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Sample records for pure standards study

  1. International Standardization of Pure Beta Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, Jose Maria; Rodriguez, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the traditional methods of standardization of Pure Beta Emitters, their principal characteristics, advantage and drawbacks. It does comparisons between two metrological LSC methods: Triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method and the CIEMAT/NIST method and presents the result obtained with several Key Comparisons serving as practical test of both methods. Both of them represent the siferrit of methods of standardization of pure (and mixed decay) radionuclides. ESIR WG of CCRI(II) is to implement a reference exchange system for the permanent equivalence of β, α and electron capture nuclides, similar to traditional SIR gamma. ESIR project is currently testing a new XAN scintillator and operational tests of the whole system at BIPM are expected by the end of 2006 (test restricted to ESIR NMI members)

  2. Rare earths: preparation of spectro chemically pure standards, study of their carbonates and synthesis of a new compound series - the peroxy carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos Alberto da Silva

    1996-05-01

    In this work the following studies are concerned: I) preparation of lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and samarium oxides for use as spectro chemically pure standards; II) behavior of the rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) carbonates soluble in ammonium carbonate and mixture of ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, and III) synthesis and characterization of rare earth peroxy carbonates - a new series of compounds. Data for the synthesis and characterization of the rare earths peroxy carbonates described for the first time in this work are presented and discussed. With the aid of thermal analysis (TG-DTG) the thermal stability and the stoichiometric composition for new compounds were established and a mechanism of thermal decomposition was proposed. The peroxy carbonate was prepared by the addition of hydrogen peroxyde to the complexed soluble rare earths carbonates. These studies included also the determinations of active oxygen, the total rare earth oxide by gravimetry and complexometry and the C, H and N contents by microanalysis. The new compounds were also investigated by infrared spectroscopy. (author)

  3. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standards development of chemical analysis and non destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Jun chitan no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This study was conducted to standardize the chemical analysis and non-destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals of industrial grade. These methods are among those serving bases for international standardization of products. The chemical analysis is aimed at quantitative analysis of trace impurities, in particular, present in pure titanium metals of industrial grade by developing and standardizing the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, known for its low detectable limit, and, at the same time, spark and glow discharged atomic emission spectrometry as the improved routine analysis methods. These methods, although being used by, e.g., steel makers, have not been standardized because the effects of titanium-peculiar matrix are not elucidated. The non-destructive testing is aimed at standardization of the techniques useful for automatic production lines. More concretely, these include optical methods aided by a laser or CCD camera for plate surface defect inspection, ultrasonic methods for plate internal defect inspection, and pressure differential methods for air-tightness of welded pipes. They have not been used yet for automatic production lines. (NEDO)

  4. Urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdevenito, J P; Águila, F; Naser, M; Manríquez, V; Wenzel, C; Díaz, J P

    2015-03-01

    To describe the results of urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms, including the characteristics of the overactive detrusor. No other clinical assessments were taken into account. A retrospective study in women with urinary incontinence consecutively evaluated by urodynamic study. From a total of 710 women, only 108 (15%) with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms were selected. Women with prior urinary incontinence surgery, pelvic organ prolapse (stage ≥iii), pelvic radiotherapy, using medication active on the lower urinary tract and neurological diseases were excluded. Infusion rate was 70 ml/min. Detrusor overactivity was induced only by cough. A standardized cough stress test with progressive cough intensity was carried out. Reference urodynamic values for stress incontinent women are described. Urodynamic stress incontinence was observed in 79 women (73.1%), detrusor overactivity in 4 (3.7%) and mixed urodynamic diagnosis in 15 (13.8%). Test was inconclusive in 10 patients (9.2%). Two women had detrusor overactivity incontinence (1.9%). One patient had detrusor overactivity induced by cough without urodynamic stress incontinence (0.9%). There was an association between detrusor overactivity and nocturia ≥2 (P=.002; odds ratio: 3.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.39). One woman had a bladder outlet obstruction (0.9%). In women with pure stress urinary incontinence, without knowing the outcome of other clinical assessments, urodynamic study can provide useful information to define the proper therapy. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

    2013-03-21

    Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

  6. Standardization and Confluence in Pure Lambda-Calculus Formalized for the Matita Theorem Prover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruccio Guidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a formalization of pure lambda-calculus for the Matita interactive theorem prover, including the proofs of two relevant results in reduction theory: the confluence theorem and the standardization theorem. The proof of the latter is based on a new approach recently introduced by Xi and refined by Kashima that, avoiding the notion of development and having a neat inductive structure, is particularly suited for formalization in theorem provers.

  7. SGC method for predicting the standard enthalpy of formation of pure compounds from their molecular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albahri, Tareq A.; Aljasmi, Abdulla F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ΔH° f is predicted from the molecular structure of the compounds alone. • ANN-SGC model predicts ΔH° f with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. • ANN-MNLR model predicts ΔH° f with a correlation coefficient of 0.90. • Better definition of the atom-type molecular groups is presented. • The method is better than others in terms of combined simplicity, accuracy and generality. - Abstract: A theoretical method for predicting the standard enthalpy of formation of pure compounds from various chemical families is presented. Back propagation artificial neural networks were used to investigate several structural group contribution (SGC) methods available in literature. The networks were used to probe the structural groups that have significant contribution to the overall enthalpy of formation property of pure compounds and arrive at the set of groups that can best represent the enthalpy of formation for about 584 substances. The 51 atom-type structural groups listed provide better definitions of group contributions than others in the literature. The proposed method can predict the standard enthalpy of formation of pure compounds with an AAD of 11.38 kJ/mol and a correlation coefficient of 0.9934 from only their molecular structure. The results are further compared with those of the traditional SGC method based on MNLR as well as other methods in the literature

  8. Casimir effect at finite temperature for pure-photon sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.F., E-mail: alesandroferreira@fisica.ufmt.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road Victoria, BC (Canada); Khanna, Faqir C., E-mail: khannaf@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Dynamics between particles is governed by Lorentz and CPT symmetry. There is a violation of Parity (P) and CP symmetry at low levels. The unified theory, that includes particle physics and quantum gravity, may be expected to be covariant with Lorentz and CPT symmetry. At high enough energies, will the unified theory display violation of any symmetry? The Standard Model Extension (SME), with Lorentz and CPT violating terms, has been suggested to include particle dynamics. The minimal SME in the pure photon sector is considered in order to calculate the Casimir effect at finite temperature.

  9. HPLC fucoxanthin profiles of a microalga, a macroalga and a pure fucoxanthin standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chern Foo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Data in this article illustrate representative fucoxanthin chromatograms of a microalga, Chaetoceros calcitrans; a macroalga, Saccharina japonica and; a pure fucoxanthin standard. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC eluted fucoxanthin at the 7.008±0.024th min. This data article refers to the research article ‘‘Antioxidant capacities of fucoxanthin-producing algae as influenced by their carotenoid and phenolic contents’’ Foo et al. [1]; where a more comprehensive data interpretation and analysis is explained.

  10. Adults Studying Pure Mathematics in Adult Tertiary Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennison, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the experiences of a group of adults enrolled in the Pure Mathematics module of the Certificate IV in Adult Tertiary Preparation in 2000 at one of the Institutes of TAFE in Brisbane, Australia. Classroom learning experiences, exposure to technology, and the impact of returning to study on other facets of students' lives were…

  11. XPS studies of the oxide formed on pure Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremery, P.; David, D.; Beranger, G.; Oviedo, C.; Garcia, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The XPS technique was used to study titanium samples oxidized at 200 ton of pure oxigen at different times and temperatures with the aim of producing variable oxide thicknesses. The thicknesses of different oxigen layers were determined by the nuclear reaction O 16 (d,p) O 17 *. (author) [pt

  12. Study on growth of highly pure uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo; Ochiai, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji.

    1992-01-01

    We developed the systems for growing highly pure uranium compounds to study their intrinsic physical properties. Uranium metal was zone refined under low contamination conditions as far as possible. Chemical analysis of the purified uranium was performed using the inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP). The problem that emission spectra of the uranium conceal those of analyzed impurities was settled by extraction of the uranium using tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP). The result shows that some metallic impurities such as Pb, Mn, Cu etc. evaporated by the r.f. heating and other usual metallic impurities moved to the end of rod with molten zone. Therefore, we conclude that the zone refining technique is much effective to the removal of metallic impurities and we obtained highly purified uranium metal of 99.99 % up with regard to metallic impurities. Using the purified uranium, we attempted to grow a highly pure uranium-titanium single crystals. (author)

  13. A study of precipitation from pure solutions of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decrop, J.; Holder, J.; Sauteron, J.

    1961-01-01

    After its purification by extraction of the uranyl nitrate from the organic solvent, uranium has to be converted into solid form again: uranium trioxide (UO 3 ). It can be done either by thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate or by precipitation of uranium, followed by filtration and calcination. Only the second method has been studied for now at the Bouchet plant. This paper reports the bench-scale and pilot-scale experiments of the studies of the precipitation of pure solutions of uranyl nitrate using ammonia (gaseous or in solution) or ammonium carbonate. These have been carried out at the Bouchet plant. It investigates the chemical aspect (pH, precipitates chemical composition) and the technical aspect of the different ways of precipitation (conditions of precipitation, decantation and filtration of precipitates). (M.P.)

  14. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of methods for testing and evaluating pure titanium; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Jun titan no shiken hyoka hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of submitting propositions to ISO (International Organization for Standardization)/TC79 (Light metals and their alloys) and ISO/TC135 (Non-destructive testing), studies were made relating to the standardization of methods for chemical ingredient analysis and non-destructive testing of industrial pure titanium. In the development of an ingredient analysis method for pure titanium, performance standards and analytical allowance were determined for an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrochemical analyzer for vanadium, niobium, cobalt, and boron, which were short of completion in the preceding fiscal year. As for spark discharge emission spectrochemical analysis, analysis methods were newly established for oxygen and hydrogen. In the development of optical flaw detection for pure titanium boards, the quality of test pieces were determined by use of a reference test piece, and studies were made about the kinds of artificially produced flaws and a method for sensitivity calibration. In the development of ultrasonic flaw detection for pure titanium boards, studies were made about the effects of board thickness, kinds of flaws, and of board size. Using the findings, a draft standard was prepared in Japanese for a JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) proposition and another in English for an ISO proposition. (NEDO)

  15. X-ray diffraction study of pure plutonium under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Ph. [CEA, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)], E-mail: philippe.faure@cea.fr; Genestier, C. [CEA, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-03-15

    Atomic volume and bulk modulus represent basic cohesion properties of a material and are therefore linked to many other physical properties. However, large discrepancies are found in the literature regarding values for the bulk modulus of pure plutonium ({alpha}-phase). New X-ray diffraction measurements of plutonium in diamond anvil cell are presented and the isothermal bulk modulus is extracted.

  16. Comparative study of two commercially pure titanium casting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cristina Silveira Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The interest in using titanium to fabricate removable partial denture (RPD frameworks has increased, but there are few studies evaluating the effects of casting methods on clasp behavior. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the occurrence of porosities and the retentive force of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr removable partial denture circumferential clasps cast by induction/centrifugation and plasma/vacuum-pressure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 72 frameworks were cast from CP Ti (n=36 and Co-Cr alloy (n=36; control group. For each material, 18 frameworks were casted by electromagnetic induction and injected by centrifugation, whereas the other 18 were casted by plasma and injected by vacuum-pressure. For each casting method, three subgroups (n=6 were formed: 0.25 mm, 0.50 mm, and 0.75 mm undercuts. The specimens were radiographed and subjected to an insertion/removal test simulating 5 years of framework use. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's to compare materials and cast methods (α=0.05. RESULTS: Three of 18 specimens of the induction/centrifugation group and 9 of 18 specimens of plasma/vacuum-pressure cast presented porosities, but only 1 and 7 specimens, respectively, were rejected for simulation test. For Co-Cr alloy, no defects were found. Comparing the casting methods, statistically significant differences (p<0.05 were observed only for the Co-Cr alloy with 0.25 mm and 0.50 mm undercuts. Significant differences were found for the 0.25 mm and 0.75 mm undercuts dependent on the material used. For the 0.50 mm undercut, significant differences were found when the materials were induction casted. CONCLUSION: Although both casting methods produced satisfactory CP Ti RPD frameworks, the occurrence of porosities was greater in the plasma/vacuum-pressure than in the induction/centrifugation method, the latter resulting in higher clasp rigidity, generating higher retention force values.

  17. Optical Studies of Pure Fluids about Their Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kian Tiong

    Three optical experiments were performed on pure fluids near their critical points. In the first two setups, CH_3F and H_2C:CF _2 were each tested in a temperature -controlled, prism-shaped cell and a thin parallel-windows cell. In the prism cell, a laser beam was additionally deflected by the fluid present. From the deflection data, the refractive index was related to the density to find the Lorentz-Lorenz function. Critical temperature (T _{c}), density, refractive index and electronic polarizability were found. In the second experiment, a critically-filled, thin parallel-windows cell was placed in one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interoferometer. Fluid density was monitored by changes in the fringe pattern with changing cell temperature. The aim was to improve on the precision of T_{c}: T_{c}{rm (CH}_3 F) = (44cdot9087 +/- 0cdot0002)C; T _{c}{rm(H}_2C:CF _2) = (29cdot7419 +/- 0cdot0001)C; and, to study the coexistence curve and diameter as close to T_{c} as possible. The critical behaviour was compared to the theoretical renormalization group calculations. The derived coefficients were tested against a proposed three-body interaction to explain the field-mixing term in the diameter near the critical point. It was found that H_2C:CF_2 behaved as predicted by such an interaction; CH _3F (and CHF_3) did not. The third experiment was a feasibility study to find out if (critical) isotherms could be measured optically in a setup which combined the prism and parallel-windows cells. The aim was to map isotherms in as wide a range of pressure and density as possible and to probe the critical region directly. Pressure was monitored by a precise digital pressure gauge. CH_3F and CHF _3 were tested in this system. It was found that at low densities, the calculated second and third virial coefficients agreed with reference values. However, the data around the critical point were not accurate enough for use to calculate the critical exponent, delta . The calculated value was

  18. Standardization of process for increased production of pure and potent tetanus toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellamani Muniandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When stationary pot culture was replaced by submerged cultivation of Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic organism, in afermentor using a vibromixer and optimum supply of sterile air to the headspace of the fermentor to flush out the accumulatedgases, a significant increase in the tetanus toxin yield in a short time cultivation (about 5 to 6 days against8 days was noticed. It was found that under optimal conditions of temperature, vibromixing, surface aeration, and analkaline pH favored toxin release. Furthermore, to enhance the production volume, fermentor culture is more suitable.The tetanus toxin was produced with good Limes flocculation (Lf titre and high antigenic purity. Under optimal conditions,the papain digest broth was successfully substituted in place of N.Z Case for the production of pure and potenttetanus toxin. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(3: 133-139Key words: Clostridium tetani, modified mueller miller medium, papain digest, limes flocculation

  19. Rare earths: preparation of spectro chemically pure standards, study of their carbonates and synthesis of a new compound series - the peroxy carbonates; Terras-raras: obtencao de padroes espectroquimicos, estudo dos carbonatos e sintese dos peroxicarbonatos. Uma nova serie de compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Carlos Alberto da Silva

    1996-05-01

    In this work the following studies are concerned: I) preparation of lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and samarium oxides for use as spectro chemically pure standards; II) behavior of the rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) carbonates soluble in ammonium carbonate and mixture of ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, and III) synthesis and characterization of rare earth peroxy carbonates - a new series of compounds. Data for the synthesis and characterization of the rare earths peroxy carbonates described for the first time in this work are presented and discussed. With the aid of thermal analysis (TG-DTG) the thermal stability and the stoichiometric composition for new compounds were established and a mechanism of thermal decomposition was proposed. The peroxy carbonate was prepared by the addition of hydrogen peroxyde to the complexed soluble rare earths carbonates. These studies included also the determinations of active oxygen, the total rare earth oxide by gravimetry and complexometry and the C, H and N contents by microanalysis. The new compounds were also investigated by infrared spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Pure erythrocytosis: reappraisal of a study of 51 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najean, Y.; Triebel, F.; Dresch, C.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-one cases of pure, primary erythrocytosis were identified and followed at Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris, and compared with 350 cases of polycythemia vera (PV) observed during the same period. At the initial evaluation, these cases did not differ from PV cases with respect to age, sex ratio, degree of red cell volume increase, and clinical symptoms. They did differ by the absence of splenomegaly, granulocytosis and thrombocytosis. At a late stage of evolution only a few cases developed classical criteria of PV. From this group of apparently homogeneous cases, two subgroups evolved. Sixty percent of the cases were highly responsive to myelosuppression with 32 P. The median duration of the first remission was greater than five years, the mean yearly dose of 32 P was very low, and there was a low incidence of complications. The other group (40% of cases) was relatively resistant to myelosuppressive agents. The development of better methods of investigate this disorder might help in discriminating these two groups from both an etiological and pathophysiological viewpoint. The thromboembolic risk of these diseases suggests that myelosuppressive therapy should be utilized in older patients with higher risk of vascular accidents, reserving phlebotomy for younger patients and those who are shown to be resistant to 32 P therapy

  1. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  2. Study about internal friction in deformed - and irradiated pure titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyada, L.T.

    1979-01-01

    Internal friction and modulus are measured in pure Ti at low temperature using an inverted torsion-pendulum at about 1 Hz. The presence of four relaxation peaks P' sub(d)(-140 0 C), P sub(d)(-101 0 C), P' sub(α)(-75 0 C) and P sub(α)(-50 0 C) has been found, and effects of plastic deformation, heat treatment and neutron irradiation on these peaks are investigated in detail. Activation energies and frequency factors of P sub(d) and Pα peaks are consistent with the data in higher frequency range reproted by other workers. The P sub(d) and P' sub(d) peaks grow after deformation and tend to decay after annealing at high temperatures or after neutron irradiation. Both peaks are resonably interpreted in terms of dislocation relaxation mechanisms (Bordoni type) arising from thermally activated motion of dislocations in different slip planes of h.c.f. structure. Peierls stress of dislocations giving rise to each peak have calculated based on Seeger's theory, and found to be consistent with that of f.c.c. metals. On the other hand, P sub(α) and P' sub(α) peaks grow significantly at the expense of P sub(d) and P' sub(d) peaks after neutron irradiation in deformed samples. The behaviour of these peaks as a function of irradiation dose and annealing temperatures strongly indicated that they are due to relaxations resulting from dislocations-point defects interactions (Hasiguti type). It is tentatively suggested that P sub(α) and P' sub(α) peaks are related with interactions of dislocations with divacancies and single vacancies, respectively. Application of Schiller's model showed a consistent result with regard to the P' sub(α) peak experimentally observed. (Author) [pt

  3. Purely in silico BCS classification: science based quality standards for the world's drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Kim, Young Hoon; Ramachandran, Chandrasekharan; Crippen, Gordon M; Takagi, Toshihide; Bermejo, Marival; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-11-04

    included significantly less class 1 and more class 3 drugs in comparison to the countries' lists, probably due to differences in commonly used drugs in developing vs industrial countries. BDDCS classified more drugs as class 1 compared to in silico BCS, likely due to the more lax benchmark for metabolism (70%), in comparison to the strict permeability benchmark (metoprolol). For 185 out of the 363 drugs, in silico solubility values were calculated, and successfully matched the literature solubility data. In conclusion, relatively simple in silico methods can be used to estimate both permeability and solubility. While CLogP produced the best correlation to experimental values, even KLogP, the most simplified in silico method that is based on molecular formula with no knowledge of molecular structure, produced comparable BCS classification to the sophisticated methods. This KLogP, when combined with a mean melting point and estimated dose, can be used to provisionally classify potential drugs from just molecular formula, even before synthesis. 49-59% of the world's top-selling drugs are highly soluble (class 1 and class 3), and are therefore candidates for waivers of in vivo bioequivalence studies. For these drugs, the replacement of expensive human studies with affordable in vitro dissolution tests would ensure their bioequivalence, and encourage the development and availability of generic drug products in both industrial and developing countries.

  4. Studies on gas sensing performance of pure and modified barium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of film thickness on gas response was also studied. As prepared. BST thick films ... vity, stability, and response rate, to various kinds of gases and to meet the .... Slopes of the ... increased porosity increases the in-pore adsorption of oxygen and ... state preventing fast decomposition and water formation. NH3 could ...

  5. Method of convex rigid frames and applications in studies of multipartite quNit pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zaizhe

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we suggest a method of convex rigid frames in the studies of multipartite quNit pure states. We illustrate what the convex rigid frames are, and what is their method. As applications, we use this method to solve some basic problems and give some new results (three theorems): the problem of the partial separability of the multipartite quNit pure states and its geometric explanation; the problem of the classification of multipartite quNit pure states, giving a perfect explanation of the local unitary transformations; thirdly, we discuss the invariants of classes and give a possible physical explanation. (letter to the editor)

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in pure dysarthria. A 3D-SSP study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kensho; Kamogawa, Kenji; Okuda, Bungo; Kawabata, Keita; Tachibana, Hisao

    2007-01-01

    Pure dysarthria from brain infarction is a rare condition, and its pathophysiology remains unclear. To clarify the underlying mechanism of pure dysarthria, we investigated the lesion sites and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with pure dysarthria. We examined 18 consecutive patients with pure dysarthria (9 men and 9 women; mean age, 71 years) who underwent MRI and cerebral blood flow studies. To visualize the regional cerebral blood flow, we generated Z score images using the three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and N-isopropyl-p [ 123 I]iodoamphetamine. Data on the brain surface perfusion extracted by the 3D-SSP analysis were compared between the pure dysarthria (PD) patients and 9 control subjects. MRI revealed multiple lacunar infarctions involving the internal capsule and/or corona radiata in 11 patients, left internal capsule-corona radiata infarction in 4 patients, and pontine infarction in 3 patients. SPECT with 3D-SSP demonstrated bilateral frontal cortical hypoperfusion in all patients, particularly in the anterior opercular region. Based on intergroup comparisons, the PD group exhibited pronounced cortical hypoperfusion in the opercular and medial frontal regions, left more than right. In conclusion, pure dysarthria is considered to originate from frontal cortical hypoperfusion, mainly in the anterior opercular and medial frontal regions, which is probably due to interruption of the corticosubcortical neural networks relevant to speech expression and articulation. In addition, it is suggested that left hemispheric lesions may make a greater contribution to the development of pure dysarthria than do right ones. (author)

  7. Rehabilitation of pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie

    2013-01-01

    that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions like alexia severity, and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia......-designed and controlled studies of rehabilitation of pure alexia....

  8. Pure tension superconducting toroidal-field coil system design studies for the Argonne Experimental Power Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Purcell, J.R.; Demichele, D.W.; Turner, L.R.

    1975-11-01

    As part of the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor (TEPR) design studies, a toroidal field (TF) coil system has been designed. NbTi was chosen as the most suitable superconductor and 8T was regarded as a practical peak field level in this study. The 16-coil design was chosen as a reasonable compromise between 2 percent field ripple and 3 m access gap. To minimize the coil structure and the bending moments on the conductor, a pure tension coil shape is necessary. A correct approach for determining the pure tension coil profile in a bumpy TF coil system is given. Verification of the pure tension coil by a three-dimensional stress analysis is presented. For coil quench protection, a series-connected scheme is proposed

  9. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Pure and Surface Chrominated Indium Oxide Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. CHAVAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The thick films of AR grade In2O3 were prepared by standard screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performance of thick film was tested for various gases. It showed maximum gas response to ethanol vapor at 350 oC for 80 ppm. To improve the gas response and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, In2O3 thick films were modified by dipping them in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M CrO3 for different intervals of time. The surface chrominated (20 min In2O3 thick film showed maximum response to H2S gas (40 ppm than pure In2O3 thick film at 250 oC. Chromium oxide on the surface of the film shifts the gas response from ethanol vapor to H2S gas. A systematic study of sensing performance of the sensor indicates the key role played by chromium oxide on the surface of thick film. The selectivity, gas response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  10. Study of Trehalose Addition on Aroma Retention in Dehydrated Strawberry Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženka Komes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of dehydrated fruit products, the influence of the addition of two sugars (sucrose and trehalose on the retention of aroma components during dehydration of strawberry puree was investigated. Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME, containing polydimethylsiloxane coated fibre (100 μm coupled with gas chromatography (GC-FID and GC-MS was used for the analysis of the aroma of strawberry puree dehydrated by using freeze drying and foam-mat drying. The analytes identified included esters, carbonyl compounds, terpenoids, several alcohols and acids. The results obtained in this study give further insight into the mechanisms concerning the application of trehalose as flavouring additive, due to its ability to retain and preserve the fruit volatiles responsible for the characteristic flavour of fresh fruits during dehydration processes. The best retention of aroma components in dehydrated strawberry puree was obtained by trehalose addition when combined with freeze drying.

  11. Presbycusis occurs after cochlear implantation also: a retrospective study of pure tone thresholds over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosman, Samuel; Matusik, Deanna Kattah; Ferro, Lia; Gao, Weihua; Saadia-Redleaf, Miriam

    2012-12-01

    To assess aided soundfield pure tone thresholds after cochlear implantation in adults over time. Retrospective case review. Academic tertiary care center. Seventy-seven severe-to-profoundly deafened adults implanted with one of 5 different internal devices. Cochlear implantation. Outcome measures were cochlear implant aided soundfield pure tone thresholds at 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 Hz. For the 77 adult patients in the study, pure tone aided thresholds deteriorated over time at 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 Hz at rates ranging from 0.54 to 0.86 dB per year with the implant (p presbycusis, this deterioration is most prominent at the highest frequencies; however, the incidence and rate of deterioration is higher than that seen in presbycusis. These physiologic changes are not indicative of device failure and do not mean that performance measures will necessarily deteriorate.

  12. Studies on various properties of pure and Li-doped Barium Hydrogen Phosphate (BHP) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallamuthu, D. [Department of Physics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamil Nadu (India); Selvarajan, P., E-mail: pselvarajanphy@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamil Nadu (India); Freeda, T.H. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Single crystals of pure and Li-doped barium hydrogen phosphate (BHP) were grown by solution method with gel technique. Various properties of the harvested crystals were studied by carrying out single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA, microhardness and dielectric studies. Atomic absorption study was carried out for Li-doped BHP crystal to check the presence of Li dopants. Unit cell dimensions and diffracting planes of the grown crystals have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Density of the grown crystals was calculated using the XRD data. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Mechanical and dielectric characterizations of the harvested pure and Li-doped BHP crystals reveal the mechanical strength and ferroelectric transition. The observed results are reported and discussed.

  13. The Cultivation of Pure Altruism via Gratitude: A Functional MRI Study of Change with Gratitude Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Karns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gratitude is an emotion and a trait linked to well-being and better health, and welcoming benefits to oneself is instrumentally valuable. However, theoretical and empirical work highlights that gratitude is more fully understood as an intrinsically valuable moral emotion. To understand the role of neural reward systems in the association between gratitude and altruistic motivations we tested two hypotheses: First, whether self-reported propensity toward gratitude relates to fMRI-derived indicators of “pure altruism,” operationalized as the neural valuation of passive, private transfers to a charity versus to oneself. In young adult female participants, self-reported gratitude and altruism were associated with “neural pure altruism” in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC and nucleus accumbens. Second, whether neural pure altruism can be increased through practicing gratitude. In a double-blind study, we randomly assigned participants to either a gratitude-journal or active-neutral control journal group for 3 weeks. Relative to pre-test levels, gratitude journaling increased the neural pure altruism response in the VMPFC. We posit that as a context-dependent value-sensitive cortical region, the VMPFC supports change with gratitude practice, a change that is larger for benefits to others versus oneself.

  14. The Cultivation of Pure Altruism via Gratitude: A Functional MRI Study of Change with Gratitude Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christina M; Moore, William E; Mayr, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude is an emotion and a trait linked to well-being and better health, and welcoming benefits to oneself is instrumentally valuable. However, theoretical and empirical work highlights that gratitude is more fully understood as an intrinsically valuable moral emotion. To understand the role of neural reward systems in the association between gratitude and altruistic motivations we tested two hypotheses: First, whether self-reported propensity toward gratitude relates to fMRI-derived indicators of "pure altruism," operationalized as the neural valuation of passive, private transfers to a charity versus to oneself. In young adult female participants, self-reported gratitude and altruism were associated with "neural pure altruism" in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and nucleus accumbens. Second, whether neural pure altruism can be increased through practicing gratitude. In a double-blind study, we randomly assigned participants to either a gratitude-journal or active-neutral control journal group for 3 weeks. Relative to pre-test levels, gratitude journaling increased the neural pure altruism response in the VMPFC. We posit that as a context-dependent value-sensitive cortical region, the VMPFC supports change with gratitude practice, a change that is larger for benefits to others versus oneself.

  15. Experimental study of negative corona discharge in pure carbon dioxide and its mixtures with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikoviny, T; Kocan, M; Matejcik, S; Mason, N J; Skalny, J D

    2004-01-01

    The products of a negative corona discharge in both pure CO 2 and mixtures of CO 2 + O 2 have been studied using a coaxial cylindrical electrode geometry with particular emphasis on the production of ozone. The discharge current in pure CO 2 was found to be highly sensitive to the presence of trace concentrations of molecular oxygen and to changes in the flow speed through the discharge. The effect of dissociative electron attachment to ozone on the discharge current was studied by measurements of ozone and CO production. The ozone concentration increases monotonically with increasing content of oxygen in the mixture with carbon dioxide, whereas the CO concentration exhibits a flat maximum for oxygen concentrations of around 4%. A simple kinetic model of the dominant chemical processes is described and compared with the experimental results

  16. Optical, thermal and magnetic studies of pure and cobalt chloride doped L-alanine cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benila, B.S., E-mail: benjane.benila@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Research Centre, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 003 (India); Bright, K.C. [Department of Physics, St. John' s College, Anchal, Kollam 691 306 (India); Delphine, S. Mary [Department of Physics, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 004 (India); Shabu, R. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 003 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Single crystals of L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) and cobalt chloride (Co{sup 2+}) doped LACC have been grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations such as powder XRD, SXRD, FTIR, UV–vis, EDAX, TG/DTA, VSM, Dielectric and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) measurements. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Co{sup 2+} ion in the host material. The functional group and optical behavior of the crystals were identified from FTIR and UV-vis spectrum analysis. Electrical parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss have been studied. The thermal stability of the compound was found out using TGA/DTA analysis. Second Harmonic Generation of the samples was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. Magnetic properties of the crystals studied by VSM were also reported. The encouraging results show that the cobalt chloride doped LACC crystals have greater potential applications in optical devices. - Graphical abstract: Fig (a) and (b) shows the transparent, stable single crystals of pure and doped crystals were obtained using slow evaporation technique. The sizes of pure and doped crystals are 20×9×2 mm{sup 3} and 18×15×1 mm{sup 3} respectively. Fig (c) is the Hysteresis loop traced at room temperature for the pure and doped crystals explains the soft ferromagnetic nature of the doped crystal. The provision for changing the value of coercivity can be used for security, switching and sensing applications. - Highlights: • Defect free crystals of pure and Co{sup 2+} ion doped L-alanine cadmium chloride were grown. • The optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of pure crystals were enhanced by adding Co{sup 2+} ion. • High optical transmittance was obtained in the entire visible and IR region. • Addition of dopant to the pure crystal altered the coercivity. • Low dielectric

  17. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  18. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standards development of chemical analysis and non-destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Junchitan no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To propose it to ISOTC79 and ISOTC135, study was conducted for standardization of chemical analysis method and non-destructive inspection method for industrial use pure titanium. As the chemical analysis method, the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry which has good detection limit was developed, and at the same time, the standardization of spark and/or glow discharged atomic emission spectrometry was developed. As the non-destructive inspection method, developmental study on the following was carried out: surface defect inspection method of pure titanium metals by laser scanning inspection system or CCD camera; internal defect inspection of pure titanium sheet and coil by plate wave ultrasonic inspection method; internal defect inspection of pure titanium bar by eddy current method; inspection of very small leakage of pressurized fluid through defects in pure titanium pipe and tube by pressure differential testing method. As a result of the study, standards of system performance and tolerance were determined in analysis of Pd, Si, Al, Cu, Mo, Zr, Nb, Ta and Y. Further, analytical conditions and application ranges of the spark discharged atomic emission spectrometry were made definite in terms of 19 elements including Mn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Sn, Pb, Si, Al, V, Cu, Mo, Zr, Nb, Ta, Co, B, Y, C and W. (NEDO)

  19. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Study of Pure and Doped Polyvinyl Chloride with Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hady, E.E.; Hamdy, F. M. M.; Alaa, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime of pure and doped polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with Al 2 O 3 reflect the effect of concentration as well as temperature on free volume. Therefore, variations of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and its intensity have been correlated with changes in the dielectric properties of the pure and doped PVC. The o-Ps lifetime and its intensity show a linear dependence with a discontinuity at 20 % concentration of Al 2 O 3 . The size and the fractional of the o-Ps hole volume were estimated from the positron annihilation parameters. Therefore, the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and the positron annihilation parameters on pure and doped PVC with 20 % Al 2 O 3 were studied in the range from 20 to 140 degree C. The shift of the glass transition temperature to lower temperature for the 20 % Al 2 O 3 doped PVC might explain the increase in the electrical conductivity with the concentration of the additive

  20. Case study into the effect of intensive mass training on chronic pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a case study into the effects of intensive reading training on a patient with acquired pure alexia disorder. The training targeted the various stages of the basic reading process based on the theories of the psycholinguistic language model as a mixture......, the training was conducted over a short but intensive period of time and thirdly, the training was focused on regaining reading abilities without the use of compensatory techniques by targeting the various areas of the reading process according to the psycholinguistic model. The study demonstrated...

  1. Bjorken-Johnson-Low technique and perturbation study on chiral anomaly in abelian coset pure gauge field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Sicong; Ruan Jie; AH. Dept. of Modern Physics)

    1990-01-01

    The perturbation theory in coset pure gauge field theory is studied for the first time. By using the Bjorken-johnson-Low technique and calculating the Schwinger term in related commutators, the anomalous Ward identity in Abelian coset pure gauge field theory is derived, which is consistent with the non-perutrbative calculation

  2. Experimental study of natural convection adjacent to an isothermal vertical ice cylinder in cold pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riu, Kap Jong; Yea, Yong Taeg; Park, Sang Hee

    1991-01-01

    A natural convection adjacent to an isothermal vertical ice cylinder is studied experimentally in cold pure water. The experiments are carried out as changing the temperature of the ambient water and then the flow and heat transfer characteristics is visualized and observed. It is shown that flow patterns are steady state upflow, unsteady state flow, steady state dual flow, and steady state downflow. There is also obtained a heat transfer coefficient and mean Nusselt number at various ambient temperature. These results are in good agreement with the theoretical ones. (Author)

  3. Experimental Study on Temperature Behavior of SC Structures under Pure Bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, K. W.; Lee, K. J.; Park, D. S.; Jeon, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    SC(Steel plate Concrete) module method uses steel plate instead of reinforcing bar and mold in existing RC structure. Steel plate modules are fabricated in advance, installed and poured with concrete in construction field, so construction period is remarkably shortened by SC module technique. In case of existence of temperature gap between internal and external structure surface such as spent fuel storage pool, thermal stress is taken place and as a result of it, structural strength is deteriorated. In this study, we designed three test specimens and several tests with or without temperature heating were conducted to evaluate temperature behavior of SC structures under pure bending loading condition

  4. Antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of pumpkin (cucurbit) peel and puree extracts - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Sherazi, Tauqir A; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Hussain, Zaib; Mahmood, Hassan; Mahmood, Nasir

    2017-07-01

    Natural resources right from the beginning of the human civilization has paved the way to human being to combat different challenges. The big challenge was to safe the human being from diseases and shortage of food. Plants helped the man in both areas very efficiently. No doubt when plants are used as food actually we are also taking lot of compounds of medicinal values in an excellent combination which naturally reduce the risk of diseases. Extraction and purification of several medicinally important compounds also gave the way to develop pharmaceutical industry in addition to its own therapeutic effects against different lethal diseases. Pumpkin is one of the several medicinal important vegetables used in different way on the behalf of its admirable power to combat different diseases. Antioxidant and biological studies showed very important results. A good coherence was found among extraction yield (10.52 to 18.45%), total phenolics (1.13 to 6.78 mg GAE/100g), total flavonoids (0.23 to 0.72mg CE/100g) and antioxidant potential (≻70%). Antibacterial assays of peel and puree extracts advocated good potential to stop the growth and division of pathogenic bacteria. Further biological activity study was carried out using MDBK cancer cell line. The growth inhibitory effect on cancer cell line using MTT assay showed methanol extracts of peel and puree both remained efficient to inhibit growth (≻35%) and cell division of cancer cells. Our results showed that extracts of pumpkin puree and its waste, peel, may be utilize to prepare functional food against pathogenic born diseases and most active compounds may also be extracted, concentrated and converted into tablets or suspension form for therapeutic purposes.

  5. Study of federal microwave standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.

    1980-08-01

    Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

  6. Sterilization by pure oxygen plasma and by oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma: an efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscariol, M R; Moreira, A J; Mansano, R D; Kikuchi, I S; Pinto, T J A

    2008-04-02

    Plasma is an innovative sterilization method characterized by a low toxicity to operators and patients, and also by its operation at temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of different parameters for this method of sterilization and the corresponding results were analyzed in this study. A low-pressure inductive discharge was used to study the plasma sterilization processes. Oxygen and a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were used as plasma source gases. The efficacy of the processes using different combinations of parameters such as plasma-generation method, type of gas, pressure, gas flow rate, temperature, power, and exposure time was evaluated. Two phases were developed for the processes, one using pure oxygen and the other a mixture of gases. Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 9372 (Bacillus atrophaeus) spores inoculated on glass coverslips were used as biological indicators to evaluate the efficacy of the processes. All cycles were carried out in triplicate for different sublethal exposure times to calculate the D value by the enumeration method. The pour-plate technique was used to quantify the spores. D values of between 8 and 3 min were obtained. Best results were achieved at high power levels (350 and 400 W) using pure oxygen, showing that plasma sterilization is a promising alternative to other sterilization methods.

  7. Monte Carlo study of the pure and dilute Baxter-Wu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Nir; Adler, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We studied the pure and dilute Baxter-Wu (BW) models using the Wang-Landau (WL) sampling method to calculate the density-of-states (DOS). We first used the exact result for the DOS of the Ising model to test our code. Then we calculated the DOS of the dilute Ising model to obtain a phase diagram, in good agreement with previous studies. We calculated the energy distribution, together with its first, second and fourth moments, to give the specific heat and the energy fourth order cumulant, better known as the Binder parameter, for the pure BW model. For small samples, the energy distribution displayed a doubly peaked shape, and finite size scaling analysis showed the expected reciprocal scaling of the positions of the peaks with L. The energy distribution yielded the expected BW α = 2/3 critical exponent for the specific heat. The Binder parameter minimum appeared to scale with lattice size L with an exponent θ B equal to the specific heat exponent. Its location (temperature) showed a large correction-to-scaling term θ 1 = 0.248 ± 0.025. For the dilute BW model we found a clear crossover to a single peak in the energy distribution even for small sizes and the expected α = 0 was recovered

  8. Theoretical Study of Renewable Ionic Liquids in the Pure State and with Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-09-17

    The N-ethyl-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)ethanaminium dihydrogen phosphate ionic liquid was studied as a model of ionic liquids which can be produced from totally renewable sources. A computational study using both molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods was carried out. The properties, structuring, and intermolecular interactions (hydrogen bonding) of this fluid in the pure state were studied as a function of pressure and temperature. Likewise, the adsorption on graphene and the confinement between graphene sheets was also studied. The solvation of single walled carbon nanotubes in the selected ionic liquid was analyzed together with the behavior of ions confined inside these nanotubes. The reported results show remarkable properties for this fluid, which show that many of the most relevant properties of ionic liquids and their ability to interact with carbon nanosystems may be maintained and even improved using new families of renewable compounds instead of classic types of ionic liquids with worse environmental, toxicological, and economical profiles.

  9. A study of precipitation from pure solutions of uranyl nitrate; Etude de la precipitaion de solutions pures de nitrate d'uranyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decrop, J; Holder, J; Sauteron, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Usine du Bouchet, Service des Lab. de Recherches et de Controle, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    After its purification by extraction of the uranyl nitrate from the organic solvent, uranium has to be converted into solid form again: uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}). It can be done either by thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate or by precipitation of uranium, followed by filtration and calcination. Only the second method has been studied for now at the Bouchet plant. This paper reports the bench-scale and pilot-scale experiments of the studies of the precipitation of pure solutions of uranyl nitrate using ammonia (gaseous or in solution) or ammonium carbonate. These have been carried out at the Bouchet plant. It investigates the chemical aspect (pH, precipitates chemical composition) and the technical aspect of the different ways of precipitation (conditions of precipitation, decantation and filtration of precipitates). (M.P.)

  10. A comparative study of the mechanical behaviour of thermally oxidised commercially pure titanium and zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, A; Sun, Y

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the mechanical behaviour of thermally oxidised commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and commercially pure zirconium (CP-Zr). For this purpose, these two bio-metals were thermally oxidised under the same condition (650°C for 6h) and the oxidised specimens were characterised using various analytical and experimental techniques, including oxygen uptake analysis, layer thickness and hardness measurements, scratch tests, dry sliding friction and wear tests and tribocorrosion tests in Ringer's solution. The results show that under the present thermal oxidation condition, 4 times more oxygen is introduced into CP-Zr than into CP-Ti and the oxide layer produced on CP-Zr is nearly 6 times thicker than that on CP-Ti. Thermally oxidised CP-Zr possesses a higher hardness, a deeper hardening depth and better scratch resistance than thermally oxidised CP-Ti. Under dry sliding and tribocorrosion conditions, thermally oxidised CP-Zr also possesses much better resistance to material removal and a higher load bearing capacity than thermally oxidised CP-Ti. Thus, thermally oxidised Zr possesses much better mechanical behaviour than thermally oxidised Ti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The study of behavior titanium pure commercially coated with hydroxyapatite and zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneed, Shaymaa Hashim; Salih, Ayad Ahmed; Khazaal, Ahlam Rashid; Hasan, Aqeel F.; Hamodi, Jamal Fadhil; Jasim, Kareem Ali; Mahdi, Shatha H.; AL-Maiyaly, Bushra K. H.; Hassun, Hanan K.

    2018-05-01

    In this research was studied the effect of adding zirconia to hydroxyapatite in the coting of commercially pure titanium (cpTi), by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) when using micron particle (waves) size limit (0.25-0.5) micron, and deposition was effected with different coating periods(2,4,6) mints, and annealing at 500 °C, it founded there was an improvement in the corrosion properties, as the value of the open circuit potential (OCP) for coated titanium was reach to (-0.262) volt compared with to uncoated titanium was reach to (-0.528)volt. Note that the coating process is perfectly homogeneous to the entire area of the metal used.

  12. Comparison studies adsorption of thorium and uranium on pure clay minerals and local Malaysian soil sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Adsorption studies of thorium and uranium radionuclides on 9 different pure clay minerals and 4 local Malaysian soil sediments were conducted. Solution containing dissolved thorium and uranium at pH 4.90 was prepared from concentrate sludges from a long term storage facility at a local mineral processing plant. The sludges are considered as low level radioactive wastes. The results indicated that the 9 clay minerals adsorbed more uranium than thorium at pH ranges from 3.74 to 5.74. Two local Malaysian soils were observed to adsorb relatively high concentration of both radionuclides at pH 3.79 to 3.91. The adsorption value 23.27 to 27.04 ppm for uranium and 33.1 to 50.18 ppm for thorium indicated that both soil sediments can be considered as potential enhanced barrier material for sites disposing conditioned wastes containing uranium and thorium. (author)

  13. Study of point defects in pure iron by means of electrical resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minier-Cassayre, C.

    1965-04-01

    In the first part of this work, after having reviewed the production, observation and the annealing of point defects In metals, we resume the present state of research. In the second part, we explain the techniques we have employed to produce point defects at low temperatures: irradiation, quenching and cold-work; and go on to the study of their migration and annealing. The experimental results obtained for pure iron and for iron containing certain impurities are presented in the third part. In the fourth part we suggest a model which explains the different stages of annealing observed, and their properties. We then compare the energies of interaction between point defects with the values deduced from the theory of elasticity. (author) [fr

  14. Structural and photoluminescence studies of pure and Eu3+ doped Y2O3 oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packiyaraj, P.; Thangadurai, P.

    2013-01-01

    Pure and Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrolysis assisted co-precipitation method. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction. The as-prepared Eu:Y 2 O 3 was amorphous yttrium hydroxides in nature and become crystalline Y 2 O 3 once annealed at 600℃ and 900℃. The particle size (13-23 nm) was dependent on annealing temperatures and Eu 3+ ion concentration. Photoluminescence studies showed weak emission bands at 581, 587, 593, and 599 nm, corresponding to the 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 transitions, and sharp peaks with a maximum intensity occurring at 611 nm, due to the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transitions of Eu 3+ . (author)

  15. Lattice constants of pure methane and carbon dioxide hydrates at low temperatures. Implementing quantum corrections to classical molecular dynamics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K.; Economou, Ioannis G., E-mail: i.tsimpanogiannis@qatar.tamu.edu, E-mail: ioannis.economou@qatar.tamu.edu [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N., E-mail: i.tsimpanogiannis@qatar.tamu.edu, E-mail: ioannis.economou@qatar.tamu.edu [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos,” 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece); Stubos, Athanassios K. [Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos,” 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece)

    2016-03-28

    We introduce a simple correction to the calculation of the lattice constants of fully occupied structure sI methane or carbon dioxide pure hydrates that are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations using the TIP4PQ/2005 water force field. The obtained corrected lattice constants are subsequently used in order to obtain isobaric thermal expansion coefficients of the pure gas hydrates that exhibit a trend that is significantly closer to the experimental behavior than previously reported classical molecular dynamics studies.

  16. A theoretical study on pure bending of hexagonal close-packed metal sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Hamed; Yang, Chunhui

    2018-05-01

    Hexagonal close-packed (HCP) metals have quite different mechanical behaviours in comparison to conventional cubic metals such as steels and aluminum alloys [1, 2]. They exhibit a significant tension-compression asymmetry in initial yielding and subsequent plastic hardening. The reason for this unique behaviour can be attributed to their limited symmetric crystal structure, which leads to twining deformation [3-5]. This unique behaviour strongly influences sheet metal forming of such metals, especially for roll forming, in which the bending is dominant. Hence, it is crucial to represent constitutive relations of HCP metals for accurate estimation of bending moment-curvature behaviours. In this paper, an analytical model for asymmetric elastoplastic pure bending with an application of Cazacu-Barlat asymmetric yield function [6] is presented. This yield function considers the asymmetrical tension-compression behaviour of HCP metals by using second and third invariants of the stress deviator tensor and a specified constant, which can be expressed in terms of uniaxial yield stresses in tension and compression. As a case study, the analytical model is applied to predict the moment-curvature behaviours of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets under uniaxial loading condition. Furthermore, the analytical model is implemented as a user-defined material through the UMAT interface in Abaqus [7, 8] for conducting pure bending simulations. The results show that the analytical model can reasonably capture the asymmetric tension-compression behaviour of the magnesium alloy. The predicted moment-curvature behaviour has good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, numerical results show a better accuracy by the application of the Cazacu-Barlat yield function than those using the von-Mises yield function, which are more conservative than analytical results.

  17. Decay studies and mass measurements on isobarically pure neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Schweikhard, L C; Savreux, R P; Hager, U D K; Beck, D; Blaum, K

    2007-01-01

    We propose to perform mass measurements followed by $\\beta$- and $\\gamma$-decay studies on isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes, which are very poorly known due to a large contamination at ISOL-facilities with surface-ionised francium. The aim is to study the binding energies of mother Hg and Tl nuclides, as well as the energies, spins and parities of the excited and ground states in the daughter Tl and Pb isotopes. The proposed studies will address a new subsection of the nuclear chart, with Z 126, where only 9 nuclides have been observed so far. Our studies will provide valuable input for mass models and shell-model calculations: they will probe the proton hole-neutron interaction and will allow to refine the matrix elements for the two-body residual interaction. Furthermore, they also give prospects for discovering new isomeric states or even new isotopes, for which the half-lives are predicted in the minute- and second-range.\\\\ To reach the isobaric purity, the experiments will be p...

  18. Proton irradiation studies on pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta Gupta, A. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, P., E-mail: paramita@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata (India); Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Bhattacharya, M. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata (India); Sarkar, Apu [Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Sen, S. [Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Mitra, M.K. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)

    2016-11-15

    Post irradiated microstructural characterisation of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V has been done as a function of dose using different model based techniques of X-ray diffraction line profile analysis. There is a systematic change of domain size for both the materials with dose but the microstrain within the domain remains almost unaltered. The domain size appears to be lower for pure Ti at all doses as compared to Ti-6Al-4V alloy. XRD peaks became highly asymmetric particularly at a dose of 5 × 10{sup 21} p/m{sup 2} for Ti-6Al-4V samples which is not observed for pure Ti at the same dose. This may be attributed to the segregation of alloying elements as a result of irradiation. Microhardness values increases with dose for pure Ti and then saturates at higher doses whereas microhardness values are found to decrease at higher doses for Ti-6Al-4V.

  19. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn

    2017-11-01

    We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  20. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Concha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  1. Evolution of the degradation mechanism of pure zinc stent in the one-year study of rabbit abdominal aorta model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongtao; Wang, Cong; Liu, Chaoqiang; Chen, Houwen; Wu, Yifan; Han, Jintao; Jia, Zichang; Lin, Wenjiao; Zhang, Deyuan; Li, Wenting; Yuan, Wei; Guo, Hui; Li, Huafang; Yang, Guangxin; Kong, Deling; Zhu, Donghui; Takashima, Kazuki; Ruan, Liqun; Nie, Jianfeng; Li, Xuan; Zheng, Yufeng

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, pure zinc stents were implanted into the abdominal aorta of rabbits for 12 months. Multiscale analysis including micro-CT, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and histological stainings was performed to reveal the fundamental degradation mechanism of the pure zinc stent and its biocompatibility. The pure zinc stent was able to maintain mechanical integrity for 6 months and degraded 41.75 ± 29.72% of stent volume after 12 months implantation. No severe inflammation, platelet aggregation, thrombosis formation or obvious intimal hyperplasia was observed at all time points after implantation. The degradation of the zinc stent played a beneficial role in the artery remodeling and healing process. The evolution of the degradation mechanism of pure zinc stents with time was revealed as follows: Before endothelialization, dynamic blood flow dominated the degradation of pure zinc stent, creating a uniform corrosion mode; After endothelialization, the degradation of pure zinc stent depended on the diffusion of water molecules, hydrophilic solutes and ions which led to localized corrosion. Zinc phosphate generated in blood flow transformed into zinc oxide and small amounts of calcium phosphate during the conversion of degradation microenvironment. The favorable physiological degradation behavior makes zinc a promising candidate for future stent applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of a condition for the mode conversion from purely perpendicular electrostatic waves to electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaee, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: mjkalaee@ut.ac.ir [Space Physics Group, Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Katoh, Yuto, E-mail: yuto@stpp.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    One of the mechanisms for generating electromagnetic plasma waves (Z-mode and LO-mode) is mode conversion from electrostatic waves into electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous plasma. Herein, we study a condition required for mode conversion of electrostatic waves propagating purely perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, by numerically solving the full dispersion relation. An approximate model is derived describing the coupling between electrostatic waves (hot plasma Bernstein mode) and Z-mode waves at the upper hybrid frequency. The model is used to study conditions required for mode conversion from electrostatic waves (electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves, including Bernstein mode) into electromagnetic plasma waves (LO-mode). It is shown that for mode conversion to occur in inhomogeneous plasma, the angle between the boundary surface and the magnetic field vector should be within a specific range. The range of the angle depends on the norm of the k vector of waves at the site of mode conversion in the inhomogeneous region. The present study reveals that inhomogeneity alone is not a sufficient condition for mode conversion from electrostatic waves to electromagnetic plasma waves and that the angle between the magnetic field and the density gradient plays an important role in the conversion process.

  3. Application and properties of pure lime façades - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Bokan Bosiljkov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experiences obtained during application and testing of different pure lime façades that could be successfully used in restoration of historical buildings in Slovenia. The lime façade consists of a rendering layer (rough mortar, a finishing layer (fine mortar and a protective layer of lime wash. For the design of the mortars different industrially and traditionally produced limes were chosen, based on the results of preliminary studies of the authors and experiences of a small enterprise (SE involved in the study. The façade layers were applied to the most problematic northern wall of the historic chapel made from rubble masonry. The chapel belongs to the castle Crnelo, built at the end of the 17th century in the village Turnše, not far from Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. The façade layers were made by skilled workers of SE, with about one year time difference between application of rendering and finishing layers, and with a protective layer of coloured lime wash applied to one to three day old finishing layers. On the rendering layers, visual inspection, water absorption tests and determination of carbonation depth were carried out before subsequent finishing layers were applied. The same on-site tests were carried out also on finished façade layers. So far, parallel to the on-site tests, compressive and water absorption tests on prisms prepared from rough mortars were carried out in laboratory.

  4. MR imaging of ore for heap bioleaching studies using pure phase encode acquisition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Marijke A.; Sederman, Andrew J.; Johns, Michael L.

