Demonstration of Kirchhoff's First Law for Pure Spin Currents
Batley, Joseph; Rosamond, M. C.; Ali, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Burnell, G.; Hickey, B. J.
In conventional electronics a fundamental component of circuit design is the principle of fan-out, which allows multiple operations to be performed in order to build up complex logical procedures. A fan-out device relies on the condition that electrical currents obey Kirchoff's laws and in order for spin-logic to be viable, the same must be shown for pure spin currents. Both fan-out and fan-in experiments have been performed to observe how spin currents behave in a multi-terminal circuit. The development of a 3-dimensional nonlocal IV and matrix fitting method provides information about each spin current, along with the thermal current generated at the injection point, and how they interact with each other. The fan-out geometry demonstrates that a pure spin current will divide between the different branches in a circuit, with a magnitude determined through the spin resistances of each arm. The fan-in measurements demonstrate that two pure spin currents will add and subtract with each other in a conventional manner expected from Kirchhoff's first law. These experiments have demonstrated the symmetry of pure spin currents with respect to the injection current and shown that they obey Kirchhoff's current law.
Magnetization oscillations and waves driven by pure spin currents
Demidov, V. E.; Urazhdin, S.; de Loubens, G.; Klein, O.; Cros, V.; Anane, A.; Demokritov, S. O.
2017-02-01
Recent advances in the studies of pure spin currents-flows of angular momentum (spin) not accompanied by the electric currents-have opened new horizons for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. The main advantage of pure spin current, as compared to the spin-polarized electric current, is the possibility to exert spin transfer torque on the magnetization in thin magnetic films without the electrical current flow through the material. In addition to minimizing Joule heating and electromigration effects, this enables the implementation of spin torque devices based on the low-loss insulating magnetic materials, and offers an unprecedented geometric flexibility. Here we review the recent experimental achievements in investigations of magnetization oscillations excited by pure spin currents in different nanomagnetic systems based on metallic and insulating magnetic materials. We discuss the spectral properties of spin-current nano-oscillators, and relate them to the spatial characteristics of the excited dynamic magnetic modes determined by the spatially-resolved measurements. We also show that these systems support locking of the oscillations to external microwave signals, as well as their mutual synchronization, and can be used as efficient nanoscale sources of propagating spin waves.
Pure spin current induced by adiabatic quantum pumping in zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souma, Satofumi, E-mail: ssouma@harbor.kobe-u.ac.jp; Ogawa, Matsuto [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
2014-05-05
We show theoretically that pure spin current can be generated in zigzag edged graphene nanoribbons through the adiabatic pumping by edge selective pumping potentials. The origin of such pure spin current is the spin splitting of the edge localized states, which are oppositely spin polarized at opposite edges. In the proposed device, each edge of the ribbon is covered by two independent time-periodic local gate potentials with a definite phase difference, inducing the edge spin polarized current. When the pumping phase difference is opposite in sign between two edges, the total charge currents is zero and the pure edge spin current is generated.
Manipulation of pure spin current in ferromagnetic metals independent of magnetization
Tian, Dai; Li, Yufan; Qu, D.; Huang, S. Y.; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chien, C. L.
2016-07-01
Upon the injection of a pure spin current, a ferromagnet, similar to a nonmagnetic metal, also exhibits inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). We show in Co/Cu/YIG, where the thin Cu layer allows transmission of spin current from YIG into Co but decouples the two ferromagnets, that the interaction between ISHE and ferromagnetic ordering in Co can be unambiguously investigated. By switching on and off the pure spin current contribution, we demonstrate that the ISHE in Co is independent of the direction of the Co magnetization, which clearly suggests that the ISHE in Co is dominated not by the extrinsic impurity scatterings, but from the intrinsic origin.
Route toward high-speed nano-magnonics provided by pure spin currents
Divinskiy, B.; Demidov, V. E.; Demokritov, S. O.; Rinkevich, A. B.; Urazhdin, S.
2016-12-01
We study experimentally the possibility to utilize pulses of pure spin current, produced via the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, to generate short packets of spin waves propagating in nanoscale magnetic waveguides. Spatially and time-resolved micro-focus Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that the excitation by spin current results in extremely fast transient response, enabling efficient generation of short spin-wave packets with duration down to a few nanoseconds. The proposed method opens a route for the implementation of high-speed magnonic systems for transmission and processing of information on the nanoscale.
Generation of pure spin currents via spin Seebeck effect in self-biased hexagonal ferrite thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Peng; Ellsworth, David; Chang, Houchen; Janantha, Praveen; Richardson, Daniel; Phillips, Preston; Vijayasarathy, Tarah; Wu, Mingzhong, E-mail: mwu@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Shah, Faisal [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)
2014-12-15
Light-induced generation of pure spin currents in a Pt(2.5 nm)/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}(1.2 μm)/sapphire(0.5 mm) structure is reported. The BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} film had strong in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and was therefore self-biased. Upon exposure to light, a temperature difference (ΔT) was established across the BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} thickness that gave rise to a pure spin current in the Pt via the spin Seebeck effect. Via the inverse spin Hall effect, the spin current produced an electric voltage across one of the Pt lateral dimensions. The voltage varied with time in the same manner as ΔT and flipped its sign when the magnetization in BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was reversed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Xiao-Qin; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Su, Gang;
2015-01-01
The spin and valley-dependent anomalous Nernst effects are analyzed for monolayer MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides. We find that pure spin and valley currents can be generated perpendicular to the applied thermal gradient in the plane of these two-dimensional materials. This effect provide...
Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi
2012-01-01
In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.
Spin currents in metallic nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Czeschka, Franz Dominik
2011-09-05
A pure spin current, i.e., a flow of angular momentum without accompanying net charge current, is a key ingredient in the field of spintronics. In this thesis, we experimentally investigated two different concepts for pure spin current sources suggested by theory. The first is based on a time-dependent magnetization precession which ''pumps'' a pure spin current into an adjacent non-magnetic conductor. Our experiments quantitatively corroborated important predictions expected theoretically for this approach, including the dependence of the spin current on the sample geometry and the microwave power. Even more important, we could show for the first time that the spin pumping concept is viable in a large variety of ferromagnetic materials and that it only depends on the magnetization damping. Therefore, our experiments established spin pumping as generic phenomenon and demonstrated that it is a powerful way to generate pure spin currents. The second theoretical concept is based on the conversion of charge currents into spin currents in non-magnetic nanostructures via the spin Hall effect. We experimentally investigated this approach in H-shaped, metallic nanodevices, and found that the predictions are linked to requirements not realizable with the present experimental techniques, neither in sample fabrication nor in measurement technique. Indeed, our experimental data could be consistently understood by a spin-independent transport model describing the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport. In addition, the implementation of advanced fabrication and measurement techniques allowed to discover a new non-local phenomenon, the non-local anisotropic magnetoresistance. Finally, we also studied spin-polarized supercurrents carried by spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We found that low resistance interfaces are a key requirement for further experiments in this direction. (orig.)
Persistent spin current in nano-devices and definition of the spin current
Sun, Qing-feng; Xie, X. C.; WANG Jian
2008-01-01
We investigate two closely related subjects: (i) existence of a pure persistent spin current in semiconducting mesoscopic device with a spin-orbit interaction's (SOI), and (ii) the definition of the spin current in the presence of SOI. Through physical argument from four physical pictures in different aspects, we provide strong evidences that the persistent spin current does exist in a device with SOI in the absence of any magnetic materials. This persistent spin current is an analog of the p...
Sun, Qing-feng; Guo, Hong; Wang, Jian
2003-06-27
We propose and investigate a spin-cell device which provides the necessary spin-motive force to drive a spin current for future spintronic circuits. Our spin cell has four basic characteristics: (i) it has two poles so that a spin current flows in from one pole and out from the other pole, and in this way a complete spin circuit can be established; (ii) it has a source of energy to drive the spin current; (iii) it maintains spin coherence so that a sizable spin current can be delivered; (iv) it drives a spin current without a charge current. The proposed spin cell for spin current should be realizable using technologies presently available.
Persistent spin current in nanodevices and definition of the spin current
Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, X. C.; Wang, Jian
2008-01-01
We investigate two closely related subjects: (i) the existence of a pure persistent spin current without an accompanying charge current in a semiconducting mesoscopic device with a spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and (ii) the definition of the spin current in the presence of SOI. Through physical argument from four physical pictures in different aspects, we provide strong evidences that the equilibrium persistent spin current does exist in a device with SOI in the absence of any magnetic field or magnetic materials. This persistent spin current is an analog of the persistent charge current in a mesoscopic ring threaded by a magnetic flux, and it describes the real spin motion and can be measured experimentally. We then investigate the definition of the spin current. We point out that (i) the nonzero spin current in the equilibrium SOI device is the persistent spin current, (ii) the spin current is, in general, not conserved, and (iii) the Onsager relation is violated for the spin transport no matter what definition of the spin current is used. These issues, the nonzero spin current in the equilibrium case, the nonconserved spin current, and the violation of the Onsager relation, are intrinsic properties of spin transport. We note that the conventional definition of the spin current has very clear physical intuition and describes the spin motion very well. Therefore, we feel that the conventional definition of the spin current makes physical sense, and there is no need to modify it. (Note that this conclusion is not in contradiction with the opinions in our previous papers). In addition, the relationship between the persistent spin current and transport spin current, the persistent linear and angular spin currents in the SOI region of the hybrid ring, and the measurement of the persistent spin current are discussed. Finally, we show that if the spin-spin interaction is included into the Hamiltonian, the persistent spin current is automatically conserved using the
Pure gauge spin-orbit couplings
Shikakhwa, M. S.
2017-01-01
Planar systems with a general linear spin-orbit interaction (SOI) that can be cast in the form of a non-Abelian pure gauge field are investigated using the language of non-Abelian gauge field theory. A special class of these fields that, though a 2×2 matrix, are Abelian are seen to emerge and their general form is given. It is shown that the unitary transformation that gauges away these fields induces at the same time a rotation on the wave function about a fixed axis but with a space-dependent angle, both of which being characteristics of the SOI involved. The experimentally important case of equal-strength Rashba and Dresselhaus SOI (R+D SOI) is shown to fall within this special class of Abelian gauge fields, and the phenomenon of persistent spin helix (PSH) that emerges in the presence of this latter SOI in a plane is shown to fit naturally within the general formalism developed. The general formalism is also extended to the case of a particle confined to a ring. It is shown that the Hamiltonian on a ring in the presence of equal-strength R+D SOI is unitarily equivalent to that of a particle subject to only a spin-independent but θ-dependent potential with the unitary transformation relating the two being again the space-dependent rotation operator characteristic of R+D SOI.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.
Magnons, Spin Current and Spin Seebeck Effect
Maekawa, Sadamichi
2012-02-01
When metals and semiconductors are placed in a temperature gradient, the electric voltage is generated. This mechanism to convert heat into electricity, the so-called Seebeck effect, has attracted much attention recently as the mechanism for utilizing wasted heat energy. [1]. Ferromagnetic insulators are good conductors of spin current, i.e., the flow of electron spins [2]. When they are placed in a temperature gradient, generated are magnons, spin current and the spin voltage [3], i.e., spin accumulation. Once the spin voltage is converted into the electric voltage by inverse spin Hall effect in attached metal films such as Pt, the electric voltage is obtained from heat energy [4-5]. This is called the spin Seebeck effect. Here, we present the linear-response theory of spin Seebeck effect based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem [6-8] and discuss a variety of the devices. [4pt] [1] S. Maekawa et al, Physics of Transition Metal Oxides (Springer, 2004). [0pt] [2] S. Maekawa: Nature Materials 8, 777 (2009). [0pt] [3] Concept in Spin Electronics, eds. S. Maekawa (Oxford University Press, 2006). [0pt] [4] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008). [0pt] [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Materials 9, 894 (2010) [0pt] [6] H. Adachi et al., APL 97, 252506 (2010) and Phys. Rev. B 83, 094410 (2011). [0pt] [7] J. Ohe et al., Phys. Rev. B (2011) [0pt] [8] K. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 104419 (2010).
Purely geometric path integral for spin foams
Shirazi, Atousa Chaharsough
2013-01-01
Spin-foams are a proposal for defining the dynamics of loop quantum gravity via path integral. In order for a path integral to be at least formally equivalent to the corresponding canonical quantization, at each point in the space of histories it is important that the integrand have not only the correct phase -- a topic of recent focus in spin-foams -- but also the correct modulus, usually referred to as the measure factor. The correct measure factor descends from the Liouville measure on the reduced phase space, and its calculation is a task of canonical analysis. The covariant formulation of gravity from which spin-foams are derived is the Plebanski-Holst formulation, in which the basic variables are a Lorentz connection and a Lorentz-algebra valued two-form, called the Plebanski two-form. However, in the final spin-foam sum, one sums over only spins and intertwiners, which label eigenstates of the Plebanski two-form alone. The spin-foam sum is therefore a discretized version of a Plebanski-Holst path integ...
Spin currents, spin torques, and the concept of spin superfluidity
Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter
2017-03-01
In magnets with noncollinear spin configuration the expectation value of the conventionally defined spin current operator contains a contribution which renormalizes an external magnetic field and hence affects only the precessional motion of the spin polarization. This term, which has been named angular spin current by Sun and Xie [Phys. Rev. B 72, 245305 (2005)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.245305, does not describe the translational motion of magnetic moments. We give a prescription for how to separate these two types of spin transport and show that the translational movement of the spin is always polarized along the direction of the local magnetization. We also show that at vanishing temperature the classical magnetic order parameter in magnetic insulators cannot carry a translational spin current and elucidate how this affects the interpretation of spin supercurrents.
{beta}-Ray angular distribution from purely nuclear spin aligned {sup 20}F
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagatomo, T., E-mail: nagatomo@riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Matsuta, K. [Osaka University (Japan); Minamisono, K. [NSCL/MSU (United States); Sumikama, T. [Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Mihara, M. [Osaka University (Japan); Ozawa, A.; Tagishi, Y. [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ogura, M.; Matsumiya, R.; Fukuda, M. [Osaka University (Japan); Yamaguchi, M.; Yasuno, T.; Ohta, H.; Hashizume, Y. [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Fujiwara, H. [Osaka University (Japan); Chiba, A. [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Minamisono, T. [Fukui University of Technology (Japan)
2007-11-15
The alignment correlation term in the {beta}-ray angular distribution from purely nuclear spin aligned {sup 20}F has been measured to test the G-parity conservation law which is one of the fundamental symmetries in the weak nucleon current. We utilized the hyperfine interaction of {sup 20}F in an MgF{sub 2} single crystal and successfully created the pure alignment from the polarization by means of the spin manipulation technique based on the {beta}-NMR method.
Pure dephasing of single Mn spin in semiconductor quantum dots
Liu, Dingyang; Lai, Wenxi; Yang, Wen
2017-08-01
We present comprehensive analytical and numerical studies on the pure dephasing of a single Mn spin in a semiconductor quantum dot due to (i) its sp-d exchange interaction with an electronic environment, and (ii) its hyperfine interaction with the nuclear spin environment. For (i), by modeling the electronic environment by an open two-level system, we provide exact analytical expressions and present detailed analysis for the Mn spin pure dephasing in both the Markovian and non-Markovian regimes. This provides a clear physical picture and a general theoretical framework based on which we estimate the Mn spin pure dephasing due to various fluctuations (such as thermal excitation, optical pumping, tunneling, or electron/hole spin relaxation) of the electronic environment and reveals a series of interesting behaviors, such as thermal, optical, and electrical control of the crossover between the Markov and non-Markov regimes. In particular, we find rapid Mn spin pure dephasing on a nanosecond time scale by the thermal fluctuation and optical pumping, but these mechanisms can be strongly suppressed by shifting the electron envelope function relative to the Mn atom with an external electric field through the quantum-confined Stark effect. The thermal fluctuation mechanism is also exponentially suppressed at low temperature. For (ii), we find that the Mn spin dephasing time is limited by the thermal fluctuation of the nuclear spins to a few microseconds even at low temperature and its value varies from sample to sample, depending on the distribution of spinful isotopes on the nearest-neighbor sites surrounding the substitutional Mn atom. Our findings may be useful to understand and suppress the Mn spin pure dephasing for its applications in quantum information processing.
Bending strain engineering in quantum spin hall system for controlling spin currents
Huang, Bing; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Cui, Bin; Zhai, Feng; Mei, Jiawei; Liu, Feng
2017-06-01
Quantum spin Hall system can exhibit exotic spin transport phenomena, mediated by its topological edge states. Here the concept of bending strain engineering to tune the spin transport properties of a quantum spin Hall system is demonstrated. We show that bending strain can be used to control the spin orientation of counter-propagating edge states of a quantum spin system to generate a non-zero spin current. This physics mechanism can be applied to effectively tune the spin current and pure spin current decoupled from charge current in a quantum spin Hall system by control of its bending curvature. Furthermore, the curved quantum spin Hall system can be achieved by the concept of topological nanomechanical architecture in a controllable way, as demonstrated by the material example of Bi/Cl/Si(111) nanofilm. This concept of bending strain engineering of spins via topological nanomechanical architecture affords a promising route towards the realization of topological nano-mechanospintronics.
Mechanical generation of spin current
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mamoru eMatsuo
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We focus the recent results on spin-current generation from mechanical motion such as rigid rotation and elastic deformations. Spin transport theory in accelerating frames is constructed by using the low energy expansion of the generally covariant Dirac equation. Related issues on spin-manipulation by mechanical rotation are also discussed.
Eschrig, Matthias
2010-03-01
Interfaces between solids with different ordering phenomena have become a focus of research in recent years. One reason is that new and unexpected phases that are not stable in either of the adjacent materials can appear in the interface regions. The mechanism for creating such phases is due to induced symmetry breaking, as opposed to spontaneous symmetry breaking in the bulk materials. As a prominent example I discuss interface-induced exotic superconductivity in heterostructures composed of conventional singlet superconductors and strongly spin-polarized ferromagnets. I present new intriguing effects, such as a tunable pure spin-supercurrent in a strongly spin-polarized ferromagnet contacted with only one superconducting electrode, and a difference in the critical currents for positive and negative bias in a high transmission ferromagnetic Josephson junction [1]. The latter, rather surprising effect has a physical explanation in terms of a new ``crossed Cooper pair transmission'' process. In this process two singlet Cooper pairs are coherently decomposed into two equal-spin triplet pairs, which are respectively transmitted via different spin bands in the ferromagnet, after which they again recombine into two singlet pairs. This effect is analogous to the well-known crossed Andreev reflection process, which however is strongly suppressed in this particular case. Furthermore, I discuss how the manipulation of interface spins can be used to pump triplet pairs. This opens an avenue for new types of superconducting quantum devices and new ways to test properties of exotic superconducting phases in experiment. [1] R. Grein, M. Eschrig, G. Metalidis, and G. Sch"on, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 227005 (2009).
Magnetoelectric control of spin currents
Gómez, J. E.; Vargas, J. M.; Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A.
2016-06-01
The ability to control the spin current injection has been explored on a hybrid magnetoelectric system consisting of a (011)-cut ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) single crystal, a ferromagnetic FePt alloy, and a metallic Pt. With this PMNT/FePt/Pt structure we have been able to control the magnetic field position or the microwave excitation frequency at which the spin pumping phenomenon between FePt and Pt occurs. We demonstrate that the magnetoelectric heterostructure operating in the L-T (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized) mode couples the PMNT crystal to the magnetostrictive FePt/Pt bilayer, displaying a strong magnetoelectric coefficient of ˜140 Oe cm kV-1. Our results show that this mechanism can be effectively exploited as a tunable spin current intensity emitter and open the possibility to create an oscillating or a bistable switch to effectively manipulate spin currents.
Nishizawa, N; Munekata, H
2016-01-01
We report the room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) with nearly pure circular polarization (CP) from GaAs-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes (spin-LEDs). External magnetic fields are not used during device operation. There are two small schemes in the tested spin-LEDs: firstly, the stripe-laser-like structure that helps intensifying the EL light at the cleaved side walls below the spin injector Fe slab, and secondly, the crystalline AlOx spin tunnel barrier that ensures electrically stable device operation. The purity of CP is depressively low in the low current density (J) region, whereas it increases steeply and reaches close to the pure CP when J = 100 A/cm2. There, either right- or left-handed CP component is significantly suppressed depending on the direction of magnetization of the spin injector. Spin-polarized-current induced birefringence and optical spin-axis conversion are suggested to account for the observed experimental results.
One-dimensional spinon spin currents
Hirobe, Daichi; Sato, Masahiro; Kawamata, Takayuki; Shiomi, Yuki; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Iguchi, Ryo; Koike, Yoji; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eiji
2017-01-01
Quantum spin fluctuation in a low-dimensional or frustrated magnet breaks magnetic ordering while keeping spin correlation. Such fluctuation has been a central topic in magnetism because of its relevance to high-Tc superconductivity and topological states. However, utilizing such spin states has been quite difficult. In a one-dimensional spin-1/2 chain, a particle-like excitation called a spinon is known to be responsible for spin fluctuation in a paramagnetic state. Spinons behave as a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid at low energy, and the spin system is often called a quantum spin chain. Here we show that a quantum spin chain generates and carries spin current, which is attributed to spinon spin current. This is demonstrated by observing an anisotropic negative spin Seebeck effect along the spin chains in Sr2CuO3. The results show that spin current can flow even in an atomic channel owing to long-range spin fluctuation.
Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Idrish Miah
2008-01-01
Full Text Available On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.
Geometrical dependence of spin current absorption into a ferromagnetic nanodot
Nomura, Tatsuya; Ohnishi, Kohei; Kimura, Takashi
2016-10-01
We have investigated the absorption property of the diffusive pure spin current due to a ferromagnetic nanodot in a laterally configured ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic hybrid nanostructure. The spin absorption in a nano-pillar-based lateral-spin-valve structure was confirmed to increase with increasing the lateral dimension of the ferromagnetic dot. However, the absorption efficiency was smaller than that in a conventional lateral spin valve based on nanowire junctions because the large effective cross section of the two dimensional nonmagnetic film reduces the spin absorption selectivity. We also found that the absorption efficiency of the spin current is significantly enhanced by using a thick ferromagnetic nanodot. This can be understood by taking into account the spin absorption through the side surface of the ferromagnetic dot quantitatively.
Pure neuritic leprosy: Current status and relevance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P Narasimha Rao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Pure neuritic leprosy has always been an enigma due to its clinical and management ambiguities. Although only the Indian Association of Leprologist's classification recognizes 'pure neuritic leprosy' as a distinct sub group of leprosy, cases nonetheless are reported from various countries of Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, indicating its global relevance. It is important to maintain pure neuritic leprosy as a subgroup as it constitutes a good percentage of leprosy cases reported from India, which contributes to more than half of global leprosy numbers. Unfortunately, a high proportion of these patients present with Grade 2 disability at the time of initial reporting itself due to the early nerve involvement. Although skin lesions are absent by definition, when skin biopsies were performed from the skin along the distribution of the affected nerve, a proportion of patients demonstrated leprosy pathology, revealing sub-clinical skin involvement. In addition on follow-up, skin lesions are noted to develop in up to 20% of pure neuritic leprosy cases, indicating its progression to manifest cutaneous disease. Over the decades, the confirmation of diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy has been subjective, however, with the arrival and use of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS for nerve imaging, we have a tool not only to objectively measure and record the nerve thickening but also to assess the morphological alterations in the nerve including echo texture, fascicular pattern and vascularity. Management of pure neuritic leprosy requires multidrug therapy along with appropriate dose of systemic corticosteroids, for both acute and silent neuritis. Measures for pain relief, self-care of limbs and physiotherapy are important to prevent as well as manage disabilities in this group of patients.
Pure neuritic leprosy: Current status and relevance.
Rao, P Narasimha; Suneetha, Sujai
2016-01-01
Pure neuritic leprosy has always been an enigma due to its clinical and management ambiguities. Although only the Indian Association of Leprologist's classification recognizes 'pure neuritic leprosy' as a distinct sub group of leprosy, cases nonetheless are reported from various countries of Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, indicating its global relevance. It is important to maintain pure neuritic leprosy as a subgroup as it constitutes a good percentage of leprosy cases reported from India, which contributes to more than half of global leprosy numbers. Unfortunately, a high proportion of these patients present with Grade 2 disability at the time of initial reporting itself due to the early nerve involvement. Although skin lesions are absent by definition, when skin biopsies were performed from the skin along the distribution of the affected nerve, a proportion of patients demonstrated leprosy pathology, revealing sub-clinical skin involvement. In addition on follow-up, skin lesions are noted to develop in up to 20% of pure neuritic leprosy cases, indicating its progression to manifest cutaneous disease. Over the decades, the confirmation of diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy has been subjective, however, with the arrival and use of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) for nerve imaging, we have a tool not only to objectively measure and record the nerve thickening but also to assess the morphological alterations in the nerve including echo texture, fascicular pattern and vascularity. Management of pure neuritic leprosy requires multidrug therapy along with appropriate dose of systemic corticosteroids, for both acute and silent neuritis. Measures for pain relief, self-care of limbs and physiotherapy are important to prevent as well as manage disabilities in this group of patients.
{beta}-ray Angular Distribution from Purely Nuclear Spin Aligned {sup 20}Na
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minamisono, K., E-mail: minamiso@nscl.msu.edu [NSCL/MSU (United States); Matsuta, K.; Minamisono, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Levy, C. D. P. [TRIUMF (Canada); Nagatomo, T.; Ogura, M. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Sumikama, T. [RIKEN (Japan); Behr, J. A.; Jackson, K. P. [TRIUMF (Canada); Fujiwara, H.; Mihara, M.; Fukuda, M. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan)
2004-12-15
The alignment correlation term in the {beta}-decay angular distribution from purely nuclear spin aligned {sup 20}Na has been measured for the first time. The final objective is to test the G parity symmetry, one of the fundamental symmetry in the weak nucleon current. For artificial creation of the alignment, the knowledge of the hyperfine interaction of {sup 20}Na implanted in a single-crystal ZnO was utilized.
Thermal creation of a spin current by Seebeck spin tunneling
Jansen, R.; Le Breton, J. C.; Deac, A. M.; Saito, H.; Yuasa, S.
2013-09-01
The thermoelectric analog of spin-polarized tunneling, namely Seebeck spin tunneling, is a recently discovered phenomenon that arises from the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient of a magnetic tunnel contact. In a tunnel junction with one ferromagnetic electrode and one non-magnetic electrode, a temperature difference between the two electrodes creates a spin current across the contact. Here, the basic principle and the observation of Seebeck spin tunneling are described. It is shown how it can be used to create a spin accumulation in silicon driven by a heat flow across a magnetic tunnel contact, without a charge tunnel current. The sign of the spin current depends on the direction of the heat flow, whereas its magnitude is anisotropic, i.e., dependent on the absolute orientation of the magnetization of the ferromagnet. The connection between Seebeck spin tunneling and the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect, observed in metal magnetic tunnel junctions, is also clarified. Seebeck spin tunneling may be used to convert waste heat into useful thermal spin currents that aid or replace electrical spin current, and thereby improve the energy efficiency of spintronic devices and technologies.
Spin Generation Via Bulk Spin Current in Three Dimensional Topological Insulators
Peng, Xingyue
To date, charge transport and spin generation in three-dimensional topological insulators (3D TIs) are primarily modeled as a single-surface phenomenon. We propose a new mechanism of spin generation where the role of the insulating yet topologically non-trivial bulk becomes explicit: an external electric field creates a transverse pure spin current through the bulk of a 3D TI, which transports spins between the top and bottom surfaces and leads to spin accumulation on both. The surface spin density and charge current are then proportional to the spin relaxation time, which for a sufficiently high disorder level can be extended by nonmagnetic scattering analogous to the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation mechanism. This new spin generation mechanism suggests a distinct and practical strategy for the enhancement of surface spin polarization by increasing nonmagnetic impurity concentration. Numerical results obtained by coherent potential approximation (CPA) based on a 4-band lattice model confirm that this spin generation mechanism originates from the unique topological connection of the top and bottom surfaces and is absent in other two dimensional systems such as graphene, even though they possess a similar Dirac cone-type dispersion.
Spin-Currents and Spin-Pumping Forces for Spintronics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henri-Jean Drouhin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A general definition of the Spintronics concept of spin-pumping is proposed as generalized forces conjugated to the spin degrees of freedom in the framework of the theory of mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown that at least three different kinds of spin-pumping forces and associated spin-currents can be defined in the most simple spintronics system: the Ferromagnetic/Non-Ferromagnetic metal interface. Furthermore, the generalized force associated with the ferromagnetic collective variable is also introduced on an equal footing to describe the coexistence of the spin of the conduction electrons (paramagnetic spins attached to s-band electrons and the ferromagnetic-order parameter. The dynamical coupling between these two kinds of magnetic degrees of freedom is presented and interpreted in terms of spin-transfer effects.
Transformation of spin current by antiferromagnetic insulators
Khymyn, Roman; Lisenkov, Ivan; Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Ivanov, Boris A.
2016-06-01
It is demonstrated theoretically that a thin layer of an anisotropic antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator can effectively conduct spin current through the excitation of a pair of evanescent AFM spin wave modes. The spin current flowing through the AFM is not conserved due to the interaction between the excited AFM modes and the AFM lattice and, depending on the excitation conditions, can be either attenuated or enhanced. When the phase difference between the excited evanescent modes is close to π /2 , there is an optimum AFM thickness for which the output spin current reaches a maximum, which can significantly exceed the magnitude of the input spin current. The spin current transfer through the AFM depends on the ambient temperature and increases substantially when temperature approaches the Néel temperature of the AFM layer.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Li-Jun; Han Yu
2013-01-01
The spin-polarized linear conductance spectrum and current-voltage characteristics in a four-quantum-dot ring embodied into Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer are investigated theoretically by considering a local Rashba spin-orbit interaction.It shows that the spin-polarized linear conductance and the corresponding spin polarization are each a function of magnetic flux phase at zero bias voltage with a period of 2π,and that Hubbard U cannot influence the electron transport properties in this case.When adjusting appropriately the structural parameter of inter-dot coupling and dot-lead coupling strength,the electronic spin polarization can reach a maximum value.Furthermore,by adjusting the bias voltages applied to the leads,the spin-up and spin-down currents move in opposite directions and pure spin current exists in the configuration space in appropriate situations.Based on the numerical results,such a model can be applied to the design of a spin filter device.
Habe, Tetsuro
2017-08-01
We theoretically study the spin and charge currents induced by a spin-motive force in a two-dimensional Dirac semimetal protected by nonsymmorphic symmetries. Glide mirror plane symmetry, a nonsymmorphic symmetry, leads to a constraint to the induced current; the spin-motive force acting on out-of-plane spin (in-plane spin) induces the pure spin (charge) current. We calculate the response function to the spin-motive force in linear-response theory and find that the conductivity for the pure spin current remains nonzero even if the Fermi energy is crossing the node of linear dispersion. We also find that the conserved spin current is induced at the charge neutral point.
All-electrical generation of spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall insulators
Tao, L. L.; Cheung, K. T.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.
2017-03-01
The control and generation of spin-polarized current (SPC) without magnetic materials and an external magnetic field is a big challenge in spintronics and normally requires a spin-flip mechanism. In this Rapid Communication, we show the theoretical discovery of all-electrical generation of SPC without relying on spin-flip spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We find that the SPC can be produced as long as an energy-dependent phase difference between the spin up and down electrons can be established. We verify this through quantum transport calculations on a gated stanene zigzag nanoribbon, which is a quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator. Our calculations indicate that the transient current as well as ac conductance are significantly spin polarized, which results from the genetic phase difference between spin up and down electrons after traversing the system. Our results are robust against edge imperfections and generally valid for other QSH insulators, such as silicene and germanene, etc. These findings establish a different route for generating SPCs by purely electrical means and open the door for interesting applications of semiconductor spintronics.
Redefining the Concept of Spin Current
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
@@ A group of physicists headed by CAS scientist questioned the validity of the conventional definition of spin current and proposed a new one.Their work was published in a recent issue of the US journal Physical Review Letters.
Permanent current from noncommutative spin algebra
Tatara, Gen; Kohno, Hiroshi
2003-03-01
We show that a spontaneous electric current is induced in a nanoscale conducting ring just by attaching three ferromagnets. The current is a direct consequence of the noncommutativity of the spin algebra, and is proportional to the noncoplanarity (chirality) of the magnetization vectors. The spontaneous current gives a natural explanation to the chirality-driven anomalous Hall effect.
Ultrafast Band Engineering and Transient Spin Currents in Antiferromagnetic Oxides.
Gu, Mingqiang; Rondinelli, James M
2016-04-29
We report a dynamic structure and band engineering strategy with experimental protocols to induce indirect-to-direct band gap transitions and coherently oscillating pure spin-currents in three-dimensional antiferromagnets (AFM) using selective phononic excitations. In the Mott insulator LaTiO3, we show that a photo-induced nonequilibrium phonon mode amplitude destroys the spin and orbitally degenerate ground state, reduces the band gap by 160 meV and renormalizes the carrier masses. The time scale of this process is a few hundreds of femtoseconds. Then in the hole-doped correlated metallic titanate, we show how pure spin-currents can be achieved to yield spin-polarizations exceeding those observed in classic semiconductors. Last, we demonstrate the generality of the approach by applying it to the non-orbitally degenerate AFM CaMnO3. These results advance our understanding of electron-lattice interactions in structures out-of-equilibrium and establish a rational framework for designing dynamic phases that may be exploited in ultrafast optoelectronic and optospintronic devices.
Inflation in pure gravity with only massless spin-2 fields
Tekin, Bayram
2016-01-01
We show that without introducing additional fields or extra degrees of freedom, a specific higher derivative extension of Einstein's gravity that has only a massless spin-2 excitation in its perturbative spectrum, has an inflationary period, a quasi-de Sitter phase with enough number of e-foldings required to solve the horizon and related problems. The crucial ingredient in the construction is the curvature dependence of the effective Newton's constant.
Dual-frequency ferromagnetic resonance to measure spin current coupling in multilayers
Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Wang, Hailong; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris
2014-08-01
Spin pumping is a method for injecting a pure spin current into a non-magnetic metal (NM) by inducing precession of a neighboring ferromagnet (FM) at its ferromagnetic resonance frequency. A popular method to detect spin current uses the Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) to convert the spin current to a detectable charge current and hence a voltage. In order to better understand the role of time independent and high frequency contributions to spin pumping, we sought to detect we attempt to detect spin currents by using a second microwave frequency to detect changes in linewidth of a second ferromagnet due to the spin-torque induced by the spin current from the first ferromagnet. This dual resonance is achieved by pairing a custom broadband coplanar transmission line with the high-Q resonant cavity of a commercial electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. This technique is general enough that it should enable the investigation of spin currents in any FM-NM-FM system, for any orientation of external field, and is not sensitive to voltage artifacts often found in ISHE measurements. We find that the condition for simultaneous resonance generates a dc spin current that is too small to produce a measurable change in linewidth of the second ferromagnet, confirming the dominance of ac spin currents in linewidth enhancement measurements.
Thermally induced spin-dependent current based on Zigzag Germanene Nanoribbons
Majidi, Danial; Faez, Rahim
2017-02-01
In this paper, using first principle calculation and non-equilibrium Green's function, the thermally induced spin current in Hydrogen terminated Zigzag-edge Germanene Nanoribbon (ZGeNR-H) is investigated. In this model, because of the difference between the source and the drain temperature of ZGeNR device, the spin up and spin down currents flow in the opposite direction with two different threshold temperatures (Tth). Hence, a pure spin polarized current which belongs to spin down is obtained. It is shown that, for temperatures above the threshold temperature spin down current increases with the increasing temperature up to 75 K and then decreases. But spin up current rises steadily and in the high temperature we can obtain polarized spin up current. In addition, we show an acceptable spin current around the room temperature for ZGeNR. The transmission peaks in ZGeNR which are closer to the Fermi level rather than Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbon (ZGNRS) which causes ZGeNR to have spin current at higher temperatures. Finally, it is indicated that by tuning the back gate voltage, the spin current can be completely modulated and polarized. Simulation results verify the Zigzag Germanene Nanoribbon as a promising candidate for spin caloritronics devices, which can be applied in future low power consumption technology.
Ang, Yee Sin; Ang, Lay Kee; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhongshui
In graphene-magnetic-insulator hybrid structure such as graphene-Europium-oxide, proximity induced exchange interaction opens up a spin-dependent bandgap and spin splitting in the Dirac band. We show that such band topology allows pure crossed Andreev reflection to be generated exclusively without the parasitic local Andreev reflection and elastic cotunnelling over a wide range of bias and Fermi levels. We model the charge transport in an EuO-graphene/superconductor/EuO-graphene three-terminal device and found that the pure non-local conductance exhibits rapid on/off switching characteristic with a minimal subthreshold swing of ~ 20 mV. Non-local conductance oscillation is observed when the Fermi levels in the superconducting lead is varied. The oscillatory behavior is directly related to the quasiparticle propagation in the superconducting lead and hence can be used as a tool to probe the subgap quasiparticle mode in superconducting graphene. The non-local current is 100% spin-polarized and is highly tunable in our proposed device. This opens up the possibility of highly tunable graphene-based spin transistor that operates purely in the non-local transport regime.
Production, detection, storage and release of spin currents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michele Cini
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Background: Quantum rings connected to ballistic circuits couple strongly to external magnetic fields if the connection is not symmetric. Moreover, properly connected rings can be used to pump currents in the wires giving raise to a number of interesting new phenomena. At half filling using a time-dependent magnetic field in the plane of the ring one can pump a pure spin current, excited by the the spin–orbit interaction in the ring.Results: Such a magnetic current is even under time reversal and produces an electric field instead of the usual magnetic field. Numerical simulations show that one can use magnetizable bodies as storage units to concentrate and save the magnetization in much the same way as capacitors operating with charge currents store electric charge. The polarization obtained in this way can then be used on command to produce spin currents in a wire. These currents show interesting oscillations while the storage units exchange their polarizations.Conclusion: The magnetic production of spin currents can be a useful alternative to optical excitation and electric field methods.
Phase state dependent current fluctuations in pure lipid membranes
Wunderlich, B; Idzko, A-L; Keyser, U F; Wixforth, A; Myles, V M; Heimburg, T; Schneider, M F
2009-01-01
Current fluctuations in pure lipid membranes have been shown to occur under the influence of transmembrane electric fields (electroporation) as well as a result from structural rearrangements of the lipid bilayer during phase transition (soft perforation). We demonstrate that the ion permeability during lipid phase transition exhibits the same qualitative temperature dependence as the macroscopic heat capacity of a D15PC/DOPC vesicle suspension. Microscopic current fluctuations show distinct characteristics for each individual phase state. While current fluctuations in the fluid phase show spike-like behaviour of short time scales (~ 2ms) with a narrow amplitude distribution, the current fluctuations during lipid phase transition appear in distinct steps with time scales in the order of ~ 20ms. 1 We propose a theoretical explanation for the origin of time scales and permeability based on a linear relationship between lipid membrane susceptibilities and relaxation times in the vicinity of the phase transition.
Spin current valve effect in normal metal/magnetic insulator/normal metal sandwiches
Li, Junxue; Xu, Yadong; Aldosary, Mohammed; Tang, Chi; Lin, Zhisheng; Zhang, Shufeng; Lake, Roger; Shi, Jing; Shines Collaboration
Pure spin current is generated in two common ways. One makes use of the spin Hall effect in normal metals (NM), the other utilizes spin waves with the quasi-particle excitations called magnons. A popular material for the latter is yttrium iron garnet (YIG), a magnetic insulator (MI). Here we demonstrate in NM/MI/NM sandwiches that these two types of spin current are interconvertible, which allows transmitting an electrical signal across the MI, predicted as the magnon-mediated current drag phenomenon. We show experimentally that the spin current can be switched ``on'' or ``off'' by controlling the magnetization orientation of MI, analogous to conventional spin valves for spin-polarized charge current. The transmitted current drag signal scales linearly with the driving current without any threshold and follows the power-law Tn with n ranging from 1.5 to 2.5. Our results indicate that the NM/MI/NM sandwich structure can serve as a scalable pure spin current valve device which is an essential ingredient in spintronics. As part of the SHINES, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award # SC0012670.
Current-Induced Spin Polarization in Topological Insulator-Graphene Heterostructures.
Vaklinova, Kristina; Hoyer, Alexander; Burghard, Marko; Kern, Klaus
2016-04-13
Further development of the field of all-electric spintronics requires the successful integration of spin transport channels with spin injector/generator elements. While with the advent of graphene and related 2D materials high performance spin channel materials are available, the use of nanostructured spin generators remains a major challenge. Especially promising for the latter purpose are 3D topological insulators, whose 2D surface states host massless Dirac Fermions with spin-momentum locking. Here, we demonstrate injection of spin-polarized current from a topological insulator into graphene, enabled by its intimate coupling to an ultrathin Bi2Te2Se nanoplatelet within a van der Waals epitaxial heterostructure. The spin switching signal, whose magnitude scales inversely with temperature, is detectable up to ∼15 K. Our findings establish topological insulators as prospective future components of spintronic devices wherein spin manipulation is achieved by purely electrical means.
Interactions between domain walls and spin currents
Klaui, M.; Laufenberg, M.; Backes, D.; Buhrer, W.; Rudiger, U.; Vila, L.; Vouille, C.; Faini, G.
2006-03-01
A promising novel approach for switching magnetic nanostructures is current-induced domain wall propagation (CIDP), where due to a spin torque effect, electrons transfer angular momentum to a head-to-head domain wall and thereby push it in the direction of the electron flow without any externally applied fields. This effect has been observed with a variety of techniques including MFM [1] and spin polarized scanning electron microscopy [2] to directly observe current-induced domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanostructures and magnetoresistance measurements to systematically probe the critical current densities as a function of the geometry [3]. The observed wall velocities and critical current densities, where wall motion sets in at room temperature, do not agree well with theoretical 0K calculations [4]. We have therefore measured the critical current densities as a function of the sample temperature. We find that the spin torque effect becomes more efficient at low temperatures, which could account for some of the observed discrepancies between the 300K experiment and the 0K simulation. [1] A. Yamaguchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 77205 (2004); [2] M. Klaui et al., PRL 95, 26601 (2005); [3] M. Klaui et al., PRL 94, 106601 (2005); [4] A. Thiaville et al., EPL 69, 990 (2005); G. Tatara et al., APL 86, 252509 (2005);
Current correlations in quantum spin Hall insulators.
Schmidt, Thomas L
2011-08-26
We consider a four-terminal setup of a two-dimensional topological insulator (quantum spin Hall insulator) with local tunneling between the upper and lower edges. The edge modes are modeled as helical Luttinger liquids and the electron-electron interactions are taken into account exactly. Using perturbation theory in the tunneling, we derive the cumulant generating function for the interedge current. We show that different possible transport channels give rise to different signatures in the current noise and current cross correlations, which could be exploited in experiments to elucidate the interplay between electron-electron interactions and the helical nature of the edge states.
Tuning a zigzag SiC nanoribbon as a thermal spin current generator
Jiang, Peng; Tao, Xixi; Hao, Hua; Song, Lingling; Zheng, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Zhi
2017-09-01
Quantum transport and spin current in a zigzag SiC nanoribbon device under a thermal gradient are investigated theoretically within the framework of the Landauer-Büttiker formalism using a first-principles technique. It is found that the edge state transport channels can be turned off or kept open by specific edge doping, and different spin channels can be controlled separately. Interestingly, by replacing an edge C atom with a B atom and an edge Si atom with a P atom in the scattering region, a Seebeck thermopower with different signs for different spins and a finite conductance for both spins can be obtained in the linear response regime. The subsequent thermoelectric field drives electrons of different spin channels in opposite directions, which leads unambiguously to a spin current. More importantly, by tuning the chemical potential and working temperature, pure spin current can be achieved. This provides a promising two-dimensional candidate system for producing pure spin current via the spin-dependent Seebeck effect.
Spin and polarized current from Coulomb blockaded quantum dots.
Potok, R M; Folk, J A; Marcus, C M; Umansky, V; Hanson, M; Gossard, A C
2003-07-04
We report measurements of spin transitions for GaAs quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime and compare ground and excited state transport spectroscopy to direct measurements of the spin polarization of emitted current. Transport spectroscopy reveals both spin-increasing and spin-decreasing transitions, as well as higher-spin ground states, and allows g factors to be measured down to a single electron. The spin of emitted current in the Coulomb blockade regime, measured using spin-sensitive electron focusing, is found to be polarized along the direction of the applied magnetic field regardless of the ground state spin transition.
Persistent Spin Current in a Quantum Wire with Weak Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yi; SHENG Wei; ZHOU Guang-Hui
2006-01-01
@@ We theoretically investigate the spin current for a parabolically confined semiconductor heterojunction quantum wire with weak Rashba spin-orbit coupling by means of the perturbation method. By analytical calculation, it is found that only two components off spin current density is non-zero in the equilibrium case. Numerical examples have demonstrated that the spin current of electron transverse motion is 10-3 times that off electron longitudinal motion. However, the former one is much more sensitive to the strength of Rashba spin-orbit coupling. These results may suggest an approach to the spin storage device and to the measurement of spin current through its induced electric field.
Ferromagnets as pure spin current generators and detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qu, Danru; Miao, Bingfeng; Chien, Chia -Ling; Huang, Ssu -Yen
2015-09-08
Provided is a spintronics device. The spintronics can include a ferromagnetic metal layer, a positive electrode disposed on a first surface portion of the ferromagnetic metal layer, and a negative electrode disposed on a second surface portion of the ferromagnetic metal.
Spin-current-driven thermoelectric coating.
Kirihara, Akihiro; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Kajiwara, Yosuke; Ishida, Masahiko; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Manako, Takashi; Saitoh, Eiji; Yorozu, Shinichi
2012-06-17
Energy harvesting technologies, which generate electricity from environmental energy, have been attracting great interest because of their potential to power ubiquitously deployed sensor networks and mobile electronics. Of these technologies, thermoelectric (TE) conversion is a particularly promising candidate, because it can directly generate electricity from the thermal energy that is available in various places. Here we show a novel TE concept based on the spin Seebeck effect, called 'spin-thermoelectric (STE) coating', which is characterized by a simple film structure, convenient scaling capability, and easy fabrication. The STE coating, with a 60-nm-thick bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG) film, is applied by means of a highly efficient process on a non-magnetic substrate. Notably, spin-current-driven TE conversion is successfully demonstrated under a temperature gradient perpendicular to such an ultrathin STE-coating layer (amounting to only 0.01% of the total sample thickness). We also show that the STE coating is applicable even on glass surfaces with amorphous structures. Such a versatile implementation of the TE function may pave the way for novel applications making full use of omnipresent heat.
