometidos a ejercicios de alta intensidad.A study, in order to characterize the level of physical work and the physiological and biochemical response of the Chilean purebred horse during the rodeo competition was carried out. Hippometric measurements of horses were taken and the weight of the rider, saddle and bridle were also determined. The perimeter of the rodeo track was measured in order to determine the work speed during the competition. Before and at different times after the first ride of a steer, the heart rate was recorded and blood samples were taken to measure packed cell volume (PCV, total proteins, haemoglobin, glucose, lactic acid, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol and the electrolytes: sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride. The plasma activity of the enzymes creatinekinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were also determined. It is concluded that the Chilean purebred horse is characterized by a low height of withers, with a body length/heart girth ratio that agrees with a medium size horse of 392 ± 33 kg body weight. These characteristics match those described in the standard values for the Chilean criollo horse. The principal physical activity that the Chilean horse carries out during the rodeo is to ride a 318 ± 11 kg body weight steer and to stop it in the track wall, carrying on its back a weight equivalent to 24% of its body weight, at speeds ranging between 5-8 m/s over a sand and circular track; exercise that determines significant increases in HR, PCV and in the plasma concentrations of haemoglobin, glucose, lactic acid, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol and in the serum activity of enzymes CK, LDH and AST. Increases in total serum proteins and a delayed decrease in serum potassium

  15. Diferenças entre produções de leite e de gordura de vacas PC e PO da raçaHolandesa no Estado de Minas Gerais Differences on milk and fat yield between purebred and grade Holstein cows in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Durães

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available As produções de leite e de gordura de vacas da raça Holandesa puras de origem (PO e puras por cruzamento (PC, com gerações controladas, foram analisadas por meio da metodologia de modelos mistos, utilizando máxima verossimilhança restrita e modelo animal. Foram utilizados dados coletados de 1986 a 1996, num total de 49.666 lactações de 26.822 vacas em 380 rebanhos, 9.468 PO e 17.354 PC. Os efeitos fixos foram rebanho/ano/estação, considerando-se três classes de dois meses em cada estação do ano, isto é, seca (abril - maio, junho - julho, agosto - setembro e águas (outubro - novembro, dezembro - janeiro e fevereiro - março e dois graus de sangue (PO e PC, além dos efeitos linear e quadrático de idade ao parto. O animal foi considerado como efeito aleatório. Para estimar o ganho genético das produções de leite e de gordura foram utilizadas 18.482 primeiras lactações, 8.938 de vacas PO e 9.544 de vacas PC. Foram também formadas cinco classes de produção: até 4.000kg, de 4.000 a 6.000kg, de 6.000 a 8.000kg, de 8.000 a 10.000kg e acima de 10.000kg. As médias gerais estimadas para produção de leite e de gordura até 305 dias, em duas ordenhas diárias, foram, respectivamente, 5.865,54 e 196,85kg. As médias de produção de leite e de gordura para a mesma classe de idade ao parto foram consistentemente maiores para as vacas PO. As estimativas de ganho genético anual para leite e gordura nas classes de produção citadas foram, respectivamente: 10,52 e 0,33kg; 8,31 e 0,25kg; 8,90 e 0,29kg; 11,00 e 0,36kg; e 9,50 e 0,36kg. As médias de produção de leite e de gordura para as vacas de primeira cria foram: 6.084,6 e 205,1kg e 5.739,5 e 191,8kg para vacas PO e PC, respectivamente. As estimativas de tendências genéticas de 8,7 e 9,6kg por ano para vacas PO e PC, embora pequenas, refletem aumento na capacidade de produção de leite no período.Milk and fat production of purebred and grade Holstein dairy cows in Minas

  16. Ovarian follicular dynamics in purebred and crossbred Boran cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... resulting from normal ovarian follicular dynamics is crucial to ... 18.5°C and average annual rainfall was 757 mm (DZARC Agro- meteorology, 2015). Seventeen cows (9 ..... support of this study by the United States Department of ... Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. 327 p.

  17. Estimation of dominance variance in purebred Yorkshire swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, M S; Mabry, J W; Misztal, I; Gengler, N; Bertrand, J K; Varona, L

    1998-02-01

    We used 179,485 Yorkshire reproductive and 239,354 Yorkshire growth records to estimate additive and dominance variances by Method Fraktur R. Estimates were obtained for number born alive (NBA), 21-d litter weight (LWT), days to 104.5 kg (DAYS), and backfat at 104.5 kg (BF). The single-trait models for NBA and LWT included the fixed effects of contemporary group and regression on inbreeding percentage and the random effects mate within contemporary group, animal permanent environment, animal additive, and parental dominance. The single-trait models for DAYS and BF included the fixed effects of contemporary group, sex, and regression on inbreeding percentage and the random effects litter of birth, dam permanent environment, animal additive, and parental dominance. Final estimates were obtained from six samples for each trait. Regression coefficients for 10% inbreeding were found to be -.23 for NBA, -.52 kg for LWT, 2.1 d for DAYS, and 0 mm for BF. Estimates of additive and dominance variances expressed as a percentage of phenotypic variances were, respectively, 8.8 +/- .5 and 2.2 +/- .7 for NBA, 8.1 +/- 1.1 and 6.3 +/- .9 for LWT, 33.2 +/- .4 and 10.3 +/- 1.5 for DAYS, and 43.6 +/- .9 and 4.8 +/- .7 for BF. The ratio of dominance to additive variances ranged from .78 to .11.

  18. Estudo alométrico dos tecidos da carcaça de cordeiros Santa Inês puros ou mestiços com Texel, Ile de France e Bergamácia Allometric study on carcass tissues from purebred Santa Inês lambs or crossbred with Texel, Ile de France and Bergamácia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraides Ferreira Furusho Garcia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 103 cordeiros, machos e fêmeas, Santa Inês puros (SS e mestiços com Texel (TS, Ile de France (FS e Bergamácia (BS confinados individualmente e abatidos aos 15, 25, 35 ou 45 kg de peso vivo. Após abate e resfriamento da carcaça, foram separados os cortes comerciais pescoço, costela/fralda, costeleta, lombo, paleta e perna, os quais foram dissecados em músculo, osso e gordura. O crescimento alométrico de cada tecido da meia-carcaça foi avaliado em relação ao peso da carcaça fria e os tecidos da perna, do lombo e da paleta em relação ao peso do corte. O desenvolvimento do músculo na meia-carcaça nos machos Santa Inês, Santa Inês × Texel e Santa Inês × Ile de France e nas fêmeas Santa Inês e Santa Inês × Texel foi semelhante ao do peso vivo vazio (coeficiente alométrico (b = 1, enquanto, nos machos Bergamácia e nas fêmeas Ile de France e Bergamácia, foi precoce (b1 em todos os grupos, com exceção da gordura da paleta nos machos BS, cujo desenvolvimento foi semelhante ao do corte (b=1.This study was conducted using 103 male and female lambs from the following genetic groups: Santa Inês (SS purebred and Santa Inês × Texel (TS, Santa Inês × Ile de France (FS, and Santa Inês × Bergamacia (BS crossbred. The animals were slaughtered at the following body weights: 15, 25, 35 or 45 kg. After slaughter and cooling of the carcasses, the following cuts were made: neck, rib/flank, short ribs, loin, blade, and hind limb. The composition in muscle, bone and fat of cuts and ½ carcass were evaluated. The alometric growth of each tissue of the loin, shoulder and leg in relation to the cut weight, and of each tissue of the ½ carcass in relation to the cold carcass weight, was measured. The allometric growth of muscles in the ½ carcass, for BS males and FS and BS females, was early (b1, except shoulder fat in BS males, with isogonic growth (b=1. The growth rate of shoulder muscles in SS and FS males, SS and TS

  19. Eficiência de utilização da energia metabolizável em bovinos Nelore puros e cruzados submetidos a quatro níveis de concentrado na ração Net efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization of purebred and crossbred Nellore young bulls fed diets with different concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio de Freitas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para mantença (Km e ganho de peso (Kg de bovinos Nelore puros e mestiços. Foram utilizados 72 bovinos machos, não-castrados, com idade inicial de 10 a 11 meses (18 Nelore, 18 F1 Nelore x Angus, 18 F1 Nelore x Pardo-Suíço e 18 F1 Nelore x Simental e peso médio inicial de 286, 309, 333 e 310 kg, respectivamente. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 m com três animais por grupo genético e quatro níveis de adição de concentrado (30, 40, 60 e 70% na MS. Três animais de cada grupo genético foram alocados no grupo mantença e três foram abatidos no início do experimento. O consumo de energia metabolizável de mantença (CEMm, em kcal/kg0,75, correspondeu ao ponto no qual o coeficiente entre a produção de calor em jejum (PCj e os CEM foram mais próximos de 1. As eficiências de utilização da EM para mantença (Km foram estimadas pela divisão da produção de calor em jejum pelo CEMm. A eficiência de utilização da EM para ganho de peso (kg foi estimada pela regressão entre a energia retida (kcal/kg0,75 e o CEMg. As exigências de EM foram obtidas dividindo-se as exigências líquidas pelo valor de Km. Não houve influência significativa dos grupos genéticos e dos níveis de concentrado na ração sobre Km e Kg, que apresentaram valores de 0,67 e 0,40, respectivamente. As exigências de EM para ganho (EMg e de EM total (EMt aumentaram com a elevação do peso vivo (PV. Por outro lado, as EMt e EMg por unidade de PCV decresceram com o aumento do PV, indicando maior eficiência de utilização da EM com a elevação do peso vivo dos animais.The objective of this trial was to estimate the efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy (MEEU for maintenance (Km and weight gain (kg of feedlot purebred and crossbred Nellore. Seventy-two young bulls averaging 10 to 11 months of age from four genetic

  20. Composição corporal e exigências de energia de mantença em bovinos Nelore, puros mestiços, em confinamento Body composition and net energy requirements for maintenance of feedlot purebred and crossbred Nellore young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio de Freitas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar a composição corporal de gordura e proteína e as exigências de energia de mantença em bovinos Nelore puros e mestiços. Foram utilizados 72 bovinos machos (18 Nelore, 18 F1 Nelore x Angus, 18 F1 Nelore x Pardo- Suíço e 18 F1 Nelore x Simental não-castrados, com 10 a 11 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 286, 309, 333 e 310 kg, respectivamente. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro grupos genéticos, submetidos a quatro níveis de concentrado na ração (30, 40, 60 e 70%. No início do experimento, três animais de cada grupo genético foram alocados no grupo de alimentação restrita e três foram abatidos no grupo de abate inicial. As exigências líquidas de energia para mantença (ELm foram obtidas pela regressão da produção de calor (kcal/kg0,75/dia em função do consumo de energia metabolizável (CEM - Mcal/kg0,75/dia, extrapolando-se para o nível zero de ingestão de EM. Não houve diferenças nas exigências de energia líquida de mantença (ELm entre os grupos genéticos. Verificou-se elevação de 260,2; 92,6 e 67,8% nos conteúdos corporais de gordura e proteína e na concentração de gordura (g/kg de peso corporal vazio - PCV, com elevação de 250 para 550 kg no peso vivo, ao passo que a concentração de proteína corporal reduziu em 10,9%. O teste de identidade de modelos não-lineares indicou não haver diferenças entre os grupos genéticos para a composição corporal de gordura, proteína e energia e nas ELm. Desse modo, o valor da ELm foi estimado em 79 kcal/kg0,75/dia.The objectives of this trial were to estimate the body composition of fat and protein and the net energy requirements for maintenance of purebred and crossbred Nellore. Seventy-two young bulls averaging 10 to 11 months of age from four genetic groups were used: 18 Nellore, 18 F1 Nellore x Angus, 18 F1 Nellore x Brown Swiss and 18 F1 Nellore x Simental with initial average weights of 286, 309

  1. Componentes corporais e órgãos internos de cordeiros Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês e Santa Inês puros, terminados em confinamento, com casca de café como parte da dieta Body components and internal organs of Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês and purebred Santa Inês lambs finished in fedlot, with of coffee hull as part of the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraides Ferreira Furusho-Garcia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 cordeiros cruzas Texel x Bergamácia (TB, 12 cordeiros cruzas Texel x Santa Inês (TS e 12 cordeiros puros Santa Inês (SI, confinados individualmente por 50 dias (dos 130 aos 180 dias de idade. Cada grupo genético constou de seis machos inteiros e seis fêmeas, recebendo três dietas diferentes: 1 = sem casca de café (controle; 2 = com casca de café in natura; 3 = com casca de café tratada com uréia. O rúmen/retículo (RR dos animais que receberam as dietas 2 e 3 foram mais pesados em relação ao RR dos animais submetidos a dieta 1. O abomaso (ABO, fígado (FIG e pâncreas (PAN dos cordeiros alimentados com a dieta 3 foram mais leves comparados aos que receberam as dietas 1 e 2. Os cordeiros cruzas TB e TS apresentaram maior peso para a cabeça (CAB, pés/canelas (PEC, omaso (OMA, ABO, intestinos delgado (IND e grosso (ING. Os machos apresentaram sangue (SAN e RR mais pesados que as fêmeas. Os pesos de pele (PEL, gordura (GOR, esôfago/traquéia (ET, coração (COR e pulmão (PUL também foram analisados e não foram afetados pelas dietas, pelos grupos genéticos e pelo sexo. As fêmeas apresentaram tendência de maior proporção de GOR.Twelve crossbred Texel x Bergamácia (TB, 12 crossbred Texel x Santa Inês (TS and 12 purebred Santa Inês (SI lambs were individually finished in fedlot for 50 days (from 130 to 180 days of age. Each genetic group consisted of six males and six females, fed three different diets: 1 = without coffee hulls (control; 2 = with coffee hulls in nature; 3 = with coffee hulls treated of with urea. The rumen/reticulum (RR of the animals fed diets 1 and 3 were significantly heavier than those fed diet 1. The abomasum (ABO, liver (FIG and pancreas (PAN of the lambs fed diet 3 were lighter than the animals fed diet 2. The TB and TS of crossbred lambs showed greater weights of head (CAB, foot/shin (PEC, omasum (OMA, abomasum (ABO, small intestine (IND and large intestine (ING. The males showed

  2. Accuracy of genomic prediction of purebreds for cross bred performance in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, Andre; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Lopes, M.S.; Calus, M.P.L.; Koning, de D.J.

    2016-01-01

    In pig breeding, as the final product is a cross bred (CB) animal, the goal is to increase the CB performance. This goal requires different strategies for the implementation of genomic selection from what is currently implemented in, for example dairy cattle breeding. A good strategy is to estima

  3. Heterosis and genetic variation in litter size in purebred and crossbred mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Larsen, Peter Foged; Pertoldi, Cino

    2014-01-01

    were analyzed and the effects of parity and production year were included in the analyses. Genetic trend and the proportions of the total variance explained by the effects of additive genetics (h2) , common environment (due to repeated litters from the same female; c2), and dam of the female (granddame......Crosses between different mink lines from 3 Danish mink farms that use different breeding strategies were studied to estimate heterosis and variance components for litter size. The study was designed to analyze crosses between lines of the same color type, between different color types, and between...... of the born litter; d2) were estimated. The results showed that mink of the Black color type potentially produced smaller litters compared to mink of the other studied color types. We found significant general maternal effect of heterosis for litter size. Analyses of specific heterosis showed a significant...

  4. Prevalence, genetics, and surgical treatment of patellar luxation in purebred dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangdee, C.

    2014-01-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is a common cause of lameness in small-breed dogs. The aims of the study are to investigate the outcome of surgical treatment of medial PL (MPL) using standard techniques, and a novel surgical technique in Pomeranians for treating bidirectional PL (BPL), and to study the preva

  5. Genetics of hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia and patellar luxation in purebred dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijsen, I.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary developmental orthopaedic diseases pose a serious threat to the quality of life of dogs. The pain as well as the detrimental effect on mobility that can accompany these disorders have a major impact on the dogs as well as their owners. The studies described in this thesis aim to give more

  6. Variance components estimation for farrowing traits of three purebred pigs in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Irvine Lopez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to estimate breed-specific variance components for total number born (TNB, number born alive (NBA and mortality rate from birth through weaning including stillbirths (MORT of three main swine breeds in Korea. In addition, the importance of including maternal genetic and service sire effects in estimation models was evaluated. Methods Records of farrowing traits from 6,412 Duroc, 18,020 Landrace, and 54,254 Yorkshire sows collected from January 2001 to September 2016 from different farms in Korea were used in the analysis. Animal models and the restricted maximum likelihood method were used to estimate variances in animal genetic, permanent environmental, maternal genetic, service sire and residuals. Results The heritability estimates ranged from 0.072 to 0.102, 0.090 to 0.099, and 0.109 to 0.121 for TNB; 0.087 to 0.110, 0.088 to 0.100, and 0.099 to 0.107 for NBA; and 0.027 to 0.031, 0.050 to 0.053, and 0.073 to 0.081 for MORT in the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds, respectively. The proportion of the total variation due to permanent environmental effects, maternal genetic effects, and service sire effects ranged from 0.042 to 0.088, 0.001 to 0.031, and 0.001 to 0.021, respectively. Spearman rank correlations among models ranged from 0.98 to 0.99, demonstrating that the maternal genetic and service sire effects have small effects on the precision of the breeding value. Conclusion Models that include additive genetic and permanent environmental effects are suitable for farrowing traits in Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire populations in Korea. This breed-specific variance components estimates for litter traits can be utilized for pig improvement programs in Korea.

  7. Estimation of additive and dominance variance for reproductive traits from different models in Duroc purebred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talerngsak Angkuraseranee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The additive and dominance genetic variances of 5,801 Duroc reproductive and growth records were estimated usingBULPF90 PC-PACK. Estimates were obtained for number born alive (NBA, birth weight (BW, number weaned (NW, andweaning weight (WW. Data were analyzed using two mixed model equations. The first model included fixed effects andrandom effects identifying inbreeding depression, additive gene effect and permanent environments effects. The secondmodel was similar to the first model, but included the dominance genotypic effect. Heritability estimates of NBA, BW, NWand WW from the two models were 0.1558/0.1716, 0.1616/0.1737, 0.0372/0.0874 and 0.1584/0.1516 respectively. Proportionsof dominance effect to total phenotypic variance from the dominance model were 0.1024, 0.1625, 0.0470, and 0.1536 for NBA,BW, NW and WW respectively. Dominance effects were found to have sizable influence on the litter size traits analyzed.Therefore, genetic evaluation with the dominance model (Model 2 is found more appropriate than the animal model (Model 1.

  8. Variance components estimation for farrowing traits of three purebred pigs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bryan Irvine; Kim, Tae Hun; Makumbe, Milton Tinashe; Song, Chol Won; Seo, Kang Seok

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate breed-specific variance components for total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA) and mortality rate from birth through weaning including stillbirths (MORT) of three main swine breeds in Korea. In addition, the importance of including maternal genetic and service sire effects in estimation models was evaluated. Records of farrowing traits from 6,412 Duroc, 18,020 Landrace, and 54,254 Yorkshire sows collected from January 2001 to September 2016 from different farms in Korea were used in the analysis. Animal models and the restricted maximum likelihood method were used to estimate variances in animal genetic, permanent environmental, maternal genetic, service sire and residuals. The heritability estimates ranged from 0.072 to 0.102, 0.090 to 0.099, and 0.109 to 0.121 for TNB; 0.087 to 0.110, 0.088 to 0.100, and 0.099 to 0.107 for NBA; and 0.027 to 0.031, 0.050 to 0.053, and 0.073 to 0.081 for MORT in the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds, respectively. The proportion of the total variation due to permanent environmental effects, maternal genetic effects, and service sire effects ranged from 0.042 to 0.088, 0.001 to 0.031, and 0.001 to 0.021, respectively. Spearman rank correlations among models ranged from 0.98 to 0.99, demonstrating that the maternal genetic and service sire effects have small effects on the precision of the breeding value. Models that include additive genetic and permanent environmental effects are suitable for farrowing traits in Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire populations in Korea. This breed-specific variance components estimates for litter traits can be utilized for pig improvement programs in Korea.

  9. Estimation of additive and dominance variance for reproductive traits from different models in Duroc purebred

    OpenAIRE

    Talerngsak Angkuraseranee

    2010-01-01

    The additive and dominance genetic variances of 5,801 Duroc reproductive and growth records were estimated usingBULPF90 PC-PACK. Estimates were obtained for number born alive (NBA), birth weight (BW), number weaned (NW), andweaning weight (WW). Data were analyzed using two mixed model equations. The first model included fixed effects andrandom effects identifying inbreeding depression, additive gene effect and permanent environments effects. The secondmodel was similar to the first model, but...

  10. Genetic analysis of a purebred herd of Kundhi buffaloes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Bhutto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Kundhi is amongst the best dairy buffalo breeds of the world and main source of milk production in Sindh province of Pakistan. A Research and Development Kundhi Buffalo Farm was established at Rohri, Sukkur. Time series production performance data of 237 buffaloes, along with their pedigree, from 1976 through 2004 was collected and analyzed using Harvey Model-1 for fixed effects and DFREML for GLS solutions and genetic / phenotypic variances. The traits of economic importance studied were age at first calving (AFC, milk yield (MY, lactation length (LL, calving interval (CI and dry period (DP. The fixed effects included year of birth (YOB, year of calving (YOC season of calving (SOC and lactation number (L No.. The data analyses revealed that among the fixed effect only YOC had significant effect (p < 0.05 on milk yield and all other traits. The average MY was 1356.48 ± 453.27 kg with mean lactation length 218.72 ± 122.97 days. The heritability of MY, CI, LL and DP was 0.209, 0.018, 0.009 and 0.024, respectively. Among the 5 sires used during this period, one sire contributed positively to milk production of the daughters. One hundred and three Kundhi buffaloes had positive and 134 negative breeding values for milk production. The genetic and phenotypic variance for milk yield was 35427.67 and 168521.94, respectively. The progeny testing program for Kundhi buffalos was initiated in August 2005. Under this program, more than 700 buffaloes are registered and ear tagged. The production and reproduction performance data recording at farmers doorstep has been initiated which will be used to identify bull mothers.

  11. Risk factors associated with interdog aggression and shooting phobias among purebred dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2003-01-01

    aggression, separation anxiety and shooting phobia. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the following breeds and breed groups had higher odds of being reported to have interdog dominance aggression: Belgian Sheepdogs, Dachshunds, Dalmatians, German, Shepherds, Hovawarts, Pinschers, Rottweilers, Scent dogs...... and Spitz dogs. Poodles, retrieving/flushing dogs, Sheepdogs, Spitz dogs and terriers had higher odds of shooting phobia. The odds of interdog dominance aggression were higher among dogs owned by younger dog owners compared to dogs owned by older dog owners. Dogs living in the capital area of Copenhagen had...... phobia. Dogs belonging to dog breeders had reduced odds of being reported to have the investigated behaviour problems....

  12. Segregation of regulatory polymorphisms with effects on the gluteus medius transcriptome in a purebred pig population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cánovas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The main goal of the present study was to analyse the genetic architecture of mRNA expression in muscle, a tissue with an outmost economic importance for pig breeders. Previous studies have used F(2 crosses to detect porcine expression QTL (eQTL, so they contributed with data that mostly represents the between-breed component of eQTL variation. Herewith, we have analysed eQTL segregation in an outbred Duroc population using two groups of animals with divergent fatness profiles. This approach is particularly suitable to analyse the within-breed component of eQTL variation, with a special emphasis on loci involved in lipid metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: GeneChip Porcine Genome arrays (Affymetrix were used to determine the mRNA expression levels of gluteus medius samples from 105 Duroc barrows. A whole-genome eQTL scan was carried out with a panel of 116 microsatellites. Results allowed us to detect 613 genome-wide significant eQTL unevenly distributed across the pig genome. A clear predominance of trans- over cis-eQTL, was observed. Moreover, 11 trans-regulatory hotspots affecting the expression levels of four to 16 genes were identified. A Gene Ontology study showed that regulatory polymorphisms affected the expression of muscle development and lipid metabolism genes. A number of positional concordances between eQTL and lipid trait QTL were also found, whereas limited evidence of a linear relationship between muscle fat deposition and mRNA levels of eQTL regulated genes was obtained. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide substantial evidence that there is a remarkable amount of within-breed genetic variation affecting muscle mRNA expression. Most of this variation acts in trans and influences biological processes related with muscle development, lipid deposition and energy balance. The identification of the underlying causal mutations and the ascertainment of their effects on phenotypes would allow gaining a fundamental perspective about how complex traits are built at the molecular level.

  13. Trends in popularity of some morphological traits of purebred dogs in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Kendy T.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio; Dhand, Navneet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The morphology of dogs can provide information about their predisposition to some disorders. For example, larger breeds are predisposed to hip dysplasia and many neoplastic diseases. Therefore, longitudinal trends in popularity of dog morphology can reveal potential disease pervasiveness in the future. There have been reports on the popularity of particular breeds and behavioural traits but trends in the morphological traits of preferred breeds have not been studied. Methods This s...

  14. Estimating the purebred-crossbred genetic correlation for uniformity of eggshell color in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Herman; Visscher, Jeroen; Fablet, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uniformity of eggs is an important aspect for retailers because consumers prefer homogeneous products. One of these characteristics is the color of the eggshell, especially for brown eggs. Existence of a genetic component in environmental variance would enable selection for uniformity

  15. Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, T O; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74 g average daily gain and 57·96 g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme.

  16. Relationship between feed intake, feeding behaviors, performance, and ultrasound carcass measurements in growing purebred Angus and Hereford bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Hill, R A

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the growth, DMI, and feeding behaviors of Angus and Hereford bulls; identify the relationships between feeding behaviors and variation in DMI and residual feed intake (RFI); and determine the value of feeding behaviors in predicting DMI. Individual DMI was measured in Angus bulls (n=189; initial BW=427±3.4 kg) and Hereford bulls (n=146; initial BW=411±4.1 kg) fed a grower ration for 71 d in 2009, 78 d in 2010, and 74 d in 2011 using a GrowSafe intake monitoring system. Feeding frequency (FF, meals/d), head down duration (HDD, s/d), head down duration per meal (HDDM, HDD/FF, s/meal), average meal size [AMS, kg/(meal·d)], and feeding rate (FR, g/s) were also measured or calculated using behavior data collected by the GrowSafe system. Ultrasound measures of 12th-rib fat thickness (UFT), longissimus muscle area (ULMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF) were determined during the midtest-weight event of every trial. The data from 3 yr were pooled to generate mean differences between the breeds. Residual feed intake was calculated using a linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest BW0.75 (MMWT). Animals were classified into 3 RFI groups based on their RFI score as Low (>0.5 SD below the mean), Average (±0.5 SD from the mean), or High RFI (>0.5 SD above the mean). Angus bulls in the Low RFI group consumed 17% (PAngus and Hereford bulls, respectively. The HDD, HDDM, and FR were significantly correlated with DMI. The feeding behavior traits, HDD, HDDM, and FR when added to the RFI base model, explained 18, 17, and 13%, respectively, of the variation in DMI not explained by ADG and MMWT in Angus bulls. Similarly, in Hereford bulls, HDD, HDDM, and FR explained 35, 26, and 24%, respectively, of the variation in DMI not explained by ADG and MMWT. These data suggest that feeding behaviors are related to DMI of growing Angus and Hereford bulls.

  17. Prevalence and co-occurrence of hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia in Dutch pure-bred dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijsen, I.C.M.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Meij, B.P.; Theyse, L.F.H.; Nap, R.C.; Leegwater, P.A.J.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Hip as well as elbow dysplasia (HD, ED) are developmental disorders leading to malformation of their respective joints. For a long time both disorders have been scored and targeted for improvement using selective breeding in several Dutch dog populations. In this paper all scores for both HD and ED,

  18. Comparison of the Body Condition Score and Body Measurements of Purebred and Crossbred Kids Fattening in Different Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Tüfekci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study was aimed to crossbred male kids of the Hair goat and Saanen x Hair kids (G1 body condition score and compare their body size intensive, semi-intensive and extensive conditions. In the research, 30 Hair goat and 30 Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred single male kids was used. When the research findings were evaluated, in terms of body condition scores of 30, 60 and 90th days high values in the semi-intensive were detected in fattening Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred kids. However, at the end of fattening in semi-intensive fattening group of Hair goat it is determined that the value of the highest condition score. This situation is thought to be caused by more growth of environment and width measurements in Hair goat kids in the later stages of fattening according to the Saanen x Hair goats (G1 crossbred. In study in terms of body length during whole fattening, in terms of the height at the withers data obtained from the 60th and 90th day was found statistically significant. At the end of the fattening in semi-intensive fattening group of Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred it was observed to have higher body length and height at the withers value of crossbred kids. When chest width measurements between paddles in kids were examined, in all periods seems to be an increase in Hair goat kids than the Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred kids. At the end of fattening in terms of height rump Hair goats has shown higher values than Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred kids but the highest values of the semi-intensive group has shown. As a result, semi-intensive feeding group of kids of body condition score and body size was higher than intensive and extensive fattening group kids, in terms of length and height measurements Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred kids in terms of width and environmental measures has shown higher values than Hair goat kids.

  19. Can a super sow be a robust sow? Consequences of litter investment in purebred and crossbred sows of different parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, M; Andersen-Ranberg, I; Edwards, S A; Fredriksen, B; Framstad, T; Andersen, I L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this project was to study the consequences of litter investment on physical characteristics in primiparous and multiparous sows in 3 Norwegian breeds (Norsvin Duroc [ = 12], Norsvin Landrace [ = 12], and crossbreeds [Norsvin Landrace and Swedish Yorkshire { = 15}]). We predicted that the maternal sow line (Norsvin Landrace) would invest more in their litter in term of higher weight at birth, resulting in a higher litter weight of weaned piglets but with the consequence of greater loss in body condition and a higher prevalence of shoulder lesions. It was predicted that this should be more pronounced in primiparous sows than in multiparous sows. As predicted, the maternal pure line (Norsvin Landrace) had higher litter investment in terms of litter weight at birth ( = 0.003) and litter weight at weaning ( = 0.050) as well as higher total litter investment (litter weight at weaning plus weight of dead piglets [stillborn and mummified piglets and weight of piglets that died after farrowing but before weaning]; = 0.050) and suffered larger losses of body condition ( = 0.016) and had a higher prevalence of shoulder lesions ( = 0.008) during lactation than other breeds. Moreover, only in Norsvin Landrace was development of shoulder lesions related to inadequate feed consumption ( = 0.006). This has become a major welfare concern of modern pig breeding. Although primiparous and multiparous sows had similar litter sizes, primiparous sows had lower litter investment in terms of litter weight at birth ( = 0.032) and litter weight at weaning ( = 0.007) as well as total litter investment ( = 0.008). Primiparous sows suffered greater losses in body condition ( = 0.012) and developed more shoulder lesions ( = 0.026) due to lower total feed consumption ( sows. Especially in the highly productive maternal line (Norsvin Landrace), development of shoulder lesions during the lactation period was more pronounced in primiparous sows than in multiparous sows ( sows still need resources for their own growth and development. This has resulted in a larger number of weaned piglets but at a higher sow welfare cost in terms of higher losses in body condition and a higher prevalence of shoulder lesions. Our results pinpoint the importance of improving the balance between economic traits and traits that improve welfare and longevity of the sows.

  20. Study of Blood Metabolites Changes of Purebred Ghezel and Crossbred Arkhar Merinos × Ghezel Ewes during Late Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As pregnancy progresses, nutrient requirements of fetus and thereby ewe increases and some changes in the levels of blood metabolites including glucose, cholesterol and total protein may occur. During gestation, maternal tissues contribute to supplying energy that required for fetus resulting in changes of ewe blood metabolites; however other factors such as breed, age, feeding type of ewes during gestation and season may influence them. The study of blood metabolic changes in di...

  1. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force's current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hülsmeyer, Velia-Isabel; Fischer, Andrea; Mandigers, Paul J. J.

    2015-01-01

    of the dog with epilepsy in everyday clinical practice and furthermore may promote canine epilepsy research. The following manuscript reviews the evidence available for breeds which have been identified as being predisposed to idiopathic epilepsy with a proven or suspected genetic background, and highlights...

  2. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida: I. Reproduction and parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, the occurrence of calving difficulty, inadequate calf vigor at birth, and udder problems by cow breed groups. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, in all subsequent breeding seasons crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred to bulls of the other two breeds. Calving records (n = 1,484) from 2005 to 2011 were used to create calving and weaning rate and calving interval (excluding the interval between 2 and 3 yr of age). Final models for these traits included sire breed-dam breed interaction, cow age within year, and random animal effects. Heterosis estimates for Romosinuano-Brahman calving and weaning rate were 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P Brahman-Angus were twice as large (0.13 ± 0.03 and 0.14 ± 0.03, respectively; P Brahman direct effects on calving and weaning rate were -0.12 ± 0.04 and -0.14 ± 0.05 (P Brahman and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P Brahman cows had the most occurrences of udder problems as a proportion of lactating cows (0.14 to 0.21, P Brahman-sired cows that died or were culled as a proportion of those cows that began the project (0.1 to 0.28, P Brahman and Romosinuano-Angus cow performance was acceptable, but for most traits, those pairs of breeds had lower heterosis than Brahman-Angus.

  3. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. I. Reproduction and parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, t...

  4. The Association of Response to a Novel Object with Subsequent Performance and Feather Damage in Adult, Cage-Housed, Pure-Bred Rhode Island Red Laying Hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, K.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Komen, J.; Kemp, B.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In laying hens, behavioral responses measured late in the laying period are associated with decreased performance. If measured early in the laying period, these behavioral responses could be used to predict performance later in life. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the ass

  5. Influence of tropical adaptation on plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and residual feed intake in purebred and crossbred beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) differed among heifers and steers produced from three-breed diallel matings using temperate and tropically adapted breeds of cattle in Brooksville, FL. Additionally, for steers only, body w...

  6. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred in to bulls of the other 2 breeds. Calves were spring-born from 2005 through 2011. Evaluated calf (n = 1,254) traits included birth weight and weight, ADG, BCS, and hip height at weaning. Cow weight (n = 1,389) was recorded at weaning. Maternal efficiency traits evaluated included weaning weight per 100 kg cow weight, weaning weight per calving interval, and weaning weight per cow exposed to breeding (n = 1,442). Fixed effects and their interactions were investigated included sire and dam breed of cow, sire breed of calf, cow age, year, calf gender, and weaning age as a linear covariate (calf traits at weaning). Direct and maternal additive genetic effects were random in models for calf traits; only direct additive effects were modeled for cow traits. Cows sired by Angus bulls from outside the research herd had calves that were heavier at birth and weaning and greater ADG, BCS, and hip height (P Brahman-Angus. Heterosis for cow weight was 65 ± 8 kg for Brahman-Angus (P Brahman, and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P Brahman-Angus cows excelled.

  7. Ganho de peso da desmama aos 12 meses e peso aos 12 meses de bovinos Nelore e cruzas com Nelore Daily gain from weaning to yearling weight of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel Perotto; Antonio Carlos Cubas; José Jorge dos Santos Abrahão; Sílvio Carlos Mella

    2001-01-01

    Foram analisados o ganho médio diário de peso da desmama aos 12 meses (GMD_D12) e o peso aos 12 meses de idade (P12M) de bovinos Nelore (N), Guzerá x N (GN), Red Angus x N (RN) e Marchigiana x N (MN...

  8. 纯种猪与杂交猪肉质性状及营养价值比较研究%Comparison of Meat Quality and Nutritive Value of Purebred and Crossbred Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章杰; 苏军; 柴捷; 娄鹏博

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand how hybridization affects the meat quality, hormone, fatty acid, mineral elements content and meat quality-related gene expression levels of porcinelongissimus dorsimuscles. Landrace, Yorkshire and Landrace × Yorkshire pigs (six animals from each breed) aged 180 days under the same raising conditions were used in this study. The results showed that Landrace × Yorkshire pigs had signiifcantly (P< 0.05) higher drip loss, IMF content, insulin level, mineral elements content and meat quality-related gene (RYR1,CAST,IGF2,PPKAG3 and MC4R) expression levels and signiifcantly (P< 0.05) lower shear force, moisture and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in longissimus dorsi than Landrace and Yorkshire pigs, indicating that hybridization has a signiifcant impact on meat quality traits and nutrient contents of a pig, but it is dififcult to judge their combined effect is positive or negative. Therefore further research is needed.%为研究杂交对猪肌肉肉质、激素、脂肪酸、矿物元素含量和肉质相关基因表达水平的影响,实验选取同一饲养条件下,180日龄的纯种长白猪、纯种约克夏猪及长白猪×约克夏猪二元杂交猪各6头,屠宰后采集背最长肌。结果表明:二元杂交猪与长白猪和约克夏猪相比,其肌肉滴水损失、粗脂肪含量、胰岛素含量、多种矿物元素含量和肉质相关基因(RYR1、CAST、IGF2、PPKAG3和MC4R)表达水平显著升高(P<0.05);而其剪切力、水分含量和多不饱和脂肪酸含量显著降低(P<0.05)。杂交对猪的肉质性状和营养成分含量影响显著,但不能判断对其综合影响是否有益。

  9. Genetic Analysis of Progeny Phenotypes with Wing Variant from Drosophila melanogaster Purebred Crossing%黑腹果蝇品系纯合体杂交后代翅型变异的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳瑀; 刘诗颖; 杨云; 曾婧雯; 李洁; 梁前进

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of gene linkage,gene crossing-over and independent assortment of genes by hybridizing different strains of fruit flies subject to laboratory environment;to calculate the distances amongst the three loci,w (white eye) ,m ( mini-wing) and sra3 (singed bristle) of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) ; to study the interaction between the genes. Methods The strains of fruit fly of three-recessive character (w,m and sn3 )the strain of vg (vestigial wing) are crossed. Fl reciprocal crosses are conducted. Then the pheno-typic data of F2 originated from the direct test and the reciprocal test with the two parental strains are calculated and analyzed. Results A novel phenotype of "small crinkled wing" (sew) is discovered. The distances amongst the three loci are calculated and discussed for three cases. Conclusion A novel trait,sew,is produced by the interaction between mini-wing and vestigial wing traits. It is an "exceptional" new trait statistically, neither an alternative expression of mini-wing nor that of vestigial wing.%目的探究实验室条件下果蝇杂交后代所表现出的基因连锁、互换与自由组合效应,计算白眼、卷刚毛、小翅基因座位间的距离,并探索可能的基因互作。方法将三隐性(白眼、卷刚毛、小翅)与残翅两种品系的果蝇进行杂交,并使F1代互交,对正反交的F2代进行表型数据统计分析。结果发现F2代出现新性状小皱翅,将其分为3种情况进行讨论,计算出了3个基因座位间的距离。结论果蝇小翅和残翅基因互作产生了新性状小皱翅;在统计上它是一种“例外”新性状,而不是小翅或残翅范畴里的特情。

  10. Ganho de peso da desmama aos 12 meses e peso aos 12 meses de bovinos Nelore e cruzas com Nelore Daily gain from weaning to yearling weight of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perotto

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados o ganho médio diário de peso da desmama aos 12 meses (GMD_D12 e o peso aos 12 meses de idade (P12M de bovinos Nelore (N, Guzerá x N (GN, Red Angus x N (RN e Marchigiana x N (MN, oriundos de um experimento de cruzamentos realizado na Estação Experimental do IAPAR de Paranavaí, produzidos por meio de inseminação artificial, nascidos no período de 1985 a 1997 em duas estações anuais de nascimento (janeiro a abril e julho a dezembro. Foi utilizado o método dos quadrados mínimos para análise de 634 observações de GMD_D12 e de P12M. Mês de nascimento do bezerro foi efeito significativo para GMD_D12 e para P12M. Para ambas as características, houve efeito relevante dos fatores ano de nascimento e sexo do bezerro, raça ou grupo genético, touro dentro de grupo genético e da interação grupo genético x sexo do animal. As médias dos quadrados mínimos e respecticos erros padrão, sempre na sequência N, GN, RN e MN foram : 0,247 ± 0,009 kg; 0,287 ± 0,010 kg; 0,366 ± 0,010 kg e 0,352 ± 0,012 kg, para GMD_D12 e 176,82 ± 1,86 kg; 190,59 ± 2,07 kg; 223,30 ± 2,31 kg e 214,12 ± 2,31 kg, para P12M.Average daily gain from weaning (GMD--12 to yearling weight (P12M of Nellore, Guzerá x Nellore (GN, Red Angus x Nellore (RN, and Marchigiana x Nellore (MN cattle, from a crossbreeding experiment conducted at the IAPAR Paranavaí Experimental Station, produced by artificial insemination, born between 1985 and 1997 within two annual birth seasons (January - April and July - December, were analyzed. The least squares method was utilized to study 634 observations of GMD_D12 and of P12M. Calf's birth month was a significant effect for GMD_D12 and for P12M. For both traits, there were relevant effects of the factors calf birth year and sex, genetic group or breed, sire within genetic group, and the interaction between the animal sex by genetic group. The least squares means and respective standard errors, always in the sequency N, GN, RN and MN were: 0.247 ± 0.009 kg, 0.287 ± 0.010 kg, 0.366 ± 0.010 kg, and 0.352 ± 0.012 kg, for GMD_D12, and 176.82 ± 1.86 kg, 190.59 ± 2.07 kg, 223.30 ± 2.31 kg, and 214.12 ± 2.31 kg, for P12M.

  11. A community wind power project : the making of a pure-bred community wind power project; Un project eolien communauQuoi au juste? : genetique d'un projet eolien communautaire pure-race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, P. [Val-Eo, St. Bruno, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed issues regarding community involvement in wind energy development projects. In particular, it focused on financial and operational involvement by stakeholders such as landowners, municipalities, investors, local companies and residents of the communities. It was cautioned that communities should not rely on developers alone, and that a balance of power must be established between the developer and the community in order for fair negotiations to take place. The success factors for community wind projects were outlined. It was noted that the process for consultation at the local level should begin at the early stages of a project to provide authorities an opportunity to invest in the projects. The participation of local investors in a project increases the chances of acceptance from the local population. As such, everyone living in the vicinity of a wind power project should be invited to participate in its financing. A coherent investment should be negotiated and managed with banks and local financial institutions with equitable distribution of income among all land owners concerned by the visual impact of the wind project, not only among owners of land on which the turbines are built. The presentation concluded with a review of an agreement between Val-eo and the municipality of Saint-Gedeon. The agreement stipulated that the project must provide important economic benefits to the municipality and that the municipality must actively participate in the project. tabs., figs.

  12. Conceptual Clustering Using Relational Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-23

    consists of classifying objects based not only on their observable features, but also on features of their descendants and their ancestors. Gregor Mendel ...offspring. Mendel thus hypothesized the class of purebreds, peas which produce offspring with exactly the same features as the parent, and the class of...distinguishing, for example, between pure- breds with hybrids as parents and purebreds with purebreds as parents. Mendel continued his experiments, crossing peas

  13. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  14. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  15. Perfil de ácidos graxos na carne de novilhos Charolês e Nelore puros e de gerações avançadas do cruzamento rotativo, terminados em confinamento Fatty acids profile of feedlot finished purebred Charolais and Nellore steers from advanced generations of rotational crossbreeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da heterozigose e o grupo genético no perfil de ácidos graxos de novilhos puros (Charolês - C e Nelore - N e mestiços da segunda (G2 (¾C¼N e ¾N¼C, da terceira (G3 (5/8C3/8N e 5/8N3/8C e da quarta (G4 (11/16C5/16N e 11/16N5/16C geração de cruzamento rotativo. A carne dos novilhos Nelore e dos 11/16N 5/16C apresentou maior proporção de ácido mirístico (C14:0 em relação à carne dos Charolês e dos 11/16C 5/16N. Por outro lado, a carne dos novilhos 11/16C 5/16N apresentou maior presença de ácido heptadecanóico (C17:0 e de ácido araquidônico (C20:4 n6 em relação aos 11/16N 5/16C. Na G2, os novilhos 3/4C 1/4N apresentaram superioridade nos ácidos esteárico (C18:0 e linoléico (C18:2 n6c, na participação total dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados estudados e na relação entre os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e saturados, enquanto que os 3/4N 1/4C apresentaram superioridade no ácido oléico (C18:1 n9c. Na G3, as carnes dos novilhos 5/8C 3/8N apresentaram superioridade na participação dos ácidos esteárico e elaídico (C18:1 n9t e no total dos ácidos graxos saturados, enquanto que os novilhos 5/8N 3/8C apresentaram maior participação dos ácidos miristoléico (C14:1,cis-10-Heptadecanóico (C17:1 e oléico e no total de ácidos graxos insaturados. A heterose foi significativa na G2 para C17:0, C18:0, C18:1 n9c e C18:2 n6c no total dos ácidos graxos saturados, insaturados e poliinsaturados. Novilhos 3/4C 1/4N apresentaram a carne mais saudável entre os grupos genéticos estudados, apresentando carne com maior presença de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e maior relação poliinsaturados:saturados.The objective of this research was to evaluate the heterozygosis and genetic group effects on fatty acids profile of feedlot finished steers, straightbreds (Charolais - C and Nellore - N, and crossbreds from second (G2 (¾C ¼N and ¾N ¼C, third (G3 (5/8C 3/8N and 5/8N 3/8C and fourth (G4 (11/16C 5/16N and 11/16N 5/16C generation of rotational crossbreeding. The Nellore and 11/16N 5/16C meat showed higher proportion of myristic acid (C14:0 in relation to Charolais and 11/16C 5/16N meat, respectively. On the other hand, the meat of the 11/16C 5/16N steers showed higher presence of heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 and arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6 in relation to 11/16N 5/16C. The 3/4C 1/4N steers of G2 which were superior in stearic acid (C18:0 and linoleic acid (C18:2 n6c in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids participation studied and in the ratio between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids, while the 3/4N 1/4C showed superiority in oleic acid (C18:1 n9c. In G3 the meat of the 5/8C 3/8N steers showed superiority in the stearic and elaidic acids (C18:1 n9t and in the total saturated fatty acid, while the 5/8N 3/8C steers showed higher participation of the meristoleic (C14:1, cis-10-heptadecanoic(C17:1 and oleic acids and total unsaturated fatty acids. The heterosis was significant in the G2 for C17:0, C18:0, C18:1 n9c, C18:2 n6c, in the total saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The 3/4C 1/4N steers showed the healthiest meat among the genetic groups studied, with higher presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and higher polyunsaturated: saturated ratio.

  16. Correlation analysis of simulation civet coffee by purebred fermentated coupling with pepsin enzymatic pre-hydrolysis in vitro with electronic tongue%酶解偶联发酵体外模拟麝香猫咖啡的电子舌相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟世生; 王丽; 靳静言; 崔忠义; 刘萍

    2015-01-01

    使用电子舌检测,对发酵处理和酶解偶联发酵处理的云南小粒咖啡鲜果和生豆进行检测,将其与天然麝香猫咖啡和其他不同加工方式和产地的咖啡豆进行主成分分析和聚类分析,酶解偶联发酵咖啡鲜果所得模拟豆(MX模拟豆)与天然麝香猫咖啡豆的相似性最高,说明通过酶解偶联发酵咖啡鲜果可以得到与天然麝香猫咖啡风味相同的咖啡豆,为人工生产麝香猫咖啡豆提供了新思路.

  17. Estudos genéticos sobre a leitegada em suínos da raça Landrace criados no Rio Grande do Sul Genetic characterization of litter traits in purebred Landrace swine, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fernandes Lourenço

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se parâmetros e tendências genéticas em suínos da raça Landrace em uma amostra constituída de 927 avós, 2.537 mães e 8.887 leitegadas registradas nos arquivos de dados da Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Suínos (ABCS, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As estimativas dos componentes genéticos foram obtidas pelo Método REML utilizando-se um modelo que incluiu os efeitos genéticos diretos e maternos; os efeitos comuns de leitegada; os efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo (granja, ano de nascimento dos leitões e estação do ano; e as co-variáveis número de partos da mãe e idades da mãe ao primeiro e ao último parto. As tendências genéticas diretas e maternas foram avaliadas por meio da regressão dos valores genéticos diretos e maternos sobre o ano de nascimento da mãe. As herdabilidades genéticas aditivas e maternas foram, respectivamente, de 0,0018 e 0,0117 para número de leitões ao nascimento (NLN, 0,0031 e 0,0088 para número de leitões aos 21 dias (NLD, 0,0237 e 0,0132 para peso médio ao nascimento (PMNasc, 0,0002 e 0,0081 peso médio ajustado para os 21 dias (PMD, 0,0000 e 0,0070 para ganho médio diário (GMD e 0,0280 e 0,0103 para natimortos (NatMort. A análise de variância para as tendências genéticas, tanto para os efeitos direto quanto para o efeito materno, foi significativa para NLN, NLD, PMNasc e NatMort e não-significativa para PMD e GMD, respectivamente, considerando os dois efeitos estudados. Tendências genéticas aditivas diretas e maternas foram positivas para número de leitões ao nascimento (0,0007/ 0,0018 g/ano, número de leitões aos 21 dias (0,001/ 0,0017 g/ano e ganho médio diário (5E-06/ 0,0003 g/ano e negativas para peso médio ao nascimento (-0,0001/ -8E-05 g/ano, peso médio ao desmame (-1E-05/ -7E-05 g/ano e natimortos (-0,002/ -1E-05 g/ano.The goals of this research were to obtain genetic parameters and estimate genetic trends in Landrace pigs. Data consisted of records from 927 granddams, 2,537 dams and 8,887 litters raised in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, provided by the Swine Breeders Brazilian Association ABCS. Variance components were estimated by REML, using a model that included the direct genetic effect, maternal effect, common litter effect and the fixed effect of contemporary group. Contemporary groups were defined as a combination of farm, year, and season of farrowing. The model also included the covariates parity order, age of sow at first litter and age of sow at last litter. Direct genetic and maternal genetic trends were estimated by regression of direct genetic values on birth year of the dam. Heritability and maternal heritabilities were, respectively, .002 and .012 for litter size at birth (NLN, .003 and .009 for litter size at 21 days (NLD, .024 and .013 for average litter weight at birth (PMNasc, .000 and .008 for average litter weight at weaning, in kg, adjusted to 21 days (PMD, .000 and .007 for average daily weight gain (GMD, .028 and .010 for number of stillborn (NatMort. Analysis of variance for genetic trend showed significance for direct and maternal genetic effects for NLN, NLD, PMNasc and NatMort but not for PMD or GMD. Genetic trends were positive for NLN (0.0007/ 0.0018 g/year, NLD (0.001/ 0.0017 g/year, GMD (5E-06/ 0.0003 g/year and negative for (-0.0001/ -8E-05 g/year, PMD (-1E-05/ -7E-05 g/year e NatMort (-0.002/ -1E-05 g/year.

  18. Estimation of udder cistern size in dairy ewes by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Makovick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the size of mammary cistern in ewes of 9 genotypes (purebred Improved Valachian (IV, purebred Tsigai (T, purebred Lacaune (LC and their crosses with genetic proportion of specialized dairy breeds Lacaune and East Friesian (EF - (25 %, 50 % and 75 % were evaluated. Dana were evaluated using REML methodology and MIXED procedure (SAS/STAT. The effect of genotype showed the highest influence (P<0.001 on the length and area of the left and right udder cisterns measurements. In purebred IV ewes, the average areas of the left and right udder cisterns sizes were obtained by using the side method were (1519.39±77.212 mm2 and 1558.45±74.480 mm2. In purebred T ewes, the average areas of the left and right udder cisterns were (1438.70±70.43 mm2 and 1418.68±67.952 mm2. These were significantly smaller than in purebred LC (2694.44±71.95 mm2 and 2693.48±69.340 mm2. The udder cistern areas were significantly higher in crosses with 25 %, 50 % and 75 % genetic proportion of specialized dairy breeds LC and EF, than in purebred IV and T ewes. The analyses showed that crossbreeding of IV with LC and EF and T with LC and EF considerably increases ewe‘s cistern size.

  19. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS AND INTERIOR INDICATORS PIGS AT USE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS "SELENIUM VITA" AND "TOPINAMBUR"

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov V. H.; Gribtsova T. V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted on pure-bred pigs CT and DM-1. An analysis of variance of economically useful signs and interior indicators pigs using dietary supplements "Vita selenium" and "Jerusalem artichoke"

  20. DNA fingerprinting of salinity resistance of full-sib Nile tilapia, Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ******

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... marine and brackish environments for aquaculture become a vital alternative ... Egypt. Fry production. Purebred of each Nile tilapia, O. niloticus and Blue tilapia, O. ..... considers a great potential for the development and.

  1. Relationship between depression score and acid-base status in Japanese Black calves with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mitsuhide; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Taguchi, Kiyoshi

    2007-05-01

    We evaluated the relationship between depression score and acid-base status in 84 purebred and crossbred Japanese Black calves. The bicarbonate (psystem is a useful tool for evaluation of the acid-base status of purebred and crossbred Japanese Black calves. In addition, a depression score of 6.5 suggests severe metabolic acidosis and that intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate solution is necessary.

  2. Application of single-step genomic evaluation for crossbred performance in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, T; Nielsen, B; Su, G; Legarra, A; Christensen, O F

    2016-03-01

    Crossbreding is predominant and intensively used in commercial meat production systems, especially in poultry and swine. Genomic evaluation has been successfully applied for breeding within purebreds but also offers opportunities of selecting purebreds for crossbred performance by combining information from purebreds with information from crossbreds. However, it generally requires that all relevant animals are genotyped, which is costly and presently does not seem to be feasible in practice. Recently, a novel single-step BLUP method for genomic evaluation of both purebred and crossbred performance has been developed that can incorporate marker genotypes into a traditional animal model. This new method has not been validated in real data sets. In this study, we applied this single-step method to analyze data for the maternal trait of total number of piglets born in Danish Landrace, Yorkshire, and two-way crossbred pigs in different scenarios. The genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred performances was investigated first, and then the impact of (crossbred) genomic information on prediction reliability for crossbred performance was explored. The results confirm the existence of a moderate genetic correlation, and it was seen that the standard errors on the estimates were reduced when including genomic information. Models with marker information, especially crossbred genomic information, improved model-based reliabilities for crossbred performance of purebred boars and also improved the predictive ability for crossbred animals and, to some extent, reduced the bias of prediction. We conclude that the new single-step BLUP method is a good tool in the genetic evaluation for crossbred performance in purebred animals.

  3. Prevalence and breed predisposition for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Steven; Warner, Anne-Sophie; Volk, Holger A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and possible breed predilections for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) in cats. Methods Medical records and imaging studies of cats diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDD between January 2008 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with the general hospital population. The association between type of IVDD (ie, intervertebral disc extrusion [IVDE] or intervertebral disc protrusion [IVDP]) and breed, age, sex, and duration and severity of clinical signs was also evaluated. Results Of 12,900 cats presented during the study period, 31 (0.24%) were diagnosed with IVDD, including 17 purebred and 14 non-purebred cats. Of all presented purebred cats, 0.52% were diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDD. More specifically, 1.29% of all British Shorthairs and 1.83% of all presented Persians were diagnosed with IVDD. Compared with the general hospital population, purebred cats ( P = 0.0001), British Shorthairs ( P cats were younger than affected non-purebred cats ( P = 0.02). Of 31 cats with IVDD, 19 were diagnosed with IVDE and 12 with IVDP. Cats with IVDE had a significantly shorter duration of clinical signs ( P = 0.0002) and demonstrated more severe neurological deficits ( P = 0.04) than cats with IVDP. Conclusions and relevance Although thoracolumbar IVDD is an uncommon condition in cats, purebred cats, British Shorthairs and Persians, were overrepresented. It is currently unclear if this represents a true breed predisposition or a higher likelihood of owners of purebred cats seeking referral for advanced diagnostic imaging procedures.

  4. Detection of ascitic feline coronavirus RNA from cats with clinically suspected feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Takehisa; Wada, Makoto; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Tomoko

    2013-10-01

    Ascitic feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA was examined in 854 cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) by RT-PCR. The positivity was significantly higher in purebreds (62.2%) than in crossbreds (34.8%) (P<0.0001). Among purebreds, the positivities in the Norwegian forest cat (92.3%) and Scottish fold (77.6%) were significantly higher than the average of purebreds (P=0.0274 and 0.0251, respectively). The positivity was significantly higher in males (51.5%) than in females (35.7%) (P<0.0001), whereas no gender difference has generally been noted in FCoV antibody prevalence, indicating that FIP more frequently develops in males among FCoV-infected cats. Genotyping was performed for 377 gene-positive specimens. Type I (83.3%) was far more predominantly detected than type II (10.6%) (P<0.0001), similar to previous serological and genetic surveys.

  5. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seabury Christopher M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular

  6. Combi-Cross – The Use of New Technologies for Improving Dairy Crossbreeding Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kargo, Morten; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Sørensen, Lydia Henriette;

    Combi-cross combines the advantages of pure breeding and crossbreeding within herd through a hierarchical breeding program with use of sexed semen. The highest ranking females in a purebred nucleus are used for pure breeding, while the lower ranking are used for production of Two-cross animals (f 1......). The Two-cross animals produce Three-cross animals also expressing full heterosis. As sexed semen is intensively used in the first two stages of the program all Three-cross animals can be inseminated with beef semen. With a 30% replacement rate it possible to reduce the purebred nucleus to 33...

  7. Wild boars from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic and Japan possess intact mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Ingrid-Maria; OkumuRA, N; Uenishi, H

    2015-01-01

    The two-nucleotide deletion recently detected in the mannose-binding lectin 2 gene in purebred and crossbred domestic pigs was not found among 68 wild boars representing 4 populations from Europe and Asia. This suggests that the deletion is a result of breeding and/or genetic drift/bottle necks....

  8. Breed and winter nutrition effects on diet digestibility and intake of cows grazing bahiagrass pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter feed comprises one of the largest costs for cattle production. This study was initiated to evaluate two winter nutrition programs for cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum nutatum) pastures in central Florida. Purebred Angus, Brahman, or Romosinuano cows (30/breed), aged 3 to 13 yrs, were assig...

  9. Behavioural testing based breeding policy reduces the prevalence of fear and aggression related behaviour in Rottweilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der Joanne A.M.; Graat, Lisette; Beerda, Bonne

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural testing allows to exclude dogs that are fearful and aggressive from the breeding population, but relatively little is known about the effectiveness of such strategies in practice. From 2001 till 2009 parent purebred Dutch Rottweilers had to pass the Socially Acceptable Behaviour

  10. Life expectancy in a follow-up study of a birth cohort of boxer dogs from post weaning to 10-years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, van M.A.E.; Ducro, B.J.; Knol, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective-To determine mortality rate over time, risk factors for death, and heritability of life expectancy in Boxers. Animals-1,733 purebred Boxers born in The Netherlands between January 1994 and March 1995. Procedure-Dogs were followed up from weaning (ie, 49 days of age) to 10 years of age thro

  11. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole

    2001-01-01

    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte...