    2012-03-01

    Various MRI techniques were considered with respect to imaging of aqueous flow fields in low grade copper ore. Spin echo frequency encoded techniques were shown to produce unacceptable image distortions which led to pure phase encoded techniques being considered. Single point imaging multiple point acquisition (SPI-MPA) and spin echo single point imaging (SESPI) techniques were applied. By direct comparison with X-ray tomographic images, both techniques were found to be able to produce distortion-free images of the ore packings at 2 T. The signal to noise ratios (SNRs) of the SESPI images were found to be superior to SPI-MPA for equal total acquisition times; this was explained based on NMR relaxation measurements. SESPI was also found to produce suitable images for a range of particles sizes, whereas SPI-MPA SNR deteriorated markedly as particles size was reduced. Comparisons on a 4.7 T magnet showed significant signal loss from the SPI-MPA images, the effect of which was accentuated in the case of unsaturated flowing systems. Hence it was concluded that SESPI was the most robust imaging method for the study of copper ore heap leaching hydrology.

  5. Pontine infarction with pure motor hemiparesis or hemiplegia: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Suping

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to prospectively observe the clinical and neuroimaging features of pontine infarction with pure motor hemiparesis (PMH or hemiplegia at early stage. Methods In 118 consecutive selected patients with the first-ever ischemic stroke within 6 hours after onset, fifty of them presented with PMH or hemiplegia and had negative acute computed tomography (CT scans, then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI confirmed the corresponding infarcts in pons or cerebrum. The clinical and neuroimaging features of the pontine infarctions were compared with those of cerebral infarctions. Results The pontine infarction with PMH or hemiplegia accounted for 10.2% (12/118 of all first-ever ischemic stroke patients and 24% (12/50 of the patients with both PMH or hemiplegia and acute negative CT scans. Compared to the patients with cerebral infarction, the patients with pontine infarction had more frequency of diabetes mellitus (50.0% vs 5.3%, P = 0.001, nonvertiginous dizziness at onset (58.3% vs 21.1%, P = 0.036 and a progressive course (33.3% vs 2.6%, P = 0.011. Conclusion The pontine infarction may present as PMH or hemiplegia with more frequency of nonvertiginous dizziness, a progressive course and diabetes mellitus. MRI can confirm the infarct location in the basal pons at early stage after stroke onset.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and second harmonic studies on organic non-centrosymmetric pure and doped ninhydrin single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanyaa, T.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Haris, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report the successful growth of pure, Cu2+ ions and Cd2+ ions doped on ninhydrin single crystals by slow solvent evaporation technique. The presence of Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions in the specimen of ninhydrin single crystal has been determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis was done to calculate the lattice parameters of the pure and doped crystals. The percentage of transmittance of the crystal was recorded using the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Thermal behaviors of the grown crystals have been examined by the thermal gravimetric/differential thermal analysis. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show the minor variation in the hardness value for the pure and doped ninhydrin samples. The value of the work hardening coefficient n was found to be 2.0, 1.0 and 1.06 for pure, copper and cadmium doped ninhydrin crystals respectively. The second harmonic generation efficiency of Cd2+ and Cu2+ doped ninhydrin is 8.3 and 6.3 times greater than well known nonlinear crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate respectively. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the title compound were performed by disk diffusion method against the standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillis niger and Aspergillus flavus.

  7. Study of a pure CsI crystal readout by APD for Belle II end cap ECL upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y., E-mail: jin@hep.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Borshchev, O.V. [Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya st. 70, Moscow 117393 (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D.A. [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ponomarenko, S.A.; Surin, N.M. [Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya st. 70, Moscow 117393 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-11

    A scintillation counter consisting of a pure CsI crystal and avalanche photodiodes (Hamamatsu APD S8664-55 and S8664-1010) has been studied for the upgrade of the end cap electromagnetic calorimeter of Belle II detector. An essential increase of the light output was achieved with wavelength shifters based on nanostructured organosilicon luminophores. - Highlights: • A scintillation counter consisting of a pure CsI crystal and avalanche photodiodes has been studied. • The equivalent noise charge and equivalent noise energy of the counter have been measured. • An essential increase of the light output was achieved with wavelength shifters.

  8. Contributions to the phytocoenologic study in pure european beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains (North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin-Gheorghe PĂŞCUŢ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we present a phytocoenologic study on the associations found in pure European beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains namely: Festuco drymejae-Fagetum Morariu et al. 1968, Luzulo albidae-Fagetum sylvaticae Zólyomi 1955.Characterization of the associations we studied and presentation of the tables have been made considering the selection of the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to Codru-Moma Mountains.The phytocoenoses of pure forest stands of European beech forests belonging to the two associations were analyzed in terms of floristic composition, life forms spectrum, spectrum chart of the floral elements and ecological indices.

  9. Pure energy solutions - pure tomorrows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.

    2006-01-01

    HTC is an energy technology company whose mandate is to deliver 'Carbon Clear Solutions' to address the pending challenges the energy sector is facing in meeting the environmental impact of Greenhouse Gas emissions, and energy security. HTC will speak on its comprehensive suite of technologies including hydrogen production, CO 2 capture and CO 2 sequestration. HTC has patented technologies that produce H 2 from a broad variety of feedstocks such as Natural gas, Diesel, Gasoline, Bio-fuels i.e. ethanol, methanol and Coal Gasification. HTC Hydrogen reformation systems are unique in their method of delivering pure Hydrogen. Dry Reformation Reactor - New catalyst system designed to eliminate contamination problems (i.e. coking) while at the same time operate at a low temperature. Water Gas Shift Reactor - Plus - improved and redesigned catalyst that improves operating temperature and hydrogen production efficiency. Two stage catalyst reactor that provides near balance of the endothermic and exothermic reaction temperatures for efficient energy balance

  10. The mechanism of oxygen isotopic fractionation during fungal denitrification - A pure culture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrage-Moennig, Nicole; Rohe, Lena; Anderson, Traute-Heidi; Braker, Gesche; Flessa, Heinz; Giesemann, Annette; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Well, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from soil denitrification originates from bacteria and - to an unknown extent - also from fungi. During fungal denitrification, oxygen (O) exchange takes place between H2O and intermediates of the denitrification process as in bacterial exchange[1,2]. However, information about enzymes involved in fungal O exchanges and the associated fractionation effects is lacking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the O fractionation and O exchange during the fungal denitrifying steps using a conceptual model[2] adapted from concepts for bacterial denitrification[3], implementing controls of O exchange proposed by Aerssens, et al.[4] and using fractionation models by Snider et al.[5] Six different pure fungal cultures (five Hypocreales, one Sordariales) known to be capable of denitrification were incubated under anaerobic conditions, either with nitrite or nitrate. Gas samples were analyzed for N2O concentration and its isotopic signatures (SP, average δ15N, δ18O). To investigate O exchange, both treatments were also established with 18O-labelled water as a tracer in the medium. The Hypocreales strains showed O exchange mainly at NO2- reductase (Nir) with NO2- as electron acceptor and no additional O exchange at NO3- reductase (Nar) with NO3- as electron acceptor. The only Hypocreales species having higher O exchange with NO3- than with NO2- also showed O exchange at Nar. The Sordariales species tested seems capable of O exchange at NO reductase (Nor) additionally to O exchange at Nir with NO2-. The data will help to better interpret stable isotope values of N2O from soils. .[1] D. M. Kool, N. Wrage, O. Oenema, J. Dolfing, J. W. Van Groenigen. Oxygen exchange between (de)nitrification intermediates and H2O and its implications for source determination of NO?3- and N2O: a review. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec. 2007, 21, 3569. [2] L. Rohe, T.-H. Anderson, B. Braker, H. Flessa, A. Giesemann, N. Wrage-Mönnig, R. Well. Fungal Oxygen Exchange between

  11. A comparative study between transport and criticality safety indexes for fissile uranium nuclearly pure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes da Silva, T. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN (Brazil)]. e-mail: tmsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The international and national standards determine that during the transport of radioactive materials the package to be sent should be identified by labels of risks specifying content, activity and the transport index. The result of the monitoring of the package to 1 meter identifies the transport index, TI, which represents the dose rate to 1 meter of this. The transport index is, by definition, a number that represents a gamma radiation that crosses the superficial layer the radioactive material of the package to 1 meter of distance. For the fissile radioactive material that is the one in which a neutron causes the division of the atom, the international standards specify criticality safety index CSI, which is related with the safe mass of the fissile element. In this work it was determined the respective safe mass for each considered enrichment for the compounds of uranium oxides UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. In the study of CSI it was observed that the value 50 of the expression 50/N being N the number of packages be transported in subcriticality conditions it represents a fifth part of the safe mass of the element uranium or 9% of the smallest mass critical for a transport not under exclusive use. As conclusion of the accomplished study was observed that the transport index starting from 7% of enrichment doesn't present contribution and that criticality safety index is always greater than the transport index. Therefore what the standards demand to specify, the largest value between both indexes, was clearly identified in this study as being the criticality safety index. (Author)

  12. Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin; Kannan, M. Bobby; Ye, Qingsong; Blawert, Carsten

    2014-05-01

    An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO-PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (Rp) of the PEO-PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (icorr) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO-PLLA coating reduced the icorr by almost 100%. As expected, the Rp of the PEO-PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the Rp of the PEO-PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack.

  13. Transgastric pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography for staging of gastrointestinal cancers: a survival and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Vilmann, Peter; Meisner, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-06-01

    Human natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has mainly been based on simultaneous laparoscopic assistance (hybrid NOTES), forgoing the theoretical benefits of the NOTES technique. This is due to a lack of NOTES-specific instruments and endoscopes, making pure-NOTES procedures difficult and time consuming. An area where pure NOTES could be adopted at its present stage of development is minimally invasive staging of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of combining transgastric (TG) pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy and intraperitoneal endoscopic ultrasonography (ip-EUS) with intraluminal EUS (il-EUS) for peritoneal evaluation. This was a feasibility and survival study where il-EUS followed by ip-EUS and peritoneoscopy was performed in 10 pigs subjected to TG pure NOTES. A score was given with regard to achieved visualisation of predefined anatomical structures. Survival was assessed at postoperative day (POD) 14. All animals survived until POD 14. Median total procedural time was 94 min (range 74-130 min). Median time for il-EUS, ip-EUS and peritoneoscopy was 11 min (range 7-14 min), 13 min (range 8-20 min) and 10 min (range 6-23 min). Il-EUS, ip-EUS and peritoneoscopy resulted in a score of 15/15 points (range 14-15 points), 6/9 points (range 1-8 points) and 12/13 points (range 8-13 points). TG pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy and ip-EUS combined with il-EUS is feasible and provides sufficient peritoneal evaluation. The technique could have potential for minimally invasive staging of GI cancers.

  14. Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin; Kannan, M. Bobby; Ye, Qingsong; Blawert, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(L-lactide) was used to seal the porous PEO layer on Mg. • The dual-layer coating improved the in vitro degradation resistance of Mg. • Localized degradation was inhibited in the dual-layer coated Mg. - Abstract: An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO–PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (R p ) of the PEO–PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (i corr ) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO–PLLA coating reduced the i corr by almost 100%. As expected, the R p of the PEO–PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the R p of the PEO–PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack

  15. Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Ye, Qingsong [Discipline of Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Blawert, Carsten [Magnesium Innovation Centre, Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht 21502 (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(L-lactide) was used to seal the porous PEO layer on Mg. • The dual-layer coating improved the in vitro degradation resistance of Mg. • Localized degradation was inhibited in the dual-layer coated Mg. - Abstract: An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO–PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) of the PEO–PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO–PLLA coating reduced the i{sub corr} by almost 100%. As expected, the R{sub p} of the PEO–PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the R{sub p} of the PEO–PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack.

  16. QCD and Standard Model Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Carl A [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Our group has focused on using jets in STAR to investigate the longitudinal and transverse spin structure of the proton. We performed measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production that provide the strongest evidence to date that the gluons in the proton with x>0.05 are polarized. We also made the first observation of the Collins effect in pp collisions, thereby providing an important test of the universality of the Collins fragmentation function and opening a new tool to probe quark transversity in the proton. Our studies of forward rapidity electromagnetic jet-like events raise serious question whether the large transverse spin asymmetries that have been seen for forward inclusive hadron production arise from conventional 2 → 2 parton scattering. This is the final technical report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER40765. It covers activities during the period January 1, 2015 through November 30, 2016.

  17. The study on preparation of high dispersion and pure cerium dioxide for producing automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Minh Tuan; Nguyen Trong Hung; Nguyen Thanh Chung

    2003-01-01

    The multi-stage counter-current solvent extraction process using TBP as the solvent has been carried out for purifying cerium and the ammonium carbonate precipitation method has been used to produce the cerium oxide of high dispersion and pure. The flow sheet of extraction system includes 3 extraction stages with O/A = 0.7,2 stripping stages and 4 scrubbing stages with O/A = 5. The condition for ammonium carbonate precipitation, drying and calcination have been investigated and a procedure that seem to be practically suitable to prepare cerium dioxide powder with great specific surface area for producing automotive exhaust catalyst has been proposed. (LMT)

  18. Studies on a modular high-energy photon spectrometer of pure CsI scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyto, D.

    1994-04-01

    Aim of the present thesis is the optimization of components for the construction of a high-energy photon spectrometer of pure CsI for the detection of the neutral pseudoscalar mesons π 0 , η, and η' at COSY. These mesons are distinguished by their decay into two γ quanta and can therefore be detected by means of a photon spectrometer. A concept of a 2-arm shower counter of pure CsI is presented. Conclusions on the energy resolution of such a calorimeter shall yield a test module, which is constructed of 5.5 CsI(pure) pyramide trunk, each of which possesses a length of 30 cm and an angular acceptance of 6 .6 . The geometry of the moduls is formed in such a way that its extension to a 2-arm shower counter is possible at any time. Hitherto 14 by teflon foils wrapped up crystals for the test module were tested. Their energy resolution varies at 0.66 MeV between 20 and 25 % FWHM. Furthermore a method was found, which allows to trim the position dependence to the required values. So for the position dependence of a crystal even a value of 1.1 % could be reached. The energy resolution amounted thereby to 22 % FWHM. A measurement of the energy resolution with 20 MeV protons yielded a value of 7 %. For the energy calibration of the single detector elements in a dynamic range between 1 MeV and 12 GeV with low-energy γ sources the charge response function of the photoelectron multiplier to be applied in the test module was determined in dependence on the light intensity. The measurement resulted that the photomultiplier at 40 MeV (related to a CsI(pure) reference crystal with an about twofold so high efficiency of the detectable light in comparison to the long pyramide trunks) deviates by 4 % and at 300 MeV by 38 % from the linear behaviour, while it at 500 MeV shows a deviation of 50 %

  19. Numerical Study of Mechanical Response of Pure Titanium during Shot Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. M.; Cheng, J. P.; Yang, H. P.; Zhang, C. H.

    2018-05-01

    Mechanical response of pure titanium impacted by a steel ball was simulated using finite element method to investigate stress and strain evolution during shot peening. It is indicated that biaxial residual stress was obtained in the surface layer while in the interior triaxial residual stress existed because the S33 was comparable to S11 and S22. With decreasing the depth from the top surface, the stress was higher during impacting, but the stress relief extent became more significant when the ball rebounded. Therefore the maximum residual stress was formed in the subsurface layer with depth of 130 μm. As for the residual strain, it is shown that the maximum residual strain LE33 was obtained at the depth of 60 μm corresponding to the maximum shear stress during impacting.

  20. Synthesis, structural, optical and Raman studies of pure and lanthanum doped ZnSe nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pushpendra, E-mail: push.nac@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Singh, Jai [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Pandey, Mukesh Kumar [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Jeyanthi, C.E. [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Siddheswaran, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Paulraj, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physical sciences and Mathematics, University of Concepcion, Casilla 160, Concepcion (Chile); Hui, K.N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Template-free synthesis of ZnSe and ZnSe:La nanoparticles was developed at low temperature 100 °C. • Cubic ZnSe and ZnSe:La nanoparticles were obtained by chemical route. • As-synthesized ZnSe:La nanoparticles showed higher emission intensity than ZnSe nanoparticles. • Band gap (E{sub g}) of ZnSe nanoparticles was bigger than ZnSe nanoparticles due to nanosized effect. - Abstract: In this work, a simple, effective and reproducible chemical synthetic route for the production of high-quality, pure ZnSe nanoparticles (NPs), and lanthanum-doped ZnSe (ZnSe:La) NPs is presented. The wide bandgap, luminescent pure ZnSe and ZnSe:La NPs has been synthesized at a low temperature (100 °C) in a single template-free step. The size and optical bandgap of the NPs was analyzed from powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission across the visible spectrum has been demonstrated by a systematic blue-shift in emission due to the formation of small nanoparticles. Here, contribution to emission intensity from surface states of NPs increases with La doping. TEM data revealed that the average size of ZnSe and ZnSe:La NPs is 14 and 8 nm, respectively. On the other hand, band gap energy E{sub g} of ZnSe and ZnSe:La NPs were found to be 3.59 eV and 3.65 eV, respectively. Results showed that hydrazine hydrate played multiple roles in the formation of ZnSe and ZnSe:La NPs. A possible reaction mechanism for the growth of NPs is also discussed.

  1. Predicting stability limits for pure and doped dicationic noble gas clusters undergoing coulomb explosion: A parallel tempering based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Sankar; Chaudhury, Pinaki

    2018-05-30

    We have used a replica exchange Monte-Carlo procedure, popularly known as Parallel Tempering, to study the problem of Coulomb explosion in homogeneous Ar and Xe dicationic clusters as well as mixed Ar-Xe dicationic clusters of varying sizes with different degrees of relative composition. All the clusters studied have two units of positive charges. The simulations reveal that in all the cases there is a cutoff size below which the clusters fragment. It is seen that for the case of pure Ar, the value is around 95 while that for Xe it is 55. For the mixed clusters with increasing Xe content, the cutoff limit for suppression of Coulomb explosion gradually decreases from 95 for a pure Ar to 55 for a pure Xe cluster. The hallmark of this study is this smooth progression. All the clusters are simulated using the reliable potential energy surface developed by Gay and Berne (Gay and Berne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 1982, 49, 194). For the hetero clusters, we have also discussed two different ways of charge distribution, that is one in which both positive charges are on two Xe atoms and the other where the two charges are at a Xe atom and at an Ar atom. The fragmentation patterns observed by us are such that single ionic ejections are the favored dissociating pattern. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. EMPLACEMENT GANTRY ITS STANDARDS IDENTIFICATION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegele, M.

    2005-01-01

    To date, the project has established ITS performance requirements for SSCs based on identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the NSDB. Further, SSCs credited with performing safe functions are classified as ITS. In turn, perform confirmation for these SSCs is sought through the use of consensus code and standards. The purpose of this study is to identify applicable codes and standards for the WP Emplacement Gantry ITS SSCs. Further, this study will form the basis for selection and the extent of applicability of each code and standard. This study is based on the design development completed for LA only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and that final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, throughout this study alternative designs currently under considered will be discussed. Further, the results of this study will be subject to evaluation as part of a follow-on GAP analysis study. Based on the results of this study the GAP analysis will evaluate each code and standard to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied a ''gap'' is highlighted. Thereafter, the study will identify supplemental requirements to augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, the GAP analysis will identify non-standard areas of the design that will be subject to a Development Plan. Non-standard components and non-standard design configurations are defined as areas of the design that do not follow standard industry practices or codes and standards. Whereby, performance confirmation cannot be

  3. Experimental study on pure titanium during the positive-torsion and positive-negative-torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han; Li, Fuguo, E-mail: fuguolx@nwpu.edu.cn; Li, Jinghui; Zhao, Zhen; Zhou, Shunshun; Wan, Qiong

    2016-09-30

    The results of the mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture analysis of the pure titanium deformed by positive-torsion (PT) and positive-negative-torsion (PNT) are investigated by uniaxial tensile (UT) test, micro-indentation (MI) test, optical microscope (OM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UT test indicates that the strength increases obviously with the increase of torsion radian during PT. However, the strength firstly increases quickly, and then tends to steady with the increase of deformation during PNT. The similar phenomena are also shown through MI hardness analysis. The results from geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) and statistically stored dislocations (SSDs) indicate that the dislocation density varies differently with the increase of deformation during PT and PNT. OM observation shows the grains are elongated and large numbers of deformation twins are observed during PT while the equiaxial grains are always presented during PNT. The variations of dislocation density during PT and PNT are verified by TEM. Besides, quantities of subgrains (SGs) are observed owing to the accumulated larger plastic strain during PNT while large numbers of deformation twins intersect with each other during PT. The fracture analysis indicates that large numbers of micro-voids distribute non-uniformly on fracture surface of sample twisted by PNT. However, the characteristics of ductile and brittle fracture are observed on fracture surface of sample twisted by PT.

  4. Preliminary study on the mechanism of reading recovery in a pure alexia by using functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lin; Li Dejun; Weng Xuchu; Tang Yiyuan; Zhang Wutian; Sun Weijian; Feng Shiwen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of the brain function during reading recovery by using functional MRI (fMRI), and to provide the experimental data in elucidating the mechanism on the recovery of reading and language function. Methods: fMRI was performed in a native Chinese patient with pure alexia on the 45 th and 130 th day after the onset, respectively. Three kinds of Chinese characters were presented during the scan and the patient was asked to make the judgement weather he could recognize the characters or not. The brain activation maps were acquired after postprocessing, and the activated location and volume were compared between the first and second experiments. Results: In both experiments, Broca area, Wernicke area, and the right extrastriate were significantly activated, while the left extrastriate around the lesion was markedly activated only in the second experiment, and the volume of activation in the right extrastriate in the second experiment was about 3 times as large as that in the first experiment. Conclusion: The left extrastriate cortex is one of the key areas responsible for reading function in the brain. The recovery of reading function can be compensated in contralateral corresponding cortical area, or it can be the result of reorganization in ipsilateral peri-lesion cortex. Both mechanisms may simultaneously play important roles in reading recovery

  5. Studies of discrete symmetries in a purely leptonic system using the Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskal P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete symmetries such as parity (P, charge-conjugation (C and time reversal (T are of fundamental importance in physics and cosmology. Breaking of charge conjugation symmetry (C and its combination with parity (CP constitute necessary conditions for the existence of the asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the observed Universe. The presently known sources of discrete symmetries violations can account for only a tiny fraction of the excess of matter over antimatter. So far CP and T symmetries violations were observed only for systems involving quarks and they were never reported for the purely leptonic objects. In this article we describe briefly an experimental proposal for the test of discrete symmetries in the decays of positronium atom which is made exclusively of leptons. The experiments are conducted by means of the Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomograph (J-PET which is constructed from strips of plastic scintillators enabling registration of photons from the positronium annihilation. J-PET tomograph together with the positronium target system enable to measure expectation values for the discrete symmetries odd operators constructed from (i spin vector of the ortho-positronium atom, (ii momentum vectors of photons originating from the decay of positronium, and (iii linear polarization direction of annihilation photons. Linearly polarized positronium will be produced in the highly porous aerogel or polymer targets, exploiting longitudinally polarized positrons emitted by the sodium 22Na isotope. Information about the polarization vector of orthopositronium will be available on the event by event basis and will be reconstructed from the known position of the positron source and the reconstructed position of the orthopositronium annihilation. In 2016 the first tests and calibration runs are planned, and the data collection with high statistics will commence in the year 2017.

  6. Anartria Pura: Estudo de Dois Casos Pure Anartria: Study of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Roch Lecours

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O marco do nascimento da neurolingüística é considerado a publicação do livro A síndrome de Desintegração Fonética, em 1939, que teve como autores: um neurologista, um psicólogo e uma lingüista. Dez anos mais tarde foi publicado, pela mesma equipe de pesquisadores franceses, o distúrbio de fala do paciente portador de anartria pura. No presente artigo, situaremos as polêmicas históricas a respeito de um distúrbio seletivo de fala de origem telencefálica, apresentaremos o primeiro caso descrito, acompanhado da descrição anátomo-patológica do cérebro que estivera guardado em formol por 20 anos e, realizada por um de nós (ARL, e por fim, apresentaremos um caso brasileiro, cujas imagens tomográficas de seu cérebro e espectográficas de sua fala e voz confirmam o trabalho pioneiro de Alajouanine, Pichot e Durant.The mark of birth of neuro-linguistics is considered the publication of the book The Syndrome of Phonetic Disintegration, in 1939, that had as authors: a neurologist, a psychologist and a linguistics. Ten years later the same team of French researchers published about, the disturbance of speech of the patient carrier of pure Anartria. In the present article, we will place the historical polemics regarding a selective disturbance of speech of telencephalic origin and present the first described case, accompanied by the anatomic-pathological description of the brain that had been kept in formol by 20 years accomplished by one of us (ARL. Finally, we will present a Brazilian case, with tomographic images of its brain and spectrographic evaluation of its speech and voice that confirm the pioneer work of Alajouanine, Pichot and Durant.

  7. The 3-Second Rule in Hereditary Pure Cerebellar Ataxia: A Synchronized Tapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shunichi; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Shoji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Terao, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    The ‘3-second rule’ has been proposed based on miscellaneous observations that a time period of around 3 seconds constitutes the fundamental unit of time related to the neuro-cognitive machinery in normal humans. The aim of paper was to investigate the temporal processing in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) and SCA31, pure cerebellar types of spinocerebellar degeneration, using a synchronized tapping task. Seventeen SCA patients (11 SCA6, 6 SCA31) and 17 normal age-matched volunteers participated. The task required subjects to tap a keyboard in synchrony with sequences of auditory stimuli presented at fixed interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between 200 and 4800 ms. In this task, the subjects required non-motor components to estimate the time of forthcoming tone in addition to motor components to tap. Normal subjects synchronized their taps to the presented tones at shorter ISIs, whereas as the ISI became longer, the normal subjects displayed greater latency between the tone and the tapping (transition zone). After the transition zone, normal subjects pressed the button delayed relative to the tone. On the other hand, SCA patients could not synchronize their tapping with the tone even at shorter ISIs, although they pressed the button delayed relative to the tone earlier than normal subjects did. The earliest time of delayed tapping appearance after the transition zone was 4800 ms in normal subjects but 1800 ms in SCA patients. The span of temporal integration in SCA patients is shortened compared to that in normal subjects. This could represent non-motor cerebellar dysfunction in SCA patients. PMID:25706752

  8. Standardization Study of Antifertility Drug - Pippalyadiyoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shaila

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the standardization study of pippalyadiyoga powder. It is used as a long acting contraceptive. The standardization of compound drug has been achieved by physico-chemical analysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprint studies. Quantitative evaluation of borax in pippalyadiyoga showed 19.08% as sodium borate. RP-HPLC was performed using methanol and water as mobile phase. The detection and quantification was performed at a wavelength of 345 nm. Linearity of detector response for piperine was between the concentrations 0.005% to 0.1%. The correlation coefficient obtained for the linearity was 0.998. The recovery value of standard piperine was 99.4%. Low value of standard deviation and coefficient of variation are indicative of high precision of the method. Quantitative evaluation of piperine in pippalyadiyoga was found to be 0.339%.

  9. Language as Pure Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    Language occupies a crucial position in neoliberalism, due to the reimagination of language as commodified skill. This paper studies the role of language ideology in this transformation by identifying a particular ideology that facilitates this process, namely the ideology which views language as pure potential. Neoliberalism treats language as a…

  10. QCD non-perturbative study in radiative and pure-leptonic decays of Bc by wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Peng; Hou Zhaoyu; Zhi Haisu

    2012-01-01

    The radiative and pure-leptonic decays of B c mesons are of hadrons uncertainty in theoretical calculations. Using three types of the B c meson wave functions which describe the characteristics of the QCD non-perturbative and by controlling the parameters in them, the uncertainties of B c meson decay caused by the hadron decay model are studied in detail. The theoretical results show the branching ratios are (1.81981∼3.18961) × 10 -5 , which are sensitive to the type of wave functions. (authors)

  11. A CRIS in the Desert: The Implementation of Pure at KAUST: A Case Study in Information Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.; Lery, Thibaut L.; Ward, Manus; Mastoraki, Eirini; Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of research information systems with existing university processes has tended towards information exchange models in which the CRIS ingests information from existing systems and takes on functions that were previously distributed across several independent solutions. This paper draws upon the experience of the implementation of a CRIS at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) to posit a model in which functions remain distributed so as to take advantage of the strengths of each system. The functions discussed include institutional reporting, publications tracking, preservation of research outputs, provision of public access, researcher identity and profiling, and metrics analysis. The systems reviewed include a CRIS (Pure), a locally developed publications tracking system, a hosted DSpace repository, a locally developed ORCID integration, and a metrics dashboard (PlumX). The interactions between these systems forms a network of services to our research community, with each node connected to several others, and we discuss how we arrived at the current arrangement, as well as its drawbacks and advantages. The still limited use of standard data exchange formats like CERIF XML is discussed as a constraint that increases the costs of adding to and maintaining the network of services. At the same time we look at how increased standardization should make this distributed approach sustainable, allowing institutions like ours to mix and match complementary systems to achieve an optimal set of research information services for our needs.

  12. A CRIS in the Desert: The Implementation of Pure at KAUST: A Case Study in Information Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.

    2016-06-10

    The integration of research information systems with existing university processes has tended towards information exchange models in which the CRIS ingests information from existing systems and takes on functions that were previously distributed across several independent solutions. This paper draws upon the experience of the implementation of a CRIS at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) to posit a model in which functions remain distributed so as to take advantage of the strengths of each system. The functions discussed include institutional reporting, publications tracking, preservation of research outputs, provision of public access, researcher identity and profiling, and metrics analysis. The systems reviewed include a CRIS (Pure), a locally developed publications tracking system, a hosted DSpace repository, a locally developed ORCID integration, and a metrics dashboard (PlumX). The interactions between these systems forms a network of services to our research community, with each node connected to several others, and we discuss how we arrived at the current arrangement, as well as its drawbacks and advantages. The still limited use of standard data exchange formats like CERIF XML is discussed as a constraint that increases the costs of adding to and maintaining the network of services. At the same time we look at how increased standardization should make this distributed approach sustainable, allowing institutions like ours to mix and match complementary systems to achieve an optimal set of research information services for our needs.

  13. Repeated dose studies with pure Epigallocatechin-3-gallate demonstrated dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity with associated dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Balaji; Jayavelu, Subramani; Murhekar, Kanchan; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2016-01-01

    EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate) is the major active principle catechin found in green tea. Skepticism regarding the safety of consuming EGCG is gaining attention, despite the fact that it is widely being touted for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. The lack of scientific data on safe dose levels of pure EGCG is of concern, while EGCG has been commonly studied as a component of GTE (Green tea extract) and not as a single active constituent. This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal)] and limited [p.o (oral)] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1 mg/kg for i.p and 67.8 mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced effects by both treatment routes are reversible, subsequent to an observation period for further fourteen days after cessation of treatment. It was demonstrated that the severity of EGCG induced toxicity appears to be a function of dose, route of administration and period of treatment.

  14. Social Studies Fresh Frontier for Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Feeling that social studies has been sidelined by a test-driven focus on math and English/language arts, subject-matter specialists from more than a dozen states met last week with representatives of content-area groups to brainstorm ways to improve academic standards in that subject. The two-day gathering in Charlotte, N.C., is the third convened…

  15. 75 FR 80866 - Credit Rating Standardization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... commenters believe that market stress conditions can be defined in a consistent manner across different... Securities and Exchange Commission is requesting public comment to help inform its study pursuant to Section... ratings using identical terms; standardizing the market stress conditions under which ratings are...

  16. Baseline characteristics of study sites and women enrolled in a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial: PMTCT uptake and retention (pure) Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lettow, Monique; Tweya, Hannock; Rosenberg, Nora E; Trapence, Clement; Kayoyo, Virginia; Kasende, Florence; Kaunda, Blessings; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Eliya, Michael; Cataldo, Fabian; Gugsa, Salem; Phiri, Sam

    2017-07-11

    Malawi introduced an ambitious public health program known as "Option B+" which provides all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women with lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy, regardless of WHO clinical stage or CD4 cell count. The PMTCT Uptake and REtention (PURE) study aimed at evaluating the effect of peer-support on care-seeking and retention in care. PURE Malawi was a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial that compared facility-based and community-based models of peer support to standard of care under Option B+ strategy. Each arm was expected to enroll a minimum of 360 women with a total minimum sample size of 1080 participants. 21 sites (clusters) were selected for inclusion in the study. This paper describes the site selection, recruitment, enrollment process and baseline characteristics of study sites and women enrolled in the trial. Study implementation was managed by 3 partner organizations; each responsible for 7 study sites. The trial was conducted in the South East, South West, and Central West zones of Malawi, the zones where the implementing partners operate. Study sites included 2 district hospitals, 2 mission hospitals, 2 rural hospitals, 13 health centers and 1 private clinic. Enrollment occurred from November 2013 to November 2014, over a median period of 31 weeks (range 17-51) by site. A total of 1269 HIV-infected pregnant (1094) and breastfeeding (175) women, who were eligible to initiate ART under Option B+, were enrolled. Each site reached or surpassed the minimum sample size. Comparing the number of women enrolled versus antenatal cohort reports, sites recruited a median of 90% (IQR 75-100) of eligible reported women. In the majority of sites the ratio of pregnant and lactating women enrolled in the study was similar to the ratio of reported pregnant and lactating women starting ART in the same sites. The median age of all women was 27 (IQR 22-31) years. All women have ≥20 months of possible follow-up time; 96%

  17. Pure titanium particle loaded nanocomposites: study on the polymer/filler interface and hMSC biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Roberto; D'Albore, Marietta; Guarino, Vincenzo; Gentile, Gennaro; Cocca, Maria Cristina; Zeppetelli, Stefania; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Avella, Maurizio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The integration of inorganic nanoparticles into polymer matrices allows for the modification of physical properties as well as the implementation of new features for unexplored application fields. Here, we propose the study of a new metal/polymer nanocomposite fabricated by dispersing pure Ti nanoparticles into a poly(methylmetacrilate) matrix via solvent casting process, to investigate its potential use as new biomaterial for biomedical applications. We demonstrated that Ti nanoparticles embedded in the poly(methylmetacrilate) matrix can act as reinforcing agent, not negatively influencing the biological response of human mesenchymal stem cell in terms of cytotoxicity and cell viability. As a function of relative amount and surface treatment, Ti nanoparticles may enhance mechanical strength of the composite-ranging from 31.1 ± 2.5 to 43.7 ± 0.7 MPa-also contributing to biological response in terms of adhesion and proliferation mechanisms. In particular, for 1 wt% Ti, treated Ti nanoparticles improve cell materials recognition, as confirmed by higher cell spreading-quantified in terms of cell area via image analysis-locally promoting stronger interactions at cell matrix interface. At this stage, these preliminary results suggest a promising use of pure Ti nanoparticles as filler in polymer composites for biomedical applications.

  18. Pure and carbon-doped boron phosphide (6,0) zigzag nanotube: A computational NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshadi, S., E-mail: sattar_arshadi@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697, I.R. of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bekhradnia, A.R., E-mail: abekhradnia@gmail.com [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Alipour, F.; Abedini, S. [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697, I.R. of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Calculations were performed for investigation of the properties of the electronic structure of Carbon- Doped Boron Phosphide Nanotube (CDBPNT). Pristine and three models of C-doped structures of (6,0) zigzag BPNT were studied at density functional theory (DFT) in combination with 6-311G* basis set using Gaussian package of program. The calculated parameters reveal that various {sup 11}B and {sup 31}P nuclei are divided into some layers with equivalent electrostatic properties. The electronic structure properties are highly influenced by replacement of {sup 11}B and {sup 31}P atoms by {sup 12}C atoms in pristine model. Furthermore, the HOMO−LUMO gap energy for suggested doped models (I), (II) and (III) were lower than pure BPNT pristine systems. The dipole moment values of models (II) and (III) were decreased to 1.788 and 1.789, respectively while the dipole moments of model (I) were enhanced to 4.373, in compare to pure pristine one (2.586). The magnitude of changes in Chemical Shielding (CS) tensor parameters revealed that the electron density at the site of {sup 31}P was higher than that at the site of {sup 11}B due to carbon doping.

  19. Study of He-Ne Laser Beam Propagation Through Air and Pure, Salt (Still and Turbulence Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa AL. Barmany

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available  This papers ,study  properties of the laser beam in the  different condition,  By using optical system consist of the (He- Ne laser ((λ =632.8nm , p=1.04mw, the parameter beam laser(spot, shape, intensity were study and also study the attenuation and turbulence for the laser mentioned above and with following environmental condition.(1 in the air (2 in the pure ,slate (seawaterwater with concentration 10-5Ml (still, turbulence  at different distance. Measurement were obtained by using a CCD camera and silicon detector type(Silicon PIN in fast response (.0.4-0.7A/W, absorption coefficient value of all cases  was calculated.

  20. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  1. A study to investigate the performance of the Benfield-HiPure process of natural gas sweetening using computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Richard

    The removal of CO2 and H2S from natural gas is currently a global issue. Apart from meeting the customer's contract, pipeline, and LNG specifications; it is also a measure for reducing the global environmental emissions. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of ADGAS' Train#3 plant through process simulations. ADGAS' Train#3 plant uses the Benfield HiPure design commissioned by Universal Oil Product (UOP Honeywell) in 1993. The Benfield HiPure process uses two independent but compatible circulating solutions in series to achieve high product purity in terms of acid gas concentrations that meet the LNG industry specifications. The ability to remove contaminants up to very low levels (1ppm H2S, 50ppm CO2 and 2ppm COS) makes the HiPure process an excellent choice for purifying natural gas for LNG requirement. At Das Island, ADGAS' Train#3 facility receives sour gas containing about 6-7 mole % acid gas content. This gas is first contacted with hot potassium carbonate (30wt% K2CO3) promoted with diethanolamine solution (3wt% DEA) followed by a contact with aqueous amine solution (20wt% DEA) alone as the second solvent. In this thesis, ADGAS Train#3 model was developed using the simulator tool ProMax®. Simulation outputs were found to match reasonably well the design and plant operating data. Based on the model predictions, the carbonate absorber seemed to be over designed with much of the acid gases being absorbed at the bottom of the packing. With the confidence that the model is a reliable replicate of the real plant facility, a parametric sensitivity analysis was carried out to develop a strategy of controlling operational uncertainties and enable plant optimization. The parametric sensitivity analysis showed that the liquid circulation rates, solvent concentrations, trim cooler temperatures, feed gas flow rate, and feed gas H2S/CO2 ratio have a considerable effect on the performance of the plant with respect to acid gas removal, gas production

  2. Adopting HLA standard for interdependency study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Cen; Eusgeld, Irene

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, modern Critical Infrastructure (CI) has become increasingly automated and interlinked as more and more resources and information are required to maintain its day-to-day operation. A system failure, or even just a service debilitation, of any CI may have significant adverse effects on other infrastructures it is connected/interconnected with. It is vital to study the interdependencies within and between CIs and provide advanced modeling and simulation techniques in order to prevent or at least minimize these adverse effects. The key limitation of traditional mathematical models such as complex network theory is their lacking the capabilities of providing sufficient insights into interrelationships between CIs due to the complexities of these systems. A comprehensive method, a hybrid approach combining various modeling/simulation techniques in a distributed simulation environment, is presented in this paper. High Level Architecture (HLA) is an open standard (IEEE standard 1516) supporting simulations composed of different simulation components, which can be regarded as the framework for implementing such a hybrid approach. The concept of adopting HLA standard for the interdependency study is still under discussion by many researchers. Whether or not this HLA standard, or even the distributed simulation environment, is able to meet desired model/simulation requirements needs to be carefully examined. This paper presents the results from our experimental test-bed, which recreates the architecture of a typical Electricity Power Supply System (EPSS) with its own Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, for the purpose of investigating the capabilities of the HLA technique as a standard to perform interdependency studies.

  3. Slow molecular dynamics in the β relaxation of semicrystalline polymers studied by pure exchange 13C solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Iowa State University, Ames, IA

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics in the amorphous regions of semicrystalline polymers exert important influences on mechanical properties, but have been notoriously difficult to characterize. Two new solid-state NMR techniques, PUREX (pure exchange) and CODEX (center band-only detection of exchange) NMR, make it possible to analyze the molecular motions near the glass transition in the amorphous regions of semicrystalline polymers. This is achieved by selectively suppressing the otherwise dominant signals of the static segments in the crystallites. We have applied both NMR techniques to study the slow motions near the glass transition in semicrystalline polymers (β relaxation) and in fully amorphous samples for reference. The studied polymers were isotactic poly(1-butene) (iPB1) (form I), syndiotactic and atactic polypropylenes (sPP, and aPP, respectively), as well as polyisobutylene (PIB). We have analyzed the geometry and time scale of the slow molecular motion for all samples and determined the apparent activation energies. (author)

  4. Applied and theoretical study of textural and structural evolution of pure and doped zircon powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methivier, A.

    1992-02-01

    Using different preparation methods, undoped zircon constituted of quadratic and monoclinic phases, and quadratic phase zircon doped with lanthanum, magnesium or silicon were obtained and characterized. An applied kinetic study of the influence of the gaseous phase, and of the doping on pre-sintering shows an accelerating effect of water vapour, an important stabilization effect of lanthanum or silicon additions and a little effect of magnesium additions. This kinetic study leads to a model giving two parallel types of matter transport: one using water vapour catalytic effect, and the other oxygen diffusion

  5. Studies on the extraction of nuclear pure magnesium from sea bittern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaack, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    This investigation is devoted to the extraction of nuclear grade magnesium from sea bittern. It comprises three main parts: The first is pertaining to examine the effect of bittern evaporation on both its physical and chemical properties. It a second part , a brief comparative study on magnesium extraction from bittern by use of lime, dolime, solvent extraction and precipitation with ammonia solution and gas as also with ammonia carbon dioxide gas mixture, has been attempted. The precipitation approach by ammonia-carbon dioxide mixture was the mean adopted. A careful systematic examination of various parameters affecting precipitation was undertaken on economic basis. Recovery and purity of magnesium hydroxide, have been taken into account by the study of magnesium concentration in the bittern, its temperature, flow rate of precipitant, ... etc. Since the produced magnesium compound contained 100 ppm of boron, it has to be minimized to less than 1 ppm to agree with the nuclear specifications

  6. Pure study and experimental application of laser measurement for students in independent colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanyi; Liu, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    The cultivation of independent college students is the development of applied talents and the strength of students' innovative ability. This requires teachers to make better use of the resources of the school, to develop students' ability with greatest possible and to encourage students to learn independently and personality development. We can carry out multi-discipline curriculum design practice after the study of related disciplines in order to make students have a more in-depth understanding and learning of the professional courses. In this paper, we will research on curriculum design based on the combination of Laser Measurement Technology and Digital Image Processing.

  7. Nucleation of diamond by pure carbon ion bombardment--a transmission electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.; Liao, M.Y.; Wang, Z.G.; Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, S.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of a film deposited by a 1 keV mass-selected carbon ion beam onto silicon held at 800 deg. C is presented. Initially, a graphitic film with its basal planes perpendicular to the substrate is evolving. The precipitation of nanodiamond crystallites in upper layers is confirmed by HRTEM, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The nucleation of diamond on graphitic edges as predicted by Lambrecht et al. [W. R. L. Lambrecht, C. H. Lee, B. Segall, J. C. Angus, Z. Li, and M. Sunkara, Nature, 364 607 (1993)] is experimentally confirmed. The results are discussed in terms of our recent subplantation-based diamond nucleation model

  8. Production, study and use of short-lived nuclides in pure and applied nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis which is based on 17 published papers, reports on the on-line performance of the fast radiochemical separation system SISAK, technical devlopment in the preparation of sources for beta-particles and neutrons, and on important SISAK system improvements concerning liquid hold-up time. It further reports on the development of new production targets at ISOLDE for 600 MeV proton and 910 MeV 3 He-particle irradiations, on tests with a heavy ion beam of 1 GeV 12 C-particles, and on the present availability of mass-separated beams of the halogen elements through new ion source development. Some results from nuclear spectroscopic studies of nuclides in selected mass regions when using such new or improved techniques are given. Examples of techniques for practical application of short-lived nuclides in radiochemical analysis and for radiochemical production for medical purposes are presented

  9. Study on influence of native oxide and corrosion products on atmospheric corrosion of pure Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanjie; Wang, Zhenyao; Ke, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Corrosion products layer is only formed in coastal atmosphere. •In coastal atmosphere, rate controlling step is diffusion process. •In rural atmosphere, rate controlling step is charge transfer process. •Pitting area increases greatly in coastal site, but slightly in rural site. -- Abstract: Effects of native oxide and corrosion products on atmospheric corrosion of aluminium in rural and coastal sites were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open-circuit potential (OCP) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques after outdoor exposure. In the rural atmosphere, only the compact, adhesive native oxide layer exists, and the rate controlling step is diffusion process, while in the coastal atmosphere, another loose, inadhesive corrosion products layer exists, and a charge transfer process controls the corrosion process. The pitting area in the coastal atmosphere increases over time more obviously than that in the rural atmosphere

  10. Turning the Hands of Time Again: A Purely Confirmatory Replication Study and a Bayesian Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric-Jan eWagenmakers

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a series of four experiments, Topolinski and Sparenberg (2012; TS found support for the conjecture that clockwise movements induce psychological states of temporal progression and an orientation toward the future and novelty. Here we report the results of a preregistered replication attempt of Experiment 2 from TS. Participants turned kitchen rolls either clockwise or counterclockwise while answering items from a questionnaire assessing openness to experience. Data from 102 participants showed that the effect went slightly in the direction opposite to that predicted by TS, and a preregistered Bayes factor hypothesis test revealed that the data were 10.76 times more likely under the null hypothesis than under the alternative hypothesis. Our findings illustrate the theoretical importance and practical advantages of preregistered Bayes factor replication studies, both for psychological science and for empirical work in general.

  11. Crystal imperfection studies of pure and silicon substituted hydroxyapatite using Raman and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shuo; Huang, Jie; Best, Serena; Bonfield, William

    2005-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is important in biomedical applications because of its chemical similarity to the mineral content of bone and its consequent bioactivity. Silicon substitution into the hydroxyapatite crystal lattice was found to enhance its bioactivity both in vitro and in vivo [1, 2]. However, the mechanism for the enhancement is still not well understood. In this paper, the crystal imperfections introduced by silicon substitution were studied using XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that silicon substitution did not introduce microstrain, but deceased the crystal size in the hk0 direction. Three new vibration modes and peak broadening were observed in Raman spectra following silicon incorporation. The imperfections introduced by silicon substitution may play a role in enhancing bioactivity. A phenomenological relationship between the width of the PO4 v1 peak and crystal size was established.

  12. Is TENS purely a placebo effect? A controlled study on chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, S; Charest, J; Li, J; Chenard, J R; Lavignolle, B; Laurencelle, L

    1993-07-01

    Although high-frequency low-intensity transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) has been extensively used to relieve low back pain, experimental studies of its effectiveness have yielded contradictory findings mainly due to methodological problems in pain evaluation and placebo control. In the present study, separate visual analog scales (VAS) were used to measure the sensory-discriminative and motivational-affective components of low back pain. Forty-two subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: TENS, placebo-TENS, and no treatment (control). In order to measure the short-term effect of TENS, VAS pain ratings were taken before and after each treatment session. Also, to measure long-term effects, patients rated their pain at home every 2 h throughout a 3-day period before and 1 week, 3 months and 6 months after the treatment sessions. In comparing the pain evaluations made immediately before and after each treatment session, TENS and placebo-TENS significantly reduced both the intensity and unpleasantness of chronic low back pain. TENS was significantly more efficient than placebo-TENS in reducing pain intensity but not pain unpleasantness. TENS also produced a significant additive effect over repetitive treatment sessions for pain intensity and relative pain unpleasantness. This additive effect was not found for placebo-TENS. When evaluated at home, pain intensity was significantly reduced more by TENS than placebo-TENS 1 week after the end of treatment, but not 3 months and 6 months later. At home evaluation of pain unpleasantness in the TENS group was never different from the placebo-TENS group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Complex Interaction Mechanisms between Dislocations and Point Defects Studied in Pure Aluminium by a Two-Wave Acoustic Coupling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremnes, O.; Progin, O.; Gremaud, G.; Benoit, W.

    1997-04-01

    Ultrasonic experiments using a two-wave coupling technique were performed on 99.999% pure Al in order to study the interaction mechanisms occurring between dislocations and point defects. The coupling technique consists in measuring the attenuation of ultrasonic waves during low-frequency stress cycles (t). One obtains closed curves () called signatures whose shape and evolution are characteristic of the interaction mechanism controlling the low-frequency dislocation motion. The signatures observed were attributed to the interaction of the dislocations with extrinsic point defects. A new interpretation of the evolution of the signatures measured below 200 K with respect to temperature and stress frequency had to be established: they are linked to depinning of immobile point defects, whereas a thermally activated depinning mechanism does not fit the observations. The signatures measured between 200 and 370 K were interpreted as dragging and depinning of extrinsic point defects which are increasingly mobile with temperature.

  14. Robotic assisted versus pure laparoscopic surgery of the adrenal glands: a case-control study comparing surgical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luca; Tartaglia, Dario; Bronzoni, Jessica; Palmeri, Matteo; Guadagni, Simone; Di Franco, Gregorio; Gennai, Andrea; Bianchini, Matteo; Bastiani, Luca; Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Fommei, Enza; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco

    2016-11-01

    The role of the da Vinci Robotic System ® in adrenal gland surgery is not yet well defined. The goal of this study was to compare robotic-assisted surgery with pure laparoscopic surgery in a single center. One hundred and 16 patients underwent minimally invasive adrenalectomies in our department between June 1994 and December 2014, 41 of whom were treated with a robotic-assisted approach (robotic adrenalectomy, RA). Patients who underwent RA were matched according to BMI, age, gender, and nodule dimensions, and compared with 41 patients who had undergone laparoscopic adrenalectomies (LA). Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test for independent samples, and the relationship between the operative time and other covariates were evaluated with a multivariable linear regression model. P surgery (p surgery.

  15. Response properties of neighboring neurons in the auditory midbrain for pure-tone stimulation: a tetrode study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshagiri, Chandran V; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2007-10-01

    The complex anatomical structure of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), the principal auditory nucleus in the midbrain, may provide the basis for functional organization of auditory information. To investigate this organization, we used tetrodes to record from neighboring neurons in the ICC of anesthetized cats and studied the similarity and difference among the responses of these neurons to pure-tone stimuli using widely used physiological characterizations. Consistent with the tonotopic arrangement of neurons in the ICC and reports of a threshold map, we found a high degree of correlation in the best frequencies (BFs) of neighboring neurons, which were mostly binaural beats. However, the characteristic phases (CPs) of neighboring neurons revealed a significant correlation. Because the CP is related to the neural mechanisms generating the ITD sensitivity, this result is consistent with segregation of inputs to the ICC from the lateral and medial superior olives.

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies on subcooled flow boiling of pure liquids and multicomponent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamialahmadi, M.; Abdollahi, H.; Shariati, A. [The University of Petroleum Industry, Ahwaz (Iran); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center (Germany); Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    To improve the design of modern industrial reboilers, accurate knowledge of boiling heat transfer coefficients is essential. In this study flow boiling heat transfer coefficients for binary and ternary mixtures of acetone, isopropanol and water were measured over a wide range of heat flux, subcooling, flow velocity and composition. The measurements cover the regimes of convective heat transfer, transitional boiling and fully developed subcooled flow boiling. Two models are presented for the prediction of flow boiling heat transfer coefficients. The first model is the combination of the Chen model with the Gorenflo correlation and the Schluender model for single and multicomponent boiling, respectively. This model predicts flow boiling heat transfer coefficients with acceptable accuracy, but fails to predict the nucleate boiling fraction NBF reasonably well. The second model is based on the asymptotic addition of forced convective and nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients. The benefit of this model is a further improvement in the accuracy of flow boiling heat transfer coefficient over the Chen type model, simplicity and the more realistic prediction of the nucleate boiling fraction NBF. (author)

  17. A theoretical study of CH4 dissociation on pure and gold-alloyed Ni(111) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratzer, P.; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1996-01-01

    We present a density functional theory study of the first step of CH4 adsorption on the Ni(111) surface, dissociation into adsorbed CH3 and H. The rupture of the C-H bond occurs preferentially on top of a Ni atom, with a dissociation barrier of about 100 kJ/mol (including zero point corrections......). The transition state involves considerable internal excitation of the molecule. The active C-H bond is both stretched to 1.6 Angstrom and tilted relative to the methyl group. A normal mode analysis shows that the reaction coordinate is mainly a C-H stretch, while the orientation of the C-H bond relative...... to the surface is responsible for the highest real mode. Alloying the surface with gold also affects the reactivity of the Ni atoms on adjacent surface sites. The dissociation barrier is increased by 16 and 38 kJ/mol for a Ni atom with one or two gold neighbors, respectively. We attribute these changes...

  18. "A morning since eight of just pure grill": a multischool qualitative study of student abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Monrouxe, Lynn V

    2011-11-01

    Previous medical student abuse research employed quantitative surveys that failed to explore factors thought to contribute to abuse and students' actions in the face of abuse. This study examined medical student abuse narratives to identify types of perceived abuse, factors cited by students as contributing to abuse, and students' actions at the time of abuse. A qualitative design was adopted employing 22 individual and 32 group interviews to elicit narratives of professionalism dilemmas from 200 medical students at two 5-year undergraduate programs and one 4-year graduate entry program (England, Wales, and Australia) between 2007 and 2009. Thematic analysis of abuse narratives was conducted. Of 833 professionalism dilemma narratives, 86 (10%) involved perceived medical student abuse. Within these narratives, students reported mostly covert, status-related abuse, direct verbal abuse, and sexual harassment and discrimination. Some narrators described multiple factors contributing to abuse (individual, work, and/or organization); most cited factors focusing on individuals. Despite the abuse typically recounted with negative emotion, few participants reported resisting at the time of abuse by challenging or reporting the perpetrator. Participants gave a variety of reasons for this inaction (e.g., anxiety about receiving bad marks from the perpetrator) and for resisting (e.g., the abuse was affecting their education negatively). Although narratives focused predominantly on individual factors contributing to abuse and responses to abuse, educators should focus on the dynamic interplay between individual and organizational factors to combat abuse. Several opportunities to mitigate this continuing blight on the conscience of the profession are described.