Geometric massive higher spins and current exchanges
Francia, Dario
2008-01-01
Generalised Fierz-Pauli mass terms allow to describe massive higher-spin fields on flat background by means of simple quadratic deformations of the corresponding geometric, massless Lagrangians. In this framework there is no need for auxiliary fields. We briefly review the construction in the bosonic case and study the interaction of these massive fields with external sources, computing the corresponding propagators. In the same fashion as for the massive graviton, but differently from theories where auxiliary fields are present, the structure of the current exchange is completely determined by the form of the mass term itself.
Persistent spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sheng Wei; Wang Yi; Zhou Guang-Hui
2007-01-01
The spin current in a parabolically confined semiconductor heterojunction quantum wire with Dresselhaus spinorbit coupling is theoretically studied by using the perturbation method. The formulae of the elements for linear and angular spin current densities are derived by using the recent definition for spin current based on spin continuity equation. It is found that the spin current in this Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling quantum wire is antisymmetrical,which is different from that in R ashba model due to the difference in symmetry between these two models. Some numerical examples for the result are also demonstrated and discussed.
Spin-current probe for phase transition in an insulator
Qiu, Zhiyong; Li, Jia; Hou, Dazhi; Arenholz, Elke; N'diaye, Alpha T.; Tan, Ali; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Koji; Okamoto, Satoshi; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Qiu, Z. Q.; Saitoh, Eiji
2016-08-01
Spin fluctuation and transition have always been one of the central topics of magnetism and condensed matter science. Experimentally, the spin fluctuation is found transcribed onto scattering intensity in the neutron-scattering process, which is represented by dynamical magnetic susceptibility and maximized at phase transitions. Importantly, a neutron carries spin without electric charge, and therefore it can bring spin into a sample without being disturbed by electric energy. However, large facilities such as a nuclear reactor are necessary. Here we show that spin pumping, frequently used in nanoscale spintronic devices, provides a desktop microprobe for spin transition; spin current is a flux of spin without an electric charge and its transport reflects spin excitation. We demonstrate detection of antiferromagnetic transition in ultra-thin CoO films via frequency-dependent spin-current transmission measurements, which provides a versatile probe for phase transition in an electric manner in minute devices.
Spin and Charge Currents through a Quantum Dot Connected to Ferromagnetic Leads
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHI Feng; LI Shu-Shen
2005-01-01
@@ We investigate the spin polarized current through a quantum dot connected to ferromagnetic leads in the presence of a finite spin-dependent chemical potential. The effects of the spin polarization of the leads p and the external magnetic field B are studied. It is found that both the magnitude and the symmetry of the current are dependent on the spin polarization of the leads. When the two ferromagnetic leads are in parallel configuration, the spin polarization p has an insignificant effect on the spin current, and an accompanying charge current appears with the increase of p. When the leads are in antiparallel configuration, however, the effect of p is distinct. The charge current is always zero regardless of the variation of p in the absence of B. The peaks appearing in the pure spin current are greatly suppressed and become asymmetric as p is increased. The applied magnetic field Bresults in an accompanying charge current in both the parallel and antiparallel configurations of the leads. The characteristics of the currents are explained in terms of the density of states of the quantum dot.
Spin current and polarization in impure two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit coupling.
Mishchenko, E G; Shytov, A V; Halperin, B I
2004-11-26
We derive the transport equations for two-dimensional electron systems with Rashba spin-orbit interaction and short-range spin-independent disorder. In the limit of slow spatial variations, we obtain coupled diffusion equations for the electron density and spin. Using these equations we calculate electric-field induced spin accumulation and spin current in a finite-size sample for an arbitrary ratio between spin-orbit energy splitting Delta and elastic scattering rate tau(-1). We demonstrate that the spin-Hall conductivity vanishes in an infinite system independent of this ratio.
Interfacial spin Hall current in a Josephson junction with Rashba spin-orbit coupling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Zhi-Hong; Yang Yong-Hong; Wang Jun
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate the spin transport properties of the Cooper pairs in a conventional Josephson junction with Rashba spin orbit coupling considered in one of the superconducting leads.It is found that an angle-resolved spin supercurrent flows through the junction and a nonzero interfacial spin Hall current driven by the superconducting phase difference also appears at the interface.The physical origin of this is that the Rashba spin-orbit coupling can indnce a triplet order parameter in the s-wave superconductor.The interfacial spin Hall current dependences on the system parameters are also discussed.
Spin-orbit coupling, spin currents and emergent gauge fields in solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sa, Debanand [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi -221005 (India)
2012-07-23
The role of spin-orbit interaction has been exploited to construct an emergent gauge theory in solids. It has been shown that the charge and spin currents in such a solid form a SU(2) Multiplication-Sign U(1) gauge theory. The lack of gauge symmetry in the SU(2) sector and as a consequence, the non-conservation of spin is spelled out. The phenomenon of spin motive force and spin Hall effect is discussed. The importance of such force in the mesoscopic transport as well as Aharonov-Casher effect is outlined. It is shown that the spin currents in such a theory become the source of electric field.
Spin-orbit coupling, spin currents and emergent gauge fields in solids
Sa, Debanand
2012-07-01
The role of spin-orbit interaction has been exploited to construct an emergent gauge theory in solids. It has been shown that the charge and spin currents in such a solid form a SU(2)×U(1) gauge theory. The lack of gauge symmetry in the SU(2) sector and as a consequence, the non-conservation of spin is spelled out. The phenomenon of spin motive force and spin Hall effect is discussed. The importance of such force in the mesoscopic transport as well as Aharonov-Casher effect is outlined. It is shown that the spin currents in such a theory become the source of electric field.
Persistent spin and mass currents and Aharonov-Casher effect
Balatsky, A. V.; Altshuler, B.L.
1992-01-01
Spin-orbit interaction produces persistent spin and mass currents in the ring via the Aharonov-Casher effect. The experiment in $^3He-A_1$ phase, in which this effect leads to the excitation of mass and spin supercurrent is proposed.
Thermal generation of spin current in a multiferroic helimagnet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Takagi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We report the experimental observation of longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in a multiferroic helimagnet Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22. Temperature gradient applied normal to Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22/Pt interface generates inverse spin Hall voltage of spin current origin in Pt, whose magnitude was found to be proportional to bulk magnetization of Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22 even through the successive magnetic transitions among various helimagnetic and ferrimagnetic phases. This finding demonstrates that the helimagnetic spin wave can be an effective carrier of spin current. By controlling the population ratio of spin-helicity domains characterized by clockwise/counter-clockwise manner of spin rotation with use of poling electric field in the ferroelectric helimagnetic phase, we found that spin-helicity domain distribution does not affect the magnitude of spin current injected into Pt. The results suggest that the spin-wave spin current is rather robust against the spin-helicity domain wall, unlike the case with the conventional ferromagnetic domain wall.
Spin current-induced by a sound wave.
Lyapilin, Igor I
2013-04-01
The interaction of conduction electrons with a longitudinal sound wave propagating in a crystal in a constant magnetic field is investigated. It is shown that the transverse spin current arises when the longitudinal sound wave propagation through the system. The average power absorbed by the spin subsystem of the conduction electrons and the spin-Hall conductivity have a resonant character.
Current Exchanges and Unconstrained Higher Spins
Francia, D; Sagnotti, A
2007-01-01
The (Fang-)Fronsdal formulation for free fully symmetric (spinor-) tensors rests on (gamma-)trace constraints on gauge fields and parameters. When these are relaxed, glimpses of the underlying geometry emerge: the field equations extend to non-local expressions involving the higher-spin curvatures, and with only a pair of additional fields an equivalent ``minimal'' local formulation is also possible. In this paper we complete the discussion of the ``minimal'' formulation for fully symmetric (spinor-) tensors, constructing one-parameter families of Lagrangians and extending them to (A)dS backgrounds. We then turn on external currents, that in this setting are subject to conventional conservation laws and, by a close scrutiny of current exchanges in the various formulations, we clarify the precise link between the local and non-local versions of the theory. To this end, we first show the equivalence of the constrained and unconstrained local formulations, and then identify a unique set of non-local Lagrangian e...
Higher spin currents in the orthogonal coset theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, Changhyun [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-15
In the coset model (D{sub N}{sup (1)} + D{sub N}{sup (1)}, D{sub N}{sup (1)}) at levels (k{sub 1}, k{sub 2}), the higher spin 4 current that contains the quartic WZW currents contracted with a completely symmetric SO(2N) invariant d tensor of rank 4 is obtained. The three-point functions with two scalars are obtained for any finite N and k{sub 2} with k{sub 1} = 1. They are determined also in the large N 't Hooft limit. When one of the levels is the dual Coxeter number of SO(2N), k{sub 1} = 2N - 2, the higher spin (7)/(2) current, which contains the septic adjoint fermions contracted with the above d tensor and the triple product of structure constants, is obtained from the operator product expansion (OPE) between the spin (3)/(2) current living in the N = 1 superconformal algebra and the above higher spin 4 current. The OPEs between the higher spin (7)/(2), 4 currents are described. For k{sub 1} = k{sub 2} = 2N - 2 where both levels are equal to the dual Coxeter number of SO(2N), the higher spin 3 current of U(1) charge (4)/(3), which contains the six products of spin (1)/(2) (two) adjoint fermions contracted with the product of the d tensor and two structure constants, is obtained. The corresponding N = 2 higher spin multiplet is determined by calculating the remaining higher spin (7)/(2), (7)/(2), 4 currents with the help of two spin (3)/(2) currents in the N = 2 superconformal algebra. The other N = 2 higher spin multiplet, whose U(1) charge is opposite to the one of the above N = 2 higher spin multiplet, is obtained. The OPE between these two N = 2 higher spin multiplets is also discussed. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Jun-Qing; QIAO Shi-Zhu; JIA Zhen-Feng; ZHANG Ning-Yu; JI Yan-Ju; PANG Yan-Tao; CHEN Ying; FU Gang
2008-01-01
@@ We introduce a one-dimensional spin injection structure comprising a ferromagnetic metal and a nondegenerate organic semiconductor to model electric current polarizations.With this model we analyse spin Coulomb dragging (SCD) effects on the polarization under various electric fields, interface and conductivity conditions.The results show that the SCD inhibits the current polarization.Thus the SCD inhibition should be well considered for accurate evaluation of current polarization in the design of organic spin devices.
Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torque via Modulation of Spin Current Absorption
Qiu, Xuepeng
2016-11-18
The magnitude of spin-orbit torque (SOT), exerted to a ferromagnet (FM) from an adjacent heavy metal (HM), strongly depends on the amount of spin current absorbed in the FM. We exploit the large spin absorption at the Ru interface to manipulate the SOTs in HM/FM/Ru multilayers. While the FM thickness is smaller than its spin dephasing length of 1.2 nm, the top Ru layer largely boosts the absorption of spin currents into the FM layer and substantially enhances the strength of SOT acting on the FM. Spin-pumping experiments induced by ferromagnetic resonance support our conclusions that the observed increase in the SOT efficiency can be attributed to an enhancement of the spin-current absorption. A theoretical model that considers both reflected and transmitted mixing conductances at the two interfaces of FM is developed to explain the results.
Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torque via Modulation of Spin Current Absorption
Qiu, Xuepeng; Legrand, William; He, Pan; Wu, Yang; Yu, Jiawei; Ramaswamy, Rajagopalan; Manchon, Aurelien; Yang, Hyunsoo
2016-11-01
The magnitude of spin-orbit torque (SOT), exerted to a ferromagnet (FM) from an adjacent heavy metal (HM), strongly depends on the amount of spin current absorbed in the FM. We exploit the large spin absorption at the Ru interface to manipulate the SOTs in HM /FM /Ru multilayers. While the FM thickness is smaller than its spin dephasing length of 1.2 nm, the top Ru layer largely boosts the absorption of spin currents into the FM layer and substantially enhances the strength of SOT acting on the FM. Spin-pumping experiments induced by ferromagnetic resonance support our conclusions that the observed increase in the SOT efficiency can be attributed to an enhancement of the spin-current absorption. A theoretical model that considers both reflected and transmitted mixing conductances at the two interfaces of FM is developed to explain the results.
Persistent Spin and Charge Currents in Open Conducting Ring Subjected to Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xi-Sua; XIONG Shi-Jie
2008-01-01
We investigate persistent charge and spin currents of a one-dimensional ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and connected asymmetrically to two external leads spanned with angle (φ)0.Because of the asymmetry of the structure and the spin-reflection,the persistent charge and spin currents can be induced.The magnification of persistent currents can be obtained when tuning the energy of incident electron to the sharp zero and sharp resonance of transmission depending on the Aharonov-Casher (AC) phase due to the spin-orbit coupling and the angle spanned by two leads (φ)0.The general dependence of the charge and spin persistent currents on these parameters is obtained.This suggests a possible method of controlling the magnitude and direction of persistent currents by tuning the AC phase and (φ)0,without the electromagnetic flux though the ring.
Current heating induced spin Seebeck effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schreier, Michael, E-mail: michael.schreier@wmi.badw.de; Roschewsky, Niklas; Dobler, Erich; Meyer, Sibylle; Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany)
2013-12-09
A measurement technique for the spin Seebeck effect is presented, wherein the normal metal layer used for its detection is exploited simultaneously as a resistive heater and thermometer. We show how the various contributions to the measured total signal can be disentangled, allowing to extract the voltage signal solely caused by the spin Seebeck effect. To this end, we performed measurements as a function of the external magnetic field strength and its orientation. We find that the effect scales linearly with the induced rise in temperature, as expected for the spin Seebeck effect.
Spin currents and magnetization dynamics in multilayer systems
van der Bijl, E.
2014-01-01
In this Thesis the interplay between spin currents and magnetization dynamics is investigated theoretically. With the help of a simple model the relevant physical phenomena are introduced. From this model it can be deduced that in systems with small spin-orbit coupling, current-induced torques on
Detecting Spin-Polarized Currents in Ballistic Nanostructures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Potok, R.; Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.
2002-01-01
We demonstrate a mesoscopic spin polarizer/analyzer system that allows the spin polarization of current from a quantum point contact in an in-plane magnetic field to be measured. A transverse focusing geometry is used to couple current from an emitter point contact into a collector point contact....
Optimisation of geometrical ratchets for spin-current amplification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdullah, Ranjdar M. [Department of Electronics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Vick, Andrew J. [Department of Electronics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Murphy, Benedict A. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Hirohata, Atsufumi, E-mail: atsufumi.hirohata@york.ac.uk [Department of Electronics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)
2015-05-07
A two-dimensional model is used to study the geometrical effects of a nonmagnetic (NM) nanowire upon a spin-polarised electron current in a lateral spin-valve structure. We found that the implemented ratchet shapes at the centre of the NM have a crucial effect on the diffusive rate for up- and down-spin electrons along the wire, which leads to the amplification of non-local spin-current signals. By using our simple model, the geometries have been optimised. The calculated spin-current signals are in good qualitative agreement with our recent experimental results [Abdullah et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 482001(FTC) (2014)]. Our model may be very useful to evaluate such a geometrical effect on spin-polarised electron transport.
Current heating induced spin Seebeck effect
Schreier, Michael; Roschewsky, Niklas; Dobler, Erich; Meyer, Sibylle; Huebl, Hans; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.
2013-01-01
A new measurement technique for the spin Seebeck effect is presented, wherein the normal metal layer used for its detection is exploited simultaneously as a resistive heater and thermometer. We show how the various contributions to the measured total signal can be disentangled, allowing to extract the voltage signal solely caused by the spin Seebeck effect. To this end we performed measurements as a function of the external magnetic field strength and its orientation. We find that the effect ...
Spintronic Oscillator Based on Spin-Current Feedback Using the Spin Hall Effect
Bhuktare, Swapnil; Singh, Hanuman; Bose, Arnab; Tulapurkar, Ashwin. A.
2017-01-01
We propose a radio-frequency nano-oscillator based on feedback of spin current into a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with an in-plane magnetized pinned layer and an out-of-plane magnetized free layer. The MTJ is connected to a "feedback" strip of a material like tungsten with a giant spin Hall effect. On passing a dc current through the MTJ, the thermal fluctuations of its free layer produce an oscillatory voltage across itself owing to the magnetoresistance effect. This oscillatory voltage drives an oscillatory current into the tungsten strip which converts this charge current into spin current via the spin Hall effect and feeds it back to the MTJ. We show that this feedback can amplify the fluctuations further and drive the free layer into periodic precessional states. We also propose a way of implementing spin-current feedback by using a nanomagnet coupled to the free layer of the MTJ by dipolar magnetic field.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hong Xue-Kun; Yang Xi-Feng; Feng Jin-Fu; Liu Yu-Shen
2013-01-01
We propose a Rashba three-terminal double-quantum-dot device to generate a spin-polarized current and manipulate the electron spin in each quantum dot by utilizing the temperature gradient instead of the electric bias voltage.This device possesses a nonresonant tunneling channel and two resonant tunneling channels.The Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function techniques are employed to determinate the spin-polarized current flowing from the electrodes and the spin accumulation in each quantum dot.We find that their signs and magnitudes are well controllable by the gate voltage or the temperature gradient.This result is attributed to the change in the slope of the transmission probability at the Fermi levels in the low-temperature region.Importantly,an obviously pure spin current can be injected into or extracted from one of the three electrodes by properly choosing the temperature gradient and the gate voltages.Therefore,the device can be used as an ideal thermal generator to produce a pure spin current and manipulate the electron spin in the quantum dot.
Slow spin dynamics between ferromagnetic chains in a pure-inorganic framework.
David, Rénald; Kabbour, Houria; Colis, Silviu; Mentré, Olivier
2013-12-02
The crystal structure of the new phase BaCo(II)2(As(III)3O6)2·2(H2O) is built from the stacking of infinite [BaCo2(As3O6)2·H2O] sheets containing ∞[Co(II)O4](6-) chains interconnected by perpendicular ∞[As(III)O2](-) chains. It shows a metamagnetic transition below ∼9 K at a critical field of ∼0.11 T, leading to a moment value of 70% of the expected saturation, related to the spin flip between individual robust canted ferromagnetic chains. We propose a field-dependent scenario with magnetic moments lying in the Co(II)O6 octahedral basal planes, fully compatible with our experimental results. Magnetic measurements under ac-field show slow spin dynamics with an intrinsic single-chain magnet (SCM)-like component slightly modified in the field-aligned regime. The characteristic relaxation time and energy barrier are about τo = 5.1 × 10(-10) s and Δτ = 35.3 K at H(dc) = 0, respectively, which falls close to values found for other (but organometallic) SCM Co(II) chains. This magnetic behavior is unique in the field of pure-inorganic compounds.
Bulk magnon spin current theory for the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect
Rezende, S. M.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Cunha, R. O.; López Ortiz, J. C.; Azevedo, A.
2016-02-01
The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) consists in the generation of a spin current parallel to a temperature gradient applied across the thickness of a bilayer made of a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI), such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG), and a metallic layer (ML) with strong spin orbit coupling, such as platinum. The LSSE is usually detected by a DC voltage generated along the ML due to the conversion of the spin current into a charge current perpendicular to the static magnetic field by means of the inverse spin Hall effect. Here we present a model for the LSSE that relies on the bulk magnon spin current created by the temperature gradient across the thickness of the FMI. We show that the spin current pumped into the metallic layer by the magnon accumulation in the FMI provides continuity of the spin current at the FMI/ML interface and is essential for the existence of the LSSE. The results of the theory are in good agreement with experimental LSSE data in YIG/Pt bilayers on the variation of the DC voltage with the sample temperature, with the FMI layer thickness and with the intensity of high magnetic fields.
Interfacial spin-orbit splitting and current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-05-17
Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is investigated theoretically. Due to the presence of interfacial SOI, a current-driven spin torque can be generated at the second order in SOI, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. This torque possesses two components, one in plane and one perpendicular to the plane of rotation, that can induce either current-driven magnetization switching from an in-plane to out-of-plane configuration or magnetization precessions, similar to spin transfer torque in spin valves. Consequently, it appears that it is possible to control the magnetization steady state and dynamics by either varying the bias voltage or electrically modifying the SOI at the interface.
Massive fermion model in 3d and higher spin currents
Bonora, L; Prester, P Dominis; de Souza, B Lima; Smolic, I
2016-01-01
We analyze the 3d free massive fermion theory coupled to external sources. The presence of a mass explicitly breaks parity invariance. We calculate two- and three-point functions of a gauge current and the energy momentum tensor and, for instance, obtain the well-known result that in the IR limit (but also in the UV one) we reconstruct the relevant CS action. We then couple the model to higher spin currents and explicitly work out the spin 3 case. In the UV limit we obtain an effective action which was proposed many years ago as a possible generalization of spin 3 CS action. In the IR limit we derive a different higher spin action. This analysis can evidently be generalized to higher spins. We also discuss the conservation and properties of the correlators we obtain in the intermediate steps of our derivation.
Thermal spin current and spin accumulation at ferromagnetic insulator/nonmagnetic metal interface
Shen, Y. H.; Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.
2016-07-01
Spin current injection and spin accumulation near a ferromagnetic insulator (FI)/nonmagnetic metal (NM) bilayer film under a thermal gradient is investigated theoretically. By using the Fermi golden rule and the Boltzmann equations, we find that FI and NM can exchange spins via interfacial electron-magnon scattering because of the imbalance between magnon emission and absorption caused by either the deviation of the magnon number from the equilibrium Bose-Einstein distribution or the difference in magnon temperature and electron temperature. A temperature gradient in FI and/or a temperature difference across the FI/NM interface generates a spin current which carries angular momenta parallel to the magnetization of FI from the hotter side to the colder one. Interestingly, the spin current induced by a temperature gradient in NM is negligibly small due to the nonmagnetic nature of the nonequilibrium electron distributions. The results agree well with all existing experiments.
Spin Current Switching and Spin-Filtering Effects in Mn-Doped Boron Nitride Nanoribbons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. A. Nemnes
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The spin transport properties are investigated by means of the first principle approach for boron nitride nanoribbons with one or two substitutional Mn impurities, connected to graphene electrodes. The spin current polarization is evaluated using the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism for each structure and bias. The structure with one Mn impurity reveals a transfer characteristics suitable for a spin current switch. In the case of two Mn impurities, the system behaves as an efficient spin-filter device, independent on the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic configurations of the magnetic impurities. The experimental availability of the building blocks as well as the magnitudes of the obtained spin current polarizations indicates a strong potential of the analyzed structures for future spintronic devices.
Kavand, Marzieh; Baird, Douglas; van Schooten, Kipp; Malissa, Hans; Lupton, John M.; Boehme, Christoph
2016-08-01
Spin-dependent processes play a crucial role in organic electronic devices. Spin coherence can give rise to spin mixing due to a number of processes such as hyperfine coupling, and leads to a range of magnetic field effects. However, it is not straightforward to differentiate between pure single-carrier spin-dependent transport processes which control the current and therefore the electroluminescence, and spin-dependent electron-hole recombination which determines the electroluminescence yield and in turn modulates the current. We therefore investigate the correlation between the dynamics of spin-dependent electric current and spin-dependent electroluminescence in two derivatives of the conjugated polymer poly(phenylene-vinylene) using simultaneously measured pulsed electrically detected (pEDMR) and optically detected (pODMR) magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This experimental approach requires careful analysis of the transient response functions under optical and electrical detection. At room temperature and under bipolar charge-carrier injection conditions, a correlation of the pEDMR and the pODMR signals is observed, consistent with the hypothesis that the recombination currents involve spin-dependent electronic transitions. This observation is inconsistent with the hypothesis that these signals are caused by spin-dependent charge-carrier transport. These results therefore provide no evidence that supports earlier claims that spin-dependent transport plays a role for room-temperature magnetoresistance effects. At low temperatures, however, the correlation between pEDMR and pODMR is weakened, demonstrating that more than one spin-dependent process influences the optoelectronic materials' properties. This conclusion is consistent with prior studies of half-field resonances that were attributed to spin-dependent triplet exciton recombination, which becomes significant at low temperatures when the triplet lifetime increases.
Response Current from Spin-Vortex-Induced Loop Current System to Feeding Current
Morisaki, Tsubasa; Wakaura, Hikaru; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Koizumi, Hiroyasu
2017-07-01
The spin-vortex-induced loop current (SVILC) is a loop current generated around a spin-vortex formed by itinerant electrons. It is generated by a U(1) instanton created by the single-valued requirement of wave functions with respect to the coordinate, and protected by the topological number, "winding number". In a system with SVILCs, a macroscopic persistent current is generated as a collection of SVILCs. In the present work, we consider the situation where external currents are fed in the SVILC system and response currents are measured as spontaneous currents that flow through leads attached to the SVILC system. The response currents from SVILC systems are markedly different from the feeding currents in their directions and magnitude, and depend on the original current pattern of the SVILC system; thus, they may be used in the readout process in the recently proposed SVILC quantum computer, a quantum computer that utilizes SVILCs as qubits. We also consider the use of the response current to detect SVILCs.
Spin-orbit interaction induced current dip in a single quantum dot coupled to a spin
Giavaras, G.
2017-03-01
Experiments on semiconductor quantum dot systems have demonstrated the coupling between electron spins in quantum dots and spins localized in the neighboring area of the dots. Here we show that in a magnetic field the electrical current flowing through a single quantum dot tunnel-coupled to a spin displays a dip at the singlet-triplet anticrossing point which appears due to the spin-orbit interaction. We specify the requirements for which the current dip is formed and examine the properties of the dip for various system parameters, such as energy detuning, spin-orbit interaction strength, and coupling to leads. We suggest a parameter range in which the dip could be probed.
Spin-orbit-induced longitudinal spin-polarized currents in nonmagnetic solids
Wimmer, S.; Seemann, M.; Chadova, K.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.
2015-07-01
For certain nonmagnetic solids with low symmetry the occurrence of spin-polarized longitudinal currents is predicted. These arise due to an interplay of spin-orbit interaction and the particular crystal symmetry. This result is derived using a group-theoretical scheme that allows investigating the symmetry properties of any linear response tensor relevant to the field of spintronics. For the spin conductivity tensor it is shown that only the magnetic Laue group has to be considered in this context. Within the introduced general scheme also the spin Hall and additional related transverse effects emerge without making reference to the two-current model. Numerical studies confirm these findings and demonstrate for (Au1-xPtx)4Sc that the longitudinal spin conductivity may be on the same order of magnitude as the conventional transverse one. The presented formalism only relies on the magnetic space group and therefore is universally applicable to any type of magnetic order.
Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling
Haney, Paul M.
2013-12-19
In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.
Higher-spin current multiplets in operator-product expansions
Anselmi, D
2000-01-01
Various formulas for currents with arbitrary spin are worked out in general space-time dimension, in the free field limit and, at the bare level, in presence of interactions. As the n-dimensional generalization of the (conformal) vector field, the (n/2-1)-form is used. The two-point functions and the higher-spin central charges are evaluated at one loop. As an application, the higher-spin hierarchies generated by the stress-tensor operator-product expansion are computed in supersymmetric theories. The results exhibit an interesting universality.
Spin-polarized currents generated by magnetic Fe atomic chains.
Lin, Zheng-Zhe; Chen, Xi
2014-06-13
Fe-based devices are widely used in spintronics because of high spin-polarization and magnetism. In this work, freestanding Fe atomic chains, the thinnest wires, were used to generate spin-polarized currents due to the spin-polarized energy bands. By ab initio calculations, the zigzag structure was found to be more stable than the wide-angle zigzag structure and had a higher ratio of spin-up and spin-down currents. By our theoretical prediction, Fe atomic chains have a sufficiently long thermal lifetime only at T ≦̸ 150 K, while C atomic chains are very stable even at T = 1000 K. This means that the spintronic devices based on Fe chains could work only at low temperatures. A system constructed by a short Fe chain sandwiched between two graphene electrodes could be used as a spin-polarized current generator, while a C chain could not be used in this way. The present work may be instructive and meaningful to further practical applications based on recent technical developments on the preparation of metal atomic chains (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 9055 (2010)).
Dissipationless spin-Hall current contribution in the extrinsic spin-Hall effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yan Yu-Zhen; Li Hui-Wu; Hu Liang-Bin
2009-01-01
This paper shows that a substantial amount of dissipationless spin-Hall current contribution may exist in the extrinsic spin-Hall effect, which originates from the spin-orbit coupling induced by the applied external electric field itself that drives the extrinsic spin-Hall effect in a nonmagnetic semiconductor (or metal). By assuming that the impurity density is in a moderate range such that the total scattering potential due to all randomly distributed impurities is a smooth function of the space coordinate, it is shown that this dissipationless contribution shall be of the same orders of magnitude as the usual extrinsic contribution from spin-orbit dependent impurity scatterings (or may even be larger than the latter one). The theoretical results obtained are in good agreement with recent relevant experimental results.
Luenser, Arne; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian
2016-09-01
We present a (sub)linear-scaling algorithm to determine indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants at the Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density functional levels of theory. Employing efficient integral algorithms and sparse algebra routines, an overall (sub)linear scaling behavior can be obtained for systems with a non-vanishing HOMO-LUMO gap. Calculations on systems with over 1000 atoms and 20 000 basis functions illustrate the performance and accuracy of our reference implementation. Specifically, we demonstrate that linear algebra dominates the runtime of conventional algorithms for 10 000 basis functions and above. Attainable speedups of our method exceed 6 × in total runtime and 10 × in the linear algebra steps for the tested systems. Furthermore, a convergence study of spin-spin couplings of an aminopyrazole peptide upon inclusion of the water environment is presented: using the new method it is shown that large solvent spheres are necessary to converge spin-spin coupling values.
Luenser, Arne; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian
2016-09-28
We present a (sub)linear-scaling algorithm to determine indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants at the Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density functional levels of theory. Employing efficient integral algorithms and sparse algebra routines, an overall (sub)linear scaling behavior can be obtained for systems with a non-vanishing HOMO-LUMO gap. Calculations on systems with over 1000 atoms and 20 000 basis functions illustrate the performance and accuracy of our reference implementation. Specifically, we demonstrate that linear algebra dominates the runtime of conventional algorithms for 10 000 basis functions and above. Attainable speedups of our method exceed 6 × in total runtime and 10 × in the linear algebra steps for the tested systems. Furthermore, a convergence study of spin-spin couplings of an aminopyrazole peptide upon inclusion of the water environment is presented: using the new method it is shown that large solvent spheres are necessary to converge spin-spin coupling values.
Zou, Jianfei; Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Aimei
2017-04-01
We study the photo-induced spin current injection in a hexagonal lattice with both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit interactions which is irradiated by a polarized light beam. It is found that the spin current injection rate could be enhanced as the graphene lattice is in the topological insulator state. Furthermore, the spin current injection rate could be remarkably modulated by the degree of polarization of light and its frequency.
Spin currents and magnon dynamics in insulating magnets
Nakata, Kouki; Simon, Pascal; Loss, Daniel
2017-03-01
Nambu–Goldstone theorem provides gapless modes to both relativistic and nonrelativistic systems. The Nambu–Goldstone bosons in insulating magnets are called magnons or spin-waves and play a key role in magnetization transport. We review here our past works on magnetization transport in insulating magnets and also add new insights, with a particular focus on magnon transport. We summarize in detail the magnon counterparts of electron transport, such as the Wiedemann–Franz law, the Onsager reciprocal relation between the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, the Hall effects, the superconducting state, the Josephson effects, and the persistent quantized current in a ring to list a few. Focusing on the electromagnetism of moving magnons, i.e. magnetic dipoles, we theoretically propose a way to directly measure magnon currents. As a consequence of the Mermin–Wagner–Hohenberg theorem, spin transport is drastically altered in one-dimensional antiferromagnetic (AF) spin-1/2 chains; where the Néel order is destroyed by quantum fluctuations and a quasiparticle magnon-like picture breaks down. Instead, the low-energy collective excitations of the AF spin chain are described by a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL) which provides the spin transport properties in such antiferromagnets some universal features at low enough temperature. Finally, we enumerate open issues and provide a platform to discuss the future directions of magnonics.
High current gain silicon-based spin transistor
Dennis, C L; Ensell, G J; Gregg, J F; Thompson, S M
2003-01-01
A silicon-based spin transistor of novel operating principle has been demonstrated in which the current gain at room temperature is 1.4 (n-type) and 0.97 (p-type). This high current gain was obtained from a hybrid metal/semiconductor analogue to the bipolar junction transistor which functions by tunnel-injecting carriers from a ferromagnetic emitter into a diffusion driven silicon base and then tunnel-collecting them via a ferromagnetic collector. The switching of the magnetic state of the collector ferromagnet controls the collector efficiency and the current gain. Furthermore, the magnetocurrent, which is determined to be 98% (140%) for p-type (n-type) in -110 Oe, is attributable to the spin-polarized base diffusion current.
Effect of Electric Field on Spin Polarized Current in Ferromagnetic/ Organic Semiconductor Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Yan-Ni; REN Jun-Feng; ZHANG Yu-Bin; LIU De-Sheng; XIE Shi-Jie
2007-01-01
Considering the special carriers in organic semiconductors, the spin polarized current under electric field in a ferromagnetic/organic semiconductor system is theoretically studied. Based on the spin-diffusion theory, the current spin polarization under the electric field is obtained. It is found that electric field can enhance the current spin polarization.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Xi; ZHOU Guang-Hui
2009-01-01
We investigate theoretically the spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling connected to two normal conductors.Both the quantum wire and conductors are described by a hard-wall confining potential.Using the electron wave-functions in the quantum wire and a new definition of spin current, we have calculated the elements of linear spin current density jTs,xi and jTs,yi(I = x, y, z).We lind that the elements jTs,xx and jTs,yy have a antisymmetrical relation and the element jTs,yz has the same amount level jTs,xx and jTs,yy.We also find a net linear spin current density, which has peaks at the center of quantum wire.The net linear spin current can induce a linear electric field, which may imply a way of spin current detection.
Pure quantum states of neutrino with rotating spin in dense magnetized matter
Arbuzova, E V; Murchikova, E M
2009-01-01
The problem of rotation of the neutrino spin in dense matter and in strong electromagnetic field is solved in full agreement with the basic principles of quantum mechanics. We found complete system of wave functions of a massive Dirac neutrino possessing anomalous magnetic moment. These functions are eigenfunctions of kinetic momentum operator and describe neutrino with rotating spin. Using these wave functions it is possible to calculate probabilities of various processes with neutrino in the framework of the Furry picture. The dispersion law for the neutrino in dense magnetized matter is found. It is shown that group velocity of neutrino is independent of spin orientation.
Pitts, J Brian
2015-01-01
A massive relative of Einstein's theory was derived by universal coupling in the late 1960s by Freund, Maheshwari and Schonberg. In the last decade four $1$-parameter families of massive spin-$2$ theories (contravariant, covariant, tetrad, and cotetrad of almost any density weights) have been derived using universal coupling. The (co)tetrad derivations included 2 of the 3 pure spin-$2$ theories due to de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley; those two theories first appeared in the $2$-parameter Ogievetsky-Polubarinov family (1965), which developed the symmetric square root of the metric as a nonlinear group realization. One of the two theories was identified as pure spin-$2$ by Maheshwari in 1971-2, thus evading the Boulware-Deser-Tyutin-Fradkin ghost by the time it was announced---but with no impact. This paper permits nonlinear field redefinitions to build the effective metric. By not insisting in advance on knowing the observable significance of the graviton potential exactly to all orders, one finds that an \\emph...
Sun, Dali; van Schooten, Kipp J; Kavand, Marzieh; Malissa, Hans; Zhang, Chuang; Groesbeck, Matthew; Boehme, Christoph; Valy Vardeny, Z
2016-08-01
Exploration of spin currents in organic semiconductors (OSECs) induced by resonant microwave absorption in ferromagnetic substrates is appealing for potential spintronics applications. Owing to the inherently weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of OSECs, their inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) response is very subtle; limited by the microwave power applicable under continuous-wave (cw) excitation. Here we introduce a novel approach for generating significant ISHE signals in OSECs using pulsed ferromagnetic resonance, where the ISHE is two to three orders of magnitude larger compared to cw excitation. This strong ISHE enables us to investigate a variety of OSECs ranging from π-conjugated polymers with strong SOC that contain intrachain platinum atoms, to weak SOC polymers, to C60 films, where the SOC is predominantly caused by the curvature of the molecule's surface. The pulsed-ISHE technique offers a robust route for efficient injection and detection schemes of spin currents at room temperature, and paves the way for spin orbitronics in plastic materials.
Sun, Dali; van Schooten, Kipp J.; Kavand, Marzieh; Malissa, Hans; Zhang, Chuang; Groesbeck, Matthew; Boehme, Christoph; Valy Vardeny, Z.
2016-08-01
Exploration of spin currents in organic semiconductors (OSECs) induced by resonant microwave absorption in ferromagnetic substrates is appealing for potential spintronics applications. Owing to the inherently weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of OSECs, their inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) response is very subtle; limited by the microwave power applicable under continuous-wave (cw) excitation. Here we introduce a novel approach for generating significant ISHE signals in OSECs using pulsed ferromagnetic resonance, where the ISHE is two to three orders of magnitude larger compared to cw excitation. This strong ISHE enables us to investigate a variety of OSECs ranging from π-conjugated polymers with strong SOC that contain intrachain platinum atoms, to weak SOC polymers, to C60 films, where the SOC is predominantly caused by the curvature of the molecule’s surface. The pulsed-ISHE technique offers a robust route for efficient injection and detection schemes of spin currents at room temperature, and paves the way for spin orbitronics in plastic materials.
Spin Seebeck measurements of current-induced switching in YIG
Bartell, Jason; Jermain, Colin; Aradhya, Sriharsha; Wang, Hailong; Buhrman, Robert; Yang, Fengyuan; Ralph, Daniel; Fuchs, Gregory
Quantifying spin torques generated at the interface between a normal metal (NM) and a ferromagnetic insulator (FI) is an important step in understanding the spin hall effect without charge transport. Measuring magnetization in NM/FI devices is challenging, however, because both magnetoresistive and magneto-optical signals are tiny in thin-film bilayers. We show that a promising alternative measurement approach is the use of picosecond thermal gradients to study spin torques in Pt/Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) bilayers. Recently, we demonstrated the application of heat to stroboscopically transduce a local magnetic moment into an electrical signal via the time resolved anomalous Nernst effect (TRANE) in ferromagnetic metals. Using a similar geometry the spin Seebeck effect of YIG combined with the inverse spin Hall effect of Pt enables measurement of local magnetization. Here we describe our study using this technique to study current-induced switching in Pt/YIG with sub-10 nm thick YIG films We acknowledge support from AFOSR.
GMAG Dissertation Award Talk: All Spin Logic -- Multimagnet Networks interacting via Spin currents
Srinivasan, Srikant
2012-02-01
] S. Srinivasan, A. Sarkar, B. Behin-Aein and S. Datta, ``Unidirectional Information transfer with cascaded All Spin Logic devices: A Ring Oscillator,'' IEEE Device Research Conference (2011).[0pt] [4] A. Sarkar, S. Srinivasan, B. Behin-Aein and S. Datta, ``Multimagnet networks interacting via spin currents'' IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting 2011. (to appear).
Higher Spin Fields in Siegel Space, Currents and Theta Functions
Gelfond, O A
2009-01-01
Dynamics of four-dimensional massless fields of all spins is formulated in the Siegel space of complex $4\\times 4$ symmetric matrices. It is shown that the unfolded equations of free massless fields, that have a form of multidimensional Schrodinger equations, naturally distinguish between positive- and negative-frequency solutions of relativistic field equations, i.e. particles and antiparticles. Multidimensional Riemann theta functions are shown to solve massless field equations in the Siegel space. We establish the correspondence between conserved higher-spin currents in four-dimensional Minkowski space and those in the ten-dimensional matrix space. It is shown that global symmetry parameters of the current in the matrix space should be singular to reproduce a nonzero current in Minkowski space. The $\\D$-function integral evolution formulae for 4d massless fields in the Fock-Siegel space are obtained. The generalization of the proposed scheme to higher dimensions and systems of higher ranks is considered.
Current induced magnetization reversal in spin valves with Heusler alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aoshima, K. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: aoshima.k-ia@nhk.or.jp; Funabashi, N. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan); Machida, K. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan); Miyamoto, Y. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan); Kuga, K. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan); Kawamura, N. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan)
2007-03-15
Current induced magnetization reversal using current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) spin valves devises with Co{sub 2}MnGe, Co{sub 2}FeSi, and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} alloys were investigated. Film stacks of Si/SiO{sub 2}/Cu/IrMn/Heusler-pinned-layer/Cu/Heusler-free-layer were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering followed by post-annealing. Saturation magnetization (B {sub s}) of Co{sub 2}MnGe, Co{sub 2}FeSi, and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} are 12.7, 14.0, and 25 kg, respectively and magnetoresistance (MR) ratios of spin valves with the Co{sub 2}MnGe, Co{sub 2}FeSi, and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} are 3.6%, 3.5%, and 2.2%, respectively. The B {sub s} values and MR ratios obtained for Co{sub 2}MnGe and Co{sub 2}FeSi spin valves were smaller and larger, respectively, than those obtained for Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25}. We speculated that the large MR ratios could be attributed to larger spin polarization of Heusler alloys. J {sub c0} of Co{sub 2}MnGe, Co{sub 2}FeSi, and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} spin valves were 1.6x10{sup 7}, 2.7x10{sup 7}, and 5.1x10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The thermal factors of Co{sub 2}MnGe, Co{sub 2}FeSi, and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} were 65, 48, and 55, respectively. Using the Heusler alloys, we successfully reduced the intrinsic critical current without degrading the thermal factor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pitts, J. Brian, E-mail: jbp25@cam.ac.uk
2016-02-15
Einstein’s equations were derived for a free massless spin-2 field using universal coupling in the 1950–1970s by various authors; total stress–energy including gravity’s served as a source for linear free field equations. A massive variant was likewise derived in the late 1960s by Freund, Maheshwari and Schonberg, and thought to be unique. How broad is universal coupling? In the last decade four 1-parameter families of massive spin-2 theories (contravariant, covariant, tetrad, and cotetrad of almost any density weights) have been derived using universal coupling. The (co)tetrad derivations included 2 of the 3 pure spin-2 theories due to de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley; those two theories first appeared in the 2-parameter Ogievetsky–Polubarinov family (1965), which developed the symmetric square root of the metric as a nonlinear group realization. One of the two theories was identified as pure spin-2 by Maheshwari in 1971–1972, thus evading the Boulware–Deser–Tyutin–Fradkin ghost by the time it was announced. Unlike the previous 4 families, this paper permits nonlinear field redefinitions to build the effective metric. By not insisting in advance on knowing the observable significance of the graviton potential to all orders, one finds that an arbitrary graviton mass term can be derived using universal coupling. The arbitrariness of a universally coupled mass/self-interaction term contrasts sharply with the uniqueness of the Einstein kinetic term. One might have hoped to use universal coupling as a tie-breaking criterion for choosing among theories that are equally satisfactory on more crucial grounds (such as lacking ghosts and having a smooth massless limit). But the ubiquity of universal coupling implies that the criterion does not favor any particular theories among those with the Einstein kinetic term.
Entanglement in the XX Spin Chain with Energy Current
Eisler, V
2004-01-01
We consider the ground state of the XX chain which is constrained to carry a current of energy. The von Neumann entropy of a block of $L$ neighboring spins, describing entanglement of the block with the rest of the chain, is computed. Recent calculations have revealed that the entropy in the XX model diverges logarithmically with the size of the subsystem. We show that the presence of the energy current increases the prefactor of the logarithmic growth. This result indicates that the emergence of the energy current gives rise to an increase of entanglement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amaha, S., E-mail: s-amaha@riken.jp [Quantum Spin Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, ICORP, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Quantum Functional System Research Group, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hatano, T. [Quantum Spin Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, ICORP, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai-shi, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Tarucha, S. [Quantum Spin Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, ICORP, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Quantum Functional System Research Group, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Gupta, J. A.; Austing, D. G. [National Research Council of Canada, M50, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)
2015-04-27
We investigate nuclear spin pumping with five-electron quadruplet spin states in a spin-blockaded weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Two types of hysteretic steps in the leakage current are observed on sweeping the magnetic field and are associated with bidirectional polarization of nuclear spin. Properties of the steps are understood in terms of bias-voltage-dependent conditions for the mixing of quadruplet and doublet spin states by the hyperfine interaction. The hysteretic steps vanish when up- and down-nuclear spin pumping processes are in close competition.
Optical Polarization M\\"obius Strips and Points of Purely Transverse Spin Density
Bauer, Thomas; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter
2016-01-01
Tightly focused light beams can exhibit electric fields spinning around any axis including the one transverse to the beams' propagation direction. At certain focal positions, the corresponding local polarization ellipse can degenerate into a perfect circle, representing a point of circular polarization, or C-point. We consider the most fundamental case of a linearly polarized Gaussian beam, where - upon tight focusing - those C-points created by transversely spinning fields can form the center of 3D optical polarization topologies when choosing the plane of observation appropriately. Due to the high symmetry of the focal field, these polarization topologies exhibit non trivial structures similar to M\\"obius strips. We use a direct physical measure to find C-points with an arbitrarily oriented spinning axis of the electric field and experimentally investigate the fully three-dimensional polarization topologies surrounding these C-points by exploiting an amplitude and phase reconstruction technique.
Spin currents from Helium in intense-field photo-ionization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharyya, S [Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, Mahua [Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata (India); Chakrabarti, J [Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata (India); Faisal, F H M [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany)
2007-09-15
Spin dynamics is studied by computing spin-dependent ionization current of He in intense laser field in relativistic field theoretic method. Spin-flip and spin-asymmetry in current generation is obtained with circularly polarized light. The spin-flip is a dynamical effect of intense laser field on an ionized spinning electron. Transformation properties of the up and down spin ionization amplitudes show that the sign of spin can be controlled by a change of helicity of the laser photons from outside.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sharma, S.; Pittalis, S.; Kurth, S.;
2007-01-01
The relative merits of current-spin-density- and spin-density-functional theory are investigated for solids treated within the exact-exchange-only approximation. Spin-orbit splittings and orbital magnetic moments are determined at zero external magnetic field. We find that for magnetic (Fe, Co...