  12. Chemotherapy effectiveness and mortality prediction in surgically treated osteosarcoma dogs : A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A. F.; Nielen, M.; Withrow, S. J.; Selmic, L. E.; Burton, J. H.; Klungel, O. H.; Groenwold, R. H H; Kirpensteijn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Canine osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer, and an important cause of mortality and morbidity, in large purebred dogs. Previously we constructed two multivariable models to predict a dog's 5-month or 1-year mortality risk after surgical treatment for osteosarcoma. According to the 5-month mo

  13. Prevalence of genetic disorders in dog breeds: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirth, J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified ped

  14. A long-term follow up study of a birth cohort of boxer dogs in The Netherlands : genetic and environmental risk factors for diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, Marjan Antonia Elisabeth van

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term follow up of a birth cohort of boxer dogs to study disease incidence, mortality, as well as genetic and environmental risk factors in a purebred dog population in The Netherlands. During the last decades, both the number of genetic disorders and the disease rate o

  15. Effect of breed on performance and meat quality of first parity sows in a seasonal organic rearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Claudi-Magnussen, Chris; Hermansen, John Erik

    2011-01-01

    to be characterized by a special nutty taste. CONCLUSION: The traditional breed has lower productivity and thereby higher costs of production compared to the modern genotypes. On the other hand, the meat and fat of the traditional purebred have special characteristics that might trigger a market premium...

  16. Suitability of cross-bred cows for organic farms based on cross-breeding effects on production and functional traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Smolders, E.A.A.; Hoorneman, J.N.; Nauta, W.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Data from 113 Dutch organic farms were analysed to determine the effect of cross-breeding on production and functional traits. In total, data on 33 788 lactations between January 2003 and February 2009 from 15 015 cows were available. Holstein–Friesian pure-bred cows produced most kg of milk in 305

  17. Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds: a genome-wide intercontinental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciani, Elena; Lasagna, Emiliano; D'Andrea, Mariasilvia; Alloggio, Ingrid; Marroni, Fabio; Ceccobelli, Simone; Delgado Bermejo, Juan V; Sarti, Francesca M; Kijas, James; Lenstra, Johannes A; Pilla, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds have been widely distributed across the world, both as purebred and admixed populations. They represent an economically and historically important genetic resource which over time has been used as the basis for the development of new breeds. In orde

  18. A long-term follow up study of a birth cohort of boxer dogs in The Netherlands : genetic and environmental risk factors for diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, Marjan Antonia Elisabeth van

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term follow up of a birth cohort of boxer dogs to study disease incidence, mortality, as well as genetic and environmental risk factors in a purebred dog population in The Netherlands. During the last decades, both the number of genetic disorders and the disease rate o

  19. Effect of Recombinant FVIIA in Hypothermic, Coagulopathic Pigs with Liver Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    parameters and trends for litter traits in U.S. Yorkshire, Duroc, Hampshire, and Landrace pigs. J Anim Sci. 2003 ; 8: 46-53. Danilos J, Goral A...Shock. 2002; 18: 316- 321. Tummaruk P, Lundeheim N, Einarsson S, Dalin AM. Factors influencing age at first mating in purebred Swedish Landrace and

  20. Whole Genome Analysis of Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves Using Bayesian Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 245 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 139) and fall (n = 106) of 2...

  1. Evaluating Timing of Weaning Stress on Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 362 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 211) and fall (n = 151) of ...

  2. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification...

  3. A survey of polymorphisms detected from sequences of popular beef breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome sequence was obtained from 270 sires used in the Germplasm Evaluation project (GPE). These bulls included 154 purebred AI sires from GPE Cycle VII breeds (Hereford, Angus, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Red Angus), 83 F1 crosses of those breeds, and 33 AI sires from 8 other breeds...

  4. Combi-Cross – The Use of New Technologies for Improving Dairy Crossbreeding Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kargo, Morten; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Sørensen, Lydia Henriette

    ). The Two-cross animals produce Three-cross animals also expressing full heterosis. As sexed semen is intensively used in the first two stages of the program all Three-cross animals can be inseminated with beef semen. With a 30% replacement rate it possible to reduce the purebred nucleus to 33...

  5. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... books of record. 151.10 Section 151.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  6. 9 CFR 151.11 - Form of books of record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of books of record. 151.11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.11 Form of books of record. (a) If a registry association has not...

  7. Wild boars from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic and Japan possess intact mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, I M; Okumura, N; Uenishi, H; Hammer, S E; Knoll, A; Edfors, I; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2015-06-01

    The two-nucleotide deletion recently detected in the mannose-binding lectin 2 gene in purebred and crossbred domestic pigs was not found among 68 wild boars representing 4 populations from Europe and Asia. This suggests that the deletion is a result of breeding and/or genetic drift/bottle necks.

  8. Low frequency of the scrapile resistance-associated allele and presence of lysine-171 allele of the prion protein gene in Italian Biellese ovine breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acutis, P.L.; Sbaiz, L.; Verburg, F.J.; Riina, M.V.; Ru, G.; Moda, G.; Caramelli, M.; Bossers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Frequencies of polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the prion protein (PrP) gene were studied in 1207 pure-bred and cross-bred Italian Biellese rams, a small ovine breed of about 65 000 head in Italy. Aside from the five most common alleles (VRQ, ARQ, ARR, AHQ and ARH), the rare ARK allele wa

  9. Comparison of prenatal musle tissue expression profiles of two pigs breed differing in muscle characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cagnazzo, M.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Priem, J.; Wit, de A.A.C.; Pool, M.H.; Davoli, R.; Russo, V.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare purebred Duroc and Pietrain prenatal muscle tissue transcriptome expression levels at different stages of prenatal development to gain insight into the differences in muscle tissue development in these pig breeds. Commercial western pig breeds have been sel

  10. Low frequency of the scrapile resistance-associated allele and presence of lysine-171 allele of the prion protein gene in Italian Biellese ovine breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acutis, P.L.; Sbaiz, L.; Verburg, F.J.; Riina, M.V.; Ru, G.; Moda, G.; Caramelli, M.; Bossers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Frequencies of polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the prion protein (PrP) gene were studied in 1207 pure-bred and cross-bred Italian Biellese rams, a small ovine breed of about 65 000 head in Italy. Aside from the five most common alleles (VRQ, ARQ, ARR, AHQ and ARH), the rare ARK allele

  11. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.5 Alteration of pedigree certificate. No pedigree certificate which in...

  12. 9 CFR 151.4 - Pedigree certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pedigree certificate. 151.4 Section... Purebred Animals § 151.4 Pedigree certificate. A pedigree certificate for an animal of a breed listed in... English in the pedigree certificate for the animal or in a separate certificate appended to the pedigree...

  13. Genetic relationships between measures of sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parois, S P; Prunier, A; Mercat, M J; Merlot, E; Larzul, C

    2015-08-01

    Breeding intact boars is a promising alternative to surgical castration of piglets. Genetic selection should enable farmers to solve problems due to boar taint and aggressiveness while taking into account potential consequences on other traits of interest. The aim of the study was to estimate genetic relations between sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness. About 1,600 Pietrain (purebred) or Pietrain × Large White (crossbred) boars were raised in a testing station. Blood samples were collected at about 105 kg BW for measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) and indicators of the inflammatory status (C-reactive protein [CRP], pig major acute-phase protein [pigMAP], and blood formula). Animals were slaughtered 9 d later and measured for boar taint compounds present in fat (androstenone and skatole) and skin lesions on carcass, an indicator of aggressiveness. For both genetic types, heritability was moderate for sex hormones (from 0.17 to 0.29) and skatole (0.24 for purebred and 0.37 for crossbred) and high for androstenone (0.63 and 0.70 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Genetic correlations between sex hormones and boar taint compounds were moderate to high (from 0.31 to 0.95). Heritability was moderate for CRP (0.24 and 0.46 for purebred and crossbred, respectively) and very low for pigMAP (0.06 and 0.05 for purebred and crossbred, respectively. Numbers of leukocytes had moderate to high heritabilities according to the genetic type (from 0.21 to 0.52). Heritability of skin lesions was moderate for both genetic types (0.31). Genetic correlations were negative between sex hormones and inflammatory measures (from -0.46 to -0.05), positive between testosterone and number of lesions (0.43 and 0.53 for purebred and crossbred, respectively), and low between androstenone and lesions (-0.06 and -0.17 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Overall, both breeds of pigs had very similar estimations of heritabilities, but estimates of

  14. Acquisition and expression of resistance by Bos indicus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus calves to Amblyomma americanum infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J E; Osburn, R L; Wikel, S K

    1985-04-01

    Purebred and crossbred Bos indicus calves were infested 1, 2, or 3 times with 10 female and 5 male Amblyomma americanum. Resistance was acquired by both the purebred and the crossbred calves after 1 infestation and resulted in statistically significant decreases in the percentages of females that engorged, the mean weights of engorged females, and the mean weights of egg masses. Comparisons between breeds of the percent of female ticks that engorged during the first and second infestations indicate that purebred B. indicus expressed a stronger acquired resistance to A. americanum more readily than did crossbred animals. However, calves of both genetic compositions displayed similar levels of resistance during a third exposure. All tick-exposed and control animals were skin tested with salivary gland extracts of A. americanum, A. cajennense and Dermacentor andersoni. Control, uninfested calves, did not display significant cutaneous reactivity to these extracts. All calves that had been infested had immediate, 30-min, 5-hr and delayed, 24-hr, skin reactions to Amblyomma species antigens. Reactions to D. andersoni salivary antigens in tests of both purebred and crossbred calves with acquired resistance to A. americanum suggest that Amblyomma species salivary gland antigens might have cross reactive moieties with a salivary extract prepared from D. andersoni. Peripheral blood lymphocyte in vitro responsiveness to Amblyomma species antigens was detected in purebred calves after a first, second, and third infestation, indicating the presence of cells of the immune system capable of recognizing and undergoing blast transformation in response to tick salivary components.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Epilepsie aktuell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Hüelsmeyer, Velia-Isabel; Bhatti, Sofie F. M.

    2016-01-01

    of the consensus statements “IVETF consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals” and “IVETF’s current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs” in German language to inform German veterinarians and professional...... circles about new knowledge and innovations in these fields. In the first part of the article, it is explained, why a new classification system of epilepsy and a common language to describe the disease is necessary. The proposals of the IVETF regarding the classification system and the terminology...... animals” und „IVETF’s current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs” in deutscher Sprache zusammengefasst, um die deutsche Tierärzteschaft über aktuelle Erkenntnisse und Neuerungen auf diesen Gebieten zu informieren. Im ersten Teil des Artikels werden...

  16. Combi-Cross – The Use of New Technologies for Improving Dairy Crossbreeding Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kargo, Morten; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Sørensen, Lydia Henriette;

    Combi-cross combines the advantages of pure breeding and crossbreeding within herd through a hierarchical breeding program with use of sexed semen. The highest ranking females in a purebred nucleus are used for pure breeding, while the lower ranking are used for production of Two-cross animals (f 1......). The Two-cross animals produce Three-cross animals also expressing full heterosis. As sexed semen is intensively used in the first two stages of the program all Three-cross animals can be inseminated with beef semen. With a 30% replacement rate it possible to reduce the purebred nucleus to 33......% of the production cows. The Combi-Cross concept is demonstrated in five demonstration herds, where 331 of the more than 1300 cows are Two-cross cows, producing at the same level as the Holstein cows...

  17. Optimization of Process Conditions of Monascus Seed Koji by Orthogonal Test Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of single-factor test, we conducted optimization study on the three major factors (material moisture content, cultivation time, temperature that affect the production of purebred Monascus spores through orthogonal trial. The results show that, in the trial-level range, moisture content of materials and cultivation time have larger effect on the test results, while the cultivation temperature has little effect. The optimum conditions in preparation of purebred Monascus seed koji are: 60% moisture content of materials, 5 d cultivation time, 35°C cultivation temperature, 0.1 mL inoculation, 10 g filling and 0.2% lactic acid. To verify this test scheme, ultimately the number of spores produced by Monascus is 3.35×107/g.

  18. SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF CROSSBRED (FRIESIAN X SAHIW AL) AND SAHIWAL YOUNG BULLS MAINT AINED UNDER SUB-TROPICAL CONDITIONS OF PUNJAB

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan-ul-Haq, R.H. Mirza and I.A. Zahid

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies of semen characteristics were carried out in 50% crossbred (Friesian X Sahiwal) and purebred Sahiwal young bulls maintained under sub-tropical conditions at Research Institute of Physiology of Animal Reproduction, Bhunikey and Semen Production Unit. Qadirabad, respectively. Semen was collected on weekly intervals for a period of one year. The semen characteristics (mean+SE), i.e., volume per ejaculate (ml), mass motility (0-5 score), individual motility of spermatozoa (%),...

  19. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Rostov-na-donu—Recently strong winds have accelerated the flow of Don water into the Azov Sea. The river level has dropped. Water supply...instal- lations in Rostov, Novocherkassk, Shakhty, Azov , and Taganrog have been uncovered. A threat to normal water supply has arisen. In its...of good quality seeds, seed- lings, fertilizers, purebred cattle, fodder and film , marketing difficulties and others are restraining the development

  20. Determination of a treadmill test to evaluate endurance ride horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Wehrle Gomide

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Equestrian enduro is a sport that calls for good conditioning of the animals. Proper training and correct athletic monitoring are essential to minimize lesions and excessive physical exhaustion. This paper proposes a test performed on a high-speed band for horses aiming to provide guidelines and choices regarding the appropriate training intensity and to asses the physical preparation for Purebred Arabian Enduro horses.

  1. [Histiocytic sarcoma in the Swiss population of Bernese mountain dogs: a retrospective study of its genetic predisposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegeli, E; Welle, M; Hauser, B; Dolf, G; Flückiger, M

    2006-06-01

    A retrospective study to evaluate the genetic predisposition for histiocytic sarcoma in the Swiss population of purebred Bernese mountain dogs identified 51 histologically confirmed cases between 1997 and 2003. Segregation analysis using five major genetic modes was used to evaluate the 51 cases. The general mode yielded the best results suggesting a genetic predisposition for histiocystic sarcoma in this breed. The disease was found in all families analyzed, therefore elimination of the disease through seletive breeding of certain family lines is not possible.

  2. Salmonella dublin Septicemia in Two Puppies

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P N

    1984-01-01

    Two eight week old purebred female Bull Terrier puppies died within 24 hours of each other as a result of a septicemia caused by Salmonella dublin. The salient clinical features were: temperature of 41°C; rapid breathing; fluid, blood-stained stools; prostration and death. Pathological findings included embolic pneumonia, splenitis, myocarditis, nephritis and meningoencephalitis. Salmonella dublin was isolated from the spleen, lung and kidneys of both puppies.

  3. Performance traits of dairy cows stabled in tie stalls

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the evaluation of fertility and production traits stabled in tie stalls. 50 pure-bred Holstein cows were monitored and those traits were evaluated: interval of insemination, service period, calving interval, milk yield and content of milk protein and fat. All monitored cows finished standard lactation period (305 days) in year 2012. The evaluation was performed in relation to lactation order. Nearly all of fertility traits were evaluated as bad. The average interval...

  4. Influence of grand-mother diet on offspring performances through the male line in Muscovy duck

    OpenAIRE

    Brun, Jean- Michel; Bernadet, Marie-Dominique; Cornuez, Alexis; Leroux, Sophie; Bodin, Loys; Basso, Benjamin; Davail, Stéphane; Jaglin, Mathilde; LESSIRE, Michel; Martin, Xavier; Sellier, Nadine; Morisson, Mireille; Pitel, Frederique

    2015-01-01

    Background In mammals, multigenerational environmental effects have been documented by either epidemiological studies in human or animal experiments in rodents. Whether such phenomena also occur in birds for more than one generation is still an open question. The objective of this study was to investigate if a methionine deficiency experienced by a mother (G0) could affect her grand-offspring phenotypes (G2 hybrid mule ducks and G2 purebred Muscovy ducks), through their Muscovy sons (G1). Mus...

  5. Comparison of external udder measurements of the sheep breeds Improved Valachian, Tsigai, Lacaune and their crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Makovický

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological udder traits have recently become of greater interest from farmers to researchers. In dairy ewes, the udder is very important due to its physiological and conformational characteristics. External udder traits were measured in ewes (Ovis aries L. of nine genotypes (355 ewes created of the basis of Improved Valachian (IV, Tsigai (T, and Lacaune (LC breeds (six traits; 1185 data for each trait during the milking period 2002-2008. Udder measurements were assessed for: udder length (UL, udder width (UW, rear udder depth (RUD, cistern depth (CDE, teat length (TL, and teat angle (TA. Data were processed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML methodology using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. All studied parameters were influenced by the genotype (P < 0.001, many of them also by the effect of parity and lactation stage. The exactly detected UL, UW and RUD during the lactation and with the age of ewes expand gradually (P < 0.001. Teat length was greater in older ewes (expanding, with the parity. Indicator TA during lactation worsened. Crosses with 25 to 75% share of genetic dairy breeds (in particular with LC, to a lesser extent 'East Friesian' -EF were in most cases larger than the udder cisterns of purebred ewes T and IV. Purebred LC had the largest udders, with the largest cisterns. In conclusion, crosses with specialized dairy breeds have more suitable udders for machine milking than purebred default breeds (T, IV, LC and are suitable for machine milking.

  6. Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB. PMID:21637510

  7. Recombinant feline coronaviruses as vaccine candidates confer protection in SPF but not in conventional cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Ádám; Farsang, Attila; Szeredi, Levente; Zádori, Zoltán; Belák, Sándor

    2014-03-14

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is a major pathogen of Felidae. Despite the extensive efforts taken in the past decades, development of the "ideal" live attenuated FIPV vaccine was not successful yet. In the present study, we provide data of immunisation experiments with a recombinant FCoV pair differing only in the truncation (PBFIPV-DF-2) or completion (PBFIPV-DF-2-R3i) of their ORF3abc regions. In our previous in vivo studies, these viruses proved to show the characters of low virulent or avirulent FCoV phenotypes, respectively. Therefore, we hypothesised the ability of these viruses, as possible vaccine candidates, in conferring protection in specific pathogen free (SPF) Domestic Shorthair as well as in conventional purebred British Shorthair cats. In SPF cats, after two oronasal and two intramuscular vaccinations with two weeks intervals, both vaccine candidates provided 100% protection against lethal homologous challenge with the highly virulent FIPV DF-2 strain. In contrast, the conventional purebred British Shorthair cats did not develop protection when they were immunised with the same vaccination regimes. In these groups 100% of the PBFIPV-DF-2-R3i immunised animals developed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Prolonged survival was observed in 40% of the animals, while 60% showed fulminant disease course. Genetic and more probably immunological differences between the SPF and non-SPF purebred kittens can explain the different outcome of the vaccination experiment. Our data highlight the diverse immune responses between SPF and conventional cats and suggest a decisive role of previous infection by heterologous causative agents in the outcome of the vaccination against FIP.

  8. Feline hyperthyroidism reported in primary-care veterinary practices in England: prevalence, associated factors and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, M J; O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2014-11-08

    Feline hyperthyroidism is a commonly diagnosed endocrinopathy that can have a substantial deleterious impact on the welfare of affected cats. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, associated factors and geographical distribution for feline hyperthyroidism in England, using primary-care veterinary practice clinical data from the VetCompass Animal Surveillance Project. Prevalence was estimated from the overall cat cohort. Associated factor analysis used an age-matched, nested, case-control design with multivariable logistic regression. There were 2,276 cases of feline hyperthyroidism identified from 95,629 cats attending 84 practices from September 2009 to December 2011. Cases were aged 6-25 years. 3.7 per cent of cases and 9.9 per cent of controls were purebred, 56.4 per cent of cases and 56.5 per cent of controls were female, and 88.1 per cent of cases and 86.0 per cent of controls were neutered. The apparent prevalence was 2.4 per cent (95% CI 2.3 to 2.5 per cent) overall, and 8.7 per cent (95% CI 8.3 to 9.0 per cent) in cats aged 10 years or above. Burmese (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.32, Phyperthyroidism than non-purebred cats. Insured cats had increased odds (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.03, Phyperthyroidism as a high-prevalence disease in England, and reports reduced odds of diagnosis in certain breeds and purebred cats overall.

  9. Dystocia in the cat evaluated using an insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Bodil Ström; Axnér, Eva; Öhlund, Malin; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of feline dystocia with respect to breed. Methods The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance and/or life insurance claims in cats registered in a Swedish insurance database from 1999-2006. Results The incidence rates for dystocia were about 22 cats per 10,000 cat-years at risk, 67 per 10,000 for purebred cats and seven per 10,000 for domestic shorthair cats. The median age was 2.5 years. A significant effect of breed was seen. An incidence rate ratio (IRR) that was significantly higher compared with other purebred cats was seen in the British Shorthair (IRR 2.5), the Oriental group (IRR 2.2), Birman (IRR 1.7), Ragdoll (IRR 1.5) and the Abyssinian group (IRR 1.5). A significantly lower IRR was seen in the Norwegian Forest Cat (IRR 0.38), the Maine Coon (IRR 0.48), the Persian/Exotic group (IRR 0.49) and the Cornish Rex (IRR 0.50). No common factor among the high-risk breeds explained their high risk for dystocia. There was no effect of location; that is, the incidence rate did not differ depending on whether the cat lived in an urban or rural area. Caesarean section was performed in 56% of the cats with dystocia, and the case fatality was 2%. Conclusions and relevance The incidence rate for dystocia was of a similar magnitude in purebred cats as in dogs. The IRR varied significantly among breeds, and the main cause for dystocia should be identified separately for each breed. A selection for easy parturitions in breeding programmes is suggested.

  10. The comparison of ewe udder morphology traits of Improved Valachian, Tsigai, Lacaune breeds and their crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Makovický

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological udder traits are very important for dairy animals. During this experiment, mor¬phological udder traits were subjectively assessed with the use of linear scores from selected ewes (381 ewes belonging to nine genotypes based on the basis of Improved Valachian, Tsigai and Lacaune breeds (7 udder traits; using a scale of 9 points; 1275 statements for each trait during the milking period from 2002 to 2008. Linear udder traits were: udder depth, cistern depth, teat position, teat size, udder cleft, udder attachment and udder shape. Collected data were processed with restricted methodology and maximal probability using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. During the research, all traits were influenced by the ewe genotype (P<0.001, furthermore, parity and stage of lactation had its effect as well. In most cases, crosses with 25 to 75 % share of dairy breeds, such as Lacaune and East Friesian, had larger udder cisterns than purebred Tsigai ewes and Improved Valachian breed. In¬convenient teat placement was found in the purebred Lacaune ewes, which, also, had the largest udders and cisterns among studied genotypes. Tsigai crossbreds and Improved Valachian breed, together with specialized dairy breeds had larger udders than purebred ewes (Tsigai and Improved Valachian breeds, but with negative placement of teat for milking. Compliances were statistically significant (P<0.001 due to influences on parameters for determining the size of udder (udder depth, cistern depth, teat size and udder attachment. In conclusion, udder depth, teat position and teat size may be used as suitable characteristics for marker selection, to improve milking ability of listed breeds.

  11. Prevalence of disorders recorded in cats attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2014-11-01

    Improved understanding of absolute and relative prevalence values for common feline disorders could support clinicians when listing differential diagnoses and also assist prioritisation of breeding, research and health control strategies. This study aimed to analyse primary-care veterinary clinical data within the VetCompass project to estimate the prevalence of the most common disorders recorded in cats in England and to evaluate associations with purebred status. It was hypothesised that common disorders would be more prevalent in purebred than in crossbred cats. From a study population of 142,576 cats attending 91 clinics across Central and South-East England from 1 September 2009 to 15 January 2014, a random sample of 3584 was selected for detailed clinical review to extract information on all disorders recorded. The most prevalent diagnosis-level disorders were periodontal disease (n = 499; prevalence, 13.9%, 95% confidence intervals [CI], 12.5-15.4), flea infestation (n = 285; prevalence, 8.0%; 95% CI, 7.0-8.9) and obesity (n = 239; prevalence, 6.7%; 95% CI, 5.7-7.6). The most prevalent disorder groups recorded were dental conditions (n = 540; prevalence, 15.1%, 95% CI, 13.6-16.6), traumatic injury (n = 463; prevalence, 12.9%; 95% CI, 11.6-14.3) and dermatological disorders (n = 373; prevalence, 10.4%; 95% CI, 9.2-11.7). Crossbred cats had a higher prevalence of abscesses (excluding cat bite abscesses) (P = 0.009) and hyperthyroidism (P = 0.002) among the 20 most common disorders recorded. Purebreds had a higher prevalence for coat disorders (P cats compared with crossbred cats. Primary-care veterinary clinical data were versatile and useful for demographic and clinical feline studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic oral infections of cats and their relationship to persistent oral carriage of feline calici-, immunodeficiency, or leukemia viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, A P; Franti, C E; Madewell, B R; Pedersen, N C

    1991-08-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six cats from the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH), a cat shelter, and a purebred cattery were tested for chronic feline calicivirus (FCV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infections. Chronic oral carriage of FCV was present in about one-fifth of the cats in each of the groups. FIV infection was not present in the purebred cattery, was moderately prevalent (8%) in the pet population of cats examined at the VMTH for various complaints and was rampant in the cat shelter (21%). Unexpectedly high FeLV infection rates were found in the hospital cat population (28%) and in the purebred cattery (36%), but not in the cat shelter (1.4%). FCV and FeLV infections tended to occur early in life, whereas FIV infections tended to occur in older animals. From 43 to 100% of the cats in these environments had oral cavity disease ranging from mild gingivitis (23-46%), proliferative gingivitis (18-20%), periodontitis (3-32%) and periodontitis with involvement of extra-gingival tissues (7-27%). Cats infected solely with FCV did not have a greater likelihood of oral lesions, or more severe oral disease, than cats that were totally virus free. This was also true for cats infected solely with FeLV, or for cats dually infected with FeLV and FCV. Cats infected solely with FIV appeared to have a greater prevalence of oral cavity infections and their oral cavity disease tended to be more severe than cats without FIV infection. FIV-infected cats that were coinfected with either FCV, or with FCV and FeLV, had the highest prevalence of oral cavity infections and the most severe oral lesions.

  13. Serological evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Central Italian healthy domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina V; Bertelloni, Fabrizio

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present survey was to estimate the seroprevalences of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Central Italian feline population. Serum samples of 560 healthy domestic cats were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT), considering an antibody titre of 1:40 as cut-off. Seroprevalences of 6.4% and 4.5% were found for E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. Adult, mixed breed cats showed seroprevalences higher than younger and purebred subjects, whereas no differences were observed in relation to gender and living conditions.

  14. BIOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF PIGS BLOOD OF SPECIALIZED TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodyanov V. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the pure-bred pigs CT and hybrid juveniles CT x L Total protein blood serum was determined refractometrically, protein fraction - a method of horizontal electrophoresis on paper, the level of total lipids - B. Swahn, I. Scand. Researched transaminases (AST and ALT method of Reitman-Frenkel, alkaline phosphatase - method O.A. Bessey e.a., creatine kinase - S.S. Kuby. Cortisol levels was determined by radioimmunoassay analysis, adrenaline - fluorometric method. Phagocytic activity was installed by Ms. V. Matusevich, bactericidal activity - by the method of Overmoney, T.A. Kuzmina

  15. WorldFengur - the studbook of origin for the Icelandic horse

    OpenAIRE

    Lorange, Jón Baldur

    2011-01-01

    WorldFengur is the database that contains and functions as the studbook of origin of the Icelandic horse. Only pure-bred Icelandic horses, whose ancestry can be traced back to Iceland entirely, may be registered into WorldFengur. The WorldFengur project is a joint effort by the FAIC (Farmers Association of Iceland) and FEIF (International Federation of Icelandic Horse Associations) to construct an official and central database on horses of Icelandic origin located all over the world. It is us...

  16. Genetic association between leg conformation in young pigs and longevity of Yorkshire sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thu Hong; Nilsson, Katja; Norberg, Elise

    ); length of productive life (LPL); number of litters (NoL); lifetime born alive (LBA) and lifetime total born (LTB). The estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.16. Almost all estimated genetic correlations between conformation and longevity traits were significantly favorable (better scores......Direct selection for improved longevity might be ineffective due to late in life information on this trait. This study aims at studying genetic correlations between leg conformation traits scored in young Yorkshire pigs in nucleus herds and longevity traits of purebred Yorkshire sows in multiplier...

  17. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross Holstein × Jersey cows and their Holstein contemporaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Coblentz, W K; Halbach, T J

    2011-10-01

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals had Holstein dams; lactating dams were mated to unproven Holstein sires to produce purebred (control) Holsteins or to unproven F(1) Jersey × Holstein crossbred sires to produce backcross animals, whereas nulliparous dams were mated to proven Holstein sires to produce purebred (other) Holsteins. Traits were analyzed using mixed linear models with effects of season of birth, age of dam, sire, birth year of sire, days in milk, lactation, and linear type score evaluator. Control Holsteins had greater 305-d milk yield (12,645 vs. 11,456 kg), 305-d mature equivalent milk yield (13,420 vs. 12,180 kg), peak daily milk yield (49.5 vs. 46.4 kg), total lactation milk yield (11,556 vs. 10,796 kg), and daily fat-corrected milk yield (43 vs. 40 kg) compared with backcrosses. Days open and services per conception as a heifer or cow did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, or backcrosses. The proportion of first-parity births that required assistance was less in control Holsteins than in backcross cows (3.7 vs. 11.2%). The incidence of scours or respiratory problems in calves did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, and backcrosses, nor did the incidence of mastitis, injury, or feet problems. Control Holstein heifers were heavier (629 vs. 557 kg), with greater hip height (145 vs. 139 cm), body length (167 vs. 163 cm), heart girth (205 vs. 198 cm), and hip width (54 vs. 53 cm) at 22 mo of age. On a 50-point scale for linear type traits, Holsteins were larger in stature compared with backcrosses (41 vs. 28), had wider rumps (37 vs. 33), and wider rear udders (34 vs. 32). Results of this study suggest that backcross Holstein × Jersey cattle have

  18. Effect of Optimized Treatment of Donor Cells on the Efficiency of Production of SCNT-Cloned Mastiffs

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Woo Park1,2, Yeon Woo Jeong1, Joung Joo Kim1, Kyeong Hee Ko1, Se Heon Jeong1,2, Yeon Ik Jeong1, Hye Young Son1, Mohammad Shamim Hossein1, Yeun Wook Kim1, Sang Hwan Hyun1,2*, Taeyoung Shin1 and Woo Suk Hwang1

    2012-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an alternative potential tool for the conservation of endangered. In this study, somatic cells were collected from a purebred 9-month-old male mastiff and an 11-month-old female mastiff. Oocytes that had been matured in vivo were retrieved from outbred dogs by laparoscopy. We used cycling cells as donor cells for SCNT. A total of 289 oocytes were reconstructed with each male or female somatic cell and then fused/activated simultaneously by electrical st...

  19. Developments in quantitative genetics methodology as applied to national genetic improvement programs for swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacy; MISZTAL

    2005-01-01

    For a long time,purebred pigs were evalua-ted in a nucleus for several growth,meat qualityand reproduction traits including growth,backfatand number of piglets alive[1].The evaluationwas using BLUP with all traits treated as linearand also assuming a normal distribution.Ani-mals down the pyramid were not evaluated;itwas assumed that most if not all of the gains ofselection at the nucleus level transferred to thecommercial level.The selection based on the e-valuations seemed to be successful as all thetraits...

  20. ESTIMATES OF BREED DIRECT, MATERNAL AND HETEROSIS EFFECTS FOR WEANING AND YEARLING WEIGHTS OF BEEF CATTLE IN THE HUMID TROPICS OF MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Mario M. Osorio-Arce; Segura-Correa, José C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the breed-direct, breed-maternal and heterosis effects for weaning and yearling weights of Brahman cattle and its crosses with Charolais, Simmental and Brown Swiss breeds in a beef cattle system in Tabasco, Mexico. The climate of the region is tropical humid. Data were obtained on 1217 calves born from 1995 to 2007; among the 16 breed-group combinations one was purebred mating (Brahman), 3 two-breed static crosses, 7 three-breed static crosses and ...

  1. Genetic architecture of the dog: sexual size dimorphism and functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Karl G; Chase, Kevin; Sutter, Nathan B

    2006-10-01

    Purebred dogs are a valuable resource for genetic analysis of quantitative traits. Quantitative traits are complex, controlled by many genes that are contained within regions of the genome known as quantitative trait loci (QTL). The genetic architecture of quantitative traits is defined by the characteristics of these genes: their number, the magnitude of their effects, their positions in the genome and their interactions with each other. QTL analysis is a valuable tool for exploring genetic architecture, and highlighting regions of the genome that contribute to the variation of a trait within a population.

  2. Flavonoids in the leaves of Polish species of the genus Betula L. IV. The flavonoids of Betula pubescens Ehrh., B. carpatica Waldst., B. tortuosa Ledeb., and B. nana L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides the flavonoids detected earlier, the leaves of purebred B. pubescens specimens were found to contain quercetin 3-arabinoside, isorhamnetin 3-galactoside, luteolin 4'-glucoside, isoquercitrin, acacetin 7-glucoside, and perhaps scutellarein 7-glycoside, whereas B. nana exhibited a low content of myricetin 3-galactoside and quercetin 3-arabinoside, and also possibly quercetin 7-rhamnoside. The qualitative composition of the flavonoids of desiccated B. tortuosa leaves seems to point to the validity of the assumption that this birch is of hybrid origin. The set of flavonoids in B. carpatica was almost identical with that in B. tortuosa.

  3. Incidence in diverse pig populations of an IGF2 mutation with potential influence on meat quality and quantity: An assay based on real time PCR (RT-PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrodeguas, José Alberto; Burgos, Carmen; Moreno, Carlos; Sánchez, Ana Cristina; Ventanas, Sonia; Tarrafeta, Luis; Barcelona, José Antonio; López, Maria Otilia; Oria, Rosa; López-Buesa, Pascual

    2005-11-01

    IGF2, insulin-like growth factor 2, is implicated in myogenesis and lean meat content. A mutation in a single base (A for G substitution) of the gene for IGF2 (position 3072 in intron 3) has been recently described as the cause of a major QTL effect on muscle growth in pigs [Van Laere, A. S, Nguyen, M., Braunschweig, M., Nezer, C., Collete, C., & Moreau, L. et al. (2003). Nature, 425, 832-836]. We describe here a rapid assay based on real time PCR (RT-PCR) to detect this mutation. We have evaluated the incidence of the mutation in commercial pig crosses, in three populations of purebred Iberian or Iberian×Duroc crosses, and in cured meat products and wild boars. The incidence of the mutation varies among these groups. Penetrance of the A mutation is about 80% in the commercial population. Purebred Iberian pigs were all homozygous G/G whereas crosses of Iberian pigs were heterozygous (90%) or homozygous A/A (10%). The implications of this gene for the selection of Iberian pigs are discussed.

  4. Analysis of sequence variability in the pig CART gene and association of polymorphism with fatness traits in a F2 population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoping; Mo, Delin; Wang, Chong; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Jiaqi; Ling, Fei; Chen, Yaosheng

    2014-08-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides are neuromodulators that are involved in appetite control and energy homeostasis. It can inhibit food intake and reduce body weight that have received much attention, but a direct and comprehensive relationship with pigs differing in fatness which could be applied to breeding well has not been established. This study aims to search for polymorphism within the porcine CART gene and evaluate the effect of specific genotypes with regards to an association with fatness traits in a F2 population consisting of 230 individuals. Screening of 2264 bp DNA fragment covering the entire CART gene revealed 29 mutations and four indels (insertion or a deletion), in which four unlinked SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) could be digested by enzymes and subsequently genotyped in two purebreds and a F2 population. Landrace (lean-type), one of purebreds, presented significantly higher CART expression level than Lantang (obese-type) in most tissues studied. Association analysis revealed that three SNPs (T415C, C640T and C847T) displayed significantly association (p CART expression among individuals with different genotypes, and the individuals with lower average live backfat thickness (BFAW) expressed CART protein at a bit higher level than others. Our study screened and mapped the genetic variations in the porcine CART gene, and confirmed three functional SNPs which are promising molecular markers for pig production traits.

  5. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting haematological traits in swine via genome scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Xiao-Yan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological traits, which consist of mainly three components: leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits and platelet traits, play extremely important role in animal immune function and disease resistance. But knowledge of the genetic background controlling variability of these traits is very limited, especially in swine. Results In the present study, 18 haematological traits (7 leukocyte traits, 7 erythrocyte traits and 4 platelet traits were measured in a pig resource population consisting of 368 purebred piglets of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Songliao Black Pig, after inoculation with the swine fever vaccine when the pigs were 21 days old. A whole-genome scan of QTL for these traits was performed using 206 microsatellite markers covering all 18 autosomes and the X chromosome. Using variance component analysis based on a linear mixed model and the false discovery rate (FDR test, 35 QTL with FDR FDR FDR Conclusions Very few QTL were previously identified for hematological traits of pigs and never in purebred populations. Most of the QTL detected here, in particular the QTL for the platelet traits, have not been reported before. Our results lay important foundation for identifying the causal genes underlying the hematological trait variations in pigs.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA of Nellore and European x Nellore crossing cattle of high performance DNA mitocondrial de bovinos Nelore e cruzados Europeu x Nelore de alto desempenho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate, through a polymorphism in the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial DNA, the frequency of Bos taurus indicus mtDNA individuals in a sample of Nellore purebred origin animals (n = 69 and crossbred animals originated from crosses of European sires and Nellore purebred origin females (n = 275. Only 2.26% (8/354 of the animals presented Bos taurus indicus mtDNA. The high frequency of Bos taurus taurus mtDNA in these animals can be a consequence of selection, once the animals studied are originated from selected lineages of high performance for meat production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de um polimorfismo no gene ND5 do DNA mitocondrial de bovinos, a porcentagem de indivíduos portadores de mtDNA Bos taurus indicus em animais Nelore PO (n = 69 e em animais provenientes do cruzamento entre machos europeus e fêmeas Nelore PO (n = 275. Apenas 2,26% (8/354 dos animais apresentaram mtDNA Bos taurus indicus. A alta freqüência de mtDNA Bos taurus taurus nesses animais pode ser reflexo de seleção, uma vez que os animais estudados se originam de linhagens selecionadas para alto desempenho de produção de carne.

  7. SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF CROSSBRED (FRIESIAN X SAHIW AL AND SAHIWAL YOUNG BULLS MAINT AINED UNDER SUB-TROPICAL CONDITIONS OF PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan-ul-Haq, R.H. Mirza and I.A. Zahid

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies of semen characteristics were carried out in 50% crossbred (Friesian X Sahiwal and purebred Sahiwal young bulls maintained under sub-tropical conditions at Research Institute of Physiology of Animal Reproduction, Bhunikey and Semen Production Unit. Qadirabad, respectively. Semen was collected on weekly intervals for a period of one year. The semen characteristics (mean+SE, i.e., volume per ejaculate (ml, mass motility (0-5 score, individual motility of spermatozoa (%, dead and abnormal spermatozoa (% were 5.62+0.14, 1.25+0.04, 50.50+0.93, 25.78+0.91 and 27.15+0.97, respectively in crossbred bulls. The corresponding values for these semen characteristics in Sahiwal bulls were 3.64+0.09, 1.36+0.04, 60.55+ 0.33, 27.73+0.87 and 15.41+0.86, respectively. These semen parameters differed significantly (P<0.05 between crossbred and Sahiwal bulls. It may be concluded from this study that the semen characteristics in crossbred (Friesian x Sahiwal bulls ~'ere poorer than purebred Sahiwal bulls.

  8. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinckens, A; Vereijken, A; Ons, E; Konings, P; Van As, P; Cuppens, H; Moreau, Y; Sakai, R; Aerts, J; Goddeeris, B; Buys, N; Vanmechelen, K; Cassiman, J J

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a "Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome". However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words.

  9. Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Laura M; Boyko, Ryan H; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Elizabeth; Hayward, Jessica J; McLean, Corin; White, Michelle E; Abi Said, Mounir; Anita, Baddley A; Bondjengo, Nono Ikombe; Calero, Jorge; Galov, Ana; Hedimbi, Marius; Imam, Bulu; Khalap, Rajashree; Lally, Douglas; Masta, Andrew; Oliveira, Kyle C; Pérez, Lucía; Randall, Julia; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Trujillo-Cornejo, Francisco J; Valeriano, Carlos; Sutter, Nathan B; Todhunter, Rory J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Boyko, Adam R

    2015-11-01

    Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups--a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we conducted a large-scale survey of autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome diversity in 4,676 purebred dogs from 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. Geographic structure shows both isolation and gene flow have shaped genetic diversity in village dog populations. Some populations (notably those in the Neotropics and the South Pacific) are almost completely derived from European stock, whereas others are clearly admixed between indigenous and European dogs. Importantly, many populations--including those of Vietnam, India, and Egypt-show minimal evidence of European admixture. These populations exhibit a clear gradient of short--range linkage disequilibrium consistent with a Central Asian domestication origin.

  10. Analysis of reproduction and litter performance of the Zlotnicka Spotted breed and its different crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stanisławski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zlotnicka Spotted (ZS is a native Polish pig breed. It is characterized by low reproduction and litter performance. This study aimed to determine the suitability of ZS pigs when crossed with Duroc and Polish Large White (PLW according to reproduction and litter performance. Data concerning the number of piglets in the litter, litter weight, litter balance and piglet wastage were evaluated at birth, on the 7th and 21st days, and during weaning. ZS sows in purebred litters had 8.82 piglets at birth. However, the number of weaned piglets was of particular importance being only 7.33 heads in this study population. Wastage in purebred litters up to weaning was 17.34%. The highest number of piglets at birth (10.76 heads and number of weaned piglets (8.98 heads were estimated for D/ZS x ZS litters, although, at weaning, the heaviest piglets (9.61 kg came from PLW x ZS litters. Results show that crossing ZS sows with Duroc, PLW boars, as well as crossing of D x ZS, improves reproduction and litter performance.

  11. Effects of cooked temperature on pork tenderness and relationships among muscle physiology and pork quality traits in loins from Landrace and Berkshire swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S M; Moeller, S J; Zerby, H N; Irvin, K M; Kuber, P S; Velleman, S G; Leeds, T D

    2010-04-01

    The effect of, and associations between, loin muscle morphology and pork quality indicator traits were assessed at three cooked temperatures in loin chops from 38 purebred Berkshire and 52 purebred Landrace swine. Three loin chops from each pig were randomly assigned to cooked temperature treatments of 62, 71, or 79 degrees C and loin tenderness was assessed as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Cooked temperature (PLandrace pigs had greater WBSF at each cooked temperature compared with chops from Berkshire pigs. Chops from Landrace pigs became less tender with increasing cooked temperature, whereas chops from Berkshire pigs became less tender only when cooked to 79 degrees C. In loins from Landrace pigs, Minolta a* at 62 degrees C (R(2)=0.07), and average muscle fiber diameter at 71 degrees C and 79 degrees C (R(2)=0.07 and 0.24, respectively), contributed to WBSF variation. In contrast, for loins from Berkshire pigs, loin ultimate pH and intramuscular fat percentage accounted for 27% and 30% of the variation in WBSF at 62 degrees C and 71 degrees C, respectively, and loin ultimate pH accounted for 7% of variation in WBSF at 79 degrees C. Results suggest that loins from Berkshire pigs have properties that resist toughening at greater cooked temperatures and that associations between quality measures and loin tenderness differ between Landrace and Berkshire pigs.

  12. A two-nucleotide deletion renders the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene nonfunctional in Danish Landrace and Duroc pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ingrid-Maria; Edman, K; van As, P;

    2014-01-01

    ) affect mRNA expression, serum concentration, and susceptibility to disease, but the combinatory effect of pMBL1 and pMBL2 genotypes needs further elucidation. In the present study, pMBL1 and pMBL2 alleles, combined pMBL haplotypes, and MBL-A concentration in serum were analyzed in purebred Landrace (N...... = 30) and Duroc (N = 10) pigs. Furthermore, the combined pMBL haplotypes of 89 Piètrain × (Large White × Landrace) crossbred pigs were studied, and the genotypes of 67 crossbreds challenged with Escherichia coli were compared to their individual disease records. In the purebred animals, three non......-synonymous SNPs and a two-nucleotide deletion were detected in the coding sequence of pMBL2. The two-nucleotide deletion was present at a frequency of 0.88 in the Landrace pigs and 0.90 in the Duroc pigs, respectively. In the crossbreds, the T allele of the SNP G949T in pMBL1—previously shown to have profound...

  13. MECHANICAL QUALITY OF LEATHER IN TEXEL LAMBS AND THEIR CROSSBREDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Fantová

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High quality leather of small ruminants is a valuable raw material for various industrial sectors. Sheep breeding system was significantly re-oriented and focused on meat breeds in the Czech Republic during last 15 years. Therefore, the objective of work was to evaluate effect of Texel blood share and body part on selected quality traits of sheep leather as an additional product of its breeding. A total of 10 leathers of purebred Texel lambs (T100 and 10 leathers of Merino x Texel crossbred (T50 were analysed. The basic indicators of leather quality namely leather thickness (LT, mm, yield strength (YS, μm, tensile strength (TS, MPa, and breaking point (BP, μm were measured and evaluated in relation to selected factors. LT of cross-breds with 50% share of Texel blood was by 0.1616 (P<0.001 mm thicker than in pure-bred Texel lambs. Body part of leather significantly (P<0.05-0.01 affected all characteristics evaluated except BP. Hypothesis stated was confirmed and initial results documented necessity of more detailed further research focusing on leather quality of meat breeds of sheep.

  14. Genetic Diversity and Sequence Variations at Growth Hormone Loci among Composite and Hereford Populations of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAN J. LYMBERY

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 194 Hereford and 235 composite breed cattle from Wokalup Research Station were used in this study. The aims of the study were to: Investigate polymorphisms in the growth hormone gene in the composite and purebred Hereford herds from the Wokalup selection experiment, compare genetic diversity in the growth hormone gene of the breeds, sequencing and compare the sequences of growth hormone loci between composite and purebred Hereford herds with published sequence from Genebank. The genomic DNA was extracted using Wizard genomic DNA purification system from Promega. Two fragments of growth hormone gene were amplified using PCR and continued with RFLP. Each genotype in both loci was sequenced. PCR products of each genotypes were cloned into PCR II, transformed, colonies selection, plasmid DNA extraction continued with cycle sequencing. Polymorphisms were found in both breeds of cattle in both loci of GH-L1 and GH-L2 of the growth hormone gene by PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing analysis confirmed the RFLPs data, polymorphism detected using AluI at GH-L1 is due to substitution between leusin/ valine at position 127, while polymorphism at the MspI restriction site was caused by transition of C to T at +837 position.

  15. Meat quality characteristics of exotic and SPRD crossbred goats from the semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertha Janine Lacerda de Medeiros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two intact male goats from four genetic groups (eight pure-bred Boers, eight ¾ Boer + ¼ SPRD crossbreeds, eight ½ Boer + ½ SPRD crossbreeds, and eight ½ Anglo Nubian + ½ SPRD crossbreeds were evaluated for meat quality. The goats were reared in confinement and slaughtered at the average live weight of 29 kg. Temperature and pH decrease in the longissimus dorsi muscle was determined for 24 hours, and analyses of colour, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, and sensory attributes were also performed. Genotype significantly (P < 0.05 influenced the confinement period; ½ Boer + ½ SPRD crossbreeds required the most time in confinement to reach the target weight, while the pure-bred Boers required the least time. Genotype also significantly influenced (P < 0.05 the weight loss due to cooking, shearing force, colour (intensity of yellowness and luminescence, and the sensory attributes of flavour, odour, and raw colour of the meat. The crossing of exotic Boer and Anglo Nubian breeds with the native SPRD resulted in a goat meat of high quality.

  16. Cloning and Identification of Porcine SMPX Differentially Expressed in F1 Crossbreds and Their Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu-Qing REN; Yuan-Zhu XIONG; Chang-Yan DENG; Ming-Gang LEI

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate porcine heterosis on the molecular basis, Large White (L), a European purebred, and Meishan (M), a Chinese indigenous purebred, were hybridized directly and reciprocally to produce F1 hybrids, Large White×Meishan (LM) and Meishan×Large White (ML) pigs. Using mRNA differential display, we found an expression sequence tag (EST) differentially expressed in F1 hybrids and their parents, designated as EST55, which was homologous to human and murine skeletal muscle protein (SMPX), and the full-length cDNA of porcine SMPX was cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Translation of the mRNA transcript revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 86 amino acid residues encoding a nuclear location signal peptide, two overlapping casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites and one N-glycosylation site with theoretical molecular weight of 9.3 kDa. Alignment analysis revealed that the deduced protein sequence shared 94%, 83% and 78% homology with that of its human, mouse and rat counterparts, respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that it was expressed predominantly in skeletal and heart muscles, whereas at a moderate level in backfat,spleen, stomach and uterus tissues. Two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), located in 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTR), respectively, were identified by PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic tree and the secondary structure prediction were also performed. The possible relationship between porcine SMPX and heterosis was discussed.

  17. Effect of crossbreeding on market value of calves from dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bittante

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Market values (¤/kg of calves obtained from six paternal breeds , Brown Swiss (BS, Holstein Friesian (HF, Simmental (SI, Alpine Grey (AG, Limousin (LI and Belgian Blue (BB, and four maternal breeds (BS, HF, SI, AG, were studied in order to estimate the crossbreeding effects. A total of 58,877 calves sold during 143 weekly auctions from 2003 to 2005 in Bolzano in Italy near the Austrian border, were analyzed using ANOVA procedure according to a linear model that included the effects of cross, sex and age of the calf, year and month of the auction. Coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.84; cross and sex effects resulted the most important. The BBxSI calves showed the highest commercial value (7.01 ¤/kg, while the BS purebreds the lowest one (2.74 ¤/kg. The LI and BB breeds used as sire breeds showed the greater commercial prices when crossbred with SI and AG respect to BS and HF. However, BB resulted the best sire breed. On average male calves showed greater commercial values than female ones (5.16 vs. 4.44 ¤/kg, but in HF and BS purebreds the commercial value of males and females was similar.

  18. Dog leukocyte antigen class II-associated genetic risk testing for immune disorders of dogs: simplified approaches using Pug dog necrotizing meningoencephalitis as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels; Liu, Hongwei; Millon, Lee; Greer, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    A significantly increased risk for a number of autoimmune and infectious diseases in purebred and mixed-breed dogs has been associated with certain alleles or allele combinations of the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II complex containing the DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 genes. The exact level of risk depends on the specific disease, the alleles in question, and whether alleles exist in a homozygous or heterozygous state. The gold standard for identifying high-risk alleles and their zygosity has involved direct sequencing of the exon 2 regions of each of the 3 genes. However, sequencing and identification of specific alleles at each of the 3 loci are relatively expensive and sequencing techniques are not ideal for additional parentage or identity determination. However, it is often possible to get the same information from sequencing only 1 gene given the small number of possible alleles at each locus in purebred dogs, extensive homozygosity, and tendency for disease-causing alleles at each of the 3 loci to be strongly linked to each other into haplotypes. Therefore, genetic testing in purebred dogs with immune diseases can be often simplified by sequencing alleles at 1 rather than 3 loci. Further simplification of genetic tests for canine immune diseases can be achieved by the use of alternative genetic markers in the DLA class II region that are also strongly linked with the disease genotype. These markers consist of either simple tandem repeats or single nucleotide polymorphisms that are also in strong linkage with specific DLA class II genotypes and/or haplotypes. The current study uses necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug dogs as a paradigm to assess simple alternative genetic tests for disease risk. It was possible to attain identical necrotizing meningoencephalitis risk assessments to 3-locus DLA class II sequencing by sequencing only the DQB1 gene, using 3 DLA class II-linked simple tandem repeat markers, or with a small single nucleotide polymorphism array

  19. Using SNP markers to estimate additive, dominance and imprinting genetic variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, M S; Bastiaansen, J W M; Janss, Luc

    The contributions of additive, dominance and imprinting effects to the variance of number of teats (NT) were evaluated in two purebred pig populations using SNP markers. Three different random regression models were evaluated, accounting for the mean and: 1) additive effects (MA), 2) additive...... and dominance effects (MAD) and 3) additive, dominance and imprinting effects (MADI). Additive heritability estimates were 0.30, 0.28 and 0.27-0.28 in both lines using MA, MAD and MADI, respectively. Dominance heritability ranged from 0.06 to 0.08 using MAD and MADI. Imprinting heritability ranged from 0.......01 to 0.02. Dominance effects make an important contribution to the genetic variation of NT in the two lines evaluated. Imprinting effects appeared less important for NT than additive and dominance effects. The SNP random regression model presented and evaluated in this study is a feasible approach...

  20. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  1. Association of polymorphisms in growth hormone and leptin candidate genes with live weight traits of Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, N; Martínez-González, J C; Parra-Bracamonte, G M; Sifuentes-Rincón, A M; López-Villalobos, N; Morris, S T; Briones-Encinia, F; Ortega-Rivas, E; Pacheco-Contreras, V I; L A Meza-García, And

    2016-09-02

    Polymorphisms in candidate genes can produce significant and favorable changes in the phenotype, and therefore are useful for the identification of the best combination of favorable variants for marker-assisted selection. In the present study, an assessment to evaluate the effect of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes on live weight traits of registered Brahman cattle was performed. Data from purebred bulls were used in this assessment. The dataset included birth (BW), weaning (WW), and yearling (YW) weights. A panel of 11 SNP markers, selected by their formerly reported or apparent direct and indirect association with live weight traits, was included in an assessment previously confirming their minimum allele frequency (Brahman cattle.

  2. New canine models of copper toxicosis: diagnosis, treatment, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Hille; Penning, Louis C; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The One Health principle recognizes that human health, animal health, and environmental health are inextricably linked. An excellent example is the study of naturally occurring copper toxicosis in dogs to help understand human disorders of copper metabolism. Besides the Bedlington terrier, where copper toxicosis is caused by a mutation in the COMMD1 gene, more complex hereditary forms of copper-associated hepatitis were recognized recently in other dog breeds. The Labrador retriever is one such breed, where an interplay between genetic susceptibility and exposure to copper lead to clinical copper toxicosis. Purebred dog populations are ideal for gene mapping studies, and because genes involved in copper metabolism are highly conserved across species, newly identified gene mutations in the dog may help unravel the genetic complexity of different human forms of copper toxicosis. Furthermore, increasing knowledge with respect to diagnosis and treatment strategies will benefit both species.

  3. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND VECTOR IDENTIFICATION STUDIES ON CANINE BABESIOSIS

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    I. N. Bashir, Z. I. Chaudhry, S. Ahmed and M. A. Saeed

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is increasing in incidence and prevalence and is now a major problem in dogs. During this study, a total of 6204 dogs were examined for babesiosis over a 12 month period from January to December, 2006 in Lahore and 2.62% were found positive. The dogs were grouped on the basis of their age, sex and breed and season of the year. The male dogs were more prone to disease than female dogs (3.39 vs. 1.32%, whereas the incidence of disease was higher in younger dogs (6.9% than older age groups. Crossbreds were more prone to the infection (10.9% than purebreds. However, none of them were completely resistant. Warm and humid season played a key role in the spread of disease. Predominant vector of the disease was found to be Rhipicephalus species.

  5. Diversity and effective population size of four horse breeds from microsatellite DNA markers in South-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Vázquez-Armijo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The South-Central region of Mexico has experienced a sizeable introduction of purebred horses for recreational aims. A study was designed to assess effective population sizes and genetic diversity and to verify the genetic integrity of four horse breeds. Using a 12-microsatellite panel, Quarter Horse, Azteca, Thoroughbred and Creole (CRL horses were sampled and analysed for diversity and genetic structure. Genetic diversity parameters showed high numbers of heterozygous horses but small effective population sizes in all breeds. Population structure results suggested some degree of admixture of CRL with the other reference breeds. The highly informative microsatellite panel allowed the verification of diversity in introduced horse populations and the confirmation of small effective population sizes, which suggests a risk for future breed integrity.

  6. ALLOMETRIC GROWTH OF PRIMAL CUTS AND TISSUES IN THE PIG

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    Frank Siewerdt

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from 82 purebred and crossbred Large White and Duroc barrows and gilts were used to describe the growth of carcass primal cuts, of tissues, and of several organs. Pigs were allowed ad libitum to a conventional diet, which contained com and soybean meal. Pigs were weighted weekly and were slaughtered when attained a liveweight over 90kg. An allometric pattern of growth was assumed. Within the observed range of liveweight, the carcass grew slower than the whole animal. An increase of carcass weight corresponds to a similar increase of lean, but also corresponds to a larger increase of fat tissues. A suggestion to slaughter pigs near to 90kg of liveweight is presented, in order to obtain leaner carcasses.

  7. A comparison of Nordic Red, Holstein-Friesian and Finnish native cattle bulls for beef production and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Nordic Red (NR, Holstein-Friesian (Hol, Eastern Finncattle (EF, Northern Finncattle (NF and Western Finncattle (WF bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 164 862 NR, 87 323 Hol, 283 EF, 523 NF and 1 728 WF bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected including observations of 16 036 NR, 8 806 Hol, 18 EF, 126 NF, and 133 WF bulls. NR and Hol had the highest carcass gain (532 and 542 g d-1, respectively. Overall, the data showed poorer gain of the Finnish native breeds compared to NR and Hol. Among the native breeds, WF (427 g d-1 showed better growth compared to EF (356 g d-1 and NF (385 g d-1.  Less differences were observed in valuable cuttings as might be inferred based on the differences in carcass conformation scores.

  8. A crossbred reference population can improve the response to genomic selection for crossbred performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter

    2015-01-01

    . Optimization of the GS model raises the question of whether marker effects should be estimated from data on the pure lines or crossbreds. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to compare response to selection of crossbreds by simulating a two-way crossbreeding program with either a purebred...... between quantitative trait loci (QTL) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can differ between breeds, which causes apparent effects of SNPs to be line-dependent. Thus, our second objective was to compare response to GS based on crossbred phenotypes when the line origin of alleles was taken...... into account or not in the estimation of breeding values. Results Training on crossbred animals yielded a larger response to selection in crossbred offspring compared to training on both pure lines separately or on both pure lines combined into a single reference population. Response to selection in crossbreds...

  9. Effect of Optimized Treatment of Donor Cells on the Efficiency of Production of SCNT-Cloned Mastiffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Park1,2, Yeon Woo Jeong1, Joung Joo Kim1, Kyeong Hee Ko1, Se Heon Jeong1,2, Yeon Ik Jeong1, Hye Young Son1, Mohammad Shamim Hossein1, Yeun Wook Kim1, Sang Hwan Hyun1,2*, Taeyoung Shin1 and Woo Suk Hwang1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is an alternative potential tool for the conservation of endangered. In this study, somatic cells were collected from a purebred 9-month-old male mastiff and an 11-month-old female mastiff. Oocytes that had been matured in vivo were retrieved from outbred dogs by laparoscopy. We used cycling cells as donor cells for SCNT. A total of 289 oocytes were reconstructed with each male or female somatic cell and then fused/activated simultaneously by electrical stimulation. Finally, 224 embryos were transferred to 16 recipients that had been synchronized naturally. The efficiency of delivery of cloned dogs (7.1% was threefold higher than in previous reports. Moreover, one surrogate delivered four identical cloned female Tibetan Mastiff puppies; another three surrogates each delivered triplets. Microsatellite analysis demonstrated the genotypic identity of the cloned puppies. Thus, our study has demonstrated techniques that improve significantly the overall efficiency of SCNT in the canine species.