  19. Effect of impurities and electrolyte thickness on degradation of pure magnesium: A finite element study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, R., E-mail: rodrigo.montoya@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Escudero, M.L., E-mail: escudero@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Alonso, M.C., E-mail: crisga@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of Mg due to the presence of impurities by finite element method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thin film of electrolyte causes galvanic corrosion focused only close on impurities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thick layer of electrolyte provokes galvanic corrosion extended the whole surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A higher number of impurities causes galvanic corrosion on the Mg surface independently of electrolyte thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrolyte thickness is an important variable that affects the in vivo degradation. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the degradation of magnesium due to the presence of impurities, by finite element method (FEM), when different thickness of physiological medium bathes the surface. The electrochemical experimental data obtained from polarization curves are used to model mathematically the corrosion process by solving the Laplace equation and the proper boundary conditions by means of FEM. The results show that when Mg is covered by a thin film of electrolyte, galvanic corrosion is focused only on the areas located really close to the cathodic sites, and far from the impurities, the Mg matrix remains near to its corrosion potential with a natural corrosion process. However, if the Mg matrix is completely covered by a thick layer of electrolyte the potentials obtained in the Mg surface far from the impurity are higher than its corrosion potential, so the Mg suffers more severe galvanic corrosion. On the other hand, when a higher number of impurities is considered, the Mg matrix is anodically polarized and it suffers severe galvanic corrosion, independently of h. The thickness of the electrolyte h must be considered as an important variable that affects the in vivo degradation.

  20. Effect of impurities and electrolyte thickness on degradation of pure magnesium: A finite element study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, R.; Escudero, M.L.; García-Alonso, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Degradation of Mg due to the presence of impurities by finite element method. ► A thin film of electrolyte causes galvanic corrosion focused only close on impurities. ► A thick layer of electrolyte provokes galvanic corrosion extended the whole surface. ► A higher number of impurities causes galvanic corrosion on the Mg surface independently of electrolyte thickness. ► The electrolyte thickness is an important variable that affects the in vivo degradation. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the degradation of magnesium due to the presence of impurities, by finite element method (FEM), when different thickness of physiological medium bathes the surface. The electrochemical experimental data obtained from polarization curves are used to model mathematically the corrosion process by solving the Laplace equation and the proper boundary conditions by means of FEM. The results show that when Mg is covered by a thin film of electrolyte, galvanic corrosion is focused only on the areas located really close to the cathodic sites, and far from the impurities, the Mg matrix remains near to its corrosion potential with a natural corrosion process. However, if the Mg matrix is completely covered by a thick layer of electrolyte the potentials obtained in the Mg surface far from the impurity are higher than its corrosion potential, so the Mg suffers more severe galvanic corrosion. On the other hand, when a higher number of impurities is considered, the Mg matrix is anodically polarized and it suffers severe galvanic corrosion, independently of h. The thickness of the electrolyte h must be considered as an important variable that affects the in vivo degradation.

  1. Repeated dose studies with pure Epigallocatechin-3-gallate demonstrated dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity with associated dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Ramachandran

    Full Text Available EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is the major active principle catechin found in green tea. Skepticism regarding the safety of consuming EGCG is gaining attention, despite the fact that it is widely being touted for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. The lack of scientific data on safe dose levels of pure EGCG is of concern, while EGCG has been commonly studied as a component of GTE (Green tea extract and not as a single active constituent. This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal] and limited [p.o (oral] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1 mg/kg for i.p and 67.8 mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced effects by both treatment routes are reversible, subsequent to an observation period for further fourteen days after cessation of treatment. It was demonstrated that the severity of EGCG induced toxicity appears to be a function of dose, route of administration and period of treatment. Keywords: EGCG, Green tea, Serum lipids, Dose dependant toxicity, Route dependant toxicity, Liver toxicity, Dyslipidemia

  2. Modeling of boldine alkaloid adsorption onto pure and propyl-sulfonic acid-modified mesoporous silicas. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata, E-mail: Malgorzata.Geszke-Moritz@amu.edu.pl [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Moritz, Michał, E-mail: michal.moritz@put.poznan.pl [Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    The present study deals with the adsorption of boldine onto pure and propyl-sulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15, SBA-16 and mesocellular foam (MCF) materials. Siliceous adsorbents were characterized by nitrogen sorption analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Temkin isotherms. Moreover, the Dubinin-Radushkevich and Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm models based on the Polanyi adsorption potential were employed. The latter was calculated using two alternative formulas including solubility-normalized (S-model) and empirical C-model. In order to find the best-fit isotherm, both linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis were carried out. The Dubinin-Astakhov (S-model) isotherm revealed the best fit to the experimental points for adsorption of boldine onto pure mesoporous materials using both linear and nonlinear fitting analysis. Meanwhile, the process of boldine sorption onto modified silicas was described the best by the Langmuir and Temkin isotherms using linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis, respectively. The values of adsorption energy (below 8 kJ/mol) indicate the physical nature of boldine adsorption onto unmodified silicas whereas the ionic interactions seem to be the main force of alkaloid adsorption onto functionalized sorbents (energy of adsorption above 8 kJ/mol). - Graphical abstract: Modeling of boldine adsorption onto unmodified and propyl-sulfonic acid-modified mesoporous adsorbents. - Highlights: • The process of boldine adsorption onto SBA-15, SBA-16 and MCF silicas was examined. • Siliceous adsorbents were functionalized with propyl-sulfonic acid groups. • The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using several isotherm models. • Both linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis were carried out.

  3. Standard mirror fusion reactor design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the work of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Division's reactor study group during FY 1976 on the standard mirror reactor. The ''standard'' mirror reactor is characterized as a steady state, neutral beam sustained, D-T fusioning plasma confined by a Yin-Yang magnetic mirror field. The physics parameters are obtained from the same physics model that explains the 2XIIB experiment. The model assumes that the drift cyclotron loss cone mode occurs on the boundary of the plasma, and that it is stabilized by warm plasma with negligible energy investment. The result of the study was a workable mirror fusion power plant, steady-state blanket removal made relatively simple by open-ended geometry, and no impurity problem due to the positive plasma potential. The Q (fusion power/injected beam power) turns out to be only 1.1 because of loss out the ends from Coulomb collisions, i.e., classical losses. This low Q resulted in 77% of the gross electrical power being used to power the injectors, thereby causing the net power cost to be high. The low Q stimulated an intensive search for Q-enhancement concepts, resulting in the LLL reactor design effort turning to the field reversal mirror and the tandem mirror, each having Q of order 5

  4. Study of transport properties and conduction mechanism of pure and composite resorcinol formaldehyde aerogel doped with Co-ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, S.M.; Sharshar, T.; Abd-Elwahed, A.R.; Tawfik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel composite RF aerogels with Co-ferrite were prepared by sol–gel process. • RF aerogels exhibit a semiconducting behavior. • The dielectric constant of RF aerogel is very low (4 times as that of air) and can be controlled by adding Co-ferrite. • Large overlapping polaron (OLP) was found to be the preferred conduction mechanism in these materials. -- Abstract: A series of resorcinol formaldehyde aerogels (RF aerogels) composite with nanoparticles of CoFe 2 O 4 have been prepared by sol–gel method. Four samples of pure RF aerogels were prepared at different concentrations of Na 2 CO 3 as catalyst (0.02, 0.025, 0.03, and 0.04 wt.%) and four samples of composite RF aerogels were prepared at different concentration of doped CoFe 2 O 4 (0.075, 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 wt.%; Na 2 CO 3 concentration = 0.03 wt.%). DC electrical conductivity as a function of temperature was studied in the temperature range 25 °C–200 °C for all samples. AC electrical conductivity and dielectric properties were determined using RLC Bridge in the frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz at different temperature (25–200 °C). The pore size of the samples was determined using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). RF aerogels are found to exhibit a semiconducting behavior and characterized by two transition temperatures T 1 and T 2 . Also σ DC increases with increase of Co-ferrite contents. Pure RF aerogels posses a very low dielectric constant, where the lowest value of ε′ is ∼4 times as that of air. ε′ decreases with increase of frequency, and increases with increase of temperature. Large overlapping polaron (OLP) is found to be the preferred conduction mechanism in these materials. The results of PALS show that there are two types of pore size in these samples; the first ranges from 1.9 to 2.5 nm, while the second ranges from 3.2 to 5.3 nm

  5. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Pure and Surface Modified SrTiO3 Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Gaikwad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Strontium Titanate (SrTiO3 (ST was prepared mechanochemically from Sr(OH2 and TiO2. XRD confirms the Perovskite phase of material. Thick films of ST were prepared by screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performances of thick films were tested for various gases. It showed maximum sensitivity to CO gas at 350 oC for 100 ppm gas concentration. To improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, ST thick films were surface modified by dipping them in a solution of nano copper for different intervals of time. These surface modified ST films showed larger sensitivity to H2S gas (100 ppm at 300 oC than pure ST film. A systematic study, of sensing performance of the sensor, indicates the key role-played by the nano copper species on the surface .The sensitivity, selectivity, response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  6. Systematic ab initio study of the electronic and magnetic properties of different pure and mixed iron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, J.; Vega, A.; Balbas, L. C.; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Junquera, Javier; Artacho, Emilio; Soler, Jose M.; Ordejon, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of iron systems in different environments: pure iron systems [dimer, bcc bulk, (100) surface, and free-standing iron monolayer], and low-dimensional iron systems deposited on Ag (100) surface (monoatomic linear wires, iron monolayer, planar, and three-dimensional clusters). Electronic and magnetic properties have been calculated using a recently developed total-energy first-principles method based on density-functional theory with numerical atomic orbitals as a basis set for the description of valence electrons and nonlocal pseudopotentials for the atomic core. The Kohn-Sham equations are solved self-consistently within the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation potential. Tests on the pseudopotential, the basis set, grid spacing, and k sampling are carefully performed. This technique, which has been proved to be very efficient for large nonmagnetic systems, is applied in this paper to calculate electronic and magnetic properties of different iron nanostructures. The results compare well with previous ab initio all-electron calculations and with experimental data. The method predicts the correct trends in the magnetic moments of Fe systems for a great variety of environments and requires a smaller computational effort than other ab initio methods. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Systematic ab initio study of the electronic and magnetic properties of different pure and mixed iron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid, (Spain); Vega, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid, (Spain); Balbas, L. C. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid, (Spain); Sanchez-Portal, Daniel [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Junquera, Javier [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-III, and Institut Nicolas Cabrera, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, (Spain); Artacho, Emilio [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-III, and Institut Nicolas Cabrera, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, (Spain); Soler, Jose M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Ordejon, Pablo [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la U.A.B., Bellaterra, E-08193 Barcelona, (Spain)

    2000-05-15

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of iron systems in different environments: pure iron systems [dimer, bcc bulk, (100) surface, and free-standing iron monolayer], and low-dimensional iron systems deposited on Ag (100) surface (monoatomic linear wires, iron monolayer, planar, and three-dimensional clusters). Electronic and magnetic properties have been calculated using a recently developed total-energy first-principles method based on density-functional theory with numerical atomic orbitals as a basis set for the description of valence electrons and nonlocal pseudopotentials for the atomic core. The Kohn-Sham equations are solved self-consistently within the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation potential. Tests on the pseudopotential, the basis set, grid spacing, and k sampling are carefully performed. This technique, which has been proved to be very efficient for large nonmagnetic systems, is applied in this paper to calculate electronic and magnetic properties of different iron nanostructures. The results compare well with previous ab initio all-electron calculations and with experimental data. The method predicts the correct trends in the magnetic moments of Fe systems for a great variety of environments and requires a smaller computational effort than other ab initio methods. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Vacuum evaporation of pure metals

    OpenAIRE

    Safarian, Jafar; Engh, Thorvald Abel

    2013-01-01

    Theories on the evaporation of pure substances are reviewed and applied to study vacuum evaporation of pure metals. It is shown that there is good agreement between different theories for weak evaporation, whereas there are differences under intensive evaporation conditions. For weak evaporation, the evaporation coefficient in Hertz-Knudsen equation is 1.66. Vapor velocity as a function of the pressure is calculated applying several theories. If a condensing surface is less than one collision...

  9. Pure animal phobia is more specific than other specific phobias: epidemiological evidence from the Zurich Study, the ZInEP and the PsyCoLaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rodgers, Stephanie; Müller, Mario; Hengartner, Michael P; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Kawohl, Wolfram; Heekeren, Karsten; Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules; Castelao, Enrique; Vandeleur, Caroline; Preisig, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Interest in subtypes of mental disorders is growing in parallel with continuing research progress in psychiatry. The aim of this study was to examine pure animal phobia in contrast to other specific phobias and a mixed subtype. Data from three representative Swiss community samples were analysed: PsyCoLaus (n = 3720), the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey (n = 1500) and the Zurich Study (n = 591). Pure animal phobia and mixed animal/other specific phobias consistently displayed a low age at onset of first symptoms (8-12 years) and clear preponderance of females (OR > 3). Meanwhile, other specific phobias started up to 10 years later and displayed almost a balanced sex ratio. Pure animal phobia showed no associations with any included risk factors and comorbid disorders, in contrast to numerous associations found in the mixed subtype and in other specific phobias. Across the whole range of epidemiological parameters examined in three different samples, pure animal phobia seems to represent a different entity compared to other specific phobias. The etiopathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors associated with pure animal phobias appear less clear than ever.

  10. A density functional theory study of the structure of pure-silica and aluminium-substituted MFI nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Roldan, Alberto [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Leeuw, Nora H. de, E-mail: deleeuwn@cardiff.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    The layered MFI zeolite allows a straightforward hierarchization of the pore system which accelerates mass transfer and increases its lifetime as a catalyst. Here, we present a theoretical study of the structural features of the pure-silica and aluminium-substituted MFI nanosheets. We have analysed the effects of aluminium substitution on the vibrational properties of silanols as well as the features of protons as counter-ions. The formation of the two-dimensional system did not lead to appreciable distortions within the framework. Moreover, the effects on the structure due to the aluminium dopants were the same in both the bulk and the slab. The principal differences were related to the silanol groups that form hydrogen-bonds with neighbouring aluminium-substituted silanols, whereas intra-framework hydrogen-bonds increase the stability of aluminium-substituted silanols toward dehydration. Thus, we have complemented previous experimental and theoretical studies, showing the lamellar MFI zeolite to be a very stable material of high crystallinity regardless of its very thin structure. - Graphical abstract: The structure of MFI zeolite nanosheet was investigated using Density Functional Theory. The results showed no differences against the bulk-type material upon aluminium doping. The aluminium-substituted silanol dehydrates toward a more stable configuration composed by a water molecule adsorbed on a Lewis centre. - Highlights: • MFI nanosheets with variable thicknesses were characterised using DFT calculations. • The distortions in the nanosheets after Al substitution reproduced those of the bulk. • H-bonds were only observed between silanol groups when the Al substitution took place. • The kinetic of the Al-silanol dehydration is dependent on intra-framework H-bonds. • Lewis acids with adsorbed water are more stable than Al-silanols. • The proton accessibility was related to the framework O atom binding the proton.

  11. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  12. Inequalities in the use of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status: evidence from the PURE observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrianna; Palafox, Benjamin; O'Donnell, Owen; Stuckler, David; Perel, Pablo; AlHabib, Khalid F; Avezum, Alvaro; Bai, Xiulin; Chifamba, Jephat; Chow, Clara K; Corsi, Daniel J; Dagenais, Gilles R; Dans, Antonio L; Diaz, Rafael; Erbakan, Ayse N; Ismail, Noorhassim; Iqbal, Romaina; Kelishadi, Roya; Khatib, Rasha; Lanas, Fernando; Lear, Scott A; Li, Wei; Liu, Jia; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Mohan, Viswanathan; Monsef, Nahed; Mony, Prem K; Puoane, Thandi; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Rosengren, Annika; Schutte, Aletta E; Sintaha, Mariz; Teo, Koon K; Wielgosz, Andreas; Yeates, Karen; Yin, Lu; Yusoff, Khalid; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin

    2018-03-01

    There is little evidence on the use of secondary prevention medicines for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic groups in countries at different levels of economic development. We assessed use of antiplatelet, cholesterol, and blood-pressure-lowering drugs in 8492 individuals with self-reported cardiovascular disease from 21 countries enrolled in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Defining one or more drugs as a minimal level of secondary prevention, wealth-related inequality was measured using the Wagstaff concentration index, scaled from -1 (pro-poor) to 1 (pro-rich), standardised by age and sex. Correlations between inequalities and national health-related indicators were estimated. The proportion of patients with cardiovascular disease on three medications ranged from 0% in South Africa (95% CI 0-1·7), Tanzania (0-3·6), and Zimbabwe (0-5·1), to 49·3% in Canada (44·4-54·3). Proportions receiving at least one drug varied from 2·0% (95% CI 0·5-6·9) in Tanzania to 91·4% (86·6-94·6) in Sweden. There was significant (pSaudi Arabia, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe. Pro-poor distributions were observed in Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Poland, and the occupied Palestinian territory. The strongest predictors of inequality were public expenditure on health and overall use of secondary prevention medicines. Use of medication for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease is alarmingly low. In many countries with the lowest use, pro-rich inequality is greatest. Policies associated with an equal or pro-poor distribution include free medications and community health programmes to support adherence to medications. Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments). Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0. license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Some studies on mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of automated TIG welding of thin commercially pure titanium sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpagaraj, A.; Siva shanmugam, N., E-mail: nsiva@nitt.edu; Sankaranarayanasamy, K.

    2015-07-29

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is a commonly used welding process for welding Titanium materials. Welding of titanium and its alloys poses several intricacies to the designer as they are prone to oxidation phenomenon. To overcome this contamination, a relatively new type of shielding arrangement is experimented. The proposed design and arrangement have been employed for joining commercially pure titanium sheets with variations in the GTAW process parameters namely the welding current and travel speed. Bead on plate (BoP) trials were conducted on thin sheets of 2 mm thickness by varying the process parameters. Subsequently, the macro structure images were captured. Based on these results, the process parameters are chosen for carrying out full penetration butt joints on 1.6 mm and 2 mm thick titanium sheets. The influences of these parameters of GTAW on the microstructure, mechanical properties and surface morphology at the fractured locations of the welded joints are examined. The microstructural properties of base metal, heat affected zone and fusion zone are analyzed through optical microscopy. The welded joints showed an ultimate tensile strength of about 383 MPa with 15.7% elongation. The hardness value at fusion zone and base metal are typically observed to be 191 and 153 HV-0.5, respectively. X-ray diffraction study is conducted to examine the chemical composition in the parent metal and fusion zone of the weld. Fractured surface is examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy which revealed dimple kind of rupture present at the fractured surfaces owing to insufficient or excessive heat with slight impurities that prevents the accomplishment of stronger micro-level weld integrity.

  14. Some studies on mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of automated TIG welding of thin commercially pure titanium sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpagaraj, A.; Siva shanmugam, N.; Sankaranarayanasamy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is a commonly used welding process for welding Titanium materials. Welding of titanium and its alloys poses several intricacies to the designer as they are prone to oxidation phenomenon. To overcome this contamination, a relatively new type of shielding arrangement is experimented. The proposed design and arrangement have been employed for joining commercially pure titanium sheets with variations in the GTAW process parameters namely the welding current and travel speed. Bead on plate (BoP) trials were conducted on thin sheets of 2 mm thickness by varying the process parameters. Subsequently, the macro structure images were captured. Based on these results, the process parameters are chosen for carrying out full penetration butt joints on 1.6 mm and 2 mm thick titanium sheets. The influences of these parameters of GTAW on the microstructure, mechanical properties and surface morphology at the fractured locations of the welded joints are examined. The microstructural properties of base metal, heat affected zone and fusion zone are analyzed through optical microscopy. The welded joints showed an ultimate tensile strength of about 383 MPa with 15.7% elongation. The hardness value at fusion zone and base metal are typically observed to be 191 and 153 HV-0.5, respectively. X-ray diffraction study is conducted to examine the chemical composition in the parent metal and fusion zone of the weld. Fractured surface is examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy which revealed dimple kind of rupture present at the fractured surfaces owing to insufficient or excessive heat with slight impurities that prevents the accomplishment of stronger micro-level weld integrity

  15. Inequalities in the use of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status: evidence from the PURE observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Murphy, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: There is little evidence on the use of secondary prevention medicines for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic groups in countries at different levels of economic development. Methods: We assessed use of antiplatelet, cholesterol, and blood-pressure-lowering drugs in 8492 individuals with self-reported cardiovascular disease from 21 countries enrolled in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE study. Defining one or more drugs as a minimal level of secondary prevention, wealth-related inequality was measured using the Wagstaff concentration index, scaled from −1 (pro-poor to 1 (pro-rich, standardised by age and sex. Correlations between inequalities and national health-related indicators were estimated. Findings: The proportion of patients with cardiovascular disease on three medications ranged from 0% in South Africa (95% CI 0–1·7, Tanzania (0–3·6, and Zimbabwe (0–5·1, to 49·3% in Canada (44·4–54·3. Proportions receiving at least one drug varied from 2·0% (95% CI 0·5–6·9 in Tanzania to 91·4% (86·6–94·6 in Sweden. There was significant (p<0·05 pro-rich inequality in Saudi Arabia, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe. Pro-poor distributions were observed in Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Poland, and the occupied Palestinian territory. The strongest predictors of inequality were public expenditure on health and overall use of secondary prevention medicines. Interpretation: Use of medication for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease is alarmingly low. In many countries with the lowest use, pro-rich inequality is greatest. Policies associated with an equal or pro-poor distribution include free medications and community health programmes to support adherence to medications. Funding: Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments.

  16. The Electronic Properties of O-Doped Pure and Sulfur Vacancy-Defect Monolayer WS₂: A First-Principles Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Bai, Liwen; Yang, Chenguang; Fan, Kangqi; Xie, Yong; Li, Minglin

    2018-01-31

    Based on the density functional theory (DFT), the electronic properties of O-doped pure and sulfur vacancy-defect monolayer WS₂ are investigated by using the first-principles method. For the O-doped pure monolayer WS₂, four sizes (2 × 2 × 1, 3 × 3 × 1, 4 × 4 × 1 and 5 × 5 × 1) of supercell are discussed to probe the effects of O doping concentration on the electronic structure. For the 2 × 2 × 1 supercell with 12.5% O doping concentration, the band gap of O-doped pure WS₂ is reduced by 8.9% displaying an indirect band gap. The band gaps in 3 × 3 × 1 and 4 × 4 × 1 supercells are both opened to some extent, respectively, for 5.55% and 3.13% O doping concentrations, while the band gap in 5 × 5 × 1 supercell with 2.0% O doping concentration is quite close to that of the pure monolayer WS₂. Then, two typical point defects, including sulfur single-vacancy (V S ) and sulfur divacancy (V 2S ), are introduced to probe the influences of O doping on the electronic properties of WS₂ monolayers. The observations from DFT calculations show that O doping can broaden the band gap of monolayer WS₂ with V S defect to a certain degree, but weaken the band gap of monolayer WS₂ with V 2S defect. Doping O element into either pure or sulfur vacancy-defect monolayer WS₂ cannot change their band gaps significantly, however, it still can be regarded as a potential method to slightly tune the electronic properties of monolayer WS₂.

  17. Evolution of the low-energy excitation spectrum from the pure Hubbard ladder to the SO(5) ladder: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, D.; Haas, S.; Kim, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Hubbard Hamiltonian on a two-leg ladder is studied numerically using quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization techniques. A rung interaction, V, is turned on such that the resulting model has an exact SO(5) symmetry when V=-U. The evolution of the low-energy excitation spectrum is presented from the pure Hubbard ladder to the SO(5) ladder. It is shown that the low-energy excitations in the pure Hubbard ladder have an approximate SO(5) symmetry. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  18. Population Muscle Strength Predicts Olympic Medal Tallies: Evidence from 20 Countries in the PURE Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl P Leong

    Full Text Available National sporting achievement at the Olympic Games is important for national pride and prestige, and to promote participation in sport. Summer Olympic Games medal tallies have been associated with national wealth, and also social development and healthcare expenditure. It is uncertain however, how these socioeconomic factors translate into Olympic success. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the relationship between population muscle strength and Olympic medal tallies.This study of handgrip strength represents a cross-sectional analysis of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE study, which is an ongoing population cohort study of individuals from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Within participating countries, households from both urban and rural communities were invited to participate using a sampling strategy intended to yield a sample that was representative of the community. Households were eligible if at least one member was aged 35-70 years and if they intended living at the same address for a further four years. A total of 152,610 participants from these households, located in 21 countries, were included in this analysis. Handgrip strength was measured using a Jamar dynanometer. Olympic medal tallies were made over the five most recent Summer Games. There was a significant positive association between national population grip strength (GS and medal tally that persisted after adjustment for sex, age, height, average daily caloric intake and GDP (total and per capita. For every 1kg increase in population GS, the medal tally increased by 36% (95% CI 13-65%, p = 0.001 after adjustment. Among countries that won at least one medal over the four most recent Summer Olympic Games, there was a close linear relationship between adjusted GS and the natural logarithm of the per capita medal tally (adjusted r = 0.74, p = 0.002.Population muscle strength may be an important determinant of Summer Olympic Games medal

  19. Wire bond degradation under thermo- and pure mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Czerny, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental study on degradation of heavy Al bond wires typically used in high power modules. Customized samples are designed to only consist of Al bond wires on standard Si diodes. These samples are subjected to pure mechanical and passive thermal cycling to investigate...

  20. em>Ab initio em>LSDA and LSDA+em>U em>study of pure and Cd-doped cubic lanthanide sesquioxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, D.; Muñoz, E.L.; Rentería, M.

    2013-01-01

    The electronic, structural, and hyperfine properties of pure and Cd-doped lanthanide (Ln) sesquioxides with the cubic bixbyite structure (Ln2O3, Ln ranging from La to Lu) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital (APW+lo) method within the local spin density...

  1. A Design Study for Standard Nanofluid Coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, In Cheol; Heo, Gyun Young

    2007-01-01

    The experimental data for nanofluids in thermal-fluid systems have shown that the new fluids promise to become advanced heat transfer fluids in terms of thermal performance. While enhancing thermal characteristics, the solid-liquid mixtures present an unavoidable disadvantage in terms of pumping cost for economic operation of thermal-fluid systems. In addition, there is a lack of agreement between experimental data provided in the literature. We can find that this issue of nanofluids resembles that of designing new materials. Many nanofluids researchers tend to view the nanofluid field as a highly coupled 'tetrahedro' whose four vertices (performance, properties, structure, and processes) are interconnected to each other. The present design study has a big merit to systemize the nanofluid work and to reduce a lot of trial-error efforts. The present work found that there would be no comprehensible design strategy in developing nanofluids. In this work, the Axiomatic Design (AD) theory is applied to standardize the design of nanofluids in order to bring its practical use forward. According to the Independence Axiom of the AD theory, the excessive couplings between the functional requirements and the parameters of a nanofluid system prevent from meeting the functional goals of the entire system. At a parametric level, the design of a nanofluid system is inherently coupled due to the characteristics of thermal-fluid system; the design parameters physically affect each other sharing sub-level parameters for nanoparticles with making a feedback loop. Even though parts of the nanofluids are naturally coupled, it is possible to reduce and/or eliminate the degree of coupling by help of AD principles. From the perspective of AD, this implies that we are able to ascertain which nanofluid system is better one in the light of functional achievement

  2. A Comparative Study on Formation of Polar Components, Fatty Acids and Sterols during Frying of Refined Olive Pomace Oil Pure and Its Blend Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Ibtissem; Triki, Mehdi; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2018-04-04

    The frying performance of pure refined olive-pomace oil (ROPO) and blended with refined coconut oil (RCO) (80:20) was compared during a frying operation of French fries at 180 °C. Blending polyunsaturated oils with highly saturated or monounsaturated oils has been studied extensively, however in literature there is no study has been reported so far on blending ROPO (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) with RCO (rich in saturated fatty acids) to formulate new frying oils. At the end of the frying process, the blend of ROPO/RCO exhibited a higher chemical stability than the pure ROPO based on total polar compounds (TPC), and polymers. The rate of TPC formation was achieved 23.3% and 30.6% for the blend and the pure oil, respectively. Trans and free fatty acids content, as well as anisidine value were also observed to be the highest in the pure ROPO. This study evaluated the frying performance in the search for appropriate frying oils to deliver healthy fried products with optimized nutritional qualities.

  3. Pure and Modified Co-Poly(amide-12-b-ethylene oxide) Membranes for Gas Separation Studied by Molecular Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Luana; Tocci, Elena; Gugliuzza, Annarosa; Drioli, Enrico

    2012-06-28

    This paper deals with a theoretical investigation of gas transport properties in a pure and modified PEBAX block copolymer membrane with N-ethyl-o/p-toluene sulfonamide (KET) as additive molecules. Molecular dynamics simulations using COMPASS force field, Gusev-Suter Transition State Theory (TST) and Monte Carlo methods were used. Bulk models of PEBAX and PEBAX/KET in different copolymer/additive compositions were assembled and analyzed to evaluate gas permeability and morphology to characterize structure-performance relationships.

  4. Studies on the Castability of Pure Titanium (Part 3) Influence of casting pressure and sprue diameter on the titanium castability

    OpenAIRE

    YONEDA, TAKANORI; KUROIWA, AKIHIRO; IGARASHI, YOSHIMASA; OHNO, TAKAFUMI; SEKIGUCHI, YUUJI; INOUE, YOSHIHISA; MIGO, SHINYA

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed the external defects of castings with mesh grid patterns with 3 different kinds of phosphate bonded casting molds with 2 parameters (sprue diameter and casting pressure). Castability with pure titanium was affected by the parameters of sprue diameter, and casting pressure with different casting molds. The sprue condition was the most affective casting condition in the all directional pressure type casting machine. In 2 types of casting molds, one was strongly affected by the casti...

  5. A comparative study of humidity sensing and photocatalytic applications of pure and nickel (Ni)-doped WO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S. [Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Erode, Tamilnadu (India); Rajarajan, G. [Vidhya Mandhir Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Erode, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-06-15

    Nanocrystalline of pristine and nickel (Ni)-doped tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films was deposited by chemical bath deposition method. The concentrations of Ni ions were varied from 0 to 10 wt%. In order to improve the crystallinity of the films were annealed at 600 C for 2 h in the ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction results reveal that the WO{sub 3} doped with nickel crystallizes in monoclinic structure and the results are in good agreement with the standard JCPDS data (card no: 83-0951). AFM micrographs reveal that average grain size of about 27-39 nm for pure and Ni-doped WO{sub 3} thin films. In addition, the band gap of the Ni-doped WO{sub 3} nanostructures is facilely tunable by controlling the Ni contents. The humidity sensor setup was fabricated and measured for pure and Ni-doped WO{sub 3} thin film sensor with various level of RH (10-90%). The Ni-doped WO{sub 3} sensor showed fast response and high sensitivity than pure WO{sub 3}. The photocatalytic activities of the films were evaluated by degradation of methyl orange, methylene blue and phenol in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} nanostructures could be remarkably enhanced by doping the Ni impurity. (orig.)

  6. An in vitro study of anti-inflammatory activity of standardised Andrographis paniculata extracts and pure andrographolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Mitchell; Khoo, Cheang S; Münch, Gerald; Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2015-02-07

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae), a traditional medicine widely used in Asia, is commonly attributed to andrographolide, its main secondary metabolite. Commercial A. paniculata extracts are standardised to andrographolide content. We undertook the present study to investigate 1) how selective enrichment of andrographolide in commercial A. paniculata extracts affects the variability of non-standardised phytochemical components and 2) if variability in the non-standardised components of the extract affects the pharmacological activity of andrographolide itself. We characterized 12 commercial, standardised (≥30% andrographolide) batches of A. paniculata extracts from India by HPLC profiling. We determined the antioxidant capacity of the extracts using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and a Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) antioxidant assays. Their anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by assaying their inhibitory effect on the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. The andrographolide content in the samples was close to the claimed value (32.2 ± 2.1%, range 27.5 to 35.9%). Twenty-one non-standardised constituents exhibited more than 2-fold variation in HPLC peak intensities in the tested batches. The chlorogenic acid content of the batches varied more than 30-fold. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity varied ~3-fold, the ORAC and FC antioxidant capacity varied ~1.5 fold among batches. In contrast, the TNF-α inhibitory activity of the extracts exhibited little variation and comparison with pure andrographolide indicated that it was mostly due to their andrographolide content. Standardised A. paniculata extracts contained the claimed amount of andrographolide but exhibited considerable phytochemical background variation. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extracts was mostly due to the flavonoid

  7. Pure and Modified Co-Poly(amide-12-b-ethylene oxide Membranes for Gas Separation Studied by Molecular Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana De Lorenzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a theoretical investigation of gas transport properties in a pure and modified PEBAX block copolymer membrane with N-ethyl-o/p-toluene sulfonamide (KET as additive molecules. Molecular dynamics simulations using COMPASS force field, Gusev-Suter Transition State Theory (TST and Monte Carlo methods were used. Bulk models of PEBAX and PEBAX/KET in different copolymer/additive compositions were assembled and analyzed to evaluate gas permeability and morphology to characterize structure-performance relationships.

  8. Non-critical pure spinor superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Ido; Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Mazzucato, Luca; Oz, Yaron; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    We construct non-critical pure spinor superstrings in two, four and six dimensions. We find explicitly the map between the RNS variables and the pure spinor ones in the linear dilaton background. The RNS variables map onto a patch of the pure spinor space and the holomorphic top form on the pure spinor space is an essential ingredient of the mapping. A basic feature of the map is the requirement of doubling the superspace, which we analyze in detail. We study the structure of the non-critical pure spinor space, which is different from the ten-dimensional one, and its quantum anomalies. We compute the pure spinor lowest lying BRST cohomology and find an agreement with the RNS spectra. The analysis is generalized to curved backgrounds and we construct as an example the non-critical pure spinor type IIA superstring on AdS 4 with RR 4-form flux

  9. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  10. Study on Standard Fatigue Vehicle Load Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. P.; Li, Y. H.

    2018-02-01

    Based on the measured data of truck from three artery expressways in Guangdong Province, the statistical analysis of truck weight was conducted according to axle number. The standard fatigue vehicle model applied to industrial areas in the middle and late was obtained, which adopted equivalence damage principle, Miner linear accumulation law, water discharge method and damage ratio theory. Compared with the fatigue vehicle model Specified by the current bridge design code, the proposed model has better applicability. It is of certain reference value for the fatigue design of bridge in China.

  11. A comparative study of pure and copper (Cu)-doped ZnO nanorods for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications with their mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuyan, Tamanna [Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Amity Institute of Microbial Technology (India); Khanuja, Manika, E-mail: manikakhanuja@gmail.com; Sharma, R.; Patel, S.; Reddy, M. R.; Anand, S. [Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Amity Institute of Nanotechnology (India); Varma, A. [Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Amity Institute of Microbial Technology (India)

    2015-07-15

    The present study reports the synthesis of pure and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications. The samples were synthesized by simple, low cost mechanical-assisted thermal decomposition process. The synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV–Visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence studies. The antibacterial activity of characterized samples was determined against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes and Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli using shake flask method with respect to time. The significant antibacterial activity was perceived from scanning electron micrographs that clearly revealed bacterial cell lysis resulting in the release of cytoplasmic content followed by cell death. The degradation of methylene blue was used as a model organic dye for photocatalytic activity. The present study demonstrates the superior photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods with respect to pure ZnO nanorods.

  12. Implications of Common Core State Standards on the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William B., III.

    2014-01-01

    Social studies teachers have often been on the outside looking in during much of the era billed as the standards-based educational reform (SBER), but with the adoption and implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), social studies teachers seem to have been invited back inside. Yet, how will the standards impact social studies…

  13. Mixed states vs. pure mania in the french sample of the EMBLEM study: results at baseline and 24 months – European mania in bipolar longitudinal evaluation of medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azorin Jean-Michel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the clinical course and treatment patterns over 24 months of patients experiencing an acute manic/mixed episode within the standard course of care. Methods EMBLEM was a 2-year European prospective, observational study on outcomes of patients experiencing a manic/mixed episode. Adults with bipolar disorder were enrolled within the standard course of care as in/outpatients if they initiated or changed oral medication for treatment of acute mania. After completing 12 weeks of acute phase, patients were assessed every 3–6 months during the maintenance phase. We present the 24 month results, with subgroup analysis for mixed states (MS and pure mania (PM. These subgroup analyses are driven by the high proportion of antidepressants prescribed in this cohort. Results In France, 771 patients were eligible for the maintenance phase. 69% of patients completed the follow up over 24 months. The mean age was 45.5 years (sd = 13.6 with 57% of women. 504 (66% patients were experiencing a PM and 262 (34% a MS at baseline. The main significant differences in MS vs. PM at baseline were: a higher rate of women, and in the previous 12 months, a higher frequency of episodes (manic/mixed and depressive, more suicide attempts, more rapid cycling, fewer social activities and more work impairment. Over the 24 months of follow-up the MS group had a significantly lower recovery than PM (36% vs. 46%, p = 0.006. Overall, 42% of all patients were started on monotherapy and 58% on combination therapy; of those 35% and 30% respectively remained on their initial medication throughout the 24 months. At baseline, 36% were treated with an antidepressant, this proportion remains high throughout the follow-up period, with a significantly higher rate for MS vs. PM at 24 months (55% vs. 27%, p Conclusion In this large sample, MS occur frequently (34%, they are more severe at baseline and have a worse functional prognosis than PM. Although

  14. Study of non stoichiometric pure and Zr-Doped yttria surfaces by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, M.; Duraud, J.P.; Jollet, F.; Thromat, N.; Maire, P.; Le Gressus, C.

    1988-01-01

    Surfaces of oxygen-deficient yttrium oxide, pure or Zr-doped, have been studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The bulk local geometric structure of these non-stoichiometric compounds was previously determined around the Y atom by an EXAFS (Extended X-ray absorption fine structure) study. The local electronic structure around both Y and O, at the surface, was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The partial transfer of the electronic distribution between the anion and the cation was probed using the Auger parameter. Coupling of these experiments with microscopic observations show that: - In the pure oxygen-deficient sample, the concentration of oxygen vacancies appears to be increased at the grain boundaries. - The Auger parameter shows upon reduction an evolution of the Y-O bond towards a more covalent one, this evolution being modulated with the presence of Zr0 2

  15. Standards, criteria, comparative study. Final report 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this report is to compare standards and criteria used for the design of seismic resistant Nuclear Power plants in former USSR and Eastern Europe to the actual practice in Western Europe and USA. A review of USSR and Czech-Slovak standards for design of WWER-1000 NPPs is included. Comparative study deals involves a general comparison of standards and the comparison of seismic loads according to Eastern standards with the to-day practices. According to these comparisons it can be theoretically concluded that despite some differences the structural seismic forces calculated according to Soviet-Russian standards are in good agreement with the ones resulting from Western Standards

  16. Verification of the pure alanine in PMMA tube dosimeter applicability for dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Karmi, Anan M; Ayaz, Ali Asghar H; Al-Enezi, Mamdouh S; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Dwaikat, Nidal

    2015-09-01

    Alanine dosimeters in the form of pure alanine powder in PMMA plastic tubes were investigated for dosimetry in a clinical application. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure absorbed radiation doses by detection of signals from radicals generated in irradiated alanine. The measurements were performed for low-dose ranges typical for single-fraction doses often used in external photon beam radiotherapy. First, the dosimeters were irradiated in a solid water phantom to establish calibration curves in the dose range from 0.3 to 3 Gy for 6 and 18 MV X-ray beams from a clinical linear accelerator. Next, the dosimeters were placed at various locations in an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom to measure the dose delivery of a conventional four-field box technique treatment plan to the pelvis. Finally, the doses measured with alanine dosimeters were compared against the doses calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The results showed that the alanine dosimeters have a highly sensitive dose response with good linearity and no energy dependence in the dose range and photon beams used in this work. Also, a fairly good agreement was found between the in-phantom dose measurements with alanine dosimeters and the TPS dose calculations. The mean value of the ratios of measured to calculated dose values was found to be near unity. The measured points in the in-field region passed dose-difference acceptance criterion of 3% and those in the penumbral region passed distance-to-agreement acceptance criterion of 3 mm. These findings suggest that the pure alanine powder in PMMA tube dosimeter is a suitable option for dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams.

  17. Lectures on the theory of pure motives

    CERN Document Server

    Murre, Jacob P; A, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The theory of motives was created by Grothendieck in the 1960s as he searched for a universal cohomology theory for algebraic varieties. The theory of pure motives is well established as far as the construction is concerned. Pure motives are expected to have a number of additional properties predicted by Grothendieck's standard conjectures, but these conjectures remain wide open. The theory for mixed motives is still incomplete. This book deals primarily with the theory of pure motives. The exposition begins with the fundamentals: Grothendieck's construction of the category of pure motives and examples. Next, the standard conjectures and the famous theorem of Jannsen on the category of the numerical motives are discussed. Following this, the important theory of finite dimensionality is covered. The concept of Chow-K�nneth decomposition is introduced, with discussion of the known results and the related conjectures, in particular the conjectures of Bloch-Beilinson type. We finish with a chapter on relative m...

  18. Microstructural study of metal-metal composites elaborated by interdiffusion between pure nickel and devitrified Fe-Ni-Mo-B glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratovondrahona, E.; Bouquet, G.; Portier, R.

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that amorphous metallic alloys are able to give rise to microcrystallized structures when submitted to the effect of temperature, i.e. when devitrification takes place. These microstructures are particularly interesting for various applications. Materials produced from devitrified amorphous phase generally exhibit good mechanical properties, but are accompanied by some brittleness. In order to avoid this disadvantage, the authors tried to elaborate a composite material resulting from diffusion heat treatments carried out on alternate stackings of amorphous alloys and pure metal sheets. The idea is that by choosing discerning metallic glass and an appropriate diffusion heat treatment temperature, it might be possible to obtain mechanically hard phases, such as metallic borides, and disperse these compounds in the pure metallic matrix to be reinforced. Here, the authors only present the microstructural results of this study, although some preliminary mechanical tests have been preformed

  19. Deformation behavior of Cu bicrystals with the Σ9(110)(221) symmetric tilt grain boundary under pure shear studied by atomistic simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Liang; Wang Shaoqing

    2010-01-01

    The deformation behavior of Cu bicrystals with the symmetric tilt grain boundary (STGB) under pure shear has been studied by atomistic simulation method with the embedded atom method (EAM) interatomic potentials. By using an energy minimization method, it shows that there are two optimized structures of this grain boundary (GB) which correspond to two local energy minima on the potential energy surface of the GB. The structure with lower energy is the stable one while the other is a metastable structure. The pure shear process of the bicrystals at ambient temperature has been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. The simulated results indicate that there are three structure transformation modes of this GB depending on the shear direction: (1) pure GB sliding; (2) GB atomic shuffling accompanied by dislocation emission from GB; (3) GB migration coupled GB sliding, namely, GB coupling motion. In addition, an analysis of the structure evolution of the GB shows that, there are two mechanisms for GB coupling motion depending on the shear direction. One is the collective motion of GB atoms and the other is structure transformation realized by uncorrelated atomic shuffling processes. The former mechanism can induce structure transition of GB between the stable one and the metastable one, while the latter introduces faceting of the GB. (authors)

  20. Setting a standard for electricity pilot studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Alexander L.; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Fischhoff, Baruch; Bruine de Bruin, Wandi

    2013-01-01

    In-home displays, dynamic pricing, and automated devices aim to reduce residential electricity use—overall and during peak hours. We present a meta-analysis of 32 studies of the impacts of these interventions, conducted in the US or Canada. We find that methodological problems are common in the design of these studies, leading to artificially inflated results relative to what one would expect if the interventions were implemented in the general population. Particular problems include having volunteer participants who may have been especially motivated to reduce their electricity use, letting participants choose their preferred intervention, and having high attrition rates. Using estimates of bias from medical clinical trials as a guide, we recalculate impact estimates to adjust for bias, resulting in values that are often less than half of those reported in the reviewed studies. We estimate that in-home displays were the most effective intervention for reducing overall electricity use (∼4% using reported data; ∼3% after adjusting for bias), while dynamic pricing significantly reduced peak demand (∼11% reported; ∼6% adjusted), especially when used in conjunction with home automation (∼25% reported; ∼14% adjusted). We conclude with recommendations that can improve pilot studies and the soundness of decisions based on their results. -- Highlights: •We conduct a meta-analysis of field studies of in-home displays, dynamic pricing, and automation on overall and peak use. •Studies were assessed and adjusted for risk-of-bias from inadequate experimental design. •Most studies were at high risk-of-bias from multiple sources. •In-home displays provided the best overall reduction in energy use, approximately 3% after adjustment for risk-of-bias. •Even after adjustment, automation approximately doubled the effectiveness of dynamic pricing on peak reduction from 6% to 14%

  1. Selecting pure-emotion materials from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS by Chinese university students: A study based on intensity-ratings only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicha Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to use selected pictures with pure emotion as stimulation or treatment media for basic and clinical research. Pictures from the widely-used International Affective Picture System (IAPS contain rich emotions, but no study has clearly stated that an emotion is exclusively expressed in its putative IAPS picture to date. We hypothesize that the IAPS images contain at least pure vectors of disgust, erotism (or erotica, fear, happiness, sadness and neutral emotions. Accordingly, we have selected 108 IAPS images, each with a specific emotion, and invited 219 male and 274 female university students to rate only the intensity of the emotion conveyed in each picture. Their answers were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Four first-order factors manifested as disgust-fear, happiness-sadness, erotism, and neutral. Later, ten second-order sub-factors manifested as mutilation-disgust, vomit-disgust, food-disgust, violence-fear, happiness, sadness, couple- erotism, female-erotism, male- erotism, and neutral. Fifty-nine pictures for the ten sub-factors, which had established good model-fit indices, satisfactory sub-factor internal reliabilities, and prominent gender-differences in the picture intensity ratings were ultimately retained. We thus have selected a series of pure-emotion IAPS pictures, which together displayed both satisfactorily convergent and discriminant structure-validities. We did not intend to evaluate all IAPS items, but instead selected some pictures conveying pure emotions, which might help both basic and clinical researches in the future.

  2. The Comparison of Double J Stent Insertion and Conservative Treatment Alone in Severe Pure Gestational Hydronephrosis: A Case Controlled Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeçen, Kürşat; Ülker, Kahraman

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Management options of gestational hydronephrosis are based on the coexisting stone disease, pyelonephritis, and renal disease. However, the management option and its consequences in the absence of a coexisting disease state are not clear. In this study we aimed to compare the effectiveness of conservative treatment and double J insertion in symptomatic pure gestational hydronephrosis. Material and Methods. The data of the women with severe pure gestational hydronephrosis over a nine-year period was collected retrospectively. The included women were grouped into two according to receiving double J stent insertion or conservative treatments. Results. Double J insertion and conservative treatment groups included 24 and 29 women, respectively. Hydronephrosis was demonstrated on the right, left, or both kidneys in 37 (70%), 13 (24%), and 3 (6%) women, respectively. None of the participants gave birth prior to the 37th week. The demographics, initial pain scores, the severity of the hydronephrosis during first admission, and pain scores one week after the interventions did not differ significantly between groups (P > 0.05). Similarly, the rates of complications, postpartum pain scores, and permanent hydronephrosis did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Double J insertion in symptomatic pure gestational hydronephrosis adds no benefit to conservative treatment. PMID:24574939

  3. The Comparison of Double J Stent Insertion and Conservative Treatment Alone in Severe Pure Gestational Hydronephrosis: A Case Controlled Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat Çeçen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Management options of gestational hydronephrosis are based on the coexisting stone disease, pyelonephritis, and renal disease. However, the management option and its consequences in the absence of a coexisting disease state are not clear. In this study we aimed to compare the effectiveness of conservative treatment and double J insertion in symptomatic pure gestational hydronephrosis. Material and Methods. The data of the women with severe pure gestational hydronephrosis over a nine-year period was collected retrospectively. The included women were grouped into two according to receiving double J stent insertion or conservative treatments. Results. Double J insertion and conservative treatment groups included 24 and 29 women, respectively. Hydronephrosis was demonstrated on the right, left, or both kidneys in 37 (70%, 13 (24%, and 3 (6% women, respectively. None of the participants gave birth prior to the 37th week. The demographics, initial pain scores, the severity of the hydronephrosis during first admission, and pain scores one week after the interventions did not differ significantly between groups (P>0.05. Similarly, the rates of complications, postpartum pain scores, and permanent hydronephrosis did not differ between groups (P>0.05. Conclusion. Double J insertion in symptomatic pure gestational hydronephrosis adds no benefit to conservative treatment.

  4. In vitro study of polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite coatings on corrosion and bioactivity of pure Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuyun; Michalczyk, Carolin [Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Singer, Ferdinand [Institute of Surface Science and Corrosion, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Virtanen, Sannakaisa, E-mail: virtanen@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Institute of Surface Science and Corrosion, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: aldo.boccaccini@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG) enhance bioactivity of PCL coatings on Mg. • Barrier properties of PCL can be altered by nBG addition. • Degradation of PCL increased by addition of nBG. - Abstract: The influence of the addition of nano-scaled bioactive glass (nBG) powder into polycaprolactone (PCL) coatings on the biodegradation and bioactivity of pure Mg was investigated in the present work. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrochemical methods were employed to characterize the morphology, chemical composition and anticorrosion properties of the coatings. The results indicate that nBG addition in PCL increases the degradation of PCL in physiological solution; depending on the amount of nBG in the composite coating, the barrier properties of PCL therefore can be modified. At the same time, the addition of nBG facilitates the formation of hydroxyapatite during 7 days immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF).

  5. Laser spectroscopic studies of the pure rotational U0(0) and W0(0) transitions of solid parahydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, M.; Lee, S.S.; Okumura, M.; Oka, T.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution spectrum of multipole-induced transitions of solid parahydrogen was recorded using diode and difference frequency laser spectroscopy. The J=4 left-arrow 0 pure rotational U 0 (0) transition observed in the diode spectrum agrees well in frequency with the value reported by Balasubramanian et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1277 (1981)] but we observed a spectral width smaller by about a factor of 4. The J=6 left-arrow 0 W 0 (0) transition was observed to be exceedingly sharp, with a width of ∼70 MHz, using a difference frequency spectrometer with tone-burst modulation. This transition is composed of three components with varying relative intensity depending upon the direction of polarization of laser radiation. These components were interpreted as the splitting of the M levels in the J=6 state due to crystal field interactions. In addition, a new broad feature was found at 2452.4 cm -1 in the low resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of solid hydrogen and was assigned to be the phonon branch W R (0) transition of the W 0 (0) line. The selection rules, crystal field splitting of J=4 and J=6 rotons, and the measured linewidth based on these observations are discussed

  6. Comparative study of the fungicide Benomyl toxicity on some plant growth promoting bacteria and some fungi in pure cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elslahi Randa H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Six laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the fungicide Benomyl on pure cultures of some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB and some fungi. The highest LD50 was recorded for Bacillus circulans and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide, followed by Azospirillum braziliense, while Penicillium sp. was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for the affected microorganisms were in 21-240 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with the LD50 value for Azospirillum braziliense. The results indicate a strong selectivity for Benomyl against Rhizobium meliloti and Penicillium sp. when compared to other microorganisms tested. The highest safety coefficient was recorded for Bacillus circulans followed by Azospirillum braziliense, while Rhizobium meliloti, showed the lowest safety coefficient value compared to other bacteria. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Bacillus circulans and Azospirillum braziliense. The slope of the curves for Bacillus sp. and Rhizobium meliloti was steeper than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. In conclusion, Benomyl could be applied without restriction when using inocula based on growth promoting bacteria such as symbiotic nitrogen fixers (Rhizobium meliloti, non-symbiotic nitrogen fixers (Azospirillum braziliense or potassium solibilizers (Bacillus circulans, given that the fungicide is applied within the range of the recommended field dose.

  7. Comparative study of the fungicide Benomyl toxicity on some plant growth promoting bacteria and some fungi in pure cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elslahi, Randa H; Osman, Awad G; Sherif, Ashraf M; Elhussein, Adil A

    2014-03-01

    Six laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the fungicide Benomyl on pure cultures of some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and some fungi. The highest LD50 was recorded for Bacillus circulans and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide, followed by Azospirillum braziliense, while Penicillium sp. was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for the affected microorganisms were in 21-240 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with the LD50 value for Azospirillum braziliense. The results indicate a strong selectivity for Benomyl against Rhizobium meliloti and Penicillium sp. when compared to other microorganisms tested. The highest safety coefficient was recorded for Bacillus circulans followed by Azospirillum braziliense, while Rhizobium meliloti, showed the lowest safety coefficient value compared to other bacteria. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Bacillus circulans and Azospirillum braziliense. The slope of the curves for Bacillus sp. and Rhizobium meliloti was steeper than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. In conclusion, Benomyl could be applied without restriction when using inocula based on growth promoting bacteria such as symbiotic nitrogen fixers (Rhizobium meliloti), non-symbiotic nitrogen fixers (Azospirillum braziliense) or potassium solibilizers (Bacillus circulans), given that the fungicide is applied within the range of the recommended field dose.