Optimal control of stochastic magnetization dynamics by spin current
Wang, Yong; Zhang, Fu-Chun
2013-05-01
Fluctuation-induced stochastic magnetization dynamics plays an important role in spintronics devices. Here we propose that it can be optimally controlled by spin currents to minimize or maximize the Freidlin-Wentzell action functional of the system hence to increase or decrease the probability of the large fluctuations. We apply this method to study the thermally activated magnetization switching problem and to demonstrate the merits of the optimal control strategy.
Hole dynamics and spin currents after ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields
Barth, Ingo
2014-01-01
We apply the time-dependent analytical R-matrix theory to develop a movie of hole motion in a Kr atom upon ionization by strong circularly polarized field. We find rich hole dynamics, ranging from rotation to swinging motion. The motion of the hole depends on the final energy and the spin of the photoelectron and can be controlled by the laser frequency and intensity. Crucially, hole rotation is a purely non-adiabatic effect, completely missing in the framework of quasistatic (adiabatic) tunneling theories. We explore the possibility to use hole rotation as a clock for measuring ionization time. Analysing the relationship between the relative phases in different ionization channels we show that in the case of short-range electron-core interaction the hole is always initially aligned along the instantaneous direction of the laser field, signifying zero delays in ionization. Finally, we show that strong-field ionization in circular fields creates spin currents (i.e. different flow of spin-up and spin-down densi...
Spin-current Seebeck effect in quantum dot systems.
Yang, Zhi-Cheng; Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, X C
2014-01-29
We first bring up the concept of the spin-current Seebeck effect based on a recent experiment (Vera-Marun et al 2012 Nature Phys. 8 313), and investigate the spin-current Seebeck effect in quantum dot (QD) systems. Our results show that the spin-current Seebeck coefficient S is sensitive to different polarization states of the QD, and therefore can be used to detect the polarization state of the QD and monitor the transitions between different polarization states of the QD. The intradot Coulomb interaction can greatly enhance S due to the stronger polarization of the QD. By using the parameters for a typical QD whose intradot Coulomb interaction U is one order of magnitude larger than the linewidth Γ, we demonstrate that the maximum value of S can be enhanced by a factor of 80. On the other hand, for a QD whose Coulomb interaction is negligible, we show that one can still obtain a large S by applying an external magnetic field.
Generation and manipulation of spin current via a hybrid four-terminal single-molecule junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Rong [College of Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Bai Long, E-mail: bailong2100@163.com [College of Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Duan Chenlong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China)
2012-07-01
We present a new device which consists of a molecular quantum dot (MQD) attached to a normal-metal, two ferromagnetic (FM), and a superconducting leads. The spin-related Andreev reflection (AR) current and the spin-dependent single-particle tunneling current through the normal-metal terminal are obtained, and it is found that the spin current exhibits the transistor-like behavior. The joint effects of the coherent spin flip and the angle between magnetic moments of the two FM leads on the spin current are also studied, these results provide the possibility to manipulate the spin current with the system parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawasuso, A., E-mail: kawasuso.atsuo@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fukaya, Y.; Maekawa, M.; Zhang, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Seki, T.; Yoshino, T.; Saitoh, E.; Takanashi, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
2013-09-15
Transversely spin-polarized positrons were injected near Pt and Au surfaces under an applied electric current. The three-photon annihilation of spin-triplet positronium, which was emitted from the surfaces into vacuum, was observed. When the positron spin polarization was perpendicular to the current direction, the maximum asymmetry of the three-photon annihilation intensity was observed upon current reversal for the Pt surfaces, whereas it was significantly reduced for the Au surface. The experimental results suggest that electrons near the Pt surfaces were in-plane and transversely spin-polarized with respect to the direction of the electric current. The maximum electron spin polarization was estimated to be more than 0.01 (1%). - Highlights: • Annihilation probability of positronium emitted from the Pt surface into the vacuum under direct current exhibited asymmetry upon current reversal. • The maximum asymmetry appeared when positron spin polarization and the direct current were perpendicular to each other. • Electrons near the Pt surfaces were in-plane and transversely spin-polarized with respect to the direction of the electric current. • Spin-polarized positronium annihilation provides a unique tool for investigating spin polarization on metal surfaces.
Anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents in large N CFTs
Hikida, Yasuaki
2016-01-01
We examine anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents in the critical O(N) scalar model and the Gross-Neveu model in arbitrary d dimensions. These two models are proposed to be dual to the type A and type B Vasiliev theories, respectively. We reproduce the known results on the anomalous dimensions to the leading order in 1/N by using conformal perturbation theory. This work can be regarded as an extension of previous work on the critical O(N) scalars in 3 dimensions, where it was shown that the bulk computation for the masses of higher spin fields on AdS_4 can be mapped to the boundary one in conformal perturbation theory. The anomalous dimensions of the both theories agree with each other up to an overall factor depending only on d, and the coincidence is explained for d=3 by making use of N=2 supersymmetry.
Electron spin resonance evaluation of pure CaSO4 and as a phosphor doped with P and Dy.
de Jesus, E F O; Rossi, A M; Lopes, R T
2002-01-01
Polycrystalline CaSO4 powder, doped with different elements but mainly rare earths, is one of the most interesting thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Although many electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses have been reported for these materials few studies have been published about the potential of CaSO4 for ESR dosimetry; almost all studies used CaSO4:Dy with a very low Dy concentration as the material for TL measurements. Pure CaSO4 from Merck was used to prepare CaSO4:Dy and CaSO4:P:Dy with different Dy concentrations. Samples were annealed at 600 degrees C for 1 h before irradiation in a Gammacell 220 irradiator with a 60Co gamma source at a dose rate of 100 Gy x min(-1). The ESR spectra of the pure CaSO4 and CaSO4 doped with P and Dy show the lines usually observed with these types of material, with the factor g around 2.036 and an intense line at g = 2.0011 found only in the pure material. This line, probably an axial SO4-, grows linearly with absorbed dose until 1.0 kGy and shows good stability with time. The line should be stabilized by matrix impurities because it can be removed by a simple treatment with hot sulphuric acid.
Decontaminating Solar Wind Samples with the Genesis Ultra-Pure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner
Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.
2009-01-01
The Genesis sample return capsule, though broken during the landing impact, contained most of the shattered ultra-pure solar wind collectors comprised of silicon and other semiconductor wafers materials. Post-flight analysis revealed that all wafer fragments were littered with surface particle contamination from spacecraft debris as well as soil from the impact site. This particulate contamination interferes with some analyses of solar wind. In early 2005, the Genesis science team decided to investigate methods for removing the surface particle contamination prior to solar wind analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, C. N.; Hung, H. Y.; Lin, H. Y.; Lin, P. H.; Kwo, J., E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y. H.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Hong, M., E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, J. G. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lee, S. F. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)
2015-05-07
Spin pumping effect in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}Si and Fe/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} heterostructures was studied. High quality films of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(001) on ferromagnetic Fe{sub 3}Si(111) layer and Fe(111) films on Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(001) layer were grown epitaxially by molecular beam epitaxy. Using a microwave cavity source, large voltages due to the Inverse Spin Hall Effect (V{sub ISHE}) were detected in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(001)/Fe{sub 3}Si(111) bi-layer at room temperature. V{sub ISHE} of up to 63.4 ± 4.0 μV at 100 mW microwave power (P{sub MW}) was observed. In addition, Fe(111)/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(001) bi-layer also showed a large V{sub ISHE} of 3.0 ± 0.1 μV at P{sub MW} of 25 mW. V{sub ISHE} of both structures showed microwave linear power dependence in accordance with the theoretical model of spin pumping. The spin Hall angle was calculated to be 0.0053 ± 0.002 in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and was estimated to be 0.0068 ± 0.003 in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The charge current density (J{sub c}) of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}Si and Fe/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} structures are comparable and are about 2–5 times higher than the Fe{sub 3}Si/normal metal and Fe{sub 3}Si/GaAs results. The significant enhancement of spin current in topological insulator/ferromagnetic metal (TI/FM) and FM/TI bilayers is attributed to strong spin-orbit coupling inherent of TIs and demonstrates the high potential of exploiting TI-based structures for spintronic applications.
Deformations of the spin currents by topological screw dislocation and cosmic dispiration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jianhua [School of Physics Science, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723000, Shaanxi (China); Ma, Kai, E-mail: makainca@gmail.com [School of Physics Science, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723000, Shaanxi (China); Li, Kang [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, Zhejiang (China); Fan, Huawei [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xian 710000, Shaanxi (China)
2015-11-15
We study the spin currents induced by topological screw dislocation and cosmic dispiration. By using the extended Drude model, we find that the spin dependent forces are modified by the nontrivial geometry. For the topological screw dislocation, only the direction of spin current is bent by deforming the spin polarization vector. In contrast, the force induced by cosmic dispiration could affect both the direction and magnitude of the spin current. As a consequence, the spin-Hall conductivity does not receive corrections from screw dislocation.
All-electric-controlled spin current switching in single-molecule magnet-tunnel junctions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Zheng-Zhong; Shen Rui; Sheng Li; Wang Rui-Qiang; Wang Bai-Gen; Xing Ding-Yu
2011-01-01
A single-molecule magnet (SMM)coupled to two normal metallic electrodes can both switch spin-up and spindown electronic currents within two different windows of SMM gate voltage. Such spin current switching in the SMM tunnel junction arises from spin-selected single electron resonant tunneling via the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit of the SMM. Since it is not magnetically controlled but all-electrically controlled, the proposed spin current switching effect may have potential applications in future spintronics.
Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E.; Parella, Teodor
2016-05-01
The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.
Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E; Parella, Teodor
2016-05-01
The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.
Higher spin currents in the N =2 stringy coset minimal model
Ahn, Changhyun
2016-12-01
In the coset model based on (AN-1 (1 )⊕AN-1 (1 ),AN-1 (1 )) at level (N ,N ;2 N ), it is known that the N =2 superconformal algebra can be realized by the two kinds of adjoint fermions. Each Kac-Moody current of spin 1 is given by the product of fermions with structure constant (f symbols) as usual. One can construct the spin-1 current by combining the above two fermions with the structure constant and the spin-1 current by multiplying these two fermions with a completely symmetric S U (N ) invariant tensor of rank 3 (d symbols). The lowest higher spin-2 current with nonzero U (1 ) charge (corresponding to the zero mode eigenvalue of the spin-1 current of N =2 superconformal algebra) can be obtained from these four spin-1 currents in quadratic form. Similarly, the other type of lowest higher spin-2 current, whose U (1 ) charge is opposite to the above one, can be obtained also. Four higher spin-5/2 currents can be constructed from the operator product expansions (OPEs) between the spin-3/2 currents of N =2 superconformal algebra and the above two higher spin-2 currents. The two higher spin-3 currents can be determined by the OPEs between the above spin-3/2 currents and the higher spin-5/2 currents. Finally, the ten N =2 OPEs between the four N =2 higher spin multiplets (2 ,5/2 ,5/2 ,3 ) , (2 ,5/2 ,5/2 ,3 ) , (7/2 ,4 ,4 ,9/2 ) , and (7/2 ,4 ,4 ,9/2 ) are obtained explicitly for generic N .
Spin-current-induced magnetoresistance in trilayer structure with nonmagnetic metallic interlayer
Iguchi, Ryo; Sato, Koji; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji
2017-04-01
We have theoretically investigated the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) and Rashba–Edelstein magnetoresistance (REMR), mediated by spin currents, in a ferrimagnetic insulator/nonmagnetic metal/heavy metal system in the diffusive regime. The magnitude of both SMR and REMR decreases with increasing thickness of the interlayer because of the current shunting effect and the reduction in spin accumulation across the interlayer. The latter contribution is due to driving a spin current and persists even in the absence of spin relaxation, which is essential for understanding the magnetoresistance ratio in trilayer structures.
Spin-orbit torques for current parallel and perpendicular to a domain wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, Tomek; Lee, Kyujoon; Karnad, Gurucharan V. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Alejos, Oscar [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belen, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martinez, Eduardo; Moretti, Simone [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caidos s/n, E-38008 Salamanca (Spain); Hals, Kjetil M. D. [Niels Bohr International Academy and the Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, Karin; Ravelosona, Dafiné [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vila, Laurent [Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Lo Conte, Roberto; Kläui, Mathias [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Graduate School of Excellence “Materials Science in Mainz” (MAINZ), Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Ocker, Berthold [Singulus Technologies AG, 63796 Kahl am Main (Germany); Brataas, Arne [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)
2015-09-21
We report field- and current-induced domain wall (DW) depinning experiments in Ta\\Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}\\MgO nanowires through a Hall cross geometry. While purely field-induced depinning shows no angular dependence on in-plane fields, the effect of the current depends crucially on the internal DW structure, which we manipulate by an external magnetic in-plane field. We show depinning measurements for a current sent parallel to the DW and compare its depinning efficiency with the conventional case of current flowing perpendicularly to the DW. We find that the maximum efficiency is similar for both current directions within the error bars, which is in line with a dominating damping-like spin-orbit torque (SOT) and indicates that no large additional torques arise for currents perpendicular to the DW. Finally, we find a varying dependence of the maximum depinning efficiency angle for different DWs and pinning levels. This emphasizes the importance of our full angular scans compared with previously used measurements for just two field directions (parallel and perpendicular to the DW) to determine the real torque strength and shows the sensitivity of the SOT to the precise DW structure and pinning sites.
Analytical description of ballistic spin currents and torques in magnetic tunnel junctions
Chshiev, M.
2015-09-21
In this work we demonstrate explicit analytical expressions for both charge and spin currents which constitute the 2×2 spinor in magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations under applied voltage. The calculations have been performed within the free electron model in the framework of the Keldysh formalism and WKB approximation. We demonstrate that spin/charge currents and spin transfer torques are all explicitly expressed through only three irreducible quantities, without further approximations. The conditions and mechanisms of deviation from the conventional sine angular dependence of both spin currents and torques are shown and discussed. It is shown in the thick barrier approximation that all tunneling transport quantities can be expressed in an extremely simplified form via Slonczewski spin polarizations and our effective spin averaged interfacial transmission probabilities and effective out-of-plane polarizations at both interfaces. It is proven that the latter plays a key role in the emergence of perpendicular spin torque as well as in the angular dependence character of all spin and charge transport considered. It is demonstrated directly also that for any applied voltage, the parallel component of spin current at the FM/I interface is expressed via collinear longitudinal spin current components. Finally, spin transfer torque behavior is analyzed in a view of transverse characteristic length scales for spin transport.
Broadband echo sequence using a pi composite pulse for the pure NQR of a spin I = 32 powder sample
Odin
2000-04-01
This work presents a numerical approach to optimizing sequences with composite pulses for the pure NQR of a spin I = 32 powder sample. The calculations are based on a formalism developed in a previous paper, which allows a fast powder-averaging procedure to be implemented. The framework of the Cayley-Klein matrices to describe space rotations by 2 x 2 unitary and unimodular complex matrices is used to calculate the pulse propagators. The object of such a study is to design a high-performance echo sequence composed of a single preparation pulse and a three-pulse composite transfer pulse. We mean a sequence leading to a large excitation bandwidth with a good signal-to-noise ratio, a flat excitation profile near the irradiation frequency, and a good linearity of the phase as a function of frequency offset. Such a composite echo sequence is intended to give a better excitation profile than the classical Hahn (θ)-tau-(2θ) echo sequence. It is argued that in pure NQR of a powder sample, the sequence must be optimized as a whole since both the excitation and the reception of the signal depend on the relative orientation of the crystallites with respect to the coil axis. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a global approach is presented. An extensive numerical study of the composite echo sequence described above is performed in this article. The key of the discrimination between the sequences lies in using the first five reduced moments of the excitation profile as well as an estimator of the phase linearity. Based on such information, we suggest that the echo sequence that best fulfills our criterion is (1)(0)-tau-(0.35)(0)(2.1)(pi)(0.35)(0), the pulse angles omega(RF)t(p) being in radians. The subscripts are the relative pulse phases. We outlined the way to implement the spin echo mapping method to reconstruct large spectra with this sequence, and it is shown that it reduces the acquisition time by a factor of 1.7 if compared to the classical Hahn echo. Some
Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping
Roy, Kuntal
2017-07-01
Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.
Charges and currents in quantum spin chains: late-time dynamics and spontaneous currents
Fagotti, Maurizio
2017-01-01
We review the structure of the conservation laws in noninteracting spin chains and unveil a formal expression for the corresponding currents. We briefly discuss how interactions affect the picture. In the second part, we explore the effects of a localized defect. We show that the emergence of spontaneous currents near the defect undermines any description of the late-time dynamics by means of a stationary state in a finite chain. In particular, the diagonal ensemble does not work. Finally, we provide numerical evidence that simple generic localized defects are not sufficient to induce thermalization.
Shot noises of spin and charge currents in a ferromagnet-quantum-dot-ferromagnet system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hong-kang ZHAO; Jian WANG
2008-01-01
We have investigated the shot noises of charge and spin current by considering the spin polarized electron tunneling through a ferromagnet-quantum-dotferromagnet system.We have derived the spin polarized current noise matrix,from which we can derive general expressions of shot noises associated with charge and spin currents.The spin and charge currents are intimately related to the polarization angles,and they behave quite differently from each other.The shot noise of charge current is symmetric about the gate voltage whose structure is modified by the Zeeman field considerably.There exists oscillations in spin current shot noise in the absence of source-drain bias at zero temperature,and it is asym metric in the positive and negative regimes of sourcedrain voltage. The shot noise of spin current behaves quite differently from the shot noise of charge current,since the spin current components Isx,Isy oscillate sinusoidally with the frequency ωγ in the γth lead,while the Isz component of spin current is independent of time.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIONG Jian-Wen; HU Liang-Bin; ZHANG Zhen-Xi
2006-01-01
@@ Based on the Heisenberg equations of motion for the electron orbital and spin degrees of freedom in two-dimensional electronic systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings, we show that an ac electric field can cause an ac spin Hall current in such a system. In contrast to some previous theoretical prediction, the spin Hall current will be suppressed completely in the dc limit. We argue that the suppression of dc spin Hall currents in such a system is actually a much natural result of the dynamic spin evolution due to the combined action of a dc external electric field and the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling.
Higher Spin Currents in the N=2 Stringy Coset Minimal Model
Ahn, Changhyun
2016-01-01
In the coset model based on (A_{N-1}^{(1)} \\oplus A_{N-1}^{(1)}, A_{N-1}^{(1)}) at level (N, N; 2N), it is known that the N=2 superconformal algebra can be realized by the two kinds of adjoint fermions. Each Kac-Moody current of spin-1 is given by the product of fermions with structure constant (f symbols) as usual. One can construct the spin-1 current by combining the above two fermions with the structure constant and the spin-1 current by multiplying these two fermions with completely symmetric SU(N) invariant tensor of rank 3 (d symbols). The lowest higher spin-2 current with nonzero U(1) charge (corresponding to the zeromode eigenvalue of spin-1 current of N=2 superconformal algebra) can be obtained from these four spin-1 currents in quadratic form. Similarly, the other type of lowest higher spin-2 current, whose U(1) charge is opposite to the above one, can be obtained also. Four higher spin-5/2 currents can be constructed from the operator product expansions (OPEs) between the spin-3/2 currents of N=2 s...
Conversion of electronic to magnonic spin current at a heavy-metal magnetic-insulator interface
Wang, Xi-guang; Li, Zhi-xiong; Zhou, Zhen-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Zeng, Zhong-ming; Chotorlishvili, L.; Berakdar, J.; Guo, Guang-hua
2017-01-01
Electronic spin current is convertible to magnonic spin current via the creation or annihilation of thermal magnons at the interface of a magnetic insulator and a metal with a strong spin-orbital coupling. So far this phenomenon was evidenced in the linear regime. Based on analytical and full-fledged numerical results for the nonlinear regime we demonstrate that the generated thermal magnons or magnonic spin current in the insulator is asymmetric with respect to the charge current direction in the metal and exhibits a nonlinear dependence on the charge current density, which is explained by the tuning effect of the spin Hall torque and the magnetization damping. The results are also discussed in light of, and are in line with, recent experiments pointing to a new way of nonlinear manipulation of spin with electrical means.
Magnetization oscillations induced by spin current in a paramagnetic disc
Slachter, Abraham; van Wees, Bart Jan
2011-01-01
When electron spins are injected uniformly into a paramagnetic disk, they can precess along the demagnetizing field induced by the resulting magnetic moment. Normally this precession damps out by virtue of the spin relaxation, which is present in paramagnetic materials. We propose a mechanism to exc
Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Luyi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2013-05-17
Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly
Meier, Daniel; Kuschel, Timo; Meyer, Sibylle; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Shen, Liming; Gupta, Arunava; Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael; Reiss, Günter
2016-05-01
In this work we investigated thin films of the ferrimagnetic insulators Y 3Fe5O12 and NiFe2O4 capped with thin Pt layers in terms of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE). The electric response detected in the Pt layer under an out-of-plane temperature gradient can be interpreted as a pure spin current converted into a charge current via the inverse spin Hall effect. Typically, the transverse voltage is the quantity investigated in LSSE measurements (in the range of μV). Here, we present the directly detected DC current (in the range of nA) as an alternative quantity. Furthermore, we investigate the resistance of the Pt layer in the LSSE configuration. We found an influence of the test current on the resistance. The typical shape of the LSSE curve varies for increasing test currents.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Meier
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this work we investigated thin films of the ferrimagnetic insulators Y 3Fe5O12 and NiFe2O4 capped with thin Pt layers in terms of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE. The electric response detected in the Pt layer under an out-of-plane temperature gradient can be interpreted as a pure spin current converted into a charge current via the inverse spin Hall effect. Typically, the transverse voltage is the quantity investigated in LSSE measurements (in the range of μV. Here, we present the directly detected DC current (in the range of nA as an alternative quantity. Furthermore, we investigate the resistance of the Pt layer in the LSSE configuration. We found an influence of the test current on the resistance. The typical shape of the LSSE curve varies for increasing test currents.
Li, C H; van 't Erve, O M J; Robinson, J T; Liu, Y; Li, L; Jonker, B T
2014-03-01
Topological insulators exhibit metallic surface states populated by massless Dirac fermions with spin-momentum locking, where the carrier spin lies in-plane, locked at right angles to the carrier momentum. Here, we show that a charge current produces a net spin polarization via spin-momentum locking in Bi2Se3 films, and this polarization is directly manifested as a voltage on a ferromagnetic contact. This voltage is proportional to the projection of the spin polarization onto the contact magnetization, is determined by the direction and magnitude of the charge current, scales inversely with Bi2Se3 film thickness, and its sign is that expected from spin-momentum locking rather than Rashba effects. Similar data are obtained for two different ferromagnetic contacts, demonstrating that these behaviours are independent of the details of the ferromagnetic contact. These results demonstrate direct electrical access to the topological insulators' surface-state spin system and enable utilization of its remarkable properties for future technological applications.
Instabilities of bosonic spin currents in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hui, Hoi-Yin; Barnett, Ryan; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Das Sarma, S. [Condensed Matter Theory Center and Joint Quantum Institute, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2011-10-15
We analyze the dynamical and energetic instabilities of spin currents in a system of two-component bosons in an optical lattice, with a particular focus on the Neel state. We consider both the weakly interacting superfluid and the strongly interacting Mott insulating limits as well as the regime near the superfluid-insulator transition and establish the criteria for the onset of these instabilities. We use Bogoliubov theory to treat the weakly interacting superfluid regime. Near the Mott transition, we calculate the stability phase diagram within a variational Gutzwiller wave-function approach. In the deep Mott limit we discuss the emergence of the Heisenberg model and calculate the stability diagram within this model. Though the Bogoliubov theory and the Heisenberg model (appropriate for the deep superfluid and the deep Mott-insulating phase, respectively) predict no dynamical instabilities, we find, interestingly, that between these two limiting cases there is a regime of dynamical instability. This result is relevant for the ongoing experimental efforts to realize a stable Neel-ordered state in multicomponent ultracold bosons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jiyin; Huang, Shaoyun, E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn; Lei, Zijin [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, H. Q., E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)
2016-08-01
We demonstrate direct measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factors in a semiconductor nanowire double quantum dot. The device is made from a single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowire on top of an array of finger gates on a Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate and the measurements are performed in the Pauli spin-blockade regime. It is found that the double quantum dot exhibits a large singlet-triplet energy splitting of Δ{sub ST} ∼ 2.3 meV, a strong spin-orbit interaction of Δ{sub SO} ∼ 140 μeV, and a large and strongly level-dependent Landé g factor of ∼12.5. These results imply that single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowires are desired semiconductor nanostructures for applications in quantum information technologies.
Charge and spin currents in normal metal sandwiched by tow p-wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y Rahnavard
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Charge and spin transport properties of a clean $SNS$ Josephson junction (triplet superconductor-normal metal-triplet superconductor are studied using the quasiclassical Eilenberger equation of Green’s function. Our system consists of two p-wave superconducting crystals separated by a Copper nano layer. Effects of thickness of normal layer between superconductors on the spin and charge currents are investigated. Also misorientation between triplet superconductors which creates the spin current is another subject of this paper.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ren Min; Zhang Lei; Hu Jiu-Ning; Dong Hao; Deng Ning; Chen Pei-Yi
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a symmetry ensemble model for the magnetic dynamics caused by spin transfer torque in nanoscale pseudo-spin-valves, in which individual spin moments in the free layer are considered as subsystems to form a spinor ensemble. The magnetization dynamics equation of the ensemble was developed. By analytically investigating the equation, many magnetization dynamics properties excited by polarized current reported in experiments, such as double spin wave modes and the abrupt frequency jump, can be successfully explained. It is pointed out that an external field is not necessary for spin wave emitting (SWE) and a novel perpendicular configuration structure can provide much higher SWE efficiency in zero magnetic field.
Persistent spin currents in a triple-terminal quantum ring with three arms*
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Du Jian; Wang Suxin; Pan Jianghong; Duan Xiuzhi
2011-01-01
A new model of a triple-terminal quantum ring with three arms is proposed. We develop an equivalent method for reducing the triple-terminal quantum ring to the double-terminal quantum ring and calculate the persistent spin currents in this model. The results indicate that the persistent spin currents show behavior of nonperiodic and unequal amplitude oscillation with increasing semiconductor ring size when the total magnetic flux is zero.However, when the total magnetic flux is non-zero, the persistent spin currents make periodic equal amplitude oscillations with increasing AB magnetic flux intensity. At the same time, the two kinds of spin state persistent spin currents have the same frequency and amplitude but the inverse phase. In addition, the Rashba spin-orbit interaction affects the phase and the phase difference of the persistent spin currents. The average persistent spin currents relate to the arm length and the terminal position as well as the distribution of the magnetic flux in each arm. Furthermore,our results indicate that the AB magnetic flux has different influences on the two kinds of spin state electrons.
Chen, Tsung-Wei; Hsiao, Chin-Lun; Hu, Chong-Der
2016-07-01
We investigate the change in the non-zero Chern number and out-of-plane spin polarization of the edge currents in a honeycomb lattice with the Haldane-Rashba interaction. This interaction breaks the time-reversal symmetry due to the Haldane phase caused by a current loop at the site-I and site-II atoms, and also accounts for the Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction. The Rashba spin-orbit interaction increases the number of Dirac points and the band-touching phenomenon can be generated by tuning the on-site potential in the non-zero Haldane phase. By using the Pontryagin winding number and numerical Berry curvature methods, we find that the Chern number pattern is {+2, -1, 0} and {-2, +1, 0} for the positive and negative Haldane phase, respectively. A non-zero Chern number is called a Chern-insulating phase. We discovered that changes in both the Haldane phase and on-site potential leads to a change in the orientation of the bulk spin polarization of site-I and site-II atoms. Interestingly, in a ribbon with a zigzag edge, which naturally has site-I atoms at one outer edge and site-II atoms at the opposite outer edge, the spin polarization of the edge states approximately obeys the properties of bulk spin polarization regardless of the change in the Chern number. In addition, even when the Chern number changes from +2 to -1 (or -2 to +1), by tuning the strength of the on-site potential, the sign of the spin polarization of the edge states persists. This approximate bulk-edge correspondence of the spin polarization in the Haldane-Rashba system would play an important role in spintronics, because it enables us to control the orientation of the spin polarization in a single Chern-insulating phase.
Control of spin-polarised currents in graphene nanorings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saiz-Bretín, M.; Munárriz, J. [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Malyshev, A.V. [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Domínguez-Adame, F., E-mail: adame@fis.ucm.es [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2015-09-25
We study electronic transport in systems comprising square graphene nanorings with a ferromagnetic insulator layer on top of them. The rings are connected symmetrically or asymmetrically to contacts. The proximity exchange interaction of electrons with magnetic ions results in spin-dependent transport properties. When a nanoring is connected asymmetrically, the occurrence of Fano-like antiresonances in the transmission coefficient can induce abrupt changes in the spin polarisation under minute variations of the Fermi energy. We also demonstrate that the spin polarisation can be efficiently controlled by a side-gate voltage. This opens a possibility to use these effects for fabricating tunable sources of polarised electrons.
Li, Junwen; Haney, Paul
Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their remarkable photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. These materials should exhibit interesting spin-dependent properties as well, owing to the strong spin-orbit coupling and the broken inversion symmetry present at room temperature. In this work, we consider the spin-dependent optical response of CH3NH3PbI3 on two distinct time scales. We first use density functional theory to compute the ballistic spin current injected by absorption of linearly polarized light. This spin current persists on a time scale of the momentum relaxation time. We then consider diffusive transport of photogenerated charge and spin for a thin perovskite layer with a passivated surface and an Ohmic, non-selective back contact. The spin densities and spin currents are evaluated by solving the drift-diffusion equations for a 3-dimensional Rashba model. We comment on the applications of optically excited spin densities and spin currents in these materials.
Alekhin, Alexandr; Ilin, Nikita; Meyburg, Jan P; Diesing, Detlef; Roddatis, Vladimir; Rungger, Ivan; Stamenova, Maria; Sanvito, Stefano; Bovensiepen, Uwe; Melnikov, Alexey
2016-01-01
Using the sensitivity of magneto-induced second harmonic generation to spin currents (SC), we demonstrate in Fe/Au/Fe/MgO(001) pseudo spin valves the generation of 250 fs-long SC pulses. Their temporal profile indicates that superdiffusive hot electron transport across a sub-100~nm Au layer is close to the ballistic limit and the pulse duration is primarily determined by the thermalization time of laser-excited hot carriers in Fe. Considering the calculated spin-dependent Fe/Au interface transmittance we conclude that the non-thermal spin-dependent Seebeck effect is responsible for the generation of ultrashort SC pulses. We also show that hot electron spins rotate upon interaction with non-collinear magnetization at the Au/Fe interface, which holds high potential for future spintronic devices.
Go, Gyungchoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young Keun
2017-04-01
Recently, the switching of a perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnet (FM) by injecting an in-plane current into an attached non-magnet (NM) has become of emerging technological interest. This magnetization switching is attributed to the spin-orbit torque (SOT) originating from the strong spin-orbit coupling of the NM layer. However, the switching efficiency of the NM/FM structure itself may be insufficient for practical use, as for example, in spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here we investigate spin torque in an NM/FM structure with an additional spin polarizer (SP) layer abutted to the NM layer. In addition to the SOT contribution, a spin-polarized current from the SP layer creates an extra spin chemical potential difference at the NM/FM interface and gives rise to a STT on the FM layer. We show that, using typical parameters including device width, thickness, spin diffusion length, and the spin Hall angle, the spin torque from the SP layer can be much larger than that from the spin Hall effect (SHE) of the NM.
Higher Spin Currents in the Enhanced N=3 Kazama-Suzuki Model
Ahn, Changhyun
2016-01-01
The N=3 Kazama-Suzuki model at the `critical' level has been found by Creutzig, Hikida and Ronne. We construct the lowest higher spin currents of spins (3/2, 2,2,2,5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) in terms of various fermions. In order to obtain the operator product expansions (OPEs) between these higher spin currents, we describe three N=2 OPEs between the two N=2 higher spin currents denoted by (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2) and (2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) (corresponding 36 OPEs in the component approach). Using the various Jacobi identities, the coefficient functions appearing on the right hand side of these N=2 OPEs are determined in terms of central charge completely. Then we describe them as one single N=3 OPE in the N=3 superspace. The right hand side of this N=3 OPE contains the SO(3)-singlet N=3 higher spin multiplet of spins (2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3,3,3, 7/2), the SO(3)-singlet N=3 higher spin multiplet of spins (5/2, 3,3,3, 7/2, 7/2, 7/2, 4), and the SO(3)-triplet N=3 higher spin multiplets where each multiplet has the spins (3, 7/2, 7/2, 7/...
Higher spin currents in the enhanced N=3 Kazama-Suzuki model
Ahn, Changhyun; Kim, Hyunsu
2016-12-01
The N=3 Kazama-Suzuki model at the `critical' level has been found by Creutzig, Hikida and Ronne. We construct the lowest higher spin currents of spins (3/2,2,2,2,5/2,5/2,5/2,3) in terms of various fermions. In order to obtain the operator product expansions (OPEs) between these higher spin currents, we describe three N=2 OPEs between the two N=2 higher spin currents denoted by (3/2,2,2,5/2) and (2,5/2,5/2,3) (corresponding 36 OPEs in the component approach). Using the various Jacobi identities, the coefficient functions appearing on the right hand side of these N=2 OPEs are deter-mined in terms of central charge completely. Then we describe them as one single N=3 OPE in the N=3 superspace. The right hand side of this N=3 OPE contains the SO(3)-singlet N=3 higher spin multiplet of spins (2,5/2,5/2,5/2,3,3,3,7/2) , the SO(3)-singlet N=3 higher spin multiplet of spins (5/2,3,3,3,7/2,7/2,7/2,4) , and the SO(3)-triplet N=3 higher spin multiplets where each multiplet has the spins (3,7/2,7/2,7/2,4,4,4,9/2) , in addition to N=3 superconformal family of the identity operator. Finally, by factoring out the spin-1/2 current of N=3 linear superconformal algebra generated by eight currents of spins (1/2,1,1,1,3/2,3/2,3/2,2) , we obtain the extension of so-called SO (3) nonlinear Knizhnik Bershadsky algebra.
Brächer, T.; Pirro, P.; Hillebrands, B.
2017-06-01
Magnonics and magnon spintronics aim at the utilization of spin waves and magnons, their quanta, for the construction of wave-based logic networks via the generation of pure all-magnon spin currents and their interfacing with electric charge transport. The promise of efficient parallel data processing and low power consumption renders this field one of the most promising research areas in spintronics. In this context, the process of parallel parametric amplification, i.e., the conversion of microwave photons into magnons at one half of the microwave frequency, has proven to be a versatile tool to excite and to manipulate spin waves. Its beneficial and unique properties such as frequency and mode-selectivity, the possibility to excite spin waves in a wide wavevector range and the creation of phase-correlated wave pairs, have enabled the achievement of important milestones like the magnon Bose-Einstein condensation and the cloning and trapping of spin-wave packets. Parallel parametric amplification, which allows for the selective amplification of magnons while conserving their phase is, thus, one of the key methods of spin-wave generation and amplification. The application of parallel parametric amplification to CMOS-compatible micro- and nano-structures is an important step towards the realization of magnonic networks. This is motivated not only by the fact that amplifiers are an important tool for the construction of any extended logic network but also by the unique properties of parallel parametric amplification. In particular, the creation of phase-correlated wave pairs allows for rewarding alternative logic operations such as a phase-dependent amplification of the incident waves. Recently, the successful application of parallel parametric amplification to metallic microstructures has been reported which constitutes an important milestone for the application of magnonics in practical devices. It has been demonstrated that parametric amplification provides an
Experimental Realization of a Quantum Spin Pump
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Watson, Susan; Potok, R.; M. Marcus, C.;
2003-01-01
We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin......-dependent by the application of an in-plane Zeeman field. Spin currents are measured by placing the pump in a focusing geometry with a spin-selective collector....
Andreev, Pavel A
2016-01-01
The dielectric permeability tensor for spin polarized plasmas is derived in terms of the spin-1/2 quantum kinetic model in six-dimensional phase space. Expressions for the distribution function and spin distribution function are derived in linear approximations on the path of dielectric permeability tensor derivation. The dielectric permeability tensor is derived the spin-polarized degenerate electron gas. It is also discussed at the finite temperature regime, where the equilibrium distribution function is presented by the spin-polarized Fermi-Dirac distribution. Consideration of the spin-polarized equilibrium states opens possibilities for the kinetic modeling of the thermal spin current contribution in the plasma dynamics.
Current-induced magnetic switching of a single molecule magnet on a spin valve
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xiao [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zheng-Chuan, E-mail: wangzc@ucas.ac.cn [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zheng, Qing-Rong [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Zheng-Gang [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Electronics, Electric and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Su, Gang, E-mail: gsu@ucas.ac.cn [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)
2015-04-17
The current-induced magnetic switching of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) attached on the central region of a spin valve is explored, and the condition for the switching current is derived. Electrons flowing through the spin valve will interact with the SMM via the s–d exchange interaction, producing the spin accumulation that satisfies the spin diffusion equation. We further describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. Based on the linear stability analysis, we obtain the critical current from two coupled equations. The results of the critical current versus the external magnetic field indicate that one can manipulate the magnetic state of the SMM by an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • We theoretically study the current-induced magnetic switching of the SMM. • We describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. • We describe the spin accumulation by the spin diffusion equation. • We obtain the critical current by the linear stability analysis. • Our approach can be easily extended to other SMMs.
Thermally excited magnonic spin currents probed by the longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in YIG
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kehlberger, Andreas; Roeser, Rene; Jakob, Gerhard; Klaeui, Mathias [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Jungfleisch, Benjamin; Hillebrands, Burkard; Nowak, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Ritzmann, Ulrike; Hinzke, Denise [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Kim, Dong Hun; Ross, Caroline [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2013-07-01
In the research field of spin caloric transport one of most the prominent and still not understood effects is the spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) in magnetic insulators. Many explanations consider thermally excited magnons as the underling mechanism, for which direct evidence is missing so far. We present a systematic study of the SSE in Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) films of different thicknesses. From the thickness dependence of the measured inverse spin Hall effect we can unambiguously identify the SSE effect. Corresponding simulations on atomistic length scales allow us to deduce the propagation length of the thermally excited magnons, which could be used to manipulate domain walls.
Rashidian, Z.; Hajati, Y.; Rezaeipour, S.; Baher, S.
2017-02-01
The spin and valley transports in a superlattice of normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction are studied theoretically. Transport properties in particular valley-resolved conductance, spin and valley polarization have been computed by the Landauer Buttiker formula. We achieve fully valley and spin polarized current in the superlattice N/F/N structure. Our findings also imply that by increasing the number of ferromagnetic barriers, the onset of fully spin and valley polarized current always occur for lower values of staggered potential(Δz/E) and length of the ferromagnetic region (Kf L) in the silicene supelattice structure as compared with N/F/N silicene junction. Fully spin and valley polarizations make silicene superlattice a suitable candidate for spin-valleytronics applications.
Leksin, P. V.; Garif'yanov, N. N.; Garifullin, I. A.; Schumann, J.; Vinzelberg, H.; Kataev, V.; Klingeler, R.; Schmidt, O. G.; Büchner, B.
2010-09-01
Using the spin switch design F1/F2/S theoretically proposed by Oh et al., [Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2376 (1997)], that comprises a ferromagnetic bilayer as a ferromagnetic component, and an ordinary superconductor as the second interface component, we have realized a full spin switch effect for the superconducting current. An experimental realization of this spin switch construction was achieved for the CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/In multilayer.
Spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects—Insights for future spin-orbitronics (invited)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zwei@anl.gov; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Fradin, Frank Y.; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel, E-mail: hoffmann@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Sklenar, Joseph; Ketterson, John B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)
2015-05-07
Quantification of spin-charge interconversion has become increasingly important in the fast-developing field of spin-orbitronics. Pure spin current generated by spin pumping acts as a sensitive probe for many bulk and interface spin-orbit effects, which has been indispensable for the discovery of many promising new spin-orbit materials. We apply spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments, as a useful metrology, and study spin-orbit effects in a variety of metals and metal interfaces. We quantify the spin Hall effects in Ir and W using the conventional bilayer structures and discuss the self-induced voltage in a single layer of ferromagnetic permalloy. Finally, we extend our discussions to multilayer structures and quantitatively reveal the spin current flow in two consecutive normal metal layers.
Current-induced modulation of backward spin-waves in metallic microstructures
Sato, Nana; Lee, Seo-Won; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Sekiguchi, Koji
2017-03-01
We performed a propagating spin-wave spectroscopy for backward spin-waves in ferromagnetic metallic microstructures in the presence of electric-current. Even with the smaller current injection of 5× {{10}10} A m-2 into ferromagnetic microwires, the backward spin-waves exhibit a gigantic 200 MHz frequency shift and a 15% amplitude change, showing 60 times larger modulation compared to previous reports. Systematic experiments by measuring dependences on a film thickness of mirowire, on the wave-vector of spin-wave, and on the magnitude of bias field, we revealed that for the backward spin-waves a distribution of internal magnetic field generated by electric-current efficiently modulates the frequency and amplitude of spin-waves. The gigantic frequency and amplitude changes were reproduced by a micromagnetics simulation, predicting that the current-injection of 5× {{10}11} A m-2 allows 3 GHz frequency shift. The effective coupling between electric-current and backward spin-waves has a potential to build up a logic control method which encodes signals into the phase and amplitude of spin-waves. The metallic magnonics cooperating with electronics could suggest highly integrated magnonic circuits both in Boolean and non-Boolean principles.
L. Medina; E. Ley-Koo
2011-01-01
Neutral atom magnetic traps and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging require internal regions with constant gradient magnetic induction fields, which are identified as pure quadrupole fields. This contribution starts from such fields in the interior of spheres and spheroids in cartesian coordinates, identifying immediately their respective scalar magnetic potentials. Next, the corresponding potentials inside and outside are constructed using spherical and spheroidal harmonic functions, respecti...
Search for right-handed currents by means of muon spin rotation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoker, D.P.
1985-09-01
A muon spin rotation (..mu..SR) technique has been used to place limits on right-handed weak currents in ..mu../sup +/ decay. A beam of almost 100% polarized 'surface' muons obtained from the TRIUMF M13 beamline was stopped in essentially non-depolarizing >99.99% pure metal foils. The ..mu../sup +/ spins were precessed by 70-G or 110-G transverse fields. Decay e/sup +/ emitted within 225 mrad of the beam direction and with momenta above 46 MeV/c were momentum-analyzed to 0.2%. Comparison of the ..mu..SR signal amplitude with that expected for (V-A) decay yields an endpoint asymmetry xiP..mu..delta/rho>0.9951 with 90% confidence. In the context of manifest left-right symmetric models with massless neutrinos the results imply the 90% confidence limits M(W/sub 2/)>381 GeV/c/sup 2/ and -0.057
Pasanai, K.
2016-03-01
The tunneling conductance spectra of a ferromagnetic semimetal/metal junction, where there were electrons and holes with the same spin directions as the essential conducting particle, was theoretically studied based on a scattering approach in a ballistic regime. The main area of interest was to perform a high spin polarization by considering the effect of the interfacial scattering at the interface that was composed of normal and spin-flip scattering, the particle effective mass mismatch on the reflection and transmission probabilities, and spin polarization of conductance. It was found that the spin polarization of conductance decreased with increasing spin-flip scattering. Interestingly, the normal scattering can cause the spin polarization of the conductance to reach a maximum value in the presence of both kinds of scattering. When the particle effective mass mismatch was considered, the spin polarization of conductance was large when the electron effective mass in the valence band was smaller than that in the conduction band. However, in this calculation, the results of a ferromagnetic semimetal/metal junction behaved similarly to those of a ferromagnetic metal/metal junction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, L. L.; Dantas, J. T. S.; Souza, R. M.; Carriço, A. S., E-mail: ascarrico@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Dantas, Ana L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 59610-210 Mossoró, RN (Brazil)
2014-05-07
We report a theoretical study of dipolar effects on the switching current density of soft ferromagnetic elliptical nanoelements. Relevant changes on the critical current value are found according to the orientation of the magnetization and the spin polarization with the major axis. We show that the critical current density may be reduced by as much as 92% for thin nanoelements magnetized along the minor axis direction, using in-plane spin polarization parallel to the magnetization.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Ning; TANG Jian-Shi; ZHANG Lei; ZHANG Shu-Chao; CHEN Pei-Yi
2010-01-01
@@ For ferromagnetic metal(FM)/semiconductor(SC)structure with ohmic contact,the effect of carrier polarization in the semiconductor combined with drift part of injection current on current polarization is investigated.Based on the general model we established here,spin injection efficiency under different injection current levels is calculated.Under a reasonable high injection current,current polarization in the semiconductor is actually much larger than that predicted by the conductivity mismatch model because the effect of carrier polarization is enhanced by the increasing drift current.An appreciable current polarization of 1% could be achieved for the FM/SC structure via ohmic contact,which means that efficient spin injection from FM into SC via ohmic contact is possible.The reported dependence of current polarization on temperature is verified quantitatively.To achieve even larger spin injection efficiency,a gradient doping semiconductor is suggested to enhance the drift current effect.
2016-01-01
Pure spin currents in semiconductors are essential for implementation in the next generation of spintronic elements. Heterostructures of III- nitride semiconductors are currently employed as central building-blocks for lighting and high-power devices. Moreover, the long relaxation times and the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in these materials indicate them as privileged hosts for spin currents and related phenomena. Spin pumping is an efficient mechanism for the inception of spin current and its ...