  10. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING CHANGES IN MILK FAT TO MILK PROTEIN RATIO IN HOLSTEIN COWS DURING LACTATION

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    Vladimír ČEJNA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples of 24 pure-bred Holstein cows were taken during lactation and changes in milk fat to milk protein ratio and quality of rennet gel were evaluated. The cows were either fi rst (n=12 or second (n=12 calvers, in the same phase of lactation. The individual milk samples were taken on average on the day 25, 45, 73, 101, 133, 166, 199, 224, 253 and 280 of lactation and the following mean values of the F/P ratio were found: 1.91; 1.45; 1.38; 1.28; 1.22; 1.14; 1.26; 1.21; 1.09; 1.18. High values in the fi rst phase suggest a great energy defi ciency. The quality of rennet gel was also worst in the fi rst phase of lactation.

  12. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros das raças Texel, Suffolk e cruza Texel x Suffolk Performance and characteristics of the carcass of lambs the breed Texel, Suffolk and cross Texel x Suffolk

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    Sérgio Carvalho

    2005-10-01

    , at a 40:60 ratio in the dry matter (DM, which contained 15.1% of CP, 60.8% of TDN, 1.4% of Ca and 0.3% of P. The slaughter weight was lower (P<0.05 for the Texel purebred lambs when compared to Suffolk purebred lambs and Texel x Suffolk crossbred lambs. The Texel x Suffolk crossbred lambs had higher birth to slaughtering weight daily gain (P<0.05 when compared to Texel purebred lambs. The Texel x Suffolk crossbred lambs presented a higher dry matter intake (P<0.01 when compared to the Suffolk and Texel lambs, there were no differences between the pure breeds for this variable. Statistical differences were not observed for the variable hot carcass weight, hot carcass dressing, hindquarter, shoulder and ribs percentages. However, neck percentage was lower (P<0.05 in the Texel x Suffolk crossbred was verified when compared with the Suffolk purebred lambs.

  13. A mutation in PRKAG3 associated with excess glycogen content in pig skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, D; Jeon, J T; Looft, C; Amarger, V; Robic, A; Thelander, M; Rogel-Gaillard, C; Paul, S; Iannuccelli, N; Rask, L; Ronne, H; Lundström, K; Reinsch, N; Gellin, J; Kalm, E; Roy, P L; Chardon, P; Andersson, L

    2000-05-19

    A high proportion of purebred Hampshire pigs carries the dominant RN- mutation, which causes high glycogen content in skeletal muscle. The mutation has beneficial effects on meat content but detrimental effects on processing yield. Here, it is shown that the mutation is a nonconservative substitution (R200Q) in the PRKAG3 gene, which encodes a muscle-specific isoform of the regulatory gamma subunit of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Loss-of-function mutations in the homologous gene in yeast (SNF4) cause defects in glucose metabolism, including glycogen storage. Further analysis of the PRKAG3 signaling pathway may provide insights into muscle physiology as well as the pathogenesis of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans, a metabolic disorder associated with impaired glycogen synthesis.

  14. Mitochondrial biogenesis is decreased in skeletal muscle of pig fetuses exposed to maternal high-energy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, T D; Yu, B; Yu, J; Mao, X B; Zheng, P; He, J; Huang, Z Q; He, D T; Chen, D W

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Moreover, mitochondrial biogenesis accompanies skeletal myogenesis, and we previously reported that maternal high-energy diet repressed skeletal myogenesis in pig fetuses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderately increased maternal energy intake on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and function of the pig fetuses. Primiparous purebred Large White sows were allocated to a normal energy intake group (NE) as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC) and a high energy intake group (HE, 110% of NRC recommendations). On day 90 of gestation, fetal umbilical vein blood and longissimus (LM) muscle were collected. Results showed that the weight gain of sows fed HE diet was higher than NE sows on day 90 of gestation (Penergy supply during gestation decreases mitochondrial biogenesis, function and antioxidative capacity in skeletal muscle of pig fetuses.

  15. Prediction of intramuscular fat levels in Texel lamb loins using X-ray computed tomography scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, N; Bunger, L; McLean, K A; Conington, J; Maltin, C; Knott, S; Lambe, N R

    2014-10-01

    For the consumer, tenderness, juiciness and flavour are often described as the most important factors for meat eating quality, all of which have a close association with intramuscular fat (IMF). X-ray computed tomography (CT) can measure fat, muscle and bone volumes and weights, in vivo in sheep and CT predictions of carcass composition have been used in UK sheep breeding programmes over the last few decades. This study aimed to determine the most accurate combination of CT variables to predict IMF percentage of M. longissimus lumborum in Texel lambs. As expected, predicted carcass fat alone accounted for a moderate amount of the variation (R(2)=0.51) in IMF. Prediction accuracies were significantly improved (Adj R(2)>0.65) using information on fat and muscle densities measured from three CT reference scans, showing that CT can provide an accurate prediction of IMF in the loin of purebred Texel sheep.

  16. Inbreeding rate and genetic structure of cat populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, S; Wolc, A; Gradowska, A; Szwaczkowski, T

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze effective population size and inbreeding level in populations of cat breeds registered in the Polish Studbook. The Association of Purebred Cat Breeders in Poland provided access to pedigrees of 26725 cats from seven breeds. The most frequent breed was Persian, however increasing tendency in numbers of registered animals from other breeds was recorded in later years. Although the percentage of inbred individuals was increasing over time, mating of close relatives was avoided by most of the breeders, and the average inbreeding coefficient exceeded 5% only for Siberian and Russian breeds. Current analysis suggests that the Polish pedigree cat populations are not threatened by negative effects of inbreeding.

  17. Crossbreeding dual-purpose cattle for beef production in tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Voigt, A; Noguera, E; Rodriguez, H L; Huerta-Leidenz, N O; Morón-Fuenmayor, O; Rincón-Urdaneta, E

    1997-11-01

    Six breed types groups of six steer calves each were used to observe differences in growth and carcass traits: F1 Brown Swiss (F1BS), F1 Holstein (F1HO), F2 Brahman (F2BR), F2 Criollo Rio Limon (F2CRL), purebred Criollo Rio Limon (CRL), and Perija Mosaic (PMO). After 404 days of grazing, the heaviest F1BS and F2BR steers were different from F1HO and CRL counterparts (p carcass maturity, quality or yield grade, boneless cut percentages, bone percentage or percent trimmable fat did not vary among breed types. All steers were within the A maturity level and graded Standard. Results indicate the importance of feeding dual-purpose steers to heavier weights to please industry preferences.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Brahman steers and their association with carcass and tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Thomas, M G; Bidner, T D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E

    2009-01-20

    Data from purebred Brahman steers (N = 467) were used to study the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with carcass traits and measures of tenderness. Fall weaned calves were grazed and fed in a subtropical environment and then harvested for processing in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were obtained to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. DNA was used to determine genotypes of thyroglobulin (TG5), calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751) SNP. Minor allele frequencies for CAST, CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751 were 0.342, 0.031, and 0.051, respectively. CAST genotypes were associated with calpastatin enzyme activity (P carcass traits.

  19. The effect of wind shielding and pen position on the average daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of grower/finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan B.; Toft, Nils; Cornou, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are known to be particularly sensitive to heat and cold. If the temperature becomes too low, the pigs will grow less efficiently and be more susceptible to diseases such as pneumonia. If the temperature is too high, the pigs will tend to foul the pen, leading to additional risks of infection...... producers and research stations have implemented a shielding to prevent winds from blowing between separate sections of the pig housing buildings. However, according to our search of the literature, no published studies have ever investigated the effectiveness of such shielding.To determine the significance...... of the effects of wind shielding, linear mixed models were fitted to describe the average daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of 1271 groups (14 individuals per group) of purebred Duroc, Yorkshire and Danish Landrace boars, as a function of shielding (yes/no), insert season (winter, spring, summer, autumn...

  20. Productivity and production efficiency of cows of different genetic groups submitted to cultivated pastures during pre or postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zambarda Vaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We assessed through the weight of cows and calves up to weaning at 90 days and the reproductive performance from pregnancy to weaning, the productivity and efficiency of 94 Charolais (CH, Nellore (NE, ½CH ½NE e ½NE ½CH cows submitted the following feeding systems: cows kept on native pasture (NP; cows kept on cultivated pasture (CP, composed of oat (Avena sativa, ryegrass (Lollium multiflorum and clover (Trifolium vesiculosum from July 15 to September 15 and the remainder of the trial on natural pasture (CPN; and cows kept on cultivated pasture during September 15 to November 15, and the remainder on native pasture (NPC. Cows kept on CP produced 22.6% more calves than cows kept exclusively on NP, and were more efficient (P.05, being higher than the purebreds in productivity and production efficiency

  1. Prevalence of feline haemoplasma in cats in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenqvist, Maja Benedicte; Meilstrup, Ann-Katrine Helene; Larsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    cats in different age groups. The presence was detected by a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on blood samples as well as by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results The study revealed a prevalence of 14.9% Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum positive cats and 1.5% Mycoplasma haemofelis...... positive cats. No cats were found positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. The results showed a statistically significant higher prevalence in older (>8 years) cats compared to younger cats and a higher prevalence among domestic cats compared to purebred cats. As part of this study, we developed...... a cloning strategy to obtain Danish positive controls of haemoplasma 16S rRNA. Conclusion From convenience-sampled cats in Denmark, we found that 16.4% were carriers of feline haemotropic mycoplasmas. Haemoplasma was mostly found in older and domestic cats. The prevalence found in Denmark is similar...

  2. Late foetal life nutrient restriction and sire genotype affect postnatal performance of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Tauson, Anne-Helen; Blache, D.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment investigates the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in late gestation on the offsprings' postnatal metabolism and performance. Forty purebred Shropshire twin lambs born to ewes fed either a high-nutrition diet (H) (according to standard) or a low-nutrition (L) diet (50% during...... the last 6 weeks of gestation) were studied from birth until 145 days of age. In each feeding group, two different sires were represented, ‘growth' (G) and ‘meat' (M), having different breeding indices for the lean : fat ratio. Post partum all ewes were fed the same diet. Lambs born to L-ewes had...... significantly lower birth weights and pre-weaning growth rates. This was especially pronounced in L-lambs born to the M-ram, which also had markedly lower pre-weaning glucose concentrations than the other three groups of lambs. L-lambs converted milk to live weight with an increased efficiency in week 3 of life...

  3. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV infection in adult dogs in Turkey : article

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    S. Gur

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine adenovirus (CAV type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis in members of the families Canidae and Ursidae worldwide. Both of these infections are acute diseases, especially in young dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serumsamples were collected from native pure-bred Kangal (n = 11, and Akbash dogs (n = 17 and Turkish Greyhounds (n=15 in Eskisehir and Konya provinces. None ofthe dogs were previously vaccinated against CAV types. Indirect ELISA detected 88.2 %, 93.3 % and 100 % prevalences in Akbash, Greyhound and Kangal dogs, respectively. The remainder of the samples (n = 51 were collected at the Afyonkarahisar Municipality Shelter. Fourty-two of these dogs (82.3 % were detected as seropositive. In total, 82 of 94 dogs (87.2 % were found to be positive for CAV serum antibodies.

  4. Three slow skeletal muscle troponin genes in small-tailed Han sheep (Ovis aries): molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Guizhi; Ji, Zhibin; Chao, Tianle; Liu, Zhaohua; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Guanqing; Wu, Changhao; Wang, Jianmin

    2016-09-01

    To explore the basic characteristics and expressing profile of the three slow skeletal muscle troponin genes TNNC1 (Troponin C type 1), TNNI1 (troponin I type 1) and TNNT1 (troponin T type 1). Three purebred Dorper sheep and another three purebred small-tailed Han sheep were selected. The sequence of the genes from the small-tailed Han sheep was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; The characteristics of the predicted amino acids sequences were analyzed using bioinformatics analysis software; Gene expression analyses were performed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The full-length cDNA sequences of the genes were 707, 898, and 1001 bp, respectively, and were submitted to GenBank under accession numbers KR153938, KT218688 and KT218690. The three predicted proteins were predicted to be hydrophilic, non-secretory proteins and contain several phosphorylation sites. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the predicted proteins were relatively conserved in mammals. The expression results of the three genes in eight tissues of Dorper and small-tailed Han sheep revealed that the three genes had a similar mRNA expression pattern, whereas distinct differences were observed among the eight tissues of the two sheep species. We cloned the full-length cDNA of the three genes, analyzed the amino acid sequences, and determined the expression levels of the genes. These results might play important roles in facilitating the future research of the three genes.

  5. Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations.

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    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Groeneveld, E; Groeneveld, L F; Dzama, K; Weigend, S

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we compare the level and distribution of genetic variation between South African conserved and village chicken populations using microsatellite markers. In addition, diversity in South African chickens was compared to that of a reference data set consisting of other African and purebred commercial lines. Three chicken populations Venda, Ovambo and Eastern Cape and four conserved flocks of the Venda, Ovambo, Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Poultry Breeding Resource Unit of the Agricultural Research Council were genotyped at 29 autosomal microsatellite loci. All markers were polymorphic. Village chicken populations were more diverse than conservation flocks. structure software was used to cluster individuals to a predefined number of 2 ≤ K ≤ 6 clusters. The most probable clustering was found at K = 5 (95% identical runs). At this level of differentiation, the four conservation flocks separated as four independent clusters, while the three village chicken populations together formed another cluster. Thus, cluster analysis indicated a clear subdivision of each of the conservation flocks that were different from the three village chicken populations. The contribution of each South African chicken populations to the total diversity of the chickens studied was determined by calculating the optimal core set contributions based on Marker estimated kinship. Safe set analysis was carried out using bootstrapped kinship values calculated to relate the added genetic diversity of seven South African chicken populations to a set of reference populations consisting of other African and purebred commercial broiler and layer chickens. In both core set and the safe set analyses, village chicken populations scored slightly higher to the reference set compared to conservation flocks. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conservation flocks of South African chickens displayed considerable genetic variability that is different from that of the

  6. Evolutionary pets: offspring numbers reveal speciation process in domesticated chickens.

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    Inga Tiemann

    Full Text Available Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059. Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75% ± 7.10%, M ± SE hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75% ± 15.32%, M ± SE. These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal.

  7. Testicular growth and comb and wattles development in three Italian chicken genotypes reared under freerange conditions

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    Chiara Rizzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Male chickens belonging to three Italian purebreds – Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER, Robusta lionata (RL and Robusta maculata (RM – were studied. All the birds were reared under the same rearing conditions (from May until autumn. Chickens were reared under infra-red lamps from birth until 4 weeks of age with a 24L:0D photoperiod. Then they were kept outdoor: the photoperiod changed according to the season (from 16L:8D to 12L:12D. At 138 and 168 days of age 20 birds/breed were weighed and then slaughtered. Testicular samples were collected, after evisceration, processed and embedded in paraffine wax. Sections were stained for morphological observations, observed with light microscope, and then classified according to the testis maturation stage. Ermellinata di Rovigo chickens showed the lowest (P<0.01 body weight and the highest (P<0.01 testes weight; testes maturity was higher (P<0.01 in ER than in RL, whereas RM was intermediate. For each genotype testes weight and testes maturity did not significantly differ with aging. Correlations between testes weight and body, comb, and wattles weight, according to the breed, were calculated at 168 days of age. For ER no significant correlation was found, whereas RL showed a significant (P<0.01 positive relationship between testes weight and body weight, and sexual secondary characters. Robusta maculata showed a significant correlation between testes weight and comb (P<0.01 and wattles weight (P<0.10. Our results suggest that under the studied environmental conditions ER showed the highest testes development according to its more precocious achievement of adult body weight, whereas RL was the least precocious purebred.

  8. Evolutionary pets: offspring numbers reveal speciation process in domesticated chickens.

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    Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059). Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75% ± 7.10%, M ± SE) hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75% ± 15.32%, M ± SE). These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal.

  9. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

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    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  10. Regional differences in recombination hotspots between two chicken populations

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    Crooijmans Richard PMA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several genetic linkage maps of the chicken genome have been published, the resolution of these maps is limited and does not allow the precise identification of recombination hotspots. The availability of more than 3.2 million SNPs in the chicken genome and the recent advances in high throughput genotyping techniques enabled us to increase marker density for the construction of a high-resolution linkage map of the chicken genome. This high-resolution linkage map allowed us to study recombination hotspots across the genome between two chicken populations: a purebred broiler line and a broiler × broiler cross. In total, 1,619 animals from the two different broiler populations were genotyped with 17,790 SNPs. Results The resulting linkage map comprises 13,340 SNPs. Although 360 polymorphic SNPs that had not been assigned to a known chromosome on chicken genome build WASHUC2 were included in this study, no new linkage groups were found. The resulting linkage map is composed of 31 linkage groups, with a total length of 3,054 cM for the sex-average map of the combined population. The sex-average linkage map of the purebred broiler line is 686 cM smaller than the linkage map of the broiler × broiler cross. Conclusions In this study, we present a linkage map of the chicken genome at a substantially higher resolution than previously published linkage maps. Regional differences in recombination hotspots between the two mapping populations were observed in several chromosomes near the telomere of the p arm; the sex-specific analysis revealed that these regional differences were mainly caused by female-specific recombination hotspots in the broiler × broiler cross.

  11. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simčič, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had

  12. A two-nucleotide deletion renders the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene nonfunctional in Danish Landrace and Duroc pigs.

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    Bergman, I M; Edman, K; van As, P; Huisman, A; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2014-03-01

    The mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) are central components of innate immunity, facilitating phagocytosis and inducing the lectin activation pathway of the complement system. Previously, it has been found that certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine MBL1 and MBL2 (pMBL1, pMBL2) affect mRNA expression, serum concentration, and susceptibility to disease, but the combinatory effect of pMBL1 and pMBL2 genotypes needs further elucidation. In the present study, pMBL1 and pMBL2 alleles, combined pMBL haplotypes, and MBL-A concentration in serum were analyzed in purebred Landrace (N = 30) and Duroc (N = 10) pigs. Furthermore, the combined pMBL haplotypes of 89 Piètrain × (Large White × Landrace) crossbred pigs were studied, and the genotypes of 67 crossbreds challenged with Escherichia coli were compared to their individual disease records. In the purebred animals, three non-synonymous SNPs and a two-nucleotide deletion were detected in the coding sequence of pMBL2. The two-nucleotide deletion was present at a frequency of 0.88 in the Landrace pigs and 0.90 in the Duroc pigs, respectively. In the crossbreds, the T allele of the SNP G949T in pMBL1-previously shown to have profound effect on MBL-A concentration even in the heterozygote condition-was detected in 47 % of the animals. Finally, an association was found between low-producing MBL genotypes and low body weight on the day of weaning in the same animals.

  13. Pig Ascaris: an important source of human ascariasis in China.

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    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Deng, Shoulong; Peng, Weidong

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to detect the frequency and distribution of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris in China. Twenty high polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected to screen 258 Ascaris worms from humans and pigs from six provinces in China. The software programs Structure, Baps and Newhybrids were used to determine the case of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris. Results showed that cross infection was detected in all sampled locations and of the total 20 cross infection cases, 19 were indentified as human infections by pure-bred pig type Ascaris in contrast to only one case of pig infection by pure-bred human type Ascaris. Similar to the findings in cross infection, hybrid Ascaris was also detected in all locations and both host species and most of hybrids (95%) were detected from human host. The distribution of cross infection and hybrids showed significant difference between the two host species and among three categories of genotype in terms of G1, G2 and G3, and also between the south and north regions (for hybrids only). The results strongly suggest pig Ascaris as an important source of human ascariasis in endemic area where both human and pig Ascaris exist. In consideration of current control measures for human ascariasis targeting only infected people, it is urgently needed to revise current control measures by adding a simultaneous treatment to infected pigs in the sympatric endemics. The knowledge on cross transmission and hybridization between human and pig Ascaris is important not only for public health, but also for the understanding of genetic evolution, taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris.

  14. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.

  15. Population genetic study of 10 short tandem repeat loci from 600 domestic dogs in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seo Hyun; Jang, Yoon-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved. However, the probability of random DNA profile matches cannot be analyzed because of a lack of canine STR data. Therefore, in this study, 10 STR loci were analyzed in 600 dogs in Korea (344 dogs belonging to 30 different purebreds and 256 crossbred dogs) to estimate canine forensic genetic parameters. Among purebred dogs, a separate statistical analysis was conducted for five major subgroups, 97 Maltese, 47 Poodles, 31 Shih Tzus, 32 Yorkshire Terriers, and 25 Pomeranians. Allele frequencies, expected (Hexp) and observed heterozygosity (Hobs), fixation index (F), probability of identity (P(ID)), probability of sibling identity (P(ID)sib) and probability of exclusion (PE) were then calculated. The Hexp values ranged from 0.901 (PEZ12) to 0.634 (FHC2079), while the P(ID)sib values were between 0.481 (FHC2079) and 0.304 (PEZ12) and the P(ID)sib was about 3.35 × 10−5 for the combination of all 10 loci. The results presented herein will strengthen the value of canine DNA to solving dog-related crimes. PMID:26645337

  16. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-09-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show ( P performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  17. Reduced protein diets increase intramuscular fat of psoas major, a red muscle, in lean and fatty pig genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M S; Lopes, P A; Costa, P; Coelho, D; Alfaia, C M; Prates, J A M

    2017-05-02

    The present study aims to assess the effects of pig's genotype (lean v. fatty) and dietary protein level (control v. reduced) on intramuscular fat (IMF) content, fatty acid composition and fibre profile of psoas major, a representative red muscle in pig's carcass scarcely studied relative to white longissimus lumborum. The experiment was conducted on 40 intact male pigs (20 Alentejana purebred and 20 Large White×Landrace×Pietrain crossbred) from 60 to 93 kg of live weight. Pigs were divided and allocated to four dietary groups: control protein diet equilibrated for lysine (17.5% of CP and 0.7% of lysine) and reduced protein diet (RPD) not equilibrated for lysine (13.1% of crude protein and 0.4% of lysine) within a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two genotypes and two diets). Alentejana purebred had higher IMF content (15.7%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (8.9%), whereas crossbred pigs had higher PM weight (46.3%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (20.1%). The genotype also affected colour with higher lightness (15.1%) and yellowness (33.8%) and lower redness (9.9%) scores in crossbred pigs. In line with this, fatty pigs displayed more oxidative fibres (29.5%), whilst lean pigs had more glycolytic (54.4%). Relative to fatty acids, RPD increased MUFA (5.2%) and SFA (3.2%) but decreased PUFA (14.8%). Ultimately, RPD increased IMF content (15.7%) in the red muscle under study, with no impact on glycolytic to oxidative fibre type transformation.

  18. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

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    Hautaniemi Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  19. Fertilization success of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus and Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii gametes under conditions of heterospecific mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelka, M; Šachlová, H; Shaliutina-Kolešová, A; Rodina, M

    2016-11-01

    Species may be prevented from interspecific hybridization by a number of different reproductive barriers that operate precopulatory and postcopulatory. In situation, when natural precopulatory reproductive barriers are affected by anthropogenic factors, postcopulatory reproductive barriers may be important for maintaining gametic isolation and hence preventing interspecific hybridization. This is highly topical in sturgeon (order Acipenseriformes) which exhibits remarkable ease of interspecific hybridization. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the fertilization success of Acipenser ruthenus and Acipenser baerii spermatozoa under the interspecific competitive conditions and assessed, whether their spermatozoa tend to differentially fertilize eggs of conspecifics. We set up several in vitro fertilization experiments: (i) pooled eggs of both species were fertilized by sperm of each species separately; (ii) eggs of each species were fertilized by pooled sperm; (iii) pooled eggs were fertilized by pooled sperm and (iv) purebred and hybrid control groups. Using parental assignment by molecular markers, we found that when these species competed in pooled sperm, 78.9% of progeny were sired by A. ruthenus and 21.1% by A. baerii, demonstrating higher fertilization success for the former, irrespective of conspecificity of fertilized eggs. When pooled eggs were inseminated by A. ruthenus or A. baerii sperm separately, progeny almost equally comprised hybrid and purebred individuals. Hence, neither A. ruthenus nor A. baerii eggs showed a tendency to biased fertilization by spermatozoa of conspecific males. These findings together show that there may not be postcopulatory mechanisms preventing hybridization between A. ruthenus and A. baerii. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Órgãos internos e trato gastrintestinal de novilhos de gerações avançadas do cruzamento rotativo entre as raças Charolês e Nelore terminados em confinamento Internal organs and gastrointestinal tract of feedlot finished steers of advanced generations of rotational crossbreeding between Charolais and Nellore

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    Luís Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2007-02-01

    and gastrointestinal tract (GIT of feedlot purebred (Charolais C and Nellore N and crossbred steers from second (G2 (¾C ¼N and ¾N ¼C, third (G3 (5/8C 3/8N and 5/8N 3/8C and fourth (G4 (11/16C 5/16N and 11/16N 5/16C generations of rotational crossbreeding slaughtered at 23 month of age. Crossbred steers from G2, G3 and G4 had, respectively, 14.95, 17.25 and 18.46% higher empty body weight (EBW than that from purebred animals. A positive heterosis for cold carcass yield expressed as a proportion of EBW (CCYEBW was observed in G2, G3, and G4. Weights of heart, lungs, and kidneys adjusted for EBW were lower on crossbred compared to purebred steers; the heterosis was significant for the weights of heart (-18.29% and kidneys (-14.29% in G3 and for that of lungs (-13.45% in G4. Weights of all organs of the GIT either expressed as 100 kg of EBW or as proportion of slaughter body weight (SBW were lower on crossbred than on purebred steers with the exception of rumen weight in G2. Retained heterosis was positive and significant for EBW, CCYEBW and liver weight. However, it was negative for amount of blood and weights of heart and small plus large intestines when expressed as 100 kg of EBW and SBW. Within purebred animals, N showed greater CCYEBW (61.64% than C (57.09. Conversely, weights of rumen, abomasum, small plus large intestine, and GIT were all higher on C than N steers; excepting for small plus large intestine, the same was observed when weights of the remaining GIT components were expressed as proportion of EBW and SB. These differences partially explain the increased carcass yield on N steers.

  1. Short communication: genetic evaluation of stillbirth in US Brown Swiss and Jersey cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; Weigel, K A; Cole, J B

    2014-01-01

    Stillbirth (SB) often results in reduced milk yield, compromised reproductive performance, and decreased dam longevity. Corrective mating can be used as a short-term solution to the problem, but long-term improvement of the population requires the routine calculation of genetic evaluations. Breeding values for SB have been available for Holstein (HO) bulls since 2006, but not for Brown Swiss (BS) or Jersey (JE) bulls. In this study, a multi-breed sire-maternal grandsire threshold model was used to perform genetic evaluations for SB of BS, JE, and HO bulls using more than 14 million purebred and crossbred calving records. Phenotypically, the percentage of SB (%SB) across all lactations were 3.7% in JE, 5.1% in BS, and 6.3% in HO. Direct heritabilities for BS, JE, and HO were 0.008, 0.007, and 0.008, and maternal heritabilities were 0.002, 0.016, and 0.021, respectively. Compared with HO, crossbred calvings from BS and JE bulls bred to HO cows lowered %SB by 1.5 and 1.2%, respectively. In general, %SB increased considerably as calving difficulty increased in all 3 breeds; however, in JE, %SB was constant for dystocia scores of 3 (needed assistance), 4 (considerable force), and 5 (extreme difficulty). Compared with purebred HO calvings, purebred BS and JE calvings had lower phenotypic %SB by up to 5.5 and 7.8%, respectively, and BS × HO and JE × HO crossbred calvings decreased %SB by up to 3.8 and 4.1%, respectively. As expected, SB rates in primiparous cows were higher than those in multiparous cows. Female calves had greater %SB than male calves in all parities for JE and in second-and-later parities for BS. Favorable (decreasing) phenotypic and genetic trends from 1999 to 2009 were observed in all 3 breeds. Heterosis of SB for BS and JE was -0.026 and -0.149, respectively, on the underlying scale, which corresponds to effects on service-sire SB (SSB) and daughter SB (DSB) predicted transmitting ability (PTA) of -0.3 and -0.5% in BS, and -1.5 and -2.7% in JE

  2. Inter-specific hybridization between Argopecten purpuratus and Argopecten irradians irradians%紫扇贝与海湾扇贝种间杂交的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春德; 刘保忠; 李继强; 刘升平

    2009-01-01

    The purple scallop(Argopecten purpuratus)and the bay scallop(Argopecten irradians irradi-ans)are all fast-growing Argopecten scallops. The bay scallop has been introduced into China 1980 s and has now developed into a large industry in China. Now the authors reported the introduction of purple scal-lops from Peru into China and the inter-specific hybridization between the bay scallopnms and purple scal-lops. In this study, the hybrids were produced by hybridizing A. Purpuratus eggs with A. Irradians irra-dians sperm. The results showed that the A. Purpuratus eggs can be fertilized with A. Irradians irradians sperm, and the resulted embryos can develop normally. Faster growth was observed in the hybrids com-pared with the pure-bred bay scallops during both the larval and adult stages. The average shell height, shell length, shell width and whole weight of the hybrids are 27.3%, 25.2%, 19.3%, and 107.0% larger than that of the pure-bred bay scallops, indicating a significant heterosis in the hybrids.%为推动中国扇贝养殖业的进一步发展,作者于2008年从秘鲁引进了紫扇贝(Argopecten purpuratus),尝试将紫扇贝与海湾扇贝(Argopecten purpuratus)进行杂交,以期培育出具有优势性状的杂交子代.利用引进的紫扇贝与海湾扇贝进行种间杂交,培育出紫扇贝(雌)×海湾扇贝(雄)杂交扇贝.实验证明紫扇贝的卵子与海湾扇贝的精子可正常受精,受精卵发育正常.杂交扇贝的生长速度在幼虫阶段和成体阶段均快于海湾扇贝.至收获时,杂交贝比海湾扇贝平均壳高、壳长和壳宽分别大27.3%,25.2%和19.3%,体质量增加107.0%,杂种优势明显.

  3. Introgression Threatens the Genetic Diversity of Quercus austrocochinchinensis (Fagaceae), an Endangered Oak: A Case Inferred by Molecular Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Miao; Deng, Min; Zheng, Si-Si; Jiang, Xiao-Long; Song, Yi-Gang

    2017-01-01

    Natural introgression can cause negative effects where rare species experience genetic assimilation and invade by their abundant congeners. Quercus austrocochinchinensis and Q. kerrii (subgenus Cyclobalanopsis) are a pair of closely related species in the Indo-China area. Morphological intermediates of the two species have been reported in this region. In this study, we used AFLP, SSR and two key leaf morphological diagnostic traits to study the two Q. austrocochinchinensis populations, two pure Q. kerrii and two putative hybrid populations in China. Rates of individual admixture were examined using the Bayesian clustering programs STRUCTURE and NewHybrids, with no a priori species assignment. In total, we obtained 151 SSR alleles and 781 polymorphic loci of AFLP markers. Population differentiation inferred by SSR and AFLP was incoherent with recognized species boundaries. Bayesian admixture analyses and principal coordinate analysis identified more hybrids and backcrossed individuals than morphological intermediates in the populations. SSR inferred a wide genetic assimilation in Q. austrocochinchinensis, except for subpopulation D2 in the core area of Xi-Shuang-Ban-Na Nature Reserve (XSBN). However, AFLP recognized more Q. austrocochinchinensis purebreds than SSR. Analysis using NewHybrids on AFLP data indicated that these hybridized individuals were few F2 and predominantly backcrosses with both parental species. All these evidences indicate the formation of a hybrid swarm at XSBN where the two species co-exist. Both AFLP and SSR recognized that the core protected area of XSBN (D2) has a high percentage of Q. austrocochinchinensis purebreds and a unique germplasm. The Hainan population and the other subpopulations of XSBN of the species might have lost their genetic integrity. Our results revealed a clear genetic differentiation in the populations and subpopulations of Q. austrocochinchinensis and ongoing introgression between Q. austrocochinchinensis and Q

  4. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John

    2013-08-16

    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  5. Assessment of progesterone profiles and postpartum onset of luteal activity in spring calving Hereford beef suckler cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam D; Lystad, Marit L; Reksen, Olav; Ropstad, Erik; Waldmann, Andres; Nafstad, Ola; Karlberg, Knut

    2010-06-15

    Reproduction is the single greatest factor limiting beef cattle production. Previous research on beef suckler luteal activity has largely focused on the mechanisms, and duration, of postpartum anoestrus. However, the temporal pattern of luteal activity after resumption of post-partum ovarian activity, and the impact of pattern type on days open (DO) in purebred beef suckler cows, are unknown. Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken thrice weekly from 120 lactations, in 87 animals, on 3 farms, over two years. Onset of luteal activity (OLA) was defined as the first day milk progesterone concentration exceeded 3 ng/ml for two successive measurements, or exceeded 5 ng/ml once. It was defined as delayed if it occurred more than 61 days postpartum. A short initial luteal phase consisted of progesterone concentrations which exceeded 3 ng/ml for fewer than 4 sequential measurements. Temporal progesterone patterns were classified as: 1) Normal cyclicity; 2) Cessation of luteal activity; 3) Prolonged luteal activity; 4) Erratic phase: failure to conform to 1, 2 or 3. Data concerning parity, previous calving interval, breeding values, calf birth and 200-d weight were obtained from the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System database. The mean (SD) OLA was 41 d (20). Parity and calf birth weight were inversely correlated with OLA. Delayed OLA occurred in 14.4% of lactations. A short first luteal phase occurred in 61.5% of lactations, but this was unrelated to irregular luteal phase occurrence, pregnancy or DO. Irregular luteal phases occurred in 22% of lactations. The irregularities were: prolonged luteal phase (11%); cessation of luteal activity (5%); erratic luteal activity (6%). Early OLA was associated with prolonged luteal phases. DO was positively correlated with irregular luteal phases and negatively correlated with calf 200-d weight. This study demonstrates that irregular luteal phases negatively affect reproductive performance in purebred beef

  6. Assessment of progesterone profiles and postpartum onset of luteal activity in spring calving Hereford beef suckler cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldmann Andres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproduction is the single greatest factor limiting beef cattle production. Previous research on beef suckler luteal activity has largely focused on the mechanisms, and duration, of postpartum anoestrus. However, the temporal pattern of luteal activity after resumption of post-partum ovarian activity, and the impact of pattern type on days open (DO in purebred beef suckler cows, are unknown. Methods Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken thrice weekly from 120 lactations, in 87 animals, on 3 farms, over two years. Onset of luteal activity (OLA was defined as the first day milk progesterone concentration exceeded 3 ng/ml for two successive measurements, or exceeded 5 ng/ml once. It was defined as delayed if it occurred more than 61 days postpartum. A short initial luteal phase consisted of progesterone concentrations which exceeded 3 ng/ml for fewer than 4 sequential measurements. Temporal progesterone patterns were classified as: 1 Normal cyclicity; 2 Cessation of luteal activity; 3 Prolonged luteal activity; 4 Erratic phase: failure to conform to 1, 2 or 3. Data concerning parity, previous calving interval, breeding values, calf birth and 200-d weight were obtained from the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System database. Results The mean (SD OLA was 41 d (20. Parity and calf birth weight were inversely correlated with OLA. Delayed OLA occurred in 14.4% of lactations. A short first luteal phase occurred in 61.5% of lactations, but this was unrelated to irregular luteal phase occurrence, pregnancy or DO. Irregular luteal phases occurred in 22% of lactations. The irregularities were: prolonged luteal phase (11%; cessation of luteal activity (5%; erratic luteal activity (6%. Early OLA was associated with prolonged luteal phases. DO was positively correlated with irregular luteal phases and negatively correlated with calf 200-d weight. Conclusions This study demonstrates that irregular luteal phases

  7. Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.

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    Dan G O Neill

    Full Text Available Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3, periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3 and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1. Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9, the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6 and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3. Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001, obesity (P = 0.006 and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033, and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002, overgrown nails (P = 0.004, degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005, obesity (P = 0.001 and lipoma (P = 0.003. These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information

  8. Intramuscular fat and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle from divergent pure breeds of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T T N; Blanton, J R; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F; Thompson, L D

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from the LM of 3 divergent breeds of cattle: Angus (AN, n = 9), Brahman (BR, n = 7), and Romosinuano (RM, n = 11). Cattle were blocked by breed and finished 129 d before slaughter in one year and 157 d in the next year. Longissimus muscle samples were collected from each carcass between the 10th and 13th ribs, trimmed of external fat, frozen in liquid nitrogen, homogenized, and used for fat extraction, using a modified Folch procedure. Extracted fat was analyzed for FA by using a GLC system with an HP-88 capillary column. Fatty acid composition was expressed using both a normalized percentage (%) and gravimetric calculation (mg/g of fresh muscle tissue) in relation to degree of saturation, which was determined using a saturation index (ratio of total SFA to total unsaturated FA). Crude fat determination revealed that LM from AN purebred cattle had the greatest amount of intramuscular fat (7.08%; P = 0.001). Although intramuscular fat of LM from RM contained a reduced percentage of total SFA (P = 0.002) compared with AN, it had the greatest percentage of total PUFA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020). The percentages of total MUFA were similar among the 3 breeds (P = 0.675). The gravimetric calculation, a measure of actual FA concentration, showed significantly greater concentrations of SFA (26.67 mg/g), MUFA (26.50 mg/g), and PUFA (2.37 mg/g) in LM from AN cattle, as compared with LM from BR and RM cattle (P < 0.001). Interestingly, BR purebreds had the least PUFA concentration (1.49 mg/g; P

  9. Molecular and serological detection of Ehrlichia canis in naturally exposed dogs in Iran: an analysis on associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maazi, Nadi; Malmasi, Abdolali; Shayan, Parviz; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Salehi, Taghi Zahraei; Fard, Mojdeh Sharifian

    2014-03-01

    The general aim of this study, which was conducted for the first time in Iran, was to evaluate the seroprevalence and geographical distribution of Ehrlichia canis in a dog population in Iran, followed by molecular confirmation using PCR and sequencing. Blood samples were collected from 240 dogs in different areas of Alborz and Tehran Provinces and initially analyzed using the immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test to detect anti-Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies. Subsequently, nested PCR was performed based on a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of E. canis on serologically positive samples. The results showed that 40/240 dogs (16.6%) presented anti-Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies and that nine of the blood samples from the 40 seropositive dogs (22.5%) contained E. canis DNA, which was confirmed by sequencing. The seroprevalence of E. canis tended to be higher in purebred, one to three-year-old male dogs living in the Plain zone, in rural areas; however, this difference was not statistically significant.

  10. MODELING REGIONAL SYSTEMS OF BREEDING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svinarev I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the experience of the development of the methodology and the computer program for calculation of regional and local systems of pigs hybridization at the example of the Rostov region (Russia. Crossing the GP lines for F1 should be organized in multiplier farm, which may be separate farms and to be part of large commercial farms. For the production of F1 in a multiplier farm, we must breed a purebred specialized paternal and a maternal line, selected on the effect of combining ability. For the successful functioning of the system of hybridization, it is necessary to build a genetic pyramid, including breeding and genetic centers (nucleus farm, multiplier farm, reproducing the baseline. The article gives a detailed calculation of sow population of levels of P, GP, GGP for maternal and paternal breeds of pigs. The program uses user-defined parameters of pigs productivity, of the simulated population, and the parameters characterizing the intensity of selection of young animals. To ensure annual production of 1,822 million pigs in the Rostov region it is necessary to provide the availability of brood stock in the amount of 89 thousand heads, 6 800 heads in the structure of grandparent flocks (GP, 730 heads in the structure of the Grand-Grand-parent stock (GGP, excluding sows second maternal and paternal breeds

  11. The use of a novel combination of diagnostic molecular and cytogenetic approaches in horses with sexual karyotype abnormalities: a rare case with an abnormal cellular chimerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyda-Peyrás, S; Anaya, G; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Membrillo, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M

    2014-05-01

    Sex chromosome aberrations are known to cause congenital abnormalities and unexplained infertility in horses. Most of these anomalies remain undiagnosed because of the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of specialized laboratories that can perform such diagnoses. On the other hand, the utilization of microsatellite markers is a technique widely spread in horse breeding, mostly because of their usage in parentage tests. We studied the usage of a novel combination of diagnostic approaches in the evaluation of a very uncommon case of chromosomal abnormalities in a Spanish purebred colt, primarily detected using a commercial panel of short tandem repeat (STR) makers. Based on these results, we performed a full cytogenetic analysis using conventional and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques with individual Equus caballus chromosome X and Equus caballus chromosome Y painting probes. We also tested the presence of two genes associated with the sexual development in horses and an extra novel panel of eight microsatellite markers specifically located in the sex chromosome pair. This is the first case report of a leukocyte chimerism between chromosomally normal (64,XY) and abnormal (63,X0) cell lines in horses. Our results indicate that the use of the short tandem repeat markers as a screening technique and as a confirmation utilizing cytogenetic techniques can be used as a very interesting, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the domestic horse.

  12. Performance in preweaning pure and crossbred calves in the Mato Grosso do Sul Pantanal region, Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Fabio Rafael Leão Fialho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purebred and crossbred calves (n = 3,871 were selected that were born in the sub-region of the Pantanal of Aquidauana (Brazil, derived from Nellore, Brangus, Wagyu, and ½ Brangus + ½ Nellore cows, which were artificially inseminated by bulls of the Aberdeen Angus, Red Angus, Brangus, Nellore, and Wagyubreeds. Parameters such as weaning weight, daily gain from birth to weaning, and the number of days to gain 160 kg, were assessed inthese calves and phenotypic correlations between the traits were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two statistical models. The first model included sire breed effects, the genetic group of the cow, sex, year of birth (AN, birth season (EN, and the interaction AN * EN. The second model included the genetic group of the calf, sex, AN, EN, and the interaction AN * EN. The genetic group of the cow and calf and the interaction AN * EN did not significantly affect body weight (p < 0.05. The average weaning weights of progeny were as follows: Aberdeen Angus bulls, 177.70 ± 3.28 kg; Red Angus, 180.31 ± 3.46 kg; Brangus, 181.48 ± 3.15 kg; Nellore, 175.43 ± 3.60 kg; and Wagyu, 173.16 ± 2.96 kg.

  13. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the ‘visual contact task’ and the ‘unsolvable task’. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds. PMID:27736990

  14. Forensic utility of the feline mitochondrial control region - A Dutch perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Monique; Bergwerff, Leonie; Hoogmoed, Daniëlle; Kloosterman, Ate D; Kuiper, Irene

    2015-07-01

    Different portions of the feline mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) were evaluated for their informative value in forensic investigations. The 402bp region located between RS2 and RS3 described most extensively in the past is not efficient for distinguishing between the majority of Dutch cats, illustrated by a random match probability (RMP) of 41%. Typing of the whole region between RS2 and RS3, and additional typing of the 5'portion of the feline CR decreases the RMP to 29%, increasing the applicability of such analyses for forensic investigations. The haplotype distribution in Dutch random bred cats (N=113) differs greatly from the distributions reported for other countries, with a single haplotype NL-A1 present in 54% of the population. The three investigated breeds showed haplotype distributions differing from each other and the random bred cats with haplotype NL-A1 accounting for 4%, 29% and 32% of Maine Coon, Norwegian forest cats and Siamese & Oriental cats. These results indicate the necessity of validating haplotype frequencies within continents and regions prior to reporting the value a mtDNA match. In cases where known purebred cats are involved, further investigation of the breed may be valuable.

  15. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis among shelter dogs in Tokyo, Japan, after a decade: comparison of 1999–2001 and 2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oi Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection among shelter dogs between a decade ago and the present were evaluated. Serum samples were collected from 200 adult dogs in urban and suburban areas in Tokyo, Japan, during two 2-year periods (April 1999 to March 2001 and April 2009 to March 2011. Sera were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using a specific commercialized kit. The seroprevalence of D. immitis infection was 46% in 1999–2001 and 23% in 2009–2011. A decrease was observed in the prevalence of infection between 1999–2001 and 2009–2011; in particular, the prevalence in urban areas decreased significantly compared with that in suburban areas (P < 0.01. There was no significant difference in prevalence between the sexes in each period, but there was a significant difference between mixed-breed and purebred dogs (P < 0.01. The decrease in prevalence of canine heartworm disease in urban areas could be related to better veterinary care.

  16. A simple DNA based method for determination of pure Black Slavonian pigs

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    Polona Margeta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pigs and to find an efficient and simple PCR-RFLP method, based on differences in MC1R genotype, to distinguish between purebred Black Slavonian pigs and their crossings with commercial pig breeds and Wild Boars. Sequencing of the MC1R exon was performed to determine the genotype of MC1R in Black Slavonian pig breed, which was shown to be MC1R*2. Digestion reactions of both PCR products representing the majority of MC1R exon revealed presence of the BspHI restriction site at position 121 and absence of the AccII and CrfI restriction site at position 240, which is characteristic for the MC1R*2 genotype. A simple PCR-RFLP method, based on different coat colour MC1R gene genotypes was determined by which it is possible to detect potential crossings of autochthonous Black Slavonian pig with commercial pig breeds and also with Wild Boars.

  17. Extensive unidirectional introgression between two salamander lineages of ancient divergence and its evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrelli, Daniele; Bisconti, Roberta; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression, contrary to previous beliefs, are now considered to be widespread processes even among animal species. Nonetheless, the range of their possible outcomes and roles in moulding biodiversity patterns are still far from being fully appraised. Here we investigated the pattern of hybridization and introgression between Salamandrina perspicillata and S. terdigitata, two salamanders endemic to the Italian peninsula. Using a set of diagnostic or differentiated genetic markers (9 nuclear and 1 mitochondrial), we documented extensive unidirectional introgression of S. terdigitata alleles into the S. perspicillata gene pool in central Italy, indicating that barriers against hybridization were permeable when they came into secondary contact, and despite their ancient divergence. Nonetheless, purebred S. terdigitata, as well as F1, F2, and backcrosses were not found within the hybrid zone. Moreover, Bayesian analyses of population structure identified admixed populations belonging to a differentiated gene pool with respect to both parental populations. Overall, the observed genetic structure, together with their geographic pattern of distribution, suggests that Salamandrina populations in central Italy could have entered a distinct evolutionary pathway. How far they have gone along this pathway will deserve future investigation. PMID:25269625

  18. Associations of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor (GnRHR) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Genes' Polymorphisms with Egg-Laying Traits in Wenchang Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xu; ZHU Wen-qi; LI Hui-fang; YAN Mei-jiao; TANG Qing-ping; CHEN Kuan-wei; WANG Jin-yu; GAO Yu-shi; TU Yun-jie; YU Ya-bo

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were selected to identify the genotypes of Wenchang (Chinese indigenous breed) chicken with restricton fragment length polymorphisms. The associations of the SNPs with the total egg production (NE), average days of continual laying (ADCL), and number of double-yolked eggs (DYE) traits were analyzed. The frequency of restriction enzyme A/a alleles in the population was for GnRHR 0.69 (Bpu1102 Ⅰ A) and 0.31 (Bpu1102 Ⅰ a) and for NPY 0.46 (Dra Ⅰ B) and 0.54 (Dra Ⅰ b). Trait data from a total of 120 hens, which were purebred introduced from Hainan Province, China from one generation were recorded. Two significant effects of genes' marker were found: for GnRHR and number of eggs (dominant; t= 2.67, df= 116) and NPY and number of eggs (additive; t= 1.97, df= 116). The current research supports the effects of GnRHR and NPY genes on egg-laying traits of chickens.

  19. Polymorphisms in twelve candidate genes are associated with growth, muscle lipid profile and meat quality traits in eleven European cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevane, N; Armstrong, E; Wiener, P; Pong Wong, R; Dunner, S

    2014-07-01

    Current customers' demands focus on the nutritional and sensory quality of cattle meat. Candidate gene approach allows identification of genetic polymorphisms that have a measurable effect on traits of interest. The aim of this work is to identify new molecular markers for beef production through an association study using 27 candidate genes and 314 purebred bulls from 11 European cattle breeds. Twelve genes were found associated with different lipid and meat quality traits, and among these stand out the considerable effect of CAST on fatness score, CGGBP1 on growth traits, HSPB1 on the percentage of lauric acid (12:0) and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n - 3), RORA on the ratio of light absorption (K) to light scattering (S) (K/S), and TNFA on lightness (L*). Most of these traits are related to post-mortem muscle biochemical changes, which are key factors controlling meat quality and consumers' acceptance. Also, the variations produced on muscle fatty acid profiles, such as those of AANAT, CRH, CSN3, HSPB1, and TNFA, give insights into the genetic networks controlling these complex traits and the possibility of future improvement of meat nutritional quality.

  20. Genealogical analyses in open populations: the case of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Molina, A; Goyache, F; Valera, M

    2009-10-01

    This research assesses the genetic composition of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds as an example to highlight the major shortcomings related to genealogical analyses in open populations and to propose approaches useful to deal with this task. The studbooks of three Spanish Arab (SA)-derived horse breeds, Spanish Anglo-Arab (dAA), Hispano-Arab (dHA) and Spanish Sport Horse (dSSH) and those of their parental breeds SA, Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Thoroughbred (TB), totalling 211 754 individuals, were available. The genealogies of the dAA, dHA and dSSH were analysed not only using the corresponding studbook (breed exclusive dataset) but also including the genealogies of the founders from parental breeds (completed dataset). Coancestry analyses revealed that the present SA-derived populations share more genes with the Arab than with the other parental breeds. Effective population size was computed by accounting for migration rates to obtain an equivalent closed-population effective size ((eq)N(e)) of 39.2 for the dAA, 56.3 for dHA and 114.1 for dSSH. The essayed methodologies were useful for characterising populations involving migration. The consequences of the management of the analysed breeds are discussed. The results emphasize the need to include the complete genealogies of the individuals to attain reliable genealogical parameters.

  1. EFEITO HETERÓTICO NAS PARTES NÃO-INTEGRANTES A CARCAÇA DE NOVILHOS TERMINADOS EM CONFINAMENTO

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    Jonatas Cattelam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the heterotic effect on non-integrant parts of carcass from steers of the breeds Charolais (Ch and Nellore (Ne and crossbreeds from fifth (21/32Ch 11/32Ne; 21/32Ne 11/32Ch and sixth (43/64Ch 21/64Ne; 43/64Ne 21/64Ch generation, finished in feedlot. The heterotic effect was positive for slaughter weight, empty body weight in both generations, head in fifth (1.29 kg and sixth (1.04 kg generation and ears in fifth generation (0.17 kg. There was a heterotic effect on fifth and sixth generation for rumen-reticule and intestines, respectively, and abomasum on fifth generation. In absolute weight, a heterotic effect was observed on fifth generation for heart, lungs, kidneys and spleen (0.14; 0.11; 0.55 and 0.16 kg, respectively and lungs in sixth generation (0.61 kg. The heterotic effect was positive for fats of heart, kidney and digestive tract in both generations and for inguinal fat in sixth generation. In relation to empty body weight, there were heterotic effects for rawhide, in both generations, ears in fifth generation, and heart fat and blood in sixth generation. The crossbred steers showed higher weights for different external compounds in relation to purebred Charolais or Nellore.

  2. Effect of recombinant human thrombopoietin on exsanguine thrombocytopenia mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM:To investigate effect of recombinant human thrombopoietin on exsanguine thrombocytopenia mice. METHODS:Normal peripheral platelet counts were performed on sample obtained from the tail vein of purebred Babl/c mice including experimental and control groups before experimentation. rhTPO was injected into the mice by intraperitoneal injection once a day for 7 days. On the seventh and the fourteenth day, the mice were phlebotomized from the supra-obitalis vein in order to make exsanguine thrombocytopenia animal model. At the same time, we observed the biological activity of recombinant human thrombopoietin in vivo and the mice's death rate. RESULTS: On the seventh day and the fourteenth day, platelet counts of mice treated by rhTPO were higher than those by PBS (P<0.05). Moreover the platelet counts of mice in experimental group of rhTPO showed increasing tendency following experimental days. In addition, death happened in two groups after those mice were phlebotomized from the supra-obitalis vein, but the death rate in negative control group was evidently higher than that in experimental group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:rhTPO had obvious biological activity in increasing platelet production, which resulted in the drop in thrombocytopenia mice's death rate.

  3. Experimental evaluation of heterobeltiosis and heterosis between two populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yuewen; LIU Xiao; WU Fucun; ZHANG Guofan

    2008-01-01

    A2×2 factorial cross between two populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino,collected separately from Dalian(D)in China and Miyagi(M)in Japan,was conducted to compare performances in fertilization rate,hatching rate,metamorphosis rate and growth at days 20,43,160 and 330 between purebreds (DD and MM)and crossbreds(DM and MD)and investigate the magnitude of heterobeltiosis(better parent)and heteresis(mid-parent).Heterobehiosis and heterosis for all the traits analyzed were evidently different between crossbreds DM and MD.Heterobeltiosis in the crossbred DM varied among traits,with values of 2.5%for the fertilization rate.2.2%for the hatching rate,-1.9%for the metamorphosis rate and 7.4%for the growth at the day 330.The crossbred DM displayed positive heterotic values for fertilization rate(5.4%),hatching rate(7.4%),metamor-phosis rate(7.6%)and growth(12.0%)at the day 330.However,both heterobehiosis and heterosis for all the traits in the crossbred MD were negative except those for the growth at days 20 and 43.The results indicate the importance of selecting superi-or hybrid varieties if the exploitation of hybrid vigor is considered in the Pacific abalone breeding program.

  4. A comparison of mycotoxin adsorbents and their effects on some selected parameters of boar semen

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    Zdeněk Tvrdoň

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of two mycotoxin adsorbents with different mechanisms of action were followed in 180 purebred and terminal combination boars reared in artificial insemination stations. The following parameters of boar sperm quality were investigated: volume in millilitres, concentration and motility, and numbers of pathological spermatozoa. When processing the boar semen, the dilution ration and numbers of AI doses were recorded. Compared were two preparations: in case of Preparation 1 the number of evaluated ejaculates was 1,037 while in case of Preparation 2 altogether 1,109 ejaculates were evaluated. Boars receiving diets with Preparation 1 produced more voluminous ejaculates (by 4.1 ml and their concentration of spermatozoa was also higher (by 39 thous./ml; P ≤ 0.001. Dilution parameters were better as well and numbers produced of AI doses were also higher. In case of Preparation 2 the motility of spermatozoa was a higher while the numbers of sperms were lower. The obtained results demonstrated that a suitable adsorbent can show a positive effect on both quantitative and qualitative parameters of boar sperm.

  5. The color of a Dalmatian's spots: Linkage evidence to support the TYRP1 gene

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    Strain George M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distinctive coat pattern of a Dalmatian is the result of the interaction of several loci. While the encoded function of these genes is not fully understood, it is known the Piebald, Ticking, and Flecking loci interact to produce the Dalmatian's classic pigmented spots on a white background. The color of the pigmented spots in purebred Dalmatians can either be black or liver, but the locus responsible for color determination is unknown. Studies have been conducted to determine the underlying genes involved in coat color determination in the dog, e.g., in the Labrador Retriever, but none to date have addressed black versus liver in the Dalmatian. Results A genome scan was conducted in a multi-generational kindred of Dalmatians segregating black and liver spot color. Linkage analysis was performed using a total of 113 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the kindred. Linkage was found between spot color and a single microsatellite marker, FH2319 (LOD = 12.5 on chromosome 11. Conclusion The TYRP1 (Brown locus is located at position 50.1 Mb on chromosome 11, which is approximately 0.4 Mb from marker FH2319. Given the recent characterization of TYRP1 genetic variations in the dog and the linkage evidence reported here, TYRP1 is likely responsible for the spot color variation of black versus liver seen in the Dalmatian.

  6. The hatching results of indigenous Hungarian speckled hens

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    Ákos Benk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the pilot farm of Szeged University Faculty of Agriculture we keep two varieties of the Hungarian speckled hen, the feathered-neck variant and the naked-neck type since 1977. The three colour variations of the domestic hen species were bred from the Hungarian lea-land bird by the middle of the 20th Century. Because of the spread of intensive poultry keeping the population of this species has become endangered. Programs supporting ecological-biological farming that began in the last two decades placed the domestically bred birds in the forefront both as purebreds and as candidates in projects for developing merchandisable bio-poultry. Beside the gene preservation, we endeavor to find the best way for the production-purpose utilisation of the speckled hen stock. On the basis of our experiments the laying hens can be used in small scale egg production. We examined the hatching results of both type of speckled hens, during more than 20 generations.

  7. Canine cytogenetics--from band to basepair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, M

    2008-01-01

    Humans and dogs have coexisted for thousands of years, during which time we have developed a unique bond, centered on companionship. Along the way, we have developed purebred dog breeds in a manner that has resulted unfortunately in many of them being affected by serious genetic disorders, including cancers. With serendipity and irony the unique genetic architecture of the 21st century genome of Man's best friend may ultimately provide many of the keys to unlock some of nature's most intriguing biological puzzles. Canine cytogenetics has advanced significantly over the past 10 years, spurred on largely by the surge of interest in the dog as a biomedical model for genetic disease and the availability of advanced genomics resources. As such the role of canine cytogenetics has moved rapidly from one that served initially to define the gross genomic organization of the canine genome and provide a reliable means to determine the chromosomal location of individual genes, to one that enabled the assembled sequence of the canine genome to be anchored to the karyotype. Canine cytogenetics now presents the biomedical research community with a means to assist in our search for a greater understanding of how genome architectures altered during speciation and in our search for genes associated with cancers that affect both dogs and humans. The cytogenetics 'toolbox' for the dog is now loaded. This review aims to provide a summary of some of the recent advancements in canine cytogenetics.

  8. The Fecal Microbiota Composition of Boar Duroc, Yorkshire, Landrace and Hampshire Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yingping; Li, Kaifeng; Xiang, Yun; Zhou, Weidong; Gui, Guohong; Yang, Hua

    2017-02-23

    To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire and Yorkshire. The V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced. A total of 783 OTUs were shared by all breeds, whereas other OTUs were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Some bacteria can secrete cellulase to aid fiber digestion by the host. Butyric, isobutyric, valeric and isovaleric acid levels were highest in Landrace pigs, whereas acetic and propionic acid were highest in the Hampshire breed. Heatmap was used to revealed breed-specific bacteria. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of fecal bacteria revealed that the Landrace and Yorkshire breeds had high similarity and were clearly separated from the Duroc and Hampshire breeds. Overall, this study is the first time to compare the fecal microbiomes of four breeds of boar pig by high-throughput sequencing and to use Spearman's rank correlation to analyze competition and cooperation among the core bacteria.