  8. Pure natural inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Nomura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We point out that a simple inflationary model in which the axionic inflaton couples to a pure Yang–Mills theory may give the scalar spectral index (ns and tensor-to-scalar ratio (r in complete agreement with the current observational data.

  9. Production of pure metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.; May, C. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process for depositing elements by irradiating liquids is reported. Ultra pure elements are precipitated from aqueous solutions or suspensions of compounds. A solution of a salt of a metal to be prepared is irradiated, and the insoluble reaction product settles out. Some chemical compounds may also be prepared in this manner.

  10. Pure γ-families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaevskii, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The subject of this work are pure gamma families consisting of the gamma quanta produced in the early stages of cosmic cascades. The criteria of selecting these families from the all measured families are presented. The characteristics of these families are given and some conclusions about the mechanism of the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades are extracted. (S.B.)

  11. Dahlbeck and Pure Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to Johan Dahlbeck's "Towards a pure ontology: Children's bodies and morality" ["Educational Philosophy and Theory," vol. 46 (1), 2014, pp. 8-23 (EJ1026561)]. His arguments from Nietzsche and Spinoza do not carry the weight he supposes, and the conclusions he draws from them about pedagogy would be…

  12. Pure natural inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Watari, Taizan; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    We point out that a simple inflationary model in which the axionic inflaton couples to a pure Yang-Mills theory may give the scalar spectral index (ns) and tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) in complete agreement with the current observational data.

  13. Assessment of A Simple Compound-Saving Method To Study Insecticidal Activity of Natural Extracts and Pure Compounds Against Mosquito Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Michaël; Jahn-Oyac, Arnaud; Ferrero, Emma; Issaly, Jean; Eparvier, Véronique; Girod, Romain; Rodrigues, Alice M S; Stien, Didier; Houël, Emeline; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Research on natural insecticides has intensified with the spread of resistance to chemicals among insects, particularly disease vectors. To evaluate compounds, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published standardized procedures. However, those may be excessively compound-consuming when it comes to assessing the activity of natural extracts and pure compounds isolated in limited amount. As part of our work on the discovery of new mosquito larvicides from Amazonian plants, we developed a compound-saving assay in 5-ml glass tubes instead of WHO larval 100-ml cups. Comparing activity of synthetic and natural chemicals validated the glass tube assay. Raw data, lethal doses that kill 50% (LD 50 ) and 90% (LD 90 ) at 24 and 48 h, were highly correlated (0.68 natural extracts and molecules, identifying active compounds using 10 times less material than in the WHO protocol.

  14. SPITZER MAPPING OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN PURE ROTATIONAL LINES IN NGC 1333: A DETAILED STUDY OF FEEDBACK IN STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maret, Sebastien; Bergin, Edwin A.; Neufeld, David A.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Yuan Yuan; Green, Joel D.; Watson, Dan M.; Harwit, Martin O.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Melnick, Gary J.; Tolls, Volker; Werner, Michael W.; Willacy, Karen

    2009-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectral maps of the NGC 1333 star-forming region, obtained with the infrared spectrometer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. Eight pure H 2 rotational lines, from S(0) to S(7), are detected and mapped. The H 2 emission appears to be associated with the warm gas shocked by the multiple outflows present in the region. A comparison between the observed intensities and the predictions of detailed shock models indicates that the emission arises in both slow (12-24 km s -1 ) and fast (36-53 km s -1 ) C-type shocks with an initial ortho-to-para ratio (opr) ∼ 2 opr exhibits a large degree of spatial variations. In the postshocked gas, it is usually about 2, i.e., close to the equilibrium value (∼3). However, around at least two outflows, we observe a region with a much lower (∼0.5) opr. This region probably corresponds to gas which has been heated up recently by the passage of a shock front, but whose ortho-to-para has not reached equilibrium yet. This, together with the low initial opr needed to reproduce the observed emission, provide strong evidence that H 2 is mostly in para form in cold molecular clouds. The H 2 lines are found to contribute to 25%-50% of the total outflow luminosity, and thus can be used to ascertain the importance of star formation feedback on the natal cloud. From these lines, we determine the outflow mass loss rate and, indirectly, the stellar infall rate, the outflow momentum and the kinetic energy injected into the cloud over the embedded phase. The latter is found to exceed the binding energy of individual cores, suggesting that outflows could be the main mechanism for core disruption.

  15. Charge state distribution studies of pure and oxygen mixed krypton ECR plasma - signature of isotope anomaly and gas mixing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Mal, Kedar; Rodrigues, G

    2016-11-01

    We report the charge state distributions of the pure, 25% and 50% oxygen mixed krypton plasma to shed more light on the understanding of the gas mixing and the isotope anomaly [A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2875 and Y Kawai, D Meyer, A Nadzeyka, U Wolters and K Wiesemann, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 (2001) 451] in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The krypton plasma was produced using a 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source. The intensities of the highly abundant four isotopes, viz. 82 Kr (~11.58%), 83 Kr (~11.49%), 84 Kr (~57%) and 86 Kr (17.3%) up to ~ +14 charge state have been measured by extracting the ions from the plasma and analysing them in the mass and the energy using a large acceptance analyzer-cum-switching dipole magnet. The influence of the oxygen gas mixing on the isotopic krypton ion intensities is clearly evidenced beyond +9 charge state. With and without oxygen mixing, the charge state distribution of the krypton ECR plasma shows the isotope anomaly with unusual trends. The anomaly in the intensities of the isotopes having quite closer natural abundance, viz. 82 Kr, 86 Kr and 83 Kr, 86 Kr is prominent, whereas the intensity ratio of 86 Kr to 84 Kr shows a weak signature of it. The isotope anomaly tends to disappear with increasing oxygen mixing in the plasma. The observed trends in the intensities of the krypton isotopes do not follow the prediction of linear Landau wave damping in the plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Study on the standard architecture for geoinformation common services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Z.; Zhang, L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.

    2014-04-01

    The construction of platform for geoinformation common services was completed or on going in in most provinces and cities in these years in China, and the platforms plays an important role in the economic and social activities. Geoinfromation and geoinfromation based services are the key issues in the platform. The standards on geoinormation common services play as bridges among the users, systems and designers of the platform. The standard architecture for geoinformation common services is the guideline for designing and using the standard system in which the standards integrated to each other to promote the development, sharing and services of geoinformation resources. To establish the standard architecture for geoinformation common services is one of the tasks of "Study on important standards for geonformation common services and management of public facilities in city". The scope of the standard architecture is defined, such as data or information model, interoperability interface or service, information management. Some Research work on the status of international standards of geoinormation common services in organization and countries, like ISO/TC 211, OGC and other countries or unions like USA, EU, Japan have done. Some principles are set up to evaluate the standard, such as availability, suitability and extensible ability. Then the development requirement and practical situation are analyzed, and a framework of the standard architecture for geoinformation common services are proposed. Finally, a summary and prospects of the geoinformation standards are made.

  17. Pure chiral optical fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poladian, L; Straton, M; Docherty, A; Argyros, A

    2011-01-17

    We investigate the properties of optical fibres made from chiral materials, in which a contrast in optical activity forms the waveguide, rather than a contrast in the refractive index; we refer to such structures as pure chiral fibres. We present a mathematical formulation for solving the modes of circularly symmetric examples of such fibres and examine the guidance and polarisation properties of pure chiral step-index, Bragg and photonic crystal fibre designs. Their behaviour is shown to differ for left- and right-hand circular polarisation, allowing circular polarisations to be isolated and/or guided by different mechanisms, as well as differing from equivalent non-chiral fibres. The strength of optical activity required in each case is quantified.

  18. Purely leptonic currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdin, M.

    1976-01-01

    In most gauge theories weak neutral currents appear as a natural consequence of the models, but the specific properties are not predicted in a general way. In purely leptonic interactions the structure of these currents can be tested without making assumptions about the weak couplings of the hadrons. The influence of neutral currents appearing in the process e + e - → μ + μ - can be measured using the polarization of the outgoing myons. (BJ) [de

  19. Purely Functional Structured Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Obua, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...

  20. [Study on emission standard system of air pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Ren, Chun

    2012-12-01

    Scientific and reasonable emission standard system of air pollutants helps to systematically control air pollution, enhance the protection of the atmospheric environment effect and improve the overall atmospheric environment quality. Based on the study of development, situation and characteristics of national air pollutants emission standard system, the deficiencies of system were pointed out, which were not supportive, harmonious and perfect, and the improvement measures of emission standard system were suggested.

  1. Management system - correlation study between new IAEA standards and the market standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dirceu Paulo de [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Ipero, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dirceupo@hotmail.com; Zouain, Desiree Moraes [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dmzouain@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    In order to answer the growing concern of society with respect of the aspects that affect the quality of life, international and national regulatory bodies have developed standards that enable organizations to establish management systems for quality, environment and sustainable development, health, safety and social responsibility, among other functions. Within this context it is necessary to structure an integrated management system that promotes interests compatibility of several distinct and complementary functions involved. Considering this vision of the management system integration, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) decided to review the structure of safety standards on Quality Assurance - code and guides 50-C/SGQ1/ 14:1996, publishing, in 2006, IAEA GS-R-3 and IAEA GS-G-3.1 standards, enlarging the management approach of the previous standards, including the possibility of integrating the functions foremost mentioned. This paper presents the results about a correlation study between IAEA management system standards - IAEA GS-R-3: 2006, IAEA GS-G-3.1: 2006 and IAEA DS349 rev. 2007, this latter still a draft standard, with those market management system standards on quality - ISO 9001:2008, environmental - ISO 14001:2004, and occupational health and safety - BS OHSAS 18001:2007, identifying gaps, redundancies and complementarities among their requirements and guidances. The purpose of the study is to provide subsidies that could contribute to the structuring of a management system to nuclear facilities that satisfies, in an integrated manner, the common and complementary requirements and guidances of IAEA and market standards. (author)

  2. Management system - correlation study between new IAEA standards and the market standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Dirceu Paulo de; Zouain, Desiree Moraes

    2009-01-01

    In order to answer the growing concern of society with respect of the aspects that affect the quality of life, international and national regulatory bodies have developed standards that enable organizations to establish management systems for quality, environment and sustainable development, health, safety and social responsibility, among other functions. Within this context it is necessary to structure an integrated management system that promotes interests compatibility of several distinct and complementary functions involved. Considering this vision of the management system integration, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) decided to review the structure of safety standards on Quality Assurance - code and guides 50-C/SGQ1/ 14:1996, publishing, in 2006, IAEA GS-R-3 and IAEA GS-G-3.1 standards, enlarging the management approach of the previous standards, including the possibility of integrating the functions foremost mentioned. This paper presents the results about a correlation study between IAEA management system standards - IAEA GS-R-3: 2006, IAEA GS-G-3.1: 2006 and IAEA DS349 rev. 2007, this latter still a draft standard, with those market management system standards on quality - ISO 9001:2008, environmental - ISO 14001:2004, and occupational health and safety - BS OHSAS 18001:2007, identifying gaps, redundancies and complementarities among their requirements and guidances. The purpose of the study is to provide subsidies that could contribute to the structuring of a management system to nuclear facilities that satisfies, in an integrated manner, the common and complementary requirements and guidances of IAEA and market standards. (author)

  3. Isolation of intact and pure chloroplasts from leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to low irradiance for studies on Rubisco regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Grabsztunowicz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A protocol is presented for low-cost and fast isolation of intact and pure chloroplasts from leaves of plants acclimated to low irradiance. The protocol is based on a differential centrifugation of cleared leaf homogenate and omits a centrifugation on Percoll gradient step. The intactness and purity of the chloroplasts isolated from leaves of low irradiance-acclimated plants by using this protocol (confirmed by phase contrast microscopy as well as enzymatic and immunological approaches allows plausible studies on low irradiance-dependent Rubisco regulation.

  4. Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economic Effects Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act and summarizes the findings of three 1969 studies of the economic effects of these amendments. The studies found that economic growth continued through the third phase of the amendments, beginning February 1, 1969, despite increased wage and hours restrictions for recently…

  5. Effects of Improving Primary Health Care Workers' Knowledge About Public Health Services in Rural China: A Comparative Study of Blended Learning and Pure E-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xingxin; Zhang, Zhixia; Sun, Fang; Liu, Qian; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Heng; Yan, Weirong

    2017-05-01

    Primary health care workers (PHCWs) are a major force in delivering basic public health services (BPHS) in rural China. It is necessary to take effective training approaches to improve PHCWs' competency on BPHS. Both electronic learning (e-learning) and blended learning have been widely used in the health workers' education. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of blended learning in comparison with pure e-learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a blended-learning approach for rural PHCWs in improving their knowledge about BPHS as well as training satisfaction in comparison with a pure e-learning approach. The study was conducted among PHCWs in 6 rural counties of Hubei Province, China, between August 2013 and April 2014. Three counties were randomly allocated blended-learning courses (29 township centers or 612 PHCWs-the experimental group), and three counties were allocated pure e-learning courses (31 township centers or 625 PHCWs-the control group). Three course modules were administered for 5 weeks, with assessments at baseline and postcourse. Primary outcomes were score changes in courses' knowledge. Secondary outcome was participant satisfaction (5-point Likert scale anchored between 1 [strongly agree] and 5 [strongly disagree]). The experimental group had higher mean scores than the control group in knowledge achievement in three course modules: (1) module 1: 93.21 (95% CI 92.49-93.93) in experimental group versus 88.29 (95% CI 87.19-89.40) in the control group; adjusted difference, 4.92 (95% CI 2.61-7.24; Plearning group gave more positive responses with the four issues than control group participants: (1) the increase of interest in learning, 1.85 (95% CI 1.22-2.80; P=.003); (2) the increase of interaction with others, 1.77 (95% CI 1.20-2.60; P=.004); (3) the satisfaction with learning experience, 1.78 (95% CI 1.11-2.88; P=.02); and (4) achievement of learning objectives, 1.63 (95% CI 1.08-2.48; P=.02). Among PHCWs in

  6. Effects of Improving Primary Health Care Workers’ Knowledge About Public Health Services in Rural China: A Comparative Study of Blended Learning and Pure E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xingxin; Zhang, Zhixia; Sun, Fang; Liu, Qian; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary health care workers (PHCWs) are a major force in delivering basic public health services (BPHS) in rural China. It is necessary to take effective training approaches to improve PHCWs’ competency on BPHS. Both electronic learning (e-learning) and blended learning have been widely used in the health workers’ education. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of blended learning in comparison with pure e-learning. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a blended-learning approach for rural PHCWs in improving their knowledge about BPHS as well as training satisfaction in comparison with a pure e-learning approach. Methods The study was conducted among PHCWs in 6 rural counties of Hubei Province, China, between August 2013 and April 2014. Three counties were randomly allocated blended-learning courses (29 township centers or 612 PHCWs—the experimental group), and three counties were allocated pure e-learning courses (31 township centers or 625 PHCWs—the control group). Three course modules were administered for 5 weeks, with assessments at baseline and postcourse. Primary outcomes were score changes in courses’ knowledge. Secondary outcome was participant satisfaction (5-point Likert scale anchored between 1 [strongly agree] and 5 [strongly disagree]). Results The experimental group had higher mean scores than the control group in knowledge achievement in three course modules: (1) module 1: 93.21 (95% CI 92.49-93.93) in experimental group versus 88.29 (95% CI 87.19-89.40) in the control group; adjusted difference, 4.92 (95% CI 2.61-7.24; Plearning group gave more positive responses with the four issues than control group participants: (1) the increase of interest in learning, 1.85 (95% CI 1.22-2.80; P=.003); (2) the increase of interaction with others, 1.77 (95% CI 1.20-2.60; P=.004); (3) the satisfaction with learning experience, 1.78 (95% CI 1.11-2.88; P=.02); and (4) achievement of learning objectives, 1

  7. Studies and research concerning BNFP: cask handling equipment standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, P.N.

    1980-10-01

    This report covers the activities of one of the sub-tasks within the Spent LWR Fuel Transportation Receiving, Handling, and Storage program. The sub-task is identified as Cask Handling Equipment Standardization. The objective of the sub-task specifies: investigate and identify opportunities for standardization of cask interface equipment. This study will examine the potential benefits of standardized yokes, decontamination barriers and special tools, and, to the extent feasible, standardized methods and software for handling the variety of casks presently available in the US fleet. The result of the investigations is a compilation of reports that are related by their common goal of reducing cask turnaround time

  8. Reducing matrix effect error in EDXRF: Comparative study of using standard and standard less methods for stainless steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Masliana Muhammad; Wilfred, P.

    2013-01-01

    Even though EDXRF analysis has major advantages in the analysis of stainless steel samples such as simultaneous determination of the minor elements, analysis can be done without sample preparation and non-destructive analysis, the matrix issue arise from the inter element interaction can make the the final quantitative result to be in accurate. The paper relates a comparative quantitative analysis using standard and standard less methods in the determination of these elements. Standard method was done by plotting regression calibration graphs of the interested elements using BCS certified stainless steel standards. Different calibration plots were developed based on the available certified standards and these stainless steel grades include low alloy steel, austenitic, ferritic and high speed. The standard less method on the other hand uses a mathematical modelling with matrix effect correction derived from Lucas-Tooth and Price model. Further improvement on the accuracy of the standard less method was done by inclusion of pure elements into the development of the model. Discrepancy tests were then carried out for these quantitative methods on different certified samples and the results show that the high speed method is most reliable for determining of Ni and the standard less method for Mn. (Author)

  9. Study of sterilization-treatment in pure and N- doped carbon thin films synthesized by inductively coupled plasma assisted pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javid, Amjed [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Textile Processing, National Textile University, Faisalabad 37610 (Pakistan); Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeon Geon, E-mail: hanjg@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Pure and N-doped nanocrystallie carbon films are synthesized by ICP assisted pulsed DC plasma process. • ICP power induces the increase in average graphitic crystallite size from 4.86 nm to 6.42 nm. • Beneficial role of ICP source assistance to achieve high sputtering throughput (deposition rate ∼55 nm/min). • Post-sterilization electron-transport study shows N-doped carbon films having promising stability. - Abstract: Electrically-conductive nanocrystalline carbon films, having non-toxic and non-immunogenic characteristics, are promising candidates for reusable medical devices. Here, the pure and N- doped nanocrystalline carbon films are deposited by the assistance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in an unbalanced facing target pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering process. Through the optical emission spectroscopy study, the role of ICP assistance and N-doping on the reactive components/radicals during the synthesis is presented. The N-doping enhances the three fold bonding configurations by increasing the ionization and energies of the plasma species. Whereas, the ICP addition increases the plasma density to control the deposition rate and film structure. As a result, sputtering-throughput (deposition rate: 31–55 nm/min), electrical resistivity (4–72 Ωcm) and water contact angle (45.12°–54°) are significantly tailored. Electric transport study across the surface microchannel confirms the superiority of N-doped carbon films for sterilization stability over the undoped carbon films.

  10. A study of science leadership and science standards in exemplary standards-based science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Wendy Renae

    The purpose for conducting this qualitative study was to explore best practices of exemplary standards-based science programs and instructional leadership practices in a charter high school and in a traditional high school. The focus of this study included how twelve participants aligned practices to National Science Education Standards to describe their science programs and science instructional practices. This study used a multi-site case study qualitative design. Data were obtained through a review of literature, interviews, observations, review of educational documents, and researcher's notes collected in a field log. The methodology used was a multi-site case study because of the potential, through cross analysis, for providing greater explanation of the findings in the study (Merriam, 1988). This study discovered six characteristics about the two high school's science programs that enhance the literature found in the National Science Education Standards; (a) Culture of expectations for learning-In exemplary science programs teachers are familiar with a wide range of curricula. They have the ability to examine critically and select activities to use with their students to promote the understanding of science; (b) Culture of varied experiences-In exemplary science programs students are provided different paths to learning, which help students, take in information and make sense of concepts and skills that are set forth by the standards; (c) Culture of continuous feedback-In exemplary science programs teachers and students work together to engage students in ongoing assessments of their work and that of others as prescribed in the standards; (d) Culture of Observations-In exemplary science programs students, teachers, and principals reflect on classroom instructional practices; teachers receive ongoing evaluations about their teaching and apply feedback towards improving practices as outlined in the standards; (e) Culture of continuous learning-In exemplary

  11. Standardizing metadata and taxonomic identification in metabarcoding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Ramirez, Kelly S; Nilsson, R Henrik; Kaljuvee, Aivi; Kõljalg, Urmas; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing-based metabarcoding studies produce vast amounts of ecological data, but a lack of consensus on standardization of metadata and how to refer to the species recovered severely hampers reanalysis and comparisons among studies. Here we propose an automated workflow covering data submission, compression, storage and public access to allow easy data retrieval and inter-study communication. Such standardized and readily accessible datasets facilitate data management, taxonomic comparisons and compilation of global metastudies.

  12. Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards Interlaboratory Study on Measuring the Thickness and Chemistry of Nanoparticle Coatings Using XPS and LEIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belsey, N.A.; Cant, D.J.H.; Minelli, C.; Araujo, J.R.; Bock, B.; Brüner, P.; Castner, D.G.; Ceccone, C.; Counsell, J.D.P.; Dietrich, P.M.; Engelhard, M.H.; Fearn, S.; Galhardo, C.E.; Kalbe, H.; Kim, J.W.; Lartundo-Rojas, L.; Luftman, H.S.; Nunney, T.S.; Pseiner, J.; Smith, E.F.; Spampinato, V.; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Thomas, A.G.; Treacy, J.P.W.; Veith, L.; Wagstaffe, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, M..; Wang, Y.C.; Werner, W.; Yang, L.; Shard, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) interlaboratory study on the measurement of the shell thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings. Peptide-coated gold particles were supplied to laboratories in two forms: a colloidal suspension in pure

  13. Differences in functional activity between boys with pure oppositional defiant disorder and controls during a response inhibition task: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Ying, Kui; Wang, Ji; Su, Linyan; Chen, Jingyuan; Lin, Fan; Cai, Dongyang; Zhou, Ming; Wu, Daxing; Guo, Courtney; Wang, Shi

    2014-12-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of inhibitory control has only been investigated in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of functional areas associated with inhibitory control between boys with pure oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and controls during a response inhibition task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven boys with pure ODD and ten control boys, aged 10 to 12, performed a GoStop response inhibition task in this study. The task has a series of "go" trials to establish a pre-potent response tendency and a number of "stop" trials to test subjects' ability to withhold their responses. During the GoStop task, greater activation in the dorsolateral parts of the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus (lMFG) and right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG) activation was seen in the ODD boys. Additionally, reduced activation in regions of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was seen in the ODD boys in comparison with the control group. The results may suggest that the higher activation in areas adjacent to the rIFG could be the cause of reduced activation in the rIFG; although this is speculative and requires additional supporting evidence. The findings further suggest that ODD is a less pronounced functional disorder compared to ADHD and CD.

  14. Pure Science and Applied Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Aumann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Excerpt The name of my talk is Pure Science and Applied Science, and the idea I would like to sell to you today is that there is no such thing as “pure” or “applied” science. In other words, there is such a thing as science, but there is no difference between pure and applied science. Science is one entity and cannot be separated into different categories. In order to back that up, I would like to tell you a little story. As an undergraduate, I studied mathematics at City College in New York. At that time, what was called Pure Mathematics was in vogue, and the more prominent mathematicians were a little contemptuous of any kind of application. A very famous, prominent mathematician in the first half of the previous century by the name of G. H. Hardy, who was in a branch of mathematics called number theory, said that the only thing he regretted was that he unwittingly did some important work in mathematical genetics that eventually turned out to have some application. … Such was the atmosphere in the late ’40s of the previous century and, being a young man and impressionable, I was swept up in this atmosphere.

  15. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) (hereinafter “A.P.A. Standards”) and standard textbooks and journals in the field of personnel selection. D... market and the job should be considered in the determination of when a validity study is outdated. ...

  16. A study of PbTiO sub 3 crystallization in pure and composite nanopowders prepared by the sol-gel technique

    CERN Document Server

    Cernansky, M; Kral, K; Krupkova, R

    2002-01-01

    In this investigation the crystallization of PbTiO sub 3 upon annealing of pure nanopowders and PbTiO sub 3 -SiO sub 2 (1:1 v/v) nanocomposite powders prepared by the sol-gel technique was studied. Using x-ray diffraction phase analysis, the start of PbTiO sub 3 crystallization in pure PbTiO sub 3 powders was detected at 400 sup o C. Distinct crystallization of PbTiO sub 3 in PbTiO sub 3 -SiO sub 2 nanocomposites starts at 700 sup o C, whereas SiO sub 2 remains amorphous. There are indications that an interface interaction between the PbTiO sub 3 and the SiO sub 2 phase plays an important role in hindering the crystallization of PbTiO sub 3. The particle size (size of coherently scattering regions) was estimated from the broadening of the x-ray diffraction line profiles. The average size of PbTiO sub 3 nanocrystallites increases with temperature and time of annealing, the influence of temperature being more significant than that of the annealing time. Differential scanning calorimetry confirmed the results of...

  17. Preservation Study for Ultra-Dilute VX Standards | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supplies ultra-dilute (10 µg/mL) chemical warfare agent (CWA) standards to the Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN) laboratories to allow the use of authentic standards to assist in analyses required for a remediation event involving CWAs. For this reason, it is important to collect data regarding the shelf-lives of these standards. The instability has the potential to impact quality control in regional ERLN laboratories, resulting in data that are difficult to interpret. Thus, this study investigated the use of chemical stabilizers to increase the shelf-life of VX standards. VX standards with long shelf-lives are desirable, as long shelf-life would significantly reduce the costs associated with synthesizing and resupplying the ERLN laboratories with VX.

  18. Use of fine needle aspirate from peripheral nerves of pure-neural leprosy for cytology and PCR to confirm the diagnosis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hena Hasanoor Reja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of pure neural leprosy (PNL remained subjective because of over-dependence of clinical expertise and a lack of simple yet reliable diagnostic tool. The criteria for diagnosis, proposed by Jardim et al., are not routinely done by clinicians in developing country as it involves invasive nerve biopsy and sophisticated anti-PGL-1 detection. We conducted a study using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC coupled with Ziehl Neelsen staining (ZN staining and Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR specific for M. leprae for an objective diagnosis of pure neural leprosy (PNL, which may be simpler and yet reliable. Aim: The aim of the study is to couple FNAC with ZN staining and multiplex PCR to diagnose pure neural leprosy patients rapidly, in simpler and yet reliable way. Methods: Thirteen patients of PNL as diagnosed by two independent consultants were included as case, and 5 patients other than PNL were taken as control in the study. Fine needle aspiration was done on the affected nerve, and aspirates were evaluated for cytology, ZN staining and multiplex- PCR. Results: Out of the 13 cases where fine needle aspiration was done, M. leprae could be elicited in the nerve tissue aspirates in 5 cases (38.4% with the help of conventional acid-fast staining and 11 cases (84.6% with the help of multiplex PCR. On cytological examination of the aspirates, only 3 (23% cases showed specific epithelioid cells, whereas 8 (61.5% cases showed non-specific inflammation, and 2 (15.3% cases had no inflammatory cells. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that in the field of laboratory diagnosis of PNL cases, FNAC in combination with ZN staining for acid-fast bacilli (AFB and Multiplex-PCR can provide a rapid and definitive diagnosis for the majority of PNL cases. FNAC is a less-invasive, outdoor-based and simpler technique than invasive nerve biopsy procedure. Thus, this study may enlighten the future path for easy and reliable diagnosis of

  19. TRANSPORT LOCOMOTIVE AND WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER ITS STANDARDS IDENTIFICATION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    To date, the project has established important to safety (ITS) performance requirements for structures, systems and components (SSCs) based on identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the ''Nuclear Safety Design Basis for License Application'' (NSDB) (BSC 2005). Further, SSCs credited with performing safe functions are classified as ITS. In turn, performance confirmation for these SSCs is sought through the use of consensus code and standards. The purpose of this study is to identify applicable codes and standards for the waste package (WP) transporter and transport locomotive ITS SSCs. Further, this study will form the basis for selection and the extent of applicability of each code and standard. This study is based on the design development completed for License Application only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and that final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, throughout this study alternative designs currently under consideration will be discussed. Further, the results of this study will be subject to evaluation as part of a follow-on gap analysis study. Based on the results of this study the gap analysis will evaluate each code and standard to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied a ''gap'' is highlighted. Thereafter, the study will identify supplemental requirements to augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, the gap analysis will identify non-standard areas of the design that will be subject to a Development Plan. Non-standard components and

  20. Pure homology of algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We show that for a complete complex algebraic variety the pure component of homology coincides with the image of intersection homology. Therefore pure homology is topologically invariant. To obtain slightly more general results we introduce "image homology" for noncomplete varieties.

  1. Relationship between pure Schistosoma haematobium infection in Upper Egypt and irrigation systems. Part 1: methods of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammam, H M; Allam, F A; Hassanein, F; El-Garby, M T

    1975-01-01

    Four villages in Assiut Governorate were studied. They were matched for availability and time of introduction of medical services, the size of population and the socioeconomic status. One village had a basin system of irrigation. The other three villages had perennial irrigation introduced at different dates. A sketch map of each village was made showing the location of every house and the irrigation channels. Total coverage was intended in Gezirat El-Maabda (with basin irrigation) and Nazza Karar (with perennial irrigation-recently introduced). In El-Ghorayeb and Garf Sarhan (with older systems of perennial irrigation) systematic random samples were studied. The Study included a full, double check clinical examination of urine and stools samples and a social study. Data about educational level and activities that bring the individual in contact with canal water were recorded. Tables showing the age and sex distribution of the total population and the population studied in each village are presented and show validity of the samples taken from the population.

  2. Does calf muscle spasticity contribute to postural imbalance? A study in persons with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet, M. de; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.; Bot, S.T. de; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The contribution of spasticity to postural imbalance in patients with upper motor neuron syndrome is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the responses to support-surface perturbations in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). These patients typically suffer from

  3. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences is a multi-disciplinary specialist journal ... research in Biological Science, Agricultural Sciences, Chemical Sciences, ... Comparative study of the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of ...

  4. Tensor modes in pure natural inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2018-05-01

    We study tensor modes in pure natural inflation [1], a recently-proposed inflationary model in which an axionic inflaton couples to pure Yang-Mills gauge fields. We find that the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is naturally bounded from below. This bound originates from the finiteness of the number of metastable branches of vacua in pure Yang-Mills theories. Details of the model can be probed by future cosmic microwave background experiments and improved lattice gauge theory calculations of the θ-angle dependence of the vacuum energy.

  5. MRI for the size assessment of pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): A prospective study of 33 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcotte-Bloch, C.; Balu-Maestro, C.; Chamorey, E.; Ettore, F.; Raoust, I.; Flipo, B.; Chapellier, C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether MRI assesses the size of ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) more accurately than mammography, using the histopathological dimension of the surgical specimen as the reference measurement. Materials and methods: This single-center prospective study conducted from March 2007 to July 2008 at the Antoine-Lacassagne Cancer Treatment Center (Nice, France) included 33 patients with a histologically proven DCIS by needle biopsy, who all underwent clinical examination, mammography, and MRI interpreted by an experienced radiologist. All patients underwent surgery at our institution. The greatest dimensions of the DCIS determined by the two imaging modalities were compared with the histopathological dimension ascertained on the surgical specimen. The study was approved by the local Ethical Research Committee and was authorized by the French National Health Agency (AFSSAPS). Results: The mean age of the 33 patients was 59.7 years (±10.3). Three patients had a palpable mass at clinical breast examination; 82% underwent conservative surgical therapy rather than radical breast surgery (mastectomy); 6% required repeat surgery. MRI detected 97% of the lesions. Non-mass-like enhancement was noted for 78% of the patients. In over 50% of the cases, distribution of the DCIS was ductal or segmental and the kinetic enhancement curve was persistent. Lesion size was correctly estimated (±5 mm), under-estimated ( 5 mm), respectively, by MRI in 60%, 19% and 21% of cases and by mammography in 38%, 31% and 31% (p = 0.05). Mean lesion size was 25.6 mm at histopathology, 28.1 mm at MRI, and 27.2 mm on mammography (nonsignificant difference). The correlation coefficient between histopathological measurement and MRI was 0.831 versus 0.674 between histopathology and mammography. The correlation coefficient increased with the nuclear grade of the DCIS on mammography; this coefficient also increased as the mammographic breast density decreased. Conclusion: MRI appears

  6. Radiation damage studies of the FeNi alloys, pure and with impurities, by measuring magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciani, Valdir

    1978-01-01

    Radiation damage studies are interesting from various points of view, but they have two main aspects, fundamental and technological. The void formations in metals and alloys during irradiation with high energy particles is a problem of interest in Nuclear Technology. The supersaturation of vacancies is one condition for a void formation, which results in swelling as well as in changes of mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials used in power reactor. Isothermal and linear annealings have been performed before, during and after irradiation with neutrons from the IEAR-1 reactor, between 400 and 500 deg C in argon atmosphere. The samples used have a following nominal compositions: Fe Ni (50 - 50% at); FeNiMo ( 50 - 50% at + 50 ppm); FeNiCr ( 49,95 - 49,95 - 0,1% at); FeNiCr (49,75 - 49,75 - 0,5% at). The initial permeability disaccommodation has been followed by Magnetic After Effect (MAE) Method, which permitted the determination of the time constants, activation energies and Curie points. From these parameters it was possible to evaluate the super saturation of vacancies, showing that the MAE can be used as practical method for the election of nuclear materials without attaining high fluences. Some observations have been performed for the sample FeNiCr (49,75 - 49,75 - 0,5% at), which showed pronounced anomalies in the initial permeability during linear annealing.(author)

  7. Theoretical Study of Watershed Eco-Compensation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dandan; Fu, Yicheng; Liu, Biu; Sha, Jinxia

    2018-01-01

    Watershed eco-compensation is an effective way to solve conflicts over water allocation and ecological destruction problems in the exploitation of water resources. Despite an increasing interest in the topic, the researches has neglected the effect of water quality and lacked systematic calculation method. In this study we reviewed and analyzed the current literature and proposedatheoretical framework to improve the calculation of co-compensation standard.Considering the perspectives of the river ecosystems, forest ecosystems and wetland ecosystems, the benefit compensation standard was determined by the input-output corresponding relationship. Based on the opportunity costs related to limiting development and water conservation loss, the eco-compensation standard was calculated.In order to eliminate the defects of eco-compensation implementation, the improvement suggestions were proposed for the compensation standard calculation and implementation.

  8. STANDARDIZATION OR ADAPTATION IN COSMETICS WEBSITES MARKETING ? AN EMPIRICAL STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Constantinescu-Dobra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The websites marketing is becoming an important tool both for multinationals and SMEs, in their effort to internationalizing their business.This study focuses on the international opportunities that are present within the European markets. The paper aims at identifying the degree of websites marketing standardization vs. adaptation, as a marketing tool for cosmetic products. Moreover, the study examines in a comparative manner the standardization strategy of multinationals and small and medium enterprises (SMEs, leaders in European markets, for different cosmetic cathegories.The evaluation of online advertising standardization is based on the modified Model for Testing Advertising Standardization, developed by Whitelock and Chung. The web sites degree of localizations areanalyzed based upon 98 criteria, as resulted from an adapted methodology of ProfNet Institut fur Internet Marketing, Munster (Germany. The sample includes the 101 leaders from European markets.The research outcomes reflect a standardized websites marketing policy for SMEs and localized for multinationals. Also, for perfumes, dental care products and toiletry, European cosmetic leaders implementstandardized websites marketing policies and balanced for the other cosmetics categories. The hypothesis concerning a strong correlation between standardization and handling dimension was supported.

  9. Density functional study of structural and electronic properties of bimetallic silver-gold clusters: Comparison with pure gold and silver clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacic-Koutecky, Vlasta; Burda, Jaroslav; Mitric, Roland; Ge, Maofa; Zampella, Giuseppe; Fantucci, Piercarlo

    2002-08-01

    Bimetallic silver-gold clusters offer an excellent opportunity to study changes in metallic versus "ionic" properties involving charge transfer as a function of the size and the composition, particularly when compared to pure silver and gold clusters. We have determined structures, ionization potentials, and vertical detachment energies for neutral and charged bimetallic AgmAun 3[less-than-or-equal](m+n)[less-than-or-equal]5 clusters. Calculated VDE values compare well with available experimental data. In the stable structures of these clusters Au atoms assume positions which favor the charge transfer from Ag atoms. Heteronuclear bonding is usually preferred to homonuclear bonding in clusters with equal numbers of hetero atoms. In fact, stable structures of neutral Ag2Au2, Ag3Au3, and Ag4Au4 clusters are characterized by the maximum number of hetero bonds and peripheral positions of Au atoms. Bimetallic tetramer as well as hexamer are planar and have common structural properties with corresponding one-component systems, while Ag4Au4 and Ag8 have 3D forms in contrast to Au8 which assumes planar structure. At the density functional level of theory we have shown that this is due to participation of d electrons in bonding of pure Aun clusters while s electrons dominate bonding in pure Agm as well as in bimetallic clusters. In fact, Aun clusters remain planar for larger sizes than Agm and AgnAun clusters. Segregation between two components in bimetallic systems is not favorable, as shown in the example of Ag5Au5 cluster. We have found that the structures of bimetallic clusters with 20 atoms Ag10Au10 and Ag12Au8 are characterized by negatively charged Au subunits embedded in Ag environment. In the latter case, the shape of Au8 is related to a pentagonal bipyramid capped by one atom and contains three exposed negatively charged Au atoms. They might be suitable for activating reactions relevant to catalysis. According to our findings the charge transfer in bimetallic

  10. NDT studies of laser cladding defects of pure copper on SS316L for in vessel materials for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.; Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Raole, P.M.; Sarkar, B.

    2015-01-01

    The pure thick copper coatings of 1-3 mm are required for the in-vessel materials for the plasma facing components in fusion reactor systems to extract the very high heat flux in shorter durations (like VDEs) and to protect the in vessel components. Laser cladding technique is one of the potential technique for thick coatings on substrate materials. The present study reports the NDT characterization studies carried on samples of pure copper powder cladded on SS316L substrates of thickness 1 mm - 3 mm , fabricated by CO_2 laser system. Process parameters optimization like laser power, laser travel speed, spot size, powder feed rate and shield gas flow show the effect on quality of final cladding on steel substrates. X-ray radiography and Ultrasonic testing has been carried out thoroughly on the fabricated samples and defects are analyzed. Ultrasonic scan tests using different probes are employed as the interface defects are not thoroughly revealed by radiography. The calibration has been carried out by the test sample plate with known defect size created and various process parameters like amplitude, gain and metal velocity, relevant to specimen are chosen for probes calibration. The interface defects of porosity, lack of penetration, cracks or group porosities are observed in few set of samples developed. Radiography examination revealed the porosity at extreme edges and distributed porosity in the middle for thick cladding. Ultrasonic manual A-scanning with TR probe provides qualitative information about flaw and broadly gives its location of the defects. Samples of 1 mm thick cladding have shown relatively less porosity defects at the interface compared to 3 mm thick samples. (author)

  11. Standardizing metadata and taxonomic identification in metabarcoding studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Ramirez, Kelly; Nilsson, R; Kaljuvee, Aivi; Koljalg, Urmas; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing-based metabarcoding studies produce vast amounts of ecological data, but a lack of consensus on standardization of metadata and how to refer to the species recovered severely hampers reanalysis and comparisons among studies. Here we propose an automated workflow covering

  12. Microstructural studies and wear assessments of Ti/TiC surface composite coatings on commercial pure Ti produced by titanium cored wires and TIG process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfared, A., E-mail: amirmonfared25@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H.; Asgari, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) process and titanium cored wires filled with micro size TiC particles were employed to produce surface composite coatings on commercial pure Ti substrate for wear resistance improvement. Wire drawing process was utilized to produce several cored wires from titanium strips and titanium carbide powders. Subsequently, these cored wires were melted and coated on commercial pure Ti using TIG process. This procedure was repeated at different current intensities and welding travel speeds. Composite coating tracks were found to be affected by TIG heat input. The microstructural studies using optical and scanning electron microscopy supported by X-ray diffraction showed that the surface composite coatings consisted of {alpha} Prime -Ti, spherical and dendritic TiC particles. Also, greater volume fractions of TiC particles in the coatings were found at lower heat input. A maximum microhardness value of about 1100 HV was measured which is more than 7 times higher than the substrate material. Pin-on-disk wear tests exhibited a better performance of the surface composite coatings than the untreated material which was attributed to the presence of TiC particles in the microstructure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti/TiC composite coatings were produced on the CP-Ti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium cored wire and TIG process were employed for production of the coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing heat input, increased the volume fraction of TiC in the coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum microhardness obtained in the lowest heat input. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wear resistance of the coatings improved due to the formation of TiC particles.

  13. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  14. Study of the defect structure of ''pure'' and doped nonstoichiometric CeO2. Final report, January 1, 1965--May 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, R.N.

    1977-11-01

    The defect structure and transport properties of defects in nonstoichiometric oxides was studied based on their electrical and thermodynamic behavior. Similar studies were also made on doped-nonstoichiometric oxides to determine the effect of the ionic radii, valence and concentration of the dopant cation on the nonstoichiometric defect structure and the transport properties of these defects. The thermodynamic and electrical property study on ''pure'' and doped-nonstoichiometric CeO 2 /sub -x/ is reviewed. The combined study of the electrical conductivity, ionic transference, and thermodynamic measurements initiated on CaO-doped CeO 2 as a function of temperature, oxygen pressure and CaO content is discussed. The results of similar measurements on CeO 2 doped with other oxides (e.g., ThO 2 , Ta 2 O 5 , etc.) which have cations with different valences and ionic radii are also discussed. The primary objective of these studies was to determine the effect of ionic radii, valence and concentration of the dopant cation on (1) the nonstoichiometric behavior, (2) the thermodynamic quantities ΔantiH/sub O 2 / and ΔantiS/sub O 2 /, (3) the nonstoichiometric defect structure, (4) the electronic and ionic conductivities, and (5) the mobility of electrons and oxygen vacancies in doped CeO 2 /sub -x/

  15. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., if the behavior results in work product(s), an analysis of the work product(s). Any job analysis.... This job analysis should show the work behavior(s) required for successful performance of the job, or... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical standards for validity studies. 1607.14 Section...

  16. Standards for Elementary Teacher Certification: A Fifty State Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Weible, Thomas

    A study of the minimum program standards established by 50 state education agencies for preparation and certification of elementary school teachers focused on the status of general education requirements, professional education requirements, and requirements for areas of concentration. Two reference points were employed in analysis of the…

  17. Investigative study of standards for Digital Repositories and related services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulonneau, Muriel; André, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and

  18. Maintenance Research in SOA Towards a Standard Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Chen, C.; Zaidman, A.E.; Gross, H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: 16th European Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering (CSMR), 27-30 March 2012; doi:10.1109/CSMR.2012.49 Maintenance research in the context of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is currently lacking a suitable standard case study that can be used by

  19. Color Spectrum Properties of Pure and Non-Pure LATEX in Discriminating Rubber Clone Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Aishah Khairuzzaman; Hadzli Hashim; Nina Korlina Madzhi; Noor Ezan Abdullah; Faridatul Aima Ismail; Ahmad Faiz Sampian; Azhana Fatnin Che Will

    2015-01-01

    A study of color spectrum properties for pure and non-pure latex in discriminating rubber clone series has been presented in this paper. There were five types of clones from the same series being used as samples in this study named RRIM2002, RRIM2007, RRIM2008, RRIM2014, and RRIM3001. The main objective is to identify the significant color spectrum (RGB) from pure and non-pure latex that can discriminate rubber clone series. The significant information of color spectrum properties for pure and non-pure latex is determined by using spectrometer and Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Visible light spectrum (VIS) is used as a radiation light of the spectrometer to emit light to the surface of the latex sample. By using SPSS software, the further numerical analysis of color spectrum properties is being conducted. As the conclusion, blue color spectrum for non-pure is able to discriminate for all rubber clone series whereas only certain color spectrum can differentiate several clone series for pure latex. (author)

  20. Pharmacognostic standardization and preliminary phytochemical studies of Gaultheria trichophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fiaz; Najum us Saqib, Qazi

    2015-01-01

    Gaultheria trichophylla Royle (Ericaceae) has long been used for various ailments in traditional systems of medicines; most importantly it is used against pain and inflammation. This study determines various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of medicinal plant G. trichophylla. Intact aerial parts, powdered materials, and extracts were examined macro- and microscopically and pharmacognostic standardization parameters were determined in accordance with the guidelines given by the World Health Organization (WHO). Parameters including extractive values, ash values, and loss on drying were determined. Preliminary phytochemical tests, fluorescence analysis, and chromatographic profiling were performed for the identification and standardization of G. trichophylla. The shape, size, color, odor, and surface characteristics were noted for intact drug and powdered drug material of G. trichophylla. Light and scanning electron microscope images of cross section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical, and fluorescence analysis proved useful tools to differentiate the powdered drug material. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin. The data generated from the present study help to authenticate the medicinally important plant G. trichophylla. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic features may be helpful for establishing the pharmacopeia standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and described along with phytochemical and physicochemical parameters, which could be helpful in further isolation and purification of medicinally important compounds.

  1. Pure Laparoscopic Versus Open Liver Resection for Primary Liver Carcinoma in Elderly Patients: A Single-Center, Case-Matched Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Tao; Wang, Hong-Guang; Duan, Wei-Dong; Wu, Cong-Ying; Chen, Ming-Yi; Li, Hao; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Fu-Bo; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Pure laparoscopic liver resection (PLLR) has been reported to be as safe and effective as open liver resection (OLR) for liver lesions, and it is associated with less intraoperative blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower complication rate. However, studies comparing PLLR with OLR in elderly patients were limited. The aim of this study was to analyze the short-term outcome of PLLR versus OLR for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in elderly patients.Between January 2008 and October 2014, 30 consecutive elderly patients (≥70 years) who underwent PLLR for PLC were included into analysis. Sixty patients who received OLR for PLC during the same study period were also included as a case-matched control group. Patients were well matched in terms of age, sex, comorbid illness, Child Pugh class, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, tumor size, tumor location, and extent of hepatectomy.No significant differences were observed with regard to patient preoperative baseline status, median tumor size (Group PLLR 4.0 cm vs Group OLR 5.0 cm, P = 0.125), tumor location, extent of hepatectomy, and operation time (Group PLLR 133 minutes vs Group OLR 170 minutes, P = 0.073). Compared with OLR, the PLLR group displayed a significantly less frequent Pringle maneuver application (10.0% vs 70.0%, P PLC is as safe and feasible as OLR, but with less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower hospitalization cost for selected elderly patients.

  2. Primary processes of the electron-protic species coupling in pure aqueous phases: - femtosecond laser spectroscopy study; - quantum approach of the electron-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommeret, Stanislas

    1991-01-01

    This thesis work deals with the coupling mechanisms between an electron, water molecules or protic species (hydronium ion, hydroxyl radical). Two complementary studies have been carry out in pure aqueous phases. The first one is concerned with the structural aspect of the hydrated electron which is studied via a semi-quantum approach Splitting Operator Method. The results indicates the importance of the second hydration shell in the localisation of an electron at 77 and 300 Kelvin. The second part of this work relates to the dynamic of the primary processes in light or heavy water at room temperature: the ion-molecule reaction, radical pair formation, geminate recombination of the hydrated electron with the hydronium ion and the hydroxyl radical. The dynamic of these reactions is studied by time resolved absorption spectroscopy from the near infrared to the near ultraviolet with a few tens femto-seconds temporal precision. The analysis of the primary processes takes into account the protic properties of water molecules. (author) [fr

  3. Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Pure and Metal-Doped Titania Nanoparticles Coated on Glass Beads: Adsorption and Column Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ihsan Danish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized metal oxide, Titania, provides high surface area and specific affinity for the adsorption of heavy metals, including arsenic (As, which is posing a great threat to the world population due to its carcinogenic nature. In this study, As(III adsorption was studied on pure and metal- (Ag- and Fe- doped Titania nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized by liquid impregnation method with some modifications, with crystallite size in the range of 30 to 40 nm. Band gap analysis, using Kubelka-Munk function showed a shift of absorption band from UV to visible region for the metal-doped Titania. Effect of operational parameters like dose of nanoparticles, initial As(III concentration, and pH was evaluated at 25°C. The data obtained gave a good fit with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics. In batch studies, over 90% of arsenic removal was observed for both types of metal-doped Titania nanoparticles from a solution containing up to 2 ppm of the heavy metal. Fixed bed columns of nanoparticles, coated on glass beads, were used for As(III removal under different operating conditions. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to predict the breakthrough curves and to find the characteristic column parameters useful for process design. The columns were regenerated using 10% NaOH solution.

  4. Validated sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for determination of antihistaminic drug azelastine HCl in pure form and in pharmaceutical dosage forms: application to stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Masry, Amal A; Hammouda, Mohammed E A; El-Wasseef, Dalia R; El-Ashry, Saadia M

    2017-03-01

    A highly sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of azelastine HCl (AZL) in either its pure state or pharmaceutical dosage form. The proposed method was based on measuring the native fluorescence of the studied drug in 0.2 M H 2 SO 4 at λ em  = 364 nm after excitation at λ ex  = 275 nm. Different experimental parameters were studied and optimized carefully to obtain the highest fluorescence intensity. The proposed method showed a linear dependence of the fluorescence intensity on drug concentration over a concentration range of 10-250 ng/mL, with a limit of detection of 1.52 ng/mL and limit of quantitation of 4.61 ng/mL. Moreover, the method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical preparations, with percent recovery values (± SD) of 99.96 (± 0.4) and 100.1 (± 0.52) for nasal spray and eye drops, respectively. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by the comparison method, as revealed by Student's t-test and the variance ratio F-test. The method was extended to study the stability of AZL under stress conditions, where the drug was exposed to neutral, acidic, alkaline, oxidative and photolytic degradation according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Theoretical study of oxygen adsorption on pure Au-n+1(+) and doped MAun+ cationic gold clusters for M = Ti, Fe and n=3-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, M. Begona; Fernandez Sanchez, Eva; Balbas, Luis C.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study of the adsorption of an O-2 molecule on pure Au-n+1(+) and doped MAun+ cationic gold clusters for n = 3-7 and M = Ti, Fe is presented. The simultaneous adsorption of two oxygen atoms also was studied. This work was performed by means of first principles calculations based...... with adsorption energies of 0.56 and 0.69 eV, respectively. The ground-state geometry of Au-n(+) is almost unperturbed after O-2 adsorption. The electronic charge flows towards O-2 when the molecule is adsorbed in bridge positions and towards the gold cluster when O-2 is adsorbed on top of An atoms, and both...... with size n are rationalized in terms of O-O and O-M bond distances, as well as charge transfer between oxygen and cluster substrates. The spin multiplicity of those (MAunO2+)(ad) complexes with the highest O-2 adsorption energy is a maximum (minimum) for M = Fe (Ti), corresponding to parallel (anti...

  6. The influence of surface oxygen and hydroxyl groups on the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate on pure Pd(1 0 0): A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanping [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dong, Xiuqin [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Yu, Yingzhe, E-mail: yzhyu@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Minhua, E-mail: mhzhangtj@163.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • All dehydrogenation reactions in vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) were studied. • The energy barriers of the transition state of the three reactions were calculated. • The influence of surface Os and OHs on all dehydrogenation actions was discussed. - Abstract: On the basis of a Langmuir–Hinshelwood-type mechanism, the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate (VAH) on pure Pd(1 0 0) with surface oxygen atoms (Os) and hydroxyl groups (OHs) was studied with density functional theory (DFT) method. Our calculation results show that both Os and OHs can consistently reduce the activation energies of dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and VAH to some degree with only one exception that OHs somehow increase the activation energy of VAH. Based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism, the three dehydrogenation reactions in presence of surface Os and OHs are almost consistently favored, compared with the corresponding processes on clean Pd(1 0 0) surfaces, and thus a Langmuir–Hinshelwood-type mechanism may not be excluded beforehand when investigating the microscopic performance of the oxygen-assisted vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) catalysts.

  7. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  8. [Study on seed quality test and quality standard of Lonicera macranthoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Jin; Li, Long-Yun; Cui, Guang-Lin; She, Yue-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Referring to the rules for agricultural seed testing (GB/T 3543-1995) issued by China, the test of sampling, purity, thousand seed weight, moisture, viability, relative conductivity and germination rate had been studied for seed quality test methods of Lonicera macranthoides. The seed quality from 38 different collection areas was measured to establish quality classification standard by K-means clustering. The results showed that at least 7.5 g seeds should be sampled, and passed 20-mesh sieve for purity analysis.The 500-seed method used to measure thousand seed weight. The moisture was determined by crushed seeds dried in high temperature (130±2) ℃ for 3 h.The viability determined by 25 ℃ 0.1% TTC stained 5h in dark. 1.0 g seeds soaked in 50 ml ultra pure water in 25 ℃ for 12 hours to determine the relative conductivity. The seed by 4 ℃stratification for 80 days were cultured on paper at 15 ℃. Quality of the seeds from different areas was divided into three grades. The primary seed quality classification standard was established.The I grade and II grade were recommend use in production. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Standardized Representation of Clinical Study Data Dictionaries with CIMI Archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak K; Solbrig, Harold R; Prud'hommeaux, Eric; Pathak, Jyotishman; Jiang, Guoqian

    2016-01-01

    Researchers commonly use a tabular format to describe and represent clinical study data. The lack of standardization of data dictionary's metadata elements presents challenges for their harmonization for similar studies and impedes interoperability outside the local context. We propose that representing data dictionaries in the form of standardized archetypes can help to overcome this problem. The Archetype Modeling Language (AML) as developed by the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) can serve as a common format for the representation of data dictionary models. We mapped three different data dictionaries (identified from dbGAP, PheKB and TCGA) onto AML archetypes by aligning dictionary variable definitions with the AML archetype elements. The near complete alignment of data dictionaries helped map them into valid AML models that captured all data dictionary model metadata. The outcome of the work would help subject matter experts harmonize data models for quality, semantic interoperability and better downstream data integration.