Quantum dot as a spin-current diode: A master-equation approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Souza, F.M.; Egues, J.C.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2007-01-01
We report a study of spin-dependent transport in a system composed of a quantum dot coupled to a normal metal lead and a ferromagnetic lead NM-QD-FM. We use the master equation approach to calculate the spin-resolved currents in the presence of an external bias and an intradot Coulomb interaction....... We find that for a range of positive external biases current flow from the normal metal to the ferromagnet the current polarization =I↑−I↓ / I↑+I↓ is suppressed to zero, while for the corresponding negative biases current flow from the ferromagnet to the normal metal attains a relative maximum value....... The system thus operates as a rectifier for spin-current polarization. This effect follows from an interplay between Coulomb interaction and nonequilibrium spin accumulation in the dot. In the parameter range considered, we also show that the above results can be obtained via nonequilibrium Green functions...
Unconventional spin Hall effect and axial current generation in a Dirac semimetal
Okuma, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Masao
2016-04-01
We investigate electrical transport in a three-dimensional massless Dirac fermion model that describes a Dirac semimetal state realized in topological materials. We derive a set of interdependent diffusion equations with eight local degrees of freedom, including the electric charge density and the spin density, that respond to an external electric field. By solving the diffusion equations for a system with a boundary, we demonstrate that a spin Hall effect with spin accumulation occurs even though the conventional spin current operator is zero. The Noether current associated with chiral symmetry, known as the axial current, is also discussed. We demonstrate that the axial current flows near the boundary and that it is perpendicular to the electric current.
Localized persistent spin currents in defect-free quasiperiodic rings with Aharonov-Casher effect
Qiu, R. Z.; Chen, C. H.; Cheng, Y. H.; Hsueh, W. J.
2015-06-01
We propose strongly localized persistent spin current in one-dimensional defect-free quasiperiodic Thue-Morse rings with Aharonov-Casher effect. The results show that the characteristics of these localized persistent currents depend not only on the radius filling factor, but also on the strength of the spin-orbit interaction. The maximum persistent spin currents in systems always appear in the ring near the middle position of the system array whether or not the Thue-Morse rings array is symmetrical. The magnitude of the persistent currents is proportional to the sharpness of the resonance peak, which is dependent on the bandwidth of the allowed band in the band structure. The maximum persistent spin currents also increase exponentially as the generation order of the system increases.
Dynamical skyrmion state in a spin current nano-oscillator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.
Liu, R H; Lim, W L; Urazhdin, S
2015-04-03
We study the spectral characteristics of spin current nano-oscillators based on the Pt/[Co/Ni] magnetic multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. By varying the applied magnetic field and current, both localized and propagating spin wave modes of the oscillation are achieved. At small fields, we observe an abrupt onset of the modulation sidebands. We use micromagnetic simulations to identify this state as a dynamical magnetic skyrmion stabilized in the active device region by spin current injection, whose current-induced dynamics is accompanied by the gyrotropic motion of the core due to the skew deflection. Our results demonstrate a practical route for controllable skyrmion manipulation by spin current in magnetic thin films.
Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets
Akosa, Collins Ashu
2015-03-12
Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.
Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
Yang, Luyi
Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This thesis presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly suppressed
Charge and spin current oscillations in a tunnel junction induced by magnetic field pulses
Dartora, C. A.; Nobrega, K. Z.; Cabrera, G. G.
2016-08-01
Usually, charge and spin transport properties in tunnel junctions are studied in the DC bias regime and/or in the adiabatic regime of time-varying magnetic fields. In this letter, the temporal dynamics of charge and spin currents in a tunnel junction induced by pulsed magnetic fields is considered. At low bias voltages, energy and momentum of the conduction electrons are nearly conserved in the tunneling process, leading to the description of the junction as a spin-1/2 fermionic system coupled to time-varying magnetic fields. Under the influence of pulsed magnetic fields, charge and spin current can flow across the tunnel junction, displaying oscillatory behavior, even in the absence of DC bias voltage. A type of spin capacitance function, in close analogy to electric capacitance, is predicted.
Effects of rf current on critical field for magnetization reversal in spin torque devices
Chen, Wenyu; Florez, Sylvia; Katine, Jordan; Carey, Matthew; Folks, Liesl; Terris, Bruce
2009-03-01
Current induced switching assisted by rf current has recently been observed in spin torque devices at low temperature [1, 2]. This effect allows control of spin transfer induced magnetization reversal through the frequency of an injected rf current. In this study, the effects of the rf current injection on critical field for magnetization reversal in spin valve junctions have been investigated. Measurements were conducted at room temperature, and the magnetic field was applied along the easy axis of the junction. An rf current was injected into the nanojunction at various frequencies ranging between 1 and 20 GHz. The dynamic resistance, dV/dI, was measured as a function of the rf frequency, power and the dc bias current while ramping the magnetic field. The rf current injection was observed to change the critical field for free layer magnetization reversal when the intrinsic spin-transfer-induced dynamics is frequency-locked with the injected rf. The results will be discussed in the context of macrospin models of spin transfer in metallic spin valve structures. [1] S. H. Florez et al. Phys. Rev. B 78, 184403 (2008) [2] Y.-T. Cui et al. Phys. Rev. B 77, 214440 (2008)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandra Sekhar, M. [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR (Agency for Science Technology and Research), 5 Engineering Drive 1, DSI Building, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Tran, M., E-mail: Michael_TRAN@dsi.a-star.edu.sg [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR (Agency for Science Technology and Research), 5 Engineering Drive 1, DSI Building, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Wang, L.; Han, G.C. [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR (Agency for Science Technology and Research), 5 Engineering Drive 1, DSI Building, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Lew, W.S. [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)
2015-01-15
We present a detailed study of spin-transfer torque induced noise in self-biased differential dual spin valves (DDSV) which could be potentially used as magnetic read-heads for hard-disk drives. Micromagnetics studies of DDSV were performed in all the major magnetic configurations experienced by read-heads and we show that in every case, self-biased DDSV provide a much stronger stability against spin-transfer torque noise than conventional spin valves. Provided are also insights on the influence of the dipolar interlayer coupling, shape anisotropy, exchange bias and relative orientation between the 2 free layers. Our results demonstrate the viability of DDSV read-heads for future hard disk drives generations. - Highlights: • DDSVs show better stability against STT noise as compared to single spin valves. • Flux-closure configuration plays a key role in stabilizing the DDSV against STT noise. • Anti-ferromagnetic interlayer coupling shifts the critical current density for onset of noise. • Gap layer thickness has to be controlled carefully to avoid ferromagnetic coupling.
Melnikov, Alexey; Razdolski, Ilya; Alekhin, Alexandr; Ilin, Nikita; Meyburg, Jan; Diesing, Detlef; Roddatis, Vladimir; Rungger, Ivan; Stamenova, Maria; Sanvito, Stefano; Bovensiepen, Uwe
2016-10-01
Further development of spintronics requires miniaturization and reduction of characteristic timescales of spin dynamics combining the nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal ranges. These demands shift the focus of interest towards the fundamental open question of the interaction of femtosecond spin current (SC) pulses with a ferromagnet (FM). The spatio-temporal properties of the spin transfer torque (STT) exerted by ultrashort SC pulses on the FM open the time domain for studying STT fingerprint on spatially non-uniform magnetization dynamics. Using the sensitivity of magneto-induced second harmonic generation to SC, we develop technique for SC monitoring. With 20 fs resolution, we demonstrate the generation of 250 fs-long SC pulses in Fe/Au/Fe/MgO(001) structures. Their temporal profile indicates (i) nearly-ballistic hot electron transport in Au and (ii) that the pulse duration is primarily determined by the thermalization time of laser-excited hot carriers in Fe. Together with strongly spin-dependent Fe/Au interface transmission calculated for these carriers, this suggests the non-thermal spin-dependent Seebeck effect dominating the generation of ultrashort SC pulses. The analysis of SC transmission/reflection at the Au/Fe interface shows that hot electron spins orthogonal to the Fe magnetization rotate gaining huge parallel (anti-parallel) projection in transmitted (reflected) SC. This is accompanied by a STT-induced perturbation of the magnetization localized at the interface, which excites the inhomogeneous high-frequency spin dynamics in the FM. Time-resolved magneto-optical studies reveal the excitation of several standing spin wave modes in the Fe film with their spectrum extending up to 0.6 THz and indicating the STT spatial confinement to 2 nm.
Localized persistent spin currents in defect-free quasiperiodic rings with Aharonov–Casher effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, R.Z.; Chen, C.H.; Cheng, Y.H.; Hsueh, W.J., E-mail: hsuehwj@ntu.edu.tw
2015-06-26
We propose strongly localized persistent spin current in one-dimensional defect-free quasiperiodic Thue–Morse rings with Aharonov–Casher effect. The results show that the characteristics of these localized persistent currents depend not only on the radius filling factor, but also on the strength of the spin–orbit interaction. The maximum persistent spin currents in systems always appear in the ring near the middle position of the system array whether or not the Thue–Morse rings array is symmetrical. The magnitude of the persistent currents is proportional to the sharpness of the resonance peak, which is dependent on the bandwidth of the allowed band in the band structure. The maximum persistent spin currents also increase exponentially as the generation order of the system increases. - Highlights: • Strongly localized persistent spin current in quasiperiodic AC rings is proposed. • Localized persistent spin currents are much larger than those produced by traditional mesoscopic rings. • Characteristics of the localized persistent currents depend on the radius filling factor and SOI strength. • The maximum persistent current increases exponentially with the system order. • The magnitude of the persistent currents is related to the sharpness of the resonance.
Xia, Hong; Chen, Jie; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ming
2016-04-01
The Doppler effect is a fundamental physical phenomenon observed for waves propagating in vacuum or various media, commonly gaseous or liquid. Here, we report on the occurrence of a Doppler effect in a solid medium. Instead of a real object, a topological soliton, i.e., a magnetic domain wall (DW) traveling in a current-carrying ferromagnetic nanowire, plays the role of the moving wave source. The Larmor precession of the DW in an external field stimulates emission of monochromatic spin waves (SWs) during its motion, which show a significant Doppler effect, comparable to the acoustic one of a train whistle. This process involves two prominent spin-transfer-torque effects simultaneously, the current-driven DW motion and the current-induced SW Doppler shift. The latter gives rise to an interesting feature, i.e., the observed SW Doppler effect appears resulting from a stationary source and a moving observer, contrary to the laboratory frame.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
You, Chun-Yeol [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-01-28
We investigate the switching current density reduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junctions using micromagnetic simulations. We find that the switching current density can be reduced with elongated lateral shapes of the magnetic tunnel junctions, and additional reduction can be achieved by using a noncollinear polarizer layer. The reduction is closely related to the details of spin configurations during switching processes with the additional in-plane anisotropy.
Spin currents injected electrically and thermally from highly spin polarized Co{sub 2}MnSi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pfeiffer, Alexander; Reeve, Robert M.; Kronenberg, Alexander; Jourdan, Martin; Kläui, Mathias, E-mail: klaeui@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Hu, Shaojie [Research Center for Quantum Nano-Spin Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kimura, Takashi [Research Center for Quantum Nano-Spin Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)
2015-08-24
We demonstrate the injection and detection of electrically and thermally generated spin currents probed in Co{sub 2}MnSi/Cu lateral spin valves. Devices with different electrode separations are patterned to measure the non-local signal as a function of the electrode spacing and we determine a relatively high effective spin polarization α of Co{sub 2}MnSi to be 0.63 and the spin diffusion length of Cu to be 500 nm at room temperature. The electrically generated non-local signal is measured as a function of temperature and a maximum signal is observed for a temperature of 80 K. The thermally generated non-local signal is measured as a function of current density and temperature in a second harmonic measurement detection scheme. We find different temperature dependences for the electrically and thermally generated non-local signals, which allows us to conclude that the temperature dependence of the signals is not just dominated by the transport in the Cu wire, but there is a crucial contribution from the different generation mechanisms, which has been largely disregarded till date.
X-ray Detection of Transient Magnetic Moments Induced by a Spin Current in Cu.
Kukreja, R; Bonetti, S; Chen, Z; Backes, D; Acremann, Y; Katine, J A; Kent, A D; Dürr, H A; Ohldag, H; Stöhr, J
2015-08-28
We have used a MHz lock-in x-ray spectromicroscopy technique to directly detect changes in magnetic moment of Cu due to spin injection from an adjacent Co layer. The elemental and chemical specificity of x rays allows us to distinguish two spin current induced effects. We detect the creation of transient magnetic moments of 3×10^{-5}μ_{B} on Cu atoms within the bulk of the 28 nm thick Cu film due to spin accumulation. The moment value is compared to predictions by Mott's two current model. We also observe that the hybridization induced existing magnetic moments at the Cu interface atoms are transiently increased by about 10% or 4×10^{-3}μ_{B} per atom. This reveals the dominance of spin-torque alignment over Joule heat induced disorder of the interfacial Cu moments during current flow.
X-ray detection of transient magnetic moments induced by a spin current in Cu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kukreja, R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Bonetti, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Chen, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Backes, D. [New York Univ. (NYU), New York, NY (United States); Acremann, Y. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Katine, J. [HGST, a Western Digital Company, San Jose, CA (United States); Kent, A. D. [New York Univ. (NYU), New York, NY (United States); Durr, H. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ohldag, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stohr, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-08-24
We have used a MHz lock-in x-ray spectromicroscopy technique to directly detect changes in magnetic moment of Cu due to spin injection from an adjacent Co layer. The elemental and chemical specificity of x rays allows us to distinguish two spin current induced effects. We detect the creation of transient magnetic moments of 3×10^{–5}_{μB} on Cu atoms within the bulk of the 28 nm thick Cu film due to spin accumulation. The moment value is compared to predictions by Mott’s two current model. We also observe that the hybridization induced existing magnetic moments at the Cu interface atoms are transiently increased by about 10% or 4×10^{–3}_{μB} per atom. As a result, this reveals the dominance of spin-torque alignment over Joule heat induced disorder of the interfacial Cu moments during current flow.
Grasso, M
2015-01-01
Neutron $2p$ and $1f$ spin--orbit splittings were recently measured in the isotones $^{37}$S and $^{35}$Si by $(d,p)$ transfer reactions. Values were reported by using the major fragments of the states. An important reduction of the $p$ splitting was observed, from $^{37}$S to $^{35}$Si, associated to a strong modification of the spin--orbit potential in the central region of the nucleus $^{35}$Si. We analyze $2p$ and $1f$ neutron spin--orbit splittings in the $N=20$ isotones $^{40}$Ca, $^{36}$S, and $^{34}$Si. We employ several Skyrme and Gogny interactions, to reliably isolate pure spin--orbit and tensor--induced contributions, within the mean--field approximation. We use interactions (i) without the tensor force; (ii) with the tensor force and with tensor parameters adjusted on top of existing parametrizations; (iii) with the tensor force and with tensor and spin--orbit parameters adjusted simultaneously on top of existing parametrizations. We predict in cases (ii) and (iii) a non negligible reduction of b...
Magnetization dynamics under heat current in metallic spin valves and in insulators
Yu, Haiming
Spin caloritronics, an emerging branch of spintronics, studying the addition of thermal effects to the electrical and magnetic properties of nanostructures, has recently seen a rapid development. It has been predicted by Hatami et al. that a heat current can exert a spin torque on the magnetization in a nanostructure, analogous to the well-known spin-transfer torque induced by an electrical current. We provided the experimental evidence for the thermal spin-transfer torque effect in spin valves, showing the switching field change with heat current. I will present measurements of the second harmonic voltage response of Co-Cu-Co pseudo-spinvalves deposited in the middle of Cu nanowires. Both the magnitude of the second harmonic response of the spin valve and the field value of the maximum response are found to be dependent on the heat current. Both effects show that the magnetization dynamics of the pseudo-spinvalves is influenced by the heat current. Thus, the data provide a quantitative estimate of the thermal spin torque exerted on the magnetization of the Co layers. In addition, I will present recent study on the magnetization dynamics in a magnetic insulator YIG film under in-plane heat current. The ferromagnetic resonance linewidth is found to be tuned by the applied temperature gradient, i.e. narrowing and broadening. This suggests that the Gilbert damping parameter is compensated or reinforced by the applied temperature gradient in respective direction. These observations can be understood as a heat-driven spin torque in magnetic insulators.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZOU Yang; CAI Jie; WAN Ming-Zhen; LV Peng; GUAN Qing-Feng
2011-01-01
The mechanism of micropores formed on the surface of polycrystalline pure aluminum under high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation is explained. It is discovered that dispersed micropores with sizes of 0.1-1μm on the irradiated surface of pure aluminum can be successfully fabricated after HCPEB irradiation. The dominant formation mechanism of the surface micropores should be attributed to the formation of supersaturation vacancies within the near surface during the HCPEB irradiation and the migration of vacancies along gra,in boundaries and/or dislocations towards the irradiated surface. It is expected that the HCPEB technique will become a new method for the rapid synthesis of surface porous materials.%The mechanism of micropores formed on the surface of polycrystalline pure aluminum under high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation is explained.It is discovered that dispersed micropores with sizes of 0.1-1μm on the irradiated surface of pure aluminum can be successfully fabricated after HCPEB irradiation.The dominant formation mechanism of the surface micropores should be attributed to the formation of supersaturation vacancies within the near surface during the HCPEB irradiation and the migration of vacancies along grain boundaries and/or dislocations towards the irradiated surface.It is expected that the HCPEB technique will become a new method for the rapid synthesis of surface porous materials.High-current pulsed electron beams (HCPEBs)have attracted much attention in the field of material surface modification.[1-7] During the transient bombardment process a high energy (108-109 W·cm-2) is deposited only in a very thin layer (less than tens of micrometers) within a very short time (a few microseconds) and thereby causes ultrafast heating and cooling on the irradiated surface of materials.The dynamic stress fields induced in these processes can induce intense deformation on the material surface.
Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.
2016-12-01
In the present work we investigate the behavior of all three components of persistent spin current in a quasi-periodic Fibonacci ring subjected to Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. Analogous to persistent charge current in a conducting ring where electrons gain a Berry phase in presence of magnetic flux, spin Berry phase is associated during the motion of electrons in presence of a spin-orbit field which is responsible for the generation of spin current. The interplay between two spin-orbit fields along with quasi-periodic Fibonacci sequence on persistent spin current is described elaborately, and from our analysis, we can estimate the strength of any one of two spin-orbit couplings together with on-site energy, provided the other is known.
Resonant Charge Current in a Rashba Ring Induced by Spin-Dependent Potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Zhan-Feng; LI Hong
2008-01-01
A one-dimensional ring subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling is investigated. When it is attached to a lead with spin-dependent chemical potential, there will be charge current in the ring. The charge current response is resonantly maximized when the Fermi energy of the lead is equal to any energy level of the 1D ring. And if two probes are attached to the ring, the electric voltage between them creates sawtooth-like wave, which indicates the direction of the charge current. A ferromagnetic lead can also induce persistent charge current, which can be detected by magnetization intensity measurement.
2014-01-01
magnetic field, the measured spin voltage mirrors the hysteresis loop of the contact. When the contact magnetization is rotated in-plane 908 so that... measurements , as described in the Supplementary Section ‘Ferromagnetic contacts’. The Fe contacts exhibited square magnetization versus applied field...Fig. 3a,b, and for this current direction closely resembles the magnetic hysteresis loop of the Fe detector contact itself. The detector voltage often
Direct coupling between charge current and spin polarization by extrinsic mechanisms in graphene
Huang, Chunli; Chong, Y. D.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.
2016-08-01
Spintronics—the all-electrical control of the electron spin for quantum or classical information storage and processing—is one of the most promising applications of the two-dimensional material graphene. Although pristine graphene has negligible spin-orbit coupling (SOC), both theory and experiment suggest that SOC in graphene can be enhanced by extrinsic means, such as functionalization by adatom impurities. We present a theory of transport in graphene that accounts for the spin-coherent dynamics of the carriers, including hitherto-neglected spin precession processes taking place during resonant scattering in the dilute impurity limit. We uncover an "anisotropic spin precession" (ASP) scattering process in graphene, which contributes a large current-induced spin polarization and modifies the standard spin Hall effect. ASP scattering arises from two dimensionality and extrinsic SOC, and apart from graphene, it can be present in other 2D materials or in the surface states of 3D materials with a fluctuating SOC. Our theory also yields a comprehensive description of the spin relaxation mechanisms present in adatom-decorated graphene, including Elliot-Yafet and D'yakonov-Perel relaxation rates, the latter of which can become an amplification process in a certain parameter regime of the SOC disorder potential. Our work provides theoretical foundations for designing future graphene-based integrated spintronic devices.
Efficient spin transport through polyaniline
Mendes, J. B. S.; Alves Santos, O.; Gomes, J. P.; Assis, H. S.; Felix, J. F.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.
2017-01-01
By using the spin pumping process, we show that it is possible to transport a pure spin current across layers of conducting polyaniline (PANI) with several hundred nanometers sandwiched between a film of the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and a thin layer of platinum. The spin current generated by microwave-driven ferromagnetic resonance of the YIG film, injected through the YIG/PANI interface, crosses the whole PANI layer and then is injected into the Pt layer. By means of the inverse spin Hall effect in the Pt, the spin current is converted into charge current and electrically detected as a dc voltage. We measured a spin diffusion length in PANI of 590 ± 40 nm, which is very large compared with normal metals, demonstrating that PANI can be used as an efficient spin current conductor and poor charge current conductor, opening the path towards spintronics applications based in this very attractive material.
Modeling the Spin Motor Current of the International Space Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes
Pereira, Miguel A.
2008-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) attitude control is provided by two means: The Russian Segment uses thrusters and the U.S. Segment uses double-gimbaled control moment gyroscopes (CMG). CMGs are used as momentum exchange devices, providing non propulsive attitude control for the vehicle. The CMGs are very important for the ISS program because, first, they save propellant - which needs to be transferred to the Station in special cargo vehicles - and, second, they provide the microgravity environment on the Station - which is necessary for scientific experiments planned for the ISS mission. Since 2002, when one of the CMG on the ISS failed, all CMGs are closely monitored. High gimbal rates, vibration spikes, unusual variations of spin motor current and bearing temperatures are of great concern, since these parameters are the CMG health indicators. The telemetry analysis of these and some other CMG parameters is used to determine constrains and make changes to the CMGs operation on board. These CMG limitations, in turn, may limit the ISS attitude control capabilities and may be critical to ISS operation. Therefore, it is important to know whether the CMG parameter is nominal or out of family, and why. The goal of this project is to analyze an important CMG parameter - spin motor current. Some operational decisions are made now based on the spin motor current signatures. The spin motor current depends on gimbal rates, ISS rates, and spin bearing friction. The spin bearing friction in turn depends on the bearing temperatures, wheel rates, normal load - which is a function of gimbal and wheel rates - lubrication, etc. The first task of this project is to create a spin motor current mathematical model based on CMG dynamics model and the current knowledge on bearing friction in microgravity.
Modeling the Spin Motor Current of the International Space Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes
Pereira, Miguel A.
2008-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) attitude control is provided by two means: The Russian Segment uses thrusters and the U.S. Segment uses double-gimbaled control moment gyroscopes (CMG). CMGs are used as momentum exchange devices, providing non propulsive attitude control for the vehicle. The CMGs are very important for the ISS program because, first, they save propellant - which needs to be transferred to the Station in special cargo vehicles - and, second, they provide the microgravity environment on the Station - which is necessary for scientific experiments planned for the ISS mission. Since 2002, when one of the CMG on the ISS failed, all CMGs are closely monitored. High gimbal rates, vibration spikes, unusual variations of spin motor current and bearing temperatures are of great concern, since these parameters are the CMG health indicators. The telemetry analysis of these and some other CMG parameters is used to determine constrains and make changes to the CMGs operation on board. These CMG limitations, in turn, may limit the ISS attitude control capabilities and may be critical to ISS operation. Therefore, it is important to know whether the CMG parameter is nominal or out of family, and why. The goal of this project is to analyze an important CMG parameter - spin motor current. Some operational decisions are made now based on the spin motor current signatures. The spin motor current depends on gimbal rates, ISS rates, and spin bearing friction. The spin bearing friction in turn depends on the bearing temperatures, wheel rates, normal load - which is a function of gimbal and wheel rates - lubrication, etc. The first task of this project is to create a spin motor current mathematical model based on CMG dynamics model and the current knowledge on bearing friction in microgravity.
Graphitic silicon nitride: a metal-free ferromagnet with charge and spin current rectification.
Sen, Sabyasachi; Chakrabarti, Swapan
2014-09-15
As a first example, herein we show that g-Si(4)N(3) is expected to act as a metal-free ferromagnet featuring both charge and spin current rectification simultaneously. Such rectification is crucial for envisioning devices that contain both logic and memory functionality on a single chip. The spin coherent quantum-transport calculations on g-Si(4)N(3) reveal that the chosen system is a unique molecular spin filter, the current-voltage characteristics of which is asymmetric in nature, which can create a perfect background for synchronous charge and spin current rectification. To shed light on this highly unusual in-silico observation, we have meticulously inspected the bias-dependent modulation of the spin-polarized eigenstates. The results indicate that, whereas only the localized 2p orbitals of the outer-ring (OR) Si atoms participate in the transmission process in the positive bias, both OR Si and N atoms contribute in the reverse bias. Furthermore, we have evaluated the spin-polarized electron-transfer rate in the tunneling regime, and the results demonstrate that the transfer rates are unequal in the positive and negative bias range, leading to the possible realization of a simultaneous logic-memory device.
Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers
Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong
2016-05-01
Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications.
Spin torque and critical currents for magnetic vortex nano-oscillator in nanopillars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guslienko, K Y; Gonzalez, J [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Aranda, G R, E-mail: sckguslk@ehu.es [Centro de Fisica de Materiales UPV/EHU-CSIC, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)
2011-04-01
We calculated the main dynamic parameters of the spin polarized current induced magnetic vortex oscillations in nanopillars, such as the range of current density, where vortex steady oscillations exist, the oscillation frequency and orbit radius. We accounted for both the non-linear vortex frequency and non-linear vortex damping. To describe the vortex excitations by the spin polarized current we used a generalized Thiele approach to motion of the vortex core as a collective coordinate. All the calculation results are represented via the free layer sizes, saturation magnetization, and the Gilbert damping. Predictions of the developed model can be checked experimentally.
Note on the helicity decomposition of spin and orbital optical currents
Aiello, Andrea
2015-01-01
In the helicity representation, the Poynting vector (current) for a monochromatic optical field, when calculated using either the electric or the magnetic field, separates into right-handed and left-handed contributions, with no cross-helicity contributions. Cross-helicity terms do appear in the orbital and spin contributions to the current. But when the electric and magnetic formulas are averaged ('electric-magnetic democracy'), these terms cancel, restoring the separation into right-handed and left-handed currents for orbital and spin separately.
Optimal pulse spacing for dynamical decoupling in the presence of a purely-dephasing spin-bath
Ajoy, Ashok; Suter, Dieter
2010-01-01
Maintaining quantum coherence is a crucial requirement for quantum computation; hence protecting quantum systems against their irreversible corruption due to environmental noise is an important open problem. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is an effective method for reducing decoherence with a low control overhead. While a sequence of equidistant control pulses (CPMG) has been ubiquitously used for this purpose, Uhrig recently proposed that a non-equidistant pulse sequence (UDD) may enhance DD performance, especially for systems where the spectral density of the environment has a sharp frequency cutoff. On the other hand, equidistant sequences outperform UDD for soft cutoffs. The relative advantage provided by UDD for intermediate regimes is not clear. In this paper, we analyze the relative DD performance in this regime experimentally, using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Our system-qubits are 13C nuclear spins and the environment consists of a 1H nuclear spin-bath whose spectral density is close to a norm...
Ganichev, Sergey D.; Bel'Kov, Vasily V.; Tarasenko, Sergey A.; Danilov, Sergey N.; Giglberger, Stephan; Hoffmann, Christoph; Ivchenko, Eougenious L.; Weiss, Dieter; Wegscheider, Werner; Gerl, Christian; Schuh, Dieter; Stahl, Joachim; de Boeck, Jo; Borghs, Gustaaf; Prettl, Wilhelm
2006-09-01
The generation, manipulation and detection of spin-polarized electrons in low-dimensional semiconductors are at the heart of spintronics. Pure spin currents, that is, fluxes of magnetization without charge current, are quite attractive in this respect. A paradigmatic example is the spin Hall effect, where an electrical current drives a transverse spin current and causes a non-equilibrium spin accumulation observed near the sample boundary. Here we provide evidence for an another effect causing spin currents which is fundamentally different from the spin Hall effect. In contrast to the spin Hall effect, it does not require an electric current to flow: without bias the spin separation is achieved by spin-dependent scattering of electrons in media with suitable symmetry. We show, by free-carrier absorption of terahertz (THz) radiation, that spin currents flow in a wide range of temperatures. Moreover, the experimental results provide evidence that simple electron gas heating by any means is already sufficient to yield spin separation due to spin-dependent energy-relaxation processes.
Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jung-Chuan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Huang, Leng-Wei [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China); Hung, Dung-Shing, E-mail: dshung@mail.mcu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Information and Telecommunications Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Tung-Han [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. C. A., E-mail: jcahuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liang, Jun-Zhi [Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shang-Fan, E-mail: leesf@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China)
2014-02-03
The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered.
A HIGH PERFORMANCE FULLY DIFFERENTIAL PURE CURRENT MODE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SEYED JAVAD AZHARI
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper a novel high performance all current-mode fully-differential (FD Current mode Operational Amplifier (COA in BIPOLAR technology is presented. The unique true current mode simple structure grants the proposed COA the largest yet reported unity gain frequency while providing low voltage low power operation. Benefiting from some novel ideas, it also exhibits high gain, high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR, high power supply rejection ratio (PSRR, high output impedance, low input impedance and most importantly high current drive capability. Its most important parameters are derived and its performance is proved by PSPICE simulations using 0.8 μm BICMOS process parameters at supply voltage of ±1.2V indicating the values of 82.4 dB,52.3º, 31.5 Ω, 31.78 MΩ, 179.2 dB, 2 mW and 698 MHz for gain, phase margin, input impedance, output impedance, CMRR, power and unity gain frequency respectively. Its CMRR also shows very high frequency of 2.64 GHz at zero dB. Its very high PSRR+/PSRR- of 182 dB/196 dB makes the proposed COA a highly suitable block in Mixed-Mode (SOC chips. Most favourably it can deliver up to ±1.5 mA yielding a high current drive capability exceeding 25. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed COA, it is used to realize a constant bandwidth voltage amplifier and a high performance Rm amplifier.
Interpreting current-induced spin polarization in topological insulator surface states
Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian
2016-06-01
Several recent experiments on three-dimensional topological insulators claim to observe a large charge current-induced nonequilibrium ensemble spin polarization of electrons in the helical surface state. We present a comprehensive criticism of such claims, using both theory and experiment: First, we clarify the interpretation of quantities extracted from these measurements by deriving standard expressions from a Boltzmann transport equation approach in the relaxation-time approximation at zero and finite temperature to emphasize our assertion that, despite high in-plane spin projection, obtainable current-induced ensemble spin polarization is minuscule. Second, we use a simple experiment to demonstrate that magnetic field-dependent open-circuit voltage hysteresis (identical to those attributed to current-induced spin polarization in topological insulator surface states) can be generated in analogous devices where current is driven through thin films of a topologically trivial metal. This result ipso facto discredits the naive interpretation of previous experiments with TIs, which were used to claim observation of helicity, i.e., spin-momentum locking in the topologically protected surface state.
Lee, Joon Sue; Richardella, Anthony; Hickey, Danielle Reifsnyder; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Samarth, Nitin
2015-10-01
We report electrical measurements of the current-induced spin polarization of the surface current in topological insulator devices where contributions from bulk and surface conduction can be disentangled by electrical gating. The devices use a ferromagnetic tunnel junction (permalloy/Al 2O3 ) as a spin detector on a back-gated (Bi,Sb ) 2Te3 channel. We observe hysteretic voltage signals as the magnetization of the detector ferromagnet is switched parallel or antiparallel to the spin polarization of the surface current. The amplitude of the detected voltage change is linearly proportional to the applied dc bias current in the (Bi,Sb ) 2Te3 channel. As the chemical potential is tuned from the bulk bands into the surface state band, we observe an enhancement of the spin-dependent voltages up to 300% within the range of the electrostatic gating. Using a simple model, we extract the spin polarization near charge neutrality (i.e., the Dirac point).
Spin-polarized current injection induced magnetic reconstruction at oxide interface
Fang, F.; Yin, Y. W.; Li, Qi; Lüpke, G.
2017-01-01
Electrical manipulation of magnetism presents a promising way towards using the spin degree of freedom in very fast, low-power electronic devices. Though there has been tremendous progress in electrical control of magnetic properties using ferromagnetic (FM) nanostructures, an opportunity of manipulating antiferromagnetic (AFM) states should offer another route for creating a broad range of new enabling technologies. Here we selectively probe the interface magnetization of SrTiO3/La0.5Ca0.5MnO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 heterojunctions and discover a new spin-polarized current injection induced interface magnetoelectric (ME) effect. The accumulation of majority spins at the interface causes a sudden, reversible transition of the spin alignment of interfacial Mn ions from AFM to FM exchange-coupled, while the injection of minority electron spins alters the interface magnetization from C-type to A-type AFM state. In contrast, the bulk magnetization remains unchanged. We attribute the current-induced interface ME effect to modulations of the strong double-exchange interaction between conducting electron spins and local magnetic moments. The effect is robust and may serve as a viable route for electronic and spintronic applications. PMID:28051142
Spin-pump-induced spin transport in a thermally evaporated pentacene film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tani, Yasuo; Shikoh, Eiji, E-mail: shikoh@elec.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Teki, Yoshio [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)
2015-12-14
We report the spin-pump-induced spin transport properties of a pentacene film prepared by thermal evaporation. In a palladium(Pd)/pentacene/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} tri-layer sample, a pure spin-current is generated in the pentacene layer by the spin-pumping of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}, which is independent of the conductance mismatch problem in spin injection. The spin current is absorbed into the Pd layer, converted into a charge current with the inverse spin-Hall effect in Pd, and detected as an electromotive force. This is clear evidence for the pure spin current at room temperature in pentacene films prepared by thermal evaporation.
Voltage-driven versus current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunneling junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-10-01
Nonequilibrium spin transport in a magnetic tunnel junction comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is studied theoretically. The interfacial SOI generates a spin torque of the form T=T∥ M×(z× M)+T⊥ z× M, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. For thick and large tunnel barriers, the torque reduces to the perpendicular component T⊥, which can be electrically tuned by applying a voltage across the insulator. In the limit of thin and low tunnel barriers, the in-plane torque T∥ emerges, proportional to the tunneling current density. Experimental implications on magnetic devices are discussed. © 2011 IEEE.
Proximity induced room temperature ferromagnetism in graphene probed with spin currents
Leutenantsmeyer, Johannes Christian; Kaverzin, Alexey A.; Wojtaszek, Magdalena; van Wees, Bart J.
2017-03-01
We present a direct measurement of the exchange interaction in room temperature ferromagnetic graphene. We study the spin transport in exfoliated graphene on an yttrium-iron-garnet substrate where the observed spin precession clearly indicates the presence and strength of an exchange field that is an unambiguous evidence of induced ferromagnetism. We describe the results with a modified Bloch diffusion equation and extract an average exchange field of the order of 0.2 T. Further, we demonstrate that a proximity induced 2D ferromagnet can efficiently modulate a spin current by controlling the direction of the exchange field. These findings can create a building block for magnetic-gate tuneable spin transport in one-atom-thick spintronic devices.
Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling
Haney, Paul M.
2013-05-07
In bilayer nanowires consisting of a ferromagnetic layer and a nonmagnetic layer with strong spin-orbit coupling, currents create torques on the magnetization beyond those found in simple ferromagnetic nanowires. The resulting magnetic dynamics appear to require torques that can be separated into two terms, dampinglike and fieldlike. The dampinglike torque is typically derived from models describing the bulk spin Hall effect and the spin transfer torque, and the fieldlike torque is typically derived from a Rashba model describing interfacial spin-orbit coupling. We derive a model based on the Boltzmann equation that unifies these approaches. We also consider an approximation to the Boltzmann equation, the drift-diffusion model, that qualitatively reproduces the behavior, but quantitatively differs in some regimes. We show that the Boltzmann equation with physically reasonable parameters can match the torques for any particular sample, but in some cases, it fails to describe the experimentally observed thickness dependencies.
Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Liu, Guang; Guo, Dan; Zhou, Guanghui
2016-11-01
We study theoretically the spin-dependent transport and the current-induced spin transfer torque (STT) for a zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR) with Anderson-type disorders between two ferromagnetic electrodes. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, it is predicted that the transport property and STT through the junction depend sensitively on the disorder, especially around the Dirac point. As a result, the conductance decreases and increases for two electrode in parallel and antiparallel configurations, respectively. Due to the disorder, the magnetoresistance (MR) decreases accordingly even within the energy regime for the perfect plateau without disorders. In addition, the conductance versus the relative angle of the magnetization shows a cosine-like behavior. The STT per unit of the bias voltage versus the angle of the magnetization exhibits a sine-like behavior, and versus the Fermi energy is antisymmetrical to the Dirac point and exhibits sharp peaks. Furthermore, the peaks of the STT are suppressed much as the disorder strength increases, especially around the Dirac point. The results obtained here may provide a valuable suggestion to experimentally design spin valve devices based on ZSiNR.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Benliang [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Manipulation (Ministry of Education), Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications of Hunan, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhou, Benhu [Department of Physics, Shaoyang University, Shaoyang 422001 (China); Liu, Guang; Guo, Dan [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Manipulation (Ministry of Education), Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications of Hunan, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhou, Guanghui, E-mail: ghzhou@hunnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Manipulation (Ministry of Education), Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications of Hunan, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)
2016-11-01
We study theoretically the spin-dependent transport and the current-induced spin transfer torque (STT) for a zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR) with Anderson-type disorders between two ferromagnetic electrodes. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, it is predicted that the transport property and STT through the junction depend sensitively on the disorder, especially around the Dirac point. As a result, the conductance decreases and increases for two electrode in parallel and antiparallel configurations, respectively. Due to the disorder, the magnetoresistance (MR) decreases accordingly even within the energy regime for the perfect plateau without disorders. In addition, the conductance versus the relative angle of the magnetization shows a cosine-like behavior. The STT per unit of the bias voltage versus the angle of the magnetization exhibits a sine-like behavior, and versus the Fermi energy is antisymmetrical to the Dirac point and exhibits sharp peaks. Furthermore, the peaks of the STT are suppressed much as the disorder strength increases, especially around the Dirac point. The results obtained here may provide a valuable suggestion to experimentally design spin valve devices based on ZSiNR.
Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian D; Reichhardt, Charles; Saxena, Avadh
2014-05-09
We show that a temperature gradient induces an ac electric current in multiferroic insulators when the sample is embedded in a circuit. We also show that a thermal gradient can be used to move magnetic Skyrmions in insulating chiral magnets: the induced magnon flow from the hot to the cold region drives the Skyrmions in the opposite direction via a magnonic spin transfer torque. Both results are combined to compute the effect of Skyrmion motion on the ac current generation and demonstrate that Skyrmions in insulators are a promising route for spin caloritronics applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Jianfei, E-mail: zoujianfei@hhu.edu.cn; Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Aimei
2017-04-04
We study the photo-induced spin current injection in a hexagonal lattice with both intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions which is irradiated by a polarized light beam. It is found that the spin current injection rate could be enhanced as the graphene lattice is in the topological insulator state. Furthermore, the spin current injection rate could be remarkably modulated by the degree of polarization of light and its frequency. - Highlights: • The optical spin current could be enhanced by the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction. • The optical spin current could be modulated by the degree of polarization of light. • The maximum of the spin current injection rate is obtained.
How to control spin-Seebeck current in a metal-quantum dot-magnetic insulator junction
Gu, Lei; Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Ruqian
2016-09-01
The control of the spin-Seebeck current is still a challenging task for the development of spin caloritronic devices. Here, we construct a spin-Seebeck device by inserting a quantum dot (QD) between the metal lead and magnetic insulator. Using the slave-particle approach and noncrossing approximation, we find that the spin-Seebeck effect increases significantly when the energy level of the QD locates near the Fermi level of the metal lead due to the enhancement of spin flipping and occurrences of quantum resonance. Since this can be easily realized by applying a gate voltage in experiments, the spin-Seebeck device proposed here can also work as a thermovoltaic transistor. Moreover, the optimal correlation strength and the energy level position of the QD are discussed to maximize the spin-Seebeck current as required for applications in controllable spin caloritronic devices.
Ground-state entanglement in a three-spin transverse Ising model with energy current
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Yong; Liu Dan; Long Gui-Lu
2007-01-01
The ground-state entanglement associated with a three-spin transverse Ising model is studied. By introducing an energy current into the system, a quantum phase transition to energy-current phase may be presented with the variation of external magnetic field; and the ground-state entanglement varies suddenly at the critical point of quantum phase transition. In our model, the introduction of energy current makes the entanglement between any two qubits become maximally robust.
Two Dimensional Steady State Eddy Current Analysis of a Spinning Conducting Cylinder
2017-03-09
UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 855 Technical Report ARMET-TR-16045 TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A ...any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN...August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A SPINNING CONDUCTING CYLINDER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b
The operator product expansion between the 16 lowest higher spin currents in the N=4 superspace
Ahn, Changhyun; Kim, Man Hea
2016-07-01
Some of the operator product expansions (OPEs) between the lowest 16 higher spin currents of spins (1, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) in an extension of the large N=4 linear superconformal algebra were constructed in N=4 superconformal coset SU(5)/SU(3) theory previously. In this paper, by rewriting these OPEs in the N=4 superspace developed by Schoutens (and other groups), the remaining undetermined OPEs in which the corresponding singular terms possess the composite fields with spins s =7/2, 4, 9/2, 5 are completely determined. Furthermore, by introducing arbitrary coefficients in front of the composite fields on the right-hand sides of the above complete 136 OPEs, reexpressing them in the N=2 superspace, and using the N=2 OPEs Mathematica package by Krivonos and Thielemans, the complete structures of the above OPEs with fixed coefficient functions are obtained with the help of various Jacobi identities. We then obtain ten N=2 super OPEs between the four N=2 higher spin currents denoted by (1, 3/2, 3/2, 2), (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2), (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2), and (2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) (corresponding 136 OPEs in the component approach) in the N=4 superconformal coset SU(N+2)/SU(N) theory. Finally, we describe them as one single N=4 super OPE between the above 16 higher spin currents in the N=4 superspace. The fusion rule for this OPE contains the next 16 higher spin currents of spins of (2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 7/2, 7/2, 7/2, 7/2, 4) in addition to the quadratic N=4 lowest higher spin multiplet and the large N=4 linear superconformal family of the identity operator. The various structure constants (fixed coefficient functions) appearing on the right-hand side of this OPE depend on N and the level k of the bosonic spin-1 affine Kac-Moody current. For convenience, the above 136 OPEs in the component approach for generic ( N, k) with simplified notation are given.
Exploring Nucleon Spin Structure Through Neutrino Neutral-Current Interactions in MicroBooNE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woodruff, Katherine [New Mexico State U.
2017-02-02
The net contribution of the strange quark spins to the proton spin, $\\Delta s$, can be determined from neutral current elastic neutrino-proton interactions at low momentum transfer combined with data from electron-proton scattering. The probability of neutrino-proton interactions depends in part on the axial form factor, which represents the spin structure of the proton and can be separated into its quark flavor contributions. Low momentum transfer neutrino neutral current interactions can be measured in MicroBooNE, a high-resolution liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) in its first year of running in the Booster Neutrino Beamline at Fermilab. The signal for these interactions in MicroBooNE is a single short proton track. We present our work on the automated reconstruction and classification of proton tracks in LArTPCs, an important step in the determination of neutrino- nucleon cross sections and the measurement of $\\Delta s$.
Skyrmion dynamics in a chiral magnet driven by periodically varying spin currents*
Zhu, Rui; Zhang, Yin-Yan
2016-12-01
In this work, we investigated the spin dynamics in a slab of chiral magnets induced by an alternating (ac) spin current. Periodic trajectories of the skyrmion in real space are discovered under the ac current as a result of the Magnus and viscous forces, which originate from the Gilbert damping, the spin transfer torque, and the β-nonadiabatic torque effects. The results are obtained by numerically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and can be explained by the Thiele equation characterizing the skyrmion core motion. Supplementary material in the form of one avi file available from the Journal web page at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70467-9
Noise and current correlations in tunnel junctions of quantum spin Hall edge states
Dolcini, Fabrizio
2015-10-01
The edge channels of two-dimensional topological systems are protected from elastic reflection and are noiseless at low temperature. Yet, noise and cross correlations can be induced when electron waves partly transmit to the opposite edge via tunneling through a constriction. In particular, in a quantum spin Hall (QSH) system tunneling occurs via both spin-preserving (p ) and spin-flipping (f ) processes, each fulfilling time-reversal symmetry. We investigate the current correlations of a four-terminal QSH setup in the presence of a tunneling region, both at equilibrium and out of equilibrium. We find that, although p and f processes do not commute and the generic current correlation depends on both, under appropriate conditions a direct detection of two types of partition noise is possible. In particular, while the spin-preserving partitioning can be probed for any arbitrary tunnel junction with a specific configuration of terminal biases, the spin-flipping partitioning can be directly detected only under suitably designed setups and conditions. We describe two setups where these conditions can be fulfilled, and both types of partitioning can be detected and controlled.
Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Sonomoto, Kenji
2016-10-20
There has been growing interest in the microbial production of optically pure lactic acid due to the increased demand for lactic acid-derived environmentally friendly products, for example biodegradable plastic (poly-lactic acid), as an alternative to petroleum-derived materials. To maximize the market uptake of these products, their cost should be competitive and this could be achieved by decreasing the production cost of the raw material, that is, lactic acid. It is of great importance to isolate and develop robust and highly efficient microbial lactic acid producers. Alongside the fermentative substrate and concentration, the yield and productivity of lactic acid are key parameters and major factors in determining the final production cost of lactic acid. In this review, we will discuss the current limitations and challenges for cost-efficient microbial production of optically pure lactic acid. The main obstacles to effective fermentation are the use of food resources, indirect utilization of polymeric sugars, sensitivity to inhibitory compounds released during biomass treatments, substrate inhibition, decreased lactic acid yield and productivity, inefficient utilization of mixed sugars, end product inhibition, increased use of neutralizing agents, contamination problems, and decreased optical purity of lactic acid. Furthermore, opportunities to address and overcome these limitations, either by fermentation technology or metabolic engineering approaches, will be introduced and discussed.