  9. Effects of mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesion-selected Landrace pigs on MPS resistance and immune competence in three-way crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Liushiqi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Yuki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Aso, Hisashi; Katoh, Kazuo; Satoh, Masahiro; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-09-09

    To clarify the genetic influence of mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lesion-selected Landrace (La) on MPS resistance and immune characteristics in three-way crossbred pigs (LaWaDa), the LaWaDa pigs were compared with the non-selected crossbred (LbWbDb) and purebred (La) pigs. The MPS lesion score in the three lines was as follows: La line < LaWaDa line < LbWbDb line, with significant differences among the lines. The proportions of myeloid cells and T cells were lower and higher, respectively, in the LaWaDa pigs compared with those in the other two lines. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and interferon-γ in peripheral blood was significantly increased after vaccination in the La and LaWaDa lines. IL-4 mRNA expression in the LaWaDa line was intermediate to the La and LbWbDb lines. Furthermore, principal component analysis for immune traits and MPS lesions was executed to clarify the characteristics of each pig line. These findings suggest that the immune responses in the three pig lines are genetically distinct and that MPS resistance and some immunity characteristics from the La line were transmitted to the three-way crossbred pigs.

  10. Prevalence and control of Babesiosis in the Americas

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    Sonia Montenegro-James

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents up-to-date information on the distribution and control measures of babesiosis in Latin America. Bovine babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis and B. bigemia will be emphasized. The disease is endemic is most countries and poses a serious economic burdenon livestock production in the region (U.S.$1365 million/year, FAO, 1989. Of the estimated 250 million cattle in Central and South America, approximately 175 million (70% are in tick-infested regions. Humid, tropical and subtropical areas favor development of the main vector, the one-host tick Boophilus microplus. In many regions bovine babesiosis is enzootically stable as consequence of a balanced host-parasite relationship. However, Latin America offers a wide range of epidemiologica conditions that are influenced by variations from tropical to cool climates and by susceptible purebred cattle that are regularly imported to upgrade local stocks. The control measures employed in most countries for babesiosis esentially rely on chemotherapy, use of acaricides for B. microplus, and to a lesser degree, on immunization methods. In general, these measures are expensive, time consuming, and in many cases, provide limited success. Finally, the zoonotic potential ob babesiosis will be addressd, with special emphasis on the situation in the United States. Even though bovine babesiosis has long been eradicated from the U.S.A., human babesiosis in endemic in the northeastern region of the country.

  11. Subspecies genetic assignments of worldwide captive tigers increase conservation value of captive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Martenson, Janice; Antunes, Agostinho; Martelli, Paolo; Uphyrkina, Olga; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-04-22

    Tigers (Panthera tigris) are disappearing rapidly from the wild, from over 100,000 in the 1900s to as few as 3000. Javan (P.t. sondaica), Bali (P.t. balica), and Caspian (P.t. virgata) subspecies are extinct, whereas the South China tiger (P.t. amoyensis) persists only in zoos. By contrast, captive tigers are flourishing, with 15,000-20,000 individuals worldwide, outnumbering their wild relatives five to seven times. We assessed subspecies genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions by using Bayesian analysis and diagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. We assigned 49 tigers to one of five subspecies (Bengal P.t. tigris, Sumatran P.t. sumatrae, Indochinese P.t. corbetti, Amur P.t. altaica, and Malayan P.t. jacksoni tigers) and determined 52 had admixed subspecies origins. The tested captive tigers retain appreciable genomic diversity unobserved in their wild counterparts, perhaps a consequence of large population size, century-long introduction of new founders, and managed-breeding strategies to retain genetic variability. Assessment of verified subspecies ancestry offers a powerful tool that, if applied to tigers of uncertain background, may considerably increase the number of purebred tigers suitable for conservation management.

  12. Competitive repair by naturally dispersed repetitive DNA during non-allelic homologous recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Margaret L.; Tan, Frederick J.; Lai, David C.; Celniker, Sue E.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Zheng, Yixian; Koshland, Douglas

    2010-08-27

    Genome rearrangements often result from non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between repetitive DNA elements dispersed throughout the genome. Here we systematically analyze NAHR between Ty retrotransposons using a genome-wide approach that exploits unique features of Saccharomyces cerevisiae purebred and Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Saccharomyces bayanus hybrid diploids. We find that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce NAHR-dependent rearrangements using Ty elements located 12 to 48 kilobases distal to the break site. This break-distal recombination (BDR) occurs frequently, even when allelic recombination can repair the break using the homolog. Robust BDR-dependent NAHR demonstrates that sequences very distal to DSBs can effectively compete with proximal sequences for repair of the break. In addition, our analysis of NAHR partner choice between Ty repeats shows that intrachromosomal Ty partners are preferred despite the abundance of potential interchromosomal Ty partners that share higher sequence identity. This competitive advantage of intrachromosomal Tys results from the relative efficiencies of different NAHR repair pathways. Finally, NAHR generates deleterious rearrangements more frequently when DSBs occur outside rather than within a Ty repeat. These findings yield insights into mechanisms of repeat-mediated genome rearrangements associated with evolution and cancer.

  13. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

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    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  14. Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies

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    Gilles André

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies.

  15. Association of the estrogen receptor gene Pvu II restriction polymorphism with expected progeny differences for reproductive and performance traits in swine herds in Brazil

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    Bárbara Amélia Aparecida Santana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has an important function in swine reproduction and growth. A Pvu II restriction enzyme polymorphism has been proven to be an important genetic variation in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR and may be considered as a candidate gene for use in pig production but there is no data regarding the prevalence of this polymorphism in the Brazilian pig population. We used DNA samples from the following three purebred pig breeds: Large White (336 females and 26 males, Landrace (304 females and 27 males and Pietrain (125 females and 11 males. The ESR genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP. For each breed, genotypes for the ESR gene were compared independently for expected progeny differences (EPD in litter size (LS, average daily weight gain (DWG (g/day and back fat thickness (BT as measured in mm by ultrasound. In the Large White breed, but not the other breeds, the ESR genotype was significantly (p < 0.05 associated to LS, DWG and BT. Large Whites genotyped as AA or AB had higher EPD values for the LS and BT traits compared to BB Large Whites, while AA Large Whites had higher DWG EPD values than BB Large Whites. Our results for the Large White population showed that the A allele has a beneficial effect on LS, DWG and BT expected progeny differences.

  16. Prostaglandin-induced abortion in swine: endocrine changes and influence on subsequent reproductive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressing, A L; Dial, G D; Stroud, C M; Almond, G W; Robison, O W

    1987-01-01

    Gilts were treated during midgestation with prostaglandin (PG) F to study the efficacy of different treatment regimens on induction of abortion and to determine the adverse consequences of PGF-induced abortion in swine. In study 1, pregnant purebred Duroc gilts (60 to 90 days of gestation) were given (IM) 500 micrograms of cloprostenol (n = 12), 20 mg of dinoprost tromethamine (n = 11), or 10 mg of dinoprost tromethamine repeated 12 hours later by an additional 10 mg of dinoprost tromethamine (n = 11). The percentage of gilts that aborted and percentage of aborted gilts that returned to estrus for each treatment group were as follows: cloprostenol, 91.7% and 100%, respectively; 20 mg of dinoprost tromethamine, 36.4% and 25.0%, respectively; and 10 + 10 mg of dinoprost tromethamine, 100% and 90.9%, respectively. Treatment with cloprostenol and with 10 + 10 mg of dinoprost tromethamine caused more gilts to abort (P less than 0.01) than did treatment with 20 mg of dinoprost tromethamine. Gilts that did not abort were given a second treatment with 10 + 10 mg of dinoprost tromethamine. When the abortions by gilts initially treated with 500 micrograms of cloprostenol or 10 + 10 mg of dinoprost tromethamine were combined with those re-treated with 10 + 10 mg of dinoprost tromethamine, 32 of 33 (97.0%) gilts aborted, and 30 of the 32 (93.8%) aborted gilts returned to estrus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. I pionieri italiaNi della geofisiCa

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    P. CALOI

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available Vengono rapidamente passati in rassenga, seguendo
    l'ordine cronologico, gli studiosi di geofisica — intesa in senso lato — clie,
    a partire dalla seconda meta del Settecento, ebbero ad interessarsi in Italia
    di elettricita atmosferica, magnetismo terrestre, idrografla, oceanografia fisica,
    sismologia e vulcanologia, con intenti pionieristici. Sono ricordati i principali
    risultati raggiunti da una trentina di ricercatori fra i quali spiccano, per la
    vastita del lavoro compiuto e per la novita dei risultati, Leopoldo Nobili e Macedonio
    Melloni. Ma, ciascuno nei suo campo, scoperte di rilievo fecero pure />G. B. Beccaria, Luigi Palmieri, Carlo Matteucci, Timoteo Bertelli, Luigi De
    Marcbi, Carlo Somigliana, Emilio Oddone, Alfonso Sella e Domenico Pacini.
    Alcuni vantano priorita di rilievo: scoperta della doppia oscillazione diurna
    del barometro (Chiminello, 1780; unicita sorgiva delle varie radiazioni dello
    spettro (M. Melloni; sismografo elettromagnetico a registrazione continua
    (Palmieri, 1855; microsismi (Bertelli, 1872; il paleomagnetismo (Oddone e
    Sella, 1891; la radiazione cosmica (Pacini, 1910; . ..

  18. Comparative population genetics of the German shepherd dog in South Africa

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    N. J. Coutts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern breeding practices strive to achieve distinctive phenotypic uniformity in breeds of dogs, but these strategies are associated with the inevitable loss of genetic diversity. Thus, in parallel with the morphological variation displayed by breeds, purebred dogs commonly express genetic defects as a result of the inbreeding associated with artificial selection and the reduction of selection against disease phenotypes. Microsatellite marker analyses of 15 polymorphic canine loci were used to investigate measures of genetic diversity and population differentiation within and between German-bred and South African-bred German shepherd dogs. These data were quantified by comparison with typically outbred mongrel or crossbred dogs. Both the imported and locally-bred German shepherd dogs exhibited similar levels of genetic diversity. The breed is characterised by only a moderate loss of genetic diversity relative to outbred dogs, despite originating from a single founding sire and experiencing extensive levels of inbreeding throughout the history of the breed. Non-significant population differentiation between the ancestral German and derived South African populations indicates sufficient contemporary gene flow between these populations, suggesting that migration resulting from the importation of breeding stock has mitigated the effects of random genetic drift and a population bottleneck caused by the original founder event in South Africa. Significant differentiation between the combined German shepherd dog population and the outbred dogs illustrates the effects of selection and genetic drift on the breed since its establishment just over 100 years ago.

  19. Market Structure and Price Transmission of Eggs Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purposes of this research are to determine some characteristics of distribution channel, market structure, and price maker transmission in purebred chicken egg commodity in Banyumas District, Central Java Province. Primary data applied on this research is from all channel distribution levels; from producers to final consumers. Meanwhile secondary data is collected from government official sources, such as BPS-Statistic of Banyumas Disrict, Banyumas Department of Industry, Trading and Cooperation, and previous researches which has been made by researcher team. Sample determining is directed by proportional random sampling methods. Some measurements are applied to this research, including to; Herfindahl Index (HI, Concentration Ratio (CF, and Minimum Efficiency Scale (MES to investigate market structure; and Asymmetric Price Transmission (APT to determine price transmission mechanism model. This research finds that (1 the distribution channel of egg commodity is spitted to different channel, the first channel: egg producer – retail traders – final consumers, and second channel: egg producers – whole seller – retail traders – final consumers; (2 market structure which is created to this farming specific commodity is perfect market; (3 price transmission mechanism analysis statistically shows that there is almost no existence of dominant power in price formation.

  20. Factors affecting the gestation period of pigs in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, A O

    1981-05-01

    Gestation periods taken from 432 records on purebred Large White, Duroc, Hampshire and their crossbred sows at Fashola Stock Farm in the Oyo State of Nigeria were analysed to determine the effects of some factors on the trait. For Large White, Duroc, Hampshire and the crossbred sows the mean gestation periods were 113.2, 115.1, 114.5 and 112.8 days respectively. Overall least squares mean was 11.2 days with a standard deviation of 9.06 days. Litter size at birth, year of birth and breed x season interaction had very highly significant effects of length of pregnancy. Breed differences were significant (P less than 0.05) whereas parity and season per se did not seem to influence this trait. Effects of boars accounted for some 11.8% of the trait was estimated as 0.47 r - 0.20 while the repeatability coefficient was 0.13. The data indicated a slight negative association between gestation period and litter size at birth.

  1. Candidate genes for idiopathic epilepsy in four dog breeds

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    Mickelson James R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic epilepsy (IE is a naturally occurring and significant seizure disorder affecting all dog breeds. Because dog breeds are genetically isolated populations, it is possible that IE is attributable to common founders and is genetically homogenous within breeds. In humans, a number of mutations, the majority of which are genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitters, or their regulatory subunits, have been discovered to cause rare, specific types of IE. It was hypothesized that there are simple genetic bases for IE in some purebred dog breeds, specifically in Vizslas, English Springer Spaniels (ESS, Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs (GSMD, and Beagles, and that the gene(s responsible may, in some cases, be the same as those already discovered in humans. Results Candidate genes known to be involved in human epilepsy, along with selected additional genes in the same gene families that are involved in murine epilepsy or are expressed in neural tissue, were examined in populations of affected and unaffected dogs. Microsatellite markers in close proximity to each candidate gene were genotyped and subjected to two-point linkage in Vizslas, and association analysis in ESS, GSMD and Beagles. Conclusions Most of these candidate genes were not significantly associated with IE in these four dog breeds, while a few genes remained inconclusive. Other genes not included in this study may still be causing monogenic IE in these breeds or, like many cases of human IE, the disease in dogs may be likewise polygenic.

  2. The concerted impact of domestication and transposon insertions on methylation patterns between dogs and grey wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz Koch, Ilana; Clark, Michelle M; Thompson, Michael J; Deere-Machemer, Kerry A; Wang, Jun; Duarte, Lionel; Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E; McCoy, Eskender L; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Stahler, Daniel R; Pellegrini, Matteo; Ostrander, Elaine A; Wayne, Robert K; Sinsheimer, Janet S; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

    2016-04-01

    The process of domestication can exert intense trait-targeted selection on genes and regulatory regions. Specifically, rapid shifts in the structure and sequence of genomic regulatory elements could provide an explanation for the extensive, and sometimes extreme, variation in phenotypic traits observed in domesticated species. Here, we explored methylation differences from >24 000 cytosines distributed across the genomes of the domesticated dog (Canis familiaris) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus). PCA and model-based cluster analyses identified two primary groups, domestic vs. wild canids. A scan for significantly differentially methylated sites (DMSs) revealed species-specific patterns at 68 sites after correcting for cell heterogeneity, with weak yet significant hypermethylation typical of purebred dogs when compared to wolves (59% and 58%, P 66%) of differentially methylated regions contained or were associated with repetitive elements, indicative of a genotype-mediated trend. However, DMSs were also often linked to functionally relevant genes (e.g. neurotransmitters). Finally, we utilized known genealogical relationships among Yellowstone wolves to survey transmission stability of methylation marks, from which we found a substantial fraction that demonstrated high heritability (both H(2) and h(2 ) > 0.99). These analyses provide a unique epigenetic insight into the molecular consequences of recent selection and radiation of our most ancient domesticated companion, the dog. These findings suggest selection has acted on methylation patterns, providing a new genomic perspective on phenotypic diversification in domesticated species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sequence analysis of three canine adipokine genes revealed an association between TNF polymorphisms and obesity in Labrador dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowska, M; Stachowiak, M; Graczyk, A; Ciazynska, P; Gogulski, M; Nizanski, W; Switonski, M

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is an emerging health problem in purebred dogs. Due to their crucial role in energy homeostasis control, genes encoding adipokines are considered candidate genes, and their variants may be associated with predisposition to obesity. Searching for polymorphism was carried out in three adipokine genes (TNF, RETN and IL6). The study was performed on 260 dogs, including lean (n = 109), overweight (n = 88) and obese (n = 63) dogs. The largest cohort was represented by Labrador Retrievers (n = 136). Altogether, 24 novel polymorphisms were identified: 12 in TNF (including one missense SNP), eight in RETN (including one missense SNP) and four in IL6. Distributions of five common SNPs (two in TNF, two in RETN and one in IL6) were further analyzed with regard to body condition score. Two SNPs in the non-coding parts of TNF (c.-40A>C and c.233+14G>A) were associated with obesity in Labrador dogs. The obtained results showed that the studied adipokine genes are highly polymorphic and two polymorphisms in the TNF gene may be considered as markers predisposing Labrador dogs to obesity.

  4. Restricted maximum likelihood estimation of variance components from field data for number of pigs born alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, M T; Mabry, J W; Bertrand, J K

    1993-11-01

    Variance components for number of pigs born alive (NBA) were estimated from sow productivity field records collected by purebred breed associations. Data sets analyzed were as follows: Hampshire (n = 13,537), Landrace (n = 10,822), and Spotted (n = 3,949). Variance components for service sire, sire of sow, dam of sow, and residual effects on NBA (adjusted for parity) were estimated. The single-trait model included relationships between service sires, sires of sows, and dams of sows. The model was implemented using an expectation maximization (EM) REML algorithm. A sparse-matrix solver was also used. Heritability estimates for NBA were .13, .13, and .12 for Hampshire, Spotted, and Landrace, respectively. Estimates of maternal genetic (co)variances (m2) expressed as a proportion of the phenotypic variance were .05, .01, and .03 for Hampshire, Spotted, and Landrace, respectively. Results indicated that service sires account for 1 to 2% of the total variation for NBA. Genetic effects influencing NBA seem to be small in these data sets, but selection for increased NBA should be effective.

  5. A novel locus on canine chromosome 13 is associated with cataract in the Australian Shepherd breed of domestic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Sally L; Pettitt, Louise; McLaughlin, Bryan; Jenkins, Christopher A; Mellersh, Cathryn S

    2015-06-01

    Hereditary cataract is a common ocular disorder in the purebred dog population and is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in dogs. Despite this, little is known to date about the genetics underlying this condition. We have used a genome-wide association study and targeted resequencing approach to identify a novel locus for cataracts in the Australian Shepherd breed of dog, using dogs that are clear of an HSF4 mutation, previously identified as the major susceptibility locus in this breed. Cataract cases were defined as dogs with bilateral posterior cataracts, or bilateral nuclear cataracts. Controls were at least 8 years of age with no evidence of cataracts or other ocular abnormality. Using 15 bilateral posterior polar cataract cases and 68 controls, we identified a genome-wide statistical association for cataracts in the Australian Shepherd on canine chromosome 13 at 46.4 Mb (P value: 1.5 × 10(-7)). We sequenced the 14.16 Mb associated region in ten Australian Shepherds to search for possible causal variants underlying the association signal and conducted additional fine-mapping of the region by genotyping 28 intronic variants that segregated correctly in our ten sequenced dogs. From this analysis, the strongest associated variants were located in intron 5 of the SCFD2 gene. Further study will require analysis of additional cases and controls and ocular tissue from dogs affected with bilateral cataracts that are free of the HSF4 mutation.

  6. Natural antibody isotypes as predictors of survival in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Parmentier, H K; Frankena, K; van der Poel, J J

    2011-10-01

    To identify possible relationships between survival and titers of natural antibody (NAb) isotypes in serum of laying hens, birds from 12 purebred layer lines of 2 commercial breeds, Rhode Island Red (n = 524) and White Leghorn (n = 538), were monitored for survival during one laying period (from 20 until 70 wk of age). Titers of NAb isotype IgM- and IgG-binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in serum were measured at 20, 40, and 65 wk of age, respectively. Overall, the titers of IgM and IgG binding KLH decreased with aging. At the same age, lines within breed showed significantly different titers of isotypes (P < 0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that NAb isotype IgM and IgG titers at 20 wk of age were associated with survival at 20 to 40 wk of age. In the R breed, odds ratios of 0.56 (P < 0.0001) for IgM and 0.72 (P = 0.02) for IgG were estimated; in the W breed, these were 0.74 (P < 0.01) and 0.99 (P = 0.95) for IgM and IgG, respectively. We conclude that titers of Nab isotypes, especially the IgM-binding KLH at 20 wk of age, are indicative for survival during the laying period. The higher the titers of NAb isotypes, the higher the probability of layers to survive.

  7. Genetic parameters for growth traits in pigs estimated using third degree polynomial functions

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    M.-L. SEVÓN-AIMONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 8745 purebred Yorkshire and Landrace pigs extracted from Finnish progeny test station data was analysed. The pigs were weighed weekly during the test. A third degree polynomial function, age = f(weight, was fitted separately for each pig and was used to describe the growth patterns of individual pigs. Their live weight at the inflection point (LW ip was 72 kg, age at the inflection point (AGE ip 126 d, and maximum daily gain (DG max 1111 g/d, on average. The average daily gain from 30 to 90 kg (ADG 30-90 was 957 g/d and in the smaller weight ranges (30 to 50, 50 to 70 and 70 to 90 kg the average daily gains were 829, 1042 and 1046 g/d, respectively. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits were estimated using REML with an animal model. The heritability estimates (h 2 for LW ip , AGE ip and ADG 30-90 were 0.08, 0.33 and 0.23, respectively, and for smaller weight ranges from 0.14 to 0.21. Fast growing and lean animals had higher LW ip than others and the r g between LW ip and ADG 30-90 , DG max and M% was 0.58, 0.73 and 0.57, respectively. The r g between ADG 30-90 and M% was close to zero.;

  8. Genetic assessments and parentage analysis of captive Bolson tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus inform their "rewilding" in New Mexico.

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    Taylor Edwards

    Full Text Available The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n = 28. Both populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and the captive population captured roughly 97.5% of the total wild diversity, making it a promising founder population. Genetic screening of other captive animals (n = 26 potentially suitable for reintroduction uncovered multiple hybrid G. flavomarginatus×G. polyphemus, which were ineligible for repatriation; only three of these individuals were verified as purebred G. flavomarginatus. We used these genetic data to inform mate pairing, reduce the potential for inbreeding and to monitor the maintenance of genetic diversity in the captive population. After six years of successful propagation, we analyzed the parentage of 241 hatchlings to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity. Not all adults contributed equally to successive generations. Most yearly cohorts of hatchlings failed to capture the diversity of the parental population. However, overlapping generations of tortoises helped to alleviate genetic loss because the entire six-year cohort of hatchlings contained the allelic diversity of the parental population. Polyandry and sperm storage occurred in the captives and future management strategies must consider such events.

  9. Clinical characteristics and causes of pruritus in cats: a multicentre study on feline hypersensitivity-associated dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobi, Stefan; Linek, Monika; Marignac, Geneviève; Olivry, Thierry; Beco, Luc; Nett, Claudia; Fontaine, Jacques; Roosje, Petra; Bergvall, Kerstin; Belova, Sveta; Koebrich, Stefanie; Pin, Didier; Kovalik, Marcel; Meury, Sabrina; Wilhelm, Sylvie; Favrot, Claude

    2011-10-01

    Hypersensitivity dermatitides (HD) are often suspected in cats. Cats with HD are reported to present with one or more of the following patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, self-induced symmetrical alopecia or head and/or neck excoriations. Previous reports on feline HD included small numbers of animals, took place in geographically restricted areas or did not compare these conditions with other causes of pruritus. The goal of the present study was to analyse 72 parameters covering signalment, clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics from a large group of pruritic cats from different geographical areas. Of the 502 cats, the following diagnoses were made: flea HD (29% of cases), food HD (12%) nonflea/nonfood HD (20%) and other diseases in which pruritus was a feature (24%). Cats with signs consistent with a HD but which did not complete a food trial were not analysed further (15% of cases). Most cats with nonflea HD exhibited signs compatible with one or more of the four typical lesional patterns, but none of these patterns was found to be pathognomonic for any specific diagnosis. Food HD and nonflea/nonfood HD were found to be clinically undistinguishable. Young adult, purebred and female cats appeared predisposed to nonflea/nonfood HD. As many diagnoses presented with similar lesional patterns, a thorough clinical work-up is required for establishment of a specific diagnosis.

  10. Evaluation of Semen Quality of Holstein Friesian and Jersey Bulls Maintained under Subtropical Environment

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    M. Fiaz*, R. H. Usmani1, M. Abdullah and T. Ahmad2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Semen production data of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bulls collected over a period of three years was analyzed to examine seasonal effects on quantity and quality of semen. Purebred breeding bulls of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey breeds (n = 18 for each breed, maintained under naturally ventilated open-sided sheds, were used for semen collection. Meteorological information on ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall was used to divide the calendar year into two stressful summer seasons viz; dry summer (April - June and wet summer (July–September and a stress free season (October - March. The number of ejaculates per bull recorded during three seasons were not significantly different (P>0.05 in both breeds. Friesian bulls produced lower ejaculatory volume during dry summer season, whereas Jersey bulls produced higher (P0.05 but in Jersey bulls it was lower during wet summer than other seasons. Wet summer resulted in reduced number of semen doses frozen per bull in both breeds. The results of this study indicated that wet summer season deteriorated semen quality in terms of mass motility, individual motility and number of doses in both breeds, except individual motility in semen of Friesian bulls.

  11. Leishmania infection in a population of dogs: an epidemiological investigation relating to visceral leishmaniasis control

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    Klauber Menezes Penaforte

    Full Text Available Identification of factors associated with Leishmaniainfection in dogs is essential for targeting visceral leishmaniasis control actions. Thus, the present study analyzed some of these factors in a population of dogs in a Brazilian municipality, along with the limitations of control strategies implemented there. The association between the exposure variables and occurrences of infection was analyzed through logistic regression models. The disease control interventions were treated qualitatively. Out of the 755 animals examined, 13.6% (103/755 were seropositive. Of these, 23.3% (24/103 were asymptomatic and 76.7% (79/103 presented at least one clinical sign possibly associated with visceral leishmaniasis. With weak associations, purebred, shorthaired, over 5 years of age, male and large dogs were more prone to infection. The latter two variables formed the final regression model and the association with dog size was statistically significant. The control strategies developed presented limitations and a great number of seronegative dogs was culled. The data presented contribute towards better understanding of the dynamics of infection in canine visceral leishmaniasis and indicate that actions aimed towards adequate implementation of Visceral Leishmaniasis control program in Brazilian endemic areas should be prioritized.

  12. A retrospective study of canine cutaneous food allergy at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital from Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mariana Cristina Hoeppner Rondelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous food allergy is an adverse immunological response, triggered by antigenic dietary components that may escape the digestion process and are absorbed intact through the gastrointestinal mucosa. In Brazil, there are only a few reports on cutaneous food allergy and antigenicity of food components used in pet food production. Thus, the aim of this report was to assess and describe data from medical records of canine patients diagnosed with cutaneous food allergy at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital from Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, in order to evaluate epidemiological and clinical aspects related to this skin problem. From 2007 to 2012, 29 dogs received the diagnosis of cutaneous food allergy after an eight-week hypoallergenic elimination trial. Among them, purebred dogs were more frequent, as well as females, and their mean age was 50.4 months old. Pruritus was reported in all cases, especially in interdigital areas. In order to establish the diagnosis, most patients received home-cooked elimination diet, based on potato and lamb in approximately 80% of the cases. Besides, it was highlighted the importance of the hypoallergenic elimination diet being rigorously followed by dogs' owners, aiming the adequate control of the clinical signs related to cutaneous food allergy.

  13. Molecular Detection of Giardia intestinalis from Stray Dogs in Animal Shelters of Gyeongsangbuk-do (Province) and Daejeon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Cheol; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Kim, Sang-Hun; Kim, Suk; Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Song, Kun-Ho

    2015-08-01

    Giardia is a major public health concern and considered as reemerging in industrialized countries. The present study investigated the prevalence of giardiosis in 202 sheltered dogs using PCR. The infection rate was 33.2% (67/202); Gyeongsangbuk-do and Daejeon showed 25.7% (39/152, P<0.0001) and 56% (28/50), respectively. The prevalence of infected female dogs (46.7%, P<0.001) was higher than in male dogs (21.8%). A higher prevalence (43.5%, P<0.0001) was observed in mixed breed dogs than purebred (14.1%). Although most of the fecal samples collected were from dogs of ≥1 year of age which showed only 27.4% positive rate, 61.8% (P<0.001) of the total samples collected from young animals (<1 year of age) were positive for G. intestinalis. A significantly higher prevalence in symptomatic dogs (60.8%, P<0.0001) was observed than in asymptomatic dogs (23.8%). Furthermore, the analysis of nucleotide sequences of the samples revealed that G. intestinalis Assemblages A and C were found in the feces of dogs from Gyeongsangbuk-do and Daejeon. Since G. intestinalis Assemblage A has been known to infect humans, our results suggest that dogs can act as an important reservoir of giardiosis in Korea. Hence, hygienic management should be given to prevent possible transmission to humans.

  14. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the 'visual contact task' and the 'unsolvable task'. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds.

  15. Effect of increasing lysine supply during last third of gestation on reproductive performance of Iberian sows

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    F. Gómez-Carballar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ninety purebred Iberian (IB sows in second or third parity were used to determine the effects of dietary lysine (Lys concentration during last third of pregnancy on sow and litter performance. The sows were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments: 5.5 (LLys, Control, 7.4 (MLys and 8.7 (HLys g Lys kg-1 diet. Feed allowance was 2.30-2.33 kg d-1. Close to farrowing a conventional lactation diet was used. Dietary Lys did not affect body-weight (BW gain in late gestation of second-parity sows. However, in third-parity sows, a strong tendency was observed for BW gain to increase during late pregnancy with dietary Lys levels higher than 5.5 g kg-1 (p=0.061. Body-weight losses during lactation were never influenced by Lys supply. A strong tendency (p=0.064 for a lower ratio between piglets born alive and total piglets born was observed in second-parity sows fed the Control gestation diet. Litters and piglets from sows on this diet had the lowest weight at birth (p0.05. In conclusion, under moderate energy supply, adequate reserves for subsequent lactation can be achieved in second- and third-parity IB sows with a daily provision of at least 17.2 g lysine over the last third of pregnancy, what implies a substantial increase in protein supply respect to traditional practices.

  16. A survey of decision making practices, educational experiences, and economic performance of two dairy farm populations in Central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhone, J A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

    2008-10-01

    A survey was performed to characterize the dairy production, educational experiences, decision making practices, and income and expenses of dairy farms and to determine any differences of these practices among two dairy farm populations. Farm groups were identified as farms from the Muaklek dairy cooperative (Muaklek farms) and farms from other dairy cooperatives (Non-Muaklek farms). In April, 2006 questionnaires were distributed to 500 dairy farms located in Lopburi, Nakhon Ratchisima, and Saraburi provinces. A total of 85 farms completed and returned questionnaires. Means and frequencies were calculated for questions across categories and Chi-square tests were performed to determine differences among Muaklek and Non-Muaklek farms. Results showed that most farms from both groups had a primary or high school educational level, used a combination confinement and pasture production system, gave a mineral supplement, raised their own replacement females, milked approximately 16 cows/day, used crossbred Holstein cows (75% Holstein or more), and mated purebred Holstein sires to their cows. More Non-Muaklek farms (P profit per lactating cow, were 1,641 and 1,029 baht for Muaklek and Non-Muaklek farms, respectively. Overall, information from the study should be useful for dairy cooperatives and other dairy organizations when training farmers in the future and furthering dairy production research in Thailand.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA sequence and phylogenetic evaluation of geographically disparate Sus scrofa breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M V; Brandebourg, T D; Kohn, M C; Ðikić, D; Irwin, M H; Pinkert, C A

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates studies into the metabolic characteristics of production animals and their relation to production traits. Sequence analysis of mtDNA from pure-bred swine with highly disparate production characteristics (Mangalica Blonde, Mangalica Swallow-bellied, Meishan, Turopolje, and Yorkshire) was initiated to evaluate the influence of mtDNA polymorphisms on mitochondrial function. Herein, we report the complete mtDNA sequences of five Sus scrofa breeds and evaluate their position within the phylogeny of domestic swine. Phenotypic traits of Yorkshire, Mangalica Blonde, and Swallow-belly swine are presented to demonstrate their metabolic characteristics. Our data support the division of European and Asian breeds noted previously and confirm European ancestry of Mangalica and Turopolje breeds. Furthermore, mtDNA differences between breeds suggest function-altering changes in proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation such as ATP synthase 6 (MT-ATP6), cytochrome oxidase I (MT-CO1), cytochrome oxidase III (MT-CO3), and cytochrome b (MT-CYB), supporting the hypothesis that mtDNA polymorphisms contribute to differences in metabolic traits between swine breeds. Our sequence data form the basis for future research into the roles of mtDNA in determining production traits in domestic animals. Additionally, such studies should provide insight into how mtDNA haplotype influences the extreme adiposity observed in Mangalica breeds.

  18. Molecular marker heterozygosities and genetic distances as correlates of production traits in F1 bovine crosses

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    Daniella Tambasco-Talhari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the relationship between heterozygosity, genetic distance and production traits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the degree of heterozygosity and genetic distance on growth, carcass and reproductive related features in F1 bovine crosses. We tested 10 polymorphic markers in 330 purebred cattle (Nelore, Canchim, Aberdeen Angus and Simental and 256 crossbred cattle belonging to four crossbred groups. Individual heterozygosities (Hi and multilocus genetic similarity (Dm were estimated and used in correlation analysis against individual phenotypic measurements. Significant (p < 0.05 Hi effects occurred for birth weight, 15 to 18 month weight, hot carcass weight and longissimus rib eye area. The extent to which increased heterozygosity (deltaH in F1 crosses can be predicted from the genetic distance of parental breeds was also investigated using Nei's standard genetic distance (Ds and standard heterozygosity (Hs. High correlations were found between deltaHi, deltaHs and the Ds of the parental breeds. Our results suggest that heterozygosity of the ten molecular markers used in this study may affect live weight during at least one growth phase. Parental genetic distance was a suitable predictor of the degree of progeny heterozygosity.

  19. Real-time PCR genotyping assay for canine progressive rod-cone degeneration and mutant allele frequency in Toy Poodles, Chihuahuas and Miniature Dachshunds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Moeko; Tada, Naomi; Mitsui, Hiroko; Tomioka, Hitomi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Yabuki, Akira; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Kushida, Kazuya; Mizukami, Keijiro; Yamato, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD) is a middle- to late-onset, autosomal recessive, inherited retinal disorder caused by a substitution (c.5G>A) in the canine PRCD gene that has been identified in 29 or more purebred dogs. In the present study, a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR assay was developed and evaluated for rapid genotyping and large-scale screening of the mutation. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of the three most popular breeds in Japan (Toy Poodles, Chihuahuas and Miniature Dachshunds) to determine the current mutant allele frequency. The assay separated all the genotypes of canine PRCD rapidly, indicating its suitability for large-scale surveys. The results of the survey showed that the mutant allele frequency in Toy Poodles was high enough (approximately 0.09) to allow the establishment of measures for the prevention and control of this disorder in breeding kennels. The mutant allele was detected in Chihuahuas for the first time, but the frequency was lower (approximately 0.02) than that in Toy Poodles. The mutant allele was not detected in Miniature Dachshunds. This assay will allow the selective breeding of dogs from the two most popular breeds (Toy Poodle and Chihuahua) in Japan and effective prevention or control of the disorder.

  20. No Dog Left Behind: A Hedonic Pricing Model for Animal Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Laura A; Skidmore, Mark; Dyar, William; Rosebrook, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Companion animal overpopulation is a growing problem in the United States. In addition to strays, an average of 324,500 nonhuman animals are relinquished to shelters yearly by their caregivers due to family disruption (divorce, death), foreclosure, economic problems, or minor behavioral issues. As a result, estimates of animals in shelters range from 3 million to 8 million, and due to overcrowding, euthanasia is common. This analysis seeks to determine the appropriate pricing mechanisms to clear animal shelters of dogs in the manner most desirable-that is, through adoption. Based on a survey of Michigan residents, it is clear there are a number of correlations between the traits of dogs and the individuals who care for them. Hedonic pricing models indicate that animal shelters need to proactively vary their pricing systems to discount particular traits, specifically for mixed-breed, older, and black dogs. Premiums can be charged for puppies, purebred dogs, and those who have received specific services such as microchipping.

  1. EVALUATION OF CROSSBRED CALF AND COW TYPES; SUBJECTIVE TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin PALA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Data in this experiment consisted of birth weight, calving score, thickness and grade records of 600 crossbred calves. Angus, Brangus, and Gelbvieh sires were mated to purebred Hereford cows. Yearling and 2-yr-old Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters then were bred to Polled Hereford bulls (Data Set 2. Later-parity Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters were mated to Salers or Simmental sires (Data Set 3. The traits evaluated were birth weight, thickness and feeder grade of calves and degree of calving diffi culty. Calving diffi culty, grade, muscling or thickness evaluation is a subjective assessment. Progeny of Angus cattle were lighter and born easier than progeny of Brangus and Gelbvieh cattle. Gelbvieh crosses had the highest frequency of thickness 1 calves and Brangus crosses had the highest frequency of medium size calves. Angus calves were lighter than Brangus calves in all the data sets but they had thicker muscles. Adding Bos Indicus genes to a cross may increase birth weight while decreasing muscling and calving ease.

  2. EVALUATION OF CROSSBRED CALF AND COW TYPES; SUBJECTIVE TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin PALA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Data in this experiment consisted of birth weight, calving score, thickness and grade records of 600 crossbred calves. Angus, Brangus, and Gelbvieh sires were mated to purebred Hereford cows. Yearling and 2-yr-old Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters then were bred to Polled Hereford bulls (Data Set 2. Later-parity Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters were mated to Salers or Simmental sires (Data Set 3. The traits evaluated were birth weight, thickness and feeder grade of calves and degree of calving diffi culty. Calving diffi culty, grade, muscling or thickness evaluation is a subjective assessment. Progeny of Angus cattle were lighter at birth and were born easier than progeny of Brangus and Gelbvieh cattle. Angus-Hereford cows were more likely to have medium grade calves than Brangus-Hereford cows (odds ratio=1.69 and that was the only signifi cant difference for grade in all data sets. Brangus calves had thicker muscles than Angus and Gelbvieh calves. Adding Bos Indicus genes to a cross may increase birth weight, calving diffi culty and muscle thickness.

  3. Maine Coon renal screening: ultrasonographical characterisation and preliminary genetic analysis for common genes in cats with renal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Karine; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lang, Johann; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of renal cysts and other renal abnormalities in purebred Maine Coon cats, and to characterise these through genetic typing. Voluntary pre-breeding screening programmes for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are offered for this breed throughout Switzerland, Germany and other northern European countries. We performed a retrospective evaluation of Maine Coon screening for renal disease at one institution over an 8-year period. Renal ultrasonography was performed in 187 healthy Maine Coon cats. Renal changes were observed in 27 of these cats. Renal cysts were found in seven cats, and were mostly single and unilateral (6/7, 85.7%), small (mean 3.6 mm) and located at the corticomedullary junction (4/6, 66.7%). Sonographical changes indicating chronic kidney disease (CKD) were observed in 10/187 (5.3%) cats and changes of unknown significance were documented in 11/187 (5.9%) cats. All six cats genetically tested for PKD1 were negative for the mutation, and gene sequencing of these cats did not demonstrate any common genetic sequences. Cystic renal disease occurs with a low prevalence in Maine Coons and is unrelated to the PKD observed in Persians and related breeds. Ultrasonographical findings compatible with CKD are not uncommon in juvenile Maine Coons.

  4. Merging pedigree databases to describe and compare mating practices and gene flow between pedigree dogs in France, Sweden and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Leroy, G; Malm, S; Lewis, T; Strandberg, E; Fikse, W F

    2017-04-01

    Merging pedigree databases across countries may improve the ability of kennel organizations to monitor genetic variability and health-related issues of pedigree dogs. We used data provided by the Société Centrale Canine (France), Svenska Kennelklubben (Sweden) and the Kennel Club (UK) to study the feasibility of merging pedigree databases across countries and describe breeding practices and international gene flow within the following four breeds: Bullmastiff (BMA), English setter (ESE), Bernese mountain dog (BMD) and Labrador retriever (LBR). After merging the databases, genealogical parameters and founder contributions were calculated according to the birth period, breed and registration country of the dogs. Throughout the investigated period, mating between close relatives, measured as the proportion of inbred individuals (considering only two generations of pedigree), decreased or remained stable, with the exception of LBR in France. Gene flow between countries became more frequent, and the origins of populations within countries became more diverse over time. In conclusion, the potential to reduce inbreeding within purebred dog populations through exchanging breeding animals across countries was confirmed by an improved effective population size when merging populations from different countries. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (Pcarcass weights (Pcarcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows.

  6. Whole-genome sequence, SNP chips and pedigree structure: building demographic profiles in domestic dog breeds to optimize genetic-trait mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayna L. Dreger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the decade following publication of the draft genome sequence of the domestic dog, extraordinary advances with application to several fields have been credited to the canine genetic system. Taking advantage of closed breeding populations and the subsequent selection for aesthetic and behavioral characteristics, researchers have leveraged the dog as an effective natural model for the study of complex traits, such as disease susceptibility, behavior and morphology, generating unique contributions to human health and biology. When designing genetic studies using purebred dogs, it is essential to consider the unique demography of each population, including estimation of effective population size and timing of population bottlenecks. The analytical design approach for genome-wide association studies (GWAS and analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS experiments are inextricable from demographic data. We have performed a comprehensive study of genomic homozygosity, using high-depth WGS data for 90 individuals, and Illumina HD SNP data from 800 individuals representing 80 breeds. These data were coupled with extensive pedigree data analyses for 11 breeds that, together, allowed us to compute breed structure, demography, and molecular measures of genome diversity. Our comparative analyses characterize the extent, formation and implication of breed-specific diversity as it relates to population structure. These data demonstrate the relationship between breed-specific genome dynamics and population architecture, and provide important considerations influencing the technological and cohort design of association and other genomic studies.

  7. Etiology of patent ductus arteriosus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, James W; Patterson, Donald F

    2003-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital heart disease in dogs and usually causes heart failure and death unless corrected at a young age. Previous histologic studies in a line of dogs derived from Miniature Poodles with hereditary PDA identified varying degrees of hypoplasia and asymmetry of ductus-specific smooth muscle and the presence of aortalike elastic tissue in the ductus wall sufficient to cause patency. To determine if similar structural abnormalities cause PDA in other dogs, serial-section, 3-dimensional histology of ductal architecture was studied in 8 non-Poodle purebred dogs with PDA with no immediate family history of PDA. Morphologic abnormalities were observed in 7 of 8 dogs with PDA and essentially were the same as those in dogs known to have a hereditary form of PDA. These findings suggest that apparently sporadic PDA in these breeds is caused by a genetic defect in the structure of the ductus arteriosus that is similar or identical to that in the Poodle. The relatives of dogs with PDA, particularly parents, offspring, and siblings, should be screened for evidence of PDA. Dogs with PDA should not be used for breeding, regardless of breed.

  8. Secretory patterns of growth hormone in dogs: circannual, circadian, and ultradian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobello, Cristina; Corrada, Yanina A; Castex, Gervasio L; de la Sota, Rodolfo L; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2002-04-01

    The objective was to characterize the circannual, circadian, and ultradian secretory patterns of growth hormone (GH) in intact crossbred and purebred dogs. In all experiments, blood samples were collected with minimal stress by direct peripheral venipuncture and GH was measured in plasma by a homologous radioimmunoassay. For circannual studies, samples were collected monthly from 6 male dogs between 15:00 and 17:30 h over a 1-year time span. For circadian studies, blood samples were collected at 145-minute intervals from 09:00 to 06:45 h of the following day in 14 female dogs. In ultradian experiments, blood samples were collected at 15-minute intervals for 2.5 h (15:00 to 17:30 h) in 7 males and 7 females. Plasma GH in male dogs remained without change in summer, autumn, and winter but declined (P < 0.01) in spring (LSM +/- SEM; 6.9 +/- 0.5; 6.0 +/- 0.5; 6.3 +/- 0.5; 4.3 +/- 0.5 ng/mL, respectively). No plasma GH circadian rhythmicity was detected. Nor was any ultradian pattern evident in either males or females. No gender-related differences were observed in ultradian GH plasma profiles. It is concluded that, while basal GH levels show seasonal fluctuations in dogs, neither circadian nor ultradian GH secretory fluctuations were present in the dogs assessed.

  9. A Morphometric Survey among Three Iranian Horse Breeds with Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Iranian horse breeds, Turkoman, Caspian, and Kurdish, are the most important Iranian horse breeds which are well known in all around of the world because of their beauty, versatility, great stamina, and  intelligence. Phenotypic characterization was used to identify and document the diversity within and between distinct breeds, based on their observable attributes. Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 23 traits were measured in 191 purebred horses belonging to three breeds, i.e. Turkoman (70 horses, Kurdish (77 horses, and Caspian (44 horses.  Caspian breed was  sampled from the Provinces of Alborz and Gilan. Kurdish breed was sampled from the Provinces of Kurdistan, Kermanshah, and Hamadan. Turkoman breed was sampled from the Provinces of Golestan, Markazi, and Isfahan. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was implemented. In addition, Canonical Discriminate Analysis (CDA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and Custer analysis were executed for assessing the relationship among the breeds. All statistical analysis was executed by SAS statistical program. The results of our investigation represented the breeds classification into 3 different classes (Caspian, Turkoman, and Kurdish based on different morphometrical traits. Caspian breed with smaller size in most variables was detached clearly from the others with more distance than Kurdish and Turkoman breeds. The result showed that the most variably trait for classification was Hind Hoof Length. Adaptation with different environments causes difference in morphology and difference among breeds. We can identify and classify domestic population using PCA, CDA, and cluster analysis.

  10. Observation of Main Agronomic Traits of Piper nigrum L. in Three Different Cultivation Modes%3种不同栽培模式下胡椒主要农艺性状观测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈绍斌; 刘光华; 刘倩; 左红

    2011-01-01

    Main agronomic traits of Piper nigrum L.in three different cultivation modes in Baihua Village of Baoshanlujiang Town were observed. The results showed that in different cultivation modes ,the main agronomic traits of Piper nigrum L.were significant ,agronomic traits of Piper nigrum L. and coffee interplant mode as well as Piper nigrum L. as well as corn interplant mode were better than that in Piper nigrum L. purebred mode,main agronomic traits in Piper nigrum L. and coffee interplant mode were the best.%对保山潞江镇百花村知青农场3种不同栽培模式下的胡椒主要农艺性状进行观测。结果表明:不同栽培模式下胡椒的主要农艺性状差异明显,其中胡椒与咖啡套种栽培模式及胡椒与包谷套种栽培模式下农艺性状表现较胡椒纯种模式好,胡椒与咖啡套种栽培模式下农艺性状表现最好。

  11. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasht, Behnam; Mutryn, Marie F; Michalek, Ryan D; Lee, William R

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) at 47-48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR1.3 or chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold) in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens.

  12. Heritability of shoulder ulcers and genetic correlations with mean piglet weight and sow body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, H; Zumbach, B; Lundeheim, N; Grandinson, K; Vangen, O; Olsen, D; Rydhmer, L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to estimate the heritability for shoulder ulcers and the genetic correlations between shoulder ulcers, mean piglet weight and sow body condition. The analyses were based on information on 5549 Norwegian Landrace sows and their 7614 purebred litters. The genetic analysis was performed using the Gibbs sampling method. Shoulder ulcers were analyzed as a threshold trait. Sow body condition and mean piglet weight were analyzed as linear traits. The heritability of shoulder ulcers was estimated at 0.25 (s.d. = 0.03). The heritability for sow body condition was estimated at 0.14 (s.d. = 0.02) and that for mean piglet weight at 0.23 (s.d. = 0.02). The genetic correlation between shoulder ulcers and sow body condition was negative (-0.59, s.d. = 0.09). The genetic correlation between shoulder ulcers and mean piglet weight was positive (0.23, s.d. = 0.10) and the genetic correlation between sow body condition and mean piglet weight was negative (-0.24, s.d. = 0.10).

  13. Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DQA Gene Variation and Its Association with Piglet Diarrhea in Large White, Landrace and Duroc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q L; Kong, J J; Wang, D W; Zhao, S G; Gun, S B

    2013-08-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen class II molecules are possibly associated with the induction of protective immunity. The study described here was to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms in exon 2 of the swine DQA gene and piglet diarrhea. This study was carried out on 425 suckling piglets from three purebred pig strains (Large White, Landrace and Duroc). The genetic diversity of exon 2 in swine DQA was detected by PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis, eight unique SSCP patterns (AB, BB, BC, CC, CD, BD, BE and DD) representing five specific allele (A to E) sequences were detected. Sequence analysis revealed 21 nucleotide variable sites and resulting in 12 amino acid substitutions in the populations. A moderate level polymorphism and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of the genotypes distribution were observed in the populations (ppiglet diarrhea between different genotypes, individuals with genotype CC showed a lower diarrhea score than genotypes AB (0.98±0.09), BB (0.85±0.77) and BC (1.25±0.23) (ppiglet diarrhea.

  14. Call to Conserve the Wild Water Buffalo (Bubalus Arnee in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut ARYAL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild water buffaloes (Bubalus arnee are categorized as endangered on the IUCN Red List. With a global population of less than 4,000, the species has a very limited distribution spanning over less than 20,000 km2 in Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Bhutan. In Nepal, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve was designated for wild Asian buffalo; this reserve contains approximately 219 individuals, although there is no precise information on the number of pure-bred wild buffalo. The conservation of wild buffalo is of global concern; there are numerous threats due to habitat fragmentation, as well as competition, hybridization, habitat overlap, disease and parasites transmitted by domestic livestock. The reserve provides an area of only 0.80 km2 per buffalo, which is insufficient maintaining a viable population of wild buffalo. It is therefore important to identify further potential habitat and to begin translocation of some of the individuals. A Wild Buffalo Conservation Alliance can play a key role in influencing conservation strategies by conducting detailed research including feasibility studies on translocation, developing awareness, holding workshops and preparing a conservation action plan. In this way the alliance can help to increase the number of wild buffaloes and to maintain a viable population of the species.

  15. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of MRLC2 Differential Expressed in Meishan×Yorkshire F1 Crossbreeds and Their Parents, Meishan Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Tao XIE; Ming-Gang LEI; Yuan-Zhu XIONG; Chang-Yan DENG; Si-Wen JIANG; Bo ZUO; Feng-E LI; De-Quan XU; Tao WANG

    2006-01-01

    In order to detect the molecular basis of heterosis in pigs, suppression subtractive hybridization was carried out to investigate the difference in gene expression in the Longissimus dorsi muscle tissues between Meishan×Yorkshire F1 crossbreeds and their parents, Meishan pigs. The swine myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MRLC2) gene differentially expressed between the crossbreeds and the purebreds was isolated and identified using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and its complete cDNA sequence was obtained using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The nucleotide sequence of the gene is not homologous to any of the known porcine genes. The sequence prediction analysis reveals that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 172 amino acids containing the putative conserved domain of the EF-hand superfamily. This predicted amino acid sequence of porcine MRLC2 protein exhibits 99%, 98%, 98%, 98% and 97% identity with that of cattle, human, dog,rat and mouse, respectively. The homology analysis revealed that the MRLC2 protein was very much conserved in evolution. The tissue expression analysis indicated that the swine MRLC2 gene is highly expressed in muscle, fat, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine, ovary and testis, but not expressed in pancreas.

  17. Acute monocytic leukemia in an irradiated beagle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Fritz, T.E.; Lombard, L.S.; Poole, C.M.; Norris, W.P.

    1979-01-01

    A purebred female Beagle dog that had received 2,000 R of protracted whole-body ..gamma..-irradiation from /sup 60/Co when 14 months old had hematologic changes consistent with a myeloproliferative disorder 3 years after the termination of radiation exposure. Peripheral blood and bone marrow findings during the 7-month period before death showed progressive anemia with increased numbers of platelets; immature granulocytes, monocytes and promonocytes. A period of partial remission occurred during which time the peripheral blood was aleukemic, although there was marked thrombocytosis and abnormal erythropoiesis which was evidenced by bizarre circulating nucleated red cells, anisocytosis, poikilocytosis and Howell-Jolly bodies. The dog had a terminal crisis with marked leukocytosis, most cells in the peripheral blood being bizarre monocytes and promonocytes. Tissues obtained at necroscopy showed diffuse as well as focal infiltration of the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal wall with immature neoplastic cells resembling monocytes and monocytic precursors. The monocytic differentiation of the invasive cell population was confirmed by morphological, cytochemical, histological, ultrastructural and in vitro cell culture studies.

  18. Genetic assessments and parentage analysis of captive Bolson tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus) inform their "rewilding" in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Taylor; Cox, Elizabeth Canty; Buzzard, Vanessa; Wiese, Christiane; Hillard, L Scott; Murphy, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus) is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n = 28). Both populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and the captive population captured roughly 97.5% of the total wild diversity, making it a promising founder population. Genetic screening of other captive animals (n = 26) potentially suitable for reintroduction uncovered multiple hybrid G. flavomarginatus×G. polyphemus, which were ineligible for repatriation; only three of these individuals were verified as purebred G. flavomarginatus. We used these genetic data to inform mate pairing, reduce the potential for inbreeding and to monitor the maintenance of genetic diversity in the captive population. After six years of successful propagation, we analyzed the parentage of 241 hatchlings to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity. Not all adults contributed equally to successive generations. Most yearly cohorts of hatchlings failed to capture the diversity of the parental population. However, overlapping generations of tortoises helped to alleviate genetic loss because the entire six-year cohort of hatchlings contained the allelic diversity of the parental population. Polyandry and sperm storage occurred in the captives and future management strategies must consider such events.

  19. Genetic Assessments and Parentage Analysis of Captive Bolson Tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus) Inform Their “Rewilding” in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Taylor; Cox, Elizabeth Canty; Buzzard, Vanessa; Wiese, Christiane; Hillard, L. Scott; Murphy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus) is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n = 28). Both populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and the captive population captured roughly 97.5% of the total wild diversity, making it a promising founder population. Genetic screening of other captive animals (n = 26) potentially suitable for reintroduction uncovered multiple hybrid G. flavomarginatus×G. polyphemus, which were ineligible for repatriation; only three of these individuals were verified as purebred G. flavomarginatus. We used these genetic data to inform mate pairing, reduce the potential for inbreeding and to monitor the maintenance of genetic diversity in the captive population. After six years of successful propagation, we analyzed the parentage of 241 hatchlings to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity. Not all adults contributed equally to successive generations. Most yearly cohorts of hatchlings failed to capture the diversity of the parental population. However, overlapping generations of tortoises helped to alleviate genetic loss because the entire six-year cohort of hatchlings contained the allelic diversity of the parental population. Polyandry and sperm storage occurred in the captives and future management strategies must consider such events. PMID:25029369

  20. Color attributes and oxidative stability of longissimus lumborum and psoas major muscles from Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Suman, Surendranath P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Viana, Fernanda M; Salim, Ana Paula A A; Nair, Mahesh N; Silva, Teofilo J P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The influence of muscle source on color stability of fresh beef from purebred Bos indicus cattle was investigated. Longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles obtained from twelve (n=12) Nellore bull carcasses (24h post-mortem) were fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks, aerobically packaged, and stored at 4°C for nine days. Steaks were analyzed on day 0 for proximate composition and myoglobin concentration, whereas pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. LL steaks exhibited greater (P<0.05) redness, color stability, and MRA than PM counterparts. On the other hand, PM steaks demonstrated greater (P<0.05) myoglobin content, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation than LL steaks. These results indicated the critical influence of muscle source on discoloration of fresh beef from Bos indicus animals and suggested the necessity to engineer muscle-specific strategies to improve color stability and marketability of beef from Bos indicus cattle.

  1. Porcine islet isolation outcome is not affected by the amount and distribution of collagen in the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilling, Denise E; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josephine K R A; Töns, H Annemiek M; Terpstra, Onno T; Bouwman, Eelco

    2010-01-01

    Variable islet yields in porcine islet isolation may be caused by the collagen substrate within the pancreas. The aim of the present study was to determine the total amount and distribution of collagen within porcine pancreata and their relationship to islet isolation outcome. A total of 64 juvenile and 76 adult porcine pancreata of eight purebred breeds were histologically examined. The amount of collagen was quantitatively assessed in tissue samples stained with Sirius Red. Collagen distribution was semi-quantitatively determined by assessing the presence of collagen in the endocrine-exocrine interface and within the islet, in tissue samples stained with Sirius Red and anti-insulin. Islet isolation was performed in 58 pancreata of the adult group. Total collagen content and islet encapsulation ranged widely in both adult and juvenile pigs. However, the majority of islets in adult and juvenile pigs had no or only a limited collagen capsule. The difference in collagen content between adult and juvenile pigs could not be explained by age. Furthermore, no differences between adult and juvenile pigs were found in islet encapsulation or the amount of intra-islet collagen. In adult pigs, no significant relationships were found between obtained islet yield and total collagen content, islet encapsulation or amount of collagen within the islet. Considering the limitations in experimental design (staining method) and study material, isolation outcome does not seem to be affected by the total collagen content or collagen distribution. The influence of other matrix elements and collagen subtypes should be investigated.

  2. Tritrichomonas foetus infection, a cause of chronic diarrhea in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chaoqun; Köster, Liza S

    2015-03-19

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a very intriguing trichomonad protozoan with respect to its varied choice of residence in the different host species. It is an obligate parasite of the reproductive and the gastrointestinal tract of bovine and feline host respectively, leading to trichomonosis. Bovine trichomonosis is a sexually transmitted disease whereas feline trichomonosis is a disease with a purported fecal-oral route of spread. Further, the trichomonad is a commensal in the nasal passages, stomach, cecum and colon of swine host. Advances have been exponential in understanding the trichomonad biology and specifically feline trichomonosis since late 1990s and early 2000s when T. foetus was soundly determined to be a causative agent of chronic diarrhea in the domestic cat. It is a challenging task, even for a skilled investigator not to mention the busy clinical veterinarian, to keep up with the vast volume of information. Here we comprehensively reviewed the trichomonad biology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, host immunity, world map of distribution, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. Risk factors associated with T. foetus-positive status in the domestic cat include young age, purebred, history of diarrhea, co-infections with other enteral pathogens. In addition, molecular similarity of bovine and feline isolates of T. foetus in DNA sequence was concisely discussed. The data presented serve as an information source for veterinarians, and investigators who are interested in biology of T. foetus and feline trichomonosis.