  10. Study of point defects in pure iron by means of electrical resistivity; Etude au moyen de la resistivite electrique des defauts ponctuels dans le fer pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minier-Cassayre, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-04-01

    In the first part of this work, after having reviewed the production, observation and the annealing of point defects In metals, we resume the present state of research. In the second part, we explain the techniques we have employed to produce point defects at low temperatures: irradiation, quenching and cold-work; and go on to the study of their migration and annealing. The experimental results obtained for pure iron and for iron containing certain impurities are presented in the third part. In the fourth part we suggest a model which explains the different stages of annealing observed, and their properties. We then compare the energies of interaction between point defects with the values deduced from the theory of elasticity. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie de cette etude, apres avoir passe en revue la production, l'observation et les modes de guerison des defauts ponctuels dans les metaux, nous exposons l'etat actuel des recherches. La seconde partie est consacree aux techniques que nous avons employees pour produire des defauts ponctuels a basse temperature: irradiations, trempe et ecrouissage puis a l'etude de leur migration et de leur guerison. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus dans le fer pur et le fer contenant certaines impuretes sont presentes dans le troisieme chapitre. Nous proposons ensuite un modele qui explique les differents stades de guerison observes et leurs nombreuses proprietes: nous comparons les energies d'interaction entre defauts ponctuels aux valeurs que l'on pourrait deduire d'un modele elastique. (auteur)

  11. Determination of C10-chloroalkane residues in fish matrices by short column gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion low resolution mass spectrometry applying single pure and representative synthesised chlorodecanes as standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaume, Florence; Coelhan, Mehmet; Parlar, Harun

    2006-01-01

    A new chlorodecane (CD) standard was developed consisting of five single compounds with 5-9 Cl-atoms, with which it was possible to determine chlorodecane residues in fish matrices from different countries using short column gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion low resolution mass spectrometry (SCGC/ECNI-LRMS). The concentrations found were between 4.8 and 30.2 ng/g fat. Pentachlorodecanes could not be detected in all samples. For an evaluation of the new CD-standard, the fish matrices were also quantified by several other polychlorinated decane (CP10) standards with different chlorine grade: 50, 55, 63.5, 65, and 70%. The concentrations found differed unsurprisingly considerable among the applied standards. Considering only these CP10:50-70% standards that showed the highest similarity in peak patterns with the fish samples, the differences in observed chlorodecane concentrations between these standards and the new CD-standard were low, varying only 1-16%. The CP10:50-70% standards were further quantified with the new CD-standard (chlorine content, 58.2%) with neglectable observed differences to the CP10:60, 63.5, and 65% standards. Highest differences were observed to the CP10:50, 55, and 70% standards. By this work, the quantification of eco-toxicologically relevant C10-chloroparaffins using the new CD-standard has led to reproducible and reliable results, which indicates further that these compounds are still a concerning class of substances in environmental fish samples

  12. Standardization of a Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Protocol to Investigate Dysphagia in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R A; Grobman, M E; Allen, M J; Schachtel, J; Rawson, N E; Bennett, B; Ledyayev, J; Hopewell, B; Coates, J R; Reinero, C R; Lever, T E

    2017-03-01

    Videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) is the gold standard for diagnosis of dysphagia in veterinary medicine but lacks standardized protocols that emulate physiologic feeding practices. Age impacts swallow function in humans but has not been evaluated by VFSS in dogs. To develop a protocol with custom kennels designed to allow free-feeding of 3 optimized formulations of contrast media and diets that address limitations of current VFSS protocols. We hypothesized that dogs evaluated by a free-feeding VFSS protocol would show differences in objective swallow metrics based on age. Healthy juvenile, adult, and geriatric dogs (n = 24). Prospective, experimental study. Custom kennels were developed to maintain natural feeding behaviors during VFSS. Three food consistencies (thin liquid, pureed food, and dry kibble) were formulated with either iohexol or barium to maximize palatability and voluntary prehension. Dogs were evaluated by 16 swallow metrics and compared across age groups. Development of a standardized VFSS protocol resulted in successful collection of swallow data in healthy dogs. No significant differences in swallow metrics were observed among age groups. Substantial variability was observed in healthy dogs when evaluated under these physiologic conditions. Features typically attributed to pathologic states, such as gastric reflux, were seen in healthy dogs. Development of a VFSS protocol that reflects natural feeding practices may allow emulation of physiology resulting in clinical signs of dysphagia. Age did not result in significant changes in swallow metrics, but additional studies are needed, particularly in light of substantial normal variation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Provenience studies using neutron activation analysis: the role of standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbottle, G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper covers the historical background of chemical analysis of archaeological artifacts which dates back to 1790 to the first application of neutron activation analysis to archaeological ceramics and goes on to elaborate on the present day status of neutron activation analysis in provenience studies, and the role of standardization. In principle, the concentrations of elements in a neutron-activated specimen can be calculated from an exact knowledge of neutron flux, its intensity, duration and spectral (energy) distribution, plus an exact gamma ray count calibrated for efficiency, corrected for branching rates, etc. However, in practice it is far easier to compare one's unknown to a standard of known or assumed composition. The practice has been for different laboratories to use different standards. With analyses being run in the thousands throughout the world, a great benefit would be derived if analyses could be exchanged among all users and/or generators of data. The emphasis of this paper is on interlaboratory comparability of ceramic data; how far are we from it, what has been proposed in the past to achieve this goal, and what is being proposed. All of this may be summarized under the general heading of Analytical Quality Control - i.e., how to achieve precise and accurate analysis. The author proposes that anyone wishing to analyze archaeological ceramics should simply use his own standard, but attempt to calibrate that standard as nearly as possible to absolute (i.e., accurate) concentration values. The relationship of Analytical Quality Control to provenience location is also examined

  14. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Malavi, Derick Nyabera; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Abong’, George Ooko

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were use...

  15. A comparative study on the skin penetration of pure tryptanthrin and tryptanthrin in Isatis tinctoria extract by dermal microdialysis coupled with isotope dilution ESI-LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Christine; Heinemann, Christian; Elsner, Peter; Benfeldt, Eva; Hamburger, Matthias

    2003-05-01

    The indolo[2,1- b]quinazoline alkaloid tryptanthrin has recently been identified as a pharmacologically active compound in Isatis tinctoria, with potent dual inhibitory activity on prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. To investigate the skin penetration of tryptanthrin from solutions of pure compound and Isatis extracts, we developed and validated a cutaneous microdialysis model using ex vivo pig foreleg. Microdialysis was performed by placing linear probes in the dermis of the skin in situ, and tryptanthrin concentrations in the dialysates were determined by isotope dilution electrospray ionization LC-MS in the selected ion mode. Measurable concentrations of tryptanthrin were detected 30 min after application. A dose-dependent increase in tryptanthrin concentrations in the dialysate was observed for the Isatis extracts, but not for pure tryptanthrin. Microscopic analysis showed that the pure compound crystallized from the solution but remained in an amorphous state in the extracts.

  16. Comparative Study between Standard and Totally Tubeless Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung Il; Lee, Yoon Hyung; Kim, Jae Soo; Cho, Sung Ryong; Kim, Bum Soo; Kwon, Joon Beom

    2012-11-01

    Several recent studies have reported the benefits of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Postoperatively, tubeless PNL patients have an indwelling ureteral stent placed, which is often associated with stent-related morbidity. We have performed totally tubeless (tubeless and stentless) PNL in which no nephrostomy tube or ureteral stent is placed postoperatively. We evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of totally tubeless PNL. From March 2008 to February 2012, 57 selected patients underwent standard or totally tubeless PNL. Neither a nephrostomy tube nor a ureteral stent was placed in the totally tubeless PNL group. We compared patient and stone characteristics, operation time, length of hospitalization, analgesia requirements, stone-free rate, blood loss, change in creatinine, and perioperative complications between the standard and totally tubeless PNL groups. There were no significant differences in preoperative patient characteristics, postoperative complications, or the stone-free rate between the two groups, but the totally tubeless PNL group showed a shorter hospitalization and a lesser analgesic requirement compared with the standard PNL group. Blood loss and change in creatinine were not significantly different between the two groups. Totally tubeless PNL appears to be a safe and effective alternative for the management of renal stone patients and is associated with a decrease in length of hospital stay.

  17. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell,D.A; Broadhead, L.W.; Harrell, W.J.

    2006-03-31

    The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightly controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Drivers of Student Satisfaction and Learning Experience in Hybrid-Online and Purely Online Marketing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelami, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Much of the existing research in distance education has focused on contrasting the outcomes between traditional face-to-face teaching and purely online courses, in which the entire course content is delivered online. However, research has not examined the effectiveness of hybrid-online courses, in which a combination of online delivery and…

  19. Comparison of new bone formation, implant integration, and biocompatibility between RGD-hydroxyapatite and pure hydroxyapatite coating for cementless joint prostheses--an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitschnau, Achim; Alt, Volker; Böhner, Felicitas; Heerich, Katharina Elisabeth; Margesin, Erika; Hartmann, Sonja; Sewing, Andreas; Meyer, Christof; Wenisch, Sabine; Schnettler, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    This is the first work to report on additional Arginin-Glycin-Aspartat (RGD) coating on precoated hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces regarding new bone formation, implant bone contact, and biocompatibility compared to pure HA coating and uncoated stainless K-wires. There were 39 rabbits in total with 6 animals for the RGD-HA and HA group for the 4 week time period and 9 animals for each of the 3 implant groups for the 12 week observation. A 2.0 K-wire either with RGD-HA or with pure HA coating or uncoated was placed into the intramedullary canal of the tibia. After 4 and 12 weeks, the tibiae were harvested and three different areas of the tibia were assessed for quantitative and qualitative histology for new bone formation, direct implant bone contact, and formation of multinucleated giant cells. Both RGD-HA and pure HA coating showed statistically higher new bone formation and implant bone contact after 12 weeks than the uncoated K-wire. There were no significant differences between the RGD-HA and the pure HA coating in new bone formation and direct implant bone contact after 4 and 12 weeks. The number of multinucleated giant did not differ significantly between the RGD-HA and HA group after both time points. Overall, no significant effects of an additional RGD coating on HA surfaces were detected in this model after 12 weeks. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Standard procedures for pooling health physics data for epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.; Beck, W.L.; Stansbury, P.S.; Tankersley, W.G.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: (1) to determine the availability of dosimetry data and supporting documentation at multiple facilities; (2) to develop criteria and methods for optimally retrieving data; (3) to evaluate and document the quality and completeness of data and dosimetry programs; (4) to put dosimetry data (e.g., external, whole body counting, and bioassay data) from various facilities in a single format for epidemiologic analysis; and (5) to document all work for peer review. To achieve these objectives, a ''Dosimetry Records and Radiation Hazards Questionnaire'' was developed to send to the facilities under study. Responses to this questionnaire are used to develop data retrieval criteria and methods, and to retrieve data. Dose data are reformatted into Standard Intermediate Dosimetry Files for editing and characterization. Evaluations of dosimetry programs are performed concurrently. Results of these steps are brought together and analysis files created. Status of this work in the context of the Department of Energy 5-Rem Study is reported. The standard procedures are applicable to single- as well as multiple-facility studies

  1. Rheological stratification of the Hormuz Salt Formation in Iran - microstructural study of the dirty and pure rock salts from the Kuh-e-Namak (Dashti) salt diapir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závada, Prokop; Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos; Schulmann, Karel; Rahmati, Mahmoud; Lexa, Ondrej; Wollenberg, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Significant viscosity contrasts displayed in flow structures of a mountain namakier (Kuh-e-Namak - Dashti), between 'weak' terrestrial debris bearing rock salt types and 'strong' pure rock salt types are questioned for deformation mechanisms using detailed quantitative microstructural study including crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) mapping of halite grains. While the solid impurity rich ("dirty") rock salts contain disaggregated siltstone and dolomite interlayers, "clean" salts (debris free) reveal microscopic hematite and remnants of abundant fluid inclusions in non-recrystallized cores of porphyroclasts. Although flow in both, the recrystallized dirty and clean salt types is accommodated by combined mechanisms of pressure-solution creep (PS), grain boundary sliding (GBS) and dislocation creep accommodated grain boundary migration (GBM), their viscosity contrasts are explained by significantly slower rates of intergranular diffusion and piling up of dislocations at hematite inclusions in clean salt types. Porphyroclasts of clean salts deform by semi-brittle and plastic mechanisms with intra-crystalline damage being induced also by fluid inclusions that explode in the crystals at high fluid pressures. Boudins of clean salt types with coarse grained and original sedimentary microstructure suggest that clean rock salts are associated with dislocation creep dominated power law flow in the source layer and the diapiric stem. Rheological contrasts between both rock salt classes apply in general for the variegated and terrestrial debris rich ("dirty") Lower Hormuz and the "clean" rock salt forming the Upper Hormuz, respectively, and suggest that large strain rate gradients likely exist along horizons of mobilized salt types of different composition and microstructure.

  2. Pure rotational CARS thermometry studies of low-temperature oxidation kinetics in air and ethene-air nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuzeek, Yvette; Choi, Inchul; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R

    2010-01-01

    Pure rotational CARS thermometry is used to study low-temperature plasma assisted fuel oxidation kinetics in a repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge in ethene-air at stoichiometric and fuel lean conditions at 40 Torr pressure. Air and fuel-air mixtures are excited by a burst of high-voltage nanosecond pulses (peak voltage, 20 kV; pulse duration, ∼ 25 ns) at a 40 kHz pulse repetition rate and a burst repetition rate of 10 Hz. The number of pulses in the burst is varied from a few pulses to a few hundred pulses. The results are compared with the previously developed hydrocarbon-air plasma chemistry model, modified to incorporate non-empirical scaling of the nanosecond discharge pulse energy coupled to the plasma with number density, as well as one-dimensional conduction heat transfer. Experimental time-resolved temperature, determined as a function of the number of pulses in the burst, is found to agree well with the model predictions. The results demonstrate that the heating rate in fuel-air plasmas is much faster compared with air plasmas, primarily due to energy release in exothermic reactions of fuel with O atoms generated by the plasma. It is found that the initial heating rate in fuel-air plasmas is controlled by the rate of radical (primarily O atoms) generation and is nearly independent of the equivalence ratio. At long burst durations, the heating rate in lean fuel air-mixtures is significantly reduced when all fuel is oxidized.

  3. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  4. Impact of radio iodine therapy in pure follicular thyroid carcinoma in young (21-40 years) Bangladeshi population- A retrospective 12 years study with 61 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A retrospective clinical and pathological study was carried out with 61 young adults having pure follicular carcinoma with distant metastases (lymph nodes/lungs / bones) with 11 patients (18.03%). After total or near total thyroidectomy, all patients were treated with radio-iodine (I 131) therapy in single, double or multiple doses (> two doses). The purpose of the study is to evaluate the outcome of follicular carcinoma in young adults after I131 therapy and a comparative effectiveness with different modes of radio-iodine doses. The study period was 1992 to 2003 (12 years). Overall mean age was 32.6 years (21-40 years) with female predominance as 2.2: 1 (female- 42 patients, 68.9% and male-19 patients, 31.1 %). At least four year survival without any evidence of clinical and pathological recurrence termed as successful ablation of follicular carcinoma. Ablation was achieved by single doses in 28 patients (45.90 %), by double doses in 16 patients (26.23 %), and by multiple doses in 17 patients (27.87 %). In case of distant metastasis, 10 patients needed multiple doses and one patient needed double doses for successful ablation. The ablative dose range was 100 mCi in single dose and 100-150 mCi in case of double and multiple doses. No patient's death was noticed during the follow up period. No significant secondary effects of radioiodine therapy were observed in our patient's series. Age is a very important factor in term of prognosis. Patients over 40 have a more aggressive disease and typically the tumor does not concentrate iodine as well as in younger patients (our study group). 72.13 % successful ablation was achieved by single/double doses of radioiodine, however recurrence rate was 27.87%. In comparison to internationally acceptable success rate (90%), this rate is low in our study. The overall recurrence rate was not affected by the presence of positive cervical nodes but appears to be associated with age factor, significant complication and

  5. Dual Target Search is Neither Purely Simultaneous nor Purely Successive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Kyle R; Menneer, Tamaryn; Nomani, Mohammad S; Stroud, Michael J; Donnelly, Nick

    2017-08-31

    Previous research shows that visual search for two different targets is less efficient than search for a single target. Stroud, Menneer, Cave and Donnelly (2012) concluded that two target colours are represented separately based on modeling the fixation patterns. Although those analyses provide evidence for two separate target representations, they do not show whether participants search simultaneously for both targets, or first search for one target and then the other. Some studies suggest that multiple target representations are simultaneously active, while others indicate that search can be voluntarily simultaneous, or switching, or a mixture of both. Stroud et al.'s participants were not explicitly instructed to use any particular strategy. These data were revisited to determine which strategy was employed. Each fixated item was categorised according to whether its colour was more similar to one target or the other. Once an item similar to one target is fixated, the next fixated item is more likely to be similar to that target than the other, showing that at a given moment during search, one target is generally favoured. However, the search for one target is not completed before search for the other begins. Instead, there are often short runs of one or two fixations to distractors similar to one target, with each run followed by a switch to the other target. Thus, the results suggest that one target is more highly weighted than the other at any given time, but not to the extent that search is purely successive.

  6. Quasinormal modes in pure de Sitter spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Daping; Wang Bin; Su Ruheng

    2004-01-01

    We have studied scalar perturbations as well as fermion perturbations in pure de Sitter spacetimes. For scalar perturbations we have shown that well-defined quasinormal modes in d-dimensions can exist provided that the mass of scalar field m>(d-1/2l). The quasinormal modes of fermion perturbations in three and four dimensional cases have also been investigated. We found that different from other dimensional cases, in the three dimensional pure de Sitter spacetime there is no quasinormal mode for the s-wave. This interesting difference caused by the spacial dimensions is true for both scalar and fermion perturbations

  7. Lanthanides in geological fluids: experimental study of standard thermodynamic properties and of solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourtier, E.

    2006-11-01

    Standard thermodynamic properties (STP) of lanthanides (Ln 3+ ) are necessary to predict their transport in hydrothermal fluids. New STP (apparent molal volumes and heat capacities) of Ln 3+ are determined with dilute (La 3+ , Nd 3+ , Gd 3+ , Yb 3+ ) triflates solutions, up to 300 deg. C and 300 bars, using a vibrating tube flow densimeter and a differential heat flow calorimeter. The triflate anion (CF 3 SO 3 ), stable at high temperature, does not form complexes with Ln 3+ . The STP of HCF 3 SO 3 and NaCF 3 SO 3 are measured in order to get the STP of CF 3 SO 3 . The solubility of the Nd-pure pole of monazite (NdPO 4 ) studied between 300 and 800 deg. C at 2 kbars in H 2 O and H 2 O+NaCl using weight loss and isotope dilution methods, is prograde for neutral pH. The study of Nd 3+ speciation at 650 deg. C and 300 deg. C, 2 kbars, shows that only hydroxylated species are present. These data allow the revision of Ln 3+ parameters in the HKF model. (author)

  8. Computed Tomography Perfusion of the liver: Assessment of Pure Portal Blood Flow Studied with CT Perfusion During Superior Mesenteric Arterial Portography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, H.; Tanigawa, N.; Komemushi, A.; Kariya, S.; Sawada, S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the portal component of hepatic blood flow using computed tomography (CT) perfusion studies during superior mesenteric arterial portography. Material and Methods: Thirty-four patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis (LC) and 13 patients with liver metastasis without chronic liver disease were enrolled in this study. Ten milliliters of a non-ionic contrast medium (150 mgI) was injected at a rate of 5 ml/s via a catheter placed in the superior mesenteric artery. Single-slice cine CT images at the level of the main trunk or the right/left main trunk of the portal vein were acquired over 40 s. The deconvolution method was then used on these CT images to measure blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and mean transit time (MTT) in (a) liver parenchyma in patients with HCC and liver cirrhosis; (b) liver parenchyma in patients with liver metastasis without cirrhosis; (c) directly in the HCC; and (d) directly in one of the metastases. Results: In 34 LC patients (a), BF, BV, and MTT in the liver parenchyma were 44.7±24.5 ml/min/100 g, 3.9±2.4 ml/100 g, and 10.9±5.5 s, respectively. In 13 patients without cirrhosis (b), BF, BV, and MTT in the liver parenchyma were 89.6±52.0 ml/min/100 g, 6.3 ±3.2 ml/100 g, and 8.7±3.6 sec, respectively. A significant difference in BF and BV was seen in patients with liver cirrhosis compared to those without cirrhosis. BF, BV, and MTT measured directly in HCC (c) were 6.5±4.5 ml/min/100 g, 0.4±0.4 ml/100 g, and 3.0±3.1 sec respectively, and BF, BV, and MTT in liver metastases (d) were 19.3 ± 21.7 ml/min/100 g, 0.6±0.8 ml/100 g, and 1.8±1.6 s, respectively. Conclusion: CT perfusion studies during superior mesenteric arterial portography allow quantitative assessment of pure portal blood flow in the liver

  9. Improving the robustness of a partial least squares (PLS) model based on pure component selectivity analysis and range optimization: Case study for the analysis of an etching solution containing hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngbok [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University Haengdang-Dong, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hoeil [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University Haengdang-Dong, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hoeil@hanyang.ac.kr; Arnold, Mark A. [Optical Science and Technology Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2006-07-14

    Pure component selectivity analysis (PCSA) was successfully utilized to enhance the robustness of a partial least squares (PLS) model by examining the selectivity of a given component to other components. The samples used in this study were composed of NH{sub 4}OH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, a popular etchant solution in the electronic industry. Corresponding near-infrared (NIR) spectra (9000-7500 cm{sup -1}) were used to build PLS models. The selective determination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} without influences from NH{sub 4}OH and H{sub 2}O was a key issue since its molecular structure is similar to that of H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}OH also has a hydroxyl functional group. The best spectral ranges for the determination of NH{sub 4}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were found with the use of moving window PLS (MW-PLS) and corresponding selectivity was examined by pure component selectivity analysis. The PLS calibration for NH{sub 4}OH was free from interferences from the other components due to the presence of its unique NH absorption bands. Since the spectral variation from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was broadly overlapping and much less distinct than that from NH{sub 4}OH, the selectivity and prediction performance for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} calibration were sensitively varied depending on the spectral ranges and number of factors used. PCSA, based on the comparison between regression vectors from PLS and the net analyte signal (NAS), was an effective method to prevent over-fitting of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} calibration. A robust H{sub 2}O{sub 2} calibration model with minimal interferences from other components was developed. PCSA should be included as a standard method in PLS calibrations where prediction error only is the usual measure of performance.

  10. Bringing Planctomycetes into pure culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Lage

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Planctomycetes have been known since the description of Planctomyces bekefii by Gimesi at the beginning of the twentieth century (1924, although the first axenic cultures were only obtained in the 1970s. Since then, eleven genera with fourteen species have been validly named and five candidatus genera belonging to the anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox bacteria have also been discovered. However, Planctomycetes diversity is much broader than these numbers indicate, as shown by environmental molecular studies. In recent years the authors have attempted to isolate and cultivate additional strains of Planctomycetes. This paper provides a summary of the isolation work that was carried out to obtain in pure culture Planctomycetes from several environmental sources. The following strains and planctomycetes have been successfully isolated: two freshwater strains from the sediments of an aquarium, which were described as a new genus and species, Aquisphaera giovannonii; several Rhodopirellula strains from the sediments of a water treatment recycling tank of a marine fish farm; and more than 140 planctomycetes from the biofilm community of macroalgae. This collection comprises several novel taxa that are being characterized and described. Improvements in the isolation methodology were made in order to optimize and enlarge the number of Planctomycetes isolated from the macroalgae. The existence of an intimate and an important relationship between planctomycetes and macroalgae reported before by molecular studies is therefore supported by culture dependent methods.

  11. Experimental study on heat transfer with condensation of vapors of pure nitrogen tetroxide with nitrogen oxide additions on a bundle of horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batishcheva, T.M.; Derov, B.T.; Kolykhan, L.I.; Pulyaev, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of heat transfer during condensation of pure N 2 O 4 vapours and with NO admixtures on the outside surface of a bundle of horizontal tubes are considered. The tests with pure N 2 O 4 have been performed at pressures between 0.3-1.0 MPa in the range of thermal loads 22-121 kW/m 2 , temperature heads of 5-33 grades with complete condensation and evaporation. The content of admixtures boiling at high temperatures do not exceed 0.8%. A concentration of noncondensing nitrogen oxide in a gas phase have changed in the range of 3-27%. It is shown, that a concentration of noncondensible NO doesn't result in a considerable decrease of the heat transfer intensity as well as in the case of condensation of vapour-liquid mixtures. The generalized criterion relations are presented

  12. A double-blind, randomized study comparing pure chromated glycerin with chromated glycerin with 1% lidocaine and epinephrine for sclerotherapy of telangiectasias and reticular veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Philippe; Ramelet, Albert-Adrien; Wutschert, Robert; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2011-11-01

    Chromated glycerin (CG) is an effective, although painful, sclerosing agent for telangiectasias and reticular leg veins treatment. To determine pain level and relative efficacy of pure or one-third lidocaine-epinephrine 1% mixed chromated glycerin in a prospective randomized double-blind trial. Patients presenting with telangiectasias and reticular leg veins on the lateral aspect of the thigh (C(1A) or (S) E(P) A(S) P(N1) ) were randomized to receive pure CG or CG mixed with one-third lidocaine-epinephrine 1% (CGX) treatment. Lower limb photographs were taken before and after treatment and analyzed by blinded expert reviewers for efficacy assessment (visual vein disappearance). Patients' pain and satisfaction were assessed using visual analogue scales. Data from 102 of 110 randomized patients could be evaluated. Patient pain scores were significantly higher when pure CG was used than with CGX (psclerotherapy pain without affecting efficacy when treating telangiectasias and reticular leg veins. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  13. Study on Planning Standards for Urban Renewal Areas in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper starts from the origin and evolution of city planning standards of Shenzhen before analyzing the new demands for the standards by the development of city renewal amid city transition,and establishes a primary framework for the planning standards and requirements.In addition,on the basis of comparing with the formulation of planning standards of Hong Kong,Shanghai,and Changsha,the paper carries out a discussion on the formulation ideas and main contents of the planning standards for the urban renewal areas in Shenzhen.Moreover,the paper also analyzes the standards for renewal objects,scope,mode,functions guidance,development control,and public facilities,all of which are quite heated issues and key elements in the process of formulation and approval of renewal planning,in order to improve the institutional structure of the City Planning Standards and Requirements of Shenzhen and meet the government’s demand in realizing a refined management.

  14. Fusion reactor design studies: standard accounts for cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.; Young, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The fusion reactor design studies--standard accounts for cost estimates provides a common format from which to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept costs estimates and also provide policymakers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concept may be economically promising. The format sets forth a categorization and accounting procedure to be used when estimating fusion reactor busbar energy cost that can be easily and consistently applied. Reasons for developing the procedure, explanations of the procedure, justifications for assumptions made in the procedure, and the applicability of the procedure are described in this document. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising design concepts thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  15. Physical fitness reference standards in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Gracia-Marco, L; Ortega, F B; Intemann, T; Foraita, R; Lissner, L; Oja, L; Barba, G; Michels, N; Tornaritis, M; Molnár, D; Pitsiladis, Y; Ahrens, W; Moreno, L A

    2014-09-01

    A low fitness status during childhood and adolescence is associated with important health-related outcomes, such as increased future risk for obesity and cardiovascular diseases, impaired skeletal health, reduced quality of life and poor mental health. Fitness reference values for adolescents from different countries have been published, but there is a scarcity of reference values for pre-pubertal children in Europe, using harmonised measures of fitness in the literature. The IDEFICS study offers a good opportunity to establish normative values of a large set of fitness components from eight European countries using common and well-standardised methods in a large sample of children. Therefore, the aim of this study is to report sex- and age-specific fitness reference standards in European children. Children (10,302) aged 6-10.9 years (50.7% girls) were examined. The test battery included: the flamingo balance test, back-saver sit-and-reach test (flexibility), handgrip strength test, standing long jump test (lower-limb explosive strength) and 40-m sprint test (speed). Moreover, cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a 20-m shuttle run test. Percentile curves for the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentiles were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Our results show that boys performed better than girls in speed, lower- and upper-limb strength and cardiorespiratory fitness, and girls performed better in balance and flexibility. Older children performed better than younger children, except for cardiorespiratory fitness in boys and flexibility in girls. Our results provide for the first time sex- and age-specific physical fitness reference standards in European children aged 6-10.9 years.

  16. Business standardization in Serbia and world: Comaparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Vidosav D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and implementation of standardized management system (SMS has allowed that today we are talking about business standardization, as the new model of good business practices applied worldwide. ISO 9000 was the forerunner, and today is the basis of business standardization. This can be said for ISO 9001: 2015, which was edited on September 15, and he will bring new models for other SMS. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the certification process in the world, Europe, the West Balkans and Serbia on various aspects, for seven standardized management systems for 2012/2013. year, and the first example of the application the new QMS model in Serbia.

  17. General entanglement-assisted transformation for bipartite pure quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Huang, Yan; Nai-LeLiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the general catalysts for pure entanglement transformations under local operations and classical communications in such a way that we disregard the profit and loss of entanglement of the catalysts per se. As such, the possibilities of pure entanglement transformations are greatly expanded. We also design an efficient algorithm to detect whether a k × k general catalyst exists for a given entanglement transformation. This algorithm can also be exploited to witness the existence of standard catalysts.

  18. Lanthanides in geological fluids: experimental study of standard thermodynamic properties and of solubilities; Les lanthanides dans les fluides geologiques: etude experimentale des proprietes thermodynamiques standard et des solubilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourtier, E

    2006-11-15

    Standard thermodynamic properties (STP) of lanthanides (Ln{sup 3+}) are necessary to predict their transport in hydrothermal fluids. New STP (apparent molal volumes and heat capacities) of Ln{sup 3+} are determined with dilute (La{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+}) triflates solutions, up to 300 deg. C and 300 bars, using a vibrating tube flow densimeter and a differential heat flow calorimeter. The triflate anion (CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}), stable at high temperature, does not form complexes with Ln{sup 3+}. The STP of HCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} and NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} are measured in order to get the STP of CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}. The solubility of the Nd-pure pole of monazite (NdPO{sub 4}) studied between 300 and 800 deg. C at 2 kbars in H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O+NaCl using weight loss and isotope dilution methods, is prograde for neutral pH. The study of Nd{sup 3+} speciation at 650 deg. C and 300 deg. C, 2 kbars, shows that only hydroxylated species are present. These data allow the revision of Ln{sup 3+} parameters in the HKF model. (author)

  19. Guest Editorial: The "NGSS" Case Studies: All Standards, All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-01-01

    To teachers of diverse classrooms, more rigorous standards in science may seem intimidating, as the past years of rigid accountability have failed to close the achievement gap. However, the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") were written with all students in mind, with input and full review by a diversity and equity…

  20. A comparative study of performance measurement standards of railway operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongjirawut Siripong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European standard (EN 13816, is one of the widely accepted standards for measuring the quality of public passenger transport (PPT service. EN 13816 indicates 8 measurement criteria, 29 sub-criteria and 193 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs to be used to measure the performance of railway operators. Nowadays, there are other addition criteria beyond EN13816, developed by various organisations. This research firstly aims to explore the service performance measurement of railway operators used by actual railway operators at international level and in Thailand. After an intensive review of performance measurement standards, 9 standards are compiled and compared in terms of criteria, sub-criteria and KPIs using a cluster analysis methodology. The result found additional performance measurement aspects at 2 sub-criteria and 91 KPIs in addition to EN 13816. This research summarized and compared different performance measurement standards to measure service quality of metro rail line.

  1. Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Mente, Andrew; Zhang, Xiaohe; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Li, Wei; Mohan, Viswanathan; Iqbal, Romaina; Kumar, Rajesh; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Rosengren, Annika; Amma, Leela Itty; Avezum, Alvaro; Chifamba, Jephat; Diaz, Rafael; Khatib, Rasha; Lear, Scott; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Liu, Xiaoyun; Gupta, Rajeev; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Gao, Nan; Oguz, Aytekin; Ramli, Anis Safura; Seron, Pamela; Sun, Yi; Szuba, Andrzej; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Wielgosz, Andreas; Yusuf, Rita; Hussein Yusufali, Afzal; Teo, Koon K; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Dagenais, Gilles; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Islam, Shofiqul; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-11-04

    The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3-9·3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake (carbohydrate, fats, and protein) based on percentage of energy provided by nutrients. We assessed the associations between consumption of carbohydrate, total fat, and each type of fat with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random intercepts to account for centre clustering. During follow-up, we documented 5796 deaths and 4784 major cardiovascular disease events. Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of total mortality (highest [quintile 5] vs lowest quintile [quintile 1] category, HR 1·28 [95% CI 1·12-1·46], p trend =0·0001) but not with the risk of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality. Intake of total fat and each type of fat was associated with lower risk of total mortality (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, total fat: HR 0·77 [95% CI 0·67-0·87], p trend fat, HR 0·86 [0·76-0·99], p trend =0·0088; monounsaturated fat: HR 0·81 [0·71-0·92], p trend fat: HR 0·80 [0

  2. study of the use of two standard- and non-standard-measuring devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Ostapkowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with leak detection in liquid transmission pipelines. Diagnostic method based on negative pressure wave detection is taken into account here. The paper focuses on variant of this method, related to the use of only two measurement points (devices, placed at the inlet and outlet of the pipeline. Standard transducers for measurement of pressure signals and non-standard elaborated technique for measurement of new diagnostic signals were used. New diagnostic signals, conventionally named the signals of weak interactions, result from the work of special devices (correctors joined to the pipeline. In order to compare both hardware solutions key performance attributes for the analyzed leak detection method were determined. The bases of such assessment were experimental tests. They were conducted with the use of a physical model of a pipeline. The pipeline was 380 meters long, 34 mm in internal diameter and made of polyethylene (PEHD pipes. The medium pumped through the pipeline was water. Carrying out such research, diagnostic procedures elaborated by the author were used and tested.[b]Keywords[/b]: technical diagnostics, pipelines, leak detection

  3. Pure type systems with subtyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, J.; Girard, J.-Y.

    1999-01-01

    We extend the framework of Pure Type Systems with subtyping, as found in F = ¿ . This leads to a concise description of many existing systems with subtyping, and also to some new interesting systems. We develop the meta-theory for this framework, including Subject Reduction and Minimal Typing. The

  4. Visual processing in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Habekost, Thomas; Gerlach, Christian

    2010-01-01

    affected. His visual apprehension span was markedly reduced for letters and digits. His reduced visual processing capacity was also evident when reporting letters from words. In an object decision task with fragmented pictures, NN's performance was abnormal. Thus, even in a pure alexic patient with intact...

  5. Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok k. Hemal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.

  6. Spectrochemical carriers and the matrix effect: contribution to the spectrographic analysis study of general impurities at trace level in nuclearly pure thorium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lordello, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of twenty spectrochemical carriers related to the volatilization behavior of twenty seven general impurities from thorium oxide matrices was studied by means of the moving plate technique. Each carrier was employed in three different concentrations, 2%, 4% and 6%. The relative areas of the volatilization curves have been used for comparing the results. Many experiments were also done to demonstrate the 'matrix effect' in samples having the same chemical composition. The importance of chemical and physical treatments, prior and during the preparation of the thorium oxide, was investigated through a large number of samples by submitting them to spectrochemical analysis. Thorium nitrate and two different thorium oxalate samples, one of which dried in a medium of pH 10, were ignited to ThO 2 according to a temperature versus time program. The presence of nitric acid in thorium nitrate solutions was also studied in connection with the matrix effect. A carrier-distillation method for the determination of twenty five trace elements in thorium compounds was also suggested. Several types of standards had been investigated but the best results were achieved with those prepared from thorium nitrate solutions. Some elements can be determined only by standards synthesized by the dry-mixing technique. The suggested carriers are: 2% NaF (for Ba, Cr, Mg, Sn, V, Cu, Ti, Sr, Mn, Al, Pb, Bi, Ca, Ag, Be, Sb, As, Si, and B), 4% NaCl (for Cd, Co, Fe, Zn and Ni) and 4% KCi (for Na). The method fulfils the requirements of sensitivity for the analysis of trace elements in nuclear grade thorium compounds. (Author) [pt

  7. Creep in commercially pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabarro, F.R.N.

    2006-01-01

    The creep of commercially pure polycrystalline metals under constant stress has four stages: a virtually instantaneous extension, decelerating Andrade β creep, almost steady-state Andrade κ creep, and an acceleration towards failure. Little is known about the first stage, and the fourth stage has been extensively reviewed elsewhere. The limited experimental evidence on the physical mechanism of the second stage is reviewed and a critical discussion is given of various theories of this stage. The dependence of strain rate on stress in the third, steady-state, period seems to fall into two regimes, a power law with an exponent of about 4-5, and a rather closely exponential law. The limits of the parameters within which a simple theory of the exponential dependence can be expected to be valid are discussed, and found to be compatible with experiments. Theories of the power-law dependence are discussed, and, appear to be unconvincing. The theoretical models do not relate closely to the metallographic and other physical observations. In view of the weakness of theory, experiments which may indicate the physical processes dominant in steady-state creep are reviewed. It is usually not clear whether they pertain to the power-law or the exponential regime. While the theories all assume that most of the deformation occurs homogeneously within the grains, most experimental observations point strongly to a large deformation at or close to the grain boundaries. However, a detailed study of dislocation processes in a single grain of polycrystalline foil strained in the electron microscope shows that most of the observed strain can be accounted for by the motion of single dislocations through the subgrain structure. There is no clear reconciliation of these two sets of observations. Grain-boundary sliding cannot occur without intragranular deformation. One or other process may dominate the overall deformation; the geometrically dominant process may not be the rate

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Pure and Al Modified BaSnO3 Thick Film Resistor and Studies of its Gas Sensing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. PATIL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the synthesis, microstructure, electric properties and sensing performance of BaSnO3 (BS powder, it was prepared by solid state mechano-chemical method. As prepared powder is calcinated at temperatures 1000 °C and 1200 °C and tested for crystallization. Thick films were prepared using simple yet effective screen-printing technology. Structural and electrical analyses were performed and the results have been correlated. The pure BS film shows good response (S=9.8 to NH3 at elevated temperature up to 500 °C along with response other gases with lower sensitivity such as CO2, CO, H2S for various gas concentrations, when the pure film is surface modified with Al2O3, film improves the selectivity and sensitivity. Maximum response (S=21.2 was found to H2S gas at temperature of 300 °C for gas concentration as low as up to 100 ppm. The characterization of the films was done by XRD, SEM and TGA. Crystallite size, surface area, electric properties and gas sensitivity of the films were measured and presented.

  9. CP Studies and Non-Standard Higgs Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraml, S.; Accomando, E.; G. Akeroyd, A.

    2006-01-01

    There are many possibilities for new physics beyond the Standard Model that feature non-standard Higgs sectors. These may introduce new sources of CP violation, and there may be mixing between multiple Higgs bosons or other new scalar bosons. Alternatively, the Higgs may be a composite state......, or there may even be no Higgs at all. These non-standard Higgs scenarios have important implications for collider physics as well as for cosmology, and understanding their phenomenology is essential for a full comprehension of electroweak symmetry breaking. This report discusses the most relevant theories...

  10. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Nyabera Malavi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs, hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were used in data collection. The results indicated low level of compliance to GMPs with an overall compliance score of 58%. Microbial counts on food equipment surfaces, installations, and personnel hands and in packaged OFSP puree were above the recommended microbial safety and quality legal limits. Steaming significantly (P<0.05 reduced microbial load in OFSP cooked roots but the counts significantly (P<0.05 increased in the puree due to postprocessing contamination. Total counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli and S. aureus counts in OFSP puree were 8.0, 4.0, 6.6, 5.8, 4.8, and 5.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, equipment surfaces, personnel hands, and processing water were major sources of contamination in OFSP puree processing and handling. Plant hygiene inspection, environmental monitoring, and food safety trainings are recommended to improve hygiene, microbial quality, and safety of OFSP puree.

  11. Workshop on CP Studies and Non-Standard Higgs Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Accomando, E.; Akhmetzyanova, E.; Albert, J.; Alves, A.; Amapane, N.; Aoki, M.; Azuelos, G.; Baffioni, S.; Ballestrero, A.; Barger, V.; Bartl, A.; Bechtle, P.; Blanger, G.; Belhouari, A.; Bellan, R.; Belyaev, A.; Benes, Petr; Benslama, K.; Bernreuther, W.; Besanon, M.; Bevilacqua, G.; Beyer, M.; Bluj, M.; Bolognesi, S.; Boonekamp, M.; Borzumati, Francesca; Boudjema, F.; Brandenburg, A.; Brauner, Tomas; Buszello, C.P.; Butterworth, J.M.; Carena, Marcela; Cavalli, D.; Cerminara, G.; Choi, S.Y.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Conley, John A.; Deandrea, A.; De Curtis, S.; Dermisek, R.; De Roeck, A.; Dewhirst, G.; Diaz, M.A.; Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Dietrich, D.D.; Dolgopolov, M.; Dominici, D.; Dubinin, M.; Eboli, O.; Ellis, John R.; Evans, N.; Fano, L.; Ferland, J.; Ferrag, S.; Fitzgerald, S.P.; Fraas, H.; Franke, F.; Gennai, S.; Ginzburg, I.F.; Godbole, R.M.; Gregoire, T.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grojean, C.; Gudnason, S.B.; Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.; Hahn, T.; Han, T.; Hankele, V.; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinemeyer, S.; Hesselbach, S.; Hewett, J.L.; Hidaka, K.; Hirsch, M.; Hollik, W.; Hooper, D.; Hosek, J.; Hubisz, J.; Hugonie, C.; Kalinowski, J.; Kanemura, S.; Kashkan, V.; Kernreiter, T.; Khater, W.; Khoze, V.A.; Kilian, W.; King, S.F.; Kittel, O.; Klamke, G.; Kneur, J.L.; Kouvaris, C.; Kraml, S.; Krawczyk, M.; Krstonoic, P.; Kyriakis, A.; Langacker, P.; Le, M.P.; Lee, H.-S.; Lee, J.S.; Lemaire, M.C.; Liao, Y.; Lillie, B.; Litvine, Vladimir A.; Logan, H.E.; McElrath, Bob; Mahmoud, T.; Maina, E.; Mariotti, C.; Marquard, P.; Martin, A.D.; Mazumdar, K.; Miller, D.J.; Min, P.; Monig, Klaus; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Moretti, S.; Muhlleitner, M.M.; Munir, S.; Nevzorov, R.; Newman, H.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikitenko, A.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Okada, Y.; Osland, P.; Pilaftsis, A.; Porod, W.; Przysiezniak, H.; Pukhov, A.; Rainwater, D.; Raspereza, A.; Reuter, J.; Riemann, S.; Rindani, S.; Rizzo, T.G.; Ros, E.; Rosado, A.; Rousseau, D.; Roy, D.P.; Ryskin, M.G.; Rzehak, H.; Sannino, F.; Schmidt, E.; Schrder, H.; Schumacher, M.; Semenov, A.; Senaha, E.; Shaughnessy, G.; Singh, R.K.; Terning, J.; Vacavant, L.; Velasco, M.; Villanova del Moral, Albert; von der Pahlen, F.; Weiglein, G.; Williams, J.; Williams, K.E.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Zeppenfeld, D.; Zerwas, D.; Zerwas, P.M.; Zerwekh, A.R.; Ziethe, J.; 2nd Workshop on CP Studies and Non-standard Higgs Physics; 3rd Workshop on CP Studies and Non-standard Higgs Physics; 4th Workshop on CP Studies and Non-standard Higgs Physics; CPNSH; Workshop on CP Studies and Non-standard Higgs Physics; CP Studies and Non-Standard Higgs Physics

    2006-01-01

    There are many possibilities for new physics beyond the Standard Model that feature non-standard Higgs sectors. These may introduce new sources of CP violation, and there may be mixing between multiple Higgs bosons or other new scalar bosons. Alternatively, the Higgs may be a composite state, or there may even be no Higgs at all. These non-standard Higgs scenarios have important implications for collider physics as well as for cosmology, and understanding their phenomenology is essential for a full comprehension of electroweak symmetry breaking. This report discusses the most relevant theories which go beyond the Standard Model and its minimal, CP-conserving supersymmetric extension: two-Higgs-doublet models and minimal supersymmetric models with CP violation, supersymmetric models with an extra singlet, models with extra gauge groups or Higgs triplets, Little Higgs models, models in extra dimensions, and models with technicolour or other new strong dynamics. For each of these scenarios, this report presents ...

  12. A Study of State Social Studies Standards for American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Connor K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author surveys social studies standards from 14 U.S. states seeking to answer: (a) what social studies knowledge about American Indians is deemed essential by those states mandating the development of American Indian Education curricula for all public K-12 students? and (b) at what grade levels is this social studies content…

  13. Multimedia programming with pure data

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    A quick and comprehensive tutorial book for media designers to jump-start interactive multimedia production with computer graphics, digital audio, digital video, and interactivity, using the Pure Data graphical programming environment.An introductory book on multimedia programming for media artists/designers who like to work on interactivity in their projects, digital art/design students who like to learn the first multimedia programming technique, and audio-visual performers who like to customize their performance sets

  14. Fulfillment of GMP standard, halal standard, and applying HACCP for production process of beef floss (Case study: Ksatria enterprise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'diat, Arkan Addien Al; Liquiddanu, Eko; Laksono, Pringgo Widyo; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Suletra, I. Wayan

    2018-02-01

    Along with the increasing number of the modern retail business in Indonesia, give an opportunity to small and medium enterprise (SME) to sell its products through the modern retailer. There are some obstacles faced by the SMEs, one of them is about product standard. Product standard that must be owned by SMEs are GMP standard and halal standard. This research was conducted to know the fulfillment by the beef floss enterprise in jagalan in fulfilling the GMP standard and halal. In addition, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system was applied to analyze the process. HACCP which used in this research was based on the seven principles in SNI (Indonesian National Standard) 01-4852-1998. The seven principles included hazard analysis, critical control point (CCP) determination, critical limit establishment, CCP monitor system establishment, corrective action establishment, verification, and also documentation establishment that must be applied in preparing HACCP plan. Based on this case study, it is concluded that there were 5 CCPs : the boiling process, roasting process, frying process, the beef floss draining process, and the packaging process.

  15. PSYCHE Pure Shift NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroozandeh, Mohammadali; Morris, Gareth; Nilsson, Mathias

    2018-03-13

    Broadband homodecoupling techniques in NMR, also known as "pure shift" methods, aim to enhance spectral resolution by suppressing the effects of homonuclear coupling interactions to turn multiplet signals into singlets. Such techniques typically work by selecting a subset of "active" nuclear spins to observe, and selectively inverting the remaining, "passive", spins to reverse the effects of coupling. Pure Shift Yielded by Chirp Excitation (PSYCHE) is one such method; it is relatively recent, but has already been successfully implemented in a range of different NMR experiments. Paradoxically, PSYCHE is one of the trickiest of pure shift NMR techniques to understand but one of the easiest to use. Here we offer some insights into theoretical and practical aspects of the method, and into the effects and importance of the experimental parameters. Some recent improvements that enhance the spectral purity of PSYCHE spectra will be presented, and some experimental frameworks including examples in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, for the implementation of PSYCHE will be introduced. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandia, Osvaldo; Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS_5×S"5 around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background

  17. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-05

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

  18. Pure subrings of the rings Zχ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsarev, Andrei V

    2009-01-01

    Pure subrings of finite rank in the Z-adic completion of the ring of integers and in its homomorphic images are considered. Certain properties of these rings are studied (existence of an identity element, decomposability into a direct sum of essentially indecomposable ideals, condition for embeddability into a csp-ring, etc.). Additive groups of these rings and conditions under which these rings are subrings of algebraic number fields are described. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  19. Production of Purely Gravitational Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ema, Yohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Tang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    In the purely gravitational dark matter scenario, the dark matter particle does not have any interaction except for gravitational one. We study the gravitational particle production of dark matter particle in such a minimal setup and show that correct amount of dark matter can be produced depending on the inflation model and the dark matter mass. In particular, we carefully evaluate the particle production rate from the transition epoch to the inflaton oscillation epoch in a realistic inflati...

  20. About the elaboration of pure uranium dicarbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.; Blum, P.; Guinet, Ph.; Spitz, J.

    1963-01-01

    In order to develop methods for the elaboration of as pure as possible uranium dicarbide, the authors report the study of different elaboration processes based on the reaction between uranium and carbon, or between uranium and hydrocarbon, or between uranium oxide and carbon. They finally choose a method which comprises an arc-induced fusion of a mixture of uranium dioxide and carbon. The fusion process is described. The influence of thermal treatments is discussed as well as the graphite electrode carburization

  1. Pure- and Mixed-Gas Transport Study of Nafion® and Its Fe3+-Substituted Derivative for Membrane-Based Natural Gas Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mukaddam, Mohsin A.

    2016-05-26

    in Nafion® was almost 2.5 times lower than that of typical hydrocarbon polymers, highlighting Nafion’s® effectiveness in resisting high-solubility induced plasticization. Additionally, Nafion® showed extraordinarily high permselectivities between small gases (He, H2, CO2) and large hydrocarbon gases (C1+): He/CH4 = 445, He/C3H8 = 7400, CO2/CH4 = 28, CO2/C3H8 = 460, H2/CH4 = 84 and H2/C3H8 = 1400 owing to its tightly packed chain domains. These high selectivities could potentially be harnessed for helium recovery and CO2 removal in natural gas applications, and hydrogen recovery from refinery gas streams. Pressure-dependent pure- and mixed-gas permeabilities in Nafion® were determined at 35 °C. Nafion® demonstrated two divergent pressure-dependent permeability phenomena: gas compression and plasticization. In pure-gas experiments, the permeability of the permanent gases H2, O2, N2 and CH4 decreased with increasing pressure due to polymer compression, whereas the permeability of the more condensable gases CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 increased dramatically due to solubility-induced plasticization. Binary CO2/CH4 (50:50) mixed-gas experiments showed reduced performance with up to 2-fold increases in CH4 permeability from 0.075 to 0.127 Barrer, and a 45% drop in selectivity (from 26 to 14), between 2 and 36 atm total pressure as a result of CO2-induced plasticization. At a typical NG CO2 partial pressure of 10 atm, Nafion® exhibited 24% lower CO2/CH4 selectivity of 19, with a 4-fold lower CO2 permeability of 1.8 Barrer relative to a commercial cellulose acetate (CA) membrane. Ternary CO2/CH4/C3H8 (30:50:20) experiments quantified the effect of CO2 and C3H8 plasticization. The presence of C3H8 reduced CO2 permeability further due to a competitive sorption effect causing a 31% reduction in CO2/CH4 selectivity, relative to its pure-gas value of 29, at 16 atm total feed pressure. The strong cation-exchanging sulfonate groups in Nafion® provided an opportunity to tailor the

  2. Standards for Reporting Mathematics Professional Development in Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztajn, Paola

    2011-01-01

    This Research Commentary addresses the need for standards for describing mathematics professional development in mathematics education research reports. Considering that mathematics professional development is an emerging research field, it is timely to set expectations for what constitutes high-quality reporting in this field. (Contains 2 tables.)

  3. Modern standardization case studies at the crossroads of technology, economics, and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiderman, R

    2015-01-01

    Modern Standardization -- Case Studies at the Crossroads of Technology, Economics, and Politics covers the development of new technical standards, how these standards are typically triggered, and how they are submitted to standards development organizations (SDOs) for review and evaluation. It fills the gap in the shortage of reference material in the development of real-world standards. The increasing pace of innovation in technology has accelerated the competitive nature of standardization, particularly in emerging markets. Modern Standardization addresses these and other issues through a series of case studies in a format designed for academics and their engineering, business, and law school students.

  4. Black hole attractors and pure spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Jonathan P.; Maloney, Alexander; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    We construct black hole attractor solutions for a wide class of N = 2 compactifications. The analysis is carried out in ten dimensions and makes crucial use of pure spinor techniques. This formalism can accommodate non-Kaehler manifolds as well as compactifications with flux, in addition to the usual Calabi-Yau case. At the attractor point, the charges fix the moduli according to Σf k = Im(CΦ), where Φ is a pure spinor of odd (even) chirality in IIB (A). For IIB on a Calabi-Yau, Φ = Ω and the equation reduces to the usual one. Methods in generalized complex geometry can be used to study solutions to the attractor equation

  5. Black Hole Attractors and Pure Spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Jonathan P.; Maloney, Alexander; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    We construct black hole attractor solutions for a wide class of N = 2 compactifications. The analysis is carried out in ten dimensions and makes crucial use of pure spinor techniques. This formalism can accommodate non-Kaehler manifolds as well as compactifications with flux, in addition to the usual Calabi-Yau case. At the attractor point, the charges fix the moduli according to Σf k = Im(CΦ), where Φ is a pure spinor of odd (even) chirality in IIB (A). For IIB on a Calabi-Yau, Φ = (Omega) and the equation reduces to the usual one. Methods in generalized complex geometry can be used to study solutions to the attractor equation

  6. Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, V.B., E-mail: vic5907@mail.r [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaia St., 13, Bd. 2. Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Trigger, S.A., E-mail: satron@mail.r [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaia St., 13, Bd. 2. Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-18

    Highlights: The review of the critical opalescence problem is presented. Light scattering in a two-component electron-nuclear system is studied. The exact relations between the structure factors and compressibility are found. The obtained relations are valid for strong interaction for the Coulomb systems. The experimental verification of these relations is possible for various elements. - Abstract: Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.