Spin-dependent Peltier effect of perpendicular currents in multilayered nanowires
Gravier, Laurent; Serrano-Guisan, Santiago; Reuse, François; Ansermet, J.-Ph.
2006-02-01
Heat and charge transport perpendicular to Co/Cu multilayers are characterized by magnetoresistance and magnetothermoelectrical power. Furthermore, a very large voltage response to temperature oscillations under a dc current is observed, which depends strongly on the applied magnetic field. This effect is ascribed to a Peltier effect and its field dependence to a spin dependence of the Peltier coefficient.
Theory of spin current in magnetic nanopillars for zero-field microwave generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, D M [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Mathon, J [Department of Mathematics, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)
2007-04-23
In a magnetic nanopillar, microwave oscillations of the magnetization of one magnetic layer can be driven by spin-polarized current emitted from another magnetic layer. The conditions for this to occur in zero applied field are formulated in terms of the two components of the spin-transfer torque. One simple route to achieve microwave generation is to ensure that these components have opposite sign. Quantum-mechanical calculations are presented that show how this may be achieved by a suitable choice of the oscillating magnet thickness.
Modeling spin selectivity in charge transfer across the DNA/Gold interface
Behnia, S.; Fathizadeh, S.; Akhshani, A.
2016-09-01
Experimental results show that the photoelectrons emitted from the gold substrate due to laser radiation, passe through DNA nanowires with spin-polarized nature. This study proposes the use of chiral DNA molecule in spintronics and information processing. To investigate the spin transfer in DNA molecules, we established a theoretical model based on a combined spin-polaronic Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model. Accordingly, a nearly pure spin current is appeared. The simultaneous effects of the incident radiation and external magnetic field create characteristic islands corresponding to the pure spin currents, which can be predicted and detected using the multifractal dimensions spectrum. We can verify the spin Hall effect on DNA oligomers through spin-orbit coupling. As such, we can proceed to our significant purpose, which is to create a nearly pure spin current for information transfer and determine the regions of parameter values from which the maximal polarization in spin current emerges.
X-ray imaging of spin currents and magnetisation dynamics at the nanoscale
Bonetti, Stefano
2017-04-01
Understanding how spins move in time and space is the aim of both fundamental and applied research in modern magnetism. Over the past three decades, research in this field has led to technological advances that have had a major impact on our society, while improving the understanding of the fundamentals of spin physics. However, important questions still remain unanswered, because it is experimentally challenging to directly observe spins and their motion with a combined high spatial and temporal resolution. In this article, we present an overview of the recent advances in x-ray microscopy that allow researchers to directly watch spins move in time and space at the microscopically relevant scales. We discuss scanning x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) at resonant soft x-ray edges, which is available at most modern synchrotron light sources. This technique measures magnetic contrast through the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) effect at the resonant absorption edges, while focusing the x-ray radiation at the nanometre scale, and using the intrinsic pulsed structure of synchrotron-generated x-rays to create time-resolved images of magnetism at the nanoscale. In particular, we discuss how the presence of spin currents can be detected by imaging spin accumulation, and how the magnetisation dynamics in thin ferromagnetic films can be directly imaged. We discuss how a direct look at the phenomena allows for a deeper understanding of the the physics at play, that is not accessible to other, more indirect techniques. Finally, we present an overview of the exciting opportunities that lie ahead to further understand the fundamentals of novel spin physics, opportunities offered by the appearance of diffraction limited storage rings and free electron lasers.
Wireless current sensing by near field induction from a spin transfer torque nano-oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramaswamy, B. [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Algarin, J. M.; Waks, E., E-mail: edowaks@umd.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP), University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Weinberg, I. N. [Weinberg Medical Physics LLC, Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States); Chen, Y.-J.; Krivorotov, I. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Katine, J. A. [HGST Research Center, San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Shapiro, B. [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Institute for Systems Research (ISR), University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2016-06-13
We demonstrate that spin transfer torque nano-oscillators (STNO) can act as wireless sensors for local current. The STNO acts as a transducer that converts weak direct currents into microwave field oscillations that we detect using an inductive coil. We detect direct currents in the range of 300–700 μA and report them wirelessly to a receiving induction coil at distances exceeding 6.5 mm. This current sensor could find application in chemical and biological sensing and industrial inspection.
On the structure of the energy-momentum and the spin currents in Dirac's electron theory
Hehl, F W; Mielke, E W; Obukhov, Yu N; Obukhov, Yu.N.
1997-01-01
We consider a classical Dirac field in flat Minkowski spacetime. We perform a Gordon decomposition of its canonical energy-momentum and spin currents, respectively. Thereby we find for each of these currents a convective and a polarization piece. The polarization pieces can be expressed as exterior covariant derivatives of the two-forms $\\check M_\\alpha$ and $M_{\\alpha\\beta}=-M_{\\beta\\alpha}$, respectively. In analogy to the magnetic moment in electrodynamics, we identify these two-forms as gravitational moments connected with the translation group and the Lorentz group, respectively. We point out the relation between the Gordon decomposition of the energy-momentum current and its Belinfante-Rosenfeld symmetrization. In the non-relativistic limit, the translational gravitational moment of the Dirac field is found to be proportional to the spin covector of the electron.
Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 105 A/cm2 dc Current
Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng
2016-08-01
Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 105 A/cm2 dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sánchez Moreno, Jaime; Ramírez Muñoz, Diego; Cardoso, Susana; Casans Berga, Silvia; Navarro Antón, Asunción Edith; Peixeiro de Freitas, Paulo Jorge
2011-01-01
.... Experimental results are shown using a microfabricated spin-valve MR current sensor. The temperature compensation has been solved in the interval from 0 °C to 70 °C measuring currents from -10 A to +10 A.
Gorospe, Alking; Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Shin, Hyung-Seop
2016-10-01
Coated conductor (CC) tapes utilized in high-current-density superconducting cables are commonly subjected to different loading modes, primarily torsion and tension especially in the case of twisted stacked-tape cable. Torsion load can occur due to twisting along the length or when winding the CC tapes around a former, while tension load can occur due to pre-tension when coiled and as a hoop stress when the coil is energized. In this study, electromechanical properties of single CC tapes under torsion load were investigated using a new test apparatus. The results could provide basic information for cable designers to fully characterize stacked cables. Copper-electroplated and brass-laminated CC tapes fabricated with different deposition techniques were subjected to pure torsion and combined tension-torsion loading. The critical current, I c degradation behaviours of CC tapes under torsional deformation were examined. Also, the effect of further external lamination on the I c degradation behaviour of the CC tapes under such loading conditions was investigated. In the case of the combined tension-torsion test, short samples were subjected to twist pitches of 200 mm and 100 mm. Critical parameters including reversible axial stress and strain in such twist pitch conditions were also investigated.
Giant magnetoresistance of edge current between fermion and spin topological systems
Slieptsov, Igor O.; Karnaukhov, Igor N.
2015-07-01
A spin-1/2 subsystem conjoined along a cut with a subsystem of spinless fermions in the state of topological insulator is studied on a honeycomb lattice. The model describes a junction between a 2D topological insulator and a 2D spin lattice with direction-dependent exchange interactions in topologically trivial and nontrivial phase states. The model Hamiltonian of the complex system is solved exactly by reduction to free Majorana fermions in a static ℤ2 gauge field. In contrast to junctions between topologically trivial phases, this junction is defined by chiral edge states and direct interaction between them for topologically nontrivial phases. As a result of the boundary interaction between chiral edge modes, the edge junction is defined by the Chern numbers of the subsystems: such gapless edge modes with the same (different) chirality switch on (off) an edge current between topological subsystems. The sign of the Chern number of spin subsystem is changed in an external magnetic field, thus the electric current strongly depends both on a direction and a value of an applied weak magnetic field. We provide a detailed analysis of the edge current and demonstrate how to switch on (off) the electric current in the magnetic field.
Shot Noise of Charge and Spin Current of a Quantum Dot Coupled to Semiconductor Electrodes.
Sartipi, Zahra; Vahedi, Javad
2015-10-15
On the basis of the scattering matrix theory and nonequilibrium green function method, we have investigated the fluctuations of charge and spin current of the systems that consist of a quantum dot (QD) with a resonant level coupled to two semiconductor contacts within in alternative site (AS) and alternative bond (AB) framework, where two transverse (Bx) and longitudinal (Bz) magnetic fields are applied to the QD. It is only necessary to use the autocorrelation function to characterize the fluctuations of charge current for a twoterminal system because of the relation that is defined as Σα e Sαβ = Σβ e Sαβ = 0. Our result shows that both auto-shot noise (SLL) and cross-shot noise (SLR) are essential to characterize the fluctuations of spin current when Bx is present. Moreover, our model calculations show that the sign of the cross-shot noise of spin current is negative for all surface states of AS/QD/AS junctions, whereas it oscillates between positive and negative values for two surface states of AB/QD/AB junctions as we sweep the gate voltage.
Spin-orbit current-induced torques in (Ga,Mn)As
Vehstedt, Erin K.; Zarbo, Liviu P.; Vyborny, Karel; Kurebayashi, Hidekazu; Roy, Pierre; Wunderlich, Joerg; Ferguson, Andrew J.; Jungwirth, Tomas; Sinova, Jairo
2013-03-01
Electrical control of magnetic domains has the potential to overcome key challenges to the development of new non-volatile and down-scalable logic and memory devices. We study the spin-orbit torque induced by an unpolarized electric current in the dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor, (Ga,Mn)As. The current-induced torque (CIT) is modeled as the interaction between the uniform magnetization and an effective magnetic field representing the non-equilibrium carrier spin-polarization. We calculate the current-induced field (CIF) using the Kubo linear-response formalism for a broad range of material parameters. We find that the CIF is composed of a dominant term due to the inverse spin galvanic effect and a small component which is dependent on the relative orientation of the current, magnetization, and crystal axes. In conjunction with experimental studies, we investigate the magnetization dynamics using the phenomenological Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert equation. The study of (Ga,Mn)As opens the door to a comprehensive theory of CITs in uniform magnetic semiconductors.
Brächer, T.; Heussner, F.; Pirro, P.; Meyer, T.; Fischer, T.; Geilen, M.; Heinz, B.; Lägel, B.; Serga, A. A.; Hillebrands, B.
2016-12-01
Magnonic spin currents in the form of spin waves and their quanta, magnons, are a promising candidate for a new generation of wave-based logic devices beyond CMOS, where information is encoded in the phase of travelling spin-wave packets. The direct readout of this phase on a chip is of vital importance to couple magnonic circuits to conventional CMOS electronics. Here, we present the conversion of the spin-wave phase into a spin-wave intensity by local non-adiabatic parallel pumping in a microstructure. This conversion takes place within the spin-wave system itself and the resulting spin-wave intensity can be conveniently transformed into a DC voltage. We also demonstrate how the phase-to-intensity conversion can be used to extract the majority information from an all-magnonic majority gate. This conversion method promises a convenient readout of the magnon phase in future magnon-based devices.
Odin, Christophe
2000-04-01
This work presents a numerical approach to optimizing sequences with composite pulses for the pure NQR of a spin I = {3}/{2} powder sample. The calculations are based on a formalism developed in a previous paper, which allows a fast powder-averaging procedure to be implemented. The framework of the Cayley-Klein matrices to describe space rotations by 2 × 2 unitary and unimodular complex matrices is used to calculate the pulse propagators. The object of such a study is to design a high-performance echo sequence composed of a single preparation pulse and a three-pulse composite transfer pulse. We mean a sequence leading to a large excitation bandwidth with a good signal-to-noise ratio, a flat excitation profile near the irradiation frequency, and a good linearity of the phase as a function of frequency offset. Such a composite echo sequence is intended to give a better excitation profile than the classical Hahn (θ)-τ-(2θ) echo sequence. It is argued that in pure NQR of a powder sample, the sequence must be optimized as a whole since both the excitation and the reception of the signal depend on the relative orientation of the crystallites with respect to the coil axis. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a global approach is presented. An extensive numerical study of the composite echo sequence described above is performed in this article. The key of the discrimination between the sequences lies in using the first five reduced moments of the excitation profile as well as an estimator of the phase linearity. Based on such information, we suggest that the echo sequence that best fulfills our criterion is (1)0-τ-(0.35)0(2.1)π(0.35)0, the pulse angles ωRFtp being in radians. The subscripts are the relative pulse phases. We outlined the way to implement the spin echo mapping method to reconstruct large spectra with this sequence, and it is shown that it reduces the acquisition time by a factor of 1.7 if compared to the classical Hahn echo. Some other
Shikin, A. M.; Klimovskikh, I. I.; Filyanina, M. V.; Rybkina, A. A.; Pudikov, D. A.; Kokh, K. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.
2016-08-01
A new method for generating spin-polarized currents in topological insulators has been proposed and investigated. The method is associated with the spin-dependent asymmetry of the generation of holes at the Fermi level for branches of topological surface states with the opposite spin orientation under the circularly polarized synchrotron radiation. The result of the generation of holes is the formation of compensating spin-polarized currents, the value of which is determined by the concentration of the generated holes and depends on the specific features of the electronic and spin structures of the system. The indicator of the formed spin-polarized current can be a shift of the Fermi edge in the photoelectron spectra upon photoexcitation by synchrotron radiation with the opposite circular polarization. The topological insulators with different stoichiometric compositions (Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.8Se1.2 and PbBi2Se2Te2) have been investigated. It has been found that there is a correlation in the shifts and generated spin-polarized currents with the specific features of the electronic spin structure. Investigations of the graphene/Pt(111) system have demonstrated the possibility of using this method for other systems with a spin-polarized electronic structure.
Ballistic and diffusive current spin polarization in L1{sub o}-ordered FePt and FePd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seemann, Klaus M.; Baltz, Vincent; Hickey, Mark C.; Marrows, Christopher H.; Hickey, Bryan J. [E.C. Stoner Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, Maureen; Chapman, John N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Miguel, Jorge; Kuch, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kronast, Florian [BESSY, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, Berlin (Germany)
2008-07-01
We report on the discrepancy of the current spin polarization in the ballistic and diffusive electron transport regime in L1{sub o}-ordered epitaxial FePt and FePd layers. The films studied displayed a chemical long range order parameter of 0.4spin current conductivity asymmetry based on the Levy-Zhang spin mistracking model we are able to assess the diffusive spin current polarization to be 80-90. On the other hand, to study the ballistic transport regime we have performed point-contact Andreev-reflection measurements at 4.2 K. We obtained a value for the ballistic current spin polarization of 50%.
Arnold, Thorsten; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar
2014-05-01
We calculate the persistent charge and spin polarization current inside a finite-width quantum ring of realistic geometry as a function of the strength of the Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction. The time evolution in the transient regime of the two-dimensional (2D) quantum ring connected to electrically biased semi-infinite leads is governed by a time-convolutionless non-Markovian generalized master equation. The electrons are correlated via Coulomb interaction. In addition, the ring is embedded in a photon cavity with a single mode of linearly polarized photon field, which is polarized either perpendicular or parallel to the charge transport direction. To analyze carefully the physical effects, we compare to the analytical results of the toy model of a one-dimensional (1D) ring of non-interacting electrons with spin-orbit coupling. We find a pronounced charge current dip associated with many-electron level crossings at the Aharonov-Casher phase ΔΦ = π, which can be disguised by linearly polarized light. Qualitative agreement is found for the spin polarization currents of the 1D and 2D ring. Quantitatively, however, the spin polarization currents are weaker in the more realistic 2D ring, especially for weak spin-orbit interaction, but can be considerably enhanced with the aid of a linearly polarized electromagnetic field. Specific spin polarization current symmetries relating the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction case to the Rashba one are found to hold for the 2D ring, which is embedded in the photon cavity.
Self-sustained spin-polarized current oscillations in multiquantum well structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escobedo, Ramon [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Carretero, Manuel; Bonilla, Luis L [G. Millan Institute, Fluid Dynamics, Nanoscience and Industrial Mathematics, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Platero, Gloria [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Cantoblanco (Spain)], E-mail: escobedo@unican.es, E-mail: manuel.carretero@uc3m.es, E-mail: bonilla@ing.uc3m.es, E-mail: gplatero@icmm.csic.es
2009-01-15
Nonlinear transport through diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures is investigated. We have considered a II-VI multiquantum well nanostructure whose wells are selectively doped with Mn. The response to a dc voltage bias may be either a stationary or an oscillatory current. We have studied the transition from stationary to time-dependent current as a function of the doping density and the number of quantum wells. Analysis and numerical solution of a nonlinear spin transport model shows that the current in a structure without magnetic impurities is stationary, whereas current oscillations may appear if at least one well contains magnetic impurities. For long structures having two wells with magnetic impurities, a detailed analysis of nucleation of charge dipole domains shows that self-sustained current oscillations are caused by repeated triggering of dipole domains at the magnetic wells and motion towards the collector. Depending on the location of the magnetic wells and the voltage, dipole domains may be triggered at both wells or at only one. In the latter case, the well closer to the collector may inhibit domain motion between the first and the second well inside the structure. Our study could allow design of oscillatory spin-polarized current injectors.
Effects of a spin-polarized current assisted Ørsted field in magnetization patterning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volkov, Oleksii M., E-mail: alexey@volkov.ca; Sheka, Denis D. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Mertens, Franz G. [Physics Institute, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)
2015-06-07
A spin-polarized electrical current leads to a variety of periodical magnetic structures in nanostripes. In the presence of the Ørsted field, which always assists an electrical current, the basic types of magnetic structures, i.e., a vortex-antivortex crystal and cross-tie domain walls, survive. The Ørsted field prevents saturation of the nanostripe and a longitudinal domain wall appears instead. Possible magnetization structures in stripes with different geometrical and material properties are studied numerically and analytically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Nazarov, Yuli V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands (Netherlands)
2013-12-04
We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the Josephson current I and phase difference φ between the superconductors satisfy the relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In the presence of magnetic field along the nanowire, the interplay between the SO interaction and Zeeman effect breaks the current-phase relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In this case, we show that the critical current depends on the current direction, which qualitatively agrees with recent experimental findings.
Generation of spin polarized currents with coherent trapping in magnetic semiconductors
Pereira, Pedro H.; Bezerra, Anibal T.; Farinas, Paulo F.; Maialle, Marcelo Z.; Degani, Marcos H.; Studart, Nelson
2017-04-01
A semiconductor heterostructure consisting of two quantum wells, one of them magnetically doped, is proposed for the generation of spin currents by two lasers tuned at the resonances formed between two lowest energy states (1 and 2) and the continuum (3), which are set by design to be in a Λ like configuration. By numerically simulating the proposed structure under the action of the laser fields, we are able to observe the formation of a quasi-dark state near the resonance. The structure’s design has been idealized as to place state 2 in the magnetically doped quantum-well, where a constant magnetic field breaks the electronic spin degeneracy, leading to the giant Zeeman splitting. This ensures that only one of the electronic spins is driven into a dark resonance, thus blocking it from escaping the system. The other spin is free to escape, so that a spin polarized photocurrent is generated. The polarization can be switched by changing the frequency of the controlling laser. Since this kind of trapping is based on quantum interference, the switching times are expected to be fast. In our simulation, we do not simplify the structure down to level modeling, rather we simulate the full structure under time dependent oscillating laser fields and then identify the signatures that indicate a three-level like behavior. We based our search for the structure on real doping parameters found in real materials used in the literature, however the idea relies on the potential profiles studied, and the presence of the giant splitting, regardless of the underlying material that may be used.
Van Dyke, John S.; Morr, Dirk K.
2017-01-01
Using the nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's function formalism, we investigate the effect of defects on the electronic structure and transport properties of two-dimensional topological insulators (TI). We demonstrate how the spatial flow of charge changes between the topologically protected edge and bulk states and show that elastically and inelastically scattering defects that preserve the time-reversal symmetry of the TI lead to qualitatively different effects on the TI's local electronic structure and its transport properties. Moreover, we show that the recently predicted ability to create highly spin-polarized currents by breaking the time-reversal symmetry of the TI via magnetic defects [J. S. Van Dyke and D. K. Morr, Phys. Rev. B 93, 081401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.081401] is robust against the inclusion of a Rashba spin-orbit interaction and the effects of dephasing, and remains unaffected by changes over a wide range of the TI's parameters. We discuss how the sign of the induced spin currents changes under symmetry operations, such as reversal of bias and gate voltages, or spatial reflections. Finally, we show that the insight into the interplay between topology and symmetry of the magnetic defects can be employed for the creation of intriguing quantum phenomena, such as highly localized magnetic fields inside the TI.
Josephson and persistent spin currents in Bose-Einstein condensates of magnons
Nakata, Kouki; van Hoogdalem, Kevin A.; Simon, Pascal; Loss, Daniel
2014-10-01
Using the Aharonov-Casher (A-C) phase, we present a microscopic theory of the Josephson and persistent spin currents in quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of magnons in ferromagnetic insulators. Starting from a microscopic spin model that we map onto a Gross-Pitaevskii Hamiltonian, we derive a two-state model for the Josephson junction between the weakly coupled magnon-BECs. We then show how to obtain the alternating-current (ac) Josephson effect with magnons as well as macroscopic quantum self-trapping in a magnon-BEC. We next propose how to control the direct-current (dc) Josephson effect electrically using the A-C phase, which is the geometric phase acquired by magnons moving in an electric field. Finally, we introduce a magnon-BEC ring and show that persistent magnon-BEC currents flow due to the A-C phase. Focusing on the feature that the persistent magnon-BEC current is a steady flow of magnetic dipoles that produces an electric field, we propose a method to directly measure it experimentally.
Nanoscale Imaging of Current Density with a Single-Spin Magnetometer.
Chang, K; Eichler, A; Rhensius, J; Lorenzelli, L; Degen, C L
2017-03-24
Charge transport in nanostructures and thin films is fundamental to many phenomena and processes in science and technology, ranging from quantum effects and electronic correlations in mesoscopic physics, to integrated charge- or spin-based electronic circuits, to photoactive layers in energy research. Direct visualization of the charge flow in such structures is challenging due to their nanometer size and the itinerant nature of currents. In this work, we demonstrate noninvasive magnetic imaging of current density in two-dimensional conductor networks including metallic nanowires and carbon nanotubes. Our sensor is the electronic spin of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center attached to a scanning tip and operated under ambient conditions. Using a differential measurement technique, we detect DC currents down to a few μA with a current density noise floor of ∼2 × 10(4) A/cm(2). Reconstructed images have a spatial resolution of typically 50 nm, with a best-effort value of 22 nm. Current density imaging offers a new route for studying electronic transport and conductance variations in two-dimensional materials and devices, with many exciting applications in condensed matter physics and materials science.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GINDULESCU, A.
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The present paradigm of magnetic data storage is approaching its fundamental limits for areal storage density, as well as for speed in data processing. As a result, several magnetic recording alternatives, such as spin polarized current assisted recording, precessional switching, toggle switching, heat assisted recording are currently under intense research efforts. This article is aimed at providing a pertinent theoretical analysis of the spin polarized current assisted recording, emphasizing its performance with respect to minimum requirements for switching field. The first analytical derivation of the critical field curve in the presence of spin polarized currents is presented and the results are compared to the classical Stoner-Wohlfarth astroid. The analysis is performed under the framework of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation for describing the magnetization dynamics driven by external magnetic fields and spin polarized currents.
Light-front projection of spin-1 electromagnetic current and zero-modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melo, J.P.B.C. de [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacao Cientifica - LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Frederico, T., E-mail: tobias@ita.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA, 12.228-900 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)
2012-02-14
The issue of the contribution of zero-modes to the light-front projection of the electromagnetic current of phenomenological models of vector particles vertices is addressed in the Drell-Yan frame. Our analytical model of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude of a spin-1 fermion-antifermion composite state gives a physically motivated light-front wave function symmetric by the exchange of the fermion and antifermion, as in the {rho}-meson case. We found that among the four independent matrix elements of the plus component in the light-front helicity basis only the 0{yields}0 one carries zero-mode contributions. Our derivation generalizes to symmetric models, important for applications, the above conclusion found for a simplified non-symmetrical form of the spin-1 Bethe-Salpeter amplitude with photon-fermion point-like coupling and also for a smeared fermion-photon vertex model.
Light-Front projection of spin-1 electromagnetic current and zero-modes
de Melo, J P B C; 10.1016/j.physletb.2012.01.021
2012-01-01
The issue of the contribution of zero-modes to the light-front projection of the electromagnetic current of phenomenological models of vector particles vertices is addressed in the Drell-Yan frame. Our analytical model of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude of a spin-1 fermion-antifermion composite state gives a physically motivated light-front wave function symmetric by the exchange of the fermion and antifermion, as in the $\\rho$-meson case. We found that among the four independent matrix elements of the plus component in the light-front helicity basis only the $0\\to 0$ one carries zero mode contributions. Our derivation generalizes to symmetric models, important for applications, the above conclusion found for a simplified non-symmetrical form of the spin-1 Bethe-Salpeter amplitude with photon-fermion point-like coupling and also for a smeared fermion-photon vertex model.
Rashidian, Zeinab; Rezaeipour, Saeid; Hajati, Yaser; Lorestaniweiss, Zeinab; Ueda, Akiko
2017-02-01
In this work, we study the transport properties of Dirac fermions through the ferromagnetic silicene which is sandwiched between the Graphene leads (G/FS/G). Spin/valley conductance, spin/valley polarization, and also Fano factor are theoretically calculated using the Landauer-Buttiker formula. We find that the fully valley and spin polarized currents through the G/FS/G junction can be obtained by increasing the electric field strength and the length of ferromagnetic silicene region. Moreover, the valley polarization can be tuned from negative to positive values by changing the electric field. We find that the Fano factor also changes with the spin and valley polarization. Our findings of high controllability of the spin and valley transport in such a G/FS/G junction the potential of this junction for spin-valleytronics applications.
Current-driven non-linear magnetodynamics in exchange-biased spin valves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seinige, Heidi; Wang, Cheng; Tsoi, Maxim, E-mail: tsoi@physics.utexas.edu [Physics Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2015-05-07
This work investigates the excitation of parametric resonance in exchange-biased spin valves (EBSVs). Using a mechanical point contact, high density dc and microwave currents were injected into the EBSV sample. Observing the reflected microwave power and the small rectification voltage that develops across the contact allows detecting the current-driven magnetodynamics not only in the bulk sample but originating exclusively from the small contact region. In addition to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), parametric resonance at twice the natural FMR frequency was observed. In contrast to FMR, this non-linear resonance was excited only in the vicinity of the point contact where current densities are high. Power-dependent measurements displayed a typical threshold-like behavior of parametric resonance and a broadening of the instability region with increasing power. Parametric resonance showed a linear shift as a function of applied dc bias which is consistent with the field-like spin-transfer torque induced by current on magnetic moments in EBSV.
Spin-current injection and detection in κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Qiu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Spin-current injection into an organic semiconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br film induced by the spin pumping from an yttrium iron garnet (YIG film. When magnetization dynamics in the YIG film is excited by ferromagnetic or spin-wave resonance, a voltage signal was found to appear in the κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br film. Magnetic-field-angle dependence measurements indicate that the voltage signal is governed by the inverse spin Hall effect in κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br. We found that the voltage signal in the κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br/YIG system is critically suppressed around 80 K, around which magnetic and/or glass transitions occur, implying that the efficiency of the spin-current injection is suppressed by fluctuations which critically enhanced near the transitions.
Petitjean, Cyril; Luc, David; Waintal, Xavier
2012-09-14
Spins transverse to the magnetization of a ferromagnet only survive over a short distance. We develop a drift-diffusion approach that captures the main features of transverse spin effects in systems with arbitrary spin textures (e.g., vortices and domain walls) and generalizes the Valet-Fert theory. In addition to the standard characteristic lengths (mean free path for majority and minority electrons, and spin diffusion length), the theory introduces two length scales, the transverse spin coherence length ℓ(⊥) and the (Larmor) spin precession length ℓ(L). We show how ℓ(L) and ℓ(⊥) can be extracted from ab initio calculations or measured with giant magnetoresistance experiments. In long (adiabatic) domain walls, we provide an analytic formula that expresses the so-called "nonadiabatic" (or fieldlike) torque in terms of these length scales. However, this nonadiabatic torque is no longer a simple material parameter but depends on the actual spin texture: in thin (<10 nm) domain walls, we observe very significant deviations from the adiabatic limit.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jie Binbin; Sah Chih-Tang
2009-01-01
This paper reports the DC steady-state current-voltage and conductance-voltage characteristics of a Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor (BiFET) under the unipolar (electron) current mode of operation, with bipolar (elec-tron and hole) charge distributions considered. The model BiFET example presented has two MOS-gates on the two surfaces of a thin pure silicon base layer with electron and hole contacts on both edges of the thin base. The hole contacts on both edges of the thin pure base layer are grounded to give zero hole current. This 1-transistor analog-RF Basic Building Block nMOS amplifier circuit, operated in the unipolar current mode, complements the 1-transistor digital Basic Build Block CMOS voltage inverter circuit, operated in the bipolar-current mode just presented by us.
The Operator Product Expansion between the 16 Lowest Higher Spin Currents in the N=4 Superspace
Ahn, Changhyun
2015-01-01
Some of the operator product expansions (OPEs) between the lowest 16 higher spin currents of spins (1, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) in an extension of the large N=4 linear superconformal algebra were constructed in the N=4 superconformal coset SU(5)/SU(3) theory previously. In this paper, by rewriting the above OPEs in the N=4 superspace developed by Schoutens (and other groups), the remaining undetermined OPEs where the corresponding singular terms possess the composite fields with spins s =7/2, 4, 9/2, 5 are completely determined. Furthermore, by introducing the arbitrary coefficients in front of the composite fields in the right hand sides of the above complete 136 OPEs, reexpressing them in the N=2 superspace and using the N=2 OPEs mathematica package by Krivonos and Thielemans, the complete structures of the above OPEs with fixed coefficient functions are obtained with the help of various Jacobi identities. Then one obtains ten N=2 super OPEs between the four N=2 higher sp...
Spin Funneling for Enhanced Spin Injection into Ferromagnets
Sayed, Shehrin; Diep, Vinh Q.; Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Datta, Supriyo
2016-07-01
It is well-established that high spin-orbit coupling (SOC) materials convert a charge current density into a spin current density which can be used to switch a magnet efficiently and there is increasing interest in identifying materials with large spin Hall angle for lower switching current. Using experimentally benchmarked models, we show that composite structures can be designed using existing spin Hall materials such that the effective spin Hall angle is larger by an order of magnitude. The basic idea is to funnel spins from a large area of spin Hall material into a small area of ferromagnet using a normal metal with large spin diffusion length and low resistivity like Cu or Al. We show that this approach is increasingly effective as magnets get smaller. We avoid unwanted charge current shunting by the low resistive NM layer utilizing the newly discovered phenomenon of pure spin conduction in ferromagnetic insulators via magnon diffusion. We provide a spin circuit model for magnon diffusion in FMI that is benchmarked against recent experiments and theory.
Antiferromagnetic THz-frequency Josephson-like Oscillator Driven by Spin Current
Khymyn, Roman; Lisenkov, Ivan; Tiberkevich, Vasyl; Ivanov, Boris A.; Slavin, Andrei
2017-01-01
The development of compact and tunable room temperature sources of coherent THz-frequency signals would open a way for numerous new applications. The existing approaches to THz-frequency generation based on superconductor Josephson junctions (JJ), free electron lasers, and quantum cascades require cryogenic temperatures or/and complex setups, preventing the miniaturization and wide use of these devices. We demonstrate theoretically that a bi-layer of a heavy metal (Pt) and a bi-axial antiferromagnetic (AFM) dielectric (NiO) can be a source of a coherent THz signal. A spin-current flowing from a DC-current-driven Pt layer and polarized along the hard AFM anisotropy axis excites a non-uniform in time precession of magnetizations sublattices in the AFM, due to the presence of a weak easy-plane AFM anisotropy. The frequency of the AFM oscillations varies in the range of 0.1–2.0 THz with the driving current in the Pt layer from 108 A/cm2 to 109 A/cm2. The THz-frequency signal from the AFM with the amplitude exceeding 1 V/cm is picked up by the inverse spin-Hall effect in Pt. The operation of a room-temperature AFM THz-frequency oscillator is similar to that of a cryogenic JJ oscillator, with the energy of the easy-plane magnetic anisotropy playing the role of the Josephson energy. PMID:28262731
Antiferromagnetic THz-frequency Josephson-like Oscillator Driven by Spin Current
Khymyn, Roman; Lisenkov, Ivan; Tiberkevich, Vasyl; Ivanov, Boris A.; Slavin, Andrei
2017-03-01
The development of compact and tunable room temperature sources of coherent THz-frequency signals would open a way for numerous new applications. The existing approaches to THz-frequency generation based on superconductor Josephson junctions (JJ), free electron lasers, and quantum cascades require cryogenic temperatures or/and complex setups, preventing the miniaturization and wide use of these devices. We demonstrate theoretically that a bi-layer of a heavy metal (Pt) and a bi-axial antiferromagnetic (AFM) dielectric (NiO) can be a source of a coherent THz signal. A spin-current flowing from a DC-current-driven Pt layer and polarized along the hard AFM anisotropy axis excites a non-uniform in time precession of magnetizations sublattices in the AFM, due to the presence of a weak easy-plane AFM anisotropy. The frequency of the AFM oscillations varies in the range of 0.1–2.0 THz with the driving current in the Pt layer from 108 A/cm2 to 109 A/cm2. The THz-frequency signal from the AFM with the amplitude exceeding 1 V/cm is picked up by the inverse spin-Hall effect in Pt. The operation of a room-temperature AFM THz-frequency oscillator is similar to that of a cryogenic JJ oscillator, with the energy of the easy-plane magnetic anisotropy playing the role of the Josephson energy.
van Bree, J.; Silov, A. Yu.; van Maasakkers, M. L.; Pryor, C. E.; Flatté, M. E.; Koenraad, P. M.
2016-01-01
Using single spins in semiconductor quantum dots as qubits requires full control over the spin state. As the g tensor provides the coupling in a Hamiltonian between a spin and an external magnetic field, a deeper understanding of the g tensor underlies magnetic-field control of the spin. The g tensor is affected by the presence of spin-correlated orbital currents, of which the spatial structure has been recently clarified. Here we extend that framework to investigate the influence of the shape of quantum dots on the anisotropy of the electron g tensor. We find that the spin-correlated orbital currents form a simple current loop perpendicular to the magnetic moment's orientation. The current loop is therefore directly sensitive to the shape of the nanostructure: for cylindrical quantum dots, the electron g -tensor anisotropy is mainly governed by the aspect ratio of the dots. Through a systematic experimental study of the size dependence of the separate electron and hole g tensors of InAs/InP quantum dots, we have validated this picture. Moreover, we find that through size engineering it is possible to independently change the sign of the in-plane and growth direction electron g factors. The hole g tensor is found to be strongly anisotropic and very sensitive to the radius and elongation. The comparable importance of itinerant and localized currents to the hole g tensor complicates the analysis relative to the electron g tensor.
Current-induced switching in a magnetic insulator
Avci, Can Onur; Quindeau, Andy; Pai, Chi-Feng; Mann, Maxwell; Caretta, Lucas; Tang, Astera S.; Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.
2016-11-01
The spin Hall effect in heavy metals converts charge current into pure spin current, which can be injected into an adjacent ferromagnet to exert a torque. This spin-orbit torque (SOT) has been widely used to manipulate the magnetization in metallic ferromagnets. In the case of magnetic insulators (MIs), although charge currents cannot flow, spin currents can propagate, but current-induced control of the magnetization in a MI has so far remained elusive. Here we demonstrate spin-current-induced switching of a perpendicularly magnetized thulium iron garnet film driven by charge current in a Pt overlayer. We estimate a relatively large spin-mixing conductance and damping-like SOT through spin Hall magnetoresistance and harmonic Hall measurements, respectively, indicating considerable spin transparency at the Pt/MI interface. We show that spin currents injected across this interface lead to deterministic magnetization reversal at low current densities, paving the road towards ultralow-dissipation spintronic devices based on MIs.
Current-induced magnetization switching with a spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope
Krause, Stefan
2008-03-01
In present data storage applications magnetic nanostructures are switched by external magnetic fields. Due to their non-local character, however, cross-talk between adjacent nanomagnets may occur. An elegant method to circumvent this problem is magnetization switching by spin-polarized currents, as observed in GMR,1] as well as in TMR,2] studies. However, the layered structures of these devices do not provide any insight to the details of the spatial distribution of the switching processes. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) is a well-established tool to reveal the magnetic structure of surfaces at spatial resolution down to the atomic scale. Besides, SP-STM takes advantage of a perfect TMR junction consisting of an isolating vacuum barrier separating two magnetic electrodes, which are represented by the foremost tip atom and the sample. Our experiments demonstrate that SP-STM serves as a tool to manipulate the switching behavior of uniaxial superparamagnetic nanoislands,3]. Furthermore, we show how SP-STM can be used to switch the magnetization of quasistable magnetic nanoislands at low temperature (T=31,). Besides its scientific relevance to investigate the details of current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS), this technique opens perspectives for future data storage technologies based on SP-STM. [1] J. A. Katine et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3149 (2000). [2] Y. Liu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2871 (2003). [3] S. Krause et al., Science 317, 1537 (2007).
4pi periodic Josephson current through a Quantum Spin-Hall edge
Dahlhaus, Jan; Beenakker, Carlo; Pikulin, Dmitry; Hyart, Timo; Schomerus, Henning
2014-03-01
The helical edge state of a quantum spin-Hall insulator can carry a supercurrent in equilibrium between two superconducting electrodes (separation L, coherence length ?). We calculate the maximum (critical) current Ic that can flow without dissipation along a single edge, going beyond the short-junction restriction L?? of earlier work, and find a dependence on the fermion parity of the ground state when L becomes larger than ?. Fermion-parity conservation doubles the critical current in the low-temperature, long-junction limit, while for a short junction Ic is the same with or without parity constraints. This provides a phase-insensitive, dc signature of the 4?-periodic Josephson effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouchiat, C.; Piketty, C.A. (Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique)
1991-01-01
Left-right symmetries in atomic transitions, depending upon the nuclear spin, could be a source of information on the neutral hadronic axial current. We show that the relevant electroweak parameter can be extracted from experiment by measuring hyperfine component ratios which do not involve the knowledge of the atomic wave function. In the standard electroweak model, the parity violating electron-nucleus interaction associated with the hadronic axial neutral current is accidently suppressed and, as a consequence, dominated by the electron interaction with the nuclear anapole moment, which describes the effect of the parity violating nuclear forces on the nucleus electromagnetic current. One of our objectives was to identify the various physical mechanisms which determine the size of the nuclear anapole moments. As an important step, we have established a simple relation between the anapole moment and the nuclear spin magnetization. From this relation it follows that the computation of the anapole moment can be reduced to that of one-body operators. The basic tool is a unitary transformation W which eliminates the one-body parity violating potential from the nuclear hamiltonian. A particular attention was paid to nuclear correlation effects. They are treated semi-empirically in the independent pair approximation. The nuclear anapole moments of {sup 85}Rb, {sup 133}Cs, and {sup 209}Bi have been evaluated for three sets of parity violating meson-nucleon coupling constants, taking into account configuration mixing effects in a semi-empirical way. We suggest a possible strategy to disentangle the axial neutral current from the anapole moment contribution. (orig.).
Wang, X.-G.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Guo, G.-H.; Sukhov, A.; Dugaev, V.; Barnaś, J.; Berakdar, J.
2016-09-01
Thermally activated domain-wall (DW) motion in magnetic insulators has been considered theoretically, with a particular focus on the role of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and thermomagnonic torques. The thermally assisted DW motion is a consequence of the magnonic spin current due to the applied thermal bias. In addition to the exchange magnonic spin current and the exchange adiabatic and the entropic spin transfer torques, we also consider the DMI-induced magnonic spin current, thermomagnonic DMI fieldlike torque, and the DMI entropic torque. Analytical estimations are supported by numerical calculations. We found that the DMI has a substantial influence on the size and the geometry of DWs, and that the DWs become oriented parallel to the long axis of the nanostrip. Increasing the temperature smoothes the DWs. Moreover, the thermally induced magnonic current generates a torque on the DWs, which is responsible for their motion. From our analysis it follows that for a large enough DMI the influence of DMI-induced fieldlike torque is much stronger than that of the DMI and the exchange entropic torques. By manipulating the strength of the DMI constant, one can control the speed of the DW motion, and the direction of the DW motion can be switched, as well. We also found that DMI not only contributes to the total magnonic current, but also it modifies the exchange magnonic spin current, and this modification depends on the orientation of the steady-state magnetization. The observed phenomenon can be utilized in spin caloritronics devices, for example in the DMI based thermal diodes. By switching the magnetization direction, one can rectify the total magnonic spin current.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horley, Paul P., E-mail: paul.horley@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Kushnir, Mykola Ya. [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Morales-Meza, Mishel [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Sukhov, Alexander [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Rusyn, Volodymyr [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine)
2016-04-01
We report on complex magnetization dynamics in a forced spin valve oscillator subjected to a varying magnetic field and a constant spin-polarized current. The transition from periodic to chaotic magnetic motion was illustrated with bifurcation diagrams and Hausdorff dimension – the methods developed for dissipative self-organizing systems. It was shown that bifurcation cascades can be obtained either by tuning the injected spin-polarized current or by changing the magnitude of applied magnetic field. The order–chaos transition in magnetization dynamics can be also directly observed from the hysteresis curves. The resulting complex oscillations are useful for development of spin-valve devices operating in harmonic and chaotic modes.
The structure of the trace anomaly of higher spin conformal currents in the bulk of $AdS_{4}$
Manvelyan, R; Manvelyan, Ruben; Ruehl, Werner
2006-01-01
The two-point function of the conserved traceless spin-$\\ell$ currents which are constructed from the scalar field $\\sigma(z)$ is evaluated and renormalized by a dimensional regularization procedure. The anomaly is managed to arise only in the trace part. To isolate this trace anomaly it is sufficient to analyze only the maximum singular part of the two-point function and its trace terms to leading order. The corresponding part of the effective action which is quadratic in the trace of the higher spin field is explicitly given. For the spin-2 field which is identical with the gravitational field the results known from the literature are reproduced.
Hojem, A.; Wesenberg, D.; Zink, B. L.
2016-07-01
We present measurements of thermal and electrical spin injection in nanoscale metallic nonlocal spin valve structures. Informed by measurements of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of representative films made using a micromachined Si-N thermal isolation platform, we use simple analytical and finite-element thermal models to determine limits on the thermal gradient driving thermal spin injection and calculate the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient to be -0.5 μ V /K >Ss>-1.6 μ V /K . This is comparable in terms of the fraction of the absolute Seebeck coefficient to previous results, despite dramatically smaller electrical spin injection signals. Since the small electrical spin signals are likely caused by interfacial effects, we conclude that thermal spin injection is less sensitive to the ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic interface, and possibly benefits from the presence of oxidized ferromagnets, which further stimulates interest in thermal spin injection for applications in sensors and pure spin current sources.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beddo, M.E.
1990-10-01
A measurement off {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np), the difference between neutron-proton total cross sections in pure longitudinal spin states, is described. The results will help determine the isospin-zero (I = 0) scattering amplitudes, which are not well known above laboratory energies of 500 MeV, whereas the isospin-one (I = 1) amplitudes are fairly well-determined to 1 GeV. Data points were taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at Los Alamos, New Mexico, for five neutron beam energies: 484, 568, 634,720 and 788 MeV; they are the first in this energy range. Polarized neutrons were produced by charge-exchange of polarized protons on a liquid deuterium target (LD{sub 2}). Large-volume neutron counters detected the neutrons that passed through a polarized proton target. The counters subtended a range of solid angles large enough to allow extrapolation of the scattered neutrons to 0{degree}. Two modifications to the LAMPF accelerator system which were made for this work are described. They included a beam buncher,'' which modified the normal rf-time structure of the proton beam and allowed for the selection of peak-energy neutrons by time-of-flight means, and a computerized beam steering program, which reduced systematic effects due to beam motion at the LD{sub 2} target. The experimental values of {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np) are found to be consistent with other np data, including preliminary data from SIN and Saclay, but not with some results from Argonne which used a polarized proton beam and a polarized deuteron target. The I = 0 component was extracted from {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np) using existing pp data (I = 1), with the unexpected result that {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(I = 0) was found to be essentially identical in shape to {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(I = 1). The significance of this is not yet understood.
Ghosh, Abhijit; Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Gabureac, Mihai; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-01-01
Magnetic heterostructures that combine large spin-orbit torque efficiency, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and low resistivity are key to developing electrically controlled memory and logic devices. Here, we report on vector measurements of the current-induced spin-orbit torques and magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Pd /Co /AlOx layers as a function of Pd thickness. We find sizable dampinglike (DL) and fieldlike (FL) torques, on the order of 1 mT per 107 A /cm2 , which have different thicknesses and magnetization angle dependencies. The analysis of the DL torque efficiency per unit current density and the electric field using drift-diffusion theory leads to an effective spin Hall angle and spin-diffusion length of Pd larger than 0.03 and 7 nm, respectively. The FL spin-orbit torque includes a significant interface contribution, is larger than estimated using drift-diffusion parameters, and, furthermore, is strongly enhanced upon rotation of the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane direction. Finally, taking advantage of the large spin-orbit torques in this system, we demonstrate bipolar magnetization switching of Pd /Co /AlOx layers with a similar current density to that used for Pt /Co layers with a comparable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.
Magnetic-texture-controlled transverse spin injection
van der Bijl, E.; Troncoso, R.E.; Duine, R.A.
2013-01-01
We propose an effect whereby an electric current along the interface between a ferromagnetic and normalmetal leads to injection of pure spin current into the normal metal, if the magnetization direction in the ferromagnet varies spatially along the direction of current. For the specific example of a
Peculiarities of performance of the spin valve for the superconducting current
Leksin, P. V.; Kamashev, A. A.; Garif'yanov, N. N.; Garifullin, I. A.; Fominov, Ya. V.; Schumann, J.; Hess, C.; Kataev, V.; Büchner, B.