  3. Characterization of human-dog social interaction using owner report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2010-07-01

    Dog owners were surveyed for observations of social behaviors in their dogs, using questions adapted from the human Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) pre-verbal module. Using 939 responses for purebred and mixed-breed dogs, three factors were identified: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors (INIT), response to social interactions (RSPNS), and communication (COMM). There were small or no effects of sex, age, breed group or training. For six breeds with more than 35 responses (Border Collie, Rough Collie, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Standard Poodle), the behaviors eye contact with humans, enjoyment in interactions with human interaction, and name recognition demonstrated little variability across breeds, while asking for objects, giving/showing objects to humans, and attempts to direct humans' attention showed higher variability across these breeds. Breeds with genetically similar backgrounds had similar response distributions for owner reports of dog response to pointing. When considering these breeds according to the broad categories of "herders" and "retrievers," owners reported that the "herders" used more eye contact and vocalization, while the "retrievers" used more body contact. Information regarding social cognitive abilities in dogs provided by owner report suggest that there is variability across many social cognitive abilities in dogs and offers direction for further experimental investigations.

  4. Progresses of Researches on Rhizopus for Liquor-making%酿酒根霉菌研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙可; 赵中开; 马莹莹; 杨建刚

    2013-01-01

    根霉是一种极其重要的酿酒微生物,在糖化过程中的作用十分显著,根霉产酶特性的研究正如火如荼,纯种根霉制曲早已广泛应用于生产,现今根霉在我国酒类酿造业中的作用已无可替代.本文介绍了酿酒用根霉的一些主要生长及产酶特性,并对根霉在酿酒过程中产酒精及对酒类风味物质的影响的研究进展进行了综述.%Rhizopus is a very important microbiology for liquor-making, which plays an extremely significant role in the process of saccharification. Many studies focus on the characteristics of the Rhizopus enzyme production. Purebred Rhizopus koji has been widely used in production. And nowadays the role of Rhizopus in liquor brewing has become irreplaceable. This paper introduces major growth and enzyme production characteristics of Rhizopus for liquor-making, and discusses the effect of product ethyl alcohol and flavor substances of Rhizopus.

  5. WorldFengur - the studbook of origin for the Icelandic horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorange, Jón Baldur

    2011-01-01

    WorldFengur is the database that contains and functions as the studbook of origin of the Icelandic horse. Only pure-bred Icelandic horses, whose ancestry can be traced back to Iceland entirely, may be registered into WorldFengur. The WorldFengur project is a joint effort by the FAIC (Farmers Association of Iceland) and FEIF (International Federation of Icelandic Horse Associations) to construct an official and central database on horses of Icelandic origin located all over the world. It is used in this capacity in 19 countries so far; the number of data stored in the WorldFengur database has increased continuously. The database itself has developed tremendously since it was established in 2001; it includes information on horses' pedigrees and offspring, as well as results of breeding assessments and sports competitions, owners, breeders, breeding prediction values (BLUP), colours, microchip numbers, health records, DNA profiles for checking ancestries and much more. The key words in its development are common solutions to common challenges internationally. The requirements to fulfill both national and international regulations, such as the latest EU directive on the identification of equidae - no 504/2008/EU -, have increased in recent years and the WorldFengur project continuously endeavours to stay in line with these developments.

  6. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  7. The heritability of shell morphometrics in the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Physa.

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    Robert T Dillon

    Full Text Available The cosmopolitan freshwater pulmonate snail Physa acuta hybridizes readily with Physa carolinae in the laboratory, although their F1 progeny are sterile. The two species differ qualitatively in shell shape, the former bearing a more globose shell and the latter more fusiform. We performed a hybridization experiment, measuring a set of 14 traditional (linear and landmark-based shell morphological variables on even-aged parents and their offspring from both hybrids and purebred control lines. Parent-offspring regression yielded a strikingly high heritability estimate for score on the first relative warp axis, h2 = 0.819 ± 0.073, a result that would seem to confirm the value of geometric morphometrics as a tool for retrieving evolutionary relationships from gastropod shell form. Score on the second relative warp axis was also significantly heritable (h2 = 0.312 ± 0.123, although more moderate, as were scores on second principal components extracted from traditional measurements (correlation h2 = 0.308 ± 0.069, covariance h2 = 0.314 ± 0.050. Although score on the first relative warp axis was significantly correlated with centroid size (p < 0.001, scores on none of the three second axes were so correlated. This result suggests that second axis score might prove especially useful for estimating genetic divergence among mixed-age populations of gastropods sampled from the field.

  8. SNPs selected by information content outperform randomly selected microsatellite loci for delineating genetic identification and introgression in the endangered dark European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; De La Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M Alice

    2016-11-14

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify pure-bred A. m. mellifera colonies. Microsatellites have been preferred for identification of A. m. mellifera stocks across conservation centres. However, owing to high throughput, easy transferability between laboratories and low genotyping error, SNPs promise to become popular. Here, we compared the resolving power of a widely utilized microsatellite set to detect structure and introgression with that of different sets that combine a variable number of SNPs selected for their information content and genomic proximity to the microsatellite loci. Contrary to every SNP data set, microsatellites did not discriminate between the two lineages in the PCA space. Mean introgression proportions were identical across the two marker types, although at the individual level, microsatellites' performance was relatively poor at the upper range of Q-values, a result reflected by their lower precision. Our results suggest that SNPs are more accurate and powerful than microsatellites for identification of A. m. mellifera colonies, especially when they are selected by information content.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Populations of Akhal-Teke Horses from the Czech Republic, Russia, Estonia and Switzerland

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    Iva Jiskrová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research objective was to evaluate the genetic parameters in the populations of Akhal-Teke horses in 4 countries: Czech Republic, Russia, Estonia and Switzerland. The experiment involved a total of 325 Akhal-Teke horses; 121 horses came from the Czech Republic, 152 were from Russia, 28 were from Estonia and 24 horses came from Switzerland. For the divided database of micro satellites we evaluated the following parameters: effective number of alleles, frequency of alleles for the groups of horses; the observed heterozygosity (HO; the expected heterozygosity (HE; the inbreeding coefficient (Fis; and the genetic distance. The researched population is polymorphous. The population in the Czech Republic differs from the other three countries in the numbers of alleles per locus. The Czech population also includes Akhal-Teke horses which are not purebred Akhal-Teke horses. A confirmation of this fact is the effective number of alleles. The population in the Czech Republic exhibits the highest mean number of effective alleles. The Akhal-Teke population in Estonia exhibits the highest mean observed heterozygosity. By contrast, the population in the Czech Republic exhibits the lowest mean observed heterozygosity. In the Czech Republic the mean Fis value is a positive number indicating a reduced number of heterozygotes in the Czech Akhal-Teke population. The genetic distance is the highest between populations of horses bred in Russia and Estonia. The genetic distance is the lowest between populations of Akhal-Teke horses bred in Russia and in the Czech Republic.

  10. Ingestive behavior and performance of female lambs grazing on Marandu palisadegrass under different stocking rates

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    Luiz Carlos Vieira Júnior

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The ingestive behavior and performance of female lambs grazing on Marandu pasture submitted to different stocking rates during the rainy and transition season were evaluated. The experimental area with 4,500 m² was divided into 45 paddocks of 100 m². Twenty-seven Santa Ines female lambs (purebred with 4 months age and 22 kg of initial body weight were distributed in a completely randomized design, with nine replicates. Lambs were divided into 9 groups with the same initial weight and submitted to three stocking rates: 2, 3 and 4 lambs/paddock, which corresponded to 40, 60 and 80 lambs/ha, respectively. Each group of animals had a module of five paddocks, managed on intermittent grazing system, with 7 days of occupation and 28 d of rest. Increase on time grazing and reduction on time ruminating and resting were observed as stocking rates increased. There was 14% raise in time grazing and 41% decline on time resting by lambs subjected to the highest stocking rate compared with those in the lower stocking rate. The number of animals/ha promoted linear effect on average daily gain, which was higher for animals in the lowest stocking rate of 90 g/d. For gain per area, the best result was obtained with 60 animals/ha featuring an average value of 426 kg/ha.

  11. Gross Anatomical Study of the Nerve Supply of Genitourinary Structures in Female Mongrel Hound Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Amaya, S. M.; Ruggieri, M. R.; Arias Serrato, S. A.; Massicotte, V. S.; Barbe, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1–S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1–S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions. PMID:24730986

  12. Comparative analysis of Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) and Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) sperm proteome identifies sperm proteins potentially responsible for higher fertility in a tropical climate.

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    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-07-30

    The fertility of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) is higher than that of the European purebred (Bos taurus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cattle in tropical areas. To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). Frozen semen from three high performance bulls from each breed were processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. Gel image analysis identified protein spots of interest which were then identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry quadrupole time-of-flight (LC MS/MS Q-TOF). STRING network analysis predicted interactions between at least 20 of the identified proteins. Among the identified proteins, a number of motility and energy related proteins were present in greater abundance in Kedah Kelantan. Sperm motility evaluation by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) confirmed significantly higher motility in Kedah Kelantan. While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility.

  13. Genetic parameters of reproductive traits in pigs: a contribution

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    G. Pagnacco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally pig breeding efficiency is defined as the number of piglets weaned per sow per year, so in every pig breeding programmes, great emphasis is placed on improving reproductive traits in sow lines and generally, the evaluation of litter size is carried out in most selection planes. Usually, the reproduction breeding goal is to increase the number of piglets born, but this trait, as reported by Hanenberg et al. (2001 gives an undesirable correlation with the number of stillborn piglets. Litter size is the result of a large number of traits as number of total piglets born, number of born alive, stillbirth, weaned survival; as reported by Tummaruk et al. (2000 the variation in these parameters is influenced by genetic value of the sow and by environmental factors, such as management and season. Regarding the genetic influence on the litter size, we know that the breed can influence the number of born, but its interaction with stillbirth is not significant, although Leenhouwers et al. (1999 found an higher stillbirth incidence in purebred than in crossbred litters........

  14. Profitability indicators of milk production cost center in intensive systems of production

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    Glauber dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate some profitability indicators of dairy cost center farms with a high volume of daily production in feedlot. The Intended was also to identify the components that had the greatest influence on the operational cost. We used data from three milk systems production, with the origin of the purebred Holsteins. It was considered as a milk cost center production all expenses related in lactating and dry cows. The methodology used total cost and operating cost in profitability analysis. A production system, by presenting gross margin, net positive result, was able to produce short, medium and long term. Another production system had a positive gross margin and net, with conditions to survive in the short and medium term. Finally, the third system of production has shown a negative gross margin presenting decapitalizing and entering into debt, as revenues were not enough to pay operating expenses even effective. The component items of the effective operational cost that exercised higher “impact” cost and income from milk were, in decreasing order, the feeding, labor, miscellaneous expenses, sanitation, energy, milking, reproduction, equipment rental, BST and taxes.

  15. Whole-genome sequence, SNP chips and pedigree structure: building demographic profiles in domestic dog breeds to optimize genetic-trait mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Dayna L.; Rimbault, Maud; Davis, Brian W.; Bhatnagar, Adrienne; Parker, Heidi G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the decade following publication of the draft genome sequence of the domestic dog, extraordinary advances with application to several fields have been credited to the canine genetic system. Taking advantage of closed breeding populations and the subsequent selection for aesthetic and behavioral characteristics, researchers have leveraged the dog as an effective natural model for the study of complex traits, such as disease susceptibility, behavior and morphology, generating unique contributions to human health and biology. When designing genetic studies using purebred dogs, it is essential to consider the unique demography of each population, including estimation of effective population size and timing of population bottlenecks. The analytical design approach for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) experiments are inextricable from demographic data. We have performed a comprehensive study of genomic homozygosity, using high-depth WGS data for 90 individuals, and Illumina HD SNP data from 800 individuals representing 80 breeds. These data were coupled with extensive pedigree data analyses for 11 breeds that, together, allowed us to compute breed structure, demography, and molecular measures of genome diversity. Our comparative analyses characterize the extent, formation and implication of breed-specific diversity as it relates to population structure. These data demonstrate the relationship between breed-specific genome dynamics and population architecture, and provide important considerations influencing the technological and cohort design of association and other genomic studies. PMID:27874836

  16. Características produtivas e reprodutivas de vacas Holandesas e mestiças Holandês × Gir no Planalto Central Production and reproduction traits in Holstein and Gyr crossbred cows in the Central Plateau, Brazil

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    Concepta McManus

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar o desempenho leiteiro e reprodutivo de vacas da raça Holandesa e mestiças Holandês × Gir na região do Planalto Central foram utilizados dados de 1.456 vacas de cinco composições raciais, originadas das raças Holandesa (H e Gir (G: puras H; ¾H ¼G; ½H ½G; ³/8H 5/8G; e ¼H ¾G. Analisaram-se as características produção média diária de leite (PMD, número de dias em lactação (DL e produção total da lactação corrigida para 305 dias (P305, idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, período de gestação (PG e intervalo de partos (IEP. Os maiores valores de PMD e P305 foram obtidos para os animais ¾H ¼G e ½H ½G e os menores, para os animais com maior proporção da raça Gir (¼H ¾G. Os valores das características reprodutivas IPP e IEP, no entanto, foram menores para os animais ¾H ¼G.Esses resultados evidenciam a adaptação das vacas mestiças ao ambiente a que foram submetidas ou que os animais puros da raça Holandesa, em razão do estresse nutricional e/ou térmico, não expressaram todo o seu potencial genético para produção leiteira.Além disso, os dados comprovaram a importância da utilização de sistemas de cruzamento na manutenção da produção dos animais e na sua adaptação ao ambiente.Data from 1456 purebred and crossbred cows of five different crossbred groups involving the Holstein (H and Gyr (G breeds (H; ¾H ¼G; ½H ½G; ³/8H 5/8G e ¼H ¾G were used to compare their milk production and reproductive traits in the Brazilian central plateau region. The performance traits studied were: average daily milk production (DMP; lactation length (LL; total production in 305 days (P305 and age at first calving (AFC, gestation length (GL and calving interval (CI. Higher averages of DMP and P305 were observed for animals ¾H ¼G and ½H ½G and the smallest ones for crossbred animals with larger proportion of the Gyr breed (¼H ¾G. The lowest values of AFC and CI were observed for ¾H

  17. Hormones, metabolites, and reproduction in Holsteins, Jerseys, and their crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K L; Cassell, B G; McGilliard, M L; Hanigan, M D; Gwazdauskas, F C

    2012-02-01

    Holsteins (HH), Jerseys (JJ), and their crosses in first (n=157) and second (n=107) lactation were used to determine if reproduction, progesterone (P4), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and milk production differed between genetic groups. Thirty-four cows were Holstein-Jersey (HJ) crosses, 46 were Jersey-Holstein (JH) crosses, 48 were purebred Holsteins (HH), and 29 were purebred Jerseys (JJ) in first lactation, whereas the second-lactation animals included 23 HJ, 35 JH, 35 HH, and 14 JJ. Blood samples were collected weekly for the first 10 wk postpartum. Analyses were conducted using the MIXED, chi-square, and GLIMMIX procedures (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Seasons of calving were cold (November to May) and hot (June to October) and were combined with year to form 8 year-seasons. Days open and number of services were affected by genetic group. The HH were open 169±8 d, which was greater than HJ (143±9 d), JJ (132±10 d), and JH (127±8 d). The HH had 2.4±0.1 services per pregnancy, which was greater than JH (1.9±0.1), but not different from HJ (2.1±0.2) or JJ (2.1±0.2). Concentrations of NEFA were greater in lactation 2 (0.52±0.02 mEq/L) than in lactation 1 (0.45±0.02 mEq/L) and decreased over the 10-wk period. Concentrations of NEFA were greater in the cold season except in yr 3. Insulin in lactation 1 (0.81±0.03 ng/mL) was greater than in lactation 2 (0.72±0.03 ng/mL); insulin decreased to wk 2 then gradually increased. The HJ had the greatest insulin concentrations (0.87±0.04 ng/mL) and the JJ had the lowest (0.66±0.04 ng/mL), and IGF-1 gradually increased over the 10-wk period. Milk production (actual yield in the first 305 d, not adjusted for fat and protein) was affected by genetic group, lactation number, year-season, and wk 1 insulin. The HH produced 10,348±207 kg of milk, which was greater than the HJ (9,129±230 kg), the JH (9,384±190 kg), and the JJ (7,080±240 kg). Milk production in

  18. Effects of breed and harvest age on feed intake, growth, carcass traits, blood metabolites, and lipogenic gene expression in Boer and Kiko goats.

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    Solaiman, S; Min, B R; Gurung, N; Behrends, J; McElhenney, W

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of 2 different breeds (BR), Boer and Kiko, and 4 post-weaning harvest ages (HA; Days 0, 29, 56, and 85) on growth, carcass traits, blood metabolites, and lipogenic gene expression. Forty-eight goat (Capra hircus) kids (BW = 23.9 ± 1.50 kg; 3 to 4 mo) were used in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Goats were stratified by BW within BR and randomly assigned to 4 HA. Kids were born between March 15 and April 7 to purebred does, and were represented by at least 3 purebred sires within each BR. They were fed a grain/hay (80:20) diet once per day. At designated HA, randomly pre-assigned goats (n = 6) from each BR were transported to the Meat Science Lab at Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, and were harvested. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between BR and HA. Boer tended (P = 0.08) to have greater initial BW, final BW (P = 0.05), and G/F ratio (P = 0.05). Although the 80:20 grain/hay diet was reinforced by adjusting DMI, both BR had similar total DMI, Boer kept that ratio, while Kiko consumed more (P = 0.001) hay (70:30, grain/hay) and had more (P = 0.001) DMI when expressed as g/kg BW. Boer tended to have greater transportation shrink (P = 0.07), HCW (P = 0.08), and cold carcass weights (CCW; P = 0.08), with greater (P = 0.001) carcass fat. No differences (P > 0.10) were observed in carcass shrink, dressing percentage, 12th rib fat thickness, and LM area between the 2 BR. When expressed as percentage empty BW, carcass bone was similar (P = 0.25), whereas muscle percentage (P = 0.02) was greater for Kiko and fat percentage was greater (P = 0.001) for Boer. Fat as a percentage of CCW remained relatively similar (P > 0.10) for both BR for the 2nd and 3rd HA. Differences were more evident (P = 0.01) at the 4th HA. Boer reached targeted harvest weight (29 kg) at the 3rd HA, while fat deposition continued (P = 0.01) during the 4th HA. Breed had no effect (P > 0.10) on meat color (L

  19. Fine-mapping the POLL locus in Brahman cattle yields the diagnostic marker CSAFG29.

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    Mariasegaram, Maxy; Harrison, Blair E; Bolton, Jennifer A; Tier, Bruce; Henshall, John M; Barendse, William; Prayaga, Kishore C

    2012-12-01

    The POLL locus has been mapped to the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1) in both taurine breeds and taurine-indicine crosses in an interval of approximately 1 Mb. It has not yet been mapped in pure-bred zebu cattle. Despite several efforts, neither causative mutations in candidate genes nor a singular diagnostic DNA marker has been identified. In this study, we genotyped a total of 68 Brahman cattle and 20 Hereford cattle informative for the POLL locus for 33 DNA microsatellites, 16 of which we identified de novo from the bovine genome sequence, mapping the POLL locus to the region of the genes IFNAR2 and SYNJ1. The 303-bp allele of the new microsatellite, CSAFG29, showed strong association with the POLL allele. We then genotyped 855 Brahman cattle for CSAFG29 and confirmed the association between the 303-bp allele and POLL. To determine whether the same association was found in taurine breeds, we genotyped 334 animals of the Angus, Hereford and Limousin breeds and 376 animals of the Brangus, Droughtmaster and Santa Gertrudis composite taurine-zebu breeds. The association between the 303-bp allele and POLL was confirmed in these breeds; however, an additional allele (305 bp) was also associated but not fully predictive of POLL. Across the data, CSAFG29 was in sufficient linkage disequilibrium to the POLL allele in Australian Brahman cattle that it could potentially be used as a diagnostic marker in that breed, but this may not be the case in other breeds. Further, we provide confirmatory evidence that the scur phenotype generally occurs in animals that are heterozygous for the POLL allele. © 2012 Commonwealth of Australia, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T; O'Nan, Audrey T; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E; Ashwell, Melissa S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole and known drug metabolizing genes.

  1. Fatal pyogranulomatous myocarditis in 10 Boxer puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detmer, Susan E; Bouljihad, Mostafa; Hayden, David W; Schefers, Jeremy M; Armien, Anibal; Wünschmann, Arno

    2016-03-01

    Over a period of 5 years, 10 pure-bred Boxer puppies, 9-16 weeks old, were presented with a history of sudden death and were diagnosed with pyogranulomatous myocarditis. The myocarditis was characterized by a mixed infiltrate composed predominantly of neutrophils and macrophages. In our retrospective study, original case records and archived materials were examined. All dogs were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi on immunohistochemistry (IHC). There was no evidence of infectious agents in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) heart tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Ziehl-Neelsen, Gram, Grocott methenamine silver, Warthin-Starry, Von Kossa, and Steiner-Chapman stains. IHC for Chlamydia sp., Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, West Nile virus, and canine parvovirus also yielded a negative result in all dogs. Polymerase chain reaction testing for vector-borne pathogens on heart tissue from 9 of the dogs (1 frozen and 8 FFPE samples) yielded positive results for 1 dog with B. burgdorferi as well as Anaplasma phagocytophilum in another dog. Subsequently, 2 additional cases were found in a French Bulldog and a French Bulldog-Beagle mix that had identical morphology, test results, age, and seasonality to these 10 Boxer dogs. The similarities in the seasonality, signalment of the affected dogs, and the gross and microscopic lesions suggest a common etiology. Positive IHC and morphologic similarities to human Lyme carditis indicate that B. burgdorferi is likely the agent involved. An additional consideration for these cases is the possibility of a breed-specific autoimmune myocarditis or potential predisposition for cardiopathogenic agents in young Boxers.

  2. Bovine NR1I3 gene polymorphisms and its association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle

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    Pâmela A. Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nuclear receptor 1 family I member 3 (NR1I3, also known as the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, was initially characterized as a key regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, recent biochemical and structural data suggest that NR1I3 is activated in response to metabolic and nutritional stress in a ligand-independent manner. Thus, we prospected the Bovine NR1I3 gene for polymorphisms and studied their association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle. First, 155 purebred Nellore bulls were individually measured for Residual Feed Intake (RFI and the 25 best (High Feed Efficiency group, HFE and the 25 worst animals (Low Feed Efficiency group, LFE were selected for DNA extraction. The entire Bovine NR1I3 gene was amplified and polymorphisms were identified by sequencing. Then, one SNP different between HFE and LFE groups was genotyped in all the 155 animals and in another 288 animals totalizing 443 Nellore bulls genotyped for association of NR1I3 SNPs with feed efficiency traits. We found 24 SNPs in the NR1I3 gene and choose a statistically different SNP between HFE and LFE groups for further analysis. Genotyping of the 155 animals showed a significant association within SNP and RFI (p = 0.04, Residual Intake and BW Gain (p = 0.04 and Dry Matter Intake (p = 0.01. This SNP is located in the 5′flanking promoter region of NR1I3 gene and different alleles alter the binding site for predicted transcriptional factors as HNF4alpha, CREM and c-MYB, leading us to conclude that NR1I3 expression and regulation might be important to feed efficiency.

  3. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

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    Estonba Andone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds.

  4. Resistance of beef cattle of two genetic groups to ectoparasites and gastrointestinal nematodes in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M C S; Alencar, M M; Giglioti, R; Beraldo, M C D; Aníbal, F F; Correia, R O; Boschini, L; Chagas, A C S; Bilhassi, T B; Oliveira, H N

    2013-10-18

    The resistance to infestations by ectoparasites and infections by gastrointestinal nematodes was studied in 45 animals (males and females) of two genetic groups: purebred Nelore (NI, n=28) and Three-Cross (1/2 Angus+1/4 Canchim+1/4 Nelore - TC, n=17). The animals were monitored for 24 months, during which they were left to graze in tropical pastures without receiving treatment for parasites. Each month the animals were examined for infestations by external parasites, to count the numbers of cattle ticks Rhipicephalus microplus with diameter greater than 4.5mm present on the left side, horn flies (Haematobia irritans) present in the lumbar region and botfly larvae (Dermatobia hominis) present on the entire body. The H. irritans counts were performed with the aid of digital photographs. At the time of examination, fecal samples were collected to count the eggs per gram (EPG) and to perform coprocultures, and peripheral blood samples were drawn to determine the packed cell volume (PCV) and to count the eosinophils. For statistical analysis, the count data were transformed into log₁₀ (n+1), where n is the number of parasites. For PCV, significant effects (Pbotfly larvae they were 0.05 ± 0.03 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively. The average EPG values were only influenced by CO (P<0.01). The coprocultures revealed the presence of the following endoparasites: Haemonchus spp., Cooperia spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp., the last in smaller proportion. There were no significant differences between the genetic groups for the endoparasite loads, except for Cooperia spp., which were present in greater number (P<0.05) in the NI group. The results obtained in this experiment confirm previous findings of greater susceptibility of the Nelore breed to Cooperia spp. and high resistance to ectoparasites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variations of the porcine PRKAG3 gene in Chinese indigenous pig breeds

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    Zhou Li-Hua

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Four missense substitutions (T30N, G52S, V199I and R200Q in the porcine PRKAG3 gene were considered as the likely candidate loci affecting meat quality. In this study, the R200Q substitution was investigated in a sample of 62 individuals from Hampshire, Chinese Min and Erhualian pigs, and the genetic variations of T30N, G52S and V199I substitutions were detected in 1505 individuals from 21 Chinese indigenous breeds, 5 Western commercial pig breeds, and the wild pig. Allele 200R was fixed in Chinese Min and Erhualian pigs. Haplotypes II-QQ and IV-QQ were not observed in the Hampshire population, supporting the hypothesis that allele 200Q is tightly linked with allele 199V. Significant differences in allele frequencies of the three substitutions (T30N, G52S and V199I between Chinese indigenous pigs and Western commercial pigs were observed. Obvious high frequencies of the "favorable" alleles 30T and 52G in terms of meat quality were detected in Chinese indigenous pigs, which are well known for high meat quality. However, the frequency of the "favorable" allele 199I, which was reported to have a greater effect on meat quality in comparison with 30T and 52G, was very low in all of the Chinese indigenous pigs except for the Min pig. The reasons accounting for this discrepancy remain to be addressed. The presence of the three substitutions in purebred Chinese Tibetan pigs indicates that the three substitutions were ancestral mutations. A novel A/G substitution at position 51 in exon 1 was identified. The results suggest that further studies are required to investigate the associations of these substitutions in the PRKAG3 gene with meat quality of Chinese indigenous pigs, and to uncover other polymorphisms in the PRKAG3 gene with potential effects on meat quality in Chinese indigenous pigs.

  6. Pedigree estimation of the (sub) population contribution to the total gene diversity: the horse coat colour case.

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    Bartolomé, E; Goyache, F; Molina, A; Cervantes, I; Valera, M; Gutiérrez, J P

    2010-06-01

    A method to quantify the contribution of subpopulations to genetic diversity in the whole population was assessed using pedigree information. The standardization of between- and within-subpopulation mean coancestries was developed to account for the different coat colour subpopulation sizes in the Spanish Purebred (SPB) horse population. The data included 166264 horses registered in the SPB Studbook. Animals born in the past 11 years (1996 to 2006) were selected as the 'reference population' and were grouped according to coat colour into eight subpopulations: grey (64 836 animals), bay (33 633), black (9414), chestnut (1243), buckskin (433), roan (107), isabella (57) and white (37). Contributions to the total genetic diversity were first assessed in the existing subpopulations and later compared with two scenarios with equal subpopulation size, one with the mean population size (13 710) and another with a low population size (100). Ancestor analysis revealed a very similar origin for the different groups, except for six ancestors that were only present in one of the groups likely to be responsible for the corresponding colour. The coancestry matrix showed a close genetic relationship between the bay and chestnut subpopulations. Before adjustment, Nei's minimum distance showed a lack of differentiation among subpopulations (particularly among the black, chestnut and bay subpopulations) except for isabella and white individuals, whereas after adjustment, white, roan and grey individuals appeared less differentiated. Standardization showed that balancing coat colours would contribute preserving the genetic diversity of the breed. The global genetic diversity increased by 12.5% when the subpopulations were size standardized, showing that a progressive increase in minority coats would be profitable for the genetic diversity of this breed. The methodology developed could be useful for the study of the genetic structure of subpopulations with unbalanced sizes and to

  7. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe.

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    Edwards, John F; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-18

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that congenital ovine transmission of T. gondii may be more common than previously believed, but these findings are solely based on PCR data and require confirmation using other techniques to verify the findings. In the present study, during the lambing season of 2005 a toxoplasmosis abortion storm occurred in a flock of purebred Suffolk ewes on a farm in Texas. Only 14 healthy lambs were born, and 38 abortuses, mummies and weak or stillborn lambs were delivered. Another 15 fetuses identified by ultrasound were presumably resorbed or were aborted undetected. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 37 (94.8%) of the 39 ewes and 30 of them had high titers (1:3200 or higher) when tested in the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the 2006 lambing season, two (both with MAT titers of ≥ 3200 in 2005) of 26 ewes delivered T. gondii infected lambs. T. gondii tissue cysts were found histologically in lesions of encephalitis in a lamb from one ewe and viable T. gondii (designated TgShUs55) was isolated from the brain and heart of a lamb from the second ewe. TheTgShUs55 had an atypical genotype using 10 PCR-RFLP markers, and was 100% lethal for Swiss Webster mice, irrespective of the dose or the stage of the parasite inoculated. In subsequent seasons, the ewes lambed normally. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that most sheep that have aborted due to T. gondii develop protection against future toxoplasmosis induced abortion, but the protection is not absolute. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of genetic variants for the bovine calpain gene on meat tenderness.

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    Chung, Hoyoung; Shin, Sungchul; Chung, Euiryong

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the genetic variants of CAPN1 developed in several cattle populations can be applied for Hanwoo, regarding genetic effects on meat traits. The traits were examined for 286 purebred Hanwoo steers with genotypes classified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The nucleotide positions of primers and previously identified genetic variants were based on sequences of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with GenBank accession numbers (AF252504, AF248054, and AY639597). The analysis of genetic distribution estimated levels of minor allele frequencies ranged from 0.165 to 0.392, showing no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for all markers. Overall averages of heterozygosites (He) and polymorphic information contents (PICs) for all markers were calculated to 0.503 and 0.429, respectively, and the g.4558G>A marker showed the lowest He (0.425) and PIC (0.367). Animals from 29 months of age were slaughtered to measure Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), cooking loss, water-holding capacity, pH, fat, and moisture. All the CAPN1 markers explained variations of WBSF, showing significant additive effects except g.5709G>A. A significant marginal mean difference in genotypes of g.6545C>T (P=0.046) was found in moisture with additive effects. From the result it may be possible to use three calpain markers (g.4558G>A, g.4685C>T, and g.6545C>T) classified by RFLP and SSCP analysis in marker assisted selection programs to improve WBSF as meat tenderness in Hanwoo.

  9. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON ANIMAL DIVERSITY IN BALI, INDONESIA

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    I Waya Kasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali is a small beautiful tropical island of Indonesia archipelago lies betweens the continent of Asia and Australia as well as the Indian and Pacific Ocean. As a tropical archipelago, of course, many kinds of biodiversity can be found over there. In the island of Bali in particular, there are typical animal diversity that could not be investigated beyond such island, such as, Bali cattle, Bali dog, Bali white starling and others. As time goes on, the existance of such biodiversity decreases in both quality and quantity. Both global warming/climate change and land use change are the main factors affecting such phenomenon. This study has been conducted by employing field observation as well as literature study. It was found that, the quality of purebred Bali cattle species decreases genetically that could be notified of smaller bodysize for both male and female. Land use change of agriculture activity to the hotels, house of living, roads and other infrastructures are the main factors for Bali cattle existancy. For typical famous bird of white starling, the problem is because of deforestation which cause natural habitat loss, due to land use change for agricultural activity and house building by local people. In case of Bali dog, the mad dog of rabies is just introduce and spreading over Bali island, whichis formerly the island of Bali has been recognised as free zone area of the rabies. As consequency, suffering dogs must be eliminated by a mass killing cause decrease total number of such poor dog. Overall, it could be concluded that environmental degradations of land use change, deforestation and desease are the main causes of biodiversity decreasing number of the Bali cattle, Bali white starling and Bali dog respectively, beside global warming/climate change natural disaster.

  10. Animal tumour registry of two provinces in northern Italy: incidence of spontaneous tumours in dogs and cats

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    Carminato Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a major cause of death in domestic animals. Furthermore, many forms of pet neoplasm resemble that of their human counterparts in biologic behaviour, pathologic expression, and recognised risk factors. In April 2005, a pilot project was activated so as to establish a dog and cat tumour registry living in the Venice and Vicenza provinces (Veneto Region, north-eastern Italy, with the aim of estimating the incidence of spontaneous tumours. Results Through a telephone survey, the estimates of canine and feline populations of the catchment area turned out to be of 296,318 (CI +/- 30,201 and 214,683 (CI +/- 21,755 subjects, respectively. During the first three years, overall 2,509 canine and 494 feline cases of neoplasia were diagnosed. In dogs, the estimated annual incidence rate (IR per 100,000 dogs for all tumours was 282 in all the catchment area, whereas in cats the IR was much lower (IR = 77. Malignant and benign tumours were equally distributed in male and female dogs, whereas cats had a 4.6-fold higher incidence of malignant tumours than benign. In both dogs and cats, purebreds had an almost 2-fold higher incidence of malignant tumours than mixed breeds. Tumour incidence increased with age in both dog and cat populations. Conclusion This study has provided estimates of incidence of spontaneous neoplasm in companion animals. Further attempts will be made to increase the accuracy in the population size assessment and to ascertain the real gap with the official regional canine demographic registry. Veterinary practitioners may also benefit from the tumour registry insofar they may obtain data for specific breeds, age groups or geographical areas.

  11. Chemotherapy effectiveness and mortality prediction in surgically treated osteosarcoma dogs: A validation study.

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    Schmidt, A F; Nielen, M; Withrow, S J; Selmic, L E; Burton, J H; Klungel, O H; Groenwold, R H H; Kirpensteijn, J

    2016-03-01

    Canine osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer, and an important cause of mortality and morbidity, in large purebred dogs. Previously we constructed two multivariable models to predict a dog's 5-month or 1-year mortality risk after surgical treatment for osteosarcoma. According to the 5-month model, dogs with a relatively low risk of 5-month mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy treatment. In the present study, we externally validated these results using an independent cohort study of 794 dogs. External performance of our prediction models showed some disagreement between observed and predicted risk, mean difference: -0.11 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]-0.29; 0.08) for 5-month risk and 0.25 (95%CI 0.10; 0.40) for 1-year mortality risk. After updating the intercept, agreement improved: -0.0004 (95%CI-0.16; 0.16) and -0.002 (95%CI-0.15; 0.15). The chemotherapy by predicted mortality risk interaction (P-value=0.01) showed that the chemotherapy compared to no chemotherapy effectiveness was modified by 5-month mortality risk: dogs with a relatively lower risk of mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy. Chemotherapy effectiveness on 1-year mortality was not significantly modified by predicted risk (P-value=0.28). In conclusion, this external validation study confirmed that our multivariable risk prediction models can predict a patient's mortality risk and that dogs with a relatively lower risk of 5-month mortality seem to benefit most from chemotherapy.

  12. A domestication related mutation in the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene (TSHR) modulates photoperiodic response and reproduction in chickens.

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    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Fallahshahroudi, Amir; Johnsen, Hanna; Hagenblad, Jenny; Wright, Dominic; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per

    2016-03-01

    The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene (TSHR) has been suggested to be a "domestication locus" in the chicken. A strong selective sweep over TSHR in domestic breeds together with significant effects of a mutation in the gene on several domestication related traits, indicate that the gene has been important for chicken domestication. TSHR plays a key role in the signal transduction of seasonal reproduction, which is characteristically less strict in domestic animals. We used birds from an advanced intercross line between ancestral Red Junglefowl (RJF) and domesticated White Leghorn (WL) to investigate effects of the mutation on reproductive traits as well as on TSHB, TSHR, DIO2 and DIO3 gene expression during altered day length (photoperiod). We bred chickens homozygous for either the mutation (d/d) or wild type allele (w/w), allowing assessment of the effect of genotype at this locus while also controlling for background variation in the rest of the genome. TSHR gene expression in brain was significantly lower in both d/d females and males and d/d females showed a faster onset of egg laying at sexual maturity than w/w. Furthermore, d/d males showed a reduced testicular size response to decreased day length, and lower levels of TSHB and DIO3 expression. Additionally, purebred White Leghorn females kept under natural short day length in Sweden during December had active ovaries and lower levels of TSHR and DIO3 expression compared to Red Junglefowl females kept under similar conditions. Our study indicates that the TSHR mutation affects photoperiodic response in chicken by reducing dependence of seasonal reproduction, a typical domestication feature, and may therefore have been important for chicken domestication.

  13. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

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    Yaritza Salas

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign and 47.5% (malignant. The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  14. Comparison the physicochemical quality indicators of Musculus Longissimus Dorsi from Mangalitsa Breed and their crossbreeds

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    Ondrej Debreceni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a current trend in the market of pork to create products based on traditional, regional specialities, where is used technology such as drying, smoking and fermentation of products. These products require a specific quality of meat from pure-bred indigenous breeds or their crossbreeds with emphasis on dry matter content, intramuscular fat content in meat and fatty acid composition with higher share of unsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids. Due to this fact, indigenous breed such as the Mangalitsa has received attention from the aspect of high meat quality and meat products compared to pig meat breeds. The aim of study was to compare the meat quality of Musculus longissimus dorsi from Mangalitsa breed, the crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc and the pig meat breed Slovak Large White. The experimental material comprised of 28 pcs of pigs, which were reared in the same intensive conditions and they were fed ad libitum by complete feed mixtures for fatteners. The fattening period lasted from 30 kg to 100 kg of body weight. In the presented study was found that the crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc had lighter colour of meat and the Mangalitsa had darker colour than Slovak Large White (P < 0.01. From the point of texture of meat, it was found stiffer meat from Slovak Large White and more tender meat from crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc compared to meat of Mangalitsa (P < 0.01. The crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc had the highest intramuscular fat content and cholesterol content in meat (P < 0.01. The intramuscular fat content and cholesterol content was the lowest in Slovak Large White (P < 0.01. The results indicate that utilization of Mangalitsa breed for crossing with pig meat breeds can improve quality meat traits in their crossbreeds, which are requiring for production of special meat products.

  15. A polymorphism in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter influences monounsaturated fatty acid content of Duroc × Iberian hams

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    Eliana Henriquez-Rodriguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on 74 dry-cured hams from Duroc × Iberian pigs were used to examine whether the tag polymorphism AY487830:g.2228T>C in the promoter region of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase [SCD] gene affect fat desaturation and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA as previously described in purebred Duroc hams. Samples were taken from sliced trays of dry-cured hams marketed as Jamón Ibérico de cebo, which were randomly purchased from the same supplier in different stores of the same supermarket chain. Genomic DNA was isolated from each sample to genotype for SCD and gender. Also, a sample of two slices was used to determine fat content and fatty acid (FA composition by gas chromatography. The effect of the genotype (TT and CT and gender (barrows and gilts was estimated under a Bayesian setting. Results showed that the SCD polymorphism was associated to fat composition but not to fat content, with TT hams showing increased C18:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C20:1n-9 and MUFA (probability between 0.92-0.98 and decreased C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA (probability between 0.91-0.99 as compared to the CT. As a result, the TT hams had more MUFA (0.95% and a higher MUFA/PUFA ratio (0.43 than the CT. Barrows had more saturated FA (SFA and less PUFA than gilts. No differences in MUFA content were found between genders. The SCD polymorphism had a greater impact on MUFA than using hams from barrows instead of gilts. It is concluded that the SCD polymorphism is a good tool to increase MUFA and MUFA/PUFA ratio in Duroc crossbred dry-cured hams.

  16. The Hypoglycemic Properties of BAE Maca Max Preparation

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    Lim K. Choong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering an urgency of a question of diabetes treatment and decrease the side effects of hypoglycemic therapies, there is a necessity to elaborate a new approaches to this problem. This study was directed on estimation of possibilities of a preparation of naturally modified BAE maca max product for improvement of semeiology of diabetes and reduce the glucose level in the blood. Approach: Experiment was carried out on not purebred rats, received from Rappolovo (Russia nursery, with use of alloksan preparation for creation of models of type 1 and type 2 forms of diabetes. During the basic experiment animals have been divided into three groups: First group was made with control animals; second group, represented type 2 form of diabetes and third group represented animals with type 1 form of diabetes. Animals received BAE Maca Max preparation, which consists of two major active ingredients which are Maca and Tribulus Terresteris plants, in the form of drink, dissolved in 200 mL potable water from standard drinking bowls (after development of hyperglycemia. Glucose level defined before consumption of preparation, for 3rd day, 7th day and 10th day of consumption. Results: Result of experiences established that: Glucose level in blood of healthy animals for 10 day of experiment was in 1,26 times below than initial level (remaining in the range of norm; in group of animals with type 2 form of diabetes glucose level has reduced in 1,2 times; in the second group of animals with type 1 form of diabetes glucose level reduced in a range from 9,8±0,8-8,3±0,8 mmol L?1. Conclusion: Results of experiments showed that BAE maca max preparation possesses ability to statistical significant reduce the level of glucose in both type 1 and 2 forms of diabetes.

  17. Hepatic ethoxy-, methoxy- and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activities in Landrace and Duroc pigs stimulated with HCG.

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    Zamaratskaia, G; Zlabek, V; Ropstad, E; Tajet, H; Andresen, Ø

    2010-12-01

    The effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation on the activities of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) and pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD) was studied in intact male pigs of purebred Landrace and Duroc breeds. Pigs were divided into four groups: two control groups of each breed, without hCG stimulation (n = 20 for each breed), and two experimental groups (n = 18 for each breed), with hCG stimulation (Pregnyl(®); N.V. Organon, Oss, The Netherlands, 30 IU/kg live weight). Pigs were slaughtered 3 days after hCG stimulation and enzyme activities were measured in hepatic microsomes using two approaches. First, only one substrate concentration was used for the analysis of each enzyme activity. We found that EROD activity was suppressed by hCG-stimulation in Landrace (p = 0.004), but not Duroc pigs (p > 0.05). Generally, EROD activity was higher in Duroc pigs compared with Landrace (p = 0.017). Methoxyresorufin O-demethylase and PROD activities did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). To further characterize EROD, MROD and PROD, enzyme kinetic studies were performed. V(max) values for EROD and MROD in both breeds were lower after hCG stimulation (p Landrace and p Landrace and Duroc pigs being higher in Duroc pigs (p < 0.05). We concluded that both hCG stimulation and breed differences may be important in the regulation of EROD and MROD activities. This study provides the first data on the effect of hCG stimulation and thus high testicular steroids, on EROD, MROD and PROD activities. Further studies are needed to investigate individual CYP450 enzymes and their regulation in porcine tissues.

  18. Steroidogenesis in primary cultures of neonatal porcine Leydig cells from Duroc and Norwegian Landrace breeds.

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    Lervik, S; von Krogh, K; Karlsson, C; Olsaker, I; Andresen, Ø; Dahl, E; Verhaegen, S; Ropstad, E

    2011-10-01

    Breed differences in steroidogenic activity between primary Leydig cells derived from neonatal purebred Duroc and Norwegian Landrace boars were investigated in vitro. Concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, androstenone, cortisol and progesterone produced into the medium were determined. To explore underlying mechanisms the cellular expression of a suite of genes relevant in steroidogenesis was measured using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Basal steroid concentrations indicated a larger production capacity for steroids in unstimulated Duroc cells. Stimulation of the cells with LH increased steroid hormone secretion significantly in both breeds in a dose dependent manner. Testosterone and androstenone concentrations increased approximately 50- and 15-fold, respectively, whereas concentrations of estradiol, cortisol and progesterone increased to a lesser extent. At levels of maximal LH stimulation, absolute steroid concentrations were higher in Duroc. However, the relative increase in hormone concentrations was significantly lower in Duroc cells for estradiol, progesterone and cortisol when compared to basal levels. LH exposure was associated with a general up-regulation of mRNA levels for steroidogenic genes, stronger in Duroc than in Norwegian Landrace. This was in agreement with the higher absolute concentrations of steroid hormones measured in culture medium from the LH-stimulated Duroc Leydig cells, but did not concur with the fact that the relative increase in hormone production was lower in Duroc than in Norwegian Landrace Leydig cells for some hormones. It was concluded that breed differences in steroid hormone concentrations and gene expression between Norwegian Landrace and Duroc are complex and cannot be explained by a simple mechanism of action.

  19. Genetic relationships between boar feed efficiency and sow piglet production, body condition score, and stayability in Norwegian Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, K H; Ødegård, J; Aasmundstad, T; Olsen, D; Meuwissen, T H E

    2016-08-01

    Both feed efficiency and sow production are economically important traits in pig breeding. One challenge in a maternal line such as Norwegian Landrace is to breed for highly feed efficient fattening pigs and, at the same time, produce sows with high daily feed intake to maintain their BCS in multiple parities. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations among novel feed efficiency measurements on Norwegian Landrace boars and piglet production, stayability, and body condition in Norwegian Landrace sows. The feed efficiency measurements were lean meat and fat efficiency. These measurements were calculated using an extended residual feed intake model where total feed intake in the test period was the response variable and fat (kg) and lean meat (kg) on the carcass were included as both fixed and random regressions. The random regression coefficients that resulted from this model were breeding values, which represented the amount of feed used to produce an extra kilogram of lean meat and fat. The sow traits were stayability of the sow from first to second parity, BCS at weaning, litter weight at 3 wk, and total number of piglets born. All traits were recorded on first parity purebred Norwegian Landrace and analyzed using multivariate animal models. All genetic correlations between fat efficiency and sow traits were low. Significant genetic correlations were found only between fat efficiency and stayability (0.21 ± 0.11) and between fat efficiency and total litter weight at 3 wk (0.21 ± 0.10). The results indicate that selection for efficient deposition of fat could give poor stayability and lower litter weight at 3 wk in first parity sows. The genetic correlations between lean meat efficiency and sow traits were not significantly different from 0 and signified no genetic relationships between these traits. Selection for efficient deposition of lean meat should not affect the sow traits and is, therefore, beneficial.

  20. Comparison of faecal microbial community of lantang, bama, erhualian, meishan, xiaomeishan, duroc, landrace, and yorkshire sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Bian, Gaorui; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate differences in the faecal microbial composition among Lantang, Bama, Erhualian, Meishan, Xiaomeishan, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire sows and to explore the possible link of the pig breed with the gut microbial community. Among the sows, the Meishan, Landrace, Duroc, and Yorkshire sows were from the same breeding farm with the same feed. Fresh faeces were collected from three sows of each purebred breed for microbiota analysis and volatile fatty acid (VFA) determination. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that samples from Bama, Erhualian, and Xiaomeishan sows, which from different farms, were generally grouped in one cluster, with similarity higher than 67.2%, and those from Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire sows were grouped in another cluster. Principal component analysis of the DGGE profile showed that samples from the foreign breeds and the samples from the Chinese indigenous breeds were scattered in two different groups, irrespective of the farm origin. Faecal VFA concentrations were significantly affected by the pig breed. The proportion of acetate was higher in the Bama sows than in the other breeds. The real-time PCR analysis showed that 16S rRNA gene copies of total bacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were significantly higher in the Bama sows compared to Xiaomeishan and Duroc sows. Both Meishan and Erhualian sows had higher numbers of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and sulphate-reducing bacteria as compared to Duroc sows. The results suggest that the pig breed affects the composition of gut microbiota. The microbial composition is different with different breeds, especially between overseas breeds (lean type) and Chinese breeds (relatively obese type).

  1. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of the subcutaneous fat from iberian pigs fattened on the traditional feed: “Montanera”. effect of anatomical location and length of feeding

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    Narváez-Rivas, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions of 200 samples of subcutaneous fat from two different anatomical locations (rump and adipose tissue covering the Biceps femoris muscle of Iberian purebred pigs reared on “Montanera” were determined. Significant differences were found for the majority fatty acids and for some triacylglycerol species (PPS, PLPo + MLO, PLO, PLL + PoLO, SOS, SOL, OLL among the two anatomical locations, being the rump location less saturated. The activity level of the key enzyme involved in lipogenesis differed (p Biceps femoris, increases faster than that of the subcutaneous fat covering a muscle with low oxidative metabolism, as Longissimus dorsi.Se ha determinado la composición de ácidos grasos y de triglicéridos en 200 muestras de grasa subcutánea procedentes de dos localizaciones anatómicas (rabadilla y tejido adiposo que recubre el músculo Biceps femoris de cerdos ibéricos puros alimentados en “Montanera”. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para la mayoría de ácidos grasos y para algunos triglicéridos PPS, PLPo + MLO, PLO, PLL + PoLO, SOS, SOL, OLL entre las dos localizaciones anatómicas, siendo la rabadilla la menos saturada. El nivel de actividad de la enzima involucrada en la lipogénesis defirió significativamente (p B. femoris, aumenta más rápidamente que la de la grasa subcutánea que recubre un músculo con bajo metabolismo oxidativo, como el Longissimus dorsi.

  2. Indigenous sheep breeds in Brazil: potential role for contributing to the sustainability of production systems.

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    de Azambuja Ribeiro, Edson Luis; González-García, Eliel

    2016-10-01

    Brazil has vocation for food production, both vegetable and animal, with the sheep industry having an expanding activity. However, productivity rates are often bellowing the possibilities of the country. Here, the roles the native breeds may develop in this expanding activity are described. Breeds considered are the hair breeds Santa Inês, Morada Nova, Somális Brasileira, Cariri, and Rabo Largo, and the wool breeds Bergamácia Brasileira, Crioula Lanada, and Pantaneira. These breeds have arisen in environments that may be considered difficult for other (exotic) breeds, less adapted to the local conditions. The hair breeds emerged in a semi-arid environment, a hot and with low rainfall region, of the Northeast of Brazil. The Crioula Lanada is the only breed that originated in the South, in a subtropical region with cold winters. The genetic group Pantaneira had its origin in an environment with higher humidity, especially soil moisture. The Bergamácia Brasileira derived from the Italian Bergamasca breed, which was first introduced in northeastern Brazil. Animals from these breeds have been regarded as robust, with lower requirements for maintenance, resistant to worms, and easy to handle. On the other side, as they are generally smaller than the exotic breeds used for meat production, they are often considered as less productive. In this literature review, a possibility of valorizing them, both as purebred or in crossbreeding programs, especially for meat production is addressed. These breeds are part of the genetic, historical, and cultural heritage of Brazil, and if used properly, according to the different environments and production systems, they can also be very important in the development of the sheep industry.

  3. The genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus.

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    Kathrin A Witzenberger

    Full Text Available Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68% of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus. Only six captive individuals (7.7% were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2, two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction.

  4. A study on the minimum number of loci required for genetic evaluation using a finite locus model

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    Fernando Rohan L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For a finite locus model, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods can be used to estimate the conditional mean of genotypic values given phenotypes, which is also known as the best predictor (BP. When computationally feasible, this type of genetic prediction provides an elegant solution to the problem of genetic evaluation under non-additive inheritance, especially for crossbred data. Successful application of MCMC methods for genetic evaluation using finite locus models depends, among other factors, on the number of loci assumed in the model. The effect of the assumed number of loci on evaluations obtained by BP was investigated using data simulated with about 100 loci. For several small pedigrees, genetic evaluations obtained by best linear prediction (BLP were compared to genetic evaluations obtained by BP. For BLP evaluation, used here as the standard of comparison, only the first and second moments of the joint distribution of the genotypic and phenotypic values must be known. These moments were calculated from the gene frequencies and genotypic effects used in the simulation model. BP evaluation requires the complete distribution to be known. For each model used for BP evaluation, the gene frequencies and genotypic effects, which completely specify the required distribution, were derived such that the genotypic mean, the additive variance, and the dominance variance were the same as in the simulation model. For lowly heritable traits, evaluations obtained by BP under models with up to three loci closely matched the evaluations obtained by BLP for both purebred and crossbred data. For highly heritable traits, models with up to six loci were needed to match the evaluations obtained by BLP.

  5. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

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    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  6. Effects of maternal care and selection for low mortality on tyrosine hydroxylase concentrations and cell soma size in hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale in adult laying hen.

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    Nordquist, R E; Zeinstra, E C; Rodenburg, T B; van der Staay, F J

    2013-01-01

    Feather pecking and cannibalism in farm-kept laying hens are damaging behaviors both in terms of animal welfare and economic loss, and a major challenge in modern poultry farming. Both rearing with a foster hen and genetic selection have been demonstrated to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. We examined the effects of rearing with a foster hen, genetic selection for low mortality from cannibalism, and interactions between both, using cellular morphology and levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) as a potential measure for laying hen welfare. Hens from the second generation of a sib-selection scheme line derived from a pure-bred White Leghorn line, selected for low mortality and for production characteristics, or their control line (CL) selected only for production characteristics, were housed with or without a foster Silky hen for the first 7 wk of life. Aside from the presence or absence of a foster Silky hen during the first 7 wk of life, housing conditions were identical for all hens. The hens were then sacrificed and brains were removed at 52 wk of age. Brains were sectioned and stained using a Nissl staining to reveal cell soma morphology, or using immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxlase. A greater degree of lateralization in the hippocampus was observed in hens reared without a foster hen, as measured by absolute difference in cell soma size between hemispheres (Phens, and that genetic selection against mortality due to cannibalism impacts tyrosine hydroxylase in the NCL of laying hens. These observations strengthen the notion that brain measures may be useful as potential readouts for animal welfare.

  7. Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market

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    Wilkinson Samantha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. Results The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was > 99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR > 0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. Conclusion The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.

  8. Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in Insured Swedish Cats in Relation to Age, Breed and Sex.

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    Öhlund, M; Fall, T; Ström Holst, B; Hansson-Hamlin, H; Bonnett, B; Egenvall, A

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats. Most affected cats suffer from a type of diabetes similar to type 2 diabetes in humans. An increasing prevalence has been described in cats, as in humans, related to obesity and other lifestyle factors. To describe the incidence of DM in insured Swedish cats and the association of DM with demographic risk factors, such as age, breed and sex. A cohort of 504,688 individual cats accounting for 1,229,699 cat-years at risk (CYAR) insured by a Swedish insurance company from 2009 to 2013. We used reimbursed insurance claims for the diagnosis of DM. Overall incidence rates and incidence rates stratified on year, age, breed, and sex were estimated. The overall incidence rate of DM in the cohort was 11.6 cases (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0-12.2) per 10,000 CYAR. Male cats had twice as high incidence rate (15.4; 95% CI, 14.4-16.4) as females (7.6; 95% CI, 6.9-8.3). Domestic cats were at higher risk compared to purebred cats. A significant association with breed was seen, with the Burmese, Russian Blue, Norwegian Forest cat, and Abyssinian breeds at a higher risk compared to other cats. No sex predisposition was found among Burmese cats. Several breeds with a lower risk of DM were identified. Our results verify that the Burmese breed is at increased risk of developing DM. We also identified several previously unreported breeds with increased or decreased risk of DM. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected with helminth parasites.

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    Marley, C L; Cook, R; Keatinge, R; Barrett, J; Lampkin, N H

    2003-02-28

    Conventionally, farmers rely upon the routine use of anthelmintics to control helminth parasites and their use has proved highly cost-effective. However, several factors, including the emergence of helminths resistant to pharmaceutical anthelmintics, are forcing farmers to seek alternative approaches to parasite control. Studies in New Zealand have shown that some alternative forages may reduce parasitic infestation in sheep. In the current study, it was found that under UK environmental conditions lambs with naturally acquired helminth infections grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) had fewer helminth parasites than sheep grazing ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). Twelve pure-bred Lleyn male lambs grazed replicated 0.5ha plots of birdsfoot trefoil, chicory or ryegrass/white clover for 5 weeks. Liveweight and faecal egg counts (FECs) were determined weekly and eight lambs per forage were slaughtered at the end of the trial to determine total helminth intensities. Lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil had a lower FEC on day 7 (P<0.05) and fewer total adult helminths than those grazing the other forages on day 35 (P<0.01). Lambs grazing chicory did not have significantly lower FEC than lambs grazing other forages but these lambs were found to have fewer total adult abomasal helminths than lambs grazing ryegrass/white clover (P<0.001). As the performance of grazing lambs is inversely correlated with the intensity of helminth parasites, these alternative forages could be used to improve the liveweight gain of lambs produced in the UK. Overall, the results support the contention that alternative forages could have a positive role in the control of helminth parasites in sheep, subject to successful agronomic development and integration of these forages into whole farm systems.

  10. Isolation, cDNA sequence analysis and tissue expression profile of a novel swine gene differentially expressed in the Longissimus dorsi muscle tissues from Large White × Meishan cross combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yonggang; LEI Minggang; XIONG Yuanzhu; DENG Changyan

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the molecular mechanism of heterosis in pigs, the mRNA differential display technique was performed to investigate the differences in gene expression in the Longissimus dorsi muscle tissues from Large White × Meishan cross combination.One novel gene differentially expressed between the hybrids and the purebreds was isolated and subsequently identified using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and its complete cDNA sequence was obtained using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The nucleotide sequence of the gene is not homologous to any of the known porcine genes. The sequence prediction revealed that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 188 amino acids that contains the putative conserved domain of the PRA1 family protein and this protein has high homology with the PRA1 family protein 3 of three species-rat (88 % ), human(88 % ), and mouse (87 % ), -so that it can be defined as swine PRA1 family protein 3. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the swine PRA1 family protein 3 has a closer genetic relationship with the human PRA1 family protein 3 than with those of mouse and rat.The tissue expression analysis indicated that swine PRA1family protein 3 gene is highly-expressed in muscle and fat, moderately in spleen,weakly in heart, kidney, ovary, lung, and almost not expressed in small intestine and liver. The function of this gene and the relationship between this gene and heterosis are also discussed.

  11. A high resolution atlas of gene expression in the domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily L; Bush, Stephen J; McCulloch, Mary E B; Farquhar, Iseabail L; Young, Rachel; Lefevre, Lucas; Pridans, Clare; Tsang, Hiu; Wu, Chunlei; Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Watson, Mick; Whitelaw, C Bruce; Freeman, Tom C; Summers, Kim M; Archibald, Alan L; Hume, David A

    2017-09-15

    Sheep are a key source of meat, milk and fibre for the global livestock sector, and an important biomedical model. Global analysis of gene expression across multiple tissues has aided genome annotation and supported functional annotation of mammalian genes. We present a large-scale RNA-Seq dataset representing all the major organ systems from adult sheep and from several juvenile, neonatal and prenatal developmental time points. The Ovis aries reference genome (Oar v3.1) includes 27,504 genes (20,921 protein coding), of which 25,350 (19,921 protein coding) had detectable expression in at least one tissue in the sheep gene expression atlas dataset. Network-based cluster analysis of this dataset grouped genes according to their expression pattern. The principle of 'guilt by association' was used to infer the function of uncharacterised genes from their co-expression with genes of known function. We describe the overall transcriptional signatures present in the sheep gene expression atlas and assign those signatures, where possible, to specific cell populations or pathways. The findings are related to innate immunity by focusing on clusters with an immune signature, and to the advantages of cross-breeding by examining the patterns of genes exhibiting the greatest expression differences between purebred and crossbred animals. This high-resolution gene expression atlas for sheep is, to our knowledge, the largest transcriptomic dataset from any livestock species to date. It provides a resource to improve the annotation of the current reference genome for sheep, presenting a model transcriptome for ruminants and insight into gene, cell and tissue function at multiple developmental stages.