  7. Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, V.B.; Trigger, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The review of the critical opalescence problem is presented. → Light scattering in a two-component electron-nuclear system is studied. → The exact relations between the structure factors and compressibility are found. → The obtained relations are valid for strong interaction for the Coulomb systems. → The experimental verification of these relations is possible for various elements. - Abstract: Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.

  8. Experimental and theoretical study of pure and doped crystals: Gd2O2S, Gd2O2S:Eu3+ and Gd2O2S:Tb3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Xiumin; Liu, Dachun; Yang, Bin; Dai, Yongnian

    2012-08-01

    Quantum chemistry and experimental method were used to study on pure and doped Gd2O2S crystals in this paper. The band structure and DOS diagrams of pure and doped Gd2O2S crystals which calculated by using DFT (Density Functional Theory) method were illustrated to explain the luminescent properties of impurities in crystals. The calculations of the crystal structure were finished by using the program of CASTEP (Cambridge Sequential Total Energy Package). The samples showed the characteristic emissions of Tb3+ ions with 5D4-7FJ transitions and Eu3+ ions with 5D0-7FJ transitions which emit pure green luminescence and red luminescence respectively. The experimental excitation spectra of Tb3+ and Eu3+ doped Gd2O2S are in agreement of the DOS diagrams over the explored energy range, which has allowed a better understanding of different luminescence mechanisms of Tb3+ and Eu3+ in Gd2O2S crystals.

  9. Investigating the Language Demands in the Common Core State Standards for English Language Learners: A Comparison Study of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Wang, Yuan; Huang, Becky H.; Blood, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on a critical review of the language demands contained in the Common Core State Standards for English language arts (CCSS-ELA) with the aim of deriving important implications for the instruction of English language learners. The language demands of the CCSS-ELA were compared with those of existing English language arts (ELA) and…

  10. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-01-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ( 37 Cs and 60 Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ( 90 Sr+ 9' 0Y e 204 Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  11. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  12. Implementation of IEC standard models for power system stability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaris, Ioannis D.; Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Wind Energy; Bech, John; Andresen, Bjoern [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the generic wind turbine generator (WTG) electrical simulation models proposed in the IEC 61400-27 standard which is currently in preparation. A general overview of the different WTG types is given while the main focus is on Type 4B WTG standard model, namely a model for a variable speed wind turbine with full scale power converter WTG including a 2-mass mechanical model. The generic models for fixed and variable speed WTGs models are suitable for fundamental frequency positive sequence response simulations during short events in the power system such as voltage dips. The general configuration of the models is presented and discussed; model implementation in the simulation software platform DIgSILENT PowerFactory is presented in order to illustrate the range of applicability of the generic models under discussion. A typical voltage dip is simulated and results from the basic electrical variables of the WTG are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  13. Study on Quality Standard of Processed Curcuma Longa Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To control the quality of Curcuma Longa Radix by establishing quality standards, this paper increased the contents of extract and volatile oil determination. Meanwhile, the curcumin was selected as the internal marker, and the relative correlation factors (RCFs of demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The contents of multicomponents were calculated based on their RCFs. The rationality and feasibility of the methods were evaluated by comparison of the quantitative results between external standard method (ESM and quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single-marker (QAMS. Ethanol extracts ranged from 9.749 to 15.644% and the mean value was 13.473%. The volatile oil ranged from 0.45 to 0.90 mL/100 g and the mean value was 0.66 mL/100 g. This method was accurate and feasible and could provide a reference for further comprehensive and effective control of the quality standard of Curcuma Longa Radix and its processed products.

  14. Quality standards in 480 pancreatic resections: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Herrera-Cabezón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic resection is a standard procedure for the treatment of periampullary tumors. Morbidity and mortality are high, and quality standards are scarce in our setting. International classifications of complications (Clavien-Dindo and those specific for pancreatectomies (ISGPS allow adequate case comparisons. The goals of our work are to describe the morbidity and mortality of 480 pancreatectomies using the international classifications ISGPS and Clavien-Dindo to help establish a quality standard in our setting and to compare the results of CPD with reconstruction by pancreaticogastrostomy (1,55 versus 177 pancreaticojejunostomy. We report 480 resections including 337 duodenopancreatectomies, 116 distal pancreatectomies, 11 total pancreatectomies, 10 central pancreatectomies, and 6 enucleations. Results for duodenopancreatectomy include: 62 % morbidity (Clavien ≥ III 25.9 %, 12.3 % reinterventions, and 3.3 % overall mortality. For reconstruction by pancreaticojejunostomy: 71.2 % morbidity (Clavien ≥ III 34.4 %, 17.5 % reinterventions, and 3.3 % mortality. For reconstruction by pancreaticogastrostomy: 51 % morbidity (Clavien ≥ III 15.4%, 6.4 % reinterventions, and 3.2 % mortality. Differences are significant except for mortality. We conclude that our series meets quality criteria as compared to other groups. Reconstruction with pancreaticogastrostomy significantly reduces complication number and severity, as well as pancreatic fistula and reintervention rates.

  15. Study on Quality Standard of Processed Curcuma Longa Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongfeng; Quan, Liang; Zhou, Haiting; Cao, Dong; Li, Wenbing; Yang, Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    To control the quality of Curcuma Longa Radix by establishing quality standards, this paper increased the contents of extract and volatile oil determination. Meanwhile, the curcumin was selected as the internal marker, and the relative correlation factors (RCFs) of demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of multicomponents were calculated based on their RCFs. The rationality and feasibility of the methods were evaluated by comparison of the quantitative results between external standard method (ESM) and quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single-marker (QAMS). Ethanol extracts ranged from 9.749 to 15.644% and the mean value was 13.473%. The volatile oil ranged from 0.45 to 0.90 mL/100 g and the mean value was 0.66 mL/100 g. This method was accurate and feasible and could provide a reference for further comprehensive and effective control of the quality standard of Curcuma Longa Radix and its processed products. PMID:29375640

  16. Initial singularity and pure geometric field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, M. I.; Kamal, Mona M.; Dabash, Tahia F.

    2018-01-01

    In the present article we use a modified version of the geodesic equation, together with a modified version of the Raychaudhuri equation, to study initial singularities. These modified equations are used to account for the effect of the spin-torsion interaction on the existence of initial singularities in cosmological models. Such models are the results of solutions of the field equations of a class of field theories termed pure geometric. The geometric structure used in this study is an absolute parallelism structure satisfying the cosmological principle. It is shown that the existence of initial singularities is subject to some mathematical (geometric) conditions. The scheme suggested for this study can be easily generalized.

  17. Study of elevated temperature design standard against thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai; Morishita, Masaki

    2001-01-01

    Elevated temperature components must be designed against both pressure and thermal loads. In the case of sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors, a restriction from the pressure load becomes small because of the high boiling point of sodium. Design approaches for thermal loads (displacement-controlled) are compared with those against pressure loads (load-controlled). Considering differences between those two approaches, a concept of the elevated temperature design standard that takes the nature of thermal loads fully into account is proposed. This concept is a basis of load evaluation techniques and an inelastic analysis guide, that are being developed. Finally, problems and plans to realize the above concept are discussed. (author)

  18. [Study on quality standards of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbing; Hu, Changjiang; Long, Lanyan; Huang, Qinwan; Xie, Xiuqiong

    2010-12-01

    To establish the quality criteria for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia. Decoction pieces of salt Alpinia were measured with moisture, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils according to the procedures recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010. The content of Nootkatone was determined by HPLC, and NaCl, by chloridion electrode method. We obtained results of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils of 10 batches of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia moisture; Meanwhile we set the HPLC and chloridion electrode method. This research established a fine quality standard for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia.

  19. Magnetic and Mössbauer studies of pure and Ti-doped YFeO _3 nanocrystalline particles prepared by mechanical milling and subsequent sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, N. O.; Widatallah, H. M.; Gismelseed, A. M.; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Sofin, R. G. S.; Pekala, M.

    2016-01-01

    Single-phased nanocrystalline particles of pure and 10 % Ti "4"+-doped perovskite-related YFeO _3were prepared via mechanosynthesis at 450"∘C. This temperature is ∼150–350 "∘C lower than those at which the materials, in bulk form, are normally prepared. Rietveld refinements of the X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the dopant Ti "4"+ ions prefer interstitial octahedral sites in the orthorhombic crystal lattice rather than those originally occupied by the expelled Fe "3"+ ions. Magnetic measurements show canted antiferromagnetism in both types of nanoparticles. Doping with Ti "4"+ lowers the Néel temperature of the YFeO _3 nanoparticles from ∼ 586 K to ∼ 521 K. The Ti "4"+-doped YFeO _3 nanoparticles exhibit enhanced magnetization and coercivity but less magnetic hyperfine fields relative to the un-doped nanoparticles. The "5"7Fe Mössbauer spectra show ∼ 15 % of the YFeO _3 nanoparticles and ∼22 of Ti "4"+-doped YFeO _3 ones to be superparamagnetic with blocking temperatures < 78 K. The broadened magnetic components in the "5"7Fe Mössbauer spectra suggest size-dependent hyperfine magnetic fields at the "5"7Fe nuclear sites and were associated with collective magnetic excitations. The "5"7Fe Mössbauer spectra show the local environments of the Fe "3"+ ions in the superparamagnetic nanoparticles to be more sensitive to the presence of the Ti "4"+ ions relative to those in the larger magnetic nanoparticles.

  20. Magnetic and Mössbauer studies of pure and Ti-doped YFeO {sub 3} nanocrystalline particles prepared by mechanical milling and subsequent sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, N. O. [University of Khartoum, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Sudan); Widatallah, H. M., E-mail: hishammw@squ.edu.om; Gismelseed, A. M.; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Sofin, R. G. S. [Sultan Qaboos University, Physics Department, College of Science (Oman); Pekala, M. [University of Warsaw, Chemistry Department (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Single-phased nanocrystalline particles of pure and 10 % Ti {sup 4+}-doped perovskite-related YFeO {sub 3}were prepared via mechanosynthesis at 450{sup ∘}C. This temperature is ∼150–350 {sup ∘}C lower than those at which the materials, in bulk form, are normally prepared. Rietveld refinements of the X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the dopant Ti {sup 4+} ions prefer interstitial octahedral sites in the orthorhombic crystal lattice rather than those originally occupied by the expelled Fe {sup 3+} ions. Magnetic measurements show canted antiferromagnetism in both types of nanoparticles. Doping with Ti {sup 4+} lowers the Néel temperature of the YFeO {sub 3} nanoparticles from ∼ 586 K to ∼ 521 K. The Ti {sup 4+}-doped YFeO {sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit enhanced magnetization and coercivity but less magnetic hyperfine fields relative to the un-doped nanoparticles. The {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra show ∼ 15 % of the YFeO {sub 3} nanoparticles and ∼22 of Ti {sup 4+}-doped YFeO {sub 3} ones to be superparamagnetic with blocking temperatures < 78 K. The broadened magnetic components in the {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra suggest size-dependent hyperfine magnetic fields at the {sup 57}Fe nuclear sites and were associated with collective magnetic excitations. The {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra show the local environments of the Fe {sup 3+} ions in the superparamagnetic nanoparticles to be more sensitive to the presence of the Ti {sup 4+} ions relative to those in the larger magnetic nanoparticles.

  1. [Study on standardization of cupping technique: elucidation on the establishment of the National Standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-zhong; Liu, Bing

    2010-02-01

    From the aspects of basis, technique descriptions, core contents, problems and solutions, and standard thinking in standard setting process, this paper states experiences in the establishment of the national standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping, focusing on methodologies used in cupping standard setting process, the method selection and operating instructions of cupping standardization, and the characteristics of standard TCM. In addition, this paper states the scope of application, and precautions for this cupping standardization. This paper also explaines tentative ideas on the research of standardized manipulation of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  2. pupyMPI - MPI implemented in pure Python

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromer, Rune; Hantho, Frederik; Vinter, Brian

    2011-01-01

    As distributed memory systems have become common, the de facto standard for communication is still the Message Passing Interface (MPI). pupyMPI is a pure Python implementation of a broad subset of the MPI 1.3 specifications that allows Python programmers to utilize multiple CPUs with datatypes...

  3. California Diploma Project Technical Report II: Alignment Study--Alignment Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Draft Standards and California's Exit Level Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughy, Charis; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education is in the process of revising the Career and Technical Education (CTE) Model Curriculum Standards. The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted an investigation of the draft version of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards (Health Science). The purpose of the study is to…

  4. Comparative in vitro biocompatibility of nickel-titanium, pure nickel, pure titanium, and stainless steel: genotoxicity and atomic absorption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, M; Lemieux, N; Rivard, C H; Yahia, L H

    1999-01-01

    The genotoxicity level of nickel-titanium (NiTi) was compared to that of its pure constituents, pure nickel (Ni) and pure titanium (Ti) powders, and also to 316L stainless steel (316L SS) as clinical reference material. In order to do so, a dynamic in vitro semiphysiological extraction was performed with all metals using agitation and ISO requirements. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were then cultured in the presence of all material extracts, and their comparative genotoxicity levels were assessed using electron microscopy-in situ end-labeling (EM-ISEL) coupled to immunogold staining. Cellular chromatin exposition to pure Ni and 316L SS demonstrated a significantly stronger gold binding than exposition to NiTi, pure Ti, or the untreated control. In parallel, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was also performed on all extraction media. The release of Ni atoms took the following decreasing distribution for the different resulting semiphysiological solutions: pure Ni, 316L SS, NiTi, Ti, and controls. Ti elements were detected after elution of pure titanium only. Both pure titanium and nickel-titanium specimens obtained a relative in vitro biocompatibility. Therefore, this quantitative in vitro study provides optimistic results for the eventual use of nickel-titanium alloys as surgical implant materials.

  5. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abong', George Ooko

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were used in data collection. The results indicated low level of compliance to GMPs with an overall compliance score of 58%. Microbial counts on food equipment surfaces, installations, and personnel hands and in packaged OFSP puree were above the recommended microbial safety and quality legal limits. Steaming significantly (P contamination. Total counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli and S. aureus counts in OFSP puree were 8.0, 4.0, 6.6, 5.8, 4.8, and 5.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, equipment surfaces, personnel hands, and processing water were major sources of contamination in OFSP puree processing and handling. Plant hygiene inspection, environmental monitoring, and food safety trainings are recommended to improve hygiene, microbial quality, and safety of OFSP puree. PMID:29808161

  6. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavi, Derick Nyabera; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Abong', George Ooko

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were used in data collection. The results indicated low level of compliance to GMPs with an overall compliance score of 58%. Microbial counts on food equipment surfaces, installations, and personnel hands and in packaged OFSP puree were above the recommended microbial safety and quality legal limits. Steaming significantly ( P contamination. Total counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli and S. aureus counts in OFSP puree were 8.0, 4.0, 6.6, 5.8, 4.8, and 5.9 log 10 cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, equipment surfaces, personnel hands, and processing water were major sources of contamination in OFSP puree processing and handling. Plant hygiene inspection, environmental monitoring, and food safety trainings are recommended to improve hygiene, microbial quality, and safety of OFSP puree.

  7. Concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hoshang

    2005-01-01

    We propose concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states based on an orthogonal complement of a positive operator-valued measure on quantum phase. In particular, we construct W m class, GHZ m , and GHZ m-1 class concurrences for general pure m-partite states. We give explicit expressions for W 3 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure three-partite states and for W 4 , GHZ 4 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure four-partite states

  8. Quality assessment of biodiesels obtained from pure cooking oils of some feedstocks and their waste oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Ansari, T.M.; Manzoor, S.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel being a renewable energy resource possesses compositional variability based on the type of feedstock. Biodiesel is considered a cleaner burning fuel and can be used as pure B100 or blended with petro-diesel. In this study, biodiesel was prepared from pure cooking oils (soybean oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) and their waste frying oils by base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide. The optimized experimental parameters were applied to achieve the maximum yield of biodiesel. Various fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, total acid number, specific gravity, water and sediments, conradson carbon residue, sulfur contents, phosphorous contents, sulphated ash, cetane and copper corrosion were determined and found comparable to ASTM standards. Pure cooking oils, their waste frying oils and prepared biodiesels were characterized by FT-IR. The study showed that the biodiesel derived from waste frying oils can be a promising alternative of the biodiesel from pure cooking oils. (author)

  9. Optimal purely functional priority queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Okasaki, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Brodal recently introduced the first implementation of imperative priority queues to support findMin, insert and meld in O(1) worst-case time, and deleteMin in O(log n) worst-case time. These bounds are asymptotically optimal among all comparison-based priority queues. In this paper, we adapt...... Brodal's data structure to a purely functional setting. In doing so, we both simplify the data structure and clarify its relationship to the binomial queues of Vuillemin, which support all four operations in O(log n) time. Specifically, we derive our implementation from binomial queues in three steps......: first, we reduce the running time of insert to O(1) by eliminating the possibility of cascading links; second, we reduce the running time of findMin to O(1) by adding a global root to hold the minimum element; and finally, we reduce the running time of meld to O(1) by allowing priority queues to contain...

  10. Musical notation reading in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Wong, Yetta K.

    2017-01-01

    Pure alexia (PA) is an acquired reading disorder following lesions to left ventral temporo-occipital cortex. Patients with PA read slowly but correctly, and show an abnormal effect of word length on RTs. However, it is unclear how pure alexia may affect musical notation reading. We report a pure...

  11. Analysis of pure maple syrup consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Sendak

    1974-01-01

    Virtually all of the pure maple syrup productim in the United States is in the northern states of Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Pure maple syrup users living in the maple production area and users living in other areas of the United States were asked a series of questions about their use of pure...

  12. Real-time high-resolution X-ray imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance study of the hydration of pure and Na-doped C3A in the presence of sulfates

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.

    2011-02-21

    This study details the differences in real-time hydration between pure tricalcium aluminate (cubic C3A or 3CaO·Al2O 3) and Na-doped tricalcium aluminate (orthorhombic C3A or Na2Ca8Al6O18), in aqueous solutions containing sulfate ions. Pure phases were synthesized in the laboratory to develop an independent benchmark for the reactions, meaning that their reactions during hydration in a simulated early age cement pore solution (saturated with respect to gypsum and lime) were able to be isolated. Because the rate of this reaction is extremely rapid, most microscopy methods are not adequate to study the early phases of the reactions in the early stages. Here, a high-resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging technique operating in the X-ray water window, combined with solution analysis by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to capture information regarding the mechanism of C3A hydration during the early stages. There are differences in the hydration mechanism between the two types of C3A, which are also dependent on the concentration of sulfate ions in the solution. The reactions with cubic C3A (pure) seem to be more influenced by higher concentrations of sulfate ions, forming smaller ettringite needles at a slower pace than the orthorhombic C3A (Na-doped) sample. The rate of release of aluminate species into the solution phase is also accelerated by Na doping. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. The Biosulin equivalence in standard therapy (BEST) study − a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -label, non-randomised, interventional, observational study in subjects using Biosulin ... Methods. Subjects in this interventional, observational, multicentre, open-label, prospective study were switched from their existing human premix insulin ...

  14. Pure phase decoherence in a ring geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.; Aharony, A.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Stamp, P. C. E.

    2010-01-01

    We study the dynamics of pure phase decoherence for a particle hopping around an N-site ring, coupled both to a spin bath and to an Aharonov-Bohm flux which threads the ring. Analytic results are found for the dynamics of the influence functional and of the reduced density matrix of the particle, both for initial single wave-packet states, and for states split initially into two separate wave packets moving at different velocities. We also give results for the dynamics of the current as a function of time.

  15. Radial and axial compression of pure electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Soga, Y.; Mihara, Y.; Takeda, M.; Kamada, K.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies are carried out on compression of the density distribution of a pure electron plasma confined in a Malmberg-Penning Trap in Kanazawa University. More than six times increase of the on-axis density is observed under application of an external rotating electric field that couples to low-order Trivelpiece-Gould modes. Axial compression of the density distribution with the axial length of a factor of two is achieved by controlling the confining potential at both ends of the plasma. Substantial increase of the axial kinetic energy is observed during the axial compression. (author)

  16. Preparation of a pure molecular quantum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Jens; Kraemer, Tobias; Mark, Michael; Weber, Tino; Chin, Cheng; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph; Grimm, Rudolf

    2003-09-12

    An ultracold molecular quantum gas is created by application of a magnetic field sweep across a Feshbach resonance to a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms. The ability to separate the molecules from the atoms permits direct imaging of the pure molecular sample. Magnetic levitation enables study of the dynamics of the ensemble on extended time scales. We measured ultralow expansion energies in the range of a few nanokelvin for a sample of 3000 molecules. Our observations are consistent with the presence of a macroscopic molecular matter wave.

  17. Dynamical structure of pure Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Naresh; Durka, Remigiusz; Merino, Nelson; Miskovic, Olivera

    2016-03-01

    We study the dynamical structure of pure Lovelock gravity in spacetime dimensions higher than four using the Hamiltonian formalism. The action consists of a cosmological constant and a single higher-order polynomial in the Riemann tensor. Similarly to the Einstein-Hilbert action, it possesses a unique constant curvature vacuum and charged black hole solutions. We analyze physical degrees of freedom and local symmetries in this theory. In contrast to the Einstein-Hilbert case, the number of degrees of freedom depends on the background and can vary from zero to the maximal value carried by the Lovelock theory.

  18. Corrosion of pure OFHC-copper in simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1990-04-01

    The research program 'Corrosion of pure OFHC-copper in simulated repository conditions' was planned to provide an experimental evaluation with respect to the theoretical calculations and forecasts made for the corrosion behaviour of pure copper in bentonite groundwater environments at temperatures between 20-80 deg C. The aim of this study in the first place is to evaluate the effects of groundwater composition, bentonite and temperature on the equilibrium and possible corrosion reactions between pure copper and the simulated repository environment. The progress report includes the results obtained after 36 months exposure time

  19. Social phobia, panic disorder and suicidality in subjects with pure and depressive mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilsaver, Steven C; Chen, Yuan-Who

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study is to ascertain the rates of social phobia, panic disorder and suicidality in the midst of the manic state among subjects with pure and depressive mania. Subjects received evaluations entailing the use of serial standard clinical interviews, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) and a structured interview to determine whether they met the criteria for intra-episode social phobia (IESP) and panic disorder (IEPD). The diagnoses of major depressive disorder and mania were rendered using the Research Diagnostic Criteria. The diagnoses of IESP and IEPD were rendered using DSM-III-R criteria. Categorization as being suicidal was based on the SADS suicide subscale score. Twenty-five (56.8%) subjects had pure and 19 (43.2%) subjects had depressive mania. None of the subjects with pure and 13 (68.4%) with depressive mania had IESP (Pdepressive mania had IEPD (Pdepressive were suicidal. Twelve of 13 (92.3%) subjects with depressive mania met the criteria for IESP and IEPD concurrently (Pdepressive but not pure mania exhibited high rates of both IESP and IEPD. Concurrence of the disorders is the rule. The findings suggest that databases disclosing a relationship between panic disorder and suicidality merit, where possible, reanalysis directed at controlling for the effect of social phobia.

  20. Ab-initio study of pure sup 7 sup 7 Se and sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 Te systems and of the sup 7 sup 7 Se nuclear quadrupole interaction in tellurium

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Y K; Cho, H S

    1999-01-01

    Using the Hartree-Fock cluster procedure, we have studied the electric-field gradient tensors at the nuclear sites of sup 7 sup 7 Se and sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 Te in pure sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 Te systems and in tellurium crystalline system's with a sup 7 sup 7 Se impurity. From the results for the pure systems, sup 7 sup 7 Se in selenium and sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 Te in tellurium, using the observed quadrupole moments: Q( sup 7 sup 7 Se) 0.75 +- 0.07 barns and Q( sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 Te) = 0.35 +- 0.04 barns. Comparison is made with earlier values obtained by different methods. Using our calculated values of Q and the results of a study of the field-gradient tensors for sup 7 sup 7 Se in tellurium, the theoretical values of the quadrupole coupling constants are found to agree, within about 7 percent, with experiment. The calculated asymmetry parameters are also found to be in reasonable agreement with the experiment values, although the agreement not as close as in the case of the quadrupole -coupling constants. Directions fo...

  1. Pure state condition for the semi-classical Wigner function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozorio de Almeida, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Wigner function W(p,q) is a symmetrized Fourier transform of the density matrix e(q 1 ,q 2 ), representing quantum-mechanical states or their statistical mixture in phase space. Identification of these two alternatives in the case of density matrices depends on the projection identity e 2 = e; its Wigner correspondence is the pure state condition. This criterion is applied to the Wigner functions botained from standard semiclassical wave functions, determining as pure states those whose classical invariant tori satisfy the generalized Bohr-Sommerfeld conditions. Superpositions of eigenstates are then examined and it is found that the Wigner function corresponding to Gaussian random wave functions are smoothed out in the manner of mixedstate Wigner functions. Attention is also given to the pure-state condition in the case where an angular coordinate is used. (orig.)

  2. Relativistic stars with purely toroidal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Kenta; Yoshida, Shijun

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the purely toroidal magnetic field on the equilibrium structures of the relativistic stars. The basic equations for obtaining equilibrium solutions of relativistic rotating stars containing purely toroidal magnetic fields are derived for the first time. To solve these basic equations numerically, we extend the Cook-Shapiro-Teukolsky scheme for calculating relativistic rotating stars containing no magnetic field to incorporate the effects of the purely toroidal magnetic fields. By using the numerical scheme, we then calculate a large number of the equilibrium configurations for a particular distribution of the magnetic field in order to explore the equilibrium properties. We also construct the equilibrium sequences of the constant baryon mass and/or the constant magnetic flux, which model the evolution of an isolated neutron star as it loses angular momentum via the gravitational waves. Important properties of the equilibrium configurations of the magnetized stars obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) For the nonrotating stars, the matter distribution of the stars is prolately distorted due to the toroidal magnetic fields. (2) For the rapidly rotating stars, the shape of the stellar surface becomes oblate because of the centrifugal force. But, the matter distribution deep inside the star is sufficiently prolate for the mean matter distribution of the star to be prolate. (3) The stronger toroidal magnetic fields lead to the mass shedding of the stars at the lower angular velocity. (4) For some equilibrium sequences of the constant baryon mass and magnetic flux, the stars can spin up as they lose angular momentum.

  3. Comparative Study between Standard and Totally Tubeless Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Sung Il; Lee, Yoon Hyung; Kim, Jae Soo; Cho, Sung Ryong; Kim, Bum Soo; Kwon, Joon Beom

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Several recent studies have reported the benefits of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Postoperatively, tubeless PNL patients have an indwelling ureteral stent placed, which is often associated with stent-related morbidity. We have performed totally tubeless (tubeless and stentless) PNL in which no nephrostomy tube or ureteral stent is placed postoperatively. We evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of totally tubeless PNL. Materials and Methods From March 20...

  4. Physical layer simulation study for the coexistence of WLAN standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howlader, M. K. [Marquette Univ., 222 Haggerty Hall, P. O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Keiger, C. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation, 9111 Cross Park Drive, Knoxville, TN 37923 (United States); Ewing, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, MS-6006, P. O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Govan, T. V. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, MS T-10-D20, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the performance of wireless local area network (WLAN) devices in the presence of interference from other wireless devices. To understand the coexistence of these wireless protocols, simplified physical-layer-system models were developed for the Bluetooth, Wireless Fidelity (WiFi), and Zigbee devices, all of which operate within the 2.4-GHz frequency band. The performances of these protocols were evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations under various interference and channel conditions. The channel models considered were basic additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), Rayleigh fading, and site-specific fading. The study also incorporated the basic modulation schemes, multiple access techniques, and channel allocations of the three protocols. This research is helping the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) understand the coexistence issues associated with deploying wireless devices and could prove useful in the development of a technical basis for guidance to address safety-related issues with the implementation of wireless systems in nuclear facilities. (authors)

  5. Physical layer simulation study for the coexistence of WLAN standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlader, M. K.; Keiger, C.; Ewing, P. D.; Govan, T. V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the performance of wireless local area network (WLAN) devices in the presence of interference from other wireless devices. To understand the coexistence of these wireless protocols, simplified physical-layer-system models were developed for the Bluetooth, Wireless Fidelity (WiFi), and Zigbee devices, all of which operate within the 2.4-GHz frequency band. The performances of these protocols were evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations under various interference and channel conditions. The channel models considered were basic additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), Rayleigh fading, and site-specific fading. The study also incorporated the basic modulation schemes, multiple access techniques, and channel allocations of the three protocols. This research is helping the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) understand the coexistence issues associated with deploying wireless devices and could prove useful in the development of a technical basis for guidance to address safety-related issues with the implementation of wireless systems in nuclear facilities. (authors)

  6. Lamp reliability studies for improved satellite rubidium frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueholz, R. P.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Eckert, H. U.; Volk, C. H.; Jones, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    In response to the premature failure of Rb lamps used in Rb atomic clocks onboard NAVSTAR GPS satellites experimental and theoretical investigations into their failure mechanism were initiated. The primary goal of these studies is the development of an accelerated life test for future GPS lamps. The primary failure mechanism was identified as consumption of the lamp's Rb charge via direct interaction between Rb and the lamp's glass surface. The most effective parameters to accelerate the interaction between the Rb and the glass are felt to be RF excitation power and lamp temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to monitor the consumption of Rb within a lamp as a function of operation time. This technique yielded base line Rb consumption data for GPS lamps operating under normal conditions.

  7. Testing effects in mixed- versus pure-list designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Christopher A; Littrell-Baez, Megan K; Sensenig, Amanda E; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of list composition in the testing effect. Across three experiments, participants learned items through study and initial testing or study and restudy. List composition was manipulated, such that tested and restudied items appeared either intermixed in the same lists (mixed lists) or in separate lists (pure lists). In Experiment 1, half of the participants received mixed lists and half received pure lists. In Experiment 2, all participants were given both mixed and pure lists. Experiment 3 followed Erlebacher's (Psychological Bulletin, 84, 212-219, 1977) method, such that mixed lists, pure tested lists, and pure restudied lists were given to independent groups. Across all three experiments, the final recall results revealed significant testing effects for both mixed and pure lists, with no reliable difference in the magnitude of the testing advantage across list designs. This finding suggests that the testing effect is not subject to a key boundary condition-list design-that impacts other memory phenomena, including the generation effect.

  8. Purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, F I; Fahle, M

    2001-05-01

    Visual figure-ground segregation is achieved by exploiting differences in features such as luminance, colour, motion or presentation time between a figure and its surround. Here we determine the shortest delay times required for figure-ground segregation based on purely temporal features. Previous studies usually employed stimulus onset asynchronies between figure- and ground-containing possible artefacts based on apparent motion cues or on luminance differences. Our stimuli systematically avoid these artefacts by constantly showing 20 x 20 'colons' that flip by 90 degrees around their midpoints at constant time intervals. Colons constituting the background flip in-phase whereas those constituting the target flip with a phase delay. We tested the impact of frequency modulation and phase reduction on target detection. Younger subjects performed well above chance even at temporal delays as short as 13 ms, whilst older subjects required up to three times longer delays in some conditions. Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal delays down to around 10 ms even in the absence of luminance and motion artefacts, indicating a temporal precision of cortical information processing almost an order of magnitude lower than the one required for some models of feature binding in the visual cortex [e.g. Singer, W. (1999), Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, 189-194]. Hence, in our experiment, observers are unable to use temporal stimulus features with the precision required for these models.

  9. Nanoporous Au: an unsupported pure gold catalyst?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittstock, A; Neumann, B; Schaefer, A; Dumbuya, K; Kuebel, C; Biener, M; Zielasek, V; Steinrueck, H; Gottfried, M; Biener, J; Hamza, A; B?umer, M

    2008-09-04

    The unique properties of gold especially in low temperature CO oxidation have been ascribed to a combination of various effects. In particular, particle sizes below a few nm and specific particle-support interactions have been shown to play important roles. On the contrary, recent reports revealed that monolithic nanoporous gold (npAu) prepared by leaching a less noble metal, such as Ag, out of the corresponding alloy can also exhibit remarkably high catalytic activity for CO oxidation, even though no support is present. Therefore, it was claimed to be a pure and unsupported gold catalyst. We investigated npAu with respect to its morphology, surface composition and catalytic properties. In particular, we studied the reaction kinetics for low temperature CO oxidation in detail taking mass transport limitation due to the porous structure of the material into account. Our results reveal that Ag, even if removed almost completely from the bulk, segregates to the surface resulting in surface concentrations of up to 10 at%. Our data suggest that this Ag plays a significant role in activation of molecular oxygen. Therefore, npAu should be considered as a bimetallic catalyst rather than a pure Au catalyst.

  10. A study on the effects of the CAFE standard on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Seung-Pyo; Yoo, Hyoung Sun; Kim, Ji-Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed how the CAFE standard has affected improvements in the fuel economy of vehicles, as examined in other preceding studies, but in addition, we also analyzed how these standards have affected the level of consumer interest in fuel economy. Our goal was to determine what effects the government intervention has had on consumers, and whether such intervention ought to be continued. The results showed that not only has the CAFE standard had a direct and significant impact on improving fuel economy and increasing the market share of fuel-efficient vehicles, it has also boosted the development of technologies for enhancing fuel economy and raised consumer interest in fuel economy, thus indirectly contributing to overcoming market failure. The significance of this study is that we used publically available observed data and analyzed the recent impact of the CAFE standard specifically with a focus on the behavior and strategies exhibited by consumers and automakers. Another significance of this study is that it extends our purview to examine the effects that the CAFE standard has had in other countries (Korea). - Highlights: •CAFE standards have raised consumer interest in fuel economy such as MPG. •CAFE standards had a significant impact on increasing fuel-efficient vehicles •Sales of HEVs are more significantly affected by CAFE standards than by WTI. •CAFE standards had a significant impact on a foreign vehicle market. •Analysis suggests the standards will continue to be necessary for market growth.

  11. Polarized ensembles of random pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunden, Fabio Deelan; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    A new family of polarized ensembles of random pure states is presented. These ensembles are obtained by linear superposition of two random pure states with suitable distributions, and are quite manageable. We will use the obtained results for two purposes: on the one hand we will be able to derive an efficient strategy for sampling states from isopurity manifolds. On the other, we will characterize the deviation of a pure quantum state from separability under the influence of noise. (paper)

  12. Polarized ensembles of random pure states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    A new family of polarized ensembles of random pure states is presented. These ensembles are obtained by linear superposition of two random pure states with suitable distributions, and are quite manageable. We will use the obtained results for two purposes: on the one hand we will be able to derive an efficient strategy for sampling states from isopurity manifolds. On the other, we will characterize the deviation of a pure quantum state from separability under the influence of noise.

  13. Fundamentals of the Pure Spinor Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Hoogeveen, Joost

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents recent developments within the pure spinor formalism, which has simplified amplitude computations in perturbative string theory, especially when spacetime fermions are involved. Firstly the worldsheet action of both the minimal and the non-minimal pure spinor formalism is derived from first principles, i.e. from an action with two dimensional diffeomorphism and Weyl invariance. Secondly the decoupling of unphysical states in the minimal pure spinor formalism is proved

  14. Determining the Antifungal Agent Clioquinol by HPLC, the Not so Pure Preparation: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Hobika, Geoffrey

    2018-01-01

    The case study approach provides students with a better appreciation of how scientists solve problems and conduct themselves in the "real world". When applied to the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, this approach also challenges critical thinking skills and creativity in ways "cook book" experiments very often do not. This…

  15. A Study of the Relationship between Academic Achievement Motivation and Home Environment among Standard Eight Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muola, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. The study was carried out on 235 standard eight Kenyan pupils from six urban and rural primary schools randomly selected from Machakos district. Their age ranged between 13 and 17 years. Two…

  16. Pure Surface Texture Mapping Technology and it's Application for Mirror Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of pure surface texture mapping technology, pure texture surface rendering method is proposed. The method is combined pure surface texture rendering and view mirror, real-time rendering has an index of refraction, reflection, and the flow of water ripple effect. Through the experimental verification of the validity of the algorithm.

  17. A mechanism for revising accreditation standards: a study of the process, resources required and evaluation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David; Civil, Mike; Donnison, Andrew; Hogden, Anne; Hinchcliff, Reece; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-11-21

    The study objective was to identify and describe the process, resources and expertise required for the revision of accreditation standards, and report outcomes arising from such activities. Secondary document analysis of materials from an accreditation standards development agency. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' (RACGP) documents, minutes and reports related to the revision of the accreditation standards were examined. The RACGP revision of the accreditation standards was conducted over a 12 month period and comprised six phases with multiple tasks, including: review methodology planning; review of the evidence base and each standard; new material development; constructing field trial methodology; drafting, trialling and refining new standards; and production of new standards. Over 100 individuals participated, with an additional 30 providing periodic input and feedback. Participants were drawn from healthcare professional associations, primary healthcare services, accreditation agencies, government agencies and public health organisations. Their expertise spanned: project management; standards development and writing; primary healthcare practice; quality and safety improvement methodologies; accreditation implementation and surveying; and research. The review and development process was shaped by five issues: project expectations; resource and time requirements; a collaborative approach; stakeholder engagement; and the product produced. The RACGP evaluation was that participants were positive about their experience, the standards produced and considered them relevant for the sector. The revision of accreditation standards requires considerable resources and expertise, drawn from a broad range of stakeholders. Collaborative, inclusive processes that engage key stakeholders helps promote greater industry acceptance of the standards.

  18. Thermal, Dielectric Studies on Pure and Amino Acid L-Glutamic Acid, L-Histidine L-Valine Doped Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, P.; Babu, S. Moorthy; Anbarasan, P. M.

    Amino acids (L-Glutamic acid, L-Histidine, L-Valine) doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals were grown by the solution growth technique. Slow cooling as well as slow evaporation methods were employed to grow these crystals. The concentration of dopants in the mother solution was varied from 0.1 mole % to 10 mole %. The solubility data for all dopant concentrations were determined. The variation in pH and the corresponding habit modification of the grown crystals were characterized with UV - VIS, FT-IR and SHG trace elements, and dielectric studies reveal slight distortion of lattice parameter for the heavily doped KDP crystals. TGA-DTA studies reveal good thermal stability. The dopants increase the hardness value of the material, which also depends on the concentration of the dopants. Amino acids doping improved the NLO properties. The detailed results on the spectral parameters, habit modifications and constant values will be presented.

  19. The liquid phase epitaxy approach for the successful construction of ultra-thin and defect-free ZIF-8 membranes: Pure and mixed gas transport study

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama; Swaidan, Raja; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Du Plessis, Marike; Jacobs, Tia; Barbour, Leonard J.; Pinnau, Ingo; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) method was effectively implemented to deliberately grow/construct ultrathin (0.5-1 μm) continuous and defect-free ZIF-8 membranes. Permeation properties of different gas pair systems (O 2-N2, H2-CO2, CO2-CH 4, C3H6-C3H8, CH 4-n-C4H10) were studied using the time lag technique. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Thermal, dielectric studies on pure and amino acid ( L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, L-valine) doped KDP single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, P.; Moorthy Babu, S.; Anbarasan, P. M.

    2008-05-01

    Amino acids ( L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, L-valine) doped potassium dihydrogen phospate crystals are grown by solution growth technique. Slow cooling as well as slow evaporation methods were employed to grow these crystals. The concentration of dopants in the mother solution was varied from 0.1 mol% to 10 mol%. The solubility data for all dopants concentration were determined. There is variation in pH value and hence, there is habit modification of the grown crystals were characterized with UV-VIS, FT-IR studies, SHG trace elements and dielectric studies reveal slight distortion of lattice parameter for the heavily doped KDP crystals. UV-Visible spectra confirm the improvement in the transparency of these crystals on doping metal ions. FT-IR spectra reveal strong absorption band between 1400 and 1600 cm -1 for metal ion doped crystals. TGA-DTA studies reveal good thermal stability. The dopants increase the hardness value of the material and it also depends on the concentration of the dopants. Amino acids doping improved the NLO properties. The detailed results on the spectral parameters, habit modifications and constant values will be presented.

  1. Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies Third Edition, 2012, Draft Presented to the Educational Community by the American Educational Studies Association's Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutwiler, Sandra Winn; deMarrais, Kathleen; Gabbard, David; Hyde, Andrea; Konkol, Pamela; Li, Huey-li; Medina, Yolanda; Rayle, Joseph; Swain, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This third edition of the "Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies" is presented to the educational community by the American Educational Studies Association's Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation. The Standards were first developed and…

  2. Study of the electronic structure of pure aluminium, aluminium oxide and nitride by spectroscopy of electrons excited under electronic and photonic bombardment (X and UV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier-Soyer, Martine

    1985-01-01

    This research thesis reports the use of electron spectroscopy with electrons excited under electronic or photonic (X or UV) bombardment for the study of electronic state density of aluminium, aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and aluminium nitride (AlN). The objective is to get an insight into phenomena related to technological problems of adherence, wear, lubrication, corrosion or breakdown met in metals, insulators and semiconductors. The author highlighted the presence of occupied surface states on Al(111) and Al(100), and electronic levels localised in the forbidden band of Al 2 O 3 and AlN, induced by structural defects which promote surface reactivity [fr

  3. Black holes in pure Lovelock gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Lovelock gravity is a fascinating extension of general relativity, whose action consists of dimensionally extended Euler densities. Compared to other higher order derivative gravity theories, Lovelock gravity is attractive since it has a lot of remarkable features such as the fact that there are no more than second order derivatives with respect to the metric in its equations of motion, and that the theory is free of ghosts. Recently, in the study of black strings and black branes in Lovelock gravity, a special class of Lovelock gravity is considered, which is named pure Lovelock gravity, where only one Euler density term exists. In this paper we study black hole solutions in the special class of Lovelock gravity and associated thermodynamic properties. Some interesting features are found, which are quite different from the corresponding ones in general relativity

  4. An apparatus for preparing isotopically pure He4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, P.V.E.

    1978-01-01

    A cryostat has been constructed for extracting pure He 4 from He II of natural isotopic composition by means of a heat flush technique. It is shown that the method is in principle capable of yielding He 4 which is entirely devoid of He 3 isotopic impurities. A secondary heat flush, operated in conjunction with a conical heat exchanger of novel design, was used to place an experimental lower bound of 2 x 10 15 on the He 4 /He 3 ratio of the product, a standard sufficient for all present or projected applications requiring isotopically pure He 4 . The apparatus produces 2 000 1 (at standard temperature and pressure) of He 4 per thermal cycle. The design of future purifiers is discussed. (author)

  5. Preparation of chromatographically pure specimens, crystallization, and X-ray diffraction study of the periplasmatic chaperone protein Caf1M from Y. Pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, A.M.; Vainshtein, B.K.; Chernovskaya, T.V.; Vasil'ev, A.M.; Rudenko, E.G.; Abramov, V.M.; Zav'yalov, V.P.; Kornev, A.N.; Kornilov, V.V.; Karlyshev, A.V.; MacIntyre, Sh.

    1999-01-01

    The for growing conditions perfect single crystals of the protein Caf1M have been established. The unit-cell parameters of the crystals are (a=112.6 A, b=78.1 A, c=65.3 A, sp. gr. P2 1 2 1 2 1 ), molecular weight is 28 kDa), which is a representative of molecular periplasmatic chaperones, were found. This investigation is the first necessary stage of determination the three-dimensional structure of this biomacromolecule at atomic resolution. Taking into account that the primary amino acid sequences of the protein Caf1M and of the structurally studied protein PapD and also their secondary structures are homologous, the phase problem can be solved by the molecular replacement method

  6. In vivo and in vitro degradation comparison of pure Mg, Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag: a short term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Marco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare short term in vitro and in vivo biodegradation studies with low purity Mg (> 99.94 %, Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag designed for biodegradable implant applications. Three in vitro testing conditions were applied, using (i phosphate buffered saline (PBS, (ii Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS and (iii Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM in 5 % CO2 under sterile conditions. Gas evolution and mass loss (ML were assessed, as well as the degradation layer, by elemental mapping and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In vivo, implantations were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats evaluating both, gas cavity volume and implant volume reduction by micro-computed tomography (µCT, 7 d after implantation. Samples were produced by casting, solution heat treatment and extrusion in disc and pin shape for the in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively. Results showed that when the processing of the Mg sample varied, differences were found not only in the alloy impurity content and the grain size, but also in the corrosion behaviour. An increase of Fe and Ni or a large grain size seemed to play a major role in the degradation process, while the influence of alloying elements, such as Gd and Ag, played a secondary role. Results also indicated that cell culture conditions induced degradation rates and degradation layer elemental composition comparable to in vivo conditions. These in vitro and in vivo degradation layers consisted of Mg hydroxide, Mg-Ca carbonate and Ca phosphate.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the three different surface treatments - conventional, laser and Nano technology methods in enhancing the surface characteristics of commercially pure titanium discs and their effects on cell adhesion: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh; Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan; Mahadevan; Santhosh, S

    2015-04-01

    The surface area of the titanium dental implant materials can be increased by surface treatments without altering their shape and form, thereby increasing the biologic properties of the biomaterial. A good biomaterial helps in early cell adhesion and cell signaling. In this study, the commercially pure titanium surfaces were prepared to enable machined surfaces to form a control material and to be compared with sandblasted and acid-etched surfaces, laser treated surfaces and titanium dioxide (20 nm) Nano-particle coated surfaces. The surface elements were characterized. The biocompatibility was evaluated by cell culture in vitro using L929 fibroblasts. The results suggested that the titanium dioxide Nano-particle coated surfaces had good osteoconductivity and can be used as a potential method for coating the biomaterial.

  8. The Science (Pure) of the Law on Hans Kelsen

    OpenAIRE

    Vianna, José Ricardo Alvarez; Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Lisboa (FDUL)

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the reasons why Kelsen wanted to format a legal science and the criteria and concepts used in this endeavor. Concepts are considered as legal norm and legal proposition, causality and imputation, static and dynamic legal, in addition to the role of the Fundamental Standard in the logical structure of the legal system according to the Pure Theory of Law. They are analyzed also the connections between law, justice and legal science according to Kelsen. Finally, it is intend...

  9. California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

  10. Realizing business benefits from company IT standardization : Case study research into the organizational value of IT standards, towards a company IT standardization management framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wessel, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    From a practical point of view, this research provides insight into how company IT standards affect business process performance. Furthermore it gives recommendations on how to govern and manage such standards successfully with regard to their selection, implementation and usage. After evaluating

  11. A study on the implementation of the performance of electrical products standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, M A

    1984-03-01

    The Steering Committee on Electrical Products (SCOPEP) has developed a number of performance standards for selected electrical products and product attributes, under the direction of the Canadian Standards Association. Although the development of these standards shows that a successful standards writing process is in place, the initiation and implementation has been achieved by one or more stakeholder groups spearheading the requirement for the standard. As a result, SCOPEP has been unable to achieve its full potential in its role of developing peformance standards for electrical products. A study was undertaken with the aim of developing a strategic plan for SCOPEP which would be supported by marketing and other strategies. The major elements of the strategy include: selecting those products for which the benefits of a standards program significantly outweigh the costs; agreeing on the use of a framework which rigorously evaluates the cost-benefits of developing performance standards; producing a critical mass of products through the selection process so that revenues from label fees will ultimately balance program costs and support a full time SCOPEP secretariat; aggressively marketing the standards in all sectors, using a balanced push-and-pull strategy; and developing a protagonist attitude so that standards programs implemented are credible to all SCOPEP stakeholders. Detailed cost-benefit tables are appended. 11 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics publishes papers of the highest quality and significance in specific areas of physics, pure and applied, as listed below. The journal content reflects core physics disciplines, but is also open to a broad range of topics whose central theme falls within the bounds of physics.

  13. Axisymmetric Eigenmodes of Spheroidal Pure Electron Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yosuke; Saitoh, Haruhiko; Yoshida, Zensho; Kiwamoto, Yasuhito

    2010-11-01

    The axisymmetric electrostatic eigenmodes of spheroidal pure electron plasmas have been studied experimentally. It is confirmed that the observed spheroidal plasma attains a theoretically expected equilibrium density distribution, with the exception of a low-density halo distribution surrounding the plasma. When the eigenmode frequency observed for the plasma is compared with the frequency predicted by the dispersion relation derived under ideal conditions wherein the temperature is zero and the boundary is located at an infinite distance from the plasma, it is observed that the absolute value of the observed frequency is systematically higher than the theoretical prediction. Experimental examinations and numerical calculations indicate that the upward shift of the eigenmode frequency cannot be accounted for solely by the finite temperature effect, but is significantly affected by image charges induced on the conducting boundary and the resulting distortion of the density profile from the theoretical expectation.

  14. Selective Laser Melting of Pure Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshoji, Toshi-Taka; Nakamura, Kazuya; Yonehara, Makiko; Imai, Ken; Kyogoku, Hideki

    2018-03-01

    Appropriate building parameters for selective laser melting of 99.9% pure copper powder were investigated at relatively high laser power of 800 W for hatch pitch in the range from 0.025 mm to 0.12 mm. The highest relative density of the built material was 99.6%, obtained at hatch pitch of 0.10 mm. Building conditions were also studied using transient heat analysis in finite element modeling of the liquidation and solidification of the powder layer. The estimated melt pool length and width were comparable to values obtained by observations using a thermoviewer. The trend for the melt pool width versus the hatch pitch agreed with experimental values.

  15. EMBEDding the CEFR in Academic Writing Assessment : A case study in training and standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Lowie, Wander; Jansma, Petra; Schmidt, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The CEFR is increasingly being used as the framework of choice for the assessment of language proficiency at universities across Europe. However, to attain consistent assessment, familiarization and standardization are essential. In this paper we report a case study of embedding a standardization

  16. Determination of anions in pure and commercial phosphoric acid by ion chromatography and manual of 792 basic IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kabani, F.; Abdulbaki, M. K.

    2007-01-01

    A method for determination of anions in pure and concentrated phosphoric and samples (85%) and commercial phosphoric acid ion chromatography was developed, in order to control the specification of phosphoric acid produced in the pilot plant for phosphoric acid purification. The accuracy of the method was studied and the standard deviation was found to be between 0.09 and 0.10. Operation instructions of 792 Basic IC was described. (author)

  17. Studies of void formation in pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Glowinski, L.; Risbet, A.; Regnier, P.; Flament, J.L.; Levy, V.; Adda, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiments on the effect of gases on the final configuration of vacancy clustering (void or loop), and on the local effects at dislocations are described. The contribution of this data to a general knowledge of void formation will be discussed, and Monte Carlo calculations of swelling induced by irradiation with different particles presented [fr

  18. Studies of void formation in pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Glowinski, L.; Risbet, A.; Regnier, P.; Flament, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiments on the effect of gases on the final configuration of vacancy clustering (void or loop), and on the local effects at dislocations are described. The contribution of this data to our general knowledge of void formation will be discussed, and Monte Carlo calculations of swelling induced by irradiation with different particles presented

  19. Pure Anartria: Study of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lecours, André Roch; Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; Feijó, Adriana Vélez; Maia, Alberto

    2001-01-01

    O marco do nascimento da neurolingüística é considerado a publicação do livro A síndrome de Desintegração Fonética, em 1939, que teve como autores: um neurologista, um psicólogo e uma lingüista. Dez anos mais tarde foi publicado, pela mesma equipe de pesquisadores franceses, o distúrbio de fala do paciente portador de anartria pura. No presente artigo, situaremos as polêmicas históricas a respeito de um distúrbio seletivo de fala de origem telencefálica, apresentaremos o primeiro caso descrit...