2013-06-01
The spin valve effect for the superconducting current based on the superconductor/ferromagnet proximity effect has been studied for a CoO x /Fe1/Cu/Fe2/Cu/Pb multilayer. The magnitude of the effect Δ T c = T {/c AP} - T {/c P}, where T {/c P} and T {/c AP} are the superconducting transition temperatures for the parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) orientation of magnetizations, respectively, has been measured for different thicknesses of the Fe1 layer d Fe1. The obtained dependence of the effect on d Fe1 reveals that Δ T c can be increased in comparison with the case of a half-infinite Fe1 layer considered by the previous theory. A maximum of the spin valve effect occurs at d Fe1 ˜ d Fe2. At the optimal value of d Fe1 almost full switching from the normal to the superconducting state when changing the mutual orientation of magnetizations of the iron layers Fe1 and Fe2 from P to AP is demonstrated.
Spin-up, adjustment and equilibrium state of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Johnson, H. L.; Allison, L. C.; Marshall, D. P.; Munday, D. R.
2009-04-01
An analytical model will be presented for the spin-up, adjustment and equilibrium state of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in a reduced-gravity ocean, forced by wind stress, buoyancy forcing and diapycnal mixing. The initial spin-up from a shallow pycnocline (consistent with Sandstrom's theorem) is controlled by diapycnal mixing, but the eventual equilibration/adjustment time-scale is controlled by the Gent and McWilliams eddy transfer coefficient. This has important implications for climate model studies, which greatly underestimate the sensitivity of eddy fluxes to changes in the mean strength of the ACC. We also find that diapycnal mixing plays an important role in setting the mean strength of the ACC, in particular in the limit of strong diapycnal mixing (10-4 m2 s-1). This is for precisely the same reasons that diapycnal mixing may be important in setting the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The theoretical predictions are compared with the results of numerical calculations carried out with the MITgcm, in a global configuration with parameterized eddies, and in an idealized basin/re-entrant channel configuration with partially resolved eddies. The relationship between ACC adjustment, the global pycnocline and the AMOC, as well as the possibility of exciting seiching modes between the different basins, will also be discussed.
Spin pumping and spin-orbit effects in Ge (Conference Presentation)
Oyarzún, Simón; Nandy, Ashis Kumar; Rortais, Fabien; Rojas-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Laczkowski, Piotr; Pouget, Stephanie; Okuno, Hanako; Vila, Laurent; Vergnaud, Céline; Beigne, Cyrille; Marty, Alain; Attané, Jean Philippe; Gambarelli, Serge; George, Jean Marie; Jaffres, Henri; Blügel, Stefan; Jamet, Matthieu
2016-10-01
The field of spintronics is based on the manipulation of the spin degree of freedom. It uses the carrier spin angular momentum as a basic functional unit in addition to the charge. The first requirement of a semiconductor-based spintronic technology is the efficient generation of spin-polarized carriers into the device heterostructure made of Si or Ge (the materials of mainstream microelectronics) at room temperature. In this presentation, we focus on the generation of a sizeable spin population into Ge by spin pumping. Spin pumping corresponds to the generation of a pure spin current in the Ge film by exciting the ferromagnetic resonance of an adjacent ferromagnetic electrode with microwaves. The pure spin current is then detected using spin-orbit based effects. Our aim is to understand the basic mechanisms of spin pumping into Ge as well as the spin-to-charge conversion by inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE, bulk effect) [1-4] and Rashba-Edelstein effect (interface effect) [5]. The influence of interface states is clearly demonstrated. Moreover, using the spin-split Rashba sub-surface states of the Ge(111) surface, we succeeded in demonstrating a giant conversion of a spin current generated by spin pumping into a charge current by the Rashba-Edelstein effect [6,7]. Our experimental findings are supported by ab-initio calculations. 1. Rojas-Sánchez, J.-C. et al. Spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect in germanium. Phys. Rev. B 88, (2013). 2. Kato, Y. K., Myers, R. C., Gossard, A. C. and Awschalom, D. D. Observation of the spin Hall effect in semiconductors. Science 306, 1910-1913 (2004). 3. Valenzuela, S. O. and Tinkham, M. Direct electronic measurement of the spin Hall effect. Nature 442, 176-179 (2006). 4. Saitoh, E., Ueda, M., Miyajima, H. and Tatara, G. Conversion of spin current into charge current at room temperature: Inverse spin-Hall effect. Appl Phys Lett 88, 2509 (2006). 5. Bychkov, Y. A. and Rashba, E. I. Oscillatory effects and the magnetic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ueda, K.; Koyama, T.; Hiramatsu, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Chiba, D. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 322-0012 (Japan); Fukami, S. [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tanigawa, H.; Suzuki, T. [RENESAS Electronics Corporation, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5298 (Japan); Ohshima, N. [NEC Energy Device Ltd., 1120 Shimokuzawa, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5298 (Japan); Ishiwata, N. [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Nakatani, Y. [University of Electro-communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)
2012-05-14
We have investigated the temperature dependence of the current-induced magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni nanowire at various temperatures and with various applied currents. The carrier spin polarization was estimated from the measured domain wall velocity. We found that it decreased more with increasing temperature from 100 K to 530 K than the saturation magnetization did.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seemann, K M; Hickey, M C; Baltz, V; Hickey, B J; Marrows, C H [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.seemann@fz-juelich.de, E-mail: c.h.marrows@leeds.ac.uk
2010-03-15
We report magnetic domain wall (DW) resistance in epitaxial films of FePd. When equal numbers of Fe and Pd atoms are present, this material forms an ordered structure with alternating crystal planes of Fe and Pd. We prepared films enriched with Pd to varying degrees, gradually degrading this structure. As might be expected, this increased the electrical resistivity of the films by introducing extra defects that can scatter electrons. However, unexpectedly, the additional resistance arising from the {approx}10 nm thick DWs rose as a proportion of the overall resistivity, roughly doubling when halving the degree of chemical ordering-as determined from x-ray diffraction measurements-within the films. These data can be used to infer a rise in the spin polarization of the current flowing in the layers when extra Pd atoms are introduced. On the other hand, a separate measurement of spin polarization using a superconducting point contact technique that is insensitive to electron scattering revealed no changes as extra Pd was introduced. We conclude that Pd atoms scatter electrons of one spin far more strongly than the other, suggesting a possible means of producing highly spin-polarized currents for use in spintronic devices.
Maslova, N. S.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Arseyev, P. I.
2017-02-01
We perform theoretical investigation of the localized state dynamics in the presence of interaction with the reservoir and Coulomb correlations. We analyze kinetic equations for electron occupation numbers with different spins taking into account high order correlation functions for the localized electrons. We reveal that in the stationary state electron occupation numbers with the opposite spins always have the same value - the stationary state is a "paramagnetic" one. "Magnetic" properties can appear only in the non-stationary characteristics of the single-impurity Anderson model and in the dynamics of the localized electrons second order correlation functions. We found, that for deep energy levels and strong Coulomb correlations, relaxation time for initial "magnetic" state can be several orders larger than for "paramagnetic" one. So, long-living "magnetic" moment can exist in the system. We also found non-stationary spin polarized currents flowing in opposite directions for the different spins in the particular time interval.
Thermal generation of spin current in epitaxial CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Er-Jia, E-mail: ejguophysics@gmail.com, E-mail: klaeui@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Herklotz, Andreas [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Kehlberger, Andreas; Cramer, Joel; Jakob, Gerhard; Kläui, Mathias, E-mail: ejguophysics@gmail.com, E-mail: klaeui@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany)
2016-01-11
The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) has been investigated in high-quality epitaxial CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) thin films. The thermally excited spin currents in the CFO films are electrically detected in adjacent Pt layers due to the inverse spin Hall effect. The LSSE signal exhibits a linear increase with increasing temperature gradient, yielding a LSSE coefficient of ∼100 nV/K at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the LSSE is investigated from room temperature down to 30 K, showing a significant reduction at low temperatures, revealing that the total amount of thermally generated magnons decreases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spin Seebeck effect is an effective tool to study the magnetic anisotropy induced by epitaxial strain, especially in ultrathin films with low magnetic moments.
Origin and enhancement of spin polarized current in diluted magnetic oxides by oxygen vacancies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Hsiung, E-mail: hchou@mail.nsysu.edu.tw; Yang, Kung-Shang; Tsao, Yao-Chung; Dwivedi, G. D.; Lin, Cheng-Pang [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lienhai Road, Gushan District, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Sun, Shih-Jye [Department of Applied Physics, National Kaohsiung University, 700, Gaoxiongdaxue Rd., Nanzi District, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Lin, L. K.; Lee, S. F. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)
2016-04-04
Spin polarized current (SPC) is a crucial characteristic of diluted magnetic oxides due to the potential application of oxides in spintronic devices. However, most research has been focused on ferromagnetic properties rather than polarization of electric current, because direct measurements are difficult and the origin of SPC has yet to be fully understood. The method to increase the SPC percentage is beyond practical consideration at present. To address this problem, we focus on the role of oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) on SPC, which are controlled by growing the Co-doped ZnO thin-films at room temperature in a reducing atmosphere [Ar + (1%–30%)H{sub 2}]. We found that the conductivity increases with an increase of V{sub O} via two independent channels: the variable range hopping (VRH) within localized states and the itinerant transport in the conduction band. The point contact Andreev reflection measurements at 4.2 K, where the electric conduction is governed only by the VRH mechanism, prove that the current flowing in the VRH hopping channel is SPC. The percentage of SPC increases with the introduction of V{sub O} and increase in its concentration. The transport measurement shows that by manipulating V{sub O}, one can control the percentage of VRH hopping conduction such that it can even dominate room temperature conduction. The highest achieved SPC ratio at room temperature was 80%.
Persson, Daniel; Shevtsov, Oleksii; Löfwander, Tomas; Fogelström, Mikael
2016-10-01
Conventional superconductors disordered by magnetic impurities demonstrate physical properties that are drastically different from their pristine counterparts. In our previous work [D. Persson et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 245430 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.245430], we explored the spectral and thermodynamic properties of such systems for two extreme cases: completely random and ferromagnetically aligned impurity magnetic moments. Here we consider the transport properties of these systems and show that they have a potential to be used in superconducting spintronic devices. Each magnetic impurity contributes a Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) bound state to the spectrum, residing at subgap energies. Provided the YSR states form metallic bands, we demonstrate that the tunneling current carried by these states can be highly spin polarized when the impurities are ferromagnetically ordered. The spin polarization can be switched by tuning the bias voltage. Moreover, even when the impurity spins are completely uncorrelated, one can still achieve almost 100 % spin polarization of the current, if the tunnel interface is spin active. We compute electric current and noise, varying parameters of the interface between tunneling and fully transparent regimes, and analyze the relative role of single-particle and Andreev reflection processes.
Spin Hall effects in metallic multilayers (Conference Presentation)
Woltersdorf, Georg; Wei, Dahai H.; Obstbaum, Martin; Back, Christian H.; Decker, Martin
2016-10-01
We study the direct as well as the inverse SHE. In the case of the direct SHE a dc charge current is applied in the plane of a ferromagnet/normal metal layer stack and the SHE creates a spin polarization at the surface of the normal metal leading to the injection of a spin current into the ferromagnet. This spin current is absorbed in the ferromagnet and causes a spin transfer torque. Using time and spatially resolved Kerr microscopy we measure the transferred spin momentum and compute the spin Hall angle. In a second set of experiments using identical samples pure spin currents are injected by the spin pumping effect from the ferromagnet into the normal metal. The spin current injected by spin pumping has a large ac component transverse to the static magnetization direction and a very small dc component parallel to the magnetization direction. The inverse SHE converts these spin current into charge current. The corresponding inverse SHE voltages induced by spin pumping at ferromagnetic resonance are measured in permalloy/platinum and permalloy/gold multilayers in various excitation geometries and as a function of frequency in order to separate the contributions of anisotropic magnetoresistance and SHE. In addition, we present experimental evidence for the ac component of inverse SHE voltages generated by spin pumping.
Spin pumping with coherent elastic waves
Weiler, M.; Huebl, H.; Goerg, F. S.; Czeschka, F. D.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.
2012-02-01
The generation and detection of pure spin currents is an important topic for spintronic applications. Spin currents may be generated, e.g., via spin pumping. In this approach, a precessing magnetization relaxes via the emission of a spin current. Conventionally, electromagnetic waves, i.e. microwave photons, are used to drive the magnetization precession. We here show that a spin current can also be pumped by means of an acoustic wave, i.e. microwave phonons. In the experiments, coherent surface acoustic wave (SAW) phonons with a frequency of 1.55 GHz traverse a ferromagnetic thin film/normal metal (Co/Pt) bilayer. The SAW phonons drive the resonant magnetization precession via magnetoelastic coupling [1]. We use the inverse spin Hall voltage in the Pt film as a measure for the generated spin current and record its evolution as a function of time and external magnetic field magnitude and orientation. Our experiments show that a spin current is generated in the exclusive presence of a resonant elastic excitation. This establishes acoustic spin pumping as a resonant analogue to the spin Seebeck effect and opens intriguing perspectives for applications in, e.g., micromechanical resonators. [4pt] [1] M. Weiler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 117601 (2011)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Nian-Bei; MA Zhong-Shui
2004-01-01
We present a comprehensive view and details of calculations on Aharonov-Anandan phase for the charged particles in the external electric and magnetic fields for a nonadiabatic process. We derive, with consideration of a spin-orbit interaction and Zeemann Splitting, the persistent currents as a response to an Aharonov-Casher topological interference effect in one-dimensional mesoscopic ring. We also establish a connection to Berry adiabatic phase with deduced dynamical-nature dependence in the nonadiabatic process. The second quantization representation has also been employed in exhibition of persistent currents in the many-body case.
Spin-current injection and detection in κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, Z., E-mail: qiuzy@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Hou, D. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Uruichi, M. [Research Center of Integrative Molecular Systems (CIMoS), Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Uchida, K. [Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Yamamoto, H. M. [Research Center of Integrative Molecular Systems (CIMoS), Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Saitoh, E. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan)
2015-05-15
Spin-current injection into an organic semiconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br film induced by the spin pumping from an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film. When magnetization dynamics in the YIG film is excited by ferromagnetic or spin-wave resonance, a voltage signal was found to appear in the κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br film. Magnetic-field-angle dependence measurements indicate that the voltage signal is governed by the inverse spin Hall effect in κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br. We found that the voltage signal in the κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br/YIG system is critically suppressed around 80 K, around which magnetic and/or glass transitions occur, implying that the efficiency of the spin-current injection is suppressed by fluctuations which critically enhanced near the transitions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy, Urmimala; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Bahniman; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)
2015-04-28
We consider a thermally stable, metallic nanoscale ferromagnet (FM) subject to spin-polarized current injection and exchange coupling from the spin-helically locked surface states of a topological insulator (TI) to evaluate possible non-volatile memory applications. We consider parallel transport in the TI and the metallic FM, and focus on the efficiency of magnetization switching as a function of transport between the TI and the FM. Transport is modeled as diffusive in the TI beneath the FM, consistent with the mobility in the TI at room temperature, and in the FM, which essentially serves as a constant potential region albeit spin-dependent except in the low conductivity, diffusive limit. Thus, it can be captured by drift-diffusion simulation, which allows for ready interpretation of the results. We calculate switching time and energy consumed per write operation using self-consistent transport, spin-transfer-torque (STT), and magnetization dynamics calculations. Calculated switching energies and times compare favorably to conventional spin-torque memory schemes for substantial interlayer conductivity. Nevertheless, we find that shunting of current from the TI to a metallic nanomagnet can substantially limit efficiency. Exacerbating the problem, STT from the TI effectively increases the TI resistivity. We show that for optimum performance, the sheet resistivity of the FM layer should be comparable to or larger than that of the TI surface layer. Thus, the effective conductivity of the FM layer becomes a critical design consideration for TI-based non-volatile memory.
Roy, Urmimala; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Bahniman; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.
2015-04-01
We consider a thermally stable, metallic nanoscale ferromagnet (FM) subject to spin-polarized current injection and exchange coupling from the spin-helically locked surface states of a topological insulator (TI) to evaluate possible non-volatile memory applications. We consider parallel transport in the TI and the metallic FM, and focus on the efficiency of magnetization switching as a function of transport between the TI and the FM. Transport is modeled as diffusive in the TI beneath the FM, consistent with the mobility in the TI at room temperature, and in the FM, which essentially serves as a constant potential region albeit spin-dependent except in the low conductivity, diffusive limit. Thus, it can be captured by drift-diffusion simulation, which allows for ready interpretation of the results. We calculate switching time and energy consumed per write operation using self-consistent transport, spin-transfer-torque (STT), and magnetization dynamics calculations. Calculated switching energies and times compare favorably to conventional spin-torque memory schemes for substantial interlayer conductivity. Nevertheless, we find that shunting of current from the TI to a metallic nanomagnet can substantially limit efficiency. Exacerbating the problem, STT from the TI effectively increases the TI resistivity. We show that for optimum performance, the sheet resistivity of the FM layer should be comparable to or larger than that of the TI surface layer. Thus, the effective conductivity of the FM layer becomes a critical design consideration for TI-based non-volatile memory.
Wu, Di; Yu, Guoqiang; Shao, Qiming; Li, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Wong, Kin L.; Zhang, Zongzhi; Han, Xiufeng; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.
2016-05-01
We study spin-orbit-torque (SOT)-driven magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Ta/Mo/Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB)/MgO films. The thermal tolerance of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is enhanced, and the films sustain the PMA at annealing temperatures of up to 430 °C, due to the ultra-thin Mo layer inserted between the Ta and CoFeB layers. More importantly, the Mo insertion layer also allows for the transmission of the spin current generated in the Ta layer due to spin Hall effect, which generates a damping-like SOT and is able to switch the perpendicular magnetization. When the Ta layer is replaced by a Pt layer, i.e., in a Pt/Mo/CoFeB/MgO multilayer, the direction of the SOT-induced damping-like effective field becomes opposite because of the opposite sign of spin Hall angle in Pt, which indicates that the SOT-driven switching is dominated by the spin current generated in the Ta or Pt layer rather than the Mo layer. Quantitative characterization through harmonic measurements reveals that the large SOT effective field is preserved for high annealing temperatures. This work provides a route to applying SOT in devices requiring high temperature processing steps during the back-end-of-line processes.
Charge and spin transport in mesoscopic superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Wolf
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Non-equilibrium charge transport in superconductors has been investigated intensely in the 1970s and 1980s, mostly in the vicinity of the critical temperature. Much less attention has been paid to low temperatures and the role of the quasiparticle spin.Results: We report here on nonlocal transport in superconductor hybrid structures at very low temperatures. By comparing the nonlocal conductance obtained by using ferromagnetic and normal-metal detectors, we discriminate charge and spin degrees of freedom. We observe spin injection and long-range transport of pure, chargeless spin currents in the regime of large Zeeman splitting. We elucidate charge and spin transport by comparison to theoretical models.Conclusion: The observed long-range chargeless spin transport opens a new path to manipulate and utilize the quasiparticle spin in superconductor nanostructures.
Observation of the spin Seebeck effect.
Uchida, K; Takahashi, S; Harii, K; Ieda, J; Koshibae, W; Ando, K; Maekawa, S; Saitoh, E
2008-10-09
The generation of electric voltage by placing a conductor in a temperature gradient is called the Seebeck effect. Its efficiency is represented by the Seebeck coefficient, S, which is defined as the ratio of the generated electric voltage to the temperature difference, and is determined by the scattering rate and the density of the conduction electrons. The effect can be exploited, for example, in thermal electric-power generators and for temperature sensing, by connecting two conductors with different Seebeck coefficients, a device called a thermocouple. Here we report the observation of the thermal generation of driving power, or voltage, for electron spin: the spin Seebeck effect. Using a recently developed spin-detection technique that involves the spin Hall effect, we measure the spin voltage generated from a temperature gradient in a metallic magnet. This thermally induced spin voltage persists even at distances far from the sample ends, and spins can be extracted from every position on the magnet simply by attaching a metal. The spin Seebeck effect observed here is directly applicable to the production of spin-voltage generators, which are crucial for driving spintronic devices. The spin Seebeck effect allows us to pass a pure spin current, a flow of electron spins without electric currents, over a long distance. These innovative capabilities will invigorate spintronics research.
Speed and efficiency of femtosecond spin current injection into a nonmagnetic material
Hofherr, M.; Maldonado, P.; Schmitt, O.; Berritta, M.; Bierbrauer, U.; Sadashivaiah, S.; Schellekens, A. J.; Koopmans, B.; Steil, D.; Cinchetti, M.; Stadtmüller, B.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Mathias, S.; Aeschlimann, M.
2017-09-01
We investigate femtosecond spin injection from an optically excited Ni top layer into an Au bottom layer using time-resolved complex magneto-optical Kerr effect (C-MOKE) measurements. Employing the C-MOKE formalism, we are able to follow layer-resolved demagnetization in Ni and the simultaneous spin injection into the adjacent Au film, both occurring within ˜40 fs . We confirm the ballistic to diffusive propagation of the spin transfer process with ab initio theory and superdiffusive transport calculations. In particular, our combined experimental-theoretical effort does allow us to quantify the so far elusive amount of spin injection, and therefore the spin injection efficiency at the interface.
Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid
2016-11-01
We demonstrate theoretically that atomistic spin dynamics simulations of topological magnon insulators (TMIs) provide access to the magnon-mediated transport of both spin and heat. The TMIs, modeled by kagome ferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, exhibit nonzero transverse-current correlation functions from which conductivities are derived for the entire family of magnon Hall effects. Both longitudinal and transverse conductivities are studied in dependence on temperature and on an external magnetic field. A comparison between theoretical and experimental results for Cu(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate), a recently discovered TMI, is drawn.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bostrem, I.G. [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation); Kishine, J. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Lavrov, R.V. [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, A.S. [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: alexander.ovchinnikov@usu.ru
2009-01-26
An appearance of the transport spin current in chiral helimagnet is mathematically justified based on the symmetry arguments. Although the starting Lagrangian of the chiral magnet with the Berry phase term and the parity-violating Dzyaloshinskii-Morya coupling is not manifestly Galilean invariant, the Lie point group symmetry analysis and the variational symmetry analysis elucidate the hidden Galilean symmetry and the existence of the linear momentum as a conserved Noether current, respectively.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A K Gupta; R Bajpai; J M Keller
2011-02-01
The transient current were analysed by considering the effect of variation of forming time, temperature, field and composition of blend specimens. Measurements indicated that transient charging and discharging currents exhibited thermally activated character but did not show mirror image behaviour at different temperatures and field values. The log –log plots were found to follow the Curie–Von Schweidler law with the value of decay constant `’ lying in the range of 0.029–2.9456. These observed characteristics also indicated that the transient charging in PVF:PVDF fluoro polyblends occur partly due to orientation of dipoles but predominantly due to trapped space charges and hopping of charge carriers amongst localized states. The modification in transient behaviour on blending PVDF with PVF have been explained on the basis of plasticization effect which increases free volume and molecular mobility and g modification in the trap structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Shujun; Zhang, Senfu; Zhu, Qiyuan; Liu, Xianyin; Jin, Chendong; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang, E-mail: liuqf@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2015-05-07
By micromagnetic simulation, we investigated the dynamic of magnetic vortex driven by spin-polarized current in Permalloy nanodisks in the presence of interfacial/superficial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMI). It is found that spin-polarized current can drive the vortex precession. In the presence of DMI, the oscillation frequency of the vortex is about 3 times higher than that of without DMI for the same nanodisk. Moreover, the linewidth is more narrow than that of without DMI when the radius of nanodisk is 50 nm. In addition, the vortex can support a higher current density than that of without DMI. Introduction of DMI in this system can provide a new way to design magnetic vortex oscillator.
2014-01-01
In bilayer system, consists of ferromagnetic insulator, high spin orbit coupling normal metal (FM|NM), a new ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) damping that depends on varying the thickness of the normal metal observed. This new enhancement in the damping attributed to magnetic proximity effect (MPE) at the interface, which is verified by the increases in the real part of spin mixing conductance. Spin pumping phenomena occurs when pure spin current can flow into the normal metal when the ferromagn...
Electrically controllable spin pumping in graphene via rotating magnetization
Rahimi, Mojtaba A.; Moghaddam, Ali G.
2015-07-01
We investigate pure spin pumping in graphene by imposing a ferromagnet (F) with rotating magnetization on top of it. Using the generalized scattering approach for adiabatic spin pumping, we obtain the spin current pumped through magnetic graphene to the normal (N) region. This spin current which can be easily controlled by gate voltages, reaches sufficiently large values measurable in current experimental setups. The spin current reaches its maximum when one of the spins is completely filtered because of its vanishing density of states in the ferromagnetic part. In order to study the effect of the ferromagnetic part length on the pumped spin current, the N—F—N structure is considered. It is found that in contrast to the metallic ferromagnetic materials the transverse spin coherence length can be comparable to the length of F. Subsequently, due to the quantum interferences inside the middle F region, the spin current becomes an oscillatory function of JL/\\hbar {{v}\\text{F}} in which J is the spin splitting and L is the length of F. Finally controllability of the pumped spin into two different normal sides in the N—F—N hybrid device gives rise to the spin battery effect.
Ferromagnetic/Nonmagnetic Nanostructures for the Electrical Measurement of the Spin Hall Effect.
Pham, Van Tuong; Vila, Laurent; Zahnd, Gilles; Marty, Alain; Savero-Torres, Williams; Jamet, Matthieu; Attané, Jean-Philippe
2016-11-09
Spin-orbitronics is based on the ability of spin-orbit interactions to achieve the conversion between charge currents and pure spin currents. As the precise evaluation of the conversion efficiency becomes a crucial issue, the need for straightforward ways to observe this conversion has emerged as one of the main challenges in spintronics. Here, we propose a simple device, akin to the ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayers used in most spin-orbit torques experiments, and consisting of a spin Hall effect wire connected to two transverse ferromagnetic electrodes. We show that this system allows probing electrically the direct and inverse conversion in a spin Hall effect system and measuring both the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length. By applying this method to several spin Hall effect materials (Pt, Pd, Au, Ta, W), we show that it represents a promising tool for the metrology of spin-orbit materials.
Aqeel, A.; Vera-Marun, I. J.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.; Suter, A.; van Wees, B. J.; Palstra, T. T. M.
2017-02-01
We investigated the depth dependence of current-induced magnetic fields in a bilayer of a normal metal (Au) and a ferrimagnetic insulator (Yttrium Iron Garnet—YIG) by using low energy muon spin spectroscopy (LE-μSR). This allows us to explore how these fields vary from the Au surface down to the buried Au|YIG interface, which is relevant to study physics like the spin-Hall effect. We observed a maximum shift of 0.4 G in the internal field of muons at the surface of Au film which is in close agreement with the value expected for Oersted fields. As muons are implanted closer to the Au|YIG interface, the shift is strongly suppressed, which we attribute to the dipolar fields present at the Au|YIG interface. Combining our measurements with modeling, we show that dipolar fields caused by the finite roughness of the Au|YIG interface consistently explain our observations. Our results, therefore, gauge the limits on the spatial resolution and the sensitivity of LE-μSR to the roughness of the buried magnetic interfaces, a prerequisite for future studies addressing current induced fields caused by the spin-accumulations due to the spin-Hall effect.
Neutral current and day night measurements from the pure D{sub 2}O phase of SNO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hallin, A.L.; Beier, E.W.; Biller, S.D.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler, M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Bullard, T.V.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, X.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox, G.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Handler, W.B.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hime, A.; Howe, M.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Klein, J.R.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Luoma, S.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A.D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGregor, G.; Miller, G.G.; Nally, C.W.; Noble, A.J.; Norman, E.B.; Okada, C.E.; Orrell, J.L.; Oser, S.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rosendahl, S.S.E.; Rusu, V.L.; Schaffer, K.K.; Schwendener, M.H.; Simpson, J.J.; Sims, C.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M.W.E.; Spreitzer, T.; Starinsky, N.; Stokstad, R.G.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tafirout, R.; Tagg, N.; Van Berg, R.; Van de Water, R.G.; Virtue, C.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Wark, D.L.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wittich, P.; Wouters, J.M.; Yeh, M
2003-04-01
The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a 1000 T D{sub 2}O Cerenkov detector that is sensitive to {sup 8}B solar neutrinos. The energy, radius, and direction with respect to the sun is measured for each neutrino event; these distributions are used to separately determine the rates of the charged current, neutral current and electron scattering reactions of neutrinos on deuterium. Assuming an undistorted {sup 8}B spectrum, the {nu}{sub e} component of the {sup 8}B solar flux is phi{sub e} = 1.76{sup +0.05}{sub -0.05}(stat.){sup +0.09}{sub -0.09} (syst.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} based on events with a measured kinetic energy above 5 MeV. The non-{nu}{sub e} component is phi{sub {mu}}{sub {tau}} 3.41{sup +0.45}{sub -0.45}(stat.){sup +0.48}{sub -0.45} (syst.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, 5.3{sigma} greater than zero, providing strong evidence for solar {nu}{sub e} flavor transformation. The total flux measured with the NC reaction is phi{sub NC} = 5.09{sup +0.044}{sub -0.43}(stat.){sup +0.46}{sub -0.43} (sy st.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, consistent with solar models. The night minus day rate is 14.0% {+-} 6.3%{sup +1.5}{sub -1.4}% of the average rate. If the total flux of active neutrinos is additionally constrained to have no asymmetry, the {nu}{sub e} asymmetry is found to be 7.0% {+-} 4.9%{sup +1.3}{sub -1.2}%. A global solar neutrino analysis is terms of matter-enhanced oscillations of two active flavors strongly favors the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) solution.
Spin-polarized spin-orbit-split quantum-well states in a metal film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varykhalov, Andrei; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Gudat, Wolfgang; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Rader, Oliver [BESSY Berlin (Germany); Shikin, Alexander M. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2008-07-01
Elements with high atomic number Z lead to a large spin-orbit coupling. Such materials can be used to create spin-polarized electronic states without the presence of a ferromagnet or an external magnetic field if the solid exhibits an inversion asymmetry. We create large spin-orbit splittings using a tungsten crystal as substrate and break the structural inversion symmetry through deposition of a gold quantum film. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that quantum-well states forming in the gold film are spin-orbit split and spin polarized up to a thickness of at least 10 atomic layers. This is a considerable progress as compared to the current literature which reports spin-orbit split states at metal surfaces which are either pure or covered by at most a monoatomic layer of adsorbates.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Yu-Mei; Ren Jun-Feng; Yuan Xiao-Bo; Dou Zhao-Tao; Hu Gui-Chao
2012-01-01
From experimental results of spin polarized injection and transport in organic semiconductors (OSCs),we theoretically study the current spin polarization and magnetoresistance under an electric and a magnetic field in a ferromagnetic/organic semiconductor/ferromagnetic (FM/OSC/FM) sandwich structure according to the spin drift-diffusion theory and Ohm's law.From the calculations,it is found that the interfacial current spin polarization is enhanced by several orders of magnitude through tuning the magnetic and electric fields by taking into account the specific characteristics of OSC.Furthermore,the effects of the electric and magnetic fields on the magnetoresistance are also discussed in the sandwich structure.
Design and fabrication of nano-ring MRAM demo devices based on spin-polarized current driving
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Nano-ring-type magnetic tunnel junctions(NR-MTJ)were nano-fabricated.The tunneling magnetoresistance(TMR)versus current(Ⅰ)loops of the NR-MTJs for a spin-polarized current switching were measured and the TMR ratio of around 20%～50% with a Al-O barrier at room temperature were observed.The critical value of switching current for the free Co_(60)Fe_(20)B_(20) layer between parallel and anti-parallel magnetization states is smaller than 650μA.The NR-MTJs arrays were also integrated above the transistors in ...
Absence of anomalous Nernst effect in spin Seebeck effect of Pt/YIG
Miao, B. F.; Huang, S. Y.; Qu, D.; Chien, C. L.
2016-01-01
The Pt/YIG structure has been widely used to study spin Seebeck effect (SSE), inverse spin Hall effect, and other pure spin current phenomena. However, the magnetic proximity effect in Pt when in contact with YIG, and the potential anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) may compromise the spin current phenomena in Pt/YIG. By inserting a Cu layer of various thicknesses between Pt and YIG, we have separated the signals from the SSE and that of the ANE. It is demonstrated that the thermal voltage in Pt/YIG mainly comes from spin current due to the longitudinal SSE with negligible contribution from the ANE.
Absence of anomalous Nernst effect in spin Seebeck effect of Pt/YIG
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miao, B. F., E-mail: bfmiao@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Huang, S. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Qu, D.; Chien, C. L., E-mail: clchien@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2016-01-15
The Pt/YIG structure has been widely used to study spin Seebeck effect (SSE), inverse spin Hall effect, and other pure spin current phenomena. However, the magnetic proximity effect in Pt when in contact with YIG, and the potential anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) may compromise the spin current phenomena in Pt/YIG. By inserting a Cu layer of various thicknesses between Pt and YIG, we have separated the signals from the SSE and that of the ANE. It is demonstrated that the thermal voltage in Pt/YIG mainly comes from spin current due to the longitudinal SSE with negligible contribution from the ANE.
Absence of anomalous Nernst effect in spin Seebeck effect of Pt/YIG
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. F. Miao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Pt/YIG structure has been widely used to study spin Seebeck effect (SSE, inverse spin Hall effect, and other pure spin current phenomena. However, the magnetic proximity effect in Pt when in contact with YIG, and the potential anomalous Nernst effect (ANE may compromise the spin current phenomena in Pt/YIG. By inserting a Cu layer of various thicknesses between Pt and YIG, we have separated the signals from the SSE and that of the ANE. It is demonstrated that the thermal voltage in Pt/YIG mainly comes from spin current due to the longitudinal SSE with negligible contribution from the ANE.
Tian, Jifa; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Hong, Seokmin; Datta, Supriyo; Chen, Yong
Topological insulators (TIs) possess nontrivial spin-momentum-locked topological surface states (TSS). Real TI can also host trivial surface 2DEG with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling derived from the bulk states. Both TSS and Rashba 2DEG can generate current induced spin polarization, although the dominant helicities of their spin-momentum locking (SML) are expected to be opposite. Here, we report spin potentiometric measurements in exfoliated bulk-insulating Bi2Te2Se and bulk-metallic Bi2Se3 thin flakes. In both materials, the voltage measured by a FM electrode shows a hysteretic step-like change when the FM magnetization is switched by an in-plane magnetic field. The trend of the voltage change can be reversed by reversing the direction of the dc current, and the amplitude of the spin signal increases linearly with increasing bias current. Such a spin signal is consistent with a current induced spin polarization arising from a helical SML. However, the observed trend of the voltage change is opposite between Bi2Te2Se and Bi2Se3, suggesting opposite signs of dominant spin helicity that we attribute to TSS and Rashba 2DEG respectively.
Casana, R; Mouchrek-Santos, V E; Silva, Edilberto O
2015-01-01
We have demonstrated that Lorentz-violating terms stemming from the fermion sector of the SME are able to generate geometrical phases on the wave function of electrons confined in 1-dimensional rings, as well as persistent spin currents, in the total absence of electromagnetic fields. We have explicitly evaluated the eigenenergies and eigenspinors of the electrons modified by the Lorentz-violating terms, using them to calculate the dynamic and the Aharonov-Anandan phases in the sequel. The total phase presents a pattern very similar to the Aharonov-Casher phase accumulated by electrons in rings under the action of the Rashba interaction. Finally, the persistent spin current were carried out and used to impose upper bounds on the Lorentz-violating parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Casana
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We have demonstrated that Lorentz-violating terms stemming from the fermion sector of the SME are able to generate geometrical phases on the wave function of electrons confined in 1-dimensional rings, as well as persistent spin currents, in the total absence of electromagnetic fields. We have explicitly evaluated the eigenenergies and eigenspinors of the electrons modified by the Lorentz-violating terms, using them to calculate the dynamic and the Aharonov–Anandan phases in the sequel. The total phase presents a pattern very similar to the Aharonov–Casher phase accumulated by electrons in rings under the action of the Rashba interaction. Finally, the persistent spin current were carried out and used to impose upper bounds on the Lorentz-violating parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casana, R.; Ferreira, M.M., E-mail: manojr.ufma@gmail.com; Mouchrek-Santos, V.E.; Silva, Edilberto O.
2015-06-30
We have demonstrated that Lorentz-violating terms stemming from the fermion sector of the SME are able to generate geometrical phases on the wave function of electrons confined in 1-dimensional rings, as well as persistent spin currents, in the total absence of electromagnetic fields. We have explicitly evaluated the eigenenergies and eigenspinors of the electrons modified by the Lorentz-violating terms, using them to calculate the dynamic and the Aharonov–Anandan phases in the sequel. The total phase presents a pattern very similar to the Aharonov–Casher phase accumulated by electrons in rings under the action of the Rashba interaction. Finally, the persistent spin current were carried out and used to impose upper bounds on the Lorentz-violating parameters.
Casana, R.; Ferreira, M. M.; Mouchrek-Santos, V. E.; Silva, Edilberto O.
2015-06-01
We have demonstrated that Lorentz-violating terms stemming from the fermion sector of the SME are able to generate geometrical phases on the wave function of electrons confined in 1-dimensional rings, as well as persistent spin currents, in the total absence of electromagnetic fields. We have explicitly evaluated the eigenenergies and eigenspinors of the electrons modified by the Lorentz-violating terms, using them to calculate the dynamic and the Aharonov-Anandan phases in the sequel. The total phase presents a pattern very similar to the Aharonov-Casher phase accumulated by electrons in rings under the action of the Rashba interaction. Finally, the persistent spin current were carried out and used to impose upper bounds on the Lorentz-violating parameters.
Spin-polarized supercurrents for spintronics: a review of current progress.
Eschrig, Matthias
2015-10-01
During the past 15 years a new field has emerged, which combines superconductivity and spintronics, with the goal to pave a way for new types of devices for applications combining the virtues of both by offering the possibility of long-range spin-polarized supercurrents. Such supercurrents constitute a fruitful basis for the study of fundamental physics as they combine macroscopic quantum coherence with microscopic exchange interactions, spin selectivity, and spin transport. This report follows recent developments in the controlled creation of long-range equal-spin triplet supercurrents in ferromagnets and its contribution to spintronics. The mutual proximity-induced modification of order in superconductor-ferromagnet hybrid structures introduces in a natural way such evasive phenomena as triplet superconductivity, odd-frequency pairing, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, long-range equal-spin supercurrents, [Formula: see text]-Josephson junctions, as well as long-range magnetic proximity effects. All these effects were rather exotic before 2000, when improvements in nanofabrication and materials control allowed for a new quality of hybrid structures. Guided by pioneering theoretical studies, experimental progress evolved rapidly, and since 2010 triplet supercurrents are routinely produced and observed. We have entered a new stage of studying new phases of matter previously out of our reach, and of merging the hitherto disparate fields of superconductivity and spintronics to a new research direction: super-spintronics.
Spin relaxation through Kondo scattering in Cu/Py lateral spin valves
Batley, J. T.; Rosaond, M. C.; Ali, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Burnell, G.; Hickey, B. J.
Within non-magnetic metals it is reasonable to expect the Elliot-Yafet mechanism to govern spin-relaxation and thus the temperature dependence of the spin diffusion length might be inversely proportional to resistivity. However, in lateral spin valves, measurements have found that at low temperatures the spin diffusion length unexpectedly decreases. We have fabricated lateral spin valves from Cu with different concentrations of magnetic impurities. Through temperature dependent charge and spin transport measurements we present clear evidence linking the presence of the Kondo effect within Cu to the suppression of the spin diffusion length below 30 K. We have calculated the spin-relaxation rate and isolated the contribution from magnetic impurities. At very low temperatures electron-electron interactions play a more prominent role in the Kondo effect. Well below the Kondo temperature a strong-coupling regime exists, where the moments become screened and the magnetic dephasing rate is reduced. We also investigate the effect of this low temperature regime (>1 K) on a pure spin current. This work shows the dominant role of Kondo scattering, even in low concentrations of order 1 ppm, within pure spin transport.
Glass-wool study of laser-induced spin currents en route to hyperpolarized Cs salt
Ishikawa, Kiyoshi
2011-07-01
The nuclear spin polarization of optically pumped Cs atoms flows to the surface of Cs hydride in a vapor cell. A fine glass wool lightly coated with the salt helps greatly increase the surface area in contact with the pumped atoms and enhance the spin polarization of the salt nuclei. Even though the glass wool randomly scatters the pump light, the atomic vapor can be polarized with unpolarized light in a magnetic field. The measured enhancement in the salt enables study of the polarizations of light and atomic nuclei very near the salt surface.
Glass-wool study of laser-induced spin currents en route to hyperpolarized Cs salt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishikawa, Kiyoshi [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)
2011-07-15
The nuclear spin polarization of optically pumped Cs atoms flows to the surface of Cs hydride in a vapor cell. A fine glass wool lightly coated with the salt helps greatly increase the surface area in contact with the pumped atoms and enhance the spin polarization of the salt nuclei. Even though the glass wool randomly scatters the pump light, the atomic vapor can be polarized with unpolarized light in a magnetic field. The measured enhancement in the salt enables study of the polarizations of light and atomic nuclei very near the salt surface.
Resonance measurement of nonlocal spin torque in a three-terminal magnetic device.
Xue, Lin; Wang, Chen; Cui, Yong-Tao; Liu, Luqiao; Swander, A; Sun, J Z; Buhrman, R A; Ralph, D C
2012-04-06
A pure spin current generated within a nonlocal spin valve can exert a spin-transfer torque on a nanomagnet. This nonlocal torque enables new design schemes for magnetic memory devices that do not require the application of large voltages across tunnel barriers that can suffer electrical breakdown. Here we report a quantitative measurement of this nonlocal spin torque using spin-torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance. Our measurement agrees well with the prediction of an effective circuit model for spin transport. Based on this model, we suggest strategies for optimizing the strength of nonlocal torque.
Nano spin-diodes using FePt-NDs with huge on/off current ratio at room temperature
Makihara, Katsunori; Kato, Takeshi; Kabeya, Yuuki; Mitsuyuki, Yusuke; Ohta, Akio; Oshima, Daiki; Iwata, Satoshi; Darma, Yudi; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Seiichi
2016-09-01
Spin transistors have attracted tremendous interest as new functional devices. However, few studies have investigated enhancements of the ON/OFF current ratio as a function of the electron spin behavior. Here, we found a significantly high spin-dependent current ratio—more than 102 at 1.5 V—when changing the relative direction of the magnetizations between FePt nanodots (NDs) and the CoPtCr-coated atomic force microscope (AFM) probe at room temperature. This means that ON and OFF states were achieved by switching the magnetization of the FePt NDs, which can be regarded as spin-diodes. The FePt magnetic NDs were fabricated by exposing a bi-layer metal stack to a remote H2 plasma (H2-RP) on ~1.7 nm SiO2/Si(100) substrates. The ultrathin bi-layers with a uniform surface coverage are changed drastically to NDs with an areal density as high as ~5 × 1011 cm‑2. The FePt NDs exhibit a large perpendicular anisotropy with an out-of-plane coercivity of ~4.8 kOe, reflecting the magneto-crystalline anisotropy of (001) oriented L10 phase FePt. We also designed and fabricated double-stacked FePt-NDs with low and high coercivities sandwiched between an ultra-thin Si-oxide interlayer, and confirmed a high ON/OFF current ratio when switching the relative magnetization directions of the low and high coercivity FePt NDs.
Nano spin-diodes using FePt-NDs with huge on/off current ratio at room temperature
Makihara, Katsunori; Kato, Takeshi; Kabeya, Yuuki; Mitsuyuki, Yusuke; Ohta, Akio; Oshima, Daiki; Iwata, Satoshi; Darma, Yudi; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Seiichi
2016-01-01
Spin transistors have attracted tremendous interest as new functional devices. However, few studies have investigated enhancements of the ON/OFF current ratio as a function of the electron spin behavior. Here, we found a significantly high spin-dependent current ratio—more than 102 at 1.5 V—when changing the relative direction of the magnetizations between FePt nanodots (NDs) and the CoPtCr-coated atomic force microscope (AFM) probe at room temperature. This means that ON and OFF states were achieved by switching the magnetization of the FePt NDs, which can be regarded as spin-diodes. The FePt magnetic NDs were fabricated by exposing a bi-layer metal stack to a remote H2 plasma (H2-RP) on ~1.7 nm SiO2/Si(100) substrates. The ultrathin bi-layers with a uniform surface coverage are changed drastically to NDs with an areal density as high as ~5 × 1011 cm−2. The FePt NDs exhibit a large perpendicular anisotropy with an out-of-plane coercivity of ~4.8 kOe, reflecting the magneto-crystalline anisotropy of (001) oriented L10 phase FePt. We also designed and fabricated double-stacked FePt-NDs with low and high coercivities sandwiched between an ultra-thin Si-oxide interlayer, and confirmed a high ON/OFF current ratio when switching the relative magnetization directions of the low and high coercivity FePt NDs. PMID:27615374
Kirihara, Akihiro; Kondo, Koichi; Ishida, Masahiko; Ihara, Kazuki; Iwasaki, Yuma; Someya, Hiroko; Matsuba, Asuka; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji; Yamamoto, Naoharu; Kohmoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Tomoo
2016-03-15
Heat-flow sensing is expected to be an important technological component of smart thermal management in the future. Conventionally, the thermoelectric (TE) conversion technique, which is based on the Seebeck effect, has been used to measure a heat flow by converting the flow into electric voltage. However, for ubiquitous heat-flow visualization, thin and flexible sensors with extremely low thermal resistance are highly desired. Recently, another type of TE effect, the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), has aroused great interest because the LSSE potentially offers favourable features for TE applications such as simple thin-film device structures. Here we demonstrate an LSSE-based flexible TE sheet that is especially suitable for a heat-flow sensing application. This TE sheet contained a Ni0.2Zn0.3Fe2.5O4 film which was formed on a flexible plastic sheet using a spray-coating method known as "ferrite plating". The experimental results suggest that the ferrite-plated film, which has a columnar crystal structure aligned perpendicular to the film plane, functions as a unique one-dimensional spin-current conductor suitable for bendable LSSE-based sensors. This newly developed thin TE sheet may be attached to differently shaped heat sources without obstructing an innate heat flux, paving the way to versatile heat-flow measurements and management.