  12. Connecting serum IGF-1, body size, and age in the domestic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kimberly A; Hughes, Larry M; Masternak, Michal M

    2011-09-01

    Many investigations in recent years have targeted understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of aging. Collectively, genetic factors and biological mechanisms appear to influence longevity in general and specifically; reduction of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling cascade has extended life span in diverse species. Genetic alteration of mammals for life extension indicates correlation to serum IGF-1 levels in mice, and IGF-1 levels have been demonstrated as a physiological predictor of frailty with aging in man. Longevity and aging data in the dog offer a close measure of the natural multifactorial longevity interactions of genetic influence, IGF-1 signaling, and environmental factors such as exposure, exercise, and lifestyle. The absence of genetic alteration more closely represents the human longevity status, and the unique species structure of the canine facilitates analyses not possible in other species. These investigations aimed to measure serum IGF-1 in numerous purebred and mixed-breed dogs of variable size and longevity in comparison to age, gender, and spay/neuter differences. The primary objective of this investigation was to determine plasma IGF-1 levels in the adult dog, including a wide range of breeds and adult body weight. The sample set includes animals ranging from just a few months of age through 204 months and ranging in size from 5 to 160 lb. Four groups were evaluated for serum IGF-1 levels, including intact and neutered males, and intact and spayed females. IGF-1 loss over time, as a function of age, decreases in all groups with significant differences between males and females. The relationship between IGF-1 and weight differs depending upon spay/neuter status, but there is an overall increase in IGF-1 levels with increasing weight. The data, currently being interrogated further for delineation of IGF-1 receptor variants and sex differences, are being collected longitudinally and explored for longevity associations previously unavailable in

  13. Study on the introgression of beef breeds in Canchim cattle using single nucleotide polymorphism markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Seleguim Chud, Tatiane Cristina; Bernardes, Priscila Arrigucci; Santos, Daniel Jordan de Abreu; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; de Alencar, Maurício Mello; Mudadu, Maurício de Alvarenga; Zanella, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa; Li, Changxi; Schenkel, Flavio Schramm; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of introgression of breeds in the Canchim (CA: 62.5% Charolais—37.5% Zebu) and MA genetic group (MA: 65.6% Charolais—34.4% Zebu) cattle using genomic information on Charolais (CH), Nelore (NE), and Indubrasil (IB) breeds. The number of animals used was 395 (CA and MA), 763 (NE), 338 (CH), and 37 (IB). The Bovine50SNP BeadChip from Illumina panel was used to estimate the levels of introgression of breeds considering the Maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and Single Regression method. After genotype quality control, 32,308 SNPs were considered in the analysis. Furthermore, three thresholds to prune out SNPs in linkage disequilibrium higher than 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 were considered, resulting in 15,286, 7,652, and 1,582 SNPs, respectively. For k = 2, the proportion of taurine and indicine varied from the expected proportion based on pedigree for all methods studied. For k = 3, the Regression method was able to differentiate the animals in three main clusters assigned to each purebred breed, showing more reasonable according to its biological viewpoint. Analyzing the data considering k = 2 seems to be more appropriate for Canchim-MA animals due to its biological interpretation. The usage of 32,308 SNPs in the analyses resulted in similar findings between the estimated and expected breed proportions. Using the Regression approach, a contribution of Indubrasil was observed in Canchim-MA when k = 3 was considered. Genetic parameter estimation could account for this breed composition information as a source of variation in order to improve the accuracy of genetic models. Our findings may help assemble appropriate reference populations for genomic prediction for Canchim-MA in order to improve prediction accuracy. Using the information on the level of introgression in each individual could also be useful in breeding or crossing design to improve individual heterosis in crossbred cattle. PMID:28182737

  14. Effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein and behavioural responses of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Eilish M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein response, metabolic and behavioural response, and performance of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves was investigated. Calves were grazed with their dams until the end of the grazing season when they were weaned and housed (day (d 0 in a concrete slatted floor shed, and offered grass silage ad libitum plus supplementary concentrates. Twenty-six days prior to weaning and housing, 20 singled suckled, pure-bred Simmental male (non-castrated, (n = 10, m and female (n = 10, f calves were assigned to one of two treatments (i concentrate supplement (CS: n = 10 (5 m and 5 f, mean age (s.d. 201 (12.8 d, mean weight (s.d. 258 (20.2 kg or (ii no concentrate supplement (controls (NCS: n = 10, (5 m and 5 f, mean age (s.d. 201 (13.4 d, mean weight (s.d. 257 (19.6 kg pre-weaning. Results There was a treatment × sampling time interaction (P + and WC1+ (γδ T cells lymphocytes and concentration of plasma globulin. On d 2, percentage CD4+ lymphocytes decreased (P + lymphocytes increased (P + lymphocytes in NCS did not differ (P > 0.05 from d 0. On d 2, WC1+ lymphocytes decreased (P P 0.05 in NCS than CS. Subsequently, percentages did not differ (P > 0.05 from pre-weaning baseline. On d 2, the increase in concentration of globulin was greater (P Conclusions Calves supplemented with concentrate prior to weaning had a lesser reduction in WC1+ lymphocytes, increased percentage CD4+ lymphocytes and concentration of total protein, and spent more time lying post-weaning, compared with non-supplemented calves.

  15. Canine population structure: assessment and impact of intra-breed stratification on SNP-based association studies.

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    Pascale Quignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In canine genetics, the impact of population structure on whole genome association studies is typically addressed by sampling approximately equal numbers of cases and controls from dogs of a single breed, usually from the same country or geographic area. However one way to increase the power of genetic studies is to sample individuals of the same breed but from different geographic areas, with the expectation that independent meiotic events will have shortened the presumed ancestral haplotype around the mutation differently. Little is known, however, about genetic variation among dogs of the same breed collected from different geographic regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we address the magnitude and impact of genetic diversity among common breeds sampled in the U.S. and Europe. The breeds selected, including the Rottweiler, Bernese mountain dog, flat-coated retriever, and golden retriever, share susceptibility to a class of soft tissue cancers typified by malignant histiocytosis in the Bernese mountain dog. We genotyped 722 SNPs at four unlinked loci (between 95 and 271 per locus on canine chromosome 1 (CFA1. We showed that each population is characterized by distinct genetic diversity that can be correlated with breed history. When the breed studied has a reduced intra-breed diversity, the combination of dogs from international locations does not increase the rate of false positives and potentially increases the power of association studies. However, over-sampling cases from one geographic location is more likely to lead to false positive results in breeds with significant genetic diversity. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide new guidelines for association studies using purebred dogs that take into account population structure.

  16. Life expectancy and causes of death in Bernese mountain dogs in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein, Michael; Howard, Judith; Rossetti, Menga; Geissbühler, Urs

    2016-07-25

    New regulations by the Swiss Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office provide for the monitoring of breed health by Swiss breeding clubs. In collaboration with the Swiss Bernese Mountain Dog Club, the purpose of this study was to investigate the causes of death in purebred dogs registered by the club and born in 2001 and 2002. Of a total of 1290 Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs) born in 2001 and 2002 in Switzerland, data was collected from owners and veterinarians using a questionnaire designed for this study from 389 dogs (30.2 %). By the end of the study, 381/389 dogs (97.9 %) had died. The median life expectancy of all dogs was 8.4 years (IQR, 6.9-9.7). Female dogs had a significantly longer median survival (8.8 years; IQR, 7.1-10.3) than male dogs (7.7 years; IQR, 6.6-9.3) (P < 0.00). The cause of death was unknown in 89/381 dogs (23.4 %). For the remaining dogs, the most frequent causes of death were neoplasia (222/381, 58.3 %), degenerative joint disease (16/381, 4.2 %), spinal disorders (13/381, 3.4 %), renal injury (12/381, 3.1 %), and gastric or mesenteric volvulus (7/381, 1.8 %). However, large numbers of dogs were diagnosed with neoplasia without histopathologic or cytologic confirmation. Dogs with neoplasms had a shorter median survival than dogs with other disorders. The shortest median survival (6.8 years) was found for dogs with renal injury. Findings of this study confirm a high prevalence of neoplasia and associated low life expectancy in BMDs. The results underline a need for more widespread precise diagnostics and further research on malignant tumours in this breed to improve overall breed health.

  17. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by agar gel double immunodiffusion and IgG ELISA in feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrs, V R; Ujvari, B; Dhand, N K; Peters, I R; Talbot, J; Johnson, L R; Billen, F; Martin, P; Beatty, J A; Belov, K

    2015-03-01

    Feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) is an emerging infectious disease. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the diagnostic value of detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies using an agar gel double immunodiffusion (AGID) assay and an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA; and (2) to determine if an aspergillin derived from mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus can be used to detect serum antibodies against cryptic Aspergillus spp. in Aspergillus section Fumigati. Sera from cats with URTA (group 1: n = 21) and two control groups (group 2: cats with other upper respiratory tract diseases, n = 25; group 3: healthy cats and cats with non-respiratory, non-fungal illness, n = 84) were tested. Isolates from cats with URTA comprised A. fumigatus (n = 5), A. flavus (n = 1) and four cryptic species: Aspergillus felis (n = 12), Aspergillus thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri, n = 1), Aspergillus lentulus (n = 1) and Aspergillus udagawae (n = 1). Brachycephalic purebred cats were significantly more likely to develop URTA than other breeds (P = 0.013). The sensitivity (Se) of the AGID was 43% and the specificity (Sp) was 100%. At a cut-off value of 6 ELISA units/mL, the Se of the IgG ELISA was 95.2% and the Sp was 92% and 92.9% for groups 2 and 3 cats, respectively. Aspergillus-specific antibodies against all four cryptic species were detected in one or both assays. Assay Se was not associated with species identity. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by IgG ELISA has high Se and Sp for diagnosis of feline URTA.

  18. Variation of Meat Quality Parameters Due to Conformation and Fat Class in Limousin Bulls Slaughtered at 25 to 27 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Guzek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age of animal, hot carcass weight, pH, conformation and fat class on basic beef quality attributes (tenderness, sarcomere length, basic chemical composition, marbling and colour in a group of purebred animals. The object of the study was beef of Limousin bulls (25 to 27 months, hot carcass weight - 432±31 kg, “U” conformation class, “2”–“3” fat class. Analysed cuts were Infraspinatus muscle from the blade and Longissimus dorsi muscle from the cube roll and the striploin. Tenderness was analysed with universal testing machine, colour - chromometer analysis, sarcomere length - microscopic method, basic chemical composition - near-infrared spectroscopy and marbling - computer image analysis. No differences in tenderness and sarcomere length were observed within the age groups of Limousin bulls (age of 25, 26, 27 months (p>0.05. Moisture (p = 0.0123 and fat (p = 0.0250 content were significantly different for meat of animals slaughtered at the age of 25 and 27 months. No influence of pH value on tenderness was observed, but at the same time, influence on sarcomere length (p = 0.039 and b* component of colour (0.045 was found. For “U” conformation class, in subclasses, as well as for fat classes “2”–“3”, there were no differences in tenderness, sarcomere length and colour components. Higher fat content was observed in the higher fat class, rather than in lower, however this feature was not associated with marbling.

  19. Natural humoral immune competence and survival in layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, L; Frankena, K; Kemp, B; Nieuwland, M G B; Parmentier, H K

    2007-06-01

    The relation between survival and levels of humoral components of innate (and specific) immune competence of laying hens was investigated in a population of 1,063 laying hens from 12 purebred layer lines. Natural immune competence of the chickens was studied by measuring levels of natural antibodies (NAb) binding to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, and hemolytic (classical and alternative) complement activity at 20, 40, and 65 wk of age. In addition, levels of antibodies binding a Newcastle disease vaccine strain as a measure of specific immunity were investigated at 20 wk of age. A distinction could be made between lines showing high or low immune competence with respect to NAb, complement activity, and specific antibodies. Within lines, significant correlations were found for each of the innate parameters among the 3 ages. The innate and specific parameters were, however, not correlated with each other. Based on the limited data set, it was not possible to draw conclusions on line differences for innate or specific immune competence in relation to survival. However, regardless of line, low levels of NAb binding to KLH or high levels of NAb binding to LPS were detected in chickens that did not survive the laying period. The major difference between the responses of NAb binding to KLH or LPS was that the chickens probably did not encounter KLH, which suggests a reflection of the capacity to respond, whereas the chickens most probably did encounter LPS, which suggests a reflection of the active status of the innate humoral immune system. In conclusion, we propose that levels (KLH) and activation (LPS) of components of natural antibodies are indicative for the probability that chickens survive a laying period.

  20. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2009-08-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.

  1. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems) methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds. PMID:20015355

  2. Biological validation of feline serum cystatin C: The effect of breed, age and sex and establishment of a reference interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, L F E; Paepe, D; Duchateau, L; Taffin, E R L; Marynissen, S; Delanghe, J; Daminet, S

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in cats, but the routine renal markers, serum creatinine (sCr) and urea, are not sensitive or specific enough to detect early CKD. Serum cystatin C (sCysC) has advantages over sCr, both in humans and dogs, and sCysC concentration is significantly higher in cats with CKD than in healthy cats. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, sex and breed on feline sCysC and to establish a reference interval for feline sCysC. In total, 130 healthy cats aged 1-16 years were included. sCysC was determined using a validated particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay. sCr, urea, urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were also measured. No significant differences in sCysC concentration were observed among young, middle-aged and geriatric cats, female intact, female neutered cats, male intact and male neutered cats, or among purebred and domestic short-or longhaired cats. The 95% reference interval for feline sCysC was determined to be 0.58-1.95 mg/L. sCr was significantly higher in geriatric cats than young cats. Serum urea in geriatric cats was significantly higher than in middle-aged and young cats (P = 0.004 and P reference interval calculated in this study. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the diagnostic value of sCysC as a renal marker in cats.

  3. A genetic dissection of breed composition and performance enhancement in the Alaskan sled dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runstadler Jonathan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Alaskan sled dog offers a rare opportunity to investigate the development of a dog breed based solely on performance, rather than appearance, thus setting the breed apart from most others. Several established breeds, many of which are recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC, have been introduced into the sled dog population to enhance racing performance. We have used molecular methods to ascertain the constitutive breeds used to develop successful sled dog lines, and in doing so, determined the breed origins of specific performance-related behaviors. One hundred and ninety-nine Alaskan sled dogs were genotyped using 96 microsatellite markers that span the canine genome. These data were compared to that from 141 similarly genotyped purebred dog breeds. Sled dogs were evaluated for breed composition based on a variety of performance phenotypes including speed, endurance and work ethic, and the data stratified based on population structure. Results We observe that the Alaskan sled dog has a unique molecular signature and that the genetic profile is sufficient for identifying dogs bred for sprint versus distance. When evaluating contributions of existing breeds we find that the Alaskan Malamute and Siberian Husky contributions are associated with enhanced endurance; Pointer and Saluki are associated with enhanced speed and the Anatolian Shepherd demonstrates a positive influence on work ethic. Conclusion We have established a genetic breed profile for the Alaskan sled dog, identified profile variance between sprint and distance dogs, and established breeds associated with enhanced performance attributes. These data set the stage for mapping studies aimed at finding genes that are associated with athletic attributes integral to the high performing Alaskan sled dog.

  4. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used

  5. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Lucy; Harvey, Naomi D.; Green, Martin; England, Gary C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behavior where discrete outcomes are of interest, using data from guide dogs to illustrate. Specifically, survival analysis and multistate modeling are applied to data on guide dogs comparing dogs that completed training and qualified as a guide dog, to those that were withdrawn from the training program. Survival analysis allows the time to (or between) a binary event(s) and the probability of the event occurring at or beyond a specified time point. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, was used to examine the time taken to withdraw a dog from training. Sex, breed, and other factors affected time to withdrawal. Bitches were withdrawn faster than dogs, Labradors were withdrawn faster, and Labrador × Golden Retrievers slower, than Golden Retriever × Labradors; and dogs not bred by Guide Dogs were withdrawn faster than those bred by Guide Dogs. Multistate modeling (MSM) can be used as an extension of survival analysis to incorporate more than two discrete events or states. Multistate models were used to investigate transitions between states of training to qualification as a guide dog or behavioral withdrawal, and from qualification as a guide dog to behavioral withdrawal. Sex, breed (with purebred Labradors and Golden retrievers differing from F1 crosses), and bred by Guide Dogs or not, effected movements between states. We postulate that survival analysis and MSM could be applied to a wide range of behavioral data and key examples are provided. PMID:28804710

  6. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Lucy; Harvey, Naomi D; Green, Martin; England, Gary C W

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behavior where discrete outcomes are of interest, using data from guide dogs to illustrate. Specifically, survival analysis and multistate modeling are applied to data on guide dogs comparing dogs that completed training and qualified as a guide dog, to those that were withdrawn from the training program. Survival analysis allows the time to (or between) a binary event(s) and the probability of the event occurring at or beyond a specified time point. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, was used to examine the time taken to withdraw a dog from training. Sex, breed, and other factors affected time to withdrawal. Bitches were withdrawn faster than dogs, Labradors were withdrawn faster, and Labrador × Golden Retrievers slower, than Golden Retriever × Labradors; and dogs not bred by Guide Dogs were withdrawn faster than those bred by Guide Dogs. Multistate modeling (MSM) can be used as an extension of survival analysis to incorporate more than two discrete events or states. Multistate models were used to investigate transitions between states of training to qualification as a guide dog or behavioral withdrawal, and from qualification as a guide dog to behavioral withdrawal. Sex, breed (with purebred Labradors and Golden retrievers differing from F1 crosses), and bred by Guide Dogs or not, effected movements between states. We postulate that survival analysis and MSM could be applied to a wide range of behavioral data and key examples are provided.

  7. The genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzenberger, Kathrin A; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68%) of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus). Only six captive individuals (7.7%) were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2), two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction.

  8. Variation of cats under domestication: genetic assignment of domestic cats to breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, J D; Lipinski, M J; Gandolfi, B; Froenicke, L; Grahn, J C; Grahn, R A; Lyons, L A

    2013-06-01

    Both cat breeders and the lay public have interests in the origins of their pets, not only in the genetic identity of the purebred individuals, but also in the historical origins of common household cats. The cat fancy is a relatively new institution with over 85% of its 40-50 breeds arising only in the past 75 years, primarily through selection on single-gene aesthetic traits. The short, yet intense cat breed history poses a significant challenge to the development of a genetic marker-based breed identification strategy. Using different breed assignment strategies and methods, 477 cats representing 29 fancy breeds were analysed with 38 short tandem repeats, 148 intergenic and five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Results suggest the frequentist method of Paetkau (single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.78, short tandem repeats = 0.88) surpasses the Bayesian method of Rannala and Mountain (single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.56, short tandem repeats = 0.83) for accurate assignment of individuals to the correct breed. Additionally, a post-assignment verification step with the five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms accurately identified between 0.31 and 0.58 of the misassigned individuals raising the sensitivity of assignment with the frequentist method to 0.89 and 0.92 for single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats respectively. This study provides a novel multistep assignment strategy and suggests that, despite their short breed history and breed family groupings, a majority of cats can be assigned to their proper breed or population of origin, that is, race.

  9. Dioestrous ovariectomy: a model to study the role of progesterone in the onset of canine pseudopregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobello, C; Baschar, H; Castex, G; de la Sota, R L; Goya, R G

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that overt pseudopregnancy in bitches is caused by an increase in the concentration of serum prolactin as a result of an abrupt decrease in progesterone concentration in the late luteal phase. This hypothesis was tested by using ovariectomy at dioestrus as an experimental model. A total of 18 intact cross- and purebred bitches were used. Eleven animals were ovariectomized (day 0) between day 25 and day 40 of the oestrous cycle, and seven intact bitches were used as controls. Blood samples for determination of prolactin and progesterone concentrations were collected on days -1, 1, 2, 3 and 7 in the ovariectomized group, and on day 1 and day 7 in the control group. On day 7, the presence or absence of overt pseudopregnancy was recorded. The four ovariectomized bitches with a history of pseudopregnancy showed signs of overt pseudopregnancy (P < 0.01). On day 7, progesterone concentrations were significantly higher in the control than in the ovariectomized bitches (P < 0.01). The expected decrease in serum progesterone concentration after ovariectomy was similar in pseudopregnant bitches and non-pseudopregnant bitches. However, in pseudopregnant bitches, but not in non-pseudopregnant bitches, there was a marked increase (expressed as percentage change) in the concentration of prolactin between day -1 and day 7 (P < 0.01). It was concluded that the abrupt decrease in progesterone concentrations does not lead systematically to pseudopregnancy. Only in bitches predisposed to pseudopregnancy would an abrupt decrease in progesterone concentrations induce a substantial increase in prolactin concentrations, which in turn would trigger the typical signs of pseudopregnancy.

  10. Utilization of milk fatty acids by the suckling Iberian piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaga, M A; Haro, A; Lara, L; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2016-11-01

    A total of 16 pure-bred Iberian (IB) sows, all of them suckling six piglets, were used, eight of them in each of the two consecutive trials (1 and 2). Daily milk yield and composition were determined weekly over a 34-day lactation period. Within each litter, one piglet at birth and four piglets on day 35 of life were slaughtered. Milk intake per piglet tended to be greater in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P=0.066), but piglets grew at 168±3.3 g/day, irrespective of the trial. In the IB sow milk, the linoleic (LA) : linolenic (LNA) acid ratio averaged 14.6 and 15.2 in trial 1 and trial 2, respectively. A fivefold increase in piglet body fat content was observed over lactation (Pacids were very close to those in the milk consumed, suggesting direct deposition. Daily deposition of LA derivatives and of LNA and its derivatives was found to be extremely low (acid (ARA) in tissues of the IB piglet at birth disappeared throughout the lactating period. An overall fractional deposition for total fatty acids (FA) was 0.409. Fractional oxidation (disappearance) rates were 0.939 and 0.926 for n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The overall rate of disappearance for the major non-essential FA (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids), estimated as 1-the overall fractional deposition rate, was 0.546. It is concluded that the high degree of FA unsaturation, high oxidation rate of LA and LNA, and poor synthesis of ARA from LA and of docosahexaenoic acid from LNA found in the suckling piglet might increase the energy cost of whole-body fat accretion, a contributor to the observed low efficiency of use of milk energy for growth.

  11. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; Bilgili, S F; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271-0.418; for DPM and WB h2<0.1; and for WS h2≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens.

  12. Development of perching behavior in 3 strains of pullets reared in furnished cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habinski, A M; Caston, L J; Casey-Trott, T M; Hunniford, M E; Widowski, T M

    2017-03-01

    Furnished rearing cages are becoming more widely available to replace conventional systems for pullets. To date, there is little information on how pullets develop perching behavior in furnished cages or how this varies among strains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of perches and a platform in a commercial furnished rearing "Combi-Cage" system by 3 pure-bred heritage strains of pullets (Rhode Island Red, Columbian Rock, and White Leghorn). Each cage had 4 elevated locations: one platform and 3 perches of differing heights and positions in the cage. The length of each cage was visually divided into 4 sections for observation. The number of birds using each section in each location was counted by one observer d per wk at 1200 h (d) from one to 14 wk of age and at 1600 h (night) right after lights were turned off from 4 to 14 wk of age. Mixed model repeated analyses were used to test effects of strain, age, and their interaction on the use of the platform, the 3 perches, and all 4 locations combined (vertical space use) at both time periods. GLM were used to compare overall use of the sections and locations. On average, pullets used vertical space more during the d than at night. There were also effects of age (P cage at both time periods. Generally, the Columbian Rocks used the perches and platform the most, and Rhode Island Reds the least. The highest perch in the cage was rarely used and birds showed a preference for perching in sections that were closest to cage walls (P cages may still require improvements in order to ensure the furnishings are used by pullets as intended. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Eimeria uz ura Single Oocyst Isolation and Amplification in Young Quails%日本鹌鹑艾美耳球虫单卵囊分离及雏鹑扩增研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 韩琼琼; 李清州; 王芳; 梁楠; 张龙现; 菅复春; 宁长申

    2014-01-01

    To obtain a large number of pure-bred E .uz ura ,quails’ coccidia oocysts were collected using the saturated brine flotation method and cultured at 26 ℃ .According to morphological identification , single sporulated oocyst of E .uzurawas separated and amplified in young quails .The results showed that sporulation of oocysts occurred for 14 h at 26 ℃ .seven-day-old artificially-reared coccidian-free quails were inoculated orally with 1 and 200 sporulated oocysts of E .uz ura ,the prepatent period was 6 d and 5 d ,and discharge of oocysts continued for 8-10 d and 11 d ,respectively .%为获取大量纯种日本鹌鹑艾美耳球虫(E .uz ura),采用饱和食盐水漂浮法收集某场鹌鹑的球虫卵囊,26℃恒温培养至孢子化后,对据形态学鉴定为 E .uz ura的分离株进行单卵囊分离和雏鹑扩增试验。结果显示,26℃条件下卵囊孢子化时间为14 h ;单卵囊感染7日龄雏鹑,其潜隐期6 d ,显露期8~10 d;以200个卵囊感染7日龄雏鹑,其潜隐期为5 d ,显露期为11 d。

  14. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chao; Mondal, Shubhro; Ping, Kaike; Chen, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM), on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model) and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM), uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM) of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM. PMID:28303160

  15. Anti-apoptotic signal transduction mechanism of electroacupuncture in acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfu, Quan; Rongliang, Chen; Mengxuan, Du; Liang, Zhang; Jinwei, Xu; Zongbao, Yang; Disheng, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be caused by a variety of pathogenic factors. In China, acupuncture is widely used to treat SCI. We previously found that acupuncture can reduce apoptosis and promote repair after SCI. However, the antiapoptotic mechanisms by which acupuncture exerts its effects on SCI remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate the role of the PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 signalling pathways in acupuncture treatment of acute SCI. Eighty pure-bred New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the following five groups (n=16 per group): control; model; elongated needle electroacupuncture (EA); EA+LY294002; and EA+PD98059. We established a spinal cord contusion model of SCI in all experimental groups except controls, in which only a laminectomy was performed. After SCI, three of the groups received EA once daily for 3 days. One hour before SCI, the two drug groups received LY294002 (Akt inhibitor; 10 μg, 20 μL) or PD98059 (ERK inhibitor; 3 μg, 20 μL) via intrathecal injection. At 48 h after SCI, animals were killed and spinal cord tissue samples were collected for transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays, immunohistochemistry and western blot assays. EA significantly increased p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 expression, reduced cytochrome c and caspase-3 expression and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in the injured spinal cord segment. The opposite effects were seen after using Akt and ERK inhibitors. Acupuncture promotes the repair of SCI, possibly by activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signalling pathways and by inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Prevalence of the prion protein gene E211K variant in U.S. cattle

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    Chase Chad C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, an atypical U.S. case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE was discovered in Alabama and later reported to be polymorphic for glutamate (E and lysine (K codons at position 211 in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp coding sequence. A bovine E211K mutation is important because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt – Jakob disease, an autosomal dominant form of prion disease. The present report describes a high-throughput matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay for scoring the Prnp E211K variant and its use to determine an upper limit for the K211 allele frequency in U.S. cattle. Results The K211 allele was not detected in 6062 cattle, including those from five commercial beef processing plants (3892 carcasses and 2170 registered cattle from 42 breeds. Multiple nearby polymorphisms in Prnp coding sequence of 1456 diverse purebred cattle (42 breeds did not interfere with scoring E211 or K211 alleles. Based on these results, the upper bounds for prevalence of the E211K variant was estimated to be extremely low, less than 1 in 2000 cattle (Bayesian analysis based on 95% quantile of the posterior distribution with a uniform prior. Conclusion No groups or breeds of U.S. cattle are presently known to harbor the Prnp K211 allele. Because a carrier was not detected, the number of additional atypical BSE cases with K211 will also be vanishingly low.

  17. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. A. Curi

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation, 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47% followed by Toxocara (18% and Trichuris (8%. Other less prevalent (<2% parasites found were Capillaria, Ascaridia, Spirocerca, Taeniidae, Acantocephala, Ascaris, Dipylidium caninum, Toxascaris, and the protozoans Cystoisospora and Eimeria. Mixed infections were found in 36% of samples, mostly by Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Previous deworming had no association with infections, meaning that this preventive measure is being incorrectly performed by owners. Regarding risk factors, dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.

  18. Relationships between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers and Meat Quality Traits of Duroc Breeding Stocks in Korea.

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    Choi, J S; Jin, S K; Jeong, Y H; Jung, Y C; Jung, J H; Shim, K S; Choi, Y I

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationships of five intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers (protein kinase adenosine monophosphate-activated γ3 subunit [PRKAG3], fatty acid synthase [FASN], calpastatin [CAST], high mobility group AT-hook 1 [HMGA1], and melanocortin-4 receptor [MC4R]) and meat quality traits of Duroc breeding stocks in Korea. A total of 200 purebred Duroc gilts from 8 sires and 40 dams at 4 pig breeding farms from 2010 to 2011 reaching market weight (110 kg) were slaughtered and their carcasses were chilled overnight. Longissimus dorsi muscles were removed from the carcass after 24 h of slaughter and used to determine pork properties including carcass weight, backfat thickness, moisture, intramuscular fat, pH24h, shear force, redness, texture, and fatty acid composition. The PRKAG3, FASN, CAST, and MC4R gene SNPs were significantly associated with the meat quality traits (p<0.003). The meats of PRKAG3 (A 0.024/G 0.976) AA genotype had higher pH, redness and texture than those from PRKAG3 GG genotype. Meats of FASN (C 0.301/A 0.699) AA genotype had higher backfat thickness, texture, stearic acid, oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid than FASN CC genotype. While the carcasses of CAST (A 0.373/G 0.627) AA genotype had thicker backfat, and lower shear force, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid content, they had higher stearic acid content than those from the CAST GG genotype. The MC4R (G 0.208/A 0.792) AA genotype were involved in increasing backfat thickness, carcass weight, moisture and saturated fatty acid content, and decreasing unsaturated fatty acid content in Duroc meat. These results indicated that the five SNP markers tested can be a help to select Duroc breed to improve carcass and meat quality properties in crossbred pigs.

  19. Prevalence of congenital heart disease in 76,301 mixed-breed dogs and 57,025 mixed-breed cats.

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    Schrope, Donald P

    2015-09-01

    Assess the prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in a large population of mixed-breed dogs and cats. 76,301 mixed-breed dogs and 57,025 mixed-breed cats. Retrospective review of records and examinations based on specified diagnostic criteria. Among mixed-breed dogs, the prevalence of CHD was 0.13% (51.4% female) and of innocent murmurs was 0.10% (53.0% male). Pulmonic stenosis was the most common defect followed by patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defect. Among mixed-breed cats, prevalence of CHD was 0.14% (55.2% male) and of innocent murmurs was 0.16% (54.4% male). When the 25 cats with dynamic left or right ventricular outflow obstruction were counted with cases of innocent murmurs, the overall prevalence was 0.2%. Ventricular septal defects were the most common feline CHD followed closely by aortic stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. There was no overall sex predilection for CHD in mixed-breed cats or dogs, and no significant difference in CHD prevalence between cats or dogs. Among dogs, subvalvular aortic stenosis and mitral valve dysplasia had a male predisposition while patent ductus arteriosus had a female predisposition. Among cats, valvular pulmonic stenosis, subvalvular and valvular aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defects had a male predisposition while pulmonary artery stenosis had a female predisposition. The prevalence of CHD in a mixed-breed dogs and cats is lower than for prior studies, perhaps due to the lack of purebreds in the study population or actual changes in disease prevalence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Zoonotic Trichomonas tenax and a new trichomonad species, Trichomonas brixi n. sp., from the oral cavities of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerová, Pavlína; Tachezy, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Trichomonads are known to inhabit the oral cavities of various mammals, including dogs, cats and horses. However, little attention has been paid to species identification, prevalence and zoonotic potential of these parasites, although their hosts live in close proximity with humans. According to the original description, oral trichomonads in dogs and cats belong to the genus Tetratrichomonas. Interestingly, later investigations suggested that the oral cavities of dogs and cats could be infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas, including the human oral cavity parasite Trichomonas tenax. Thus, in this study we investigated the occurrence of oral trichomonads in 111 domestic dogs and 122 cats using cell cultivation methods, nested PCR analyses, and the sequencing of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions. We found that both dogs and cats harbour T. tenax, with prevalences of 8.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Considerably more dogs were infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas (30.6%), which we also identified in cats (6.6%). An analysis of the potential risk factors suggested that dogs of more than 3years old or with dental disease signs are more frequently infected with Trichomonas sp. than younger dogs or dogs without the disease signs, and that crossbreed dogs revealed increased rates of infection in comparison with purebred dogs. An analysis of the cat population suggested that Trichomonas sp. infection is lower in younger and crossbreed cats. Although the morphology of Trichomonas sp. is very similar to that of T. tenax, based on a phylogenetic analysis of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions and the ssrRNA genes, we consider Trichomonas sp. to represent a new trichomonad species, for which we propose the name Trichomonas brixi. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and bone mineral density for early diagnosis of nonunion: An experimental study in rabbits

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    Jian-Ping Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis and treatment of bone nonunion have been studied extensively. Diagnosis and treatment of nonunion are mainly performed based on the interpretation of clinico-radiographic findings, which depend on the clinician′s experience and the degree of bone callus formation during the fracture-healing process. However, resolution may be compromised when the bone mineral content is <25%. A feasible method of monitoring bone-healing is therefore needed. We monitored a rabbit model of bone nonunion by regular radiographic examinations, QCT detection, and biomarker concentrations. Materials and Methods: Twenty purebred New Zealand rabbits (10 male and 10 female, 5-6 months of age, 2.5-3.0 kg were divided into bone defect Group (I that 10 left radius bones underwent resection of 1.5 cm of mid-radius bone and bone fracture Group (II that another 10 left radius bones underwent only mid-radius fracture. Quantitative computed tomography detection of bone mineral density (BMD and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin [OC], bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and bone resorption (C- and N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were assayed. There are twenty rabbits (10 male and 10 females. The age was 5-6 months weighing 2.5-3.0 kg. The defect was created in middle 1/3 radius in 10 rabbits and fracture was created in middle 1/3 radius of 10 rabbits. Results: BMD and NTX concentrations were significantly lower at 5 weeks postoperatively compared to the preoperative values and were significantly different between the two groups. OC showed no significant difference before and after surgery. Conclusions: BMD and NTX concentrations may be useful for early detection of bone nonunion in rabbits.

  2. A novel form of progressive retinal atrophy in Swedish vallhund dogs.

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    Ann E Cooper

    Full Text Available Inherited retinal degenerations, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP and age-related macular degeneration (AMD, represent leading causes of incurable blindness in humans. This is also true in dogs, where the term progressive retinal atrophy (PRA is used to describe inherited photoreceptor degeneration resulting in progressive vision loss. Because of the similarities in ocular anatomy, including the presence of a cone photoreceptor-rich central retinal region, and the close genotype-phenotype correlation, canine models contribute significantly to the understanding of retinal disease mechanisms and the development of new therapies. The screening of the pure-bred dog population for new forms of PRA represents an important strategy to establish new large animal models. By examining 324 dogs of the Swedish vallhund breed in seven countries and across three continents, we were able to describe a new and unique form of PRA characterized by the multifocal appearance of red and brown discoloration of the tapetal fundus followed over time by thinning of the retina. We propose three stages of the disease based on the appearance of the ocular fundus and associated visual deficits. Electroretinography revealed a gradual loss of both rod and cone photoreceptor-mediated function in Stages 2 and 3 of the disease. In the few dogs that suffered from pronounced vision loss, night-blindness occurred first in late Stage 2, followed by decreased day-vision in Stage 3. Histologic examinations confirmed the loss of photoreceptor cells at Stage 3, which was associated with the accumulation of autofluorescent material in the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium. Pedigree analysis was suggestive of an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance. Mutations in six known canine retinal degeneration genes as well as hypovitaminosis E were excluded as causes of the disease. The observed variability in the age of disease onset and rate of progression suggest the presence of genetic and

  3. Genetic associations between maternal traits and aggressive behaviour in Large White sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, A K; Voß, B; Tönepöhl, B; König von Borstel, U; Gauly, M

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the possibilities and consequences of selecting pigs for reduced aggression and desirable maternal behaviour. Data were recorded from 798 purebred Large White gilts, with an age of 217±17.7 (mean±SD) days, which were observed at mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics. The reaction of the sows towards separation from their litter was assessed for 2022 litters from 848 Large White sows. Sows' performance during their time in the farrowing unit was scored based on the traits farrowing behaviour (i.e. need of birth assistance), rearing performance (i.e. litter quality at day 10 postpartum (pp)), usability (i.e. additional labour input during lactation period e.g. for treatments) and udder quality of the sow (i.e. udder attachment). For agonistic behaviour, traits heritabilities of h 2=0.11±0.04 to h 2=0.28±0.06 were estimated. For the sow's reaction towards separation from her litter low heritabilities were found (h 2=0.03±0.03 for separation test on day 1 pp and h 2=0.02±0.03 for separation test on day 10 pp). Heritabilities for lactating sow's performance (farrowing behaviour, rearing performance, usability of the sow and udder quality) in the farrowing unit ranged from h 2=0.03±0.02 to h 2=0.19±0.03. Due to these results it can be assumed that selection for these traits, for example, for udder quality or reduced aggression, is possible. Antagonistic associations were found between separation test on day 1 pp and different measures of aggressiveness (r g =-0.22±0.26 aggressive attack and r g =-0.41±0.33 reciprocal fighting). Future studies should determine economic as well as welfare-related values of these traits in order to decide whether selection for these traits will be reasonable.

  4. Dog leucocyte antigen class II diversity and relationships among indigenous dogs of the island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runstadler, J A; Angles, J M; Pedersen, N C

    2006-11-01

    The genetic polymorphism at the dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II loci DQA1, DQB1 and DRB1 was studied in a large genetically diverse population of feral and wild-type dogs from the large island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea (Bali street dog, dingo and New Guinea singing dog, respectively). Sequence-based typing (SBT) of the hypervariable region of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles was used to determine genetic diversity. No new DQA1 alleles were recognized among the three dog populations, but five novel DLA-DRB1 and 2 novel DLA-DQB1 allele sequences were detected. Additional unknown alleles were postulated to exist in Bali street dogs, as indicated by the large percentage of individuals (15%-33%) that had indeterminate DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 alleles by SBT. All three groups of dogs possessed alleles that were relatively uncommon in conventional purebreds. The New Guinea singing dog and dingo shared alleles that were not present in the Bali street dogs. These findings suggested that the dingo was more closely related to indigenous dogs from New Guinea. Feral dog populations, in particular large ones such as that of Bali, show genetic diversity that existed prior to phenotypic selection for breeds originating from their respective regions. This diversity needs to be identified and maintained in the face of progressive Westernization. These populations deserve further study as potential model populations for the evolution of major histocompatibility complex alleles, for the study of canine genetic diversity, for the development of dog breeds and for studies on the comigration of ancestral human and dog populations.

  5. Genetic parameters estimates for gestation length in beef cattle Componentes de variância para o período de gestação em bovinos de corte

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    J.C.M.C. Rocha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Variance components were estimated for gestation length fitting the additive direct effect of calf, maternal genetic effect and sire effect as random effects. The statistical models also included the fixed effects of contemporary group, that included the date of breeding (AI, date of birth, and sex of calf, and the covariate age of dam at calving (linear and quadratic. Two different models were used, model 1 considering GL as a trait of the calf, and model 2 considering GL as a trait of the dam. The means of gestation length for the purebred animals were 294.55 days (males and 293.34 days (females, while for the crossbred animals they were 292.49 days (males and 292.55 days (females. Variance components for the purebred animals, fitting model 1, were 14.47, 72.78 and 57.31, for the additive genetic (sigma2a, total phenotypic (sigma2p and residual (sigma2e effects, respectively, with a heritability estimate of 0.21. For the crossbred animals, variance components for sigma2a, sigma2p, sigma2e were 90.40, 127.35 and 36.95, respectively, with a heritability of 0.71. Fitting model 2, the estimated variance components for the purebred animals were 12.78, 5.01, 74.84 and 57.05 for sigma2a , sire of calf (sigma ²asire, sigma2p, and sigma2e , respectively. The sire effect accounted for 0.07 (c² of the phenotypic variance and the coefficient of repeatability was 0.17. For the crossbred animals, the variance components were 22.11 (sigma2a , 22.97 (sigma ²asire , 127.70 (sigma2p and 82.61 (sigma2e, while c² was 0.18 and repeatability was 0.17. Therefore, regarding selection of beef cattle, it is suggested to use the heritability estimate obtained by model 1, where GL is considered as a trait of the calf.Estimaram-se os componentes de variância do período de gestação (PG considerando-se o efeito direto do bezerro e os efeitos direto da vaca e aleatório do touro (pai do bezerro. Além dos efeitos aleatórios, os modelos estatísticos incluíram os

  6. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T.; O’Nan, Audrey T.; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E.; Ashwell, Melissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007) basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038) transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038) transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and

  7. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Howard

    Full Text Available Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169 spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15 of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control, flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007 basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038 transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038 transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin

  8. Ultra-low-density genotype panels for breed assignment of Angus and Hereford cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, M M; Kelleher, M M; Kearney, J F; Sleator, R D; Berry, D P

    2017-06-01

    Angus and Hereford beef is marketed internationally for apparent superior meat quality attributes; DNA-based breed authenticity could be a useful instrument to ensure consumer confidence on premium meat products. The objective of this study was to develop an ultra-low-density genotype panel to accurately quantify the Angus and Hereford breed proportion in biological samples. Medium-density genotypes (13 306 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) were available on 54 703 commercial and 4042 purebred animals. The breed proportion of the commercial animals was generated from the medium-density genotypes and this estimate was regarded as the gold-standard breed composition. Ten genotype panels (100 to 1000 SNPs) were developed from the medium-density genotypes; five methods were used to identify the most informative SNPs and these included the Delta statistic, the fixation (F st) statistic and an index of both. Breed assignment analyses were undertaken for each breed, panel density and SNP selection method separately with a programme to infer population structure using the entire 13 306 SNP panel (representing the gold-standard measure). Breed assignment was undertaken for all commercial animals (n=54 703), animals deemed to contain some proportion of Angus based on pedigree (n=5740) and animals deemed to contain some proportion of Hereford based on pedigree (n=5187). The predicted breed proportion of all animals from the lower density panels was then compared with the gold-standard breed prediction. Panel density, SNP selection method and breed all had a significant effect on the correlation of predicted and actual breed proportion. Regardless of breed, the Index method of SNP selection numerically (but not significantly) outperformed all other selection methods in accuracy (i.e. correlation and root mean square of prediction) when panel density was ⩾300 SNPs. The correlation between actual and predicted breed proportion increased as panel density increased. Using

  9. Feeding patterns and dietary intake in a random sample of a Swedish population of insured-dogs.

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    Sallander, Marie; Hedhammar, Ake; Rundgren, Margareta; Lindberg, Jan E

    2010-07-01

    We used a validated mail and telephone questionnaire to investigate baseline data on feeding patterns and dietary intake in a random sample of 460 Swedish dogs. In 1999, purebred individuals 1-3 years old in the largest insurance database of Sweden completed the study. Most dogs were fed restricted amounts twice a day, and the feeding patterns seldom were changed after the age of 6 months. Typically, the main constituent of the meals was dry food [representing 69% of dry matter (DM)]. Four out of five dogs also got foods that (in descending order of the amount of energy provided) consisted of vegetable oil, meat, sour milk, bread, potatoes, pasta, lard/tallow, sausage, cheese, rice and fish. The heavier the dog (kg), the more dry dog food was consumed (g DM/d). The dry-food intakes (g DM/d) increased linearly with body weight (BW, in kg): intake=-15.3+8.33 BW (P=0.0001; r=0.998), a clear relationship that was not observed for other commercial foods. The non-commercial part of the diet had higher fat (13 and 8 g/megajoule, MJ, respectively; P=0.00001) and lower protein (12 and 16 g/MJ, respectively; P=0.00001) compared to the commercial part of the diet. Six out of ten dogs were given treats, and one-fourth was given vitamin/mineral supplements (most commonly daily). Most dogs consumed diets that were nutritionally balanced. No dogs in the study consumed diets that supplied lower amounts of protein than recommended by the NRC (2006). Only two individuals (<1%) were given total diets that were lower than the nutrient profiles in fat. Few dogs consumed total diets that were lower than recommended by the NRC (2006) in calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, D and E (2, 1, 3, 5, and 3% of the individuals, respectively). A few individuals consumed higher levels of vitamins A and D (<1 and 4%, respectively) than recommended. Diets that deviated from recommended levels were those consisting of only table foods with no supplements (too-low in vitamins and minerals) or

  10. Genetic study of gestation length in Andalusian and Arabian mares.

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    Valera, M; Blesa, F; Dos Santos, R; Molina, A

    2006-09-01

    The length of gestation in Andalusian, or Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Arabian (AB) mares reared in Spain was analysed, based on 766 spontaneous full-term deliveries appertaining to 141 mares of SPB breed and 72 mares of AB breed in 31 breeding seasons. The data were obtained from the Yeguada Militar de Jerez de la Frontera stud farm in Cádiz, Spain. The mean length of gestation was of 336.8+/-0.48 days in the SPB mares and 340.3+/-0.63 days in AB mares. To assess the accurate prediction of time of birth the potential effect of a number of factors was investigated. The influences of the breed, mare, month and year of mating, age of the mother, number of births and sex of the foal were statistically significant. The factor have the greatest influence over the gestation length was the mare itself, with a correlation among consecutive births of around 0.4. The effect of inbreeding, both of the mare and foal, was negligible. Gestation length shortened as the breeding season progressed: in both breeds, a delay of 1 month in mating corresponded to a decrease of 3 days in the gestation length. According to our results, gestation length decrease as the mare gets older, with the shortest gestation periods when the mare is 10-12 years old, and from this point on, it slowly increases. The gestation period shortens as the 4th or 5th birth approaches, and then gets progressively longer. The range of variation in gestation length due to the number of births to the mare is of 2.9 days for the AB mares, and 2.2 days for SPB mares. The heritability for the gestation length for AB and the SPB breeds was 0.2, with a repeatability of 0.36 and 0.37, for SPB and AB breeds, respectively. With the data from both breeds, and using a classical approach, the response to selection was estimated if mares with extreme gestation lengths were culled, i.e. lengths which are under 310 days, or over 360 days. According to our results, in the case of SPB, a decrease of 14-45% would occur in the number

  11. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  12. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  13. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BLACK SLAVONIAN PIG

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    Vladimir Margeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pairs (18 of microsatelite primers were used in this study to detect the genetic relationship within Black Slavonian Pig and between Turopolje Pig, Mangalitsa breed and Croatian Wild Pigs. The second goal of this study was to determine phylogenetic relationships among these breeds and some Asian and European pigs using the mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism. The third goal was to determine the MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pigs and to find an efficient and simple PCR-RFLP method, based on differences in MC1R genotype, to distinguish between purebred Black Slavonian pigs and their crossings with commercial pig breeds and Wild Boars. Aiming to conduct microsatellite analysis each animal was genotyped for 18 microsatelite markers, chosen based on their quality, size, polymorphism and location on the porcine genome as proposed by the FAO. Two pairs of primers amplified a 511-bp fragment of control region between sites 15 390 and 15 900 (Mit1.F and Mit1.R and a 810-bp fragment between sites 15 825 and 16 634 (Mit2.F and Mi2.R were genotyped for mtDNA. Two primer pairs were used to amplify the majority of the single exon of MC1R gene aiming to determinate MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pig. The first pair of primers, MERL1 and EPIG2, was used to amplify a 428-bp product from the 5’ half of the exon, whereas EPIG1 and EPIG3 amplified a 405-bp product from the 3’ half. Our results showed that the 18 microsatellites used in this study were useful markers to study genetic diversity among Croatian autochthonous pig breeds. This set of microsatellites may be used for identifying individuals and for genetic diversity studies for selection and conservation of the Black Slavonian pig, Turopolje pig and Mangalitsa breed. Genetic distances between populations made with Principal Component Analysis (PCA method noticed that studied populations are mostly clearly geneticaly defined. mtDNA analysis suggested that Black Slavonian and Turopolje pig showed

  14. A multivariate study of the triacylglycerols composition of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Iberian pig in relation to the fattening diet and genotype

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    León-Camacho, Manuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The triacylglycerol (TGs composition of 1, 560 samples of subcutaneous fat of Iberian purebred and crossbred (iberianxDuroc pigs reared extensively on three different feeding systems: montanera (M, cebo (C and recebo (R, were determined. Seventeen TG species were identified by Gas Chromatography and six of them (POO, PSO, POL, OOO, SOO, OOL accounted for 75 %. Significant differences (p Se ha determinado la composición de trigliceridos (TGs en 1560 muestras de grasa subcutánea de cerdo ibérico puro y cruzado (ibericoxDuroc criados en régimen extensivo en tres sistemas de alimentación: montanera (M, cebo (C y recebo (R. Diecisiete TGs se han identificado mediante Cromatografía de Gases, y seis de ellos (POO, PSO, POL, OOO, SOO, OOL representan el 75 %. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (p < 0.01 para la mayoría de los TGs entre los tres tipos de alimentación. También se investigó el efecto del tiempo de montanera sobre la composición de TGs, encontrándose una correlación positiva (p < 0.05 con los siguientes TGs: OOO, SOL, OOL y OLL. Tras 110 días de Montanera, todas las muestras presentaron % de OOO y OOL por encima del 9.5 % y 4.5 % respectivamente. El genotipo también mostró un efecto significativo (p < 0.01 sobre la composición de TGs. Se aplicó Análisis de Componentes Principales y Análisis Lineal Discriminantes a los datos obtenidos. No se obtuvo una buena separación entre los tres grupos de alimentación (M, R y C, sólo para los grupos de M y C se obtuvo una clara separación en base a la composición de TGs.

  15. Meat quality characteristics of exotic and SPRD crossbred goats from the semiarid region Qualidade da carne de caprinos exóticos e mestiços SPRD da região semiárida

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    Ertha Janine Lacerda de Medeiros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two intact male goats from four genetic groups (eight pure-bred Boers, eight ¾ Boer + ¼ SPRD crossbreeds, eight ½ Boer + ½ SPRD crossbreeds, and eight ½ Anglo Nubian + ½ SPRD crossbreeds were evaluated for meat quality. The goats were reared in confinement and slaughtered at the average live weight of 29 kg. Temperature and pH decrease in the longissimus dorsi muscle was determined for 24 hours, and analyses of colour, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, and sensory attributes were also performed. Genotype significantly (P Trinta e dois caprinos machos não castrados de quatro grupos genéticos, oito da raça Boer Puro, oito mestiços de ¾ Boer + ¼ SPRD, oito mestiços de ½ Boer + ½ SPRD e oito mestiços de ½ Anglo Nubiano + ½ SPRD, foram utilizados para caracterizar a sua qualidade de carne. Os caprinos foram criados em confinamento e abatidos com o peso vivo médio de 29 kg. Em conjunto com as análises de cor, foram determinados o decréscimo da temperatura e do pH durante 24 horas no músculo longissimus dorsi, a perda de peso por cocção, a capacidade de retenção de água e sensoriais. O genótipo (p < 0,05 influenciou significativamente o período de confinamento: mestiços de ½ Boer + ½ SPRD apresentaram maior número de dias em confinamento, enquanto os Boer Puro alcançaram o peso final no menor período de dias. O genótipo também influenciou significativamente (p < 0,05 os parâmetros de perda de peso por cocção, força de cisalhamento e cor (intensidade de amarelo e luminescência e os atributos sensoriais de sabor, odor e cor de carne crua. O cruzamento das raças Boer e Anglo Nubiana com os nativos SPRD resultou em carne caprina de elevada qualidade.

  16. Effect of dietary zinc oxide on jejunal morphological and immunological characteristics in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Pieper, R; Tedin, L; Martin, L; Meyer, W; Rieger, J; Plendl, J; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes and the effect of dietary Zn concentration on morphological and immunological characteristics in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. A total of 96 purebred Landrace piglets were weaned at the age of 26 ± 1 d, and randomly allocated into 3 treatment groups fed with low (57 mg Zn/kg), medium (164 mg Zn/kg), and high (2425 mg Zn/kg) dietary Zn (ZnO). Piglets (4 males and 4 females per treatment group) were killed at 33 ± 1, 40 ± 1, 47 ± 1, and 54 ± 1 d of age. In the jejunum, villus height, crypt depth, and the number of goblet cells producing neutral, acidic, sulfated, and sialylated mucins were measured. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were characterized by flow cytometry and the gene expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), mucin 20 (MUC20), β-defensin 3, and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Villus height and crypt depth in the jejunum showed age related differences (P < 0.01), whereas the dietary concentrations of Zn had no effect. The mucin types were modified mainly by age, and dietary Zn had no effect in the proximal jejunum. In the distal jejunum, age and Zn had effects on the mucin types. The abundance of sulfomucins decreased (P < 0.001) and sialomucins increased with age (P < 0.001), while high dietary ZnO reduced the sulfomucins (P < 0.001) and increased the sialomucins (P < 0.05) in the crypts. The phenotypes of lymphocytes in the epithelium of the proximal jejunum showed relatively constant percentages of T-cells, as well as natural killer cells. High dietary Zn treatment led to a reduced abundance of CD8(+) γδ T-cells (P < 0.05). The apportionment of different cytotoxic T-cell was age dependent. Although the percentage of CD4(-)CD8β(+) increased (P < 0.01), the relative amount of CD4(+)CD8β(+) decreased with age (P < 0.05). The expression of MUC2 and MUC20 was not influenced by age or dietary Zn concentration. High Zn intakes resulted in a reduced

  17. The anterior tooth development of cattle presented for slaughter: an analysis of age, sex and breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, K J; Brown, S N; Browne, W J; Hadley, P J; Knowles, T G

    2013-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study, data from records of cattle slaughtered over a 1-year period at a large abattoir in South West England were analysed using an ordered category response model to investigate the inter-relationships between age, sex and breed on development of the permanent anterior (PA) teeth. Using the model, transition points at which there was a 50% probability of membership of each category of paired PA teeth were identified. Data from ∼60,000 animals were initially analysed for age and sex effect. The age transition was found to be ∼23 months moving from zero to two teeth; 30 months for two to four teeth; 37 months for four to six teeth and 42 months for six to eight teeth. Males were found to develop, on average, ∼22 days earlier than females across all stages. A reduced data set of ∼23,000 animals registered as pure-bred only was used to compare breed and type interactions and to investigate sex effects within the sub-categories. Breeds were grouped into dairy and beef-type and beef breeds split into native and continental. It was found that dairy-types moved through the transition points earlier than beef-types across all stages (interval varying between ∼8 and 12 weeks) and that collectively, native beef breeds moved through the transition points by up to 3 weeks earlier than the continental beef breeds. Interestingly, in contrast to beef animals, dairy females matured before dairy males. However, the magnitude of the difference between dairy females and males diminished at the later stages of development. Differences were found between breeds. Across the first three stages, Ayrshires and Guernseys developed between 3 and 6 weeks later than Friesian/Holsteins and Simmental, Limousin and Blonde Aquitaine 6 and 8 weeks later than Aberdeen Angus. Herefords, Charolais and South Devon developed later but by a smaller interval and Red Devon and Galloway showed the largest individual effect with transition delayed by 8 to 12 weeks.