  20. The neuroanatomy of pure apraxia of speech in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Jones, David T; Strand, Edythe A; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Duffy, Joseph R; Josephs, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    The left insula or Broca's area have been proposed as the neuroanatomical correlate for apraxia of speech (AOS) based on studies of patients with both AOS and aphasia due to stroke. Studies of neurodegenerative AOS suggest the premotor area and the supplementary motor areas as the anatomical correlates. The study objective was to determine the common infarction area in patients with pure AOS due to stroke. Patients with AOS and no or equivocal aphasia due to ischemic stroke were identified through a pre-existing database. Seven subjects were identified. Five had pure AOS, and two had equivocal aphasia. MRI lesion analysis revealed maximal overlap spanning the left premotor and motor cortices. While both neurodegenerative AOS and stroke induced pure AOS involve the premotor cortex, further studies are needed to establish whether stroke-induced AOS and neurodegenerative AOS share a common anatomic substrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perspectives on the Pure-Tone Audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiek, Frank E; Shinn, Jennifer; Chermak, Gail D; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    The pure-tone audiogram, though fundamental to audiology, presents limitations, especially in the case of central auditory involvement. Advances in auditory neuroscience underscore the considerably larger role of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) in hearing and related disorders. Given the availability of behavioral audiological tests and electrophysiological procedures that can provide better insights as to the function of the various components of the auditory system, this perspective piece reviews the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram and notes some of the advantages of other tests and procedures used in tandem with the pure-tone threshold measurement. To review and synthesize the literature regarding the utility and limitations of the pure-tone audiogram in determining dysfunction of peripheral sensory and neural systems, as well as the CANS, and to identify other tests and procedures that can supplement pure-tone thresholds and provide enhanced diagnostic insight, especially regarding problems of the central auditory system. A systematic review and synthesis of the literature. The authors independently searched and reviewed literature (journal articles, book chapters) pertaining to the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram. The pure-tone audiogram provides information as to hearing sensitivity across a selected frequency range. Normal or near-normal pure-tone thresholds sometimes are observed despite cochlear damage. There are a surprising number of patients with acoustic neuromas who have essentially normal pure-tone thresholds. In cases of central deafness, depressed pure-tone thresholds may not accurately reflect the status of the peripheral auditory system. Listening difficulties are seen in the presence of normal pure-tone thresholds. Suprathreshold procedures and a variety of other tests can provide information regarding other and often more central functions of the auditory system. The audiogram is a primary tool for determining type

  2. Correcting the Standard Errors of 2-Stage Residual Inclusion Estimators for Mendelian Randomization Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Tom M; Holmes, Michael V; Keating, Brendan J; Sheehan, Nuala A

    2017-11-01

    Mendelian randomization studies use genotypes as instrumental variables to test for and estimate the causal effects of modifiable risk factors on outcomes. Two-stage residual inclusion (TSRI) estimators have been used when researchers are willing to make parametric assumptions. However, researchers are currently reporting uncorrected or heteroscedasticity-robust standard errors for these estimates. We compared several different forms of the standard error for linear and logistic TSRI estimates in simulations and in real-data examples. Among others, we consider standard errors modified from the approach of Newey (1987), Terza (2016), and bootstrapping. In our simulations Newey, Terza, bootstrap, and corrected 2-stage least squares (in the linear case) standard errors gave the best results in terms of coverage and type I error. In the real-data examples, the Newey standard errors were 0.5% and 2% larger than the unadjusted standard errors for the linear and logistic TSRI estimators, respectively. We show that TSRI estimators with modified standard errors have correct type I error under the null. Researchers should report TSRI estimates with modified standard errors instead of reporting unadjusted or heteroscedasticity-robust standard errors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  3. Standardization of SOPs to Evaluations: Impacts on Regulatory Decisions using Learning and Memory as Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an era of global trade and regulatory cooperation, consistent and scientifically based interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies is essential, particularly for non­ standard assays and variable endpoints. Because there is flexibility in the selection of ...

  4. Study of the catalytic activity of pure or cerium-containing thoria in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (1963); Etude de l'activite catalytique de la thorine pure ou contenant du cerium. Dans l'oxydation de l'oxyde de carbone (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veron, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    We have undertaken research into the oxidation of carbon monoxide on pure thoria prepared by the decomposition of thorium nitrate, and on the same oxide containing small amounts of cerium. The results we have obtained, both as concerns the chemisorption of the various gases as well as the conductivity of the absorbent and the kinetics of the oxidation itself, appear to be quite coherent. The following steps occur: 1) The carbon monoxide is adsorbed on a clean catalyst surface, the oxygen remaining un-adsorbed. 2) The oxygen is adsorbed on a previously adsorbed carbon, monoxide layer, and reacts to give carbon dioxide (no role being played by the lattice oxygen). This behaviour is usual for a p-type semiconductor. We have in fact confirmed that semi-conductivity is of this type, and the gas-solid interactions can be written: (1) CO{sub (g)} {r_reversible} CO{sup +}{sub (a)} + e{sup -} (2) CO{sup +} 1/2 O{sub 2(g)} + 2 e{sup -} {yields} CO{sup -}{sub 2(a)} (3) CO{sup -}{sub 2(a)} {r_reversible} CO{sub 2(g)} + e{sup -} The kinetic equation obtained by supposing that step (2) is the slowest, makes it possible to deduce correctly the experimental results which can be expressed as: dp / dt = k (P{sup 0.3}{sub CO} x P{sup 0.5}{sub O{sub 2}}) / (1+ k' x P{sub CO{sub 2}}) The influence of the addition of small amounts of cerium can also be explained logically by this process; there is in fact both a decrease in the conductivity and an increase in the catalytic activity, this being characteristic, according to VOLKENSTEIN [52] of an n-type rate-determining reaction occurring on a p-type semi-conductor. We believe that these first results could be advantageously complemented by a study of thoria prepared by other means and doped differently. (author) [French] Nous avons entrepris l'etude de l'oxydation de l'oxyde de carbone sur la thorine pure preparee par decomposition du nitrate de thorium, et sur le meme oxyde renfermant de petites quantites de cerium. Les resultats que

  5. Determinants of the Strength of Auditing and Reporting Standards: a Cross-Country Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Krishansing Boolaky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study addresses the research gap regarding the absence of an empirical cross-country study on the determinants of the strength of auditing and reporting standards (SARS. Using data on 133 countries at various stages of development, we examine the role of environmental factors that influence a country’s strength of auditing and reporting standards. Our empirical results confirm that institutional infrastructure, financial market development and higher education and training jointly influence a country’s strength of auditing and reporting standards. We obtain qualitatively similar subsample results when we partition countries on the basis of economic development.

  6. Pure spinor integration from the collating formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, P.A.; Sommovigo, L.

    2011-01-01

    We use the technique developed by Becchi and Imbimbo to construct a well-defined BRST-invariant path integral formulation of pure spinor amplitudes. The space of pure spinors can be viewed from the algebraic geometry point of view as a collection of open sets where the constraints can be solved and a set of free and independent variables can be defined. On the intersections of those open sets, the functional measure jumps and one has to add boundary terms to construct a well-defined path integral. The result is the definition of the pure spinor integration measure constructed in terms of differential forms on each single patch.

  7. Conformal pure radiation with parallel rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistner, Thomas; Paweł Nurowski

    2012-01-01

    We define pure radiation metrics with parallel rays to be n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian metrics that admit a parallel null line bundle K and whose Ricci tensor vanishes on vectors that are orthogonal to K. We give necessary conditions in terms of the Weyl, Cotton and Bach tensors for a pseudo-Riemannian metric to be conformal to a pure radiation metric with parallel rays. Then, we derive conditions in terms of the tractor calculus that are equivalent to the existence of a pure radiation metric with parallel rays in a conformal class. We also give analogous results for n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian pp-waves. (paper)

  8. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Holst Madsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unique identifiers (UID are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI, incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of

  9. Biofuel sustainability standards and public policy: A case study of Swedish ethanol imports from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    sustainability standards for those fuels. Central to these standards are criteria addressing the direct, and sometimes also indirect, greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, transport and use of the biofuels. This case study examines the first scheme applied to a traded biofuel, the Verified...... Sustainable Ethanol Initiative (VSEI), a private initiative of the Swedish fuel-ethanol supplier, SEKAB. VSEI went into operation in August 2008 to verify that the ethanol it was importing from Brazil met its own minimum standards for ―field-to-wheel‖ (life-cycle) greenhouse-gas emission standards...... is that it reduces consumer doubts about their product, and reduces competition from producers not participating in the Initiative; for SEKAB it increases the company’s credibility in various private and public forums working on sustainability standards for biofuels, and gives it a first-mover advantage once...

  10. On Pure and (approximate) Strong Equilibria of Facility Location Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Telelis, Orestis A.

    2008-01-01

    We study social cost losses in Facility Location games, where n selfish agents install facilities over a network and connect to them, so as to forward their local demand (expressed by a non-negative weight per agent). Agents using the same facility share fairly its installation cost, but every...... agent pays individually a (weighted) connection cost to the chosen location. We study the Price of Stability (PoS) of pure Nash equilibria and the Price of Anarchy of strong equilibria (SPoA), that generalize pure equilibria by being resilient to coalitional deviations. For unweighted agents on metric...

  11. Dental Hygiene Faculty Calibration Using Two Accepted Standards for Calculus Detection: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Lisa J; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Peterson, Teri; Bowen, Denise M

    2016-08-01

    Faculty calibration studies for calculus detection use two different standards for examiner evaluation, yet the only therapeutic modality that can be used for nonsurgical periodontal treatment is scaling/root debridement or planing. In this study, a pretest-posttest design was used to assess the feasibility of faculty calibration for calculus detection using two accepted standards: that established by the Central Regional Dental Testing Service, Inc. (CRDTS; readily detectible calculus) and the gold standard for scaling/root debridement (root roughness). Four clinical dental hygiene faculty members out of five possible participants at Halifax Community College agreed to participate. The participants explored calculus on the 16 assigned teeth (64 surfaces) of four patients. Calculus detection scores were calculated before and after training. Kappa averages using CRDTS criteria were 0.561 at pretest and 0.631 at posttest. Kappa scores using the scaling/root debridement or planing standard were 0.152 at pretest and 0.271 at posttest. The scores indicated improvement from moderate (Kappa=0.41-0.60) to substantial agreement (Kappa=0.61-0.80) following training using the CRDTS standard. Although this result differed qualitatively and Kappas were significantly different from 0, the differences for pre- to post-Kappas for patient-rater dyads using CRDTS were not statistically significant (p=0.778). There was no difference (p=0.913) in Kappa scores pre- to post-training using the scaling/root debridement standard. Despite the small number of participants in this study, the results indicated that training to improve interrater reliability to substantial agreement was feasible using the CRDTS standard but not using the gold standard. The difference may have been due to greater difficulty in attaining agreement regarding root roughness. Future studies should include multiple training sessions with patients using the same standard for scaling/root debridement used for

  12. History and theology of Korean pentecostalism: Sunbogeum (pure gospel) Pentecostalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Ig-Jin

    2003-01-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the context and texture of Korean Pentecostalism - Sunbogeum (pure Gospel) Pentecostalism. This study shows that Sunbogeum Pentecostalism is the complex product of four factors: first, Korean religio-social circumstances; second, the doctrine of classical

  13. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  14. Study on the testing standards of quality assurance for CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingxin; Yang Haishan; Liu Gang; Wang Liyun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To establish national testing standards of quality assurance for CT image. Methods: 104 sets of CT system were tested using quality assurance test phantoms and devices including American RMI 461A, RMI 463, MDH 1015 C with ION Chamber, Sweden UNF 9004 kvp meter. These CT were made from different manufacturers including out of date of CT and state-of-art spiral CT system. Thirteen kinds of standards on CT from different countries and 87 sets of technical specifications of CT were collected. The results of the test were compared using phantoms of RMI, Victoreen, Catphan on the same CT system (Siemens HQS). Results: Based on the test results of this study, with reference to the foreign standards and some of regulations in China, CT test items should include high contrast resolution, low contrast resolution, noise, uniformity, mean CT unit, dose slice thickness, localization light, positioning of patient support and gantry tilt. Standards including acceptance test, status test, and constancy test were made in specification. Among them, constancy test equals to IEC 122-2-6; items and results in acceptance test are stricter than in the status test; and low contrast resolution, uniformity, localization light accuracy and positioning of patient support in the acceptance test are even stricter than that in foreign standards. Conclusion: The testing standards of quality assurance for CT developed in this study shows practical and useful in China, which supplemented to the existing international standards

  15. Expander graphs in pure and applied mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Expander graphs are highly connected sparse finite graphs. They play an important role in computer science as basic building blocks for network constructions, error correcting codes, algorithms and more. In recent years they have started to play an increasing role also in pure mathematics: number theory, group theory, geometry and more. This expository article describes their constructions and various applications in pure and applied mathematics.

  16. Refurbishment of JMTR pure water facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Norikazu; Hanakawa, Hiroki; Kusunoki, Hidehiko; Satou, Shinichi

    2012-05-01

    In the refurbishment of JMTR, facilities were classified into which (1) were all updated, (2) were partly updated, and (3) were continuance used by the considerations of the maintenance history, the change parts availability and the latest technology. The JMTR pure water facility was classified into all updated facility based on the consideration. The Update construction was conducted in between FY2007 and FY2008. The refurbishment of JMTR pure water facility is summarized in this report. (author)

  17. A systemic study of stepwise chlorination-chemical vapor transport characteristics of pure rare earth oxides from Sc2O3 to Lu2O3 mediated by alkaline chlorides as complex former

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yanhui; He Peng; Chen Huani

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study has been carried out for the stepwise chlorination-chemical vapor transport (SC-CVT) characteristics of pure rare earth oxides from Sc 2 O 3 to Lu 2 O 3 mediated by the vapor complexes KLnCl 4 and NaLnCl 4 (Ln = Sc, Y and La-Lu) used NaCl and KCl as complex former, respectively. The results showed that the SC-CVT characteristics are similarly for NaCl and KCl as complex former, the main deposition temperature of the rare earth chlorides LnCl 3 is in the increasing order ScCl 3 3 3 , and then with a systematically decreasing trend from the early lanthanide chlorides to the end one. The results also showed that the total transported amount of the produced chlorides is YCl 3 > ScCl 3 , and they are much higher than that of most lanthanoid chlorides. For lanthanoids, the total transported amount of chloride increases systematically from the early lanthanoid chlorides to the end one except for EuCl 3 and GdCl 3 mediated by KCl and NaCl as complex former, respectively, which showed the divergence effect of Gd in the total transport efficiency. But there are some differences in SC-CVT characteristics of pure rare earth oxide mediated by KCl and NaCl as complex former, that is the main deposition temperature region for the same rare earth element was lower for KCl than that for NaCl as complex former except for LaCl 3 , CeCl 3 , YbCl 3 and LuCl 3 , while the total transport amount of rare earth chloride for KCl as complex former is higher than that for NaCl except for LaCl 3 and EuCl 3 . More over, the discussion was carried out for Sc and Y on the one hand and the lanthanides contain 4f electron as another hand based on the 4f electron hybridization assumption. Further more, the transport characteristics of rare earth oxides with alkaline chlorides as complex former in this study were compared to that with AlCl 3 as complex former

  18. Parameters in pure type systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloo, C.J.; Kamareddine, F.; Laan, T.D.L.; Nederpelt, R.P.; Rajsbaum, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study the addition of parameters to typed ¿-calculus with definitions. We show that the resulting systems have nice properties and illustrate that parameters allow for a better fine-tuning of the strength of type systems as well as staying closer to type systems used in practice in

  19. A Study on Standard Competition with Network Effect Based on Evolutionary Game Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Wang, Bingdong; Li, Kangning

    Owing to networks widespread in modern society, standard competition with network effect is now endowed with new connotation. This paper aims to study the impact of network effect on standard competition; it is organized in the mode of "introduction-model setup-equilibrium analysis-conclusion". Starting from a well-structured model of evolutionary game, it is then extended to a dynamic analysis. This article proves both theoretically and empirically that whether or not a standard can lead the market trends depends on the utility it would bring, and the author also discusses some advisable strategies revolving around the two factors of initial position and border break.

  20. Melatonin charge transfer complex with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone: Molecular structure, DFT studies, thermal analyses, evaluation of biological activity and utility for determination of melatonin in pure and dosage forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Hamed, Maher M.; Zaki, Nadia G.; Abdou, Mohamed M.; Mohamed, Marwa El-Badry; Abdallah, Abanoub Mosaad

    2017-07-01

    A simple, accurate and fast spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of melatonin (ML) drug in its pure and pharmaceutical forms was developed based on the formation of its charge transfer complex with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) as an electron acceptor. The different conditions for this method were optimized accurately. The Lambert-Beer's law was found to be valid over the concentration range of 4-100 μg mL- 1 ML. The solid form of the CT complex was structurally characterized by means of different spectral methods. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were carried out. The different quantum chemical parameters of the CT complex were calculated. Thermal properties of the CT complex and its kinetic thermodynamic parameters were studied, as well as its antimicrobial and antifungal activities were investigated. Molecular docking studies were performed to predict the binding modes of the CT complex components towards E. coli bacterial RNA and the receptor of breast cancer mutant oxidoreductase.

  1. LLNL pure positron plasma program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.H.; Beck, B.R.; Cowan, T.E.; Howell, R.H.; McDonald, J.L.; Rohatgi, R.R.; Fajans, J.; Gopalan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Assembly and initial testing of the Positron Time-of-Flight Trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Increase Pulsed Positron Facility has been completed. The goal of the project is to accumulate at high-density positron plasma in only a few seconds., in order to facilitate study that may require destructive diagnostics. To date, densities of at least 6 x 10 6 positrons per cm 3 have been achieved

  2. Pure spinors, free differential algebras, and the supermembrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fre, Pietro; Grassi, Pietro Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The Lagrangian formalism for the supermembrane in any 11d supergravity background is constructed in the pure spinor framework. Our gauge-fixed action is manifestly BRST, supersymmetric, and 3d Lorentz invariant. The relation between the Free Differential Algebras (FDA) underlying 11d supergravity and the BRST symmetry of the membrane action is exploited. The 'gauge-fixing' has a natural interpretation as the variation of the Chevalley cohomology class needed for the extension of 11d super-Poincare superalgebra to M-theory FDA. We study the solution of the pure spinor constraints in full detail

  3. Pure spinors, free differential algebras, and the supermembrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fre, Pietro [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino, and INFN-Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Grassi, Pietro Antonio [Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Compendio Viminale, I-00184 Rome (Italy) and DISTA, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, and INFN-Sezione di Torino, Via Bellini 25/G, Alessandria 15100 (Italy) and CERN, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: pgrassi@insti.physics.sunysb.edu

    2007-02-12

    The Lagrangian formalism for the supermembrane in any 11d supergravity background is constructed in the pure spinor framework. Our gauge-fixed action is manifestly BRST, supersymmetric, and 3d Lorentz invariant. The relation between the Free Differential Algebras (FDA) underlying 11d supergravity and the BRST symmetry of the membrane action is exploited. The 'gauge-fixing' has a natural interpretation as the variation of the Chevalley cohomology class needed for the extension of 11d super-Poincare superalgebra to M-theory FDA. We study the solution of the pure spinor constraints in full detail.

  4. DICOM Standard Conformance in Veterinary Medicine in Germany: a Survey of Imaging Studies in Referral Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühschwein, Andreas; Klever, Julius; Wilkinson, Tom; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    In 2016, the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the use of veterinary identification DICOM tags had its 10th anniversary. The goal of our study was to survey veterinary DICOM standard conformance in Germany regarding the specific identification tags veterinarians should use in veterinary diagnostic imaging. We hypothesized that most veterinarians in Germany do not follow the guidelines of the DICOM Standards Committee. We analyzed the metadata of 488 imaging studies of referral cases from 115 different veterinary institutions in Germany by computer-aided DICOM header readout. We found that 25 (5.1%) of the imaging studies fully complied with the "veterinary DICOM standard" in this survey. The results confirmed our hypothesis that the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the consistent and advantageous use of veterinary identification tags have found minimal acceptance amongst German veterinarians. DICOM does not only enable connectivity between machines, DICOM also improves communication between veterinarians by sharing correct and valuable metadata for better patient care. Therefore, we recommend that lecturers, universities, societies, authorities, vendors, and other stakeholders should increase their effort to improve the spread of the veterinary DICOM standard in the veterinary world.

  5. Acceptance Factors Influencing Adoption of National Institute of Standards and Technology Information Security Standards: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of a comprehensive information security governance model and security controls is the best option organizations may have to protect their information assets and comply with regulatory requirements. Understanding acceptance factors of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF) comprehensive…

  6. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli-pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones-were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm's standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents' and teachers' ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to

  7. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tao eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inattention has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as event-related potential (ERP markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli - pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones - were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years. Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones were applied. Pure tone paradigm included standard stimuli (1000 Hz, 80% and two deviant stimuli (1015 Hz and 1090 Hz, 10% each. The Mandarin lexical tone paradigm’s standard stimuli was /yi3/ (80% and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each. The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ rating on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to alleviate these

  8. Pure and Nb2O5-doped TiO2 amorphous thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature: Surface and photo-induced hydrophilic conversion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Tudose, I.V.; Vernardou, D.; Lygeraki, M.I.; Anastasiadis, S.H.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Photo-induced hydrophilicity of titanium dioxide makes this material one of the most suitable for various coating applications in antifogging mirrors and self-cleaning glasses. The field of functional titanium dioxide coatings is expanding rapidly not only in applications for glass but also in applications for polymer, metal and ceramic materials. The high hydrophilic surface of TiO 2 is interesting for understanding also the basic photon-related surface science of titanium dioxide. In doing so, it is inevitably necessary to understand the relationship between the photoreaction and the surface properties. In this work, photo-induced hydrophilic conversion was evaluated on amorphous pure and niobium oxide-doped titanium dioxide thin films on Corning 1737F glass grown by dc magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. This study is focused on the influence of the Ar:O ratio during sputtering plasma deposition on thin film surface morphology and subsequent photo-induced hydrophilic conversion results. Structural characterization carried out by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) has shown that our films are amorphous and extremely smooth with a surface roughness bellow 1 nm. Contact angle measurements were performed on as-deposited and during/after 10 min UV exposure. We present evidence that the photo-induced hydrophilic conversion of film surface is directly correlated with surface morphology and can be controlled by growth conditions

  9. Reviving common standards in point-count surveys for broad inference across studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Steven M.; Mahon, C. Lisa; Handel, Colleen M.; Solymos, Peter; Bayne, Erin M.; Fontaine, Patricia C.; Ralph, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the common standards recommended by Ralph et al. (1993, 1995a) for conducting point-count surveys to assess the relative abundance of landbirds breeding in North America. The standards originated from discussions among ornithologists in 1991 and were developed so that point-count survey data could be broadly compared and jointly analyzed by national data centers with the goals of monitoring populations and managing habitat. Twenty years later, we revisit these standards because (1) they have not been universally followed and (2) new methods allow estimation of absolute abundance from point counts, but these methods generally require data beyond the original standards to account for imperfect detection. Lack of standardization and the complications it introduces for analysis become apparent from aggregated data. For example, only 3% of 196,000 point counts conducted during the period 1992-2011 across Alaska and Canada followed the standards recommended for the count period and count radius. Ten-minute, unlimited-count-radius surveys increased the number of birds detected by >300% over 3-minute, 50-m-radius surveys. This effect size, which could be eliminated by standardized sampling, was ≥10 times the published effect sizes of observers, time of day, and date of the surveys. We suggest that the recommendations by Ralph et al. (1995a) continue to form the common standards when conducting point counts. This protocol is inexpensive and easy to follow but still allows the surveys to be adjusted for detection probabilities. Investigators might optionally collect additional information so that they can analyze their data with more flexible forms of removal and time-of-detection models, distance sampling, multiple-observer methods, repeated counts, or combinations of these methods. Maintaining the common standards as a base protocol, even as these study-specific modifications are added, will maximize the value of point-count data, allowing compilation and

  10. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-01

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO 2 partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products

  11. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  12. Standard molar enthalpy of formation of 1-benzosuberone: An experimental and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Margarida S.; Morais, Victor M.F.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.; Liebman, Joel F.

    2010-01-01

    The energetics of 1-benzosuberone was studied by a combination of calorimetric techniques and computational calculations. The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of 1-benzosuberone, in the liquid phase, was derived from the massic energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpy of vaporization, at T = 298.15 K, was measured by Calvet microcalorimetry. From these two parameters the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, was derived: -(96.1 ± 3.4) kJ . mol -1 . The G3(MP2)//B3LYP composite method and appropriate reactions were used to computationally calculate the standard molar enthalpy of formation of 1-benzosuberone, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. The computational results are in very good agreement with the experimental value.

  13. Experiences from Implementation of Lean Production: Standardization versus Self-management: A Swedish Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Oudhuis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss important aspects of the perceived problematic relationship between self-management and standardization. The article presents data from three case studies conducted within manufacturing companies in Sweden, where the popularity of lean production has led to a renaissance for short-cycle and standardized assembly work in settings that traditionally have made use of sociotechnical production design. The data suggest that the implementation has not contributed to an increased commitment, smooth operations, and capacity for change and innovation. Despite these not so positive results, it is argued that it is possible to combine self-management principles with lean production and standardization if 1 the implementation of lean is done with a contextual sensitivity, 2 a balance is reached between the use of standards on the one hand and work enrichment on the other, and 3 a feeling of ownership as regards both implementation and production process is upheld among the product on personnel.

  14. Pure motor hemiparesis in a case of vertebrobasilar arterial ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milandre, L. (Dept. of Neurology, CHU Timone, Marseille (France)); Martini, P. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, CHU Timone, Marseille (France)); Perot, S. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, CHU Timone, Marseille (France)); Mercier, C. (Dept. of Vascular Surgery, CHU Timone, Marseille (France))

    1993-03-01

    A case of pure motor hemiparesis due to a pontine lacunar infarct is reported. Infaction was related to vertebrobasilar ectasia identified on CT, MRI and MR angiography. MR studies provide accurate information on anatomical location, residual lumen, partial thrombosis, mass effect on brain stem and CSF pathways and vascular complications. (orig.)

  15. Effect of fractionated extracts and isolated pure compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to elucidate the neurotransmitter systems involved in the neurophysiological properties of ethanolic extract, fractions and pure isolates of Spondias mombin leaves in mice (n = 6) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) route of administration. The crude ethanolic extract of spondian mombin leaves was fractionated ...

  16. Purely infinite C*-algebras arising from crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, Mikael; Sierakowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We study conditions that will ensure that a crossed product of a C-algebra by a discrete exact group is purely innite (simple or non-simple). We are particularly interested in the case of a discrete nonamenable exact group acting on a commutative C-algebra, where our sucient conditions can...

  17. Low-frequency fluctuations in a pure toroidal magnetized plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A magnetized, low- plasma in pure toroidal configuration is formed and extensively studied with ion mass as control parameter. Xenon, krypton and argon plasmas are formed at a fixed toroidal magnetic field of 0.024 T, with a peak density of ∼ 1011 cm-3, ∼ 4 × 1010 cm-3 and ∼ 2 × 1010 cm−3 respectively.

  18. Hydrogen Sorption Performance of Pure Magnesium during Continued Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of the hydrogen absorption - desorption by commercially pure magnesium powder under continuous operation show little or no reduction in hydrogen capacity up to 70 cycles and high temperature exposure exceeding 1200 h. Absorption was studied at 260°–425°C and hydrogen...

  19. The Number and Complexity of Pure and Recombinant HIV-1 Strains Observed within Incident Infections during the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study Conducted in Kericho, Kenya, from 2003 to 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Billings

    Full Text Available Characterization of HIV-1 subtype diversity in regions where vaccine trials are conducted is critical for vaccine development and testing. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 within a tea-plantation community cohort in Kericho, Kenya. Sixty-three incident infections were ascertained in the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study conducted in Kericho from 2003 to 2006. HIV-1 strains from 58 of those individuals were full genome characterized and compared to two previous Kenyan studies describing 41 prevalent infections from a blood bank survey (1999-2000 and 21 infections from a higher-risk cohort containing a mix of incident and prevalent infections (2006. Among the 58 strains from the community cohort, 43.1% were pure subtypes (36.2% A1, 5.2% C, and 1.7% G and 56.9% were inter-subtype recombinants (29.3% A1D, 8.6% A1CD, 6.9% A1A2D, 5.2% A1C, 3.4% A1A2CD, and 3.4% A2D. This diversity and the resulting genetic distance between the observed strains will need to be addressed when vaccine immunogens are chosen. In consideration of current vaccine development efforts, the strains from these three studies were compared to five candidate vaccines (each of which are viral vectored, carrying inserts corresponding to parts of gag, pol, and envelope, which have been developed for possible use in sub-Saharan Africa. The sequence comparison between the observed strains and the candidate vaccines indicates that in the presence of diverse recombinants, a bivalent vaccine is more likely to provide T-cell epitope coverage than monovalent vaccines even when the inserts of the bivalent vaccine are not subtype-matched to the local epidemic.

  20. The Number and Complexity of Pure and Recombinant HIV-1 Strains Observed within Incident Infections during the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study Conducted in Kericho, Kenya, from 2003 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Erik; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Bose, Meera; Bradfield, Andrea; Lei, Esther; Kijak, Gustavo H.; Arroyo, Miguel A.; Kibaya, Rukia M.; Scott, Paul T.; Wasunna, Monique K.; Sawe, Frederick K.; Shaffer, Douglas N.; Birx, Deborah L.; McCutchan, Francine E.; Michael, Nelson L.; Robb, Merlin L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of HIV-1 subtype diversity in regions where vaccine trials are conducted is critical for vaccine development and testing. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 within a tea-plantation community cohort in Kericho, Kenya. Sixty-three incident infections were ascertained in the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study conducted in Kericho from 2003 to 2006. HIV-1 strains from 58 of those individuals were full genome characterized and compared to two previous Kenyan studies describing 41 prevalent infections from a blood bank survey (1999–2000) and 21 infections from a higher-risk cohort containing a mix of incident and prevalent infections (2006). Among the 58 strains from the community cohort, 43.1% were pure subtypes (36.2% A1, 5.2% C, and 1.7% G) and 56.9% were inter-subtype recombinants (29.3% A1D, 8.6% A1CD, 6.9% A1A2D, 5.2% A1C, 3.4% A1A2CD, and 3.4% A2D). This diversity and the resulting genetic distance between the observed strains will need to be addressed when vaccine immunogens are chosen. In consideration of current vaccine development efforts, the strains from these three studies were compared to five candidate vaccines (each of which are viral vectored, carrying inserts corresponding to parts of gag, pol, and envelope), which have been developed for possible use in sub-Saharan Africa. The sequence comparison between the observed strains and the candidate vaccines indicates that in the presence of diverse recombinants, a bivalent vaccine is more likely to provide T-cell epitope coverage than monovalent vaccines even when the inserts of the bivalent vaccine are not subtype-matched to the local epidemic. PMID:26287814

  1. A protocol for a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled feasibility study to determine whether the daily consumption of flavonoid-rich pure cocoa has the potential to reduce fatigue in people with relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, S; Collett, J; Izadi, H; Wade, D T; Clegg, M; Harrison, J M; Buckingham, E; Cavey, A; DeLuca, G C; Palace, J; Dawes, H

    2018-01-01

    Dietary interventions including consumption of flavonoids, plant compounds found in certain foods, may have the ability to improve fatigue. However, to date, no well-designed intervention studies assessing the role of flavonoid consumption for fatigue management in people with MS (pwMS) have been performed. The hypothesis is that the consumption of a flavonoid-rich pure cocoa beverage will reduce fatigue in pwMS. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and potential outcome of running a trial to evaluate this hypothesis. Using a randomised (1:1) double-blind placebo-controlled feasibility study, 40 men and women (20 in each trial arm) with a recent diagnosis (Feasibility and fidelity will be assessed through recruitment and retention, adherence and a quantitative process evaluation at the end of the trial.We will describe demographic factors (age, gender, level of education) as well as disease-related factors (disease burden scores, length of time diagnosed with MS) and cognitive assessment, depression and quality of life and general physical activity in order to characterise participants and determine possible mediators to identify the processes by which the intervention may bring about change. Feasibility (recruitment, safety, feasibility of implementation of the intervention and evaluation, protocol adherence and data completion) and potential for benefit (estimates of effect size and variability) will be determined to inform future planned studies. Results will be presented using point estimates, 95% confidence intervals and p values. Primary statistical analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis and will use the complete case data set. We propose that a flavonoid-enriched cocoa beverage for the management of fatigue will be well received by participants. Further, if it is implemented early in the disease course of people diagnosed with RRMS, it will improve mobility and functioning by modifying fatigue. Registered with ISRCTN Registry. Trial

  2. Homogeneous purely buoyancy driven turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant; Cholemari, Murali; Pawar, Shashikant

    2010-11-01

    An unstable density difference across a long vertical tube open at both ends leads to convection that is axially homogeneous with a linear density gradient. We report results from such tube convection experiments, with driving density caused by salt concentration difference or temperature difference. At high enough Rayleigh numbers (Ra) the convection is turbulent with zero mean flow and zero mean Reynolds shear stresses; thus turbulent production is purely by buoyancy. We observe different regimes of turbulent convection. At very high Ra the Nusselt number scales as the square root of the Rayleigh number, giving the so-called "ultimate regime" of convection predicted for Rayleigh-Benard convection in limit of infinite Ra. Turbulent convection at intermediate Ra, the Nusselt number scales as Ra^0.3. In both regimes, the flux and the Taylor scale Reynolds number are more than order of magnitude larger than those obtained in Rayleigh-Benard convection. Absence of a mean flow makes this an ideal flow to study shear free turbulence near a wall.

  3. Randomization and Data-Analysis Items in Quality Standards for Single-Case Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Wendt, Oliver; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Reporting standards and critical appraisal tools serve as beacons for researchers, reviewers, and research consumers. Parallel to existing guidelines for researchers to report and evaluate group-comparison studies, single-case experimental (SCE) researchers are in need of guidelines for reporting and evaluating SCE studies. A systematic search was…

  4. Consensus based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis in ruminants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, I.A.; Nielsen, S.S.; Whittington, R.J.; Collins, M.T.; Bakker, D.; Harris, B.; Sreevatsan, S.; Lombard, J.E.; Sweeney, R.; Smith, D.R.; Gavalchin, J.; Eda, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement (www.stard-statement.org) was developed to encourage complete and transparent reporting of key elements of test accuracy studies in human medicine. The statement was motivated by widespread evidence of bias in test accuracy studies

  5. Clinical outcome after standardized versus dosimetric radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism: an equivalence study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, S. W.; Smit, J. W.; de Craen, A. J.; Goslings, B. M.; van Eck-Smit, B. L.; Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the equivalence in outcome of standardized versus uptake-adjusted dosing of radioactive iodine (131I) for hyperthyroidism. We performed a 1-year follow-up study of two patient cohorts: 326 patients referred for 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism in Graves'

  6. High School Teachers' Perspectives on the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2016-01-01

    This was an exploratory study that examined high school teachers' perspectives about their early experiences with the English language arts Common Core State Standards. The sources of data for the study included a survey and structured interviews. Twenty-three high school ELA teachers from one unified school district in Southern California…

  7. Unpacking insanity defence standards: An experimental study of rationality and control tests in criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Helm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of different legal standards on mock juror decisions concerning whether a defendant was guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity. Undergraduate students (N = 477 read a simulated case summary involving a murder case and were asked to make an insanity determination. The cases differed in terms of the condition of the defendant (rationality deficit or control deficit and the legal standard given to the jurors to make the determination (Model Penal Code, McNaughten or McNaughten plus a separate control determination. The effects of these variables on the insanity determination were investigated. Jurors also completed questionnaires measuring individualism and hierarchy attitudes and perceptions of facts in the case. Results indicate that under current insanity standards jurors do not distinguish between defendants with rationality deficits and defendants with control deficits regardless of whether the legal standard requires them to do so. Even defendants who lacked control were found guilty at equal rates under a legal standard excusing rationality deficits only and a legal standard excluding control and rationality deficits. This was improved by adding a control test as a partial defence, to be determined after a rationality determination. Implications for the insanity defence in the Criminal Justice System are discussed.

  8. Patent pool analysis based on technical standards: A case study of indigenous alliances in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUAN Yuzhen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China has set up only two sorts of patent pools (PLs with technical standards, namely, the AVS alliance and IGRS alliance. Both PLs are applied in the IT industry. Statistics of patent alliances with global technical standards show that Chinese enterprises cannot easily form and develop an international PL. This study analyzes the formation process of the AVS and IGRS patent alliance, and points out the challenges in building and developing Chinese PL. The study offers suggestions on alliance management, government guidance, and international cooperation.

  9. Engineering arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Controlled manipulation by atomic- and molecular-scale quantum systems has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years. A fundamental problem is to provide deterministic methods for controlled engineering of arbitrary quantum states. This work proposes a deterministic method for engineering arbitrary pure and mixed states of a wide class of quantum systems. The method exploits a special combination of incoherent and coherent controls (incoherent and coherent radiation) and has two properties which are specifically important for manipulating by quantum systems: it realizes the strongest possible degree of their state control, complete density matrix controllability, meaning the ability to steer arbitrary pure and mixed initial states into any desired pure or mixed final state, and it is all-to-one, such that each particular control transfers all initial system states into one target state.

  10. Determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the concentration of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions and reference solutions, containing between 100 and 300 g of plutonium per litre, in a nitric acid medium. The weighed portion of the plutonium nitrate is treated with sulfuric acid and evaporated to dryness. The plutonium sulfate is decomposed and formed to oxide by heating in air. The oxide is ignited in air at 1200 to 1250 deg. C and weighed as stoichiometric plutonium dioxide, which is stable and non-hygroscopic

  11. Determination of metallic impurities in nuclearly pure uranium compounds by electrothermal spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry, with electrothermal atomization, has been used for the determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni in uranium oxide standards. The analysis were performed without sample dissolution and without uranium chemical separation. This technique is adequate for the qualification of nuclearly pure uranium, according to the standard specifications. (Author) [pt

  12. Solubility of salicylic acid in pure alcohols at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Junhyuk; Jang, Sunghyun; Cho, Hye Kyoung; Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Hwayong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solubility data of salicylic acid in pure alkanols were measured. ► The experimental data were correlated with NRTL, UNIQUAC and Wilson models. ► The data are fit well with all three models for the six pure alcohols studied. ► Adjustable interaction parameters were suggested. - Abstract: This work focused on the experimental measurements and the numerical calculations of the solubility of salicylic acid in various alcohols. The solubility of salicylic acid in pure alcohols was determined using a (solid + liquid) equilibrium measurement apparatus at temperatures ranging from (278.15 to 318.15) K. Also, the melting temperature and fusion enthalpy of salicylic acid were determined by a differential scanning calorimeter (TA instrument Q100). The experimental results were correlated with the equation for solubility of a solid in a liquid with the nonrandom two liquid (NRTL), universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) and Wilson models for liquid phase activity coefficients to validate the quality of the data taken. Adjustable interaction parameters were also provided. The experimental data fit appropriately with all three models for the pure alcohols studied.

  13. Topological M Theory from Pure Spinor Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A; Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Vanhove, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    We construct multiloop superparticle amplitudes in 11d using the pure spinor formalism. We explain how this construction reduces to the superparticle limit of the multiloop pure spinor superstring amplitudes prescription. We then argue that this construction points to some evidence for the existence of a topological M theory based on a relation between the ghost number of the full-fledged supersymmetric critical models and the dimension of the spacetime for topological models. In particular, we show that the extensions at higher orders of the previous results for the tree and one-loop level expansion for the superparticle in 11 dimensions is related to a topological model in 7 dimensions.

  14. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  15. Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.

  16. Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates, pure Mg was ground under hydrogen atmosphere (reactive .... Hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled pure Mg. 833. Figure 3. ... elongated and flat shapes via collisions with the steel.

  17. Building a gold standard to construct search filters: a case study with biomarkers for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John J; Stein, Corey D; Tseytlin, Eugene; Bekhuis, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    To support clinical researchers, librarians and informationists may need search filters for particular tasks. Development of filters typically depends on a "gold standard" dataset. This paper describes generalizable methods for creating a gold standard to support future filter development and evaluation using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a case study. OSCC is the most common malignancy affecting the oral cavity. Investigation of biomarkers with potential prognostic utility is an active area of research in OSCC. The methods discussed here should be useful for designing quality search filters in similar domains. The authors searched MEDLINE for prognostic studies of OSCC, developed annotation guidelines for screeners, ran three calibration trials before annotating the remaining body of citations, and measured inter-annotator agreement (IAA). We retrieved 1,818 citations. After calibration, we screened the remaining citations (n = 1,767; 97.2%); IAA was substantial (kappa = 0.76). The dataset has 497 (27.3%) citations representing OSCC studies of potential prognostic biomarkers. The gold standard dataset is likely to be high quality and useful for future development and evaluation of filters for OSCC studies of potential prognostic biomarkers. The methodology we used is generalizable to other domains requiring a reference standard to evaluate the performance of search filters. A gold standard is essential because the labels regarding relevance enable computation of diagnostic metrics, such as sensitivity and specificity. Librarians and informationists with data analysis skills could contribute to developing gold standard datasets and subsequent filters tuned for their patrons' domains of interest.

  18. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  19. A new customized fetal growth standard for African American women: the PRB/NICHD Detroit Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarca, Adi L.; Romero, Roberto; Gudicha, Dereje W.; Erez, Offer; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Bhatti, Gaurav; Pacora, Percy; Maymon, Eli; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2018-01-01

    Background The assessment of fetal growth disorders requires a standard. Current nomograms for the assessment of fetal growth in African American women have been derived either from neonatal (rather than fetal) biometry data or have not been customized for maternal ethnicity, weight, height, parity, and fetal sex. Objective We sought to 1) develop a new customized fetal growth standard for African American mothers; and 2) compare such a standard to three existing standards for the classification of fetuses as small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age. Study Design A retrospective cohort study included 4,183 women (4,001 African American and 182 Caucasian) from the Detroit metropolitan area who underwent ultrasound examinations between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation (the median number of scans per pregnancy was 5, interquartile range 3-7) and for whom relevant covariate data were available. Longitudinal quantile regression was used to build models defining the “normal” estimated fetal weight (EFW) centiles for gestational age in African American women, adjusted for maternal height, weight, parity, and fetal sex, and excluding pathologic factors with a significant effect on fetal weight. The resulting Perinatology Research Branch/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (hereinafter, PRB/NICHD) growth standard was compared to 3 other existing standards—the customized gestation-related optimal weight (GROW) standard; the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (hereinafter, NICHD) African American standard; and the multinational World Health Organization (WHO) standard—utilized to screen fetuses for SGA (90th centile) based on the last available ultrasound examination for each pregnancy. Results 1) First, the mean birthweight at 40 weeks was 133g higher for neonates born to Caucasian than to African American mothers and 150g higher for male than female neonates; maternal weight

  20. 78 FR 5816 - Electronic Study Data Submission; Data Standard Support End Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...] Electronic Study Data Submission; Data Standard Support End Date AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Public Law 112- 144), requires electronic submission of drug and... comment, will specify the format required for such electronic submissions. The action announced in this...

  1. Next Generation Science Standards: A National Mixed-Methods Study on Teacher Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Susan; Megowan, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) science and engineering practices are ways of eliciting the reasoning and applying foundational ideas in science. As research has revealed barriers to states and schools adopting the NGSS, this mixed-methods study attempts to identify characteristics of professional development (PD) that will support NGSS…

  2. 77 FR 48491 - Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for Study Data Exchange Standards; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... input from industry, technology vendors, and other members of the public regarding the advantages and disadvantages of current and emerging open, consensus-based standards for the exchange of regulated study data... many years, it is not an extensible modern technology. Moreover, it is not supported and maintained by...

  3. Open and Distance Education Accreditation Standards Scale: Validity and Reliability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ertug

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop, and test the validity and reliability of a scale for the use of researchers to determine the accreditation standards of open and distance education based on the views of administrators, teachers, staff and students. This research was designed according to the general descriptive survey model since it aims…

  4. Bioinformatics in High School Biology Curricula: A Study of State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H.; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics…

  5. A Study of Standardized Headings for Warranties. Technical Report No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Redish, Janice C.

    A study was conducted (1) to discover whether using standardized headings on warranties would increase or decrease people's speed and accuracy in understanding the terms of warranties and (2) to determine what effect headings would have on people's attitudes toward warranties. Subjects were 48 adult consumers who read groups of four warranties for…

  6. Comparing definitions in guidelines and written standards - a case study: 'Trueness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, F

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of a repository initiated by IMEKO TC21 to allow the comparison of different definitions and use of the same term or concept in written standards and guidelines available internationally. The method used is illustrated for a case study: the critical concept of 'trueness' and its definitions.

  7. A Study of the Relationship between the ACT College Mathematics Readiness Standard and College Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Post, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the American College Testing (ACT) college mathematics readiness standard and college mathematics achievement using a sample of students who met or exceeded the minimum 3 years high school mathematics coursework recommended by ACT. According to ACT, a student who scores 22 or higher on the ACT…

  8. Overview on pre-harmonization studies conducted by the Working Group on Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinovart, J.

    1998-01-01

    For more than twenty years, the Working Group on Codes and Standards (WGCS) has been an Advisory Expert Group of the European Commission and three subgroups were formed to consider manufacture and inspection, structural mechanics and materials topics. The WGCS seeks to promote studies at the pre-harmonisation level, for the clarification and building of consensus in the European Community concerning technical issues of relevance for the integrity of safety-related components. It deals with pre-standardization process regarding industrial codes whose rules are applicable to design, construction and operation of NPP components in European Community

  9. Study on Modelling Standardization of Double-fed Wind Turbine and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the standardized modelling of the International Modelling Team, study on double-fed induction generator (DFIG wind turbine is processed in this paper, aiming at capability of universally and reasonably reflecting key performance related to large scale system analysis. The standardized model proposed is of high degree of structural modularity, easy functional extension and universalization of control strategy and signal. Moreover, it is applicable for wind turbines produced by different manufacturers through model parameter adjustment. The complexity of the model can meet both needs of grid-connected characteristic simulation of wind turbine and large scale power system simulation.

  10. A Study of the Impact of the Lack of a Cost Accounting Standards Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    California 00 ,: SE P 9 7 THESIS SE& A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THE LACK OF A COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD by James F. Sumner, III June 1987 Thesis...O’ATON COSA1. CODES 16 SuB,*CT j’J.45 Comr~nue n- p.ono ol neeeterV ani denltiy by flO(k f1LrmbCr) E,) ROUP StA IRucost accounting , cost accounting ...thesis has two purposes. First, it attempts to determine whether the absence of the Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) has given rise to any areas

  11. In vitro corrosion, cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility of bulk nanocrystalline pure iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, F L; Zheng, Y F; Wei, S C; Hu, C; Yang, G

    2010-01-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline pure iron rods were fabricated by the equal channel angular pressure (ECAP) technique up to eight passes. The microstructure and grain size distribution, natural immersion and electrochemical corrosion in simulated body fluid, cellular responses and hemocompatibility were investigated in this study. The results indicate that nanocrystalline pure iron after severe plastic deformation (SPD) would sustain durable span duration and exhibit much stronger corrosion resistance than that of the microcrystalline pure iron. The interaction of different cell lines reveals that the nanocrystalline pure iron stimulates better proliferation of fibroblast cells and preferable promotion of endothelialization, while inhibits effectively the viability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The burst of red cells and adhesion of the platelets were also substantially suppressed on contact with the nanocrystalline pure iron in blood circulation. A clear size-dependent behavior from the grain nature deduced by the gradual refinement microstructures was given and well-behaved in vitro biocompatibility of nanocrystalline pure iron was concluded.

  12. Exploring Chinese cultural standards through the lens of German managers: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Moser

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand one’s own culture and to deal with specificities of foreign cultures is one of the core requirements in today’s international business. Management skills are partially culture specific and a management approach that is appropriate in one cultural context may not be appropriate in another. Several business activities of companies nowadays take place abroad, which requires managers to interact with different cultures. This paper aims to analyse cultural characteristics, especially in a Sino-German business context. Based on literature analysis and case study research, relevant cultural standards in China were identified from the German perspective. The result differentiates three superordinate cultural areas and five specific cultural standards and analyses different influence factors on the dimensions of the identified Chinese cultural standards.

  13. ACCOUNTING TREATMENT OF TAXES ON INCOME: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CHANGE IN THE BRAZILIAN STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarso Rocha Lula Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The corporate accounting has as one of its sub area the tax area. The Brazilian Securities Commission issued the Deliberation 273/1998 and 599/2009, and the Federal Accounting Council, adopted Resolution 998/2004 and 1189/2009. Moreover, the Accounting Pronouncements Committee approved the statement 32/2009, all those dealing with income taxes, however, only the CPC 32, the Resolution 1189/2009 and the Resolution 599/2009 have been edited based on the International Accounting Standards 12 of the International Accounting Standards Board. All of these standards rule on the same subject, share substantial differences, but do not have the same structure. Thus, the aim of this work is to verify whether the update of accounting rules are consistent with IAS 12. The work is important to confirm how the Brazilian rules can contribute to the objective of the accounting science. It is a qualitative study and descriptive analysis.

  14. Towards a non-perturbative study of the strongly coupled standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagotto, E.; Kogut, J.

    1988-01-01

    The strongly coupled standard model of Abbott and Farhi can be a good alternative to the standard model if it has a phase where chiral symmetry is not broken, the SU(2) sector confines and the scalar field is in the symmetric regime. To look for such a phase we did a numerical analysis in the context of lattice gauge theory. To simplify the model we studied a U(1) gauge theory with Higgs fields and four species of dynamical fermions. In this toy model we did not find a phase with the correct properties required by the strongly coupled standard model. We also speculate about a possible solution to this problem using a new phase of the SU(2) gauge theory with a large number of flavors. (orig.)

  15. Investigations in Pure Mathematics: A Constructivist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Keith; Shiu, Christine

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an investigative, constructivist approach in the context of undergraduate mathematics, with particular reference to pure mathematics, general aims and objectives, assessment strategies, and problems of supervision that affect tutors and lecturers using this approach. Gives students' views on their experiences in this mode of working. (19…

  16. Thermomechanical characterization of pure polycrystalline tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittel, D.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Poon, B.; Zhao, J.; Ravichandran, G.

    2007-01-01

    The thermomechanical behavior of pure polycrystalline tantalum has been characterized over a wide range of strain rates, using the recently developed shear compression specimen [D. Rittel, S. Lee, G. Ravichandran, Experimental Mechanics 42 (2002) 58-64]. Dynamic experiments were carried out using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, and the specimen's temperature was monitored throughout the tests using an infrared radiometer. The results of the mechanical tests confirm previous results on pure Ta. Specifically, in addition to its significant strain rate sensitivity, it was observed that pure Ta exhibits very little strain hardening at high strain rates. The measured temperature rise in the specimen's gauge was compared to theoretical predictions which assume a total conversion of the mechanical energy into heat (β = 1) [G.I. Taylor, H. Quinney, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. A, 1934, pp. 307-326], and an excellent agreement was obtained. This result confirms the previous result of Kapoor and Nemat-Nasser [R. Kapoor, S. Nemat-Nasser, Mech. Mater. 27 (1998) 1-12], while a different experimental approach was adopted here. The assumption that β = 1 is found to be justified in this specific case by the lack of dynamic strain hardening of pure Ta. However, this assumption should be limited to non-hardening materials, to reflect the fact that strain hardening implies that part of the mechanical energy is stored into the material's microstructure

  17. Eco-Cities: Possible or Purely Utopian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Eco-Cities: Possible or Purely Utopian? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...2005, Disney modified their building plans for Hong Kong Disneyland by shifting the angle of the front gate by twelve degrees in order to abide by

  18. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-696 (Third Review). Issued: November 2, 2011...

  19. Is word recognition crowded in pure alexia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Katrine; Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Pure alexia is a selective deficit in reading, which arises following damage to the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Crowding, the inability to recognise objects in a clutter, has recently been hypothesised to be the underlying deficit of apperceptive visual agnosia1. Crowding normally occurs...

  20. Perceptions of the Pure Pallet Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dye, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    .... Recommendations center on educating personnel on the importance of suboptimization avoidance and making the warfighter the most important customer. This research also serves as a formal source of information from which to form conclusions and make judgments on how well Air Force personnel are implementing the pure pallet program.

  1. Purely Magnetic Silent Universes do not Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, K. T.; Carminati, J.

    2008-09-01

    We present a new Maple package called STeM (Symbolic Tetrad Manipulation). Using STeM, we outline, using a formalism which is a hybrid of the NP and Orthonormal ones, the proof of the nonexistence of purely magnetic silent universes.

  2. Preparation of pure phenols from tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J

    1929-06-18

    A process is disclosed for preparing pure phenols from brown coal and shale tar, characterized in that the alkaline extract obtained from the tar is oxidized and concurrently the alkaline solution is separated from the existing impurities by heating with steam at high temperature, which finally reaches at least 150/sup 0/C.

  3. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal's scope is wide in that it reported findings in the areas of pure and ... Physics, Medical Sciences and Zoology form part of the contents of the Journal. Scientists in the academia, research institutes and industries are therefore ...

  4. Critical current of pure SNS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.A.; Bezzub, O.P.

    1982-01-01

    Boundary conditions at the superconductor-normal metal interface are determined, taking into account the differences in the effective masses and the density of states of the metals constituting the transition and assumed to be pure. The potential barrier of the interface is chosen to be zero. The critical current of the junction is calculated [ru

  5. Ar-40/Ar-39 Studies of Martian Meteorite RBT 04262 and Terrestrial Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Turrin, B.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J. S.; Swisher, C. C., III; Nagao, K.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2014-01-01

    Park et al. recently presented an Ar-40/Ar-39 dating study of maskelynite separated from the Martian meteorite RBT 04262. Here we report an additional study of Ar-40/Ar-39 patterns for smaller samples, each consisting of only a few maskelynite grains. Considered as a material for Ar-40/Ar-39 dating, the shock-produced glass maskelynite has both an important strength (relatively high K concentration compared to other mineral phases) and some potentially problematic weaknesses. At Rutgers, we have been analyzing small grains consisting of a single phase to explore local effects that might be averaged and remain hidden in larger samples. Thus, to assess the homogeneity of the RBT maskelynite and for comparison with the results of, we analyzed six approx. 30 microgram samples of the same maskelynite separate they studied. Furthermore, because most Ar-40/Ar-39 are calculated relative to the age of a standard, we present new Ar-40/Ar-39 age data for six standards. Among the most widely used standards are sanidine from Fish Canyon (FCs) and various hornblendes (hb3gr, MMhb-1, NL- 25), which are taken as primary standards because their ages have been determined by independent, direct measurements of K and A-40.