  18. Eficácia das lactonas macrocíclicas sistêmicas (ivermectina e moxidectina na terapia da demodicidose canina generalizada Efficacy of systemics macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin and moxidectin for the treatment of generalized canine demodicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Delayte

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia de lactonas macrocíclicas (ivermectina e moxidectina sobre a eventual ocorrência de efeitos colaterais e acompanharam-se, após a alta parasitológica, por 12 meses, os cães tratados, visando detectar a recidiva do quadro dermatopático. Dos 63 animais, 59% eram fêmeas, 76% apresentavam precisa definição racial e 67% tinham pelame curto. A ivermectina (0,6mg/kg/dia foi administrada por via oral a 31 cães, e a moxidectina (0,5mg/kg/cada 72 horas, pela mesma via, a 32 animais. Os tempos médios para a obtenção da primeira negativação do exame parasitológico do raspado cutâneo e para a consecução da alta foram, respectivamente, de 90 e 130 dias para a ivermectina e de 108 e 147 dias para a moxidectina. A ivermectina acarretou menos (16,1% efeitos colaterais em relação à moxidectina (37,5% (P=0,03. As recidivas foram, respectivamente, 10,3% e 13% para ivermectina e moxidectina. Não houve diferença entre os dois protocolos de terapia quanto aos percentuais de recidiva (P=0,67 e eficácia (P=0,61. Ambas as lactonas macrocíclicas mostraram-se eficazes: ivermectina 89,7% e moxidectina 87%.The efficacy of ivermectin and moxidectin for treatment of generalized canine demodicosis, was evaluated to detect the eventual occurrence of side effects caused by the use of these drugs, and to follow the treated dogs for 12 months after obtaining parasitologic cure. Of 63 dogs, 59% were females, 76% were defined as purebred and 67% had short hair. Ivermectin (0.6mg/kg/daily was orally administered to 31 dogs and moxidectin (0.5mg/kg/every 72 hours to 32 dogs. The average number of days to obtain the first negative skin scraping results and the parasitologic cure were, respectively, 90 and 130 days for ivermectin, and 108 and 147 days for moxidectin. Ivermectin caused fewer side effects (16.1% than moxidectin (37.5% (P0.67 and efficacy (P>0.61. Both drugs were effective and safe to treat generalized canine demodicosis

  19. Estimation of linkage disequilibrium in four US pig breeds

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    Badke Yvonne M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of marker assisted selection depends on the amount of linkage disequilibrium (LD across the genome. To implement marker assisted selection in the swine breeding industry, information about extent and degree of LD is essential. The objective of this study is to estimate LD in four US breeds of pigs (Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire and subsequently calculate persistence of phase among them using a 60 k SNP panel. In addition, we report LD when using only a fraction of the available markers, to estimate persistence of LD over distance. Results Average r2 between adjacent SNP across all chromosomes was 0.36 for Landrace, 0.39 for Yorkshire, 0.44 for Hampshire and 0.46 for Duroc. For markers 1 Mb apart, r2 ranged from 0.15 for Landrace to 0.20 for Hampshire. Reducing the marker panel to 10% of its original density, average r2 ranged between 0.20 for Landrace to 0.25 for Duroc. We also estimated persistence of phase as a measure of prediction reliability of markers in one breed by those in another and found that markers less than 10 kb apart could be predicted with a maximal accuracy of 0.92 for Landrace with Yorkshire. Conclusions Our estimates of LD, although in good agreement with previous reports, are more comprehensive and based on a larger panel of markers. Our estimates also confirmed earlier findings reporting higher LD in pigs than in American Holstein cattle, especially at increasing marker distances (> 1 Mb. High average LD (r2 > 0.4 between adjacent SNP found in this study is an important precursor for the implementation of marker assisted selection within a livestock species. Results of this study are relevant to the US purebred pig industry and critical for the design of programs of whole genome marker assisted evaluation and selection. In addition, results indicate that a more cost efficient implementation of marker assisted selection using low density panels with genotype imputation, would be

  20. Genetic background and phenotypic characterization over two farrowings of leg conformation defects in Landrace and Large White sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sevilla, X Fernàndez; Fàbrega, E; Tibau, J; Casellas, J

    2009-05-01

    A Bayesian threshold animal model was applied to evaluate the prevalence over 2 farrowings and genetic background of overall leg conformation score and the presence or absence of 6 specific leg defects (abnormal hoof growth, splay footed, plantigradism, straight pasterns, sickle-hocked legs, and the presence of swelling or injuries) in purebred Landrace and Large White sows. Data sets contained phenotypic records from 2,477 and 1,550 Landrace and Large White females, respectively, at the end of the growing period. Leg conformation data from first and second farrowings were available for 223 and 191 Landrace sows and 213 and 193 Large White sows, respectively. Overall leg conformation deteriorated with age, with statistically relevant differences between females at the end of the growing period, first farrowing (FF), and second farrowing (SF). In a similar way, the prevalence of the 6 specific leg defects increased between the end of the growing period and FF (with the exception of straight pasterns in the Landrace population). Differences between FF and second farrowing were statistically relevant for hoof growth (highest posterior density regions at 95% did not overlap), plantigradism, sickle-hocked legs, and overall leg conformation score in Landrace and for sickle-hocked leg and overall leg conformation score in Large White. The statistical relevance of the genetic background was tested through the Bayes factor (BF) between the model with the additive genetic component and the model with 0 heritability (nonheritable). Heritability (h(2)) was discarded (BF 100) of genetic background was obtained for overall leg conformation score in Landrace and Large White sows (h(2) = 0.27 and 0.38, respectively), hoof growth in both breeds (h(2) = 0.22 and 0.26, respectively), and plantigradism (h(2) = 0.34) and the presence of swelling or injuries in Landrace (h(2) = 0.27). Note that a BF > 100 implies that the model with infinitesimal genetic effects was more than 100 times

  1. Oxidation and antioxidant status: effects on shelf-life of meat from Limousine cattle fed with supplements of α-tocopherol

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    Domenico Gatta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant status of meat from cattle fed diets supplemented with vitamin E (α-tocopherol acetate during the finishing period and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on meat shelf-life. Twenty purebred Limousine calves reared in the same farm, were randomly selected, divided into control group (n=10 and treated group (n=10 and fed a total mixed ration: treated group received a supplementation of vitamin E (900 mg/kg of CMF for a period of 150 days before slaughter. Meat quality was evaluated by the following analyses: pH, water holding capacity (drip loss, colour (L*, a*, b*, C*, H*, chemical forms of myoglobin, substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (MDA and enzymatic antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutation peroxidase. Dietary vitamin E supplementation had a positive effect on water holding capacity; in the control group a considerable increase in drip loss from the 2nd to 6th day of conservation was observed (2.83% vs 7.54%, while in the treated group during the same time period this increase appeared to be much more gradual and occurred to a lesser degree (2.31% vs 4.15%. Moreover, administration of vitamin E led to greater stability of colorimetric coordinates and reduced discoloration of the longissimus dorsi muscle during conservation as indicated by the redness a* (control: 23.85 and 23.87 vs 19.34 at 2h, 2 and 6 days, respectively; treated: 24.88, 23.91 and 24.01 at 2h, 2 days and 6 days, respectively and in the Chroma* (control: 26.89 and 26.77 vs 21.90 at 2h, 2 days and 6 days, respectively; treated: 27.67, 26.57 and 26.77 at 2h, 2 and 6 days, respectively. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly greater in the meat from cattle treated with vitamin E compared to that observed in the meat from controls (0.204 vs 0.167. The study showed that vitamin E supplementation in the finishing diets of calves caused only slight modifications in the

  2. Some dairy traits of Istrian ewes kept in semi-intensive farming conditions

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    Marina Pliško

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian sheep has the highest milk yield among indigenous Croatian sheep breeds though originally belongs to a group of sheep of combined production traits. Since milk of Istrian sheep is traditionally processed into cheese and that processing possibilities of milk, among other things, are defined by its chemical composition and hygienic quality, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of some environmental factors (year, parity, stage of lactation, season (month of lambing on daily and lactation milk yield, lactation length, milk chemical composition and the somatic cell count (SCC in the milk of Istrian ewes. A total of 83 purebred, dairy Istrian sheep, during three consecutive lactations (from 2012 to 2014, were involved in this research. Due to conditions of feeding, care and housing, all ewes were kept in identical (semi-intensive farming conditions throughout the whole study period. During milking period of lactation regular milking controls were carried out (AT method and, on these occasions, individual milk samples for chemical composition analysis and determination of somatic cell count were taken. During average lactation length of 206 days Istrian ewes produced on average 190.77 kg of milk, or 1.1 kg of milk per day. Milk of Istrian ewes on average contained 6.81% fat, 5.90% protein, 4.32% lactose, 18.08% total solids and 11.31% non-fat solids. The geometric mean of SCC was 316*103*mL-1 of milk (log 5.50±0.02. A significant (P < 0.001 effect of the year is determined on the milk yield and the lactation length, as well as the chemical composition of milk (with the exception of protein and SCC. Ewes in the fourth lactation achieved the highest average daily (P < 0.001 and lactation milk yield (P < 0.05, while the first-lambing ewes produced milk with the highest content of total solids, milk fat and proteins. Stage of lactation significantly (P < 0.001 affected the daily milk yield, milk chemical composition, as well as

  3. Meat quality of rabbits reared with two different feeding strategies: with or without fresh alfalfa ad libitum

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    Gustavo Capra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate production performance, carcass characteristics and nutritive value of meat of rabbits reared under the 2 prevailing feeding strategies in Uruguay. One week after weaning, 96 purebred V line rabbits were randomly distributed between 2 treatments: (T1 commercial pelleted food ad libitum and (T2 commercial pelleted food ad libitum plus fresh alfalfa ad libitum. Each treatment included 12 cages containing 4 individuals each (2 males and 2 females. Growth performance characteristics (live weight evolution, commercial food consumption and food/gain ratio were evaluated. The consumption of alfalfa was not measured. Rabbits were slaughtered at a live weight of 2500 g and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Samples of meat and dissectible fat were analysed to determine intramuscular fat content at muscle L. dorsi, dissectible fat and intramuscular fat composition, minerals (Zn, Fe, Mg and Na, vitamin E and purines. Sensory evaluations were conducted to assess the effect of treatments on the consumer’s perception of differences and the existence of attributes determining preferences. Differences between treatments were significant for total commercial food intake (23 356 vs. 20 930 g/cage; P<0.001 and feed conversion ratio (3.82 vs. 3.41; P<0.01 for T1 and T2 respectively. No significant differences were found in average daily gain, age at slaughter and carcass characteristics. There were no significant differences in the intramuscular fat content. The fatty acid composition of dissectible and intramuscular fat was affected the inclusion of alfalfa in the diet increasing the linolenic acid content (1.82 vs. 3.28% and 2.29 vs. 5.15% for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001, and improving the n-6/n-3 relationship (8.60 vs. 5.82 and 11.58 vs. 5.64 for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001. There were no significant differences in vitamin E

  4. Macromineral requirements for the maintenance and growth of Boer crossbred kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M H M R; Resende, K T; Tedeschi, L O; Teixeira, I A M A; Fernandes, J S

    2012-12-01

    Advances in mineral nutrition of goats have been made during the last decade, especially in our understanding of Ca and P requirements. However, few studies have focused on the mineral requirements of crossbred Boer goats in their growth phase. Our objective for this study was to determine the macromineral (Ca, P, Mg, K, and Na) requirements for the maintenance and growth of intact, male three-fourths Boer × one-fourth Saanen kids (n = 34; 20.5 ± 0.24 kg of initial BW). Two trials were conducted: 1 for maintenance and 1 for growth requirements. In the maintenance trial, 28 kids were used. The baseline (BL) group consisted of 7 randomly selected kids averaging 21.2 ± 0.36 kg BW and 122 d old. The remaining kids (n = 21; age 168 ± 5 d) were randomly allocated into 7 slaughter groups (blocks) including 3 animals distributed among 3 amounts of DMI (treatments: ad libitum and restricted to 70 or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the block reached 35 kg BW. The BL and ad libitum-fed groups in the maintenance trial were also part of the growth trial. Therefore, in the growth trial, 20 kids fed for ad libitum intake were used as follows: 7 kids slaughtered at 21.2 ± 0.36 kg BW (BL), 6 kids slaughtered at 28.2 ± 0.39 kg BW (intermediate slaughter), and 7 kids slaughtered at 35.6 ± 0.36 kg BW. Empty whole bodies of the kids (head + feet, hide, internal organs + blood, and carcass) were weighed, ground, mixed, and subsampled for chemical analyses. Daily maintenance requirements, calculated using the comparative slaughter technique (P requirements for growth increased from 6.2 to 6.6 g Ca, 5.3 to 5.4 g P, and 0.29 to 0.30 g Mg and decreased from 1.20 to 1.07 g K and 0.65 to 0.59 g Na/kg of EBW gain for kids from 20 to 35 kg BW. This study indicated that the net mineral requirements for Boer crossbred goat kids may be different from those of purebred or other genotypes, and more data are needed for goats

  5. Epidemiological investigation of canine parvovirus disease in small animal hospital in Wenzhou area%温州地区犬细小病毒病门诊的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗厚强; 宋显章; 王清艳; 段龙川; 涂宜强; 付华

    2014-01-01

    为掌握温州地区犬细小病毒病的流行病学情况,对2011年10月至2012年9月在温州科技职业学院附属宠物医院就诊的578份病例进行流行病学调查。结果表明:检测出温州地区犬细小病毒感染阳性病例113份,感染率为19.6%;感染犬以3~12月龄犬为主;未免疫犬感染率最高,达到84.8%;纯种犬的感染率也是最高,达到84.1%;温州地区犬细小病毒感染一年四季均可发生,但多发于春秋两季;通常采用早期血清、单抗治疗和疫苗接种为主的综合治疗方法,才能提高治疗效果,降低死亡率。%In order to provide scientific basis for control of canine parvovirus infection , an epidemiological investigation on the infected dogs was carried out from October 2011 to September 2012 in Wenzhou Small Animal Hospital, Wenzhou Vocational College of Science & Technology .The results showed that 113 canine parvovirus positive cases were found and the total infection rate was 19.6%.The majority of infection cases were dogs at the age of 3 months to 12 months.The infection rate among the dogs with no immunization were was higher , accounting for 84.8%.And the infection rate of purebred dogs was higher , accounting for 84.1%.Canine parvovirus infection could happen all the year round in Wenzhou area , especially in spring and autumn .The comprehensive treatment including injection of CPV serum and CPV monoclonal antibody and active immunization were adopted to improve cure rate and reduce mortality of canine parvovirus infection .

  6. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  7. Should genetic groups be fitted in BLUP evaluation? Practical answer for the French AI beef sire evaluation

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    LaloŅ Denis

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some analytical and simulated criteria were used to determine whether a priori genetic differences among groups, which are not accounted for by the relationship matrix, ought to be fitted in models for genetic evaluation, depending on the data structure and the accuracy of the evaluation. These criteria were the mean square error of some extreme contrasts between animals, the true genetic superiority of animals selected across groups, i.e. the selection response, and the magnitude of selection bias (difference between true and predicted selection responses. The different statistical models studied considered either fixed or random genetic groups (based on six different years of birth versus ignoring the genetic group effects in a sire model. Including fixed genetic groups led to an overestimation of selection response under BLUP selection across groups despite the unbiasedness of the estimation, i.e. despite the correct estimation of differences between genetic groups. This overestimation was extremely important in numerical applications which considered two kinds of within-station progeny test designs for French purebred beef cattle AI sire evaluation across years: the reference sire design and the repeater sire design. When assuming a priori genetic differences due to the existence of a genetic trend of around 20% of genetic standard deviation for a trait with h2 = 0.4, in a repeater sire design, the overestimation of the genetic superiority of bulls selected across groups varied from about 10% for an across-year selection rate p = 1/6 and an accurate selection index (100 progeny records per sire to 75% for p = 1/2 and a less accurate selection index (20 progeny records per sire. This overestimation decreased when the genetic trend, the heritability of the trait, the accuracy of the evaluation or the connectedness of the design increased. Whatever the data design, a model of genetic evaluation without groups was preferred to a model

  8. 促卵泡激素受体基因第2内含子多态性对如皋黄鸡繁殖性状的遗传效应分析%Association Analyses of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Intron 2 of FSHR Gene with Reproductive Traits in Rugao Yellow Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克华; 郭军; 窦套存; 洪军; 曲亮

    2012-01-01

    试验以260只如皋黄鸡为素材,采用飞行质谱技术对位于促卵泡素受体(follicle stimulate hormone receptor,FSHR)基因第2内含子的3个SNPs位点进行检测,并对其与繁殖性状的相关性进行了分析.结果表明,C+29329A突变对开产日龄、开产蛋重及40周龄蛋重有显著影响(P<0.05);而C+30582G只与40周龄总产蛋数呈显著相关(P<0.05);G+51411A则对开产日龄、开产体重及40周龄总产蛋数有显著影响(P<0.05).研究结果显示,FSHR基因有望成为选育高产蛋鸡的分子标记,辅助选育、开发中国地方鸡品种资源.%260 purebred Rugao Yellow hens were used to analyze the association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in follicle stimulate hormone receptor (FSHR) gene with the reproductive traits in Rugao Yellow chicken. 3 SNPs in the intron 2 of FSHR gene were detected by SELDI-TOF. The results showed that the mutation of C+29329A was significantly associated with the age of the first egg( AFE) ,egg weight of 40 w(EW40) ,the weight of the first egg(FEW) (P<0. 05). The polymorphism of C+ 30582G was just significantly associated with the total number of egg of EN40 (P<0.05). The mutation of G+51411A was significantly associated with the body weight at the first egg(BWFE), AFE and EN40(P<0. 05). The results indicated that the FSHR is a potential marker for reproduction traits to be used in conjunction with classic selection methods.

  9. Developmental Stage, Muscle and Genetic Type Modify Muscle Transcriptome in Pigs: Effects on Gene Expression and Regulatory Factors Involved in Growth and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Miriam; Fernández, Almudena; Núñez, Yolanda; Benítez, Rita; Isabel, Beatriz; Fernández, Ana I.; Rey, Ana I.; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Medrano, Juan F.; Cánovas, Ángela; López-Bote, Clemente J.

    2016-01-01

    Iberian pig production includes purebred (IB) and Duroc-crossbred (IBxDU) pigs, which show important differences in growth, fattening and tissue composition. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of genetic type and muscle (Longissimus dorsi (LD) vs Biceps femoris (BF)) on gene expression and transcriptional regulation at two developmental stages. Nine IB and 10 IBxDU piglets were slaughtered at birth, and seven IB and 10 IBxDU at four months of age (growing period). Carcass traits and LD intramuscular fat (IMF) content were measured. Muscle transcriptome was analyzed on LD samples with RNA-Seq technology. Carcasses were smaller in IB than in IBxDU neonates (p 1.5) by the developmental stage (5,812 genes), muscle type (135 genes), and genetic type (261 genes at birth and 113 at growth). Newborns transcriptome reflected a highly proliferative developmental stage, while older pigs showed upregulation of catabolic and muscle functioning processes. Regarding the genetic type effect, IBxDU newborns showed enrichment of gene pathways involved in muscle growth, in agreement with the higher prenatal growth observed in these pigs. However, IB growing pigs showed enrichment of pathways involved in protein deposition and cellular growth, supporting the compensatory gain experienced by IB pigs during this period. Moreover, newborn and growing IB pigs showed more active glucose and lipid metabolism than IBxDU pigs. Moreover, LD muscle seems to have more active muscular and cell growth, while BF points towards lipid metabolism and fat deposition. Several regulators controlling transcriptome changes in both genotypes were identified across muscles and ages (SIM1, PVALB, MEFs, TCF7L2 or FOXO1), being strong candidate genes to drive expression and thus, phenotypic differences between IB and IBxDU pigs. Many of the identified regulators were known to be involved in muscle and adipose tissues development, but others not previously associated with pig muscle growth

  10. Metabolic and clinical response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in layer pullets of different genetic backgrounds supplied with graded dietary L-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieboldt, M A; Frahm, J; Halle, I; Görs, S; Schrader, L; Weigend, S; Preisinger, R; Metges, C C; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-03-01

    L-arginine (Arg) is an essential amino acid in birds that plays a decisive role in avian protein synthesis and immune response. Effects of graded dietary Arg supply on metabolic and clinical response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were studied over 48 hours after a single intramuscular LPS injection in 18-week-old genetically diverse purebred pullets. LPS induced a genotype-specific fever response within 4 hours post injectionem. Whereas brown genotypes showed an initial hypothermia followed by longer-lasting moderate hyperthermia, white genotypes exhibited a biphasic hyperthermia without initial hypothermia. Furthermore, within 2 hours after LPS injection, sickness behavior characterized by lethargy, anorexia, intensified respiration, and ruffled feathers appeared, persisted for 3 to 5 hours and recovered 12 hours post injectionem. The varying grades of Arg did not alter the examined traits named above, whereas insufficient Arg reduced body growth and increased relative weights of liver and pancreas significantly. At 48 hours post injectionem, increased relative weights of liver and spleen were also found in LPS treated pullets, whereas LPS decreased those of pancreas, bursa, thymus, and cecal tonsils. Moreover, LPS lowered the sum of plasma amino acids and decreased plasma concentrations of Arg, citrulline, glutamate, methionine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, tryptophan, and tyrosine, and increased those of aspartate, glutamine, lysine, 1- and 3-methyl-histidine. Elevating concentrations of dietary Arg led to increasing plasma concentrations of Arg, citrulline, ornithine, and 3-methyl-histidine subsequently. As quantitative expression of LPS-induced anorexia, proteolysis, and the following changes in plasma amino acids, pullets showed a significant decrease of feed and nitrogen intake and catabolic metabolism characterized by negative nitrogen balance and body weight loss in the first 24 hours post injectionem. Pullets recovered from the

  11. Genetic analysis of age at first service, return rate, litter size, and weaning-to-first service interval of gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, B; Bakken, M; Vangen, O; Rekaya, R

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of seven traits related to sow reproductive performance. Data on all Norwegian Landrace pigs (NL) born in nucleus herds and raised in nucleus or multiplying herds from 1990 to 2000 were extracted from the Norwegian national recording scheme. Reproductive traits investigated were age at first service (AFS), return rate in gilts (RRg), age at first farrowing (AFF), live-born piglets in the first litter (NBA1), interval from weaning to first service after first litter (WTS1), return rate after first litter (RR1), live-born piglets in the second litter (NBA2), and interval from weaning to first service after second litter (WTS2). After editing, the data set comprised 12,583 to 56,042 records, depending on the trait. A mixed linear and a joint linear threshold animal model were used to estimate (co)variance components. A full Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling was adopted. The statistical model used for analysis included contemporary groups of herd-year (-season), purebred or crossbred litter, single or double insemination, mating type, parity in which the animal was born, a regression on lactation length, and an additive genetic effect. Neither the estimated heritabilities nor the genetic correlations differed much between the two approaches, but there was a tendency for higher genetic correlations using the joint linear threshold model approach. Average heritabilities were as follows: AFS = 0.31; RRg = 0.03; RR1 = 0.02; NBA1 = 0.12; NBA2 = 0.14; WTS1 = 0.08; and WTS2 = 0.03. The highest genetic correlations were estimated between NBA1 and NBA2 (r(g) = 0.95), RR1 and WTS1 (r(g) = 0.93), and between WTS1 and WTS2 (r(g) = 0.78). The estimated genetic correlation between NBA and WTS were close to zero. Selection for increased NBA will slightly increase AFS and reduce the probability of a return. Selection for decreased AFS will have a favorable effect on WTS intervals; however, selection for decreased AFS seems to

  12. Gain-of-function R225W mutation in human AMPKgamma(3 causing increased glycogen and decreased triglyceride in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila R Costford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a heterotrimeric enzyme that is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals and functions to maintain cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. Studies in experimental animals demonstrate that activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle protects against insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and obesity. The regulatory gamma(3 subunit of AMPK is expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle; however, its importance in controlling overall AMPK activity is unknown. While evidence is emerging that gamma subunit mutations interfere specifically with AMP activation, there remains some controversy regarding the impact of gamma subunit mutations. Here we report the first gain-of-function mutation in the muscle-specific regulatory gamma(3 subunit in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We sequenced the exons and splice junctions of the AMPK gamma(3 gene (PRKAG3 in 761 obese and 759 lean individuals, identifying 87 sequence variants including a novel R225W mutation in subjects from two unrelated families. The gamma(3 R225W mutation is homologous in location to the gamma(2R302Q mutation in patients with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome and to the gamma(3R225Q mutation originally linked to an increase in muscle glycogen content in purebred Hampshire Rendement Napole (RN- pigs. We demonstrate in differentiated muscle satellite cells obtained from the vastus lateralis of R225W carriers that the mutation is associated with an approximate doubling of both basal and AMP-activated AMPK activities. Moreover, subjects bearing the R225W mutation exhibit a approximately 90% increase of skeletal muscle glycogen content and a approximately 30% decrease in intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified for the first time a mutation in the skeletal muscle-specific regulatory gamma(3 subunit of AMPK in humans. The gamma(3R225W mutation has significant functional effects as demonstrated by increases in basal and AMP

  13. A gene frequency model for QTL mapping using Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekkers Jack CM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information for mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL comes from two sources: linkage disequilibrium (non-random association of allele states and cosegregation (non-random association of allele origin. Information from LD can be captured by modeling conditional means and variances at the QTL given marker information. Similarly, information from cosegregation can be captured by modeling conditional covariances. Here, we consider a Bayesian model based on gene frequency (BGF where both conditional means and variances are modeled as a function of the conditional gene frequencies at the QTL. The parameters in this model include these gene frequencies, additive effect of the QTL, its location, and the residual variance. Bayesian methodology was used to estimate these parameters. The priors used were: logit-normal for gene frequencies, normal for the additive effect, uniform for location, and inverse chi-square for the residual variance. Computer simulation was used to compare the power to detect and accuracy to map QTL by this method with those from least squares analysis using a regression model (LSR. Results To simplify the analysis, data from unrelated individuals in a purebred population were simulated, where only LD information contributes to map the QTL. LD was simulated in a chromosomal segment of 1 cM with one QTL by random mating in a population of size 500 for 1000 generations and in a population of size 100 for 50 generations. The comparison was studied under a range of conditions, which included SNP density of 0.1, 0.05 or 0.02 cM, sample size of 500 or 1000, and phenotypic variance explained by QTL of 2 or 5%. Both 1 and 2-SNP models were considered. Power to detect the QTL for the BGF, ranged from 0.4 to 0.99, and close or equal to the power of the regression using least squares (LSR. Precision to map QTL position of BGF, quantified by the mean absolute error, ranged from 0.11 to 0.21 cM for BGF, and was better

  14. The effects of superovulation of donor sows on ovarian response and embryo development after nonsurgical deep-uterine embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, M A; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gomis, J; Parrilla, I; Vila, J; Colina, I; Diaz, M; Reixach, J; Vazquez, J L; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of superovulation protocols in improving the efficiency of embryo donors for porcine nonsurgical deep-uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET) programs. After weaning (24 hours), purebred Duroc sows (2-6 parity) were treated with 1000 IU (n = 27) or 1500 IU (n = 27) of eCG. Only sows with clear signs of estrus 4 to 72 hours after eCG administration were treated with 750 IU hCG at the onset of estrus. Nonhormonally treated postweaning estrus sows (n = 36) were used as a control. Sows were inseminated and subjected to laparotomy on Days 5 to 6 (Day 0 = onset of estrus). Three sows (11.1%) treated with the highest dosage of eCG presented with polycystic ovaries without signs of ovulation. The remaining sows from nonsuperovulated and superovulated groups were all pregnant, with no differences in fertilization rates among groups. The number of CLs and viable embryos was higher (P superovulated groups compared with the controls and increased (P superovulated groups than in the control group. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between the number of CLs and the number of viable and transferable embryos, but the number of CLs and the number of oocytes and/or degenerated embryos were not correlated. A total of 46 NsDU ETs were performed in nonhormonally treated recipient sows, with embryos (30 embryos per transfer) recovered from the 1000-IU eCG, 1500-IU eCG, and control groups. In total, pregnancy and farrowing rates were 75.1% and 73.2%, respectively, with a litter size of 9.4 ± 0.6 piglets born, of which 8.8 ± 0.5 were born alive. There were no differences for any of the reproductive parameters evaluated among groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the efficiency of eCG superovulation treatments in decreasing the donor-to-recipient ratio. Compared with nonsuperovulated sows, the number of transferable embryos was increased in superovulated sows without affecting their quality and in vivo capacity to

  15. Genome-wide association and genomic prediction of breeding values for fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose and longissimus lumborum muscle of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liuhong; Ekine-Dzivenu, Chinyere; Vinsky, Michael; Basarab, John; Aalhus, Jennifer; Dugan, Mike E R; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Stothard, Paul; Li, Changxi

    2015-11-21

    Identification of genetic variants that are associated with fatty acid composition in beef will enhance our understanding of host genetic influence on the trait and also allow for more effective improvement of beef fatty acid profiles through genomic selection and marker-assisted diet management. In this study, 81 and 83 fatty acid traits were measured in subcutaneous adipose (SQ) and longissimus lumborum muscle (LL), respectively, from 1366 purebred and crossbred beef steers and heifers that were genotyped on the Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip. The objective was to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for the fatty acid traits and to evaluate the accuracy of genomic prediction for fatty acid composition using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian methods. In total, 302 and 360 significant SNPs spanning all autosomal chromosomes were identified to be associated with fatty acid composition in SQ and LL tissues, respectively. Proportions of total genetic variance explained by individual significant SNPs ranged from 0.03 to 11.06% in SQ, and from 0.005 to 24.28% in the LL muscle. Markers with relatively large effects were located near fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), and thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP) genes. For the majority of the fatty acid traits studied, the accuracy of genomic prediction was relatively low ( = 0.50) were achieved for 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 15:0, 16:0, 9c-14:1, 12c-16:1, 13c-18:1, and health index (HI) in LL, and for 12:0, 14:0, 15:0, 10 t,12c-18:2, and 11 t,13c + 11c,13 t-18:2 in SQ. The Bayesian method performed similarly as GBLUP for most of the traits but substantially better for traits that were affected by SNPs of large effects as identified by GWAS. Fatty acid composition in beef is influenced by a few host genes with major effects and many genes of smaller effects. With the current training population size and marker density, genomic prediction has the potential to predict

  16. Genomic deletion of CNGB3 is identical by descent in multiple canine breeds and causes achromatopsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Connie Y; Goldstein, Orly; Kukekova, Anna V; Holley, Debbie; Knollinger, Amy M; Huson, Heather J; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E; Acland, Gregory M; Komáromy, András M

    2013-04-20

    Achromatopsia is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the loss of cone photoreceptor function that results in day-blindness, total colorblindness, and decreased central visual acuity. The most common causes for the disease are mutations in the CNGB3 gene, coding for the beta subunit of the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in cones. CNGB3-achromatopsia, or cone degeneration (cd), is also known to occur in two canine breeds, the Alaskan malamute (AM) and the German shorthaired pointer. Here we report an in-depth characterization of the achromatopsia phenotype in a new canine breed, the miniature Australian shepherd (MAS). Genotyping revealed that the dog was homozygous for a complete genomic deletion of the CNGB3 gene, as has been previously observed in the AM. Identical breakpoints on chromosome 29 were identified in both the affected AM and MAS with a resulting deletion of 404,820 bp. Pooled DNA samples of unrelated purebred Australian shepherd, MAS, Siberian husky, Samoyed and Alaskan sled dogs were screened for the presence of the affected allele; one Siberian husky and three Alaskan sled dogs were identified as carriers. The affected chromosomes from the AM, MAS, and Siberian husky were genotyped for 147 SNPs in a 3.93 Mb interval within the cd locus. An identical shared affected haplotype, 0.5 Mb long, was observed in all three breeds and defined the minimal linkage disequilibrium (LD) across breeds. This supports the idea that the mutated allele was identical by descent (IBD). We report the occurrence of CNGB3-achromatopsia in a new canine breed, the MAS. The CNGB3-deletion allele previously described in the AM was also observed in a homozygous state in the affected MAS, as well as in a heterozygous carrier state in a Siberian husky and Alaskan sled dogs. All affected alleles were shown to be IBD, strongly suggesting an affected founder effect. Since the MAS is not known to be genetically related to the AM, other breeds may potentially carry the

  17. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P manufacturing. Such effects should be exploited and taken into account in design of breeding programs for heavy pigs.

  18. Expected genetic response for oleic acid content in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Reixach, J; Tor, M; Estany, J

    2012-12-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) and oleic acid (C18:1) content in pork are important issues for the pig industry and consumers. Data from a purebred Duroc line were used to i) estimate the genetic parameters of IMF and C18:1 and their genetic correlations with lean growth components, and ii) evaluate the opportunities for genetically improving C18:1 in IMF. The data set used for estimating genetic parameters consisted of 93,920 pigs, from which 85,194 had at least 1 record for BW or backfat thickness (BT) at 180 d and 943 for IMF and C18:1 at 205 d. Intramuscular fat content and C18:1, expressed as percentage of total fatty acids, were determined in the gluteus medius muscle by gas chromatography. Genetic parameters for C18:1 were estimated under a Bayesian 4-trait multivariate animal mixed model. Heritability of C18:1 was 0.50, with a probability of 95% of being greater than 0.37. Genetic correlations of C18:1 with BW, BT, and IMF were 0.11, 0.22, and 0.47, respectively (with a probability of 95% of being greater than -0.07, 0.04, and 0.27, respectively). Genetic responses were evaluated by deterministic simulation using a half-sib recording scheme for C18:1 and the previously estimated parameters. The C18:1 content is expected to exhibit only minor changes in selection programs directed at growth rate but to decrease in those focusing on lean content. Maximum expected response in C18:1 at no lean growth loss (i.e., at no change in BW and BT) was 0.44%, with a resulting correlated response in IMF of 0.15%. However, because lean growth is emphasized in the breeding goal, the resulting response scenarios are more constrained. We concluded that there is evidence to support the idea that C18:1 in IMF is genetically determined and defined selection strategies can lead to response scenarios in which C18:1, IMF, BT, and BW can be simultaneously improved. However, if adopted, the potential for lean growth would be reduced. The extent to which it is affordable relies on how much

  19. Short communication: The effect of 4 antiseptic compounds on umbilical cord healing and infection rates in the first 24 hours in dairy calves from a commercial herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A L; Timms, L L; Stalder, K J; Tyler, H D

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 4 antiseptic compounds on the healing rate and incidence of infection of umbilical cords in newborn calves (n=60). Late gestation Jersey cows were monitored at a commercial farm (Sioux Jersey, Salix, IA) and newborn purebred (n=30) and crossbred (n=30) calves were obtained within 30min after birth. Calves were alternately assigned by birth order to 4 treatment groups: 7% tincture of iodine, 0.1% chlorine created using a novel chlorine disinfectant technology, chlorohexidine gluconate 4.0% wt/vol, and 10% trisodium citrate. Prior to dipping (within 30min of birth), diameter of the umbilical cords (as an indicator of cord drying and healing) were determined using digital calipers. In addition, as an indicator of umbilical infections, surface temperature of the umbilical stump (along with a reference point at the midpoint of the sternum) was determined using a dual-laser infrared thermometer. These measurements were all repeated at 24±1 h of age. All data were analyzed using mixed model methods. All models included fixed effects of breed (Jersey or Jersey cross), sex (bull or heifer), and treatment. Fixed effect interactions were not included in the statistical model due to the relatively small sample size. No treatment differences were noted for healing rate of umbilical cords. Initially, mean umbilical cord diameter was 22.84±3.89mm and cords healed to a mean diameter of 7.64±4.12mm at 24 h of age. No umbilical infections were noted for calves on any treatment during the course of this study. Mean surface temperature of the umbilical stump was 33.1±2.2°C at birth (1.5±1.6°C higher than the sternal reference temperature), and at 24±1 h of age the mean temperature of the umbilical stump was 33.0±4.3°C (0.5±1.8°C lower than the sternal reference temperature). These data suggest that these antiseptic compounds are equally effective for preventing infections and permitting healing of the umbilical cord

  20. 麻羽配套系蛋鸭的选育研究%Breading on the Synthetic Line of Black-speckle Feather Laying Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林如龙; 陈红萍; Roger Rouvier

    2013-01-01

    To improve black-speckle feather ratio of synthetic line F (PS), Shanma duck (S) was cross-breeded reciprocally with Minnong white duck (F) and Putian black duck (P), respectively. Feather color appearance and segregation ratio of the hybrid progeny were observed. The purebred parents whose hybrid progeny displayed high black-speckle feather ratio were selected at each generation. Results showed that after three generations breeding, there were significant improvement in black-speckle feather ratio of F X S and S X F combination, increasing respectively from 44.0% and 41.7% to 84.3% and 81.9%. Black-speckle feather ratio of P X S and S X P combination were increased from 19. 2% and 10. 6% to 22. 8% and 32. 7% , respectively. Moreover, a new strain Putian black-speckle duck was isolated, which would speed up breeding process on black-speckle feather ratio. The reciprocal cross in this study effectively improved black-speckle feather ratio of synthetic line F (PS).%为提高蛋鸭配套系F (PS)的麻羽率,利用山麻鸭(S)分别与闽农白羽蛋鸭(F)和莆田黑鸭(P)进行正反交试验,观测各杂交组合后代雏鸭的羽色表现和分离情况,选择杂交后代麻羽率高的亲本个体进行纯繁、继代选育.结果显示:经过3个世代的选育,F×S和S×F组合雏鸭麻羽率取得显著进展,分别从44.0%和41.7%提高到84.3%和81.9%;P×S与S×P组合雏鸭麻羽率分别从19.2%和10.6%提高到22.8%和32.7%,也取得一定进展.同时,还分离到1个新品系“莆田麻鸭”,有利于加快麻羽率选育.由此表明,本研究采用的正反交技术路线可行,可以有效提高蛋鸭配套系F (PS)的麻羽率.

  1. Exame andrológico em touros: qualidade dos indicadores da aptidão reprodutiva em distintos grupos raciais Andrologycal examination in bulls: quality of breedng soundness criteria in different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ferrugem Moraes

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Os padrões recomendados para os componentes do exame andrológico são únicos para todas as raças e sistemas de produção, resultando em perdas económicas pela eliminação de reprodutores em alguns conjuntos raciais. O presente estudo apresenta uma análise retrospectiva sobre dois conjuntos de dados de campo, comparando grupos contemporâneos de touros de raças puras taurinas e derivadas de cruzamento com zebuínos. Os resultados indicam que o uso de padrões mais flexíveis resultam em um comportamento semelhante dos distintos grupos raciais, quanto à condição reprodutiva, em contraste com os critérios atuais que classificam de maneira diferente animais de distintos genótipos taurinos puros e seu cruzamento com zebuínos. É enfatizada a importância de estudos sobre os critérios recomendados para a classificação reprodutiva de touros, no sentido de reduzir perdas impostas aos sistemas de produção em decorrência de peculiaridades inerentes a grupos genéticos diferenciados.There is a single set of standard for breeding soundness evaluation in bulls for ali breeds and production systems, resulting in economical losses due to high frequencies of culling in bulls of some genotypes. This study presents an analysis on two sets of field data, comparing contemporary groups of bulls from taurine pure-breds and zebu crossbreeds. The results were indicative that more flexible standards could be useful, avoiding injustified culling of bulls. This fact may be justified by the absence of interaction between breed and reproductive condition. It will be importam to continue the studies on procedures and standards for breeding soundness evaluation in bulls, to reduce losses in the production systems due to peculiarities inherent to the genetic groups.

  2. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tan, Bie; Li, Yinghui; Duan, Yehui; Blachier, François; Hu, Chien-An A; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA) pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet)- or higher/NRC (National Research Council)-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I) and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II) were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (Ppigs had generally higher (Ppigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (Ppigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K), and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (Ppig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (Ppigs, but repressed (Ppigs. The higher protein-NRC diet increased ratio of p-mTOR/mTOR in Landrace pigs. These findings indicated that the dynamic consequences of AA profile and protein deposition in muscle tissues are the concerted effort of distinctive genotype, nutrient status, age, and

  3. Ultrasonic eggshell thickness measurement for selection of layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibala, Lucyna; Rozempolska-Rucinska, Iwona; Kasperek, Kornel; Zieba, Grzegorz; Lukaszewicz, Marek

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology for using ultrasonic technology (USG) to record eggshell thickness for selection of layers. Genetic correlations between eggshell strength and its thickness have been reported to be around 0.8, making shell thickness a selection index candidate element. Applying ultrasonic devices to measure shell thickness leaves an egg intact for further handling. In this study, eggs from 2 purebred populations of Rhode Island White (RIW) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens were collected on a single day in the 33rd week of the farm laying calendar from 2,414 RIR and 4,525 RIW hens. Beginning from the large end of the egg, measurements were taken at 5 latitudes: 0º (USG0), 45º (USG45), 90º (USG90), 135º (USG135), and 180º (USG180). To estimate the repeatability of readings, measurements were repeated at each parallel on 3 meridians. Electronic micrometer measurement ( EMM: ) were taken with an electronic micrometer predominantly at the wider end of eggs from 2,397 RIR and 4,447 RIW hens. A multiple-trait statistical model fit the fixed effect of year-of-hatch × hatch-within-year, and random effects due to repeated measurements (except EMM) and an animal's additive genetic component. The shell was thinnest in the region where chicks break it upon hatching (USG0, USG45). Heritabilities of shell thickness in different regions of the shell ranged from 0.09 to 0.19 (EMM) in RIW and from 0.12 to 0.23 (EMM) in RIR and were highest for USG45 and USG0. Because the measurement repeatabilities were all above 0.90, our recommendation for balancing egg strength against hatching ease is to take a single measurement of USG45. Due to high positive genetic correlations between shell thickness in different regions of the shell its thickness in the pointed end region will be modified accordingly, in response to selection for USG45.

  4. Estimation of nonadditive genetic impacts on lifetime performance through a grading-up breeding program with Holstein-Friesian

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    Zsolt Nemes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the total lifetime milk production and non additive genetic effects (recombination and heterosis of cows with different proportions of Holstein-Friesian genes, obtained from the Serbian Fleckvieh (SF and the Holstein-Friesian (HF crossbreeding program in Vojvodina. Upgrading of local breeds with the Holstein-Friesian breed in Vojvodina started in 1971 and continued 2008. Six genotypes of cows (F1, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 were obtained with increasing percentage of Holstein genes, in order to attain purebred Holstein cows. Of all obtained genotypes, cows of genotype R4 with a proportion of Holstein genes from 96.87 % had the highest lifetime milk production (20000 kg, followed by cows R3 with 19950 kg (93.75 % HF genes and cows R5 with 19850 kg (98.44 % HF genes. Finally the process of upgrading resulted in pure Holsteins with 19780 kg of milk. The total lifetime production of milk fat did not show statistically significant difference (P>0.05 among the genotypes R1 - R5 which ranged from 675 to 690 kg. The pure Holstein obtained after sixth intermediate generations had the average lifetime milk fat production of 690 kg. With the increase in the proportion of Holstein-Friesian genes percentage of milk fat was decreased, so that the cows of genotypes R3, R4, R5 and pure Holsteins, had less than 3.5 % milk fat. In relation to the total milk yield, the highest realized heterosis effect was observed in the cows of F1 generation (hRF1=594 kg, while the lowest was observed in generation R2 (hRR2=72 kg, where negative effect of recombination was also found (hIR2=-77 kg. Positive values of the actual and relative of heterosis effect of the milk fat yield was observed in all genotypes, whereas the negative heterosis effect of the milk fat percentage was observed also in all genotypes, with the exception of R1 and R2 cows, in which the typical consequence of the positive recombination in the early crossed Holstein

  5. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred cattle: postweaning gain and feed efficiency when finished in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G; Olson, T A

    2012-06-01

    Beef cows in the subtropical USA must be adapted to the stressors of the environment, typically supplied by using Brahman (Br) breeding. Calves produced in the region, however, are usually grown and finished in more temperate regions, and have a perceived reputation for poor ADG and feed efficiency during finishing. Compromised fertility and carcass quality often associated with the Br have increased interest in tropically adapted Bos taurus breed types. The objective of this study was to evaluate 3 breeds [An = Angus (Bos taurus, temperate); Br (B. indicus, tropical); and Ro = Romosinuano (B. taurus, tropical)] and all possible crosses during various segments of post-weaning growth, and for feed efficiency during the finishing phase. Steer calves (n = 473) born over 3 yr were weaned in late September, backgrounded for at least 21 d (BKG), shipped 2,025 km to El Reno, OK, in October, fed a preconditioning diet for 28 d (RCV), grazed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pasture from November to May (WHT), finished on a conventional feedlot diet (FIN), and serially harvested after approximately 95, 125, and 150 d on feed. Body weight and ADG during each segment were tested using a mixed model that included calf age at weaning, year (Y), breed of sire (SB), breed of dam (DB), and interactions. In addition, winter treatment (continuous wheat or reduced grazing of wheat with supplement) was included for the wheat and feedlot phases. Sire within SB × SB [and pen (barn × year) for feedlot phase] were considered random. The SB × DB interaction was significant for all traits (P < 0.01) except exit velocity taken at weaning and ADG during FIN, but both traits were affected by 3-way interactions with Y or harvest group. Tropically-adapted purebred steers had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than AnAn through weaning and BKG in FL but the reverse was true during the RCV and WHT segments. Similar, but less pronounced results were noted for F(1) steers with 100% tropical influence compared

  6. Evaluation of a Nutrition Model in Predicting Performance of Vietnamese Cattle

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    David Parsons

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictions of dry matter intake (DM and average daily gain (ADG of Vietnamese Yellow (Vang purebred and crossbred (Vang with Red Sindhi or Brahman bulls fed under Vietnamese conditions using two levels of solution (1 and 2 of the large ruminant nutrition system (LRNS model. Animal information and feed chemical characterization were obtained from five studies. The initial mean body weight (BW of the animals was 186, with standard deviation ±33.2 kg. Animals were fed ad libitum commonly available feedstuffs, including cassava powder, corn grain, Napier grass, rice straw and bran, and minerals and vitamins, for 50 to 80 d. Adequacy of the predictions was assessed with the Model Evaluation System using the root of mean square error of prediction (RMSEP, accuracy (Cb, coefficient of determination (r2, and mean bias (MB. When all treatment means were used, both levels of solution predicted DMI similarly with low precision (r2 of 0.389 and 0.45 for level 1 and 2, respectively and medium accuracy (Cb of 0.827 and 0.859, respectively. The LRNS clearly over-predicted the intake of one study. When this study was removed from the comparison, the precision and accuracy considerably increased for the level 1 solution. Metabolisable protein was limiting ADG for more than 68% of the treatment averages. Both levels differed regarding precision and accuracy. While level 1 solution had the least MB compared with level 2 (0.058 and 0.159 kg/d, respectively, the precision was greater for level 2 than level 1 (0.89 and 0.70, respectively. The accuracy (Cb was similar between level 1 and level 2 (p = 0.8997; 0.977 and 0.871, respectively. The RMSEP indicated that both levels were on average under- or over-predicted by about 190 g/d, suggesting that even though the accuracy (Cb was greater for level 1 compared to level 2, both levels are likely to wrongly predict ADG by the same amount. Our analyses indicated that the

  7. Heterosis and recombination effects on pig reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, J P; Young, L D; Leymaster, K A

    2002-09-01

    The objective was to estimate breed, heterosis, and recombination effects on pig reproductive traits in two different four-breed composite populations. Breeds included Yorkshire, Landrace, Large White, and Chester White in Exp. 1 and Duroc, Hampshire, Pietrain, and Spot in Exp. 2. Data were recorded on purebred pigs, two-breed cross pigs, and pigs from generations F1 through F6, where F1 pigs were the first generation of a four-breed cross. Litter traits were considered a trait of the gilt. There were 868 first parity litters in Exp. 1 and 865 in Exp. 2. Direct heterosis significantly increased sow weight at 110 d of gestation and litter weight at 14 and 28 d (weaning) in both experiments. Direct heterosis significantly increased number of nipples, weight at puberty, lactation weight loss, litter size, and litter birth weight in Exp. 2. Gestation length in Exp. 1 and age at puberty in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2 were significantly decreased by direct heterosis. Maternal heterosis significantly increased age at puberty in Exp. 2 and decreased sow weight at 110 d of gestation in Exp. 1. Recombination significantly increased sow weight at 110 d of gestation and tended to increase total number born and litter birth weight in Exp. 1. Recombination significantly decreased age at puberty in Exp. 2. Litter heterosis significantly increased number of pigs at 14 and 28 d; litter weights at birth, 14, and 28 d; and tended to increase lactation weight loss in Exp. 1. Litter heterosis decreased litter size in Exp. 2. Maternal heterosis and recombination effects had a sampling correlation of -0.97 in Exp. 1 and -0.91 in Exp. 2 for number of fully formed pigs. Therefore, maternal heterosis and recombination effects were summed, and their net effect was tested. This net effect tended to increase number of nipples, lactation weight loss, and litter birth weight and significantly increased number of fully formed pigs in Exp. 1. Direct, maternal, and litter heterosis and recombination effects

  8. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the piglets suckling normal teats, although the difference was not statistically significant. Piglets nursing small teats had lower weaning weight (4.8 kg) and the corresponding mammary tissue also had lower weight (335 g). This study

  9. Utilization of milk amino acids by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2011-12-01

    Sixteen pure-bred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two trials to determine the efficiency of utilization of milk protein and amino acid (AA) for growth in suckling piglets. It was hypothesized that there may be one or more strongly limiting essential AA (EAA) responsible for the slow rate of growth of the IB piglet. This AA will show the highest fractional retention. Daily milk yield and composition were determined weekly over a 34-day lactation period. Within each litter, one piglet at birth and four piglets on d 35 of life were slaughtered. The protein content of the IB sow milk was similar to that reported for conventional breeds. However, branched-chain AA, Thr, Pro, Asp and Ala were in concentrations somewhat below the range of literature values and Arg and Met, substantially above it. Milk intake per piglet tended to be greater in Trial 2 (832 vs. 893 g/day respectively; p = 0.066). However, the IB piglets grew at 168 ± 3.3 g/day, irrespective of the trial. The whole-body protein of piglets at weaning and the protein deposited in their body during the lactating period showed very close AA pattern. Among EAA, His and Arg show the highest fractional retentions (g AA retained/g AA ingested) in whole-body tissues (1.019 ± 0.025 and 0.913 ± 0.017 respectively) and also the highest body to milk ratios (1.50 and 1.41 respectively). Gly and Ala presented, among non essential AA, the highest efficiencies of utilization for tissue deposition (1.803 ± 0.057 and 1.375 ± 0.026 respectively) and body to milk ratios (2.75 and 2.12 respectively). These results suggest that the low efficiency of utilization of milk protein and the low rate of gain of the IB suckling piglet can be explained by a marked shortage in His supply, in addition to the suboptimal milk provision of Arg, Gly and Ala.

  10. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits of Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Domingue, J D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Whipple, G

    2007-06-01

    Spring-born purebred Brahman bull calves (n = 467) with known pedigrees, sired by 68 bulls in 17 private herds in Louisiana, were purchased at weaning from 1996 through 2000 to study variation in growth, carcass, and tenderness traits. After purchase, calves were processed for stocker grazing on ryegrass, fed in a south Texas feedlot, and processed in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were taken to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. An animal model was used to estimate heritability, genetic correlations, and sire EPD. Relatively high heritability estimates were found for BW at slaughter (0.59 +/- 0.16), HCW (0.57 +/- 0.15), LM area (0.50 +/- 0.16), yield grade (0.46 +/- 0.17), calpastatin enzyme activity (0.45 +/- 0.17), and carcass quality grade (0.42 +/- 0.16); moderate heritability estimates were found for hump height (0.38 +/- 0.16), marbling score (0.37 +/- 0.16), backfat thickness (0.36 +/- 0.17), feedlot ADG (0.33 +/- 0.14), 7-d shear force (0.29 +/- 0.14), and 14-d shear force (0.20 +/- 0.11); relatively low heritability estimates were found for skeletal maturity (0.10 +/- 0.10), lean maturity (0.00 +/- 0.07), and percent KPH (0.00 +/- 0.07). Most genetic correlations were between -0.50 and +0.50. Other genetic correlations were 0.74 +/- 0.27 between calpastatin activity and 7-d shear force, 0.72 +/- 0.25 between calpastatin activity and 14-d shear force, (0.90 +/- 0.30 between yield grade and 7-d shear force, and -0.82 +/- 0.27 between backfat thickness and 7-d shear force. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations for most traits were similar to estimates reported in the literature. Sire EPD ranges for carcass traits approached those reported for sires in other breeds. The magnitude of heritability estimates suggests that improvement in carcass yield, carcass quality, and consumer acceptance traits can be made within the Brahman population.

  11. Efeito do colágeno na maciez da carne de bovinos de distintos grupos genéticos = Collagen effects in meat tenderness of bovines of different genetic groups

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    Daniela Cristina Morales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do colágeno na maciez da carne de animais de diferentes grupos genéticos produzidos no sistema de produção do novilho superprecoce. Foram utilizados bezerros machos inteiros da raça Nelore, mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Aberdeen Angus e mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Simental. Após abate e resfriamento por 24 horas, foram retiradas amostras do músculo Longissimus dorsi, na região entre a 11a e a 13a costela, sendo que uma amostra foi congelada e as demais maturadas por 7 e 14 dias. Nãohouve diferença significativa (P>0,01 entre os grupos genéticos para a quantidade e a solubilidade de colágeno e a força de cisalhamento. A quantidade e a solubilidade do colágeno não comprometeram a maciez da carne, indiferentemente do grupo genético utilizado e do tempo postmortem, tornando vantajosa a opção de se abaterem animais jovens.The aim of work was to analyze the collagen effect in meat tenderness of animals of different genetic groups produced by very young bullock production system. Male calves Nellore purebred, ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus and ½ Nellore x ½ Simmental crossbred were used.After slaughter and cooling for 24 hours Longissimus dorsi samples were removed, between 11th and 13th ribs, one sample was frozen and the others ageing for 7 and 14 days. There was no difference (P>0,01 between genetic groups for amount and heat soluble collagen andshear force values. The amount and solubility collagen don’t compromised the meat tenderness, indifferent of the genetic group used and postmortem period, becoming the early slaughter an advantageous option for meat production with desirable characteristics.

  12. Efeito do colágeno na maciez da carne de bovinos de distintos grupos genéticos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.664 Collagen effects in meat tenderness of bovines of different genetic groups - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Nunes de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do colágeno na maciez da carne de animais de diferentes grupos genéticos produzidos no sistema de produção do novilho superprecoce. Foram utilizados bezerros machos inteiros da raça Nelore, mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Aberdeen Angus e mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Simental. Após abate e resfriamento por 24 horas, foram retiradas amostras do músculo Longissimus dorsi, na região entre a 11a e a 13a costela, sendo que uma amostra foi congelada e as demais maturadas por 7 e 14 dias. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,01 entre os grupos genéticos para a quantidade e a solubilidade de colágeno e a força de cisalhamento. A quantidade e a solubilidade do colágeno não comprometeram a maciez da carne, indiferentemente do grupo genético utilizado e do tempo postmortem, tornando vantajosa a opção de se abaterem animais jovens.The aim of work was to analyze the collagen effect in meat tenderness of animals of different genetic groups produced by very young bullock production system. Male calves Nellore purebred, ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus and ½ Nellore x ½ Simmental crossbred were used. After slaughter and cooling for 24 hours Longissimus dorsi samples were removed, between 11th and 13th ribs, one sample was frozen and the others ageing for 7 and 14 days. There was no difference (p > 0,01 between genetic groups for amount and heat soluble collagen and shear force values. The amount and solubility collagen don’t compromised the meat tenderness, indifferent of the genetic group used and postmortem period, becoming the early slaughter an advantageous option for meat production with desirable characteristics.

  13. Genetic parameters for social effects on survival in cannibalistic layers: Combining survival analysis and a linear animal model

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    Veerkamp Roel F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality due to cannibalism in laying hens is a difficult trait to improve genetically, because censoring is high (animals still alive at the end of the testing period and it may depend on both the individual itself and the behaviour of its group members, so-called associative effects (social interactions. To analyse survival data, survival analysis can be used. However, it is not possible to include associative effects in the current software for survival analysis. A solution could be to combine survival analysis and a linear animal model including associative effects. This paper presents a two-step approach (2STEP, combining survival analysis and a linear animal model including associative effects (LAM. Methods Data of three purebred White Leghorn layer lines from Institut de Sélection Animale B.V., a Hendrix Genetics company, were used in this study. For the statistical analysis, survival data on 16,780 hens kept in four-bird cages with intact beaks were used. Genetic parameters for direct and associative effects on survival time were estimated using 2STEP. Cross validation was used to compare 2STEP with LAM. LAM was applied directly to estimate genetic parameters for social effects on observed survival days. Results Using 2STEP, total heritable variance, including both direct and associative genetic effects, expressed as the proportion of phenotypic variance, ranged from 32% to 64%. These results were substantially larger than when using LAM. However, cross validation showed that 2STEP gave approximately the same survival curves and rank correlations as LAM. Furthermore, cross validation showed that selection based on both direct and associative genetic effects, using either 2STEP or LAM, gave the best prediction of survival time. Conclusion It can be concluded that 2STEP can be used to estimate genetic parameters for direct and associative effects on survival time in laying hens. Using 2STEP increased the heritable

  14. Developmental Stage, Muscle and Genetic Type Modify Muscle Transcriptome in Pigs: Effects on Gene Expression and Regulatory Factors Involved in Growth and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Miriam; Fernández, Almudena; Núñez, Yolanda; Benítez, Rita; Isabel, Beatriz; Fernández, Ana I; Rey, Ana I; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Medrano, Juan F; Cánovas, Ángela; López-Bote, Clemente J; Óvilo, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Iberian pig production includes purebred (IB) and Duroc-crossbred (IBxDU) pigs, which show important differences in growth, fattening and tissue composition. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of genetic type and muscle (Longissimus dorsi (LD) vs Biceps femoris (BF)) on gene expression and transcriptional regulation at two developmental stages. Nine IB and 10 IBxDU piglets were slaughtered at birth, and seven IB and 10 IBxDU at four months of age (growing period). Carcass traits and LD intramuscular fat (IMF) content were measured. Muscle transcriptome was analyzed on LD samples with RNA-Seq technology. Carcasses were smaller in IB than in IBxDU neonates (p 1.5) by the developmental stage (5,812 genes), muscle type (135 genes), and genetic type (261 genes at birth and 113 at growth). Newborns transcriptome reflected a highly proliferative developmental stage, while older pigs showed upregulation of catabolic and muscle functioning processes. Regarding the genetic type effect, IBxDU newborns showed enrichment of gene pathways involved in muscle growth, in agreement with the higher prenatal growth observed in these pigs. However, IB growing pigs showed enrichment of pathways involved in protein deposition and cellular growth, supporting the compensatory gain experienced by IB pigs during this period. Moreover, newborn and growing IB pigs showed more active glucose and lipid metabolism than IBxDU pigs. Moreover, LD muscle seems to have more active muscular and cell growth, while BF points towards lipid metabolism and fat deposition. Several regulators controlling transcriptome changes in both genotypes were identified across muscles and ages (SIM1, PVALB, MEFs, TCF7L2 or FOXO1), being strong candidate genes to drive expression and thus, phenotypic differences between IB and IBxDU pigs. Many of the identified regulators were known to be involved in muscle and adipose tissues development, but others not previously associated with pig muscle growth

  15. Analysis of the Metabolites of a Rhizopus oryzae Strain in Solid-State Fermentation%一株米根霉固态发酵代谢产物的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雨琨; 唐洁

    2016-01-01

    分析1株来源于小曲白酒中米根霉G12固态发酵的代谢产物.通过在实验室模拟小曲白酒固态发酵工艺建立小试发酵平台,添加纯种米根霉作为酒曲,经糖化、发酵、蒸馏,测定馏液中主要挥发性成分,对照组为不添加任何酒曲.结果表明,米根霉G12具有较强的产酒能力,产酒平均出酒率为12.10%.同时该株菌在固态发酵中也能产生大量正丙醇与杂醇油,因而对杂醇油的生成有一定的贡献.研究可为降低小曲白酒杂醇油途径提供不同的思路.%To analyze the metabolites of the Rhizopus oryzae strain G12(isolated from Xiaoqu Baijiu) in solid-state fermentation, we simulated the solid-state fermentation techniques of Xiaoqu Baijiu and built a small-scale testing platform in the laboratory. With purebred Rhizopus ory-zae as starter, we measured the main volatile components of the distillate after saccharification, fermentation and distillation, while the control group was without starter. The results showed that, Rhizopus oryzae G12 had strong alcohol-producing ability, with the average liquor yield of 12.10%. Meanwhile, the strain produced a large amount of n-propanol and fusel oils in solid-state fermentation, which contributed to the gener-ation of fusel oils. The study provided a different idea for the reducing of the content of fusel oils in Xiaoqu Baijiu. (Trans. by HUANG Xiaoli)

  16. Retrospective analyses of dogs found serologically positive for Ehrlichia canis in Cebu, Philippines from 2003 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P. Ybañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to document the clinical and hematological observations of dogs found serologically positive for Ehrlichia canis and to identify parameters or factors that are associated with the disease with focus on the anemic and thrombocytopenic state of the infected dogs. Materials and Methods: From 7 participating veterinary establishments, a total of 913 cases from 2003 to 2014 were initially assessed using inclusion criteria, including E. canis diagnosis by the attending veterinarian and the presence of ticks or history of infestation, thrombocytopenia, and/or anemia. From these, 438 cases that were found serologically positive for E. canis using commercial test kits were selected. Profile, clinical observations and hematological test results were obtained from the selected cases. Computations for statistical associations between the anemic and thrombocytopenic state of the infected dogs and their profile, observed clinical signs and other hematological values were performed. Results: Most of the dogs were purebred (60.0% and female (51.1% and were within the age range of 1-5 years (38.4%. The mean packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC count, and platelet count were lower than the normal values while the absolute count of basophils were higher than normal values. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN appear to be elevated. The most common clinical signs observed were inappetence (41.3%, lethargy/depression (35.6%, vomiting (32.4%, fever (18.5%, paleness (8.2%, and epistaxis (6.6%. Analyses showed that there were no significant differences on the hematological values and clinical signs between thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic seropositive dogs. Moreover, very weak correlations between platelet count and RBC count, absolute lymphocyte count, and neutrophil count were found. On the other hand, only paleness (p=0.008 and epistaxis (p=0.004 were found to be significantly different between anemic and non-anemic patients

  17. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H; Bidanel, J-P; Billon, Y; Lagant, H; Guillouet, P; Sellier, P; Noblet, J; Hermesch, S

    2012-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements. Selection experiments have found that low RFI in the growing pig is genetically correlated with reduced fatness and feed intake. Selection for feed conversion ratio also reduces sow appetite and fatness, which, together with increased prolificacy, has been seen as a hindrance for sow lifetime performance. The aims of our study were to derive equations for sow RFI during lactation (SRFI) and to evaluate the effect of selection for RFI during growth on sow traits during lactation. Data were obtained on 2 divergent lines selected for 7 generations for low and high RFI during growth in purebred Large Whites. The RFI was measured on candidates for selection (1,065 pigs), and sow performance data were available for 480 sows having from 1 to 3 parities (1,071 parities). Traits measured were sow daily feed intake (SDFI); sow BW and body composition before farrowing and at weaning (28.4 ± 1.7d); number of piglets born total, born alive, and surviving at weaning; and litter weight, average piglet BW, and within-litter SD of piglet BW at birth, 21 d of age (when creep feeding was available), and weaning. Sow RFI was defined as the difference between observed SDFI and SDFI predicted for sow maintenance and production. Daily production requirements were quantified by litter size and daily litter BW gain as well as daily changes in sow body reserves. The SRFI represented 24% of the phenotypic variability of SDFI. Heritability estimates for RFI and SRFI were both 0.14. The genetic correlation between RFI and SRFI was 0.29 ± 0.23. Genetic correlations of RFI with sow traits were low to moderate, consistent with responses to selection; selection for low RFI during growth reduced SDFI and increased number of piglets and litter growth, but also increased mobilization of

  18. Effect of thermal heat stress on energy utilization in two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Frances, G; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Noblet, J

    2013-03-01

    Castrated males from 2 lines of purebred French Large White obtained from a divergent selection experiment for their residual feed intake (RFI) over 7 generations were measured for their energy utilization during thermal acclimation to increased ambient temperature. The RFI(+) line consumed more feed than predicted from its performance, whereas the RFI- line consumed less feed. Each pig was exposed to 24°C for 7 d (P0) and thereafter to a constant temperature of 32°C for 3 consecutive periods of 7 d (P1, P2, P3). Feed intake, feeding behavior parameters, digestibility, components of heat production (HP; measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers), and energy, nitrogen, fat, and water balance were measured in pigs offered feed and water ad libitum and individually housed in respiratory chambers. Two identical respiratory chambers were simultaneously used, and 5 pigs of each line were measured successively. Whatever the trait, the interaction between line and period was not significant (P > 0.10). On average, ADFI was greater in the RFI+ than in the RFI- line (1,945 vs. 1,639 g/d; P = 0.051) in relation to an increase of the mean size of each feeding bout (128 vs. 82 g/visit; P intake and HP declined by about 38% and 20%, respectively, from P0 to P1 (P intake, HP gradually decreased (P < 0.05) from P1 to P3 in connection with a reduction of the activity related HP. The evaporative heat loss represented 30% on the total heat loss on P0, and this proportion significantly increased on P1 (61%; P < 0.001) and remained constant thereafter. In conclusion, our results suggest that thermal heat acclimation in pigs is mainly related to a biphasic reduction of HP rather than a change in the ability of losing heat, and it did not significantly differ between RFI+ and RFI- lines despite a decreased HP in the latter ones.

  19. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Martens, Ellen C C P; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H J H; Watson, Adrian L; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Hodgkinson, Victoria L; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J; Polishchuk, Roman S; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional variants in ATP7A and

  20. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

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    Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional

  1. Genetics of animal temperament: aggressive behaviour at mixing is genetically associated with the response to handling in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Roehe, R; Turner, S P; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B

    2009-11-01

    Aggression when pigs are mixed into new social groups has negative impacts on welfare and production. Aggressive behaviour is moderately heritable and could be reduced by genetic selection. The possible wider impacts of selection for reduced aggressiveness on handling traits and activity in the home pen were investigated using 1663 male and female pedigree pigs (898 purebred Yorkshire and 765 Yorkshire × Landrace). Aggressive behaviour was observed over 24 h after pigs were mixed at 10 weeks of age into groups balanced for unfamiliarity and weight. Aggression was highly heritable (duration of involvement in reciprocal fighting h2 = 0.47 ± 0.03, and duration of delivering one-sided aggression h2 = 0.34 ± 0.03). Three weeks after mixing, home pen inactivity (indicated by the frequency of lying) was observed over 24 h. Inactivity was weakly heritable (h2 = 0.05 ± 0.01) but showed no significant genetic association with aggression. Pigs' behaviour during handling by humans was assessed on entry to, whilst inside and on exit from a weigh crate at both mixing and end of test at 22 weeks. Pigs were generally easy to handle, moving easily into and out of the crate. Scores indicating 'very difficult to move' were rare. Handling scores at weighing were weakly heritable (h2 = 0.03 to 0.17), and moderately correlated across the two weighings (rg = 0.28 to 0.76). Aggressive behaviour at mixing was genetically associated with handling at the end of test weighing: pigs that fought and delivered one-sided aggression had handling scores indicating more active behaviour at weighing (e.g. moving quickly into the crate v. fighting rg = 0.41 ± 0.05 and v. bullying rg = 0.60 ± 0.04). Also, there was a genetic association between receiving one-side aggression at mixing and producing high-pitched vocalisations in the weigh crate (rg = 0.78 ± 0.08). Correlated behavioural responses occurring across different challenging situations (e.g. social mixing and human handling) have been

  2. Ecocardiografia de equinos Puro Sangue Árabe após exercício de enduro de diferentes intensidades Echocardiography in Arabian horses after endurance exercise of different intensities

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    Camila Alfaro de Oliveira Bello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A ecocardiografia é um método não invasivo e adequado para a avaliação das alterações cardíacas em equinos, identificando assim aqueles animais que apresentaram melhor adaptação e condicionamento ao exercício a que foram submetidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar por meio de exames ecocardiográficos em modo-M e bidimensional os índices funcionais cardíacos de 15 equinos Puro Sangue Árabe, sendo nove machos e seis fêmeas, com idade variando de seis a 12 anos, submetidos a diferentes intensidades de exercício prolongado de enduro. Para tanto, foram divididos em três grupos, sendo que quatro animais percorreram 30km (GI, seis animais percorreram 90km (GII e cinco animais percorreram 120km (GIII. As avaliações ocorreram antes do início de cada prova, sendo considerado o momento zero (M0 e 30 minutos após percorrerem o último anel da correspondente prova, caracterizando o momento final (Mf. Diante do tratamento estatístico, não se verificaram diferenças significantes entre os índices obtidos no M0 e Mf do GI. De outra forma, no GII para VS, FC, VEs e VEd, assim como no GIII para VS, FC, VEs, VEd e SIVd, observou-se diferença estatística. Portanto, em equinos de enduro a ecocardiografia revelou que o exercício físico permitiu o estabelecimento de índices funcionais cardíacos próprios, de acordo com a intensidade do exercício imposto.Echocardiography is a noninvasive and accurate evaluation of cardiac abnormalities in horses, thereby determining those animals that show better adaptation to exercise and conditioning to which they were submitted. The aim of this study was to verify by echocardiographic M-mode and two-dimensional cardiac functional indices of 15 purebred Arabian horses, nine males and six females, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years, subjected to different intensities prolonged endurance exercise. Thus, both groups were divided into three, in which four animals traveled 30km (GI, six animals

  3. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  4. Maximizing the use of supplemental amino acids in corn-soybean meal diets for 20- to 45-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, M L; Donsbough, A L; Waguespack, A M; Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2011-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the Lys requirement, the maximum amount of supplemental Lys that does not decrease growth performance, and to determine the order of limiting AA beyond Lys, Thr, Trp, and Met in a corn-soybean meal diet for 20- to 45-kg pigs. All experiments were conducted for 27 to 28 d with purebred or crossbred barrows and gilts, which were blocked by initial BW. Treatments were replicated with 4 to 6 pens of 4 to 6 pigs per pen. In all experiments, pigs and feeders were weighed on d 0, 14, and 27 or 28. At the beginning and end of all experiments, blood samples were obtained from all pigs to determine plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations. In Exp. 1, 0.830, 0.872, 0.913, and 0.955% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys was fed, whereas 0.747, 0.788, 0.830, 0.872, and 0.913% SID Lys was fed in Exp. 2. Broken-line analysis requirement estimates could not be estimated from any response variable in Exp. 1, but in Exp. 2, using ADG and PUN, the estimated SID Lys requirement was 0.83%. In Exp. 3, 0, 0.118, 0.191, 0.264, and 0.335% supplemental Lys was added to achieve 0.83% SID Lys in all diets, and Thr, Trp, and Met were supplemented to maintain Thr:Lys, Trp:Lys, and TSAA:Lys of 0.65, 0.18, and 0.60, respectively. Based on ADG, ADFI, and G:F, up to 0.23% supplemental Lys can be added along with supplemental Thr, Trp, and Met without negatively affecting growth performance; PUN was linearly decreased (P 0.10) ADG or G:F compared with the NC. The combined addition of Val + Ile resulted in ADG that was intermediate between the PC and NC diets but not different from either diet (P > 0.10); G:F was not improved (P > 0.10) to that observed in pigs fed the PC diet. The PUN was not different (P > 0.10) among pigs fed diets with supplemental AA but less (P < 0.10) than pigs fed the PC. The results of this research indicate that the Lys requirement for 20- to 45-kg pigs is 0.83% SID Lys, up to 0.23% supplemental Lys (0.29% l-Lys·HCl or 0.45% l

  5. Valine and isoleucine requirement of 20- to 45-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguespack, A M; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2012-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the Val and Ile requirements in low-CP, corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) AA-supplemented diets for 20- to 45-kg pigs. All experiments were conducted for 26 to 27 d with purebred or crossbred barrows and gilts, which were blocked by initial BW. Treatments were replicated with 5 or 6 pens of 3 or 4 pigs per pen. At the beginning of Exp. 1 and the end of all experiments, blood samples were obtained from all pigs to determine plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations. All diets were C-SBM with 0.335% supplemental Lys to achieve 0.83% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, which is the Lys requirement of these pigs. In Exp. 1, 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, or 0.10% L-Val was supplemented to achieve 0.51, 0.53, 0.55, 0.57, 0.59, or 0.61% dietary SID Val, and Thr, Trp, Met, and Ile were supplemented to maintain Thr:Lys, Trp:Lys, TSAA:Lys, and Ile:Lys ratios of 0.71, 0.20, 0.62, and 0.60, respectively. Also, supplemental Gly and Glu were added to all diets to achieve 1.66% Gly + Ser and 3.28% Glu, which is equal to the Gly + Ser and Glu content of a previously validated positive control diet that contained no supplemental AA. Treatment differences were considered significant at P < 0.10. Valine addition increased ADG, ADFI, and G:F in pigs fed 0.51 to 0.59% SID Val (linear, P < 0.08), but ADG and ADFI were decreased at 0.61% SID Val (quadratic, P ≤ 0.10). On the basis of ADG and G:F, the SID Val requirement is between 0.56 and 0.58% in a C-SBM diet supplemented with AA. In Exp. 2 and 3, 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, or 0.08% L-Ile was supplemented to achieve 0.43, 0.45, 0.47, 0.49, or 0.51% dietary SID Ile, and Thr, Trp, Met, and Ile were supplemented to maintain Thr:Lys, Trp:Lys, TSAA:Lys, and Val:Lys ratios of 0.71, 0.20, 0.62, and 0.74, respectively. Also, supplemental Gly and Glu were added to achieve 1.66% Gly + Ser and 3.28% Glu as in Exp. 1. Data from Exp. 2 and 3 were combined and analyzed as 1 data set. Daily BW gain, ADFI, and G:F were not

  6. Inheritance of duration of fertility in female common ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) inseminated in pure breeding or in inter-generic crossbreeding with Muscovy drakes (Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, J M; Mialon, M M; Sellier, N; Brillard, J P; Rouvier, R

    2012-11-01

    Ducks (common, Muscovy and mule ducks) are the third most important bird species in animal production for human consumption worldwide. Our study aimed to improve the efficiency of mule duck breeding, thus contributing to the efficiency of food production in general. In the common duck, females can be bred either with males of the same species (i.e. in pure breeding (PB) subscript p) or in inter-generic crossbreeding (CB; subscript c) with Muscovy drakes to produce the hybrid mule duck. The aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters of several indicators of duration of fertility, considered to be a trait of the female duck, within and between breeding schemes and, in particular, to estimate the purebred-crossbred genetic correlation (rg pc). These indicators were maximum duration of fertility (MD), that is, the time interval between insemination and the last fertilised egg, the number of fertile eggs (F) and of hatched ducklings (H) after a single artificial insemination (AI), and the fertility rate over days 2 to 12 after AI (F 2,12), taking three sub-periods (F 2,4, F 5,8, F 9,12) into account. A total of 494 females and 2655 inseminations were involved. PB resulted in longer duration of fertility (MD p = 8.1 v. MD c = 6.4 days). Heritability (h 2) was higher for MD p (estimate ± s.e.: 0.27 ± 0.04) than for MD c (0.15 ± 0.04), but both traits were highly correlated with each other (rg pc = 0.85 ± 0.07). F p and F c had similar heritability (h 2 around 0.24) and displayed a high genetic correlation (0.78 ± 0.07). The same was true for H p and H c (h 2 around 0.17 and rg pc = 0.88 ± 0.05). The heritability estimates were 0.24 ± 0.03 for F 2,12p and 0.20 ± 0.04 for F 2,12c, with a 0.80 ± 0.07 genetic correlation between each other. Permanent environmental effects influenced MD p far less than MD c, F p less than F c, but H p and H c to the same extent. The high values for rg pc (>0.78) indicated that the same genes are involved in the

  7. Características de carcaça e qualidade da carne de bovinos de corte de quatro grupos genéticos terminados em confinamento Carcass characteristics and meat quality of four genetics groups of beef cattle finished in feedlot

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    Saulo Malaguido Climaco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características de carcaça e a qualidade da carne de animais puros das raças Tabapuã, Bonsmara e mestiços ½ Bonsmara + ½ Nelore e mestiços ½ Bonsmara + ¼ Red Angus + ¼ Nelore. Foram utilizados cinco bovinos castrados de cada grupo genético, com idade média de 22 meses e peso vivo de 394±21 kg ao início do experimento. A dieta, para todos os animais, continha silagem de cana-de-açúcar e ração comercial na proporção de 55% e 45% (base seca, respectivamente, com 14,99% de proteína bruta (PB e 59,84% de nutrientes totais digestíveis (NDT. Ao abate, não foram observadas diferenças no peso de carcaça fria nem nos pesos e percentuais dos cortes comerciais (traseiro, costilhar e dianteiro entre os grupos genéticos. Os animais puros Bonsmara apresentaram maior área de olho-de-lombo, maior percentual de músculo e menor percentual de gordura na carcaça. Nos animais mestiços ½ Bonsmara + ½ Nelore, a espessura de gordura de cobertura (EGC foi maior que os Bonsmara e Tabapuã, porém todos os grupos genéticos apresentaram EGC acima do mínimo (3 mm exigido pelos frigoríficos. Não foi observada diferença na composição centesimal da carne entre os grupos genéticos. A carne dos animais Bonsmara e mestiços ½ Bonsmara + ½ Nelore e ½ Bonsmara + ¼ Red Angus + ¼ Nelore foi mais macia que a dos animais Tabapuã. O perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo longissimus dorsi não diferiu entre os grupos genéticos estudados. A carne dos animais Bonsmara e mestiços ½ Bonsmara + ½ Nelore e ½ Bonsmara + ¼ Red Angus + ¼ Nelore apresentou melhor qualidade se comparada à dos Tabapuã.The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality of Tabapuã and Bonsmara purebred steers, and crossbred ½ Bonsmara + ½ Nellore and ½ Bonsmara + ¼ Red Angus + ¼ Nellore steers. Five animals were used in each genetic group. The average age and weight at the

  8. Componentes de carcaça e composição de alguns cortes de cordeiros Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês e Santa Inês puros, terminados em confinamento, com casca de café como parte da dieta Carcass components and composition of some cuts of Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês and Santa Inês lambs, finished in fedlot with coffee hull as part of the diet

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    Iraides Ferreira Furusho-Garcia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e seis cordeiros, 12 cruzas Texel x Bergamácia (TB, 12 cruzas Texel x Santa Inês (TS e 12 puros Santa Inês (SI, foram confinados individualmente, por um período de 50 dias. Cada grupo genético consistiu de seis machos inteiros e seis fêmeas, recebendo três diferentes dietas experimentais: 1 = sem casca de café (dieta controle; 2 = com casca de café in natura; e 3 = com casca de café tratada com uréia e grão de soja moído. Os animais foram abatidos com idade média de 180 dias; posteriormente, foram avaliados os cortes da carcaça fria e a composição em músculo, osso e gordura da perna, paleta e do lombo. Para os outros cortes da carcaça e composição da perna, paleta e lombo, a utilização da casca de café, tratada ou não, não afetou os pesos. Os cordeiros SI mostraram menor peso para o músculo da perna e do lombo. O grupo genético não influenciou significativamente os pesos dos outros componentes, somente a paleta apresentou significância, indicando ser mais pesada para os animais TB e TS. Os machos apresentaram pesos maiores para braço posterior e anterior, pesos dos músculos da paleta, perna e lombo, e ainda, pesos maiores dos ossos da paleta e do lombo.Thity-six lambs, 12 crossbred Texel x Bergamácia (TB, 12 crossbred Texel x Santa Inês (TS and 12 purebred Santa Inês (SI lambs were individually finished in fedlot for 50 days (from 130 to 180 days of age. Each genetic group consisted of six males and six females, fed three different diets: 1 = without coffee hulls (control; 2 = with in nature coffee hulls; 3 = with treated coffee hull with urea and grounded soybean grain. The animals were slaughtered at 180 days, in average. Then, the cold carcass cuts and the composition in muscle, bone and fat of the leg, shoulder and loin were evaluated. The use of the coffee hull, treated or not, did not affect the weight of the other carcass cuts and the composition of the leg, shoulder and loin. Santa Inês lambs

  9. Concentrações de imunoglobulinas G em colostro de vacas mestiças holandês-zebu Colostral immunoglobulin G concentrations in crossbred holstein-zebu dairy cows

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    Paulo Martins Soares Filho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e oito vacas leiteiras mestiças holandês-zebu (HZ foram distribuídas de acordo com a percentagem de grau de sangue holandês em quatro grupos: Grupo 1 = animais com menos de 70% de grau de sangue holandês (19 vacas; Grupo 2 = animais com 75% de grau de sangue holandês, que equivale a ¾ HZ (46 vacas; Grupo 3 = mestiços entre 80 e 90% de grau de sangue holandês, que corresponderam a 13/16 HZ e 7/8 HZ (11 vacas; Grupo 4 = vacas com mais de 90% de grau de sangue holandês (12 vacas. Após o parto, amostras de colostro da primeira ordenha foram colhidas e, posteriormente, submetidas à imunodifusão radial simples para determinações dos níveis de imunoglobulinas G (IgG. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que as concentrações de IgG não são influenciadas pelos graus de sangue estudados e seus valores médios (145,94mg/m são muito superiores aos relatados para animais de raças taurinas puras. Por esse motivo, não se justifica o emprego de métodos artificiais de fornecimento do colostro em se tratando de mestiços HZ. Ademais, o nível elevado de IgG observado no colostro sugere que a adoção da prática da mamada natural assistida seja adequada para assegurar que, na maioria das vezes, os neonatos não venham a apresentar falhas de transferência de imunidade passiva.Eighty-eight healthy crossbred holstein-zebu (HZ dairy cows were distributed in four groups as follow: Group 1 = less than 70% HZ (19 cows; Group 2 = 75% HZ animals, corresponding to ¾ HZ (46 cows; Group 3 = crossbred animals between 80 to 90% HZ, corresponding to 13/16 HZ and 7/8 HZ (11 cows; Group 4 = cows more than 90% HZ (12 animals. After birth, colostrum samples were obtained from each cow and than were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG concentration by single radial immunodifusion assay. IgG colostral concentrations were not influenced by group of crossbred HZ and its mean concentration (145.97mg/m were higher than that related for purebreds Bos

  10. The effect of parturition induction treatment on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and resumption of ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šavc, Miha; Kenny, David A; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two parturition induction protocols with a nontreated control group, on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers. At Day 285 of gestation, 81 crossbred recipient beef heifers carrying purebred Simmental fetuses, were blocked by live-weight, body condition score, expected calving date and fetal sex, and assigned to one of three groups: (1) control (CON; no induction treatment, n = 29); (2) induction with corticosteroids (CORT; n = 27); or (3) induction with corticosteroids plus prostaglandin (CORT + PG; n = 25). Interval from induction to calving in hours and calving ease on a scale of 1 to 5 were recorded. Vaginal mucus samples were collected on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving (Day 0) by means of a Metricheck and scored on a scale of 0 to 3. Reproductive tract examinations were conducted on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving, and uterine cytology samples were obtained on Day 21. A positive cytologic sample was defined as greater than 18% neutrophils in the sample obtained via a cytobrush technique. Cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity if the presence of the CL was confirmed. Data were analyzed using the Mixed (normally distributed data) and Genmod (nonparametric data) procedures of SAS (v. 9.3). The interval from treatment to calving was longer (P < 0.0001) for CON (161.9 ± 15.12 hours) animals compared with CORT (39.7 ± 11.64 hours) or CORT + PG (32.6 ± 12.10 hours), which did not differ. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score. There was also no difference in incidence of retained placenta between the three groups. At Day 21 postpartum, cytology score tended to be higher for both induced groups (48%) compared with the control animals (24%), but this was not the case for vaginal mucus score (CON 52%, CORT 70%, and CORT + PG 52%). A higher proportion of CON had an involuted uterus by Day 21 postpartum (69

  11. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho Ingestive behavior in dairy cows fed sugar cane or corn silage based diets

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    Sandro de Souza Mendonça

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Doze vacas da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças, foram distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 X 4, balanceados de acordo com o período de lactação, com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo. As dietas experimentais foram à base de silagem de milho com relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40, com base na matéria seca, ou à base de cana-de-açúcar, com relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40 ou 50:50. As vacas foram submetidas à observação visual para avaliação do comportamento ingestivo. Os animais foram observados a cada dez minutos, durante 24 horas, para determinação do tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação e ócio. Não houve diferença para os tempos médios despendidos com alimentação e ruminação entre as dietas experimentais. Entretanto, na dieta à base de silagem de milho, os animais ficaram menos tempo no ócio, quando comparados àqueles alimentados com cana-de-açúcar. Com relação à eficiência de alimentação, expressa em gFDN/h, não houve diferença entre as dietas experimentais. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gMS/h, foi semelhante para as diferentes dietas. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gFDN/h (ERU FDN foi maior para a dieta à base de silagem de milho. Não houve diferença na ERU FDN entre dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar. Vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar apresentaram maior tempo despendido em ócio e menor consumo de MS, quando comparadas àquelas alimentadas com dietas à base de silagem de milhoTwelve purebred and crossbred Holstein cows were assigned to three Latin squares 4 X 4, balanced according to the lactating period, to evaluate the ingestive behavior parameters. The experimental diets were based on corn silage with 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio, in dry matter (DM basis, or based on sugar cane with 60:40 or 50:50 forage:concentrate. The cows were submitted to visual observation for ingestive behavior evaluation

  12. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

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    Yingying Liu

    Full Text Available Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet- or higher/NRC (National Research Council-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (P<0.05 gradually with increasing age. Bama mini-pigs had generally higher (P<0.05 muscle concentrations of flavor-related AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05 than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K, and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05. There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05 the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but

  13. Polpa cítrica em dietas de vacas em lactação. 2. Digestibilidade dos nutrientes em dois períodos de coleta de fezes, pH e nitrogênio amoniacal do líquido ruminal Citrus pulp in diets for milking cows. 2. Digestibility of nutrients in two periods of feces collection and rumen fluid pH and ammonia nitrogen

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    Anderson Jorge de Assis

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Doze vacas lactantes, da raça Holandesa puras e mestiças, com peso vivo médio inicial de 550 kg, foram distribuídas em três quadrados latinos. O período experimental foi de 18 dias, sete de dias adaptação à dieta e onze dias para coleta de dados. A alimentação fornecida foi para atender os requerimentos de vacas não gestantes produzindo 20 kg de leite com 4,5% de gordura, com o objetivo de avaliar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, esta em dois períodos de coleta de amostra de fezes (2 e 5 dias e no líquido ruminal o pH e nitrogênio amoniacal. A digestibilidade dos nutrientes não foi afetada pelo período de coleta, como também não houve diferença na digestibilidade para os níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica. Não houve diferença significativa (P>0,05 para pH e nitrogênio amoniacal do rúmen para os diferentes tratamentos. A polpa cítrica pode substituir até 100% do milho em dietas completas para vacas produzindo em média 20 kg de leite sem alterar os parâmetros ruminais (pH e amônia amoniacal.Twelve milking cows, purebred and crossbred Holstein, with average weight of 550 kg, were allotted to three Latin Squares 4 x 4. The experimental period lasted 18 days, seven days for the adaptation to the diets and eleven days for data collection. Feeding was supplied to met the requirements of non pregnant cows, producing 20 kg of milk with 4.5% fat. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of replacement (0, 33, 67, 100% of corn meal by pelleted citrus pulp in the concentrate in total mixed rations, observing the parameters digestibility of the nutrients, and ruminal pH and ammonia concentration during two periods of collection of sample of feces (2 and 5 days. The digestibility of the nutrients were not affected by the collection period, as well as there were not differences in the digestibility for the increasing levels of citrus pulp. No significant differences were observed for pH and ammonia

  14. Serum level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis following repeated long-term exposure to positive acceleration%重复长时间正加速度暴露动脉粥样硬化家兔模型血清超敏C-反应蛋白的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗慧兰; 陈勇胜

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) can be used to predict cardiovascular injury.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the serum levels of hs-CRP in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis following repeated long-termexposure to positive acceleration and to predict the risk of cardiovascular injury.METHODS: Twenty-four New Zealand purebred rabbits were randomly divided into a positive acceleration group and a controlgroup. Rabbits in the positive acceleration group were exposed to +4 g rotation for 20 seconds with an acceleration of 1 g/s. Therotation interval was 5 minutes and totally three rotations were daily performed for 3 days per week. 0.5 g rotation was addedevery week, and by week 4, +6 g rotation was added, and the exposure lasted for 40 seconds.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Exposure to positive acceleration yielded significant effects on serum level of hs-CRP in rabbitswith atherosclerosis compared with before exposure (P 0.05). The interaction between exposure to positive acceleration and exposure time also did not produce significanteffects on serum level of hs-CRP (P > 0.05). Hyperplastic foam cells in the aortic tunica intima and the superficial layer of mediaincreased with the prolongation of exposure to positive acceleration. Repeated long-term exposure to positive acceleration maylead to a long-term high serum level of hs-CRP in rabbits.%背景:血清超敏C-反应蛋白的水平能够预测心血管损伤.目的:探讨重复正加速度暴露时动脉粥样硬化模型家兔血清超敏C-反应蛋白的变化与心血管损伤的风险预测.方法:将24 只新西兰纯种兔随机等分为正加速度组和对照组.正加速度组兔先在+4 g 水平(持续20 s,增长率为1 g/s)下暴露,旋转间隔时间为5 min,连续旋转3 次,每周3 d.每周增加0.5 g,至第4 周时增加至+6 g,持续暴露40 s.差异也无显著性意义(P > 0.05).兔主动脉内膜下及中膜浅层增生的泡沫细胞量随正加速度暴露的延长

  15. Efeitos de Ambiente e de Heterose sobre o Ganho de Peso do Nascimento ao Desmame e sobre os Escores Visuais ao Desmame de Bovinos de Corte Environmental Effects and Heterosis on Weight Gain from Birth to Weaning and on Visual Scores at Weaning of Beef Cattle

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    Rossano André Dal-Farra

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram a obtenção de fatores de correção para efeitos de idade do bezerro, idade da vaca e data juliana do nascimento sobre o ganho de peso do nascimento à desmama (GND e sobre os escores visuais de conformação (C, precocidade (P e musculatura (M e a estimação dos efeitos das heteroses materna e individual nessas características. Foram utilizados dados dos Programas de Melhoramento Genético Natura e Conexão Delta G, totalizando 187.610 bezerros puros e cruzas, nascidos no período de 1989 a 1999 em vários estados do Brasil. Os modelos estatísticos utilizados nas análises consideraram os efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo, idade do bezerro (regressão quadrática, idade da vaca (regressão polinomial quadrática-quadrática com nó aos 7 anos, data juliana de nascimento (regressão polinomial quadrática-quadrática-quadrática com nós aos 165 e 260 dias para GND, 150 e 240 dias para C, 165 e 270 dias para P e 155 e 260 dias para M e heterozigoses materna e individual (regressões lineares. Todos os efeitos considerados no modelo influenciaram de forma significativa o GND e os escores de C, P e M. Os valores estimados de heterose materna e individual foram, respectivamente, 8,9% e 9,9% para GND, 10,0% e 6,6% para C, 8,5% e 4,8 % para P e 10,9% e 5,0% para M.ABSTRACT - The objectives of this study were to obtain adjustment factors for effects of calf age, dam age and calf Julian birth date on weight gain from birth to weaning (GND and on visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P, and muscling (M and to estimate effects of maternal and individual heterosis on those traits. The analyzed records were from two breeding programs named Natura and Conexão Delta G, totalizing 187,610 purebred and crossbred Nellore x Angus and Nellore x Hereford calves. Calves were born between 1989 and 1999 in herds located in different states of Brazil. The statistical models applied to analyze GND and visual scores of

  16. Efectos genéticos aditivos y no aditivos, directos y maternos para caracteres de crecimiento en una población multiracial de bovinos productores de carne Additive and non-additive, direct and maternal genetic effects for growth traits in a multibreed population of beef cattle

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    H. H MONTALDO V

    2003-12-01

    population on crossbred and purebred Angus, Gelbvieh, Polled Hereford, Red Angus and Santa Gertrudis. Age-adjusted weights to 200 (W2, 400 (W4 and 600-day (W6, were analyzed using a multiple-trait animal model including the maternal genetic effect for W2. Direct breed, maternal additive genetic effects (Santa Gertrudis vs. any other breed and direct dominance effect (individual calf breed heterozygocity for all studied traits, were included in the model as fixed covariates. Medium direct heritability values are high enough to allow genetic progress in the population from selection of best animals for W2, W4 and W6 using an animal model. Different emphasis on each trait could allow changes in the growth curve from 200-600 days of age. Maternal heritability for W2 was close to zero, indicating a low interference with direct effect genetic progress in growth traits and a reduced value for selection for this effect. The growth potential in Gelbvieh and Angus calves was higher than those for other breeds, with Santa Gertrudis being the lowest. Santa Gertrudis was superior for maternal breed effect to the average of other breeds. The estimate for the dominance average effect was positive for W2 and W6 and negative for W4 and lower than the maximum difference between direct breed effects.

  17. VIPR-1基因SNP位点与如皋黄鸡产蛋性能和蛋品质的关联分析%Association of SNP of VIPR-1 Gene with Egg Production and Egg Quality Traits in Rugao-yellow Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪军; 王克华; 李东锋; 杨宁

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the effect of genotype combinations between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1 (VIPR-1) gene on the egg production and egg quality traits in Rugao-yellow Chicken. 410 purebred Rugao-yellow Chicken were used.The SNPs of the base mutation G-T at position 1063 (PA site) and mutation C-T at position 3522 (Pbsite)in the intron of PRL gene were detected by SELDI-TOF. Association analyses showed that the PA site was significantly associated with the age of first egg (AFE), the total number of egg of 40 w(EN40), egg shell strength(ESS), yolk rate(YR)and yolk-albumen rate(YAR)(P0.05), was significantly associated with egg weight (EW), egg shape index (ESI), egg specific gravity(ESG),egg shell thickness (EST)of the egg quality traits (P<0.05). The result of genotype combinations effect suggested that among nine different genotype combinations, GTTT and TTTC genotypes were the dominant combination with the egg production traits.%本研究旨在分析VIPR-1基因的SNP位点与产蛋性能和蛋品质之间的关联性.实验以如皋黄鸡为素材,采用飞行时间质谱技术对VIPR-1基因内含子2第+1063位碱基(PA位点)的G-T突变和第+3522位碱基(PB位点)的T-C突变进行单位点和多位点组合效应分析.结果表明:PA位点的多态性与产蛋性状中的开产日龄(AFE)和40周龄总产蛋数(EN40)呈显著相关(P<0.05);与蛋品质性状中的蛋壳强度(ESS)、蛋黄比率(YR)和蛋黄蛋白比(YAR)呈显著相关(P<0.05);等位基因T有利于产蛋量和蛋品质的改善.PB位点与本次实验所测的5个产蛋性状相关均不显著(P>0.05),与蛋品质性状中的蛋重(EW)、蛋形指数(ESI)、蛋壳厚度(EST)和蛋比重(ESG)相关显著(P<0.05).组合效应分析结果表明,对于产蛋性能,GTTT和TTTC组合基因型个体的组合效应显著.

  18. Consumo, digestibilidade e desempenho de novilhas alimentadas com casca de café em substituição à silagem de milho Intake, digestibility and performance of dairy heifers fed coffee hulls replacing of corn silage

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    Rafael Monteiro Araújo Teixeira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a substituição da silagem de milho pela casca de café em dietas de novilhas leiteiras sobre os consumos, as digestibilidades aparentes totais dos nutrientes e o desempenho dos animais. Foram utilizadas 24 novilhas holandesas, puras e mestiças, distribuídas, de acordo com o peso inicial dos animais, em delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos (níveis de casca de café: 0,0; 7,0; 14,0 e 21,0% na base da MS total e seis repetições. Diariamente, todas as novilhas foram alimentadas com 2 kg de concentrado. Os consumos de MS aumentaram linearmente, enquanto os consumos de matéria natural (MN não foram influenciados pela inclusão de casca de café nas dietas. O aumento no consumo de MS foi de aproximadamente 20 g para cada unidade de casca de café adicionada na dieta (% MS e o consumo médio de MN foi de 13,84 kg/dia. As digestibilidades de MS, MO, PB, CT e FDN e a concentração de NDT das dietas reduziram linearmente com a substituição da silagem de milho pela casca de café, observando-se redução de 0,158 unidades percentuais na digestibilidade da MS para cada unidade de casca de café adicionada na dieta (% MS. A inclusão de casca de café afetou de modo negativo o ganho de peso, que reduziu linearmente (5,51 g de PV por unidade de casca de café adicionada a dieta conforme aumentaram os níveis de casca de café em substituição a silagem de milho. Em dietas para novilhas leiteiras, a casca de café pode substituir a silagem de milho em níveis de até 14% na MS total.The objective was to evaluate the replacement corn silage by coffee hulls in the diet on performance, total apparent digestibility of dairy heifers. Twenty-four dairy Holstein heifers, purebred and crossbred, were assigned, according to animal initial weight, to a randomized block design with four treatments (Coffee hulls levels: 0.0, 7.0, 14.0, and 21.0% DM basis and six replicates. All heifers were daily fed 2.0 kg

  19. Soroprevalência da infecção pelo vírus da artrite-encefalite caprina (caev no rebanho de caprinos leiteiros da região da Grande Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil Seroprevalence of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis vírus infection in dairy goats in the region of "Grande Fortaleza", Ceará, Brazil

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    Ana Célia Mendes Melo

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma pesquisa sorológica, com base no teste de imunodifusão em ágar gel (AGID com antígeno (p28 do vírus Maedi/Visna, para estimar a soroprevalência da infecção pelo vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina (CAEV na população de caprinos leiteiros da região da Grande Fortaleza, Ceará. O estudo abrangeu um total de oito criatórios. dos quais cinco praticam o manejo intensivo e três o manejo semi-intensivo. A população estudada é composta, por animais puros de raças exóticas como a Saanen, Parda Alpina, Anglonubiana e Toggenburg, por animais Meio Sangue e alguns sem raça definida (SRD. Foi realizado exame clinico e coleta de amostra de soro em 248 caprinos, bem como a aplicação de questinonário epidemiológico. A análise dos dados revelou uma soroprevalência de 40,73% (101/248. As amostras soropositivas foram todas provenientes das propriedades com manejo intensivo (5/8. A distribuição da soroprevalência em cada um destes criatórios foi 61% (54/89, 74,28% (26/35, 61,11% (11/18, 11,36% (5/44 e 75% (6/8. Diferença significativa (P0,05 quanto aos falares idade e sexo dos animais estudados.A serologic survey was performed using a agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID with the Maedi/Visna virus antigen (p28 to estimate the seroprevalence of the caprine arthritisencephalitis virus infection (CAEV in a dairy goat population in the region of "Grande Fortaleza", in the state of Ceará, Brazil. In this study a total of eight flocks were examined, five included intensive and three semi-intensive managements. The population studied consisted of three groups: pure-bred animais of exotic races such as Saanen, Alpine Parda, Anglonubian and Toggenburg: crossbreeds and animais of undefined breed. Serum samples were colleted from 248 goats, clinicai analysis were performed, andan epidemiologic survey was applied. Analysis of the results showed a seroprevalence of 40.73% (101/248. All seropositive samples carne from the flocks

  20. Níveis dietéticos de lisina para suínos da raça Landrace dos 15 aos 30 kg Dietary lysine levels for Landrace pigs from 15 to 30 kg

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    Valéria Moretto

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência nutricional de lisina total para suínos da raça Landrace, machos inteiros e fêmeas, de 15 a 30 kg de peso, foram conduzidos dois experimentos. Utilizaram-se 50 fêmeas no experimento I e 50 machos inteiros no experimento II, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos, cinco repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental, em cada experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração basal suplementada com cinco níveis de L-lisina.HCl, resultando em rações com 0,85; 0,95; 1,05; 1,15; e 1,25% de lisina, em ambos os experimentos. No experimento I, o consumo de ração médio diário não foi influenciado pelo nível de lisina das rações. Ganho de peso médio diário, consumo de lisina médio diário e taxa de deposição de proteína na carcaça aumentaram de forma linear com o nível de lisina da ração. Os tratamentos influenciaram de forma quadrática a conversão alimentar, que melhorou até o nível de 1,08% de lisina. No experimento II, os tratamentos não influenciaram o consumo de ração médio diário e a conversão alimentar. Constatou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de lisina sobre ganho de peso médio diário, consumo de lisina médio diário e taxa de deposição de proteína na carcaça. Os melhores resultados de ganho de peso foram observados no nível de 1,08% de lisina. A exigência de lisina total na ração, para a fase inicial de desenvolvimento (15 a 30 kg, foi de 1,08%, para ambos os sexos.Two experiments were carried out to determine the total lysine requirement of purebred Landrace swine, males and females, from 15 to 30 kg live weights. Fifty females and fifty males were used in a randomized complete block design, with five treatments, five replications and two animals per experimental unit, in the experiments I and II, respectively. The treatments consisted of a basal diet, supplemented with five levels of L-lysine.HCL, resulting in diets with

  1. Influence of maternal protein restriction on the property of muscle fibre of the weaning piglets%母猪限饲对后代断奶仔猪肌纤维特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢鹏; 赵茹茜; 杨倩

    2011-01-01

    选用16头配种日期、系谱、体重和日龄等相近的纯种小梅山初产母猪,采用单因子试验设计,根据在整个妊娠期和哺乳期饲喂不同蛋白水平的日粮(正常水平和限饲水平,限饲蛋白水平为正常蛋白水平的50%),将16头母猪随机分为2组:限饲组和对照组,比较了2组母猪后代断奶仔猪背最长肌的肌纤维类型及而积、肌糖原含量、乳酸脱氢酶活性以及琥珀酸脱氢酶活性.结果显示:限饲后仔猪Ⅰ型、ⅡA和ⅡB型肌纤维面积均低于对照组,但差异不显著(P>0.05);限饲后仔猪Ⅰ型和ⅡA型肌纤维比例升高,但ⅡB型肌纤维比例降低,差异均不显著(P>0.05).限饲后仔猪背最长肌中糖原含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05).限饲后仔猪乳酸脱氢酶活性与对照组相比无显著差异(P>0.05).限饲后仔猪琥珀酸脱氢酶活性显著低于对照组(P<0.05).试验结果表明:母猪妊娠期和哺乳期蛋白限饲对后代断奶仔猪肌纤维结构未见显著影响,但降低肌肉有氧氧化能力,对肌肉代谢特性产生不利影响.%Single factor experiment design was adopted in this experiment and 16 purebred little meishan sows with similar first mating date ,genealogy ,weight and age were chosen and divided into two groups randomly:restriction group and control group, eight sows in each group.Sows in the restriction group were fed with 50% of normal protein content,while those in the control group were fed with normal protein content.After the normal delivery of the sows, 16 boars of average weight were slaughtered after weaning.Four parameters were compared including the fiber types of longissimus dorsi muscle, muscle glycogen content, lactate dehydrogenase activity and succinic dehydrogenase activity.The results were as followed.First, Ⅰ -type, Ⅱ A-type and Ⅱ B-type muscle fiber area of limited feeding group decreased with insignificance in the offspring after feed restriction in the same way,

  2. Production and composition of Iberian sow's milk and use of milk nutrients by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2011-08-01

    Sixteen purebred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two consecutive trials to determine the efficiency of conversion of sow's milk into piglet body weight (BW) gain and the relationship between milk protein and body protein retention and between milk energy yield and body energy retention in the nursing IB piglet. In each trial, four sows were selected in order to evaluate their milk production, litter growth and nutrient balance measurements, together with four additional sows for milk sampling. Litter size was equalized to six piglets. Daily milk yield (MY) was determined weekly by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique over a 34-day lactation period. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and then weekly from day 5 of lactation. Milk samples were collected on days 5, 12, 19, 26 and 34 post partum. The comparative slaughter procedure was used to determine piglet nutrient and energy retention. One piglet from each litter was slaughtered at birth and four on the morning of day 35. Total MY was on average 5.175 ± 0.157 kg/day. The average chemical composition (g/kg) of the milk was 179 ± 4 dry matter, 53.4 ± 1.0 CP, 58.5 ± 3.8 fat, 10.4 ± 0.3 ash and 56.9 ± 2.3 lactose. Milk gross energy (GE) was 4.626 ± 0.145 MJ/kg. Milk intake per piglet tended to increase in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P = 0.066). Piglet BW gain contained (g/kg) 172.1 ± 1.3 protein, 151.5 ± 3.5 fat, 41.4 ± 0.6 ash and 635 ± 3 water and 10.127 ± 0.126 MJ GE/kg. Throughout the 34-day nursing period, the piglets grew at an average rate of 168 ± 3 g/day. The ratio of daily piglet BW gain to daily MY was 0.195 ± 0.002 g/g and the gain per MJ milk GE intake was 41.9 ± 0.5 g/MJ. The overall efficiency of protein accretion (g CP gain/g CP milk intake) was low and declined in trial 2 (0.619 v. 0.571; P = 0.016). Nutrient and energy deposition between birth and weaning were 27.4 ± 0.5 g/day protein, 24.2 ± 0.8 g/day fat and 1615 ± 40 kJ/day energy. Piglet energy requirements for maintenance were

  3. Lymphangiosarcoma in a 3.5-year-old Bullmastiff bitch with vaginal prolapse, primary lymph node fibrosis and other congenital defects : clinical communication

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    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, whichmaybe primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined.Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as looselyarranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the

  4. Produção de leite e comportamento de amamentação em cinco sistemas de produção de gado de corte Milk yield and suckling behavior in five beef cattle production system

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    Ana Carolina Espasandin

    2001-06-01

    effect in milk yield. Milk yield did not show any relationship with suckling behavior or daily gain in calves. Extensive grazing condition did not reduce milk yield of Nellore cows although it determined significant cow weight losses (80 kg during the breeding season in the NR system. Daily length of suckling decreased in the NR system as lactation progressed, and was sustained or increased in the intensive systems. Crossbred calves showed higher daily gain and weaning weight than purebred.

  5. Study on identification and fermentative properties of superior microorganism in Libo sour meat from Guizhou during fermentation%贵州荔波传统酸肉优势菌筛选、鉴定与发酵性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 郭晓芸; 范丽平; 王艳; 杨冬梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:为揭示贵州荔波传统酸肉不同发酵期微生物菌群变化特征,确定优势菌种,并了解其发酵性能.方法:对酸肉中的菌种进行分离、筛选,采用API 50CH标准系统进行鉴定,并对优势菌的生长特性、产酸性、耐盐性、酶活力等进行研究.结果:筛选出四株产酸较快、发酵风味好的乳酸菌分别是M5-4-2、M1-4、M3-4、M9,其中两株为短乳杆菌,另外两株分别是植物乳杆菌和乳酸乳球菌乳酸亚种,四株菌均有较高的耐盐特性和较强的亚硝酸盐耐受能力,四株菌株之间无拮抗性、均能发酵葡萄糖产酸而不产气、胞外酶均无蛋白质和脂肪分解能力.结论:M5-4-2、M1-4、M3-4、M9发酵性能较好,可以复配混合,开发为荔波酸肉产业化生产的纯种发酵剂.%Objective:Characters of microbe flora change during fermentation were investigated for predominant species and fermentative properties of Libo sour meat in Guizhou.Methods:After being isolated and screened,Sour Meat strains were identified by API and 50CH standard system.Meanwhile,fermentative properties of the dominant bacteria were studied,such as capacity of produce acid,salt tolerance and enzyme activity.Results:Results showed that four strains obtained for their excellent characteristics in acid production and good flavor in fermented meat were M5-4-2,M1-4,M3-4 and M9 respectively,in which M3-4 and M9 were identified as Lactobacillus brevis,M5-4-2 as Lactobacillus plantarum and M1-4 as L.lactis subsp.Lactis.Four strains of bacteria can be mixed together for being used as microbial starters culture due to their fermentative properties including salt-tolerant,nitrite-tolerant without inhibition each other,and proteinase and lipase of all these four strains have no capability to decompose protein and fat in meat.Conclusion:All these four strains can be mixed together used as purebred fermentation agent for Libo sour meat production and processing.

  6. Uso de técnicas de regressão na avaliação, em bovinos de corte, da eficiência de conversão do alimento em produto: comparação entre grupos experimentais Use of regression techniques in the evaluation, in beef cattle, of feed conversion into product: comparison between experimental groups

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    Edenio Detmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo propor e discutir um método de avaliação comparativa da eficiência de conversão do alimento em produto entre dois grupos experimentais de bovinos de corte baseado na utilização de técnicas de regressão. Os procedimentos matemáticos e estatísticos foram desenvolvidos a partir de banco de dados formado pela mensuração do consumo de matéria seca e do ganho médio diário em 380 bovinos zebuínos puros ou mestiços em 15 experimentos constantes na base de dados do sistema BR-CORTE. Foram selecionados dois grupos constituídos por animais Nelore (n = 156 e animais F1 Europeu × Nelore (n = 139. Foram propostas duas aproximações baseadas no ajustamento de modelos de regressão linear e não-linear, tendo o ganho médio diário com variável independente e o consumo de matéria seca como variável dependente. A utilização do alimento pelo animal foi estratificada em demanda para mantença e eficiência real de conversão em produto e as diferenças entre grupos foram avaliadas por intermédio de variáveis dummy. O critério de informação de Akaike foi proposto como ferramenta para escolha entre os modelos linear e não-linear. A avaliação comparativa da eficiência de transformação do alimento em produto entre dois grupos experimentais de bovinos de corte por meio de técnicas de regressão permite, caso pertinente, a estratificação dos grupos em função da eficiência de uso da dieta para suprimento de demandas para mantença e para produção.The objective of this study was to propose and discuss a method to compare the feed into product conversion between two experimental groups of beef cattle based on regression techniques. The mathematical and statistical procedures were developed using a databank of dry matter intake and average daily gain of 380 purebred or crossbred zebu animals on the BR-CORTE nutritional system database. Two groups were selected from the databank and were formed by Nellore

  7. Association of SNP of neuropeptide Y, leptin, and IGF-1 genes with residual feed intake in confinement and under grazing condition in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, A I; Casal, A; Peñagaricano, F; Carriquiry, M; Chilibroste, P

    2013-09-01

    In this study we quantify and compare the phenotypic variation in residual feed intake (RFI) in 2 groups of Angus female calves: one carrying simultaneously putative favorable allelic variants (SNP) of neuropeptide Y, leptin, and IGF-1 genes (VAL group) and another devoid of such alleles (CON group). We performed 2 sequential trials: under confinement feeding a high-concentrate diet and under grazing condition. In confinement, 38 purebred Angus female calves [mean age and BW of 247 d (SD = 15) and 186 kg (SD = 33.2), respectively] were offered a total mixed ration diet (60:40 concentrate: alfalfa hay, as fed) ad libitum during 57 d. Dry matter intake was estimated from the difference between offered and refused feed; BW was recorded every 2 wk. Under grazing, 12 heifers from each group were ranked by BW and RFI and randomly assigned to 4 pasture paddocks. Heifers were continuously stocked at high-quality, high-herbage-mass mixed pasture. Herbage DMI was determined using the n-alkane technique. Different models were used to determine RFI: models that use phenotypic data [RFI as described by Koch et al. (1963; RFIK) and RFI as described by ME (RFIME)] and models that use standards feeding data [RFI estimated by Fan et al. (1995; RFIF) and RFI in which the expected DMI was derived from equations in Standing Committee on Agriculture (1990; RFISCA)]. Least squares mean values (SE) of DMI (kg/d), metabolizable energy intake (MEI; Mcal/d), ADG (kg), RFIK (kg DM/d), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; kg DMI/kg ADG) for VAL and CON genotype groups were 6.65 and 6.89 (0.49), 16.7 and 17.4 (1.44), 1.24 and 1.24 (0.03), -0.11 and 0.11 (0.09), and 5.8 and 5.8 (0.14), respectively, in the confinement trial. In the grazing trial least squares mean values (SE) of herbage DMI (kg/d), ADG (kg), MEI (Mcal/d), RFIK, and FCR of VAL and CON groups were 8.76 and 10.93 (0.71), 1.4 and 1.37 (0.05), 25.5 and 31.7 (2.09), -1.02 and 1.02 (0.42), and 6.41 and 6.96 (0.46), respectively. Genotyped

  8. Peritonite infecciosa felina: 13 casos Feline infectious peritonitis: 13 cases

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    Fabiano Nunes de Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Numa pesquisa realizada em tecidos de 638 gatos necropsiados, foram encontrados 13 casos (2,03% de peritonite infecciosa felina. Oito desses casos (61,53% eram da forma efusiva ou úmida, e 5 apresentavam a forma seca ou não-efusiva da doença. A idade dos gatos afetados variou de 2 meses a 3 anos. Doze gatos (92,30% eram de raças puras, cinco deles (38,47% eram oriundos de ambientes onde havia mais de um gato e três eram provenientes de um mesmo gatil. A duração da doença clínica foi de 7 a 45 dias e os sinais clínicos incluíram emagrecimento, anorexia, diarréia, icterícia, vômito, linfadenopatia e distúrbios neurológicos. Os achados de necropsia na forma úmida incluíam excesso de líquido viscoso (50ml a 1 litro, translúcido ou levemente opaco na cavidade peritoneal e, em um caso, na cavidade torácica. Exsudato fibrinoso cobria as superfícies serosas dos órgãos abdominais dando-lhes aspecto granular e brancacento. Na forma seca, havia múltiplos focos granulomatosos sob a superfície serosa e para o interior do parênquima de órgãos abdominais; esses achados eram particularmente proeminentes nos rins. Opacidade de córnea foi observada em um gato. Histologicamente, havia graus variáveis de vasculite e perivasculite piogranulomatosa, particularmente em arteríolas. Meningite ou meningoencefalite piogranulomatosa foram observadas em três gatos com a forma seca de peritonite infecciosa felina.In a survey carried out in tissue specimens from 638 necropsied cats, 13 cases (2.03% of feline infectious peritonitis were found. Eight of those (61.53% were of the effusive or wet form and five had the dry non-effusive form of the disease. Ages of affected cats varied from 2-months to 3 yeas. Twelve affected cats (92.30% were purebreds, five of these cats (38.47% came from households with more than one cat and three of them came from the same comercial cat raising facility. The duration of clinical courses were 7-45 days and

  9. Hemolytic anemia caused by hereditary pyruvate kinase deficiency in a West Highland White Terrier dog Anemia hemolítica causada por la deficiencia de piruvato quinasa hereditaria en un perro West Highland White Terrier

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    NRC Hlavac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inherited erythrocytic pyruvate kinase (PK deficiency is an autosomal recessive hemolytic disorder described in dogs and cats. Pyruvate kinase is one of two key-regulatory enzymes in the anaerobic glycolytic pathway, and its deficiency causes premature destruction of the ATP-depleted red cells. This case study reports the clinical and laboratory findings in a West Highland White Terrier (WHWT dog with a life-long history of weakness and exercise intolerance from Brazil. The dog was found to have persistently profound pallor, a highly regenerative hemolytic anemia and osteosclerosis. PK deficiency was confirmed by a breed-specific DNA test for the previously described 6 bp insertion at 3' end of exon 10 in red blood cell (RBC R- PK gene sequence. The dog was euthanized at 20 months of age due to the deterioration of its clinical condition including anemia and blood incompatibility. Other PK-deficient WHWTs have lived as long as 9 years. Hereditary red cell defects are important differential diagnoses for chronic hemolytic anemias in younger animals after excluding immune-mediated and infectious causes. Furthermore, purebred dogs for which DNA tests for hereditary diseases are available should be screened prior to breeding in order to limit the spread of the mutant allele and to avoid future production of PK-deficient animals.La deficiencia de piruvato quinasa (PK es un desorden hemolítico autosómico recesivo descrito en perros y gatos. La piruvato quinasa es una de las enzimas regulatorias esenciales de la glicólisis anaeróbica, la deficiencia de esta enzima causa una destrucción prematura de los eritrocitos. El presente es un estudio de caso y relata los hallazgos clínicos y paraclínicos en un perro brasileño de la raza West Highland White Terrier (WHWT con historia de debilidad e intolerancia al ejercicio. El paciente presentaba mucosas pálidas, anemia hemolítica bastante regenerativa y osteoclerosis. La deficiencia de PK fue

  10. Substituição do milho por casca de café ou de soja em dietas para vacas leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, produção e composição do leite Replacing corn with coffee hulls or soyhulls in dairy cows diets: intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho por casca de café ou casca de soja na dieta sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, a produção e composição do leite, a variação de peso corporal e a mobilização de reserva corporal em vacas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas holandesas, puras e mestiças, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 ´ 4. As dietas foram isonitrogenadas (14% de PB, na MS e a dieta controle foi composta de 60% de silagem de milho e 40% de concentrado na MS. Foram avaliadas três dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar e com 60% de concentrado na MS: uma controle (sem casca de soja ou de café, uma com 25% e outra com 50% de substituição do milho pela casca de café e casca de soja, respectivamente. O consumo de MS não foi afetado pelas dietas e apresentou valor médio de 19,39 kg/dia. Apesar das diferenças nos consumos de PB e NDT, as dietas foram suficientes para atender às exigências para produção de leite de 20 kg/dia (corrigida ou não para 3,5% de gordura e ganho de peso de 0,50 kg/dia, o que explica a ausência de diferenças na produção de leite corrigida (20,54 kg/dia ou não para 3,5% de gordura (19,68 kg/dia, na variação de peso (0,683 kg/dia e nos níveis plasmáticos de ácidos graxos não-esterificados (AGNE (226,99 µeq/L. A composição do leite não foi afetada pelas dietas, à exceção dos teores de lactose e extrato seco desengordurado. Em dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar para vacas com produção de 20 kg de leite/dia, o milho pode ser substituído em 25% pela casca de café ou em 50% pela casca de soja, desde que a participação de concentrado seja de 60%.The objectives of this trial were to evaluate the effect of replacing corn meal with coffee hulls or soyhulls on intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, milk yield and composition, and body weight (BW change in lactating dairy cows. Twelve purebred and crossbred Holstein cows were assigned to

  11. 不同品种肉兔断奶后生长性状的比较%Comparison of Postweaning Growth of Different Meat Rabbit Breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔宇; 谢晓红; 黄邓萍; 雷岷; 李金良; 杨锐; 肖嵩扬

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of the present study was to compare different purebred rabbits based on individual body growth traits and evaluate the germplasm. [Method] Postweaning data of 909 rabbits from 173 litters representing five breeds, Flemish Giant, New Zealand White, Californian, Chinchilla, Fujian Yellow, were compared for individual growth traits such as body weights at 5 (5WT), 6 (6WT), 7 (WT), 8 (WT), 9 (WT), and 10 (10WT) weeks of age, and post-weaning average daily gain between 5 and 10 weeks of age (ADG), and approximate age at market weight (AGE). The model included main effects of breed type, month of birth of the litter, parity of dam, sex, random effect of litter, litter size at weaning and age at weighting as linear covariate, and the random error. [Result] The overall means for 5WT, 6WT, 7WT, 8WT, 9WT, 10WT, ADG, AGE were 619.46 g, 791.57 g, 941.51 g, 1 107.51 g, 1 309.51 g, 1 445.52 g, 23.64 g·d-1 and 103.14 d. Significant sources of variation for individual growth traits were breed and number weaned per litter. The Flemish Giant had heavier body weights in all weeks than the other four breeds (P<0.05). However, the Fujian Yellow had lower body weights in all weeks than the other four breeds (P<0.05). Common litter variance explained a significantly large proportion of total phenotypic variance, with the proportions ranging between 0.48 and 0.74. [ Conclusion ] This result would lead us to use Flemish Giant as a terminal sire breed because of its better growth rates. A multi-trait selection index with the inclusion of both number weaned per litter and growth traits was used as the criterion of selecting the lines of meat rabbits.%[目的]比较不同肉兔品种断奶后的生长性能,并进行种质评估.[方法]分别分析了弗朗德巨兔、新西兰白兔、加利福尼亚兔、青紫蓝兔和福建黄兔的5、6、7、8、9和10周龄体重,平均日增重和上市日龄.断奶后生长数据来自上述5个品种的173

  12. Balanço de compostos nitrogenados e produção de proteína microbiana em novilhas leiteiras alimentadas com casca de café em substituição à silagem de milho Nitrogen compounds balance and microbial protein production in dairy heifers fed with coffee husk in substitution of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Monteiro Araújo Teixeira