  6. Energetics and optical properties of 6-dimensional rotating black hole in pure Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Atamurotov, Farruh; Dadhich, Naresh; Stuchlik, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    We study physical processes around a rotating black hole in pure Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity. In pure GB gravity, the gravitational potential has a slower fall-off as compared to the corresponding Einstein potential in the same dimension. It is therefore expected that the energetics of a pure GB black hole would be weaker, and our analysis bears out that the efficiency of energy extraction by the Penroseprocess is increased to 25.8 % and the particle acceleration is increased to 55.28 %; the optical shadow of the black hole is decreased. These are in principle distinguishing observable features of a pure GB black hole. (orig.)

  7. A basic study for development of environmental standard review plan of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Cho, Jae Seon; You, Young Woo [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-12-15

    In this study is performed a basic study to be ready for the development and detail analysis of NUREG-1555 ESRP. As a fundamental research for literature survey and development of draft review plan, review and translation of NUREG-1555 published by NRC, and which is applied to licensing procedure of Nuclear Power Plants are included. These provided the basic information for the developments of the environmental standard review plan.

  8. Pure drug nanoparticles in tablets: what are the dissolution limitations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Desmond; Ogawa, Keiko; Cutler, David J.; Chan, Hak-Kim; Raper, Judy A.; Ye Lin; Yun, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    There has been increasing interests for drug companies to incorporate drug nanoparticles into their existing formulations. However, technical knowledge in this area is still in its infancy and more study needs to be done to stimulate growth in this fledging field. There is a need to scrutinize the performance of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets, particularly relating formulation variables to their dissolution performance. Application of the pure form, synthesized without the use of surfactants or stabilizers, is often preferred to maximize drug loading and also to minimize toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil, a poorly water-soluble cephalosporin antibiotic, was used as the model drug in the formulation development. Drug release rate, tablet disintegration time, tensile strength and energy of failure were predominantly influenced by the amount of super-disintegrant, amount of surfactant, compression force and diluent species, respectively. The compression rate had minimal impact on the responses. The main hurdle confronting the effective use of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets is the difficulty in controlling aggregation in solution, which could potentially be aggravated by the tabletting process. Through the use of elevated levels of surfactants (8 w/w% sodium dodecyl sulphate), drug release from the nanoparticle preparation was enhanced from 58.0 ± 2.7% to 72.3 ± 0.7% in 10 min. Hence, it is recommended that physical formulations for pure drug nanoparticles be focused on the particle de-aggregation step in solution, if much higher rates are to be desired. In conclusion, even though pure drug nanoparticles could be easily synthesized, limitations from aggregation may need to be overcome, before successful application in tablets can be fully realized.

  9. Pure drug nanoparticles in tablets: what are the dissolution limitations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Desmond [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences (Singapore); Ogawa, Keiko [Nitto Denko Co. Ltd., Medical Division (Japan); Cutler, David J.; Chan, Hak-Kim, E-mail: kimc@pharm.usyd.edu.a [University of Sydney, Advanced Drug Delivery Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15 (Australia); Raper, Judy A. [University of Wollongong, Vice Chancellor' s Unit (Australia); Ye Lin [University of Sydney, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (Australia); Yun, Jimmy [Nanomaterials Technology Pty. Ltd. (Singapore)

    2010-06-15

    There has been increasing interests for drug companies to incorporate drug nanoparticles into their existing formulations. However, technical knowledge in this area is still in its infancy and more study needs to be done to stimulate growth in this fledging field. There is a need to scrutinize the performance of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets, particularly relating formulation variables to their dissolution performance. Application of the pure form, synthesized without the use of surfactants or stabilizers, is often preferred to maximize drug loading and also to minimize toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil, a poorly water-soluble cephalosporin antibiotic, was used as the model drug in the formulation development. Drug release rate, tablet disintegration time, tensile strength and energy of failure were predominantly influenced by the amount of super-disintegrant, amount of surfactant, compression force and diluent species, respectively. The compression rate had minimal impact on the responses. The main hurdle confronting the effective use of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets is the difficulty in controlling aggregation in solution, which could potentially be aggravated by the tabletting process. Through the use of elevated levels of surfactants (8 w/w% sodium dodecyl sulphate), drug release from the nanoparticle preparation was enhanced from 58.0 {+-} 2.7% to 72.3 {+-} 0.7% in 10 min. Hence, it is recommended that physical formulations for pure drug nanoparticles be focused on the particle de-aggregation step in solution, if much higher rates are to be desired. In conclusion, even though pure drug nanoparticles could be easily synthesized, limitations from aggregation may need to be overcome, before successful application in tablets can be fully realized.

  10. Pure drug nanoparticles in tablets: what are the dissolution limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Ogawa, Keiko; Cutler, David J.; Chan, Hak-Kim; Raper, Judy A.; Ye, Lin; Yun, Jimmy

    2010-06-01

    There has been increasing interests for drug companies to incorporate drug nanoparticles into their existing formulations. However, technical knowledge in this area is still in its infancy and more study needs to be done to stimulate growth in this fledging field. There is a need to scrutinize the performance of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets, particularly relating formulation variables to their dissolution performance. Application of the pure form, synthesized without the use of surfactants or stabilizers, is often preferred to maximize drug loading and also to minimize toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil, a poorly water-soluble cephalosporin antibiotic, was used as the model drug in the formulation development. Drug release rate, tablet disintegration time, tensile strength and energy of failure were predominantly influenced by the amount of super-disintegrant, amount of surfactant, compression force and diluent species, respectively. The compression rate had minimal impact on the responses. The main hurdle confronting the effective use of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets is the difficulty in controlling aggregation in solution, which could potentially be aggravated by the tabletting process. Through the use of elevated levels of surfactants (8 w/w% sodium dodecyl sulphate), drug release from the nanoparticle preparation was enhanced from 58.0 ± 2.7% to 72.3 ± 0.7% in 10 min. Hence, it is recommended that physical formulations for pure drug nanoparticles be focused on the particle de-aggregation step in solution, if much higher rates are to be desired. In conclusion, even though pure drug nanoparticles could be easily synthesized, limitations from aggregation may need to be overcome, before successful application in tablets can be fully realized.

  11. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  12. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  13. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kovalskys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  14. Hearing Tests Based on Biologically Calibrated Mobile Devices: Comparison With Pure-Tone Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalski, Marcin; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2018-01-10

    Hearing screening tests based on pure-tone audiometry may be conducted on mobile devices, provided that the devices are specially calibrated for the purpose. Calibration consists of determining the reference sound level and can be performed in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. In the case of devices provided by the manufacturer, together with bundled headphones, the reference sound level can be calculated once for all devices of the same model. This study aimed to compare the hearing threshold measured by a mobile device that was calibrated using a model-specific, biologically determined reference sound level with the hearing threshold obtained in pure-tone audiometry. Trial participants were recruited offline using face-to-face prompting from among Otolaryngology Clinic patients, who own Android-based mobile devices with bundled headphones. The hearing threshold was obtained on a mobile device by means of an open access app, Hearing Test, with incorporated model-specific reference sound levels. These reference sound levels were previously determined in uncontrolled conditions in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. An audiologist-assisted self-measurement was conducted by the participants in a sound booth, and it involved determining the lowest audible sound generated by the device within the frequency range of 250 Hz to 8 kHz. The results were compared with pure-tone audiometry. A total of 70 subjects, 34 men and 36 women, aged 18-71 years (mean 36, standard deviation [SD] 11) participated in the trial. The hearing threshold obtained on mobile devices was significantly different from the one determined by pure-tone audiometry with a mean difference of 2.6 dB (95% CI 2.0-3.1) and SD of 8.3 dB (95% CI 7.9-8.7). The number of differences not greater than 10 dB reached 89% (95% CI 88-91), whereas the mean absolute difference was obtained at 6.5 dB (95% CI 6.2-6.9). Sensitivity and specificity for a mobile

  15. Standardized Patients' Perspectives on Workplace Satisfaction and Work-Related Relationships: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Claudia; Bonvin, Raphael; Rethans, Jan-Joost; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2016-08-01

    The use of standardized patients (SPs) in health care education has grown in the last 50 years. In addition, the requirements for SPs have increased steadily, and thus, the work of SPs has become more difficult and demanding. It has been claimed that SP programs are highly contextualized, having emerged from local, institutional, professional, and national conditions, but their effects on SPs have not been investigated. We have studied the effects of this job development on SPs and their programs. The study was conducted using a qualitative research design, with semistructured individual in-depth interviews to understand the reactions, values, and perceptions that underlie and influence SP behavior. To cover SP perspectives from more than 1 SP program, a total of 15 SPs from 8 different nursing schools and medical schools in Switzerland were asked to participate. Standardized patients feel motivated, engaged, and willing to invest effort in their task and do not mind demands increasing as long as the social environment in SP programs is supportive. The role of the SP trainer and the use of feedback are considered very important. Standardized patient programs require concepts in which the SP perspective has been integrated to better serve SPs' well-being. Standardized patients are valuable partners in the training of health professionals-we need to take care of them.

  16. Basic Laparoscopic Skills Assessment Study: Validation and Standard Setting among Canadian Urology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Andonian, Sero; Pace, Kenneth T; Grober, Ethan

    2017-06-01

    As urology training programs move to a competency based medical education model, iterative assessments with objective standards will be required. To develop a valid set of technical skills standards we initiated a national skills assessment study focusing initially on laparoscopic skills. Between February 2014 and March 2016 the basic laparoscopic skill of Canadian urology trainees and attending urologists was assessed using 4 standardized tasks from the AUA (American Urological Association) BLUS (Basic Laparoscopic Urological Surgery) curriculum, including peg transfer, pattern cutting, suturing and knot tying, and vascular clip applying. All performances were video recorded and assessed using 3 methods, including time and error based scoring, expert global rating scores and C-SATS (Crowd-Sourced Assessments of Technical Skill Global Rating Scale), a novel, crowd sourced assessment platform. Different methods of standard setting were used to develop pass-fail cut points. Six attending urologists and 99 trainees completed testing. Reported laparoscopic experience and training level correlated with performance (p standard setting methods to define pass-fail cut points for all 4 AUA BLUS tasks. The 4 AUA BLUS tasks demonstrated good construct validity evidence for use in assessing basic laparoscopic skill. Performance scores using the novel C-SATS platform correlated well with traditional time-consuming methods of assessment. Various standard setting methods were used to develop pass-fail cut points for educators to use when making formative and summative assessments of basic laparoscopic skill. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Arterial puncture using insulin needle is less painful than with standard needle: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Irwani; Yau, Ying Wei; Ong, Lizhen; Chan, Yiong Huak; Kuan, Win Sen

    2015-03-01

    Arterial punctures are important procedures performed by emergency physicians in the assessment of ill patients. However, arterial punctures are painful and can create anxiety and needle phobia in patients. The pain score of radial arterial punctures were compared between the insulin needle and the standard 23-gauge hypodermic needle. In a randomized controlled crossover design, healthy volunteers were recruited to undergo bilateral radial arterial punctures. They were assigned to receive either the insulin or the standard needle as the first puncture, using blocked randomization. The primary outcome was the pain score measured on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, and secondary outcomes were rate of hemolysis, mean potassium values, and procedural complications immediately and 24 hours postprocedure. Fifty healthy volunteers were included in the study. The mean (±standard deviation) VAS score in punctures with the insulin needle was lower than the standard needle (23 ± 22 mm vs. 39 ± 24 mm; mean difference = -15 mm; 95% confidence interval = -22 mm to -7 mm; p standard needle (31.3% vs. 11.6%, p = 0.035; and 4.6 ±0.7 mmol/L vs. 4.2 ±0.5 mmol/L, p = 0.002). Procedural complications were lower in punctures with the insulin needle both immediately postprocedure (0% vs. 24%; p standard needles. However, due to the higher rate of hemolysis, its use should be limited to conditions that do not require a concurrent potassium value in the same blood sample. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. Gap study on technical standards and quality assurance between ITER and Korean regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myoung-suk; Lee, Sangil; Lee, Hyoen Gon; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper is to secure knowledge and expand domestic specialists for license and regulation of future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. - Abstract: Currently, Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project or the ITER Korea has been conducting follow-up surveys and development researches for the core technologies of its non-procurement items. This eventually aims to secure implicit as well as explicit knowledge and expand domestic specialists for future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. As a part of the project, the comparative analysis and gap study of technical standards and Quality Assurance (QA) system between ITER and Korean nuclear facilities are being performed. The goal of this study is to present a roadmap re-systematizing current safety-related standards for the fission-based facilities into fusion-based facilities in Republic of Korea. The research is considering two different tracks. First one is to secure the state-of-the-art of the fusion technical standards continually updated. For its investigation, we organized the Korean fusion safety advisory group that consists of experts from institutes, industries, and universities. The latest information of technical standards have been gathered and updated from each area of expert in periodic manner. The information is classified into Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) including safety classification, major safety issues, analysis computer codes, etc. This task will be re-organized this year such that the technical standards for procurement as well as non-procurement items can be accumulated in systematic and sustainable manner. Second one, called “Gap Study,” is to compare the requirements for domestic nuclear facilities and the results from the first track on the basis of experts’ opinion from the national and private sectors and to recommend the approaches to overcome technical and administrative barriers. The result is

  19. Gap study on technical standards and quality assurance between ITER and Korean regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangil; Lee, Hyoen Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper is to secure knowledge and expand domestic specialists for license and regulation of future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. - Abstract: Currently, Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project or the ITER Korea has been conducting follow-up surveys and development researches for the core technologies of its non-procurement items. This eventually aims to secure implicit as well as explicit knowledge and expand domestic specialists for future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. As a part of the project, the comparative analysis and gap study of technical standards and Quality Assurance (QA) system between ITER and Korean nuclear facilities are being performed. The goal of this study is to present a roadmap re-systematizing current safety-related standards for the fission-based facilities into fusion-based facilities in Republic of Korea. The research is considering two different tracks. First one is to secure the state-of-the-art of the fusion technical standards continually updated. For its investigation, we organized the Korean fusion safety advisory group that consists of experts from institutes, industries, and universities. The latest information of technical standards have been gathered and updated from each area of expert in periodic manner. The information is classified into Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) including safety classification, major safety issues, analysis computer codes, etc. This task will be re-organized this year such that the technical standards for procurement as well as non-procurement items can be accumulated in systematic and sustainable manner. Second one, called “Gap Study,” is to compare the requirements for domestic nuclear facilities and the results from the first track on the basis of experts’ opinion from the national and private sectors and to recommend the approaches to overcome technical and administrative barriers. The result is

  20. A randomised controlled trial of face to face versus pure online self-help cognitive behavioural treatment for perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Sarah J; van Noort, Emily; Chee, Abby; Kane, Robert T; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey D

    2014-12-01

    Previous research has shown cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) to be effective in reducing perfectionism. The present study investigated the efficacy of two formats of CBT for perfectionism (CBT-P), face-to-face and pure online self-help, in reducing perfectionism and associated psychological symptoms. Participants were randomly allocated to face-to-face CBT-P (n = 18), pure online self-help CBT-P (n = 16), or a waitlist control period (n = 18). There was no significant change for the waitlist group on any of the outcome measures at the end of treatment. Both the face-to-face and pure online self-help groups reported significant reductions at the end of treatment for the perfectionism variables which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. The face-to-face group also reported significant reductions over this time in depression, anxiety, and stress, and a significant pre-post increase in self-esteem, all of which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. In contrast, the pure online self-help group showed no significant changes on these outcomes. The face-to-face group was statistically superior to the pure online self-help group at follow-up on the perfectionism measures, concern over mistakes and personal standards. The results show promising evidence for CBT for perfectionism, especially when offered face to face, where sustained benefit across a broad range of outcomes can be expected. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Standardization, Validity and Reliability Study of Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 (GAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Maviş

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 (GAT-2 has been developed to show the presence of a language disorder ‘aphasia’ and to give the clinician implications for the accompanying speech disorders such as apraxia and dysarthria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to report standardization, validity and reliability study of GAT-2. METHODS: : 10 healthy individuals were tested initially for the pilot study. 134 healthy individual was included to the standardization study and 30 individuals with aphasia and 11 individuals with right brain injury was included to the validation study. The inter group GAT-2 score differentiations and the effects of age, years of education, sex variances were observed. GAT-2 cut-off scores were calculated by the scores of healthy individuals. GAT-2 test-retest reliability and inter-observer reliability was calculated. RESULTS: Healthy individuals’ GAT-2 scores were significantly different from the GAT-2 scores of aphasic patients, but not from right brain injured patients’. Healthy individuals’ GAT-2 scores were not affected from the sex, age variances but from years of education, so cut-off scores were calculated by this variance. GAT-2 scores of aphasic patients were not affected from age, sex and years of education. Test-retest and inter-observer reliability and internal consistency results showed that GAT-2 is a highly reliable aphasia screening test. CONCLUSION: GAT-2 was found to be a standardized, highly reliable and a valid aphasia test for Turkish stroke patients with aphasia

  2. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability, the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs, i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1 a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2 an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will

  3. Collaborative study to assess the suitability of a candidate International Standard for yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Morag; Heath, Alan

    2004-12-01

    Yellow fever vaccines are routinely assayed by plaque assay. However, the results of these assays are then converted into mouse LD(50) using correlations/conversion factors which, in many cases, were established many years ago. The minimum required potency in WHO Recommendations is 10(3) LD(50)/dose. Thirteen participants from 8 countries participated in a collaborative study whose aim was to assess the suitability of two candidate preparations to serve as an International Standard for yellow fever vaccine. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between the mouse LD(50) test and plaque forming units with a view to updating the WHO recommendations. Plaque assays were more reproducible than mouse assays, as expected. Differences in sensitivities of plaque assays were observed between laboratories but these differences appear to be consistent within a laboratory for all samples and the expression of potency relative to the candidate standard vaccine improved the reproducibility of assays between laboratories. However, the use of potencies had little effect on the between laboratory variability in mouse LD(50) assays. There appears to be a consistent relationship between overall mean LD(50) and plaques titre for all study preparations other than sample E. The slope of the correlation curve is >1 and it would appear that 10(3) LD(50) is approximately equivalent to 10(4) plaque forming units (PFU), based on the overall means of all laboratory results. The First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine, NIBSC Code 99/616, has been established as the First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation. The International Standard has been arbitrarily assigned a potency of 10(4.5) International Units (IU) per ampoule. Manufacturers and National Control Laboratories are including the First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine in routine assays so that the minimum

  4. Angels and demons are among us: assessing individual differences in belief in pure evil and belief in pure good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Russell J; Saucier, Donald A

    2013-11-01

    We conducted five studies to demonstrate that individuals' beliefs in pure evil (BPE) and in pure good (BPG) are valid and important psychological constructs. First, these studies together demonstrated that BPE and BPG are reliable, unitary, and stable constructs each composed of eight theoretically interdependent dimensions. Second, these studies showed that across a wide variety of different measures, higher BPE consistently related to greater intergroup aggression (e.g., supporting the death penalty and preemptive military aggression) and less intergroup prosociality (e.g., opposing criminal rehabilitation, proracial policies, and beneficial social programs), while higher BPG consistently related to less intergroup aggression (e.g., opposing proviolent foreign relations and torture) and greater intergroup prosociality (e.g., supporting criminal rehabilitation and support for diplomacy). In sum, these studies evidence that BPE and BPG relate to aggressive and prosocial orientations toward others and have strong potential to advance current theories on prejudice, aggression, and prosociality.

  5. A Study on the Environmental Standard of Sediment on the Bottom of the Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Sediment on the bottom of the water has been considered one of the water pollutants in the environmental management of Korea so treated as a management on pollutants, as you can see the examples in the dragging operation in the polluted sea area. To healthily maintain and conserve the water ecosystem including bottom living things in the water, sediment on the bottom of the water should be recognized as the independent medium, which should maintain the certain quality like the water, the atmosphere, and soil, rather than the source of water pollution. Such recognition means that the management of sediment on the bottom of the water should change the fragmentary goal, centered the post management focusing on the water management, to the ecosystematic goal including the bottom living things. In a point of the view, this study has a great significance to suggest not only the final goal for the management of sediment on the bottom of the water but also the necessity of developing the environmental standard of the sediment on the bottom of the water, which is a standard of the management or judgment in the actual managing the sediment on the bottom of the water - an estimation on the pollution of sediment, a removal of the polluted sediment, a purification of sediment, and an abandonment of the dragged sediment -, and the development measures. Considering the situation that even the basic scheme related to the management of sediment is not prepared in the Government level, the concept of the environmental standard of sediment, the foreign example of the environmental standard of sediment, the current state of the domestic sediment pollution, and the development scheme of the environmental standard in this study must be the important foundation to establish the management system of sediment in the Government level. 121 refs., 10 figs., 45 tabs.

  6. Comparison of Robotic Pyeloplasty and Standard Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty in Infants: A Bi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neheman, Amos; Kord, Eyal; Zisman, Amnon; Darawsha, Abd Elhalim; Noh, Paul H

    2018-04-01

    To compare outcomes between robotic pyeloplasty (RP) and standard laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) in the infant population for the treatment of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all children under 1 year of age who underwent RP or LP at two different medical centers between October 2009 and February 2016. Patient demographics, perioperative data, complications, and results were reviewed. Thirteen patients underwent standard LP, and 21 patients underwent RP during the study period. Median age and median weight at time of operation for the whole cohort were 6.1 months and 7.9 kg. Surgery success rates were similar with 95% and 92% in RP and LP, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in operating time between the 2 groups, with a median time of 156 minutes in RP (range 125-249) and 192 minutes (range 98-229) in standard LP (P = .35). Median length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the robotic group with a median stay of 1 day (range 1-3) and 7 days (range 7-12) in the standard LP group.(P comparable complication rate between the 2 groups, 30.8% for LP and 23.8% for RP (P = .65). The minimally invasive dismembered pyeloplasty is safe and effective in the infant population and produces high success rates. The results, complication rates, and operative time were comparable between the two surgical methods while the standard LP demonstrated longer hospital stay. Both the robotic approach and the LP can be successfully utilized for the benefit of infants with UPJ obstruction.

  7. Improving post-stroke dysphagia outcomes through a standardized and multidisciplinary protocol: an exploratory cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Bisoffi, Giulia; Squaquara, Teresa; Zuccher, Paola; Mazzucco, Sara

    2014-12-01

    Stroke is a major cause of dysphagia. Few studies to date have reported on standardized multidisciplinary protocolized approaches to the management of post-stroke dysphagia. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized multidisciplinary protocol on clinical outcomes in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. We performed retrospective chart reviews of patients with post-stroke dysphagia admitted to the neurological ward of Verona University Hospital from 2004 to 2008. Outcomes after usual treatment for dysphagia (T- group) were compared versus outcomes after treatment under a standardized diagnostic and rehabilitative multidisciplinary protocol (T+ group). Outcome measures were death, pneumonia on X-ray, need for respiratory support, and proportion of patients on tube feeding at discharge. Of the 378 patients admitted with stroke, 84 had dysphagia and were enrolled in the study. A significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio [OR] 0.20 [0.53-0.78]), pneumonia (OR 0.33 [0.10-1.03]), need for respiratory support (OR 0.48 [0.14-1.66]), and tube feeding at discharge (OR 0.30 [0.09-0.91]) was recorded for the T+ group (N = 39) as compared to the T- group (N = 45). The adjusted OR showed no difference between the two groups for in-hospital death and tube feeding at discharge. Use of a standardized multidisciplinary protocolized approach to the management of post-stroke dysphagia may significantly reduce rates of aspiration pneumonia, in-hospital mortality, and tube feeding in dysphagic stroke survivors. Consistent with the study's exploratory purposes, our findings suggest that the multidisciplinary protocol applied in this study offers an effective model of management of post-stroke dysphagia.

  8. Environmental politics in the US: a study of state sulfur dioxide standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.

    2005-01-01

    What determines the environmental regulatory regime of a country or region? This paper addresses the question in detail, using the US and its widely varying environmental policies as the case study. What factors lead some US states to pass strict environmental regulations, while others are content with the baseline standards required at the national level? This work outlines the state environmental choice as a trade-off between the desires of consumers (who want better environmental quality) and of producers (who want less restrictive environmental standards). A rational state legislator maximises her chances of being re-elected by balancing these two competing forces when setting environmental policy. I test this model by directly analysing the state decision to adopt more restrictive sulfur dioxide regulations than those required by the federal government under the Environmental Protection Agency's ''National Ambient Air Quality Standards'' program. The statistical results suggest that legislators weigh the relative influence of consumer and producer groups when setting sulfur dioxide standards, in addition to accounting for meteorological influences that affect the cost of compliance with stricter environmental regulations. Limited evidence is also provided to support an inverted-U shaped relationship between income levels and environmental regulations. (author)

  9. Study on the developmental toxicity of a standardized extract of Orthosiphon stamineus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Muhammad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infusions of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth., Lamiaceae, leaves are widely used in Southeastern Asia to treat different illnesses. Nonetheless, no data is available on the safety of O. stamineus for pregnant women and their babies. This study was undertaken to evaluate the developmental toxicity of O. stamineus standardized aqueous extract in female Sprague Dawley rats (n=21 at 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day, by gavage on gestation days 6-20. Clinical signs of maternal toxicity, body weight gain, and food and water consumption were recorded. Caesarean sections were performed on gestation day 21; resorptions and living and dead fetuses were counted. Fetuses were weighed and examined for external abnormalities. Half of the fetuses from each litter were cleared and stained with Alizarin red S for skeleton evaluation. O. stamineus standardized aqueous extract did not alter pregnancy body weight gain and food and water consumption and caused no other sign of maternal toxicity. Embryolethality and prenatal growth retardation were not observed either. O. stamineus standardized aqueous extract increased a few skeleton variations and a skull bone malformation (hyoid bone absent in a non-dose dependent manner. Anogenital distance was increased in male and female fetuses exposed to the highest O. stamineus standardized aqueous extract dose, an indication that the extract could possibly contain androgenic compounds.

  10. Influence of pH during modified sol-gel process to synthesized pure phased YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barekat Rezaee, S.; Daadmehr, V.; Saeb, F.; Falahati, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Among numerous studies of high-Tc superconductor compound, the YBCO system is the most studied system. During 3 last decades synthesized of high quality pure homogeneous powder were done. One of these methods was modified citrate gel that was widely used to obtain nanosized single phase YBCO. One of the most important factors to yield pure product is adjustment of the pH during the gelation. Then in this work, we adjusted different pH for gelatin and compare phase purity and elemental composition by using XRD and EDS. To synthesize the YBCO, we used Nitrate of metal (Y, Ba, Cu) as precursor. stoichiometric (1:2:3) amount of metal nitrate were solved in distilled water and mixed with constant stirring, (for each equivalent gram of metal nitrate add one equivalent gram of citric acid) and stirred up to have unclear light blue solution and the ethylendiamine was added drop wise to adjust pH from 4.56 to 7.45. Then the solution was heated up 80 C to achieve viscous gel. The color changed from dark blue to purple according to pH. The gel was heated on furnace up to 520 C and kept for 2 hours. During heating the gel swell and filled the baker then special attention is needed to use over sized baker. Obtained powder was calcined for 22h at 900 C to yield homogeneous pure phase and then pellets with 1 sm diameter in 10 ton pressure were produced and sintered for 19 h at 930 C and annealed to room temperature in oxygen. Resistivity measurement using standard four probe technique exhibit Tc (zero) from 90 K to 94 K. The samples were discussed by XRD, SEM and EDS. (authors)

  11. Square-root measurement for pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Siendong

    2005-01-01

    Square-root measurement is a very useful suboptimal measurement in many applications. It was shown that the square-root measurement minimizes the squared error for pure states. In this paper, the least squared error problem is reformulated and a new proof is provided. It is found that the least squared error depends only on the average density operator of the input states. The properties of the least squared error are then discussed, and it is shown that if the input pure states are uniformly distributed, the average probability of error has an upper bound depending on the least squared error, the rank of the average density operator, and the number of the input states. The aforementioned properties help explain why the square-root measurement can be effective in decoding processes

  12. Scattering equations, supergravity integrands, and pure spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Tim; Casali, Eduardo [Department of Applied Mathematics & Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-25

    The tree-level S-matrix of type II supergravity can be computed in scattering equation form by correlators in a worldsheet theory analogous to a chiral, infinite tension limit of the pure spinor formalism. By defining a non-minimal version of this theory, we give a prescription for computing correlators on higher genus worldsheets which manifest space-time supersymmetry. These correlators are conjectured to provide the loop integrands of supergravity scattering amplitudes, supported on the scattering equations. We give non-trivial evidence in support of this conjecture at genus one and two with four external states. Throughout, we find a close correspondence with the pure spinor formalism of superstring theory, particularly regarding regulators and zero-mode counting.

  13. Heat engine driven by purely quantum information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Jun; Kim, Kang-Hwan; Sagawa, Takahiro; Kim, Sang Wook

    2013-12-06

    The key question of this Letter is whether work can be extracted from a heat engine by using purely quantum mechanical information. If the answer is yes, what is its mathematical formula? First, by using a bipartite memory we show that the work extractable from a heat engine is bounded not only by the free energy change and the sum of the entropy change of an individual memory but also by the change of quantum mutual information contained inside the memory. We then find that the engine can be driven by purely quantum information, expressed as the so-called quantum discord, forming a part of the quantum mutual information. To confirm it, as a physical example we present the Szilard engine containing a diatomic molecule with a semipermeable wall.

  14. Scattering equations, supergravity integrands, and pure spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, Tim; Casali, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The tree-level S-matrix of type II supergravity can be computed in scattering equation form by correlators in a worldsheet theory analogous to a chiral, infinite tension limit of the pure spinor formalism. By defining a non-minimal version of this theory, we give a prescription for computing correlators on higher genus worldsheets which manifest space-time supersymmetry. These correlators are conjectured to provide the loop integrands of supergravity scattering amplitudes, supported on the scattering equations. We give non-trivial evidence in support of this conjecture at genus one and two with four external states. Throughout, we find a close correspondence with the pure spinor formalism of superstring theory, particularly regarding regulators and zero-mode counting.

  15. Compact objects in pure Lovelock theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Naresh; Hansraj, Sudan; Chilambwe, Brian

    For static fluid interiors of compact objects in pure Lovelock gravity (involving only one Nth order term in the equation), we establish similarity in solutions for the critical odd and even d = 2N + 1, 2N + 2 dimensions. It turns out that in critical odd d = 2N + 1 dimensions, there cannot exist any bound distribution with a finite radius, while in critical even d = 2N + 2 dimensions, all solutions have similar behavior. For exhibition of similarity, we would compare star solutions for N = 1, 2 in d = 4 Einstein and d = 6 in Gauss-Bonnet theory, respectively. We also obtain the pure Lovelock analogue of the Finch-Skea model.

  16. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  17. Study on residential appliances energy efficiency standards Refrigerators, air-conditioners, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, color TVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.G.; Cho, S.K.; Choi, S.H.; Jung, B.M.; Han, S.B.; Kim, K.D. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The energy efficiency standards and rating act, as amended by the rational energy utilization act, provides energy efficiency standards and ratings for 6 types of consumer products(refrigerators, air-conditioners, fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, ballasts and cars) authorizes the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy(MOTIE) to prescribe amended or new energy efficiency standards and rating standards. This study was initiated by the KIER in 1992. KIER`s assessment of the standards is designed to evaluate their statistical and engineering analysis according to Korean(Industrial) Standards(KS). And to make distinction between the poor efficiency and good efficiency models, 5 grades are classified depending on their tested energy efficiency. This year, based on our analysis, MOTIE mandated updated standards for refrigerators, air-conditioners, incandescent lamps, and fluorescent lamps. Also the objective of this study is to set the energy efficiency standards and to grade for color TV sets. (author). 37 refs., 89 figs., 85 tabs.

  18. Use of a standard meal to study iron absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.B.; Cook, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Iron absorption varies widely between subjects and groups of subjects because of differences in iron status which markedly influence iron assimilation from the gastrointestinal tract. A small dose of isotopically labelled inorganic iron termed the reference dose (3 mg iron as FeSO 4 ) has been used extensively during the past two decades to standardize food iron absorption in human subjects and thereby eliminate the effect of differences in iron status. Recent studies from this laboratory have shown that because of the high variability of absorption from the reference dose, nonheme iron absorption from a standardized meal provides a more reliable means of standardizing absorption from regional diets. We therefore performed initial studies with a rice based meal but we found a relatively high variation in absorption from 2.0 to 4.7% that presumably reflects differences in the phytate content of rice fours. We then undertook the evaluation of meals prepared with farina, a wheat product that is available in most regions of the world. In six different studies from a farina based meal, iron absorption ranged from 3.4 to 6.5%. Nonheme iron absorption from the farina meal when evaluated in separate laboratories extensively engaged in human studies of iron absorption, ranged from 5.1 to 10.8% but when related to the FeSO 4 dose, a more consistent ratio between 0.21 to 0.26 was observed with the exception of one laboratory where a very low absorption of 1.1.% was observed. Percentage absorption from the farina based meal decreased when the iron content of the meal was increased and showed the expected facilitation of absorption when increasing amounts of ascorbic acid were added. By reducing variability and measuring iron absorption from food rather than inorganic iron, we believe that the use of this standard meal will facilitate comparison of iron absorption data obtained in laboratories throughout the world. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  19. A study of the healthy standard for radiation controlling insect of almond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Wang Weiguo; Li Fengmei

    1992-01-01

    The result of healthy standard research for disinfestation insects of almond by γ-ray irradiation is described. The mortality of insects is more effective by using 1.0 kGy dose. The comparison of good product rate between irradiated and un-irradiated has been studied. Result indicates that good product rate of irradiated sample is 20% higher than unirradiated. In addition, there are no significant difference between irradiated and unirradiated samples on nutrition and chemical parameters

  20. Notes on the ambitwistor pure spinor string

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipinski Jusinskas, Renann

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 5 (2016), s. 1-12, č. článku 116. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ambitwistor string * pure spinor formalism Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016

  1. Unitary evolution between pure and mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, B.

    1996-01-01

    We propose an extended quantum mechanical formalism that is based on a wave operator d, which is related to the ordinary density matrix via ρ=dd degree . This formalism allows a (generalized) unitary evolution between pure and mixed states. It also preserves much of the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. The new formalism is illustrated for the case of a two-level system. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Sasakian manifolds with purely transversal Bach tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Sharma, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    We show that a (2n + 1)-dimensional Sasakian manifold (M, g) with a purely transversal Bach tensor has constant scalar curvature ≥2 n (2 n +1 ) , equality holding if and only if (M, g) is Einstein. For dimension 3, M is locally isometric to the unit sphere S3. For dimension 5, if in addition (M, g) is complete, then it has positive Ricci curvature and is compact with finite fundamental group π1(M).

  3. Preparation of pure phenols from tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J

    1933-02-07

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of pure phenols from brown coal tar, shale tar, or primary tar, characterized in that the raw oil obtained from the tar is carefully fractionated, in a suitable way without or with a slight pressure decrease, or before the fractionation the raw oil is heated to free the prepared phenolate solution from impurities after successful oxidation by passing in steam at a temperature between 100 and 120/sup 0/C.

  4. Preparation of pure anhydrous rare earth chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kova, N.L.; Slastenova, N.M.; Batyaev, I.M.; Solov'ev, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been suggested for obtaining extra-pure anhydrous REE chlorides by chloridizing corresponding oxalates by chlorine in a fluid bed, the chloridizing agents being diluted by an inert gas in a ratio of 2-to-1. The method is applicable to the manufacture of quality chlorides not only of light, but also of heavy REE. Neodymium chloride has an excited life of tau=30 μs, this evidencing the absence of the damping impurities

  5. Preparation of very pure active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloot, H.A. van der; Hoede, D.; Zonderhuis, J.; Meijer, C.

    1980-02-01

    The preparation of very pure active carbon is described. Starting from polyvinylidene chloride active carbon is prepared by carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere, grinding, sieving and activation of the powder fraction with CO 2 at 950 0 to approximately 50% burn-off. The concentrations of trace and major elements are reduced to the ppb and ppm level, respectively. In the present set-up 100 g of carbon grains and approximately 50 g of active carbon powder can be produced weekly

  6. Graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Flammia, Steven T.; Loock, Peter van

    2011-01-01

    We provide a unified graphical calculus for all Gaussian pure states, including graph transformation rules for all local and semilocal Gaussian unitary operations, as well as local quadrature measurements. We then use this graphical calculus to analyze continuous-variable (CV) cluster states, the essential resource for one-way quantum computing with CV systems. Current graphical approaches to CV cluster states are only valid in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing, and the associated graph transformation rules only apply when the initial and final states are of this form. Our formalism applies to all Gaussian pure states and subsumes these rules in a natural way. In addition, the term 'CV graph state' currently has several inequivalent definitions in use. Using this formalism we provide a single unifying definition that encompasses all of them. We provide many examples of how the formalism may be used in the context of CV cluster states: defining the 'closest' CV cluster state to a given Gaussian pure state and quantifying the error in the approximation due to finite squeezing; analyzing the optimality of certain methods of generating CV cluster states; drawing connections between this graphical formalism and bosonic Hamiltonians with Gaussian ground states, including those useful for CV one-way quantum computing; and deriving a graphical measure of bipartite entanglement for certain classes of CV cluster states. We mention other possible applications of this formalism and conclude with a brief note on fault tolerance in CV one-way quantum computing.

  7. Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Driscoll, C. F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2009-11-01

    Electron Acoustic Waves (EAW) are the low frequency branch of electrostatic plasma waves. These waves exist in neutralized plasmas, pure electron plasmas and in pure ion plasmasfootnotetextF. Anderegg et al., PRL 102, 095001 (2009) and PoP 16, 055705 (2009). (where the name is deceptive). Here, we observe standing mθ= 0 mz= 1 EAWs in a pure ion plasma column. At small amplitude, the EAWs have a phase velocity vph ˜1.4 v, and the frequencies are in close agreement with theory. At moderate amplitudes, waves can be excited over a broad range of frequencies, with observed phase velocities in the range of 1.4 v vph diagnostic shows that particles slower than vph oscillate in phase with the wave, while particles moving faster than vph oscillate 180^o out of phase with the wave. From a fluid perspective, this gives an unusual negative dynamical compressibility. That is, the wave pressure oscillations are 180^o out of phase from the density oscillations, almost fully canceling the electrostatic restoring force, giving the low and malleable frequency.

  8. Standardized reactors for the study of medical biofilms: a review of the principles and latest modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Inês B; Meireles, Ana; Gonçalves, Ana L; Goeres, Darla M; Sjollema, Jelmer; Simões, Lúcia C; Simões, Manuel

    2018-08-01

    Biofilms can cause severe problems to human health due to the high tolerance to antimicrobials; consequently, biofilm science and technology constitutes an important research field. Growing a relevant biofilm in the laboratory provides insights into the basic understanding of the biofilm life cycle including responses to antibiotic therapies. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate biofilm reactor is a critical decision, necessary to obtain reproducible and reliable in vitro results. A reactor should be chosen based upon the study goals and a balance between the pros and cons associated with its use and operational conditions that are as similar as possible to the clinical setting. However, standardization in biofilm studies is rare. This review will focus on the four reactors (Calgary biofilm device, Center for Disease Control biofilm reactor, drip flow biofilm reactor, and rotating disk reactor) approved by a standard setting organization (ASTM International) for biofilm experiments and how researchers have modified these standardized reactors and associated protocols to improve the study and understanding of medical biofilms.

  9. A Pilot Study on Developing a Standardized and Sensitive School Violence Risk Assessment with Manual Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzman, Drew H; Ni, Yizhao; Griffey, Marcus; Patel, Bianca; Warren, Ashaki; Latessa, Edward; Sorter, Michael

    2017-09-01

    School violence has increased over the past decade and innovative, sensitive, and standardized approaches to assess school violence risk are needed. In our current feasibility study, we initialized a standardized, sensitive, and rapid school violence risk approach with manual annotation. Manual annotation is the process of analyzing a student's transcribed interview to extract relevant information (e.g., key words) to school violence risk levels that are associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology (social media and video games), and other activities. In this feasibility study, we first implemented school violence risk assessments to evaluate risk levels by interviewing the student and parent separately at the school or the hospital to complete our novel school safety scales. We completed 25 risk assessments, resulting in 25 transcribed interviews of 12-18 year olds from 15 schools in Ohio and Kentucky. We then analyzed structured professional judgments, language, and patterns associated with school violence risk levels by using manual annotation and statistical methodology. To analyze the student interviews, we initiated the development of an annotation guideline to extract key information that is associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology and other activities. Statistical analysis was applied to associate the significant categories with students' risk levels to identify key factors which will help with developing action steps to reduce risk. In a future study, we plan to recruit more subjects in order to fully develop the manual annotation which will result in a more standardized and sensitive approach to school violence assessments.

  10. Sigma models with purely Wess-Zumino-Witten actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreanini, R.; Percacci, R.; Sezgin, E.

    1988-11-01

    We study the dynamics of sigma models in arbitrary dimensions with purely Wess-Zumino-Witten actions (i.e. without kinetic terms), both from the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian point of view. These models have nontrivial gauge groups which contain the diffeomorphisms of space-time, as well as symmetry groups which in many cases turn out to be infinite dimensional. We give examples in 1,2,3 and 4 space-time dimensions.(author). 9 refs

  11. Characterization of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal growth of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals bearing composition Cu Fe(1−) C4H4O6 · H2O, where = 0, 0.07, 0.06, 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, is achieved using gel technique. The elemental analysis has been done using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) spectrum. The characterization studies ...

  12. Gold standards and expert panels: a pulmonary nodule case study with challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dave P.; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F.; Wood, Susan A.; Castellino, Ronald A.

    2004-05-01

    Comparative evaluations of reader performance using different modalities, e.g. CT with computer-aided detection (CAD) vs. CT without CAD, generally require a "truth" definition based on a gold standard. There are many situations in which a true invariant gold standard is impractical or impossible to obtain. For instance, small pulmonary nodules are generally not assessed by biopsy or resection. In such cases, it is common to use a unanimous consensus or majority agreement from an expert panel as a reference standard for actionability in lieu of the unknown gold standard for disease. Nonetheless, there are three major concerns about expert panel reference standards: (1) actionability is not synonymous with disease (2) it may be possible to obtain different conclusions about which modality is better using different rules (e.g. majority vs. unanimous consensus), and (3) the variability associated with the panelists is not formally captured in the p-values or confidence intervals that are generally produced for estimating the extent to which one modality is superior to the other. A multi-reader-multi-case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was performed using 90 cases, 15 readers, and a reference truth based on 3 experienced panelists. The primary analyses were conducted using a reference truth of unanimous consensus regarding actionability (3 out of 3 panelists). To assess the three concerns noted above: (1) additional data from the original radiology reports were compared to the panel (2) the complete analysis was repeated using different definitions of truth, and (3) bootstrap analyses were conducted in which new truth panels were constructed by picking 1, 2, or 3 panelists at random. The definition of the reference truth affected the results for each modality (CT with CAD and CT without CAD) considered by itself, but the effects were similar, so the primary analysis comparing the modalities was robust to the choice of the reference truth.

  13. Mini vs standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stones: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Elmarakbi, Akram A; Hytham, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Hamdy; Khadgi, Sanjay; Al-Kandari, Ahmed M

    2018-03-16

    To compare the outcome of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (Mini-PNL) versus standard-PNL for renal stones. Retrospective study was performed between March 2010 and May 2013 for patients treated by Mini-PNL or standard-PNL through 18 and 30 Fr tracts, respectively, using pneumatic lithotripsy. Semirigid ureteroscope (8.5/11.5 Fr) was used for Mini-PNL and 24 Fr nephroscope for standard-PNL. Both groups were compared in stone free rate(SFR), complications and operative time using Student-t, Mann-Whitney, Chi square or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate in addition to logistic regression analysis. P PNL (378) and standard-PNL (151) were nearly comparable in patients and stones criteria including stone burden (3.77 ± 2.21 vs 3.77 ± 2.43 cm 2 ; respectively). There was no significant difference in number of tracts or supracostal puncture. Mini-PNL had longer operative time (68.6 ± 29.09 vs 60.49 ± 11.38 min; p = 0.434), significantly shorter hospital stay (2.43 ± 1.46 vs 4.29 ± 1.28 days) and significantly higher rate of tubeless PNL (75.1 vs 4.6%). Complications were significantly higher in standard-PNL (7.9 vs 20.5%; p PNL (89.9 vs 96%; p = 0.022). This significant difference was found with multiple stones and large stone burden (> 2 cm 2 ), but the SFR was comparable between both groups with single stone or stone burden ≤ 2 cm. Logistic regression analysis confirmed significantly higher complications and SFR with standard-PNL but with significantly shorter operative time. Mini-PNL has significantly lower SFR when compared to standard-PNL (but clinically comparable) with markedly reduced complications and hospital stay. Most of cases can be performed tubeless. The significant difference in SFR was found with multiple stones or large stone burden (> 2 cm 2 ), but not with single stones or stone burden ≤ 2 cm 2 .

  14. Literature Survey on the Effects of Pure Carbon Dioxide on Health, Comfort and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    permissible occupational exposure level to CO2 is set at 5,000 ppm (ACGIH, 2011). Although in many studies CO2 has been related with health symptoms, comfort and performance of office work and schoolwork, it in itself has traditionally been assumed innocuous at the typical levels indoors; in these studies, CO......2 was merely a proxy for elevated exposure levels to air pollutants, and an indicator of inadequate outdoor air ventilation and poor indoor air quality. Two recent experiments suggest however that the exposure to pure CO2 at the levels typically occurring indoors and lower than the levels prescribed...... as permissible by the occupational standards can have negative effects on some aspects of human performance, in particular on tasks requiring concentration (Kajtar et al., 2006) and on tasks, in which decision should be taken (Satish et al., 2012). The present paper reports the results of the literature survey...

  15. [Preliminary study on standardization of production and processing of Angelicae Sinensis Radix pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rui-Jie; Wang, Ying-Zi; Sun, Zhen-Yang; Wang, Si-Yu; Zhang, Jing-Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Study on the standardization of Chinese materia medica is an important action for modernization and globalization for traditional Chinese medicine. Standardization on the processing of Chinese herbal pieces is an important part in the study on standardization of Chinese materia medica, so it is of great significance to establish the technical processing standards of Angelicae Sinensis Radix pieces for improving its quality. In this study, single factor experiment was designed to optimize the softening, cutting and drying processes of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. With ferulic acid, Angelicae Sinensis Radix polysaccharide, volatile oil and extracts (water and ethanol) content as the quality index, the effects of different softening, cutting and drying processes on the contents of the five components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix were analyzed, and the normalized distance evaluation method was used to analyze the experimental data. The results showed that the content of five components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix was affected by different softening methods and drying temperature, but the thickness of slice had little effect on the content. The best preparation process for Angelicae Sinensis Radix was as follows: Non-medicinal parts were removed; mildewed and rot as well as moth-eaten parts were removed; washed by the flowing drinking water; stacked in the drug pool; moistening method was used for softening, where 125 mL water was sprayed for every 1 kg of herbs every 2.5 h; upper part of herbs covered with clean and moist cotton, and cut into thin slices (1-2 mm) after 15 h moistening until appropriate softness, with disk thickness of 1-2 cm, then received blast drying for 6 h at 55 ℃, and turned over for 2 times during the drying. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. International Children's Continence Society standardization report on urodynamic studies of the lower urinary tract in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stuart B; Nijman, Rien J M; Drzewiecki, Beth A; Sillen, Ulla; Hoebeke, Piet

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this document created by the ICCS standardization subcommittee is to provide a uniform guideline on measurement, quality control and documentation of urodynamic studies in children. This guideline was created using expert opinion and critical review of the published literature on urodynamic studies in children. Currently no standardized guideline or level 1 data exists on the proper technique for this subject matter. The document provides a throughout explanation on how to approach a child who presents with lower urinary tract dysfunction, whether it be of neurogenic, anatomic or functional origin. Formation of an urodynamic question after a comprehensive history and physical examination is paramount in selecting the urodynamic study(ies) that will be most appropriate for each child. Appropriate application of each test with careful consideration of the needs of the child and family will provide the most accurate and reproducible results. Recommendations on how to execute each of the components of an urodynamic study as well as interpretation are included in the document. Urodynamic studies have become a major tool in evaluating lower urinary tract dysfunction in children. There are many subtleties in performing these studies in children in juxtaposition to adults; therefore, adaptations specific to children must be made to achieve accurate and reproducible results. Uniformity in how the studies are conducted from center to center will allow for healthier transparency and enhanced comparison of results in both clinical and research situations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A study of prostate delineation referenced against a gold standard created from the visible human data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhanrong; Wilkins, David; Eapen, Libni; Morash, Christopher; Wassef, Youssef; Gerig, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To measure inter- and intra-observer variation and systematic error in CT based prostate delineation, where individual delineations are referenced against a gold standard produced from photographic anatomical images from the Visible Human Project (VHP). Materials and methods: The CT and anatomical images of the VHP male form the basic data set for this study. The gold standard was established based on 1 mm thick anatomical photographic images. These were registered against the 3 mm thick CT images that were used for target delineation. A total of 120 organ delineations were performed by six radiation oncologists. Results: The physician delineated prostate volume was on average 30% larger than the 'true' prostate volume, but on average included only 84% of the gold standard volume. Our study found a systematic delineation error such that posterior portions of the prostate were always missed while anteriorly some normal tissue was always defined as target. Conclusions: Our data suggest that radiation oncologists are more concerned with the unintentional inclusion of rectal tissue than they are in missing prostate volume. In contrast, they are likely to overextend the anterior boundary of the prostate to encompass normal tissue such as the bladder

  18. Standardization and Economics of Nuclear Spacecraft, Final Report, Phase I, Sense Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-03-01

    Feasibility and cost benefits of nuclear-powered standardized spacecraft are investigated. The study indicates that two shuttle-launched nuclear-powered spacecraft should be able to serve the majority of unmanned NASA missions anticipated for the 1980's. The standard spacecraft include structure, thermal control, power, attitude control, some propulsion capability and tracking, telemetry, and command subsystems. One spacecraft design, powered by the radioisotope thermoelectric generator, can serve missions requiring up to 450 watts. The other spacecraft design, powered by similar nuclear heat sources in a Brayton-cycle generator, can serve missions requiring up to 21000 watts. Design concepts and trade-offs are discussed. The conceptual designs selected are presented and successfully tested against a variety of missions. The thermal design is such that both spacecraft are capable of operating in any earth orbit and any orientation without modification. Three-axis stabilization is included. Several spacecraft can be stacked in the shuttle payload compartment for multi-mission launches. A reactor-powered thermoelectric generator system, operating at an electric power level of 5000 watts, is briefly studied for applicability to two test missions of divers requirements. A cost analysis indicates that use of the two standardized spacecraft offers sizable savings in comparison with specially designed solar-powered spacecraft. There is a duplicate copy.

  19. Difference in metallic wear distribution released from commercially pure titanium compared with stainless steel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischak, G D; Gebhard, F; Mohr, W; Krivan, V; Ignatius, A; Beck, A; Wachter, N J; Reuter, P; Arand, M; Kinzl, L; Claes, L E

    2004-03-01

    Stainless steel and commercially pure titanium are widely used materials in orthopedic implants. However, it is still being controversially discussed whether there are significant differences in tissue reaction and metallic release, which should result in a recommendation for preferred use in clinical practice. A comparative study was performed using 14 stainless steel and 8 commercially pure titanium plates retrieved after a 12-month implantation period. To avoid contamination of the tissue with the elements under investigation, surgical instruments made of zirconium dioxide were used. The tissue samples were analyzed histologically and by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for accumulation of the metals Fe, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Ti in the local tissues. Implant corrosion was determined by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With grades 2 or higher in 9 implants, steel plates revealed a higher extent of corrosion in the SEM compared with titanium, where only one implant showed corrosion grade 2. Metal uptake of all measured ions (Fe, Cr, Mo, Ni) was significantly increased after stainless steel implantation, whereas titanium revealed only high concentrations for Ti. For the two implant materials, a different distribution of the accumulated metals was found by histological examination. Whereas specimens after steel implantation revealed a diffuse siderosis of connective tissue cells, those after titanium exhibited occasionally a focal siderosis due to implantation-associated bleeding. Neither titanium- nor stainless steel-loaded tissues revealed any signs of foreign-body reaction. We conclude from the increased release of toxic, allergic, and potentially carcinogenic ions adjacent to stainless steel that commercially pure Ti should be treated as the preferred material for osteosyntheses if a removal of the implant is not intended. However, neither material provoked a foreign-body reaction in the local tissues, thus cpTi cannot be

  20. Faithful teleportation with arbitrary pure or mixed resource states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Mingjing; Fei Shaoming; Wang Zhixi [School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li Zongguo [College of Science, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Lijost Xianqing, E-mail: zhaomingjingde@126.com [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-05-27

    We study faithful teleportation systematically with arbitrary entangled states as resources. The necessary conditions of mixed states to complete perfect teleportation are proved. Based on these results, the necessary and sufficient conditions of faithful teleportation of an unknown state |{phi}) in C{sup d} with an entangled resource {rho} in C{sup m} otimes C{sup d} and C{sup d} otimes C{sup n} are derived. It is shown that for {rho} in C{sup m} otimes C{sup d}, {rho} must be a maximally entangled state, while for {rho} in C{sup d} otimes C{sup n}, {rho} must be a pure maximally entangled state. Moreover, we show that the sender's measurements must be all projectors of maximally entangled pure states. The relations between the entanglement of the formation of the resource states and faithful teleportation are also discussed.