Kirihara, Akihiro; Kondo, Koichi; Ishida, Masahiko; Ihara, Kazuki; Iwasaki, Yuma; Someya, Hiroko; Matsuba, Asuka; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Saitoh, Eiji; Yamamoto, Naoharu; Kohmoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Tomoo
2016-03-01
Heat-flow sensing is expected to be an important technological component of smart thermal management in the future. Conventionally, the thermoelectric (TE) conversion technique, which is based on the Seebeck effect, has been used to measure a heat flow by converting the flow into electric voltage. However, for ubiquitous heat-flow visualization, thin and flexible sensors with extremely low thermal resistance are highly desired. Recently, another type of TE effect, the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), has aroused great interest because the LSSE potentially offers favourable features for TE applications such as simple thin-film device structures. Here we demonstrate an LSSE-based flexible TE sheet that is especially suitable for a heat-flow sensing application. This TE sheet contained a Ni0.2Zn0.3Fe2.5O4 film which was formed on a flexible plastic sheet using a spray-coating method known as “ferrite plating”. The experimental results suggest that the ferrite-plated film, which has a columnar crystal structure aligned perpendicular to the film plane, functions as a unique one-dimensional spin-current conductor suitable for bendable LSSE-based sensors. This newly developed thin TE sheet may be attached to differently shaped heat sources without obstructing an innate heat flux, paving the way to versatile heat-flow measurements and management.
Coupling between Current and Dynamic Magnetization : from Domain Walls to Spin Waves
Lucassen, M.E.
2012-01-01
So far, we have derived some general expressions for domain-wall motion and the spin motive force. We have seen that the β parameter plays a large role in both subjects. In all chapters of this thesis, there is an emphasis on the determination of this parameter. We also know how to incorporate therm
Ramos, E.; Silva-Valencia, J.; Franco, R.; Siqueira, E. C.; Figueira, M. S.
2015-11-01
We study the spin-current Seebeck effect through an immersed gate defined quantum dot, employing the U-finite atomic method for the single impurity Anderson model. Our description qualitatively confirms some of the results obtained by an earlier Hartree-Fock work, but as our calculation includes the Kondo effect, some new features will appear in the spin-current Seebeck effect S, which as a function of the gate voltage present an oscillatory shape. At intermediate temperatures, our results show a three zero structure and at low temperatures, our results are governed by the emergence of the Kondo peak in the transmittance, which defines the behavior of the shape of the S coefficient as a function of the parameters of the model. The oscillatory behavior obtained by the Hartree-Fock approximation reproduces the shape obtained by us in a non-interacting system (U=0). The S sign is sensitive to different polarization of the quantum dot, and as a consequence the device could be employed to experimentally detect the polarization states of the system. Our results also confirm that the large increase of S upon increasing U, obtained by the mean field approximation, is correct only for low temperatures. We also discuss the role of the Kondo peak in defining the behavior of the spin thermopower at low temperatures.
Meng, Kangkang; Miao, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yong; Xiao, Jiaxing; Zhao, Jianhua; Jiang, Yong
2016-12-01
We report modulated switching current density and spin-orbit torques (SOT) in MnGa/Ta films with inserting very thin Co2FeAl and Co layers. Ferromagnetic coupling has been found in MnGa/Co2FeAl/Ta, resulting in a decreased effective anisotropy field. On the contrary, in MnGa/Co/Ta, antiferromagnetic coupling plays a dominant role. The switching current density Jc in MnGa/Ta is 8.5 × 107 A/cm2. After inserting 0.8-nm-thick Co2FeAl and Co, theJc becomes 5 × 107 A/cm2 and 9 × 107 A/cm2, respectively. By performing adiabatic harmonic Hall voltage measurements, it is demonstrated that the inserted Co2FeAl layer has mainly enhanced the field-like torques, while in MnGa/Co/Ta the damping-like torques have been enhanced. Finally, the enhanced spin Hall effect (SHE) has also been studied using the spin Hall magnetoresistance measurement. The modulated Jc and SOT are ascribed to the combination of magnetic coupling, Rashba effect and SHE at the interfaces.
Spin-crossover molecule based thermoelectric junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Dibyajyoti [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Parida, Prakash [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Pati, Swapan K. [Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)
2015-05-11
Using ab-initio numerical methods, we explore the spin-dependent transport and thermoelectric properties of a spin-crossover molecule (i.e., iron complex of 2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)pyridine) based nano-junction. We demonstrate a large magnetoresistance, efficient conductance-switching, and spin-filter activity in this molecule-based two-terminal device. The spin-crossover process also modulates the thermoelectric entities. It can efficiently switch the magnitude as well as spin-polarization of the thermocurrent. We find that thermocurrent is changed by ∼4 orders of magnitude upon spin-crossover. Moreover, it also substantially affects the thermopower and consequently, the device shows extremely efficient spin-crossover magnetothermopower generation. Furthermore, by tuning the chemical potential of electrodes into a certain range, a pure spin-thermopower can be achieved for the high-spin state. Finally, the reasonably large values of figure-of-merit in the presence and absence of phonon demonstrate a large heat-to-voltage conversion efficiency of the device. We believe that our study will pave an alternative way of tuning the transport and thermoelectric properties through the spin-crossover process and can have potential applications in generation of spin-dependent current, information storage, and processing.
Bang, Do
2016-05-23
We investigate the current-induced domain wall motion in perpendicular magnetized Tb/Co wires with structure inversion asymmetry and different layered structures. We find that the critical current density to drive domain wall motion strongly depends on the layered structure. The lowest critical current density ∼15MA/cm2 and the highest slope of domain wall velocity curve are obtained for the wire having thin Co sublayers and more inner Tb/Co interfaces, while the largest critical current density ∼26MA/cm2 required to drive domain walls is observed in the Tb-Co alloy magnetic wire. It is found that the Co/Tb interface contributes negligibly to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, while the effective spin-orbit torque strongly depends on the number of Tb/Co inner interfaces (n). An enhancement of the antidamping torques by extrinsic spin Hall effect due to Tb rare-earth impurity-induced skew scattering is suggested to explain the high efficiency of current-induced domain wall motion.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A M Jayannavar
2002-02-01
We present a simple model of transmission across a metallic mesoscopic ring. In one of its arm an electron interacts with a single magnetic impurity via an exchange coupling. We show that entanglement between electron and spin impurity states leads to reduction of Aharonov–Bohm oscillations in the transmission coefﬁcient. The spin-conductance is asymmetric in the ﬂux reversal as opposed to the two-probe electrical conductance which is symmetric. In the same model, in contradiction to the naive expectation of a current magniﬁcation effect, we observe enhancement as well as suppression of this effect depending on the system parameters. The limitations of this model to the general notion of dephasing or decoherence in quantum systems are pointed out.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pai, Chi-Feng; Nguyen, Minh-Hai; Vilela-Leão, Luis Henrique; Buhrman, R. A., E-mail: rab8@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Belvin, Carina [Department of Physics, Wellesley College, Massachusetts 02481 (United States); Ralph, D. C. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)
2014-02-24
We report that strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layer in a W/CoFeB/MgO multilayer structure can be established by inserting a Hf layer as thin as 0.25 nm between the W and CoFeB layers. The Hf spacer also allows transmission of spin currents generated by an in-plane charge current in the W layer to apply strong spin torque on the CoFeB, thereby enabling current-driven magnetic switching. The antidamping-like and field-like components of the spin torque exerted on a 1 nm CoFeB layer are of comparable magnitudes in this geometry. Both components originate from the spin Hall effect in the underlying W layer.
Spin-current resonances in a magnetically inhomogeneous 2D conducting system
Charkina, O. V.; Kalinenko, A. N.; Kopeliovich, A. I.; Pyshkin, P. V.; Yanovsky, A. V.
2016-10-01
The high-frequency transport in a two-dimensional conducting ring having an inhomogeneous collinear magnetic structure has been considered in the hydrodynamic approximation. It is shown that the frequency dependence on the radial electric conductivity of the ring exhibits resonances corresponding to new hybrid oscillations in such systems. The oscillation frequencies are essentially dependent on the applied electromagnetic field and the spin state of the system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaser Hajati
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We study the transport properties in a ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (FNF silicene junction in which an electrostatic gate potential, U, is attached to the nonmagnetic region. We show that the electrostatic gate potential U is a useful probe to control the band structure, quasi-bound states in the nonmagnetic barrier as well as the transport properties of the FNF silicene junction. In particular, by introducing the electrostatic gate potential, both the spin and valley conductances of the junction show an oscillatory behavior. The amplitude and frequency of such oscillations can be controlled by U. As an important result, we found that by increasing U, the second characteristic of the Klein tunneling is satisfied as a result of the quasiparticles chirality which can penetrate through a potential barrier. Moreover, it is found that for special values of U, the junction shows a gap in the spin and valley-resolve conductance and the amplitude of this gap is only controlled by the on-site potential difference, Δz. Our findings of high controllability of the spin and valley transport in such a FNF silicene junction may improve the performance of nano-electronics and spintronics devices.
Wu, Jun; Fan, Xin; Wang, Tao; Chen, Yunpeng; Xiao, Q. John
The spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic (FM) and heavy metal (HM) bilayers have attracted extensive research interests recently because of the rich physical phenomena and potential applications. We measured the effective fields of field-like torques in Ni/Pt, NiFe/Pt and CoFeB/Pt bilayer systems by the second-order planar Hall effect. When the FM layers are less than 2nm, the effective fields increase rapidly with decreasing the FM layer thickness for all three different FM layers. Among the three FMs, the effective field in Ni is largest, followed by NiFe, then CoFeB. Above 2nm, the effective fields decrease much slower with increasing the FM layer thickness and level off to the Orested field due to the current in the Pt layer. Through FM layer thickness dependence of the field-like torque study, we found that the spin dephasing length in the FM layer, which is related to the scattering in FM layer, plays an important role in determining the magnitude of field-like spin-orbit torque in FM/HM bilayers.
Circuit Simulation of All-Spin Logic
Alawein, Meshal
2016-05-01
With the aggressive scaling of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) nearing an inevitable physical limit and its well-known power crisis, the quest for an alternative/augmenting technology that surpasses the current semiconductor electronics is needed for further technological progress. Spintronic devices emerge as prime candidates for Beyond CMOS era by utilizing the electron spin as an extra degree of freedom to decrease the power consumption and overcome the velocity limit connected with the charge. By using the nonvolatility nature of magnetization along with its direction to represent a bit of information and then manipulating it by spin-polarized currents, routes are opened for combined memory and logic. This would not have been possible without the recent discoveries in the physics of nanomagnetism such as spin-transfer torque (STT) whereby a spin-polarized current can excite magnetization dynamics through the transfer of spin angular momentum. STT have expanded the available means of switching the magnetization of magnetic layers beyond old classical techniques, promising to fulfill the need for a new generation of dense, fast, and nonvolatile logic and storage devices. All-spin logic (ASL) is among the most promising spintronic logic switches due to its low power consumption, logic-in-memory structure, and operation on pure spin currents. The device is based on a lateral nonlocal spin valve and STT switching. It utilizes two nanomagnets (whereby information is stored) that communicate with pure spin currents through a spin-coherent nonmagnetic channel. By using the well-known spin physics and the recently proposed four-component spin circuit formalism, ASL can be thoroughly studied and simulated. Previous attempts to model ASL in the linear and diffusive regime either neglect the dynamic characteristics of transport or do not provide a scalable and robust platform for full micromagnetic simulations and inclusion of other effects like spin Hall
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Ying-Fang; ZHANG Yong-Ping; LIANG Jiu-Qing
2004-01-01
@@ We study the transport of spin-polarized current induced by the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phases in a mesoscopic ring with two leads in the presence of a cylindrically symmetric electric field and the magnetic flux at the centre of the same ring. An exact solution for the quantum transport is obtained. It is shown that the transport spin-polarized current and its polarizability can be controlled by the electric field and the magnetic flux as well.
Tsunegi, Sumito; Lebrun, Romain; Grimaldi, Eva; Jenkins, Alex S.; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Bortolotti, Paolo; Grollier, Julie; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Cros, Vincent
2016-10-01
The rich physics of spin transfer nano-oscillators (STNO) has provoked a huge interest to create a new generation of multi-functional microwave spintronic devices [1]. It has been often emphasized that their nonlinear behavior gives a unique opportunity to tune their radiofrequency (rf) properties but at the cost of large phase noise, not compatible with practical applications. To tackle this issue as well as to open the opportunities to new developments for non-boolean computations [1], one strategy is to use electrical synchronization of STOs through the rf current. Thereby, it is crucial to understand how the synchronization forces transmitted through the electric current. In this talk, we will first present the results of an experimental study showing the self-synchronization of STNO by re-injecting its rf current after a certain delay time [2]. In the second part, we demonstrate that the synchronization of two vortex-STNOs connected in parallel can be tuned either by an artificial delay or by the spin transfer torques [3]. The synchronization of spin-torque oscillators, combined with the drastic improvement of the rf-features (linewidth decreases by a factor of 2 and power increases by a factor of 4) in the synchronized state, marks an important milestone towards a new generation of rf-devices based on STNO. The authors acknowledge the financial support from ANR agency (SPINNOVA: ANR-11-NANO-0016) and EU grant (MOSAIC: ICT-FP7-317950). [1] N. Locatelli, V. Cros, and J. Grollier, Nat Mater 13, 11 (2014). [2] S. Tsunegi et al., arXiv:1509.05583 (2015) [3] R. Lebrun et al., arXiv:1601.01247 (2016)
Fabrication of PureGaB Ge-on-Si photodiodes for well-controlled 100-pA-level dark currents
Sammak, A.; Aminian, M.; Qi, L.; De Boer, W.B.; Charbon, E.; Nanver, L.K.
2014-01-01
The selective epitaxial growth of Ge-on-Si followed by in-situ deposition of a nm-thin Ga/B layer stack (PureGaB) has previously been shown to be a robust CMOS-compatible process for fabrication of Ge-on-Si photodiodes. In this paper, strategies to improve the control and reproducibility of PureGaB
Fabrication of PureGaB Ge-on-Si photodiodes for well-controlled 100-pA-level dark currents
Sammak, A.; Aminian, M.; Qi, L.; De Boer, W.B.; Charbon, E.; Nanver, L.K.
2014-01-01
The selective epitaxial growth of Ge-on-Si followed by in-situ deposition of a nm-thin Ga/B layer stack (PureGaB) has previously been shown to be a robust CMOS-compatible process for fabrication of Ge-on-Si photodiodes. In this paper, strategies to improve the control and reproducibility of PureGaB
Jaffres, Henri; George, Jean-Marie; Laczowski, Piotr; Reyren, Nicolas; Vila, Laurent
2016-10-01
Spintronic phenomena are made possible via the diffusion of spin-currents or the generation of spin-accumulation. Spinorbitronics uses the electronic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and emerges as a new route to create spin-currents in the transverse direction of the charge flow. This is made possible via the intrinsic spin Hall conduction (SHE) of heavy metals or extrinsic spin-Hall effect of metallic alloys. SHE borrows its concept from the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) where the relativistic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) promotes an asymmetric deflection of the spin-current. SHE is now at the base of magnetization commutation and domain wall moving via spin-orbit torque (SOT) and spin-transfer torque operations in the FMR regime. However, the exact anatomy of SOT at spin-orbit active interfaces like Co/Pt is still missing. In the case of Pt, recent studies have put forward the major role played by i) the spin-memory loss (SML) and the electronic transparency at 3d/5d interfaces and ii) the inhomogeneity of the conductivity in the current-in-plane (CIP) geometry to explain the discrepancy in the SHE. Ingredients to consider then are the profiles of both the conductivity and spin-current across the multilayers and spin-transmission. In this talk, we will present robust SMR measurements observed on NiCo/Pt multilayer stacks characterized by a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). The SMR occurs for both in-plane magnetization rotation or from nominal out-of-plane to the in-plane direction transverse to the current flow. This clearly departs from standard AMR or pure interfacial anisotropic-AMR symmetries. We analyze in large details our SMR signals for the whole series of samples owing to two main guidelines: i) we consider the exact conductivity profile across the multilayers, in particular near the Co/Pt interface, via the Camley-Barnas approach and ii) we derive the spin current profile generated by SHE along the perpendicular direction responsible for SMR. We consider
Edge-defect induced spin-dependent Seebeck effect and spin figure of merit in graphene nanoribbons.
Liu, Qing-Bo; Wu, Dan-Dan; Fu, Hua-Hua
2017-10-02
By using the first-principle calculations combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function approach, we have studied spin caloritronic properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with different edge defects. The theoretical results show that the edge-defected GNRs with sawtooth shapes can exhibit spin-dependent currents with opposite flowing directions by applying temperature gradients, indicating the occurrence of the spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE). The edge defects bring about two opposite effects on the thermal spin currents: the enhancement of the symmetry of thermal spin-dependent currents, which contributes to the realization of pure thermal spin currents, and the decreasing of the spin thermoelectric conversion efficiency of the devices. It is fortunate that applying a gate voltage is an efficient route to optimize these two opposite spin thermoelectric properties towards realistic device applications. Moreover, due to the existence of spin-splitting band gaps, the edge-defected GNRs can be designed as spin-dependent Seebeck diodes and rectifiers, indicating that the edge-defected GNRs are potential candidates for room-temperature spin caloritronic devices.
P, Vineeth Mohanan; Ganesh, K. R.; Kumar, P. S. Anil
2017-09-01
A magnetic field free current-induced deterministic switching is demonstrated in a perpendicularly magnetized all-metallic Pt/Co/Pt thin film system with a small tilt in anisotropy axis. We realized this in devices where the ultrathin Co layer was grown using an oblique angle sputter deposition technique that had resulted in a small tilt of magnetic anisotropy from the film normal. By performing out-of-plane magnetization hysteresis measurements under bias magnetic field applied along various in-plane directions the tilt angle was estimated to be around 3 .3∘ (±0 .3∘ ). A deterministic current-induced magnetization switching could be achieved when the in-plane current was applied perpendicular to the anisotropy tilt axis, but the switching was stochastic when the current was applied in the direction of the tilt (in the tilt plane). By preparing Pt/Co/Pt stacks with unequal top and bottom Pt thickness, sufficient spin-orbit torque (SOT) could be applied to switch the magnetization of the Co layer at current densities as low as 1.5 ×107 A/cm2. The switching phase diagram (SPD) constructed by plotting the critical current density versus applied in-plane magnetic field (HxIB) confirms spin Hall effect based SOT mechanism to be responsible for the magnetization switching. The asymmetry observed in the SPD (about HxIB=0 ) is in agreement with the macrospin simulations and it suggests that the tilt in the magnetic anisotropy from the film normal makes the switching deterministic even without an in-plane magnetic field bias.
Higher spin black holes with soft hair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grumiller, Daniel [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Pérez, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Prohazka, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)
2016-10-21
We construct a new set of boundary conditions for higher spin gravity, inspired by a recent “soft Heisenberg hair”-proposal for General Relativity on three-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of a set of affine û(1) current algebras. Its associated canonical charges generate higher spin soft hair. We focus first on the spin-3 case and then extend some of our main results to spin-N, many of which resemble the spin-2 results: the generators of the asymptotic W{sub 3} algebra naturally emerge from composite operators of the û(1) charges through a twisted Sugawara construction; our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the Euclidean solutions space independently of the values of the charges; solutions, which we call “higher spin black flowers”, are stationary but not necessarily spherically symmetric. Finally, we derive the entropy of higher spin black flowers, and find that for the branch that is continuously connected to the BTZ black hole, it depends only on the affine purely gravitational zero modes. Using our map to W-algebra currents we recover well-known expressions for higher spin entropy. We also address higher spin black flowers in the metric formalism and achieve full consistency with previous results.
Spin voltage generation through optical excitation of complementary spin populations
Bottegoni, Federico; Celebrano, Michele; Bollani, Monica; Biagioni, Paolo; Isella, Giovanni; Ciccacci, Franco; Finazzi, Marco
2014-08-01
By exploiting the spin degree of freedom of carriers inside electronic devices, spintronics has a huge potential for quantum computation and dissipationless interconnects. Pure spin currents in spintronic devices should be driven by a spin voltage generator, able to drive the spin distribution out of equilibrium without inducing charge currents. Ideally, such a generator should operate at room temperature, be highly integrable with existing semiconductor technology, and not interfere with other spintronic building blocks that make use of ferromagnetic materials. Here we demonstrate a device that matches these requirements by realizing the spintronic equivalent of a photovoltaic generator. Whereas a photovoltaic generator spatially separates photoexcited electrons and holes, our device exploits circularly polarized light to produce two spatially well-defined electron populations with opposite in-plane spin projections. This is achieved by modulating the phase and amplitude of the light wavefronts entering a semiconductor (germanium) with a patterned metal overlayer (platinum). The resulting light diffraction pattern features a spatially modulated chirality inside the semiconductor, which locally excites spin-polarized electrons thanks to electric dipole selection rules.
Spin-dependent Seebeck effect and spin caloritronics in magnetic graphene
Rameshti, Babak Zare; Moghaddam, Ali G.
2015-04-01
We investigate the spin-dependent thermoelectric effects in magnetic graphene in both diffusive and ballistic regimes. Employing the Boltzmann and Landauer formalisms we calculate the spin and charge Seebeck coefficients (thermopower) in magnetic graphene varying the spin splitting, temperature, and doping of the junction. It is found that while in normal graphene the temperature gradient drives a charge current, in the case of magnetic graphene a significant spin current is also established. In particular we show that in the undoped magnetic graphene in which different spin carriers belong to conduction and valence bands, a pure spin current is driven by the temperature gradient. In addition it is revealed that profound thermoelectric effects can be achieved at intermediate easily accessible temperatures when the thermal energy is comparable with Fermi energy kBT ≲μ . By further investigation of the spin-dependent Seebeck effect and a significantly large figure of merit for spin thermopower ZspT , we suggest magnetic graphene as a promising material for spin-caloritronics studies and applications.
Cros, V.; Lebrun, R.; Tsunegi, S.; Bortolotti, P.; Kubota, H.; Romera, M.; Yakushiji, K.; Fukushima, A.; Grollier, J.; Yuasa, S.; Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales Collaboration; Spintronics Research Center, AIST Collaboration
Here, we demonstrate the mutual synchronization of two vortex STOs through electrical coupling. We describe how in using a delay line, we can optimize the locking range of the synchronization. We also evidence that the coupling efficiency is tuned by the nonlinear parameters of STOs but also more originally through the ratio between the two components of spin transfer torques. This represents a definite advantage of our vortex-STNOs for their future implementation in large arrays of synchronized STOs. We find that the linewidth of the two synchronized STOs decreases by a factor 2 and the output power increases by factor 4 (~ 1.6 µW) compared to non -interacting STOs. These results provide a solid basis towards the efficient synchronization of multiple STOs. EU FP7 grant (MOSAIC No. ICT-FP7-317950 is acknowledged.
Dynamical spin injection at a quasi-one-dimensional ferromagnet-graphene interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, S.; Ahmadi, A.; Mucciolo, E. R.; Barco, E. del [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Cherian, C. T. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Graphene Research Center, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Özyilmaz, B. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); NanoCore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Graphene Research Center, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (NGS), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)
2015-01-19
We present a study of dynamical spin injection from a three-dimensional ferromagnet into two-dimensional single-layer graphene. Comparative ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) studies of ferromagnet/graphene strips buried underneath the central line of a coplanar waveguide show that the FMR linewidth broadening is the largest when the graphene layer protrudes laterally away from the ferromagnetic strip, indicating that the spin current is injected into the graphene areas away from the area directly underneath the ferromagnet being excited. Our results confirm that the observed damping is indeed a signature of dynamical spin injection, wherein a pure spin current is pumped into the single-layer graphene from the precessing magnetization of the ferromagnet. The observed spin pumping efficiency is difficult to reconcile with the expected backflow of spins according to the standard spin pumping theory and the characteristics of graphene, and constitutes an enigma for spin pumping in two-dimensional structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eibofner, Frank; Wojtczyk, Hanne; Graf, Hansjörg, E-mail: hansjoerg.graf@med.uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: drGraf@t-online.de [Section on Experimental Radiology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen D-72076 (Germany); Clasen, Stephan [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen D-72076 (Germany)
2014-06-15
Purpose: Instrument visualization in interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly performed via susceptibility artifacts. Unfortunately, this approach suffers from limited conspicuity in inhomogeneous tissue and disturbed spatial encoding. Also, susceptibility artifacts are controllable only by sequence parameters. This work presents the basics of a new visualization method overcoming such problems by applying sequence-triggered direct current (DC) pulses in spin-echo (SE) imaging. SE phase images allow for background free current path localization. Methods: Application of a sequence-triggered DC pulse in SE imaging, e.g., during a time period between radiofrequency excitation and refocusing, results in transient field inhomogeneities. Dependent on the additional z-magnetic field from the DC, a phase offset results despite the refocusing pulse. False spatial encoding is avoided by DC application during periods when read-out or slice-encoding gradients are inactive. A water phantom containing a brass conductor (water equivalent susceptibility) and a titanium needle (serving as susceptibility source) was used to demonstrate the feasibility. Artifact dependence on current strength and orientation was examined. Results: Without DC, the brass conductor was only visible due to its water displacement. The titanium needle showed typical susceptibility artifacts. Applying triggered DC pulses, the phase offset of spins near the conductor appeared. Because SE phase images are homogenous also in regions of persistent field inhomogeneities, the position of the conductor could be determined with high reliability. Artifact characteristic could be easily controlled by amperage leaving sequence parameters unchanged. For an angle of 30° between current and static field visualization was still possible. Conclusions: SE phase images display the position of a conductor carrying pulsed DC free from artifacts caused by persistent field inhomogeneities. Magnitude and phase
Separation of spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect in Co/Cu/YIG
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tian, Dai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Yufan; Qu, D.; Chien, C. L., E-mail: clchien@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Jin, Xiaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2015-05-25
The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) and Anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) have been observed in Co/Cu/YIG (yttrium iron garnet) multi-layer structure, where the ferromagnetic insulator YIG acts as the pure spin injector and the ferromagnetic metal Co layer acts as the spin current detector. With the insertion of 5 nm Cu layer, the two ferromagnetic layers are decoupled, thus allowing unambiguous separation of the SSE and ANE contributions under the same experimental conditions in the same sample.
Separation of spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect in Co/Cu/YIG
Tian, Dai; Li, Yufan; Qu, D.; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chien, C. L.
2015-05-01
The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) and Anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) have been observed in Co/Cu/YIG (yttrium iron garnet) multi-layer structure, where the ferromagnetic insulator YIG acts as the pure spin injector and the ferromagnetic metal Co layer acts as the spin current detector. With the insertion of 5 nm Cu layer, the two ferromagnetic layers are decoupled, thus allowing unambiguous separation of the SSE and ANE contributions under the same experimental conditions in the same sample.
2007-10-08
Melkov,3 Vasil Tiberkevich,4 and Andrei N. Slavin4 1Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, University of Messina...nanocontact. In Eq. 1, the unit vector p defining the spin-polarization direction is parallel to the direction ez of the in-plane external magnetic field...linear theory,3 the propagating spin- wave mode excited at the threshold is a cylindrical spin- wave with the wave vector kL=1.2/Rc and frequency L
Spin Seebeck Effect in a Compensated Ferrimagnet
Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Geprägs, S.; Kehlberger, A.; Schulz, T.; Mix, C.; Della Coletta, F.; Meyer, S.; Kamra, A.; Jakob, G.; Althammer, M.; Huebl, H.; Gross, R.; Kläui, M.
2015-03-01
Thermal gradients allow for driving pure spin currents in electrically insulating magnetic materials. In magnetic insulator/normal metal heterostructures, such thermally driven spin currents can be electrically detected via the inverse spin Hall effect in the normal metal, in so-called spin Seebeck effect (SSE) experiments. We have fabricated Gadolinium Iron Garnet/Platinum (GdIG/Pt) thin film heterostructures, and measured the spin Seebeck effect in these samples as a function of temperature. We observe two sign changes as a function of T in the SSE signal. The first sign change occurs around the GdIG magnetic compensation temperature, and can be straightforwardly understood in terms of the reorientation of the iron sublattice magnetizations at this temperature. The second, more gradual SSE sign change takes place around the ordering temperature of the Gd magnetic sublattice, suggesting that the thermally driven spin current is mainly determined by the Gd sublattice at low T. Our results thus show that the SSE spin currents do not simply replicate the effective magnetization of the magnetic insulator, but rather reflect a complex interplay of magnetic sublattice properties.
Sandschneider, N.; Nolting, W.
2007-01-01
Using the Keldysh formalism the tunneling current through a hybrid structure where a confined magnetic insulator (I) is sandwiched between two non-magnetic leads is calculated. The leads can be either normal metals (M) or superconductors (S). Each region is modelled as a single band in tight-binding approximation in order to understand the formation of the tunneling current as clearly as possible. The tunneling process itself is simulated by a hybridization between the lead and insulator cond...
Andreev, Pavel A
2016-01-01
The dielectric permeability tensor for spin polarized plasmas derived in terms of the spin-1/2 quantum kinetic model in six-dimensional phase space in Part I of this work is applied for study of spectra of high-frequency transverse and transverse-longitudinal waves propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field. Cyclotron waves are studied at consideration of waves with electric field directed parallel to the external magnetic field. It is found that the separate spin evolution modifies the spectrum of cyclotron waves. These modifications increase with the increase of the spin polarization and the number of the cyclotron resonance. Spin dynamics with no account of the anomalous magnetic moment gives a considerable modification of spectra either. The account of anomalous magnetic moment leads to a fine structure of each cyclotron resonance. So, each cyclotron resonance splits on three waves. Details of this spectrum and its changes with the change of spin polarization are studied for the first and se...
Purely Functional Structured Programming
Obua, Steven
2010-01-01
The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...
SU(3) Breaking in Neutral Current Axial Matrix Elements and the Spin Content of the Nucleon
Savage, M J; Savage, Martin J.; Walden, James
1997-01-01
We examine the effects of SU(3) breaking in the matrix elements of the flavour-diagonal axial currents between octet baryon states and find that SU(3) breaking may be substantial for some matrix elements. We estimate the strange axial matrix element in the proton to be between -0.35 and 0 and the matrix element of the flavour-singlet current in the proton to be between -0.1 and +0.3 from the E-143 measurement g_1(x) . The up-quark content of the $\\Xi^-$ is discussed and its implications for nonleptonic weak processes discussed. We also estimate the matrix element of the axial current coupling to the $Z^0$ between all octet baryon states. This may be important for neutrino interactions in dense nuclear environments, where hyperons may play an important role.
Dynamical theory of spin relaxation
Field, Timothy R.; Bain, Alex D.
2013-02-01
The dynamics of a spin system is usually calculated using the density matrix. However, the usual formulation in terms of the density matrix predicts that the signal will decay to zero, and does not address the issue of individual spin dynamics. Using stochastic calculus, we develop a dynamical theory of spin relaxation, the origins of which lie in the component spin fluctuations. This entails consideration of random pure states for individual protons, and how these pure states are correctly combined when the density matrix is formulated. Both the lattice and the spins are treated quantum mechanically. Such treatment incorporates both the processes of spin-spin and (finite temperature) spin-lattice relaxation. Our results reveal the intimate connections between spin noise and conventional spin relaxation.
Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: edumartinez@usal.es [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caídos s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alejos, Óscar [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2014-07-14
The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.
Conservation of the Dirac Current in Models with a General Spin Connection
Formiga, J B
2012-01-01
Here I obtain the conditions necessary for the conservation of the Dirac current when one substitutes the assumption $\\gamma^A_{\\ \\ |B}=0$ for $\\gamma^A_{\\ \\ |B}=[V_B,\\gamma^A]$, where the $\\gamma^A$s are the Dirac matrices and "$|$" represents the components of the covariant derivative. As an application, I apply these conditions to the model used in Ref. [M. Novello, Phys. Rev. {\\bf D8}, 2398 (1973)].
Low-current-density spin-transfer switching in Gd{sub 22}Fe{sub 78}-MgO magnetic tunnel junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kinjo, Hidekazu, E-mail: kinjou.h-lk@nhk.or.jp; Machida, Kenji; Aoshima, Ken-ichi; Kato, Daisuke; Kuga, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Shimidzu, Naoki [Science and Technology Research Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK), Kinuta, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan); Matsui, Koichi [Department of Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Tokyo Denki University, Adachi, Tokyo 120-8551 (Japan)
2014-05-28
Magnetization switching of a relatively thick (9 nm) Gd-Fe free layer was achieved with a low spin injection current density of 1.0 × 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} using MgO based magnetic tunnel junction devices, fabricated for light modulators. At about 560 × 560 nm{sup 2} in size, the devices exhibited a tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of 7%. This low-current switching is mainly attributed to thermally assisted spin-transfer switching in consequence of its thermal magnetic behavior arising from Joule heating.
振荡磁场量子点中自旋流的交流响应%Alternating response of spin current in a magnetic-oscillating quantum dot
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋红岩; 宋小龙; 张爱芳; 吴留坡; 施耀铭
2007-01-01
We investigate alternating response of the spin current in a quantum dot system coupled to a normal metal electrode, to which an alternating driving voltage and a pumping rotating magnetic field are applied. The expression of the time-averaged spin current and its differential is obtained based on a non-equilibrium Green's function method. We find that for a given rotating frequency, the spin current increases rapidly and appears to have small steps when the driven frequency increases. As the driven frequency is further increasing, the spin current can be significantly enhanced and approaches a stable value. The photon-assisted processes bring about interesting features of spin current. The influence of the gate voltage and temperature on the spin current is examined in detail.
Xu, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Qiang; Nie, Yi-Hang
2016-11-01
We have studied spin-dependent thermoelectric transport through parallel triple quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbital interaction (RSOI) embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer connected symmetrically to leads using nonequilibrium Green’s function method in the linear response regime. Under the appropriate configuration of magnetic flux phase and RSOI phase, the spin figure of merit can be enhanced and is even larger than the charge figure of merit. In particular, the charge and spin thermopowers as functions of both the magnetic flux phase and the RSOI phase present quadruple-peak structures in the contour graphs. For some specific configuration of the two phases, the device can provide a mechanism that converts heat into a spin voltage when the charge thermopower vanishes while the spin thermopower is not zero, which is useful in realizing the thermal spin battery and inducing a pure spin current in the device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274208 and 11447170).
Spin Filter Based on an Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer with Rashba Spin-Orbit Effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Ming; SUN Lian-Liang
2008-01-01
We propose a spin filter based on both the quantum interference and the Rashba spin-orbit (RSO) effects. This spin filter consists of a Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer with two quantum dots (QDs) inserted in its arms.The influences of a magnetic flux ψ threading through the AB ring and the RSO interaction inside the two QDs are taken into account by using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. Due to the existence of the RSO interaction, the electrons flowing through different arms of the ring will acquire a spin-dependent phase factor in the linewidth matrix elements. This phase factor, combined with the influence of the magnetic flux, will induce a spin-dependent electron transport through the device. Moreover, we show that by tuning the magnetic flux,the RSO strength and the inter-dot tunnelling coupling strength, a pure spin-up or spin-down conductance can be obtained when a spin-unpolarized current is injected from the external leads, which can be used to filter the electron spin.
Non-Riemannian Cosmic Walls as Boundaries of Spinning Matter
Garcia de Andrade, L C
1998-01-01
An example is given of a plane topological defect solution of linearized Einstein-Cartan (EC) field equation representing a cosmic wall boundary of spinning matter. The source of Cartan torsion is composed of two orthogonal lines of static polarized spins bounded by the cosmic plane wall. The Kopczy\\'{n}ski- Obukhov - Tresguerres (KOT) spin fluid stress-energy current coincides with thin planar matter current in the static case. Our solution is similar to Letelier solution of Einstein equation for multiple cosmic strings. Due to this fact we suggest that the lines of spinning matter could be analogous to multiple cosmic spinning string solution in EC theory of gravity. When torsion is turned off a pure Riemannian cosmic wall is obtained.
Yang, Kung-Shang; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Dwivedi, G. D.; Lin, Lu-Kuei; Lee, Shang-Fan; Sun, Shih-Jye; Chou, Hsiung
2017-07-01
Oxygen vacancy induced ferromagnetic coupling in diluted magnetic oxide (DMO) semiconductors have been reported in several studies, but technologically more crucial spin-polarized current (SPC) is still under-developed in DMOs. Few studies have claimed that VRH mechanism can originate the SPC, but, how VRH mechanism associated with percolation path, is not clearly understood. We used Point-contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) technique to probe the SPC in Co-doped ZnO (CZO) films. Since the high resistance samples cause broadening in conductance(G)-voltage(V) curves, which may result in an unreliable evaluation of spin polarization, we include two extra parameters, (i) effective temperature and (ii) spreading resistance, for the simulation to avoid the uncertainty in extracting spin polarization. The effective G-V curves and higher spin polarization can be obtained above a certain oxygen vacancy concentration. The number of completed and fragmentary percolation paths is proportional to the concentration of oxygen vacancies. For low oxygen vacancy samples, the Pb-tip has a higher probability of covering fragmentary percolation paths than the complete ones, due to its small contact size. The completed paths may remain independent of one another and get polarized in different directions, resulting in lower spin-polarization value. High oxygen vacancy samples provide a high density of completed path, most of them link to one another by crossing over, and gives rise to high spin-polarization value.
Spin-up and adjustment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and global pycnocline
Allison, L. C.; Johnson, H. L.; Marshall, D. P.
2012-04-01
A theory is presented for the adjustment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and global pycnocline to a sudden and sustained change in wind forcing. The adjustment timescale is controlled by the mesoscale eddy diffusivity across the ACC, the mean width of the ACC, the surface area of the ocean basins to the north, and deep water formation in the North Atlantic. In particular, northern sinking may have the potential to shorten the timescale and reduce its sensitivity to Southern Ocean eddies, but the relative importance of northern sinking and Southern Ocean eddies cannot be determined precisely, largely due to limitations in the parameterization of northern sinking. Although it is clear that the main processes that control the adjustment timescale are those which counteract the deepening of the global pycnocline, the theory also suggests that the timescale can be subtly modified by wind forcing over the ACC and global diapycnal mixing. Results from calculations with a reduced-gravity model compare well with the theory. The multidecadal-centennial adjustment timescale implies that long observational time series will be required to detect dynamic change in the ACC due to anthropogenic forcing. The potential role of Southern Ocean mesoscale eddy activity in determining both the equilibrium state of the ACC and the timescale over which it adjusts suggests that the response to anthropogenic forcing may be rather different in coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models that parameterize and resolve mesoscale eddies.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ding Xiu-Huan; Zhang Cun-Xi; Wang Rui; Zhou Yun-Qing; Kong Ling-Min
2012-01-01
We have investigated theoretically the field-driven electron transport through a single-quantum-well semiconductor heterostructure with spin-orbit coupling.The splitting of the asymmetric Fano-type resonance peaks due to the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is found to be highly sensitive to the direction of the incident electron.The splitting of the Fano-type resonance induces the spin-polarization dependent electron current.The location and the line shape of the Fano-type resonance can be controlled by adjusting the energy and the direction of the incident electron,the oscillation frequency,and the amplitude of the external field.These interesting features may be used to devise tunable spin filters and realize pure spin transmission currents.
The spin evolution of young pulsars
Espinoza, Cristobal M
2012-01-01
The current understanding of the spin evolution of young pulsars is reviewed through a compilation of braking index measurements. An immediate conclusion is that the spin evolution of all pulsars with a measured braking index is not purely caused by a constant magnetic dipole. The case of PSR J1734-3333 and its upward movement towards the magnetars is used as a guide to try to understand why pulsars evolve with n < 3. Evolution between different pulsar families, driven by the emergence of a hidden internal magnetic field, appears as one possible picture.
Influence of damping constant on inverse spin hall voltage of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3(x)/platinum bilayers.
Luo, G Y; Chang, C R; Lin, J G
2014-05-07
Pure spin transport via spin pumping in the condition of ferromagnetic resonance can be transformed to charge current in the ferromagnetic/paramagnetic bilayer systems, based on inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). Here, we explore La0.7Sr0.3MnO(x)/Pt(5.5 nm) [x = 10 to 65 nm] bilayers to investigate the influence of damping constant on spin pumping efficiency. The results show that the ISHE voltage depend on the damping constant of magnetic moment, suggesting that the precession energy tansferred to lattice/electron of normal metal is a key parameter to control the magnitude of spin current.
Observation of the spin-Seebeck effect in a ferromagnetic semiconductor.
Jaworski, C M; Yang, J; Mack, S; Awschalom, D D; Heremans, J P; Myers, R C
2010-11-01
Reducing the heat generated in traditional electronics is a chief motivation for the development of spin-based electronics, called spintronics. Spin-based transistors that do not strictly rely on the raising or lowering of electrostatic barriers can overcome scaling limits in charge-based transistors. Spin transport in semiconductors might also lead to dissipation-less information transfer with pure spin currents. Despite these thermodynamic advantages, little experimental literature exists on the thermal aspects of spin transport in solids. A recent and surprising exception was the discovery of the spin-Seebeck effect, reported as a measurement of a redistribution of spins along the length of a sample of permalloy (NiFe) induced by a temperature gradient. This macroscopic spatial distribution of spins is, surprisingly, many orders of magnitude larger than the spin diffusion length, which has generated strong interest in the thermal aspects of spin transport. Here, the spin-Seebeck effect is observed in a ferromagnetic semiconductor, GaMnAs, which allows flexible design of the magnetization directions, a larger spin polarization, and measurements across the magnetic phase transition. This effect is observed even in the absence of longitudinal charge transport. The spatial distribution of spin currents is maintained across electrical breaks, highlighting the local nature of this thermally driven effect.
Morisaki, Tsubasa; Wakaura, Hikaru; Koizumi, Hiroyasu
2017-10-01
Rashba type spin-orbit interaction is included in the model Hamiltonian for the spin-vortex-induced loop current (SVILC) mechanism of superconductivity for hole doped cuprate superconductors and its effects are investigated. We assume that a Rashba interaction appears around the small polarons formed by the doped holes in the bulk; its internal electric field is assumed to be in the direction perpendicular to the CuO2 plane and stabilizes the spin polarization lying in the CuO2 plane. We examine 4 × 4, 4 × 6, and 4 × 8 spin-vortex-quartet (SVQ) and perform Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the superconducting transition temperature Tc, where each SVQ is a n × m two dimensional region (in the units of the lattice constant) containing four holes, four spin-vortices, and four SVILCs. We find that the 4 × 6 SVQ is the most stable one among them with the highest Tc; in this case, the hole concentration per Cu atom is x = 0.167, which is close to the optimal doping value x = 0.170, suggesting that the optimal doping may be related to the stabilization of the superconducting state by the Rashba interaction. We also find that the 4 × 8 SVQ becomes more stable than the 4 × 6 SVQ in a current flowing situation; this indicates that the conversion from the 4 × 6 SVQs to 4 × 8 SVQs may occur upon the emergence of a macroscopic current by the application of a magnetic field. This conversion may explain the enhancement of the charge order around x = 0.125 and the Fermi surface reconstruction upon an application of a magnetic field.
The effect of pure state structure on nonequilibrium dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Newman, C M; Stein, D L [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States)], E-mail: newman@cims.nyu.edu, E-mail: daniel.stein@nyu.edu
2008-06-18
Motivated by short-range Ising spin glasses, we review some rigorous results and their consequences for the relation between the number/nature of equilibrium pure states and nonequilibrium dynamics. Two of the consequences for spin glass dynamics following an instantaneous deep quench to a temperature with broken spin flip symmetry are: (1) almost all initial configurations lie on the boundary between the basins of attraction of multiple pure states; (2) unless there are uncountably many pure states with almost all pairs having zero overlap, there can be no equilibration to a pure state as time t {yields} {infinity}. We discuss the relevance of these results to the difficulty of equilibration of spin glasses. We also review some results concerning the 'nature versus nurture' problem of whether the large-t behavior of both ferromagnets and spin glasses following a deep quench is determined more by the initial configuration (nature) or by the dynamics realization (nurture)
Spin pumping through a topological insulator probed by x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance
Figueroa, A. I.; Baker, A. A.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Hesjedal, T.; van der Laan, G.
2016-02-01
In the field of spintronics, the generation of a pure spin current (without macroscopic charge flow) through spin pumping of a ferromagnetic (FM) layer opens up the perspective of a new generation of dissipation-less devices. Microwave driven ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) can generate a pure spin current that enters adjacent layers, allowing for both magnetization reversal (through spin-transfer torque) and to probe spin coherence in non-magnetic materials. However, standard FMR is unable to probe multilayer dynamics directly, since the measurement averages over the contributions from the whole system. The synchrotron radiation-based technique of x-ray detected FMR (XFMR) offers an elegant solution to this drawback, giving access to element-, site-, and layer-specific dynamical measurements in heterostructures. In this work, we show how XFMR has provided unique information to understand spin pumping and spin transfer torque effects through a topological insulator (TI) layer in a pseudo-spin valve heterostructure. We demonstrate that TIs function as efficient spin sinks, while also allowing a limited dynamic coupling between ferromagnetic layers. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel class of materials, and suggest future directions for the development of room temperature TI-based spintronics.
Matsumoto, R.; Imamura, H.
2016-12-01
Spin-torque induced magnetization dynamics in a spin-torque oscillator with an in-plane (IP) magnetized free layer and an out-of-plane (OP) magnetized polarizer under IP shape-anisotropy field (Hk) and applied IP magnetic field (Ha) was theoretically studied based on the macrospin model. The rigorous analytical expression of the critical current density (Jc1) for the OP precession was obtained. The obtained expression successfully reproduces the experimentally obtained Ha-dependence of Jc1 reported in [D. Houssameddine et al., Nat. Mater. 6, 447 (2007)].
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Matsumoto
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Spin-torque induced magnetization dynamics in a spin-torque oscillator with an in-plane (IP magnetized free layer and an out-of-plane (OP magnetized polarizer under IP shape-anisotropy field (Hk and applied IP magnetic field (Ha was theoretically studied based on the macrospin model. The rigorous analytical expression of the critical current density (Jc1 for the OP precession was obtained. The obtained expression successfully reproduces the experimentally obtained Ha-dependence of Jc1 reported in [D. Houssameddine et al., Nat. Mater. 6, 447 (2007].
Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zu-Quan; Gu, Lei
2015-05-01
Spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE) is one of hot topics in spin caloritronics, which examine the relationships between spin and heat transport in materials. Meanwhile, it is still a huge challenge to obtain thermally induced spin current nearly without thermal electron current. Here, we construct a hydrogen-terminated zigzag silicene nanoribbon heterojunction, and find that by applying a temperature difference between the source and the drain, spin-up and spin-down currents are generated and flow in opposite directions with nearly equal magnitudes, indicating that the thermal spin current dominates the carrier transport while the thermal electron current is much suppressed. By modulating the temperature, a pure thermal spin current can be achieved. Moreover, a thermoelectric rectifier and a negative differential thermoelectric resistance can be obtained in the thermal electron current. Through the analysis of the spin-dependent transport characteristics, a phase diagram containing various spin caloritronic phenomena is provided. In addition, a thermal magnetoresistance, which can reach infinity, is also obtained. Our results put forward an effective route to obtain a spin caloritronic material which can be applied in future low-power-consumption technology.
Tunable all electric spin polarizer
Bhandari, Nikhil K.
To realize the full potential of spin-based devices, ways must be found to inject, manipulate, and detect the spin of the electron by purely electrical means. Previously, our group has shown that a quantum point contact (QPC) with lateral spin orbit coupling (LSOC) can be used to create a strongly spin-polarized current by purely electrical means. The LSOC results from the lateral in-plane electric field created by the confining potential in QPCs with in-plane side gates (SGs). Strongly spin-polarized currents can be generated by tuning the asymmetric bias voltages on the side gates. A conductance anomaly in the form of a plateau at conductance G ≅ 0.5G0 (where G 0 = 2e2/h) was observed in the ballistic conductance of a QPC based in the absence of magnetic field - which was established to be a signature of complete spin polarization. A Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) analysis was used to model a small QPC and three ingredients were found to be essential to generate a strong spin polarization: (1) LSOC, (2) an asymmetric lateral confinement, and (3) a strong electron-electron (e-e) interaction. We have also shown that all-electric control of spin polarization can be achieved for different materials, electron mobility, heterostructure design, QPC dimensions and strength of LSOC. Our previous experimental and theoretical results have also found the presence of other conductance anomalies (i.e., at values different from 0.5 G0 ) and the main reason for these occurrences was shown to be due to the influence of surface roughness scattering. In this thesis, we address the important technological challenge to better control the location of the conductance anomalies in QPCs and create a tunable all-electric spin polarizer based on a QPC with four gates, i.e., with two in-plane SGs in series. Here, the first pair of SGs, near the source, is asymmetrically biased to create spin polarization in the QPC channel. The second set of gates, near the drain, is
Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy
2016-08-01
Using the Kubo linear-response formalism we derive expressions to calculate the electronic contribution to the heat current generated by magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic metals with broken inversion symmetry and spin-orbit interaction (SOI). The effect of producing heat currents by magnetization dynamics constitutes the Onsager reciprocal of the thermal spin-orbit torque (TSOT), i.e. the generation of torques on the magnetization due to temperature gradients. We find that the energy current driven by magnetization dynamics contains a contribution from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), which needs to be subtracted from the Kubo linear response of the energy current in order to extract the heat current. We show that the expressions of the DMI coefficient can be derived elegantly from the DMI energy current. Guided by formal analogies between the Berry phase theory of DMI on the one hand and the modern theory of orbital magnetization on the other hand we are led to an interpretation of the latter in terms of energy currents as well. Based on ab initio calculations we investigate the electronic contribution to the heat current driven by magnetization dynamics in Mn/W(0 0 1) magnetic bilayers. We predict that fast domain walls drive strong heat currents.
Mesoscopic spin Hall effect in semiconductor nanostructures
Zarbo, Liviu
The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a name given to a collection of diverse phenomena which share two principal features: (i) longitudinal electric current flowing through a paramagnetic semiconductor or metallic sample leads to transverse spin current and spin accumulation of opposite sign at opposing lateral edges; (ii) SHE does not require externally applied magnetic field or magnetic ordering in the equilibrium state of the sample, instead it relies on the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings within the sample. This thesis elaborates on a new type of phenomenon within the SHE family, predicted in our recent studies [Phys. Rev. B 72, 075361 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046601 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 72, 075335 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 73 , 075303 (2006); and Europhys. Lett. 77, 47004 (2007)], where pure spin current flows through the transverse electrodes attached to a clean finitesize two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) due to unpolarized charge current injected through its longitudinal leads. If transverse leads are removed, the effect manifests as nonequilibrium spin Hall accumulation at the lateral edges of 2DEG wires. The SO coupling driving this SHE effect is of the Rashba type, which arises due to structural inversion asymmetry of semiconductor heterostructure hosting the 2DEG. We term the effect "mesoscopic" because the spin Hall currents and accumulations reach optimal value in samples of the size of the spin precession length---the distance over which the spin of an electron precesses by an angle pi. In strongly SO-coupled structures this scale is of the order of ˜100 nm, and, therefore, mesoscopic in the sense of being much larger than the characteristic microscopic scales (such as the Fermi wavelength, screening length, or the mean free path in disordered systems), but still much smaller than the macroscopic ones. Although the first theoretical proposal for SHE, driven by asymmetry in SO-dependent scattering of spin-up and spin-down electrons off impurities
Chang, Po-Hao; Nikolic, Branislav; Markussen, Troels; Smidstrup, Søren; Stokbro, Kurt
Using extension of nonequilibrium Green function combined with density functional theory (NEGF+DFT) formalism to situations involving noncollinear spins and spin-orbit coupling, we investigate microscopic details (on the 1 ° A scale) of nonequilibrium spin density S(r) driven by unpolarized charge current injection into a ballistic thin film of Bi 2 Se 3 as prototypical topological insulator (TI) material. We find large nonzero component of S(r) in the direction transverse to current flow on the metallic surfaces of TI, as well as within few bulk atomic layers near the surfaces because of penetration of evanescent wavefunctions from the metallic surfaces into the bulk. In addition, an order of magnitude smaller components emerge in the perpendicular (within surfaces and nearly bulk regions of TI) and longitudinal (within bulk region of TI near its surface) directions, thereby creating a complex nonequilibrium spin texture. We also demonstrate how DFT calcula- tions with properly optimized local orbital basis set can precisely match putatively more accurate calculations with plane wave basis set for the supercell of Bi 2 Se 3 . P.-H.C. and B.K.N. were supported by NSF Grant No. 281 FQ ECCS 1509094. The supercomputing time was provided by 282 XSEDE, which is supported by NSF Grant No. ACI-1053575. 283 QuantumWise acknowledges support from the Danish Inno-284 vation Fund Grant No.
Solution-processed organic spin-charge converter.
Ando, Kazuya; Watanabe, Shun; Mooser, Sebastian; Saitoh, Eiji; Sirringhaus, Henning
2013-07-01
Conjugated polymers and small organic molecules are enabling new, flexible, large-area, low-cost optoelectronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes, transistors and solar cells. Owing to their exceptionally long spin lifetimes, these carbon-based materials could also have an important impact on spintronics, where carrier spins play a key role in transmitting, processing and storing information. However, to exploit this potential, a method for direct conversion of spin information into an electric signal is indispensable. Here we show that a pure spin current can be produced in a solution-processed conducting polymer by pumping spins through a ferromagnetic resonance in an adjacent magnetic insulator, and that this generates an electric voltage across the polymer film. We demonstrate that the experimental characteristics of the generated voltage are consistent with it being generated through an inverse spin Hall effect in the conducting polymer. In contrast with inorganic materials, the conducting polymer exhibits coexistence of high spin-current to charge-current conversion efficiency and long spin lifetimes. Our discovery opens a route for a new generation of molecular-structure-engineered spintronic devices, which could lead to important advances in plastic spintronics.
Luo, JunYan; Yan, Yiying; Huang, Yixiao; Yu, Li; He, Xiao-Ling; Jiao, HuJun
2017-01-01
We investigate the noise correlations of spin and charge currents through an electron spin resonance (ESR)-pumped quantum dot, which is tunnel coupled to three electrodes maintained at an equivalent chemical potential. A recursive scheme is employed with inclusion of the spin degrees of freedom to account for the spin-resolved counting statistics in the presence of non-Markovian effects due to coupling with a dissipative heat bath. For symmetric spin-up and spin-down tunneling rates, an ESR-induced spin flip mechanism generates a pure spin current without an accompanying net charge current. The stochastic tunneling of spin carriers, however, produces universal shot noises of both charge and spin currents, revealing the effective charge and spin units of quasiparticles in transport. In the case of very asymmetric tunneling rates for opposite spins, an anomalous relationship between noise autocorrelations and cross correlations is revealed, where super-Poissonian autocorrelation is observed in spite of a negative cross correlation. Remarkably, with strong dissipation strength, non-Markovian memory effects give rise to a positive cross correlation of the charge current in the absence of a super-Poissonian autocorrelation. These unique noise features may offer essential methods for exploiting internal spin dynamics and various quasiparticle tunneling processes in mesoscopic transport.
Spin-transport-phenomena in metals, semiconductors, and insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Althammer, Matthias Klaus
2012-07-19
Assuming that one could deterministically inject, transport, manipulate, store and detect spin information in solid state devices, the well-established concepts of charge-based electronics could be transferred to the spin realm. This thesis explores the injection, transport, manipulation and storage of spin information in metallic conductors, semiconductors, as well as electrical insulators. On the one hand, we explore the spin-dependent properties of semiconducting zinc oxide thin films deposited via laser-molecular beam epitaxy (laser-MBE). After demonstrating that the zinc oxide films fabricated during this thesis have excellent structural, electrical, and optical properties, we investigate the spin-related properties by optical pump/probe, electrical injection/optical detection, and all electrical spin valve-based experiments. The two key results from these experiments are: (i) Long-lived spin states with spin dephasing times of 10 ns at 10 K related to donor bound excitons can be optically addressed. (ii) The spin dephasing times relevant for electrical transport-based experiments are {<=} 2 ns at 10 K and are correlated with structural quality. On the other hand we focus on two topics of current scientific interest: the comparison of the magnetoresistance to the magnetothermopower of conducting ferromagnets, and the investigation of pure spin currents generated in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures. We investigate the magnetoresistance and magnetothermopower of gallium manganese arsenide and Heusler thin films as a function of external magnetic field orientation. Using a series expansion of the resistivity and Seebeck tensors and the inherent symmetry of the sample's crystal structure, we show that a full quantitative extraction of the transport tensors from such experiments is possible. Regarding the spin currents in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures we studied the spin mixing conductance in yttrium iron garnet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiang Deng
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A spin coated LaB6 discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB6 powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB6/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB6. Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Jiang, E-mail: dj78291@163.com [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zeng, Baoqing [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zhongshan Institute, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 528402 zhongshan (China); Wang, Xiaoju; Lin, Zulun; Qi, Kangcheng; Cao, Guichuan [School of Opto-electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China)
2014-03-15
A spin coated LaB{sub 6} discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB{sub 6} powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB{sub 6}/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB{sub 6.} Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.
Ryu, Kwang-Su; Yang, See-Hun; Thomas, Luc; Parkin, Stuart
2016-09-01
We have studied the current-induced domain wall (CIDW) dynamics in perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni multilayers deposited on Au underlayer, where the conventional spin transfer torque governs the domain wall dynamics, by the Kerr microscope. It is found that the DW angle tilting following Oersted field profile plays an important role in domain wall (DW) motion at high current density J by decreasing DW velocity with the increasing J, while distorting its DW morphology. Also we find that the DW pinning becomes pronounced as the anisotropy decreases by increasing number of Co/Ni repeats. Most remarkably, the DW tilting angle changes its sign by inserting ultrathin Pt layer between Au and Co layer, which suggests that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and spin Hall effect induces opposite effect in DW tilting. Our findings can be of use for application of CIDW to spintronics with perpendicularly magnetized systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dartora, C.A., E-mail: cadartora@eletrica.ufpr.b [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana (UFPR) (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G., E-mail: cabrera@ifi.unicamp.b [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas 13.083-970 SP (Brazil)
2010-05-31
The non-relativistic Pauli-Schroedinger theory has a richer gauge structure than usually expected, being invariant under the U(1)xSU(2) gauge group, which allows to define spin-current density vectors and obtains the relevant conserved quantities from Noether's theorem. The electromagnetic fields E and B play the role of the gauge potentials for the SU(2) sector of the gauge group and can possibly contribute with a corresponding invariant curvature self-energy term in the Lagrangian density. From the dynamics of the U(1) and SU(2) gauge fields we show that electric fields can be induced by spin-currents originated from the SU(2) gauge symmetry.
Bai, Long; Zhang, Rong; Duan, Chen-Long
2012-12-10
: Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we theoretically study the Andreev reflection(AR) in a four-terminal Aharonov-Bohm interferometer containing a coupled double quantum dot with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and the coherent indirect coupling via two ferromagnetic leads. When two ferromagnetic electrodes are in the parallel configuration, the spin-up conductance is equal to the spin-down conductance due to the absence of the RSOI. However, for the antiparallel alignment, the spin-polarized AR occurs resulting from the crossed AR (CAR) and the RSOI. The effects of the coherent indirect coupling, RSOI, and magnetic flux on the Andreev-reflected tunneling magnetoresistance are analyzed at length. The spin-related current is calculated, and a distinct swap effect emerges. Furthermore, the pure spin current can be generated due to the CAR when two ferromagnets become two half metals. It is found that the strong RSOI and the large indirect coupling are in favor of the CAR and the production of the strong spin current. The properties of the spin-related current are tunable in terms of the external parameters. Our results offer new ways to manipulate the spin-dependent transport.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. M. Kuzmanovi(c); J. J. Savovi(c); D. P. Rankovi(c); M. Stoiljkovi(c); A. Anti(c)-Jovanovi(c); M.S. Pavlovi(c); M. Marinkovi(c)
2008-01-01
@@ Plasma of argon stabilized arc column, in a current range 3-11 A, is investigated using emission spectrometric diagnostic techniques. Temperatures are evaluated using several methods: argon line to adjacent recombinational continuum intensity ratio, absolute emissivity of argon fine, measurement of electron number density, and power interruption. Electron number density is evaluated from absolute emissivity of recombinational continuum. The difference between electron Te and heavy particle Th temperature ranged from 4500 K for 3 A to 2300 K for 11 A arc current. By comparing the present with the previously obtained results, using the same arc device but with the introduction of water aerosol, it is concluded that water aerosol reduces the difference Te - Th and brings plasma closer to the partial thermodynamic equilibrium state.
Matsuo, Mamoru; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi
2017-01-01
We investigate the interconversion phenomena between spin and mechanical angular momentum in moving objects. In particular, the recent results on spin manipulation and spin-current generation by mechanical motion are examined. In accelerating systems, spin-dependent gauge fields emerge, which enable the conversion from mechanical angular momentum into spins. Such a spin-mechanical effect is predicted by quantum theory in a non-inertial frame. Experiments which confirm the effect, i.e., the resonance frequency shift in nuclear magnetic resonance, the stray field measurement of rotating metals, and electric voltage generation in liquid metals, are discussed.
Absence of the Thermal Hall Effect in Anomalous Nernst and Spin Seebeck Effects
Chen, Yi-Jia; Huang, Ssu-Yen
2016-12-01
The anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) and the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in spin caloritronics are two of the most important mechanisms to manipulate the spin-polarized current and pure spin current by thermal excitation. While the ANE in ferromagnetic metals and the SSE in magnetic insulators have been extensively studied, a recent theoretical work suggests that the signals from the thermal Hall effect (THE) have field dependences indistinguishable from, and may even overwhelm, those of the ANE and SSE. Therefore, it is vital to investigate the contribution of the THE in the ANE and SSE. In this work, we systematically study the THE in a ferromagnetic metal, Permalloy (Py), and magnetic insulator, an yttrium iron garnet (YIG), by using different Seebeck coefficients between electrodes and contact wires. Our results demonstrate that the contribution of the THE by the thermal couple effect in the Py and YIG is negligibly small if one includes the thickness dependence of the Seebeck coefficient. Thus, the spin-polarized current in the ANE and the pure spin current in the SSE remain indispensable for exploring spin caloritronics phenomena.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, R. S., E-mail: liurs7204@yahoo.com; Meng, H.; Naik, V. B.; Sim, C. H.; Yap, S.; Luo, P. [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR (Agency for Science Technology and Research), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)
2014-12-15
We studied the spin torque switching in dual MgO layer based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by incorporating an ultra-thin (0.5 nm) Ta layer at the CoFeB free layer/top MgO layer interface. The Ta incorporated MTJ showed a significant reduction (∼30%) in critical switching current density (J{sub C0} ) as compared to that of the control MTJ whilst maintaining the same tunneling magnetoresistance as well as thermal stability. The reduction of J{sub C0} can be attributed to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy arising from the incorporation of an ultrathin Ta layer with the MgO|CoFeB structure. This scheme of reducing J{sub C0} without degrading other properties may contribute to the development of spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory for low power applications.
"Pure" cutaneous histiocytosis-X.
Wolfson, S L; Botero, F; Hurwitz, S; Pearson, H A
1981-11-15
The case histories of two young children who experienced skin rashes involving various areas of the body are reported. The diagnosis of pure cutaneous histiocytosis-X was established after extensive studies revealed no other organ involvement. The patients were treated with oral corticosteroids. Currently, both children are in good health, show no evidence of disease, and have been followed over a four-to-five-year period. Therapy with corticosteroids may not be indicated with pure cutaneous histiocytosis-X unless there is evidence of extracutaneous dissemination or rapid progression of the disease.
Neumann, L.; Meier, D.; Schmalhorst, J.; Rott, K.; Reiss, G.; Meinert, M.
2016-10-01
We investigated the temperature dependence of the switching current for a perpendicularly magnetized CoFeB film deposited on a nanocrystalline tungsten film with large oxygen content: nc-W(O). The effective spin Hall angle | ΘSH eff | ≈ 0.22 is independent of temperature, whereas the switching current increases strongly at low temperature. The increase indicates that the current induced switching itself is thermally activated, in agreement with a recent theoretical prediction. The dependence of the switching current on the in-plane assist field suggests the presence of an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction with D ≈ 0.23 mJ/m2, intermediate between the Pt/CoFe and Ta/CoFe systems. We show that the nc-W(O) is insensitive to annealing, which makes this system a good choice for the integration into magnetic memory or logic devices that require a high-temperature annealing process during fabrication.
Clos, Lawrence J; Jofre, M Fransisca; Ellinger, James J; Westler, William M; Markley, John L
2013-06-01
To facilitate the high-throughput acquisition of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental data on large sets of samples, we have developed a simple and straightforward automated methodology that capitalizes on recent advances in Bruker BioSpin NMR spectrometer hardware and software. Given the daunting challenge for non-NMR experts to collect quality spectra, our goal was to increase user accessibility, provide customized functionality, and improve the consistency and reliability of resultant data. This methodology, NMRbot, is encoded in a set of scripts written in the Python programming language accessible within the Bruker BioSpin TopSpin™ software. NMRbot improves automated data acquisition and offers novel tools for use in optimizing experimental parameters on the fly. This automated procedure has been successfully implemented for investigations in metabolomics, small-molecule library profiling, and protein-ligand titrations on four Bruker BioSpin NMR spectrometers at the National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison. The investigators reported benefits from ease of setup, improved spectral quality, convenient customizations, and overall time savings.
Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Mamun Al-Rashid, Md; Atulasimha, Jayasimha
2017-10-01
Recent work (P-H Jang et al 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 107 202401, J. Sampaio et al 2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 108 112403) suggests that ferromagnetic reversal with spin transfer torque (STT) requires more current in a system in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) than switching a typical ferromagnet of the same dimensions and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). However, DMI promotes the stabilization of skyrmions and we report that when perpendicular anisotropy is modulated (reduced) for both the skyrmion and ferromagnet, it takes a much smaller current to reverse the fixed skyrmion than to reverse the ferromagnet in the same amount of time, or the skyrmion reverses much faster than the ferromagnet at similar levels of current. We show with rigorous micromagnetic simulations that skyrmion switching proceeds along a different path at very low PMA, which results in a significant reduction in the spin current or time required for reversal. This can offer potential for memory applications where a relatively simple modification of the standard STT-RAM (to include a heavy metal adjacent to the soft magnetic layer and with appropriate design of the tunnel barrier) can lead to an energy efficient and fast magnetic memory device based on the reversal of fixed skyrmions.
Plumpton, C
1968-01-01
Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t
PREFACE: SPIN2010 - Preface for Conference Proceedings
Ströher, Hans; Rathmann, Frank
2011-03-01
facilities at FZJ, and many made the most of the opportunity. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, USA), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ), the International Union of Pure And Applied Physics (IUPAP), Thomas Jefferson Laboratory (JLab, USA), Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM, Germany) and the Virtual Institute on Spin and Strong QCD (VI-QCD) of the Helmholtz Association (HGF). We would also like to thank the local people from IKP and other institutions of FZJ for their contributions and help - without them we would not have been able to organize this great meeting. The current proceedings comprise written contributions of many of the presentations during SPIN2010; however, due to the recent incident in Japan, a number of our colleagues from there were unfortunately not able to deliver their write-ups in due time. This volume was edited by Ralf Gebel, Christoph Hanhart, Andro Kacharava, Andreas Lehrach, Bernd Lorentz, Nikolai N Nikolaev, Andreas Nogga, Frank Rathmann, and Hans Ströher. The next symposium - SPIN2012 - will be held at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia) in 2012. We are looking forward to meeting you there. Important conference-related links: SPIN2010 Web-site: https://www.congressa.de/SPIN2010/ Article in CERN Courier: http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/45451 Spin Physics Committee: http://www.spin-community.org Jülich, April 2011 - Hans Ströher, Frank Rathmann (Chairs SPIN2010) Conference photograph
Research Update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Zhang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We observe current induced spin transfer torque resonance in permalloy (Py grown on monolayer MoS2. By passing rf current through the Py/MoS2 bilayer, field-like and damping-like torques are induced which excite the ferromagnetic resonance of Py. The signals are detected via a homodyne voltage from anisotropic magnetoresistance of Py. In comparison to other bilayer systems with strong spin-orbit torques, the monolayer MoS2 cannot provide bulk spin Hall effects and thus indicates the purely interfacial nature of the spin transfer torques. Therefore our results indicate the potential of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide for the use of interfacial spin-orbitronics applications.
Non-Riemannian Cosmic Walls as Boundaries of Spinning Matter with Torsion
Garcia de Andrade, L. C.
An example of a plane topological defect solution of linearized Einstein-Cartan (EC) field equation representing a cosmic wall boundary of spinning matter is given. The source of Cartan torsion is composed of two orthogonal lines of static polarized spins bounded by the cosmic plane wall. The Kopczyński-Obukhov-Tresguerres (KOT) spin fluid stress-energy current coincides with thin planar matter current in the static case. Our solution is similar to the Letelier solution of Einstein equation for multiple cosmic strings. Due to this fact we suggest that the lines of spinning matter could be analogous to multiple cosmic spinning string solution in EC theory of gravity. When torsion is turned off, a pure Riemannian cosmic wall is obtained.
Direct Measurement of the Flip-Flop Rate of Electron Spins in the Solid State
Dikarov, Ekaterina; Zgadzai, Oleg; Artzi, Yaron; Blank, Aharon
2016-10-01
Electron spins in solids have a central role in many current and future spin-based devices, ranging from sensitive sensors to quantum computers. Many of these apparatuses rely on the formation of well-defined spin structures (e.g., a 2D array) with controlled and well-characterized spin-spin interactions. While being essential for device operation, these interactions can also result in undesirable effects, such as decoherence. Arguably, the most important pure quantum interaction that causes decoherence is known as the "flip-flop" process, where two interacting spins interchange their quantum state. Currently, for electron spins, the rate of this process can only be estimated theoretically, or measured indirectly, under limiting assumptions and approximations, via spin-relaxation data. This work experimentally demonstrates how the flip-flop rate can be directly and accurately measured by examining spin-diffusion processes in the solid state for physically fixed spins. Under such terms, diffusion can occur only through this flip-flop-mediated quantum-state exchange and not via actual spatial motion. Our approach is implemented on two types of samples, phosphorus-doped 28Si and nitrogen vacancies in diamond, both of which are significantly relevant to quantum sensors and information processing. However, while the results for the former sample are conclusive and reveal a flip-flop rate of approximately 12.3 Hz, for the latter sample only an upper limit of approximately 0.2 Hz for this rate can be estimated.
Spin dynamics of complex oxides, bismuth-antimony alloys, and bismuth chalcogenides
Sahin, Cuneyt
The emerging field of spintronics relies on the manipulation of electron spin in order to use it in spin-based electronics. Such a paradigm change has to tackle several challenges including finding materials with sufficiently long spin lifetimes and materials which are efficient in generating pure spin currents. This thesis predicts that two types of material families could be a solution to the aforementioned challenges: complex oxides and bismuth based materials. We derived a general approach for constructing an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian which is applicable to all nonmagnetic materials. This formalism is useful for calculating spin-dependent properties near an arbitrary point in momentum space. We also verified this formalism through comparisons with other approaches for III-V semiconductors, and its general applicability is illustrated by deriving the spin-orbit interaction and predicting spin lifetimes for strained strontium titanate (STO) and a two-dimensional electron gas in STO (such as at the LAO/STO interface). Our results suggest robust spin coherence and spin transport properties in STO related materials even at room temperature. In the second part of the study we calculated intrinsic spin Hall conductivities for bismuth-antimony (BISb) semimetals with strong spin-orbit couplings, from the Kubo formula and using Berry curvatures evaluated throughout the Brillouin zone from a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Nearly crossing bands with strong spin-orbit interaction generate giant spin Hall conductivities in these materials, ranging from 474 ((h/e)O--1cm--1) for bismuth to 96((h/e)O--1cm --1) for antimony; the value for bismuth is more than twice that of platinum. The large spin Hall conductivities persist for alloy compositions corresponding to a three-dimensional topological insulator state, such as Bi0.83Sb0.17. The spin Hall conductivity could be changed by a factor of 5 for doped Bi, or for Bi0.83Sb0.17, by changing the chemical potential by 0.5 e
Ranjbar, Reza; Suzuki, Kazuya Z.; Sasaki, Yuta; Bainsla, Lakhan; Mizukami, Shigemi
2016-12-01
Current-induced magnetization switching is demonstrated in a micron sized Hall bar consisting of Pt-capped ultrathin ferrimagnetic MnGa films. The films showed a low magnetization M s ≃ 150 kA/m and a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) field μ 0HK\\text{eff} ≃ 2.5 T, indicating a PMA thickness t product K\\text{u}\\text{eff}t ≃ 0.47 mJ/m2, which is relatively larger than those reported for other material films with PMA. Magnetization switching induced by an in-plane electrical current was examined with the application of an in-plane magnetic field. The phase diagram of the switching current vs the in-plane magnetic field is qualitatively consistent with that of the torque due to the spin-Hall effect in the Pt layer.
Spin transport at interfaces with spin-orbit coupling: Formalism
Amin, V. P.; Stiles, M. D.
2016-09-01
We generalize magnetoelectronic circuit theory to account for spin transfer to and from the atomic lattice via interfacial spin-orbit coupling. This enables a proper treatment of spin transport at interfaces between a ferromagnet and a heavy-metal nonmagnet. This generalized approach describes spin transport in terms of drops in spin and charge accumulations across the interface (as in the standard approach), but additionally includes the responses from in-plane electric fields and offsets in spin accumulations. A key finding is that in-plane electric fields give rise to spin accumulations and spin currents that can be polarized in any direction, generalizing the Rashba-Edelstein and spin Hall effects. The spin accumulations exert torques on the magnetization at the interface when they are misaligned from the magnetization. The additional out-of-plane spin currents exert torques via the spin-transfer mechanism on the ferromagnetic layer. To account for these phenomena we also describe spin torques within the generalized circuit theory. The additional effects included in this generalized circuit theory suggest modifications in the interpretations of experiments involving spin-orbit torques, spin pumping, spin memory loss, the Rashba-Edelstein effect, and the spin Hall magnetoresistance.
Hnybida, Jeff
2016-10-01
We formulate the spin foam representation of discrete SU(2) gauge theory as a product of vertex amplitudes each of which is the spin network generating function of the boundary graph dual to the vertex. In doing so the sums over spins have been carried out. The boundary data of each n-valent node is explicitly reduced with respect to the local gauge invariance and has a manifest geometrical interpretation as a framed polyhedron of fixed total area. Ultimately, sums over spins are traded for contour integrals over simple poles and recoupling theory is avoided using generating functions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie
2013-01-01
Acquired reading problems caused by brain injury (alexia) are common, either as a part of an aphasic syndrome, or as an isolated symptom. In pure alexia, reading is impaired while other language functions, including writing, are spared. Being in many ways a simple syndrome, one would think...... that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions like alexia severity, and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia...... in the reviewed studies, have associated deficits like agraphia or aphasia and thus do not strictly conform to the diagnosis. Few studies report clear and generalisable effects of training, none report control data, and in many cases the reported findings are not supported by statistics. We can, however...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie
2013-01-01
that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions like alexia severity, and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia......Acquired reading problems caused by brain injury (alexia) are common, either as a part of an aphasic syndrome, or as an isolated symptom. In pure alexia, reading is impaired while other language functions, including writing, are spared. Being in many ways a simple syndrome, one would think...... in the reviewed studies, have associated deficits like agraphia or aphasia and thus do not strictly conform to the diagnosis. Few studies report clear and generalisable effects of training, none report control data, and in many cases the reported findings are not supported by statistics. We can, however...
Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2012-08-09
Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin diffusion is considered theoretically. Combining ballistic tunneling across the barrier and diffusive transport in the electrodes, we solve the spin dynamics equation in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque, as well as a nonconventional thickness dependence of both spin torque components.
Suppression of spin-orbit effects in 1D system
Entin, M. V.; Magarill, L. I.
2004-01-01
We report the absence of spin effects such as spin-galvanic effect, spin polarization and spin current under static electric field and inter-spin-subband absorption in 1D system with spin-orbit interaction of arbitrary form. It was also shown that the accounting for the direct interaction of electron spin with magnetic field violates this statement.
Entanglement Entropy in Random Quantum Spin-S Chains
Saguia, A; Continentino, M A; Sarandy, M S
2007-01-01
We discuss the scaling of entanglement entropy in the random singlet phase (RSP) of disordered quantum magnetic chains of general spin-S. Through an analysis of the general structure of the RSP, we show that the entanglement entropy scales logarithmically with the size of a block and we provide a closed expression for this scaling. This result is applicable for arbitrary quantum spin chains in the RSP, being dependent only on the magnitude S of the spin. Remarkably, the logarithmic scaling holds for the disordered chain even if the pure chain with no disorder does not exhibit conformal invariance, as is the case for Heisenberg integer spin chains. Our conclusions are supported by explicit evaluations of the entanglement entropy for random spin-1 and spin-3/2 chains using an asymptotically exact real-space renormalization group approach.
Coherent and correlated spin transport in nanoscale superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morten, Jan Petter
2008-03-15
Motivated by the desire for better understanding of nano electronic systems, we theoretically study the conductance and noise characteristics of current flow between superconductors, ferromagnets, and normal-metals. Such nano structures can reveal information about superconductor proximity effects, spin-relaxation processes, and spintronic effects with potential applications for different areas of mesoscopic physics. We employ the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity in the Keldysh formalism, and calculate the nonequilibrium transport of spin and charge using various approaches like the circuit theory of quantum transport and full counting statistics. For two of the studied structures, we have been able to compare our theory to experimental data and obtain good agreement. Transport and relaxation of spin polarized current in superconductors is governed by energy-dependent transport coefficients and spin-flip rates which are determined by quantum interference effects. We calculate the resulting temperature-dependent spin flow in ferromagnet-superconductor devices. Experimental data for spin accumulation and spin relaxation in a superconducting nano wire is in agreement with the theory, and allows for a spin-flip spectroscopy that determines the dominant mechanism for spin-flip relaxation in the studied samples. A ferromagnet precessing under resonance conditions can give rise to pure spin current injection into superconductors. We find that the absorbed spin current is measurable as a temperature dependent Gilbert damping, which we calculate and compare to experimental data. Crossed Andreev reflection denotes superconducting pairing of electrons flowing from different normal-metal or ferromagnet terminals into a superconductor. We calculate the nonlocal currents resulting from this process in competition with direct electron transport between the normal-metal terminals. We take dephasing into account, and study the nonlocal current when the types of contact in
Friedman, Greg
2004-01-01
This is an introduction to the construction of higher-dimensional knots by spinning methods. Simple spinning of classical knots was introduced by E. Artin in 1926, and several generalizations have followed. These include twist spinning, superspinning or p-spinning, frame spinning, roll spinning, and deform spinning. We survey these constructions and some of their most important applications, as well as some newer hybrids due to the author. The exposition, meant to be accessible to a broad aud...
On scalar propagators of three-dimensional higher-spin black holes
Tan, H S
2016-01-01
We explore some aspects of three-dimensional higher-spin holography by studying scalar flucuations in the background of higher-spin black holes. We furnish an independent derivation of the bulk-boundary propagator by purely invoking a well-known infinite dimensional matrix representation of $hs[\\lambda]$ algebra related to its construction as a quotient of the universal enveloping algebra of $sl(2)$, thus evading the need in previous literature to perform an analytic continuation from some integer to $\\lambda$. The boundary two-point functions are computed for black hole solutions in $hs[\\lambda]\\times hs[\\lambda]$ Chern-Simons theory with spin-3 and spin-4 charges up to second-order in the potentials. We match them with three- and four-point torus correlation functions of the putative dual conformal field theory which has $\\mathcal{W}_\\infty [\\lambda]$ symmetry and is deformed by higher-spin currents.
Thermal conductivity of magnetic insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling
Stamokostas, Georgios; Lapas, Panteleimon; Fiete, Gregory A.
We study the influence of spin-orbit coupling on the thermal conductivity of various types of magnetic insulators. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling and orbital-degeneracy, the strong-coupling limit of Hubbard interactions at half filling can often be adequately described in terms of a pure spin Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg form. However, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling the resulting exchange interaction can become highly anisotropic. The effect of the atomic spin-orbit coupling, taken into account through the effect of magnon-phonon interactions and the magnetic order and excitations, on the lattice thermal conductivity of various insulating magnetic systems is studied. We focus on the regime of low temperatures where the dominant source of scattering is two-magnon scattering to one-phonon processes. The thermal current is calculated within the Boltzmann transport theory. We are grateful for financial support from NSF Grant DMR-0955778.
Giordano, A.; Verba, R.; Zivieri, R.; Laudani, A.; Puliafito, V.; Gubbiotti, G.; Tomasello, R.; Siracusano, G.; Azzerboni, B.; Carpentieri, M.; Slavin, A.; Finocchio, G.
2016-01-01
Spin-Hall oscillators (SHO) are promising sources of spin-wave signals for magnonics applications, and can serve as building blocks for magnonic logic in ultralow power computation devices. Thin magnetic layers used as “free” layers in SHO are in contact with heavy metals having large spin-orbital interaction, and, therefore, could be subject to the spin-Hall effect (SHE) and the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (i-DMI), which may lead to the nonreciprocity of the excited spin waves and other unusual effects. Here, we analytically and micromagnetically study magnetization dynamics excited in an SHO with oblique magnetization when the SHE and i-DMI act simultaneously. Our key results are: (i) excitation of nonreciprocal spin-waves propagating perpendicularly to the in-plane projection of the static magnetization; (ii) skyrmions generation by pure spin-current; (iii) excitation of a new spin-wave mode with a spiral spatial profile originating from a gyrotropic rotation of a dynamical skyrmion. These results demonstrate that SHOs can be used as generators of magnetic skyrmions and different types of propagating spin-waves for magnetic data storage and signal processing applications. PMID:27786261
Giordano, A.; Verba, R.; Zivieri, R.; Laudani, A.; Puliafito, V.; Gubbiotti, G.; Tomasello, R.; Siracusano, G.; Azzerboni, B.; Carpentieri, M.; Slavin, A.; Finocchio, G.
2016-10-01
Spin-Hall oscillators (SHO) are promising sources of spin-wave signals for magnonics applications, and can serve as building blocks for magnonic logic in ultralow power computation devices. Thin magnetic layers used as “free” layers in SHO are in contact with heavy metals having large spin-orbital interaction, and, therefore, could be subject to the spin-Hall effect (SHE) and the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (i-DMI), which may lead to the nonreciprocity of the excited spin waves and other unusual effects. Here, we analytically and micromagnetically study magnetization dynamics excited in an SHO with oblique magnetization when the SHE and i-DMI act simultaneously. Our key results are: (i) excitation of nonreciprocal spin-waves propagating perpendicularly to the in-plane projection of the static magnetization; (ii) skyrmions generation by pure spin-current; (iii) excitation of a new spin-wave mode with a spiral spatial profile originating from a gyrotropic rotation of a dynamical skyrmion. These results demonstrate that SHOs can be used as generators of magnetic skyrmions and different types of propagating spin-waves for magnetic data storage and signal processing applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furubayashi, T., E-mail: furubayashi.takao@nims.go.jp; Takahashi, Y. K.; Sasaki, T. T.; Hono, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)
2015-10-28
Enhancement of magnetoresistance output was attained in current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) devices by using a bcc CuZn alloy for the spacer. Pseudo spin valves that consisted of the Co{sub 2}Fe(Ga{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5}) Heusler alloy for ferromagnetic layers and CuZn alloy with the composition of Cu{sub 52.4}Zn{sub 47.6} for a spacer showed the large change of the resistance-area products, ΔRA, up to 8 mΩ·μm{sup 2} for a low annealing temperature of 350 °C. The ΔRA value is one of the highest reported so far for the CPP-GMR devices for the low annealing temperature, which is essential for processing read heads for hard disk drives. We consider that the enhancement of ΔRA is produced from the spin-dependent resistance at the Co{sub 2}Fe(Ga{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5})/CuZn interfaces.
Spin Echo Studies on Cellular Water
Chang, D C; Nichols, B L; Rorschach, H E
2014-01-01
Previous studies indicated that the physical state of cellular water could be significantly different from pure liquid water. To experimentally investigate this possibility, we conducted a series of spin-echo NMR measurements on water protons in rat skeletal muscle. Our result indicated that the spin-lattice relaxation time and the spin-spin relaxation time of cellular water protons are both significantly shorter than that of pure water (by 4.3-fold and 34-fold, respectively). Furthermore, the spin diffusion coefficient of water proton is almost 1/2 of that of pure water. These data suggest that cellular water is in a more ordered state in comparison to pure water.
Quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor
Wakamura, Taro
Superconductivity often brings novel phenomena to spintronics. According to theoretical predictions, superconductivity may enhance the spin Hall effect (SHE) due to the increase in the resistance of superconducting quasiparticles which mediate spin transport in superconductors. In this work, we show a first experimental observation of quasiparticle-mediated SHE in a superconducting NbN, which exhibits an enormous enhancement below the superconducting critical temperature (TC = 10 K). We fabricated a lateral device structure composed of Py (NiFe) and NbN wires bridged by a nonmagnetic Cu wire. A pure spin current is generated in the Cu bridge by a spin injection current (I) between the Py and the Cu, and absorbed into the NbN wire. The absorbed spin currents are converted into charge currents via the inverse SHE, thereby generating the inverse SH voltage (VISHE) . When NbN is in the normal state at 20 K (>TC) , inverse SH signals ΔRISHE (RISHE ≡VISHE / I) are independent of I. However, at 3 K (
Kapul, A. A.; Zubova, E. I.; Torgaev, S. N.; Drobchik, V. V.
2017-08-01
The research focuses on a pure-tone audiometer designing. The relevance of the study is proved by high incidence of an auditory analyser in older people and children. At first, the article provides information about subjective and objective audiometry methods. Secondly, we offer block-diagram and basic-circuit arrangement of device. We decided to base on STM32F407VG microcontroller and use digital pot in the function of attenuator. Third, we implemented microcontroller and PC connection. C programming language is used for microcontroller’s program and PC’s interface. Fourthly, we created the pure-tone audiometer prototype. In the future, we will implement the objective method ASSR in addition to pure-tone audiometry.
Akyol, Mustafa; Jiang, Wanjun; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Gunes, Mustafa; Ekicibil, Ahmet; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.
2016-07-01
We study the heavy metal layer thickness dependence of the current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) in perpendicularly magnetized Hf|CoFeB|MgO multilayer structures. The damping-like (DL) current-induced SOT is determined by vector anomalous Hall effect measurements. A non-monotonic behavior in the DL-SOT is found as a function of the thickness of the heavy-metal layer. The sign of the DL-SOT changes with increasing the thickness of the Hf layer in the trilayer structure. As a result, in the current-driven magnetization switching, the preferred direction of switching for a given current direction changes when the Hf thickness is increased above ˜7 nm. Although there might be a couple of reasons for this unexpected behavior in DL-SOT, such as the roughness in the interfaces and/or impurity based electric potential in the heavy metal, one can deduce a roughness dependence sign reversal in DL-SOT in our trilayer structure.
Spin-dependent quantum transport through an Aharonov-Bohm structure spin splitter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Yu-Xian
2008-01-01
Using the tight-binding model approximation, this paper investigates theoretically spin-dependent quantum trans-port through an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer. An external magnetic field is applied to produce the spin-polarization and spin current. The AB interferometer, acting as a spin splitter, separates the opposite spin polarization current. By adjusting the energy and the direction of the magnetic field, large spin-polarized current can be obtained.
Hnybida, Jeff
2015-01-01
We formulate the spin foam representation of discrete SU(2) gauge theory as a product of vertex amplitudes each of which is the spin network generating function of the boundary graph dual to the vertex. Thus the sums over spins have been carried out. We focus on the character expansion of Yang-Mills theory which is an approximate heat kernel regularization of BF theory. The boundary data of each $n$-valent node is an element of the Grassmannian Gr(2,$n$) which carries a coherent representation of U($n$) and a geometrical interpretation as a framed polyhedron of fixed total area. Ultimately, sums over spins are traded for contour integrals over simple poles and recoupling theory is avoided using generating functions.
Ab initio studies of coherent spin transport in Fe-hBN/graphene van der Waals multilayers
Magnus Ukpong, Aniekan
2017-07-01
This paper presents the results of ab initio studies of the electronic spin inversion and filtering in a ferromagnetic multilayer heterostructure. Spin-polarized electronic structure calculations are performed based on van der Waals density functional theory to give unique insights in to the generation, manipulation and transport of coherent spin conductance. By using an exact theory of the self-consistent ground state of the Fe-hBN/graphene multilayer as a model of the magnetic tunnel junction, hidden asymmetries are unraveled in the spin-resolved charge densities. It is shown that the injection of spin into the graphene/boron nitride tunnel layer from a ferromagnetic contact gives rise to coherent spin current. The projected Fermi surfaces of the up and down spin channels are analyzed to reveal Fermi arc topologies and spin anisotropies. It is also demonstrated that the coherent transport of pure spin-down current in the topological Weyl semimetal phase is robust. The implications of the results on out-of-plane transport of spin polarized conductance in van der Waals multilayer spintronic devices is discussed. The insights derived from this study are expected to open up prospects for further exploration of van der Waals magnetic multilayer heterostructures as a versatile platform for developing materials for Weyltronic applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouchiat, C.; Piketty, C.A. (Lab. de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France))
1991-10-24
We present first a computation of the nuclear anapole moment of thallium by a method developed previously by the authors. Then we perform a detailed analysis of the spin dependent parity violating electron-nucleon potential generated by the hyperfine coupling perturbation upon the pseudoscalar interaction of the electron with the weak charge of the nucleus. This effect is found to be of order {alpha}G{sub F}A{sup 2/3} and represents, depending upon the nucleus, (10-70)% of the anapole moment contribution. In the case of thallium, it compensates almost exactly the contribution associated with the axial hadronic neutral current. This fact, together with other arguments given in the paper, makes thallium a favoured candidate for the anapole moment search provided accurate enough experiments can be performed. (orig.).
Bouchiat, C.; Piketty, C. A.
1991-10-01
We present first a computation of the nuclear anapole moment of thallium by a method developed previously by the authors. Then we perform a detailed analysis of the spin dependent parity violating electron-nucleon potential generated by the hyperfine coupling perturbation upon the pseudoscalar interaction of the electron with the weak charge of the nucleus. This effect is found to be of order αG FA {2}/{3} and represents, depending upon the nucleus, (10-70)% of the anapole moment contribution. In the case of thallium, it compensates almost exactly the contribution associated with the axial hadronic neutral current. This fact, together with other arguments given in the paper, makes thallium a favoured candidate for the anapole moment search provided accurate enough experiments can be performed.
Tailored jump operators for purely dissipative quantum magnetism
Weimer, Hendrik
2017-01-01
I propose an architecture for the realization of dissipative quantum many-body spin models. The dissipative processes are mediated by interactions with auxiliary particles and lead to a widely tunable class of correlated quantum jump operators. These findings enable the investigation of purely dissipative spin models, where coherent dynamics is entirely absent. I provide a detailed review of a recently introduced variational method to analyze such dissipative quantum many-body systems, and I discuss a specific example in terms of a purely dissipative Heisenberg model, for which I find an additional disordered phase that is not present in the corresponding ground state phase diagram.
Tailored jump operators for purely dissipative quantum magnetism
Weimer, Hendrik
2016-01-01
I propose an archtitecture for the realization of dissipative quantum many-body spin models. The dissipative processes are mediated by interactions with auxiliary particles and lead to a widely tunable class of correlated quantum jump operators. These findings enable the investigation of purely dissipative spin models, where coherent dynamics is entirely absent. I provide a detailed review of a recently introduced variational method to analyze such dissipative quantum many-body systems, and I discuss a specific example in terms of a purely dissipative Heisenberg model, for which I find an additional disordered phase that is not present in the corresponding ground state phase diagram.
Mackenzie, Jim
2016-01-01
This article responds to Johan Dahlbeck's "Towards a pure ontology: Children's bodies and morality" ["Educational Philosophy and Theory," vol. 46 (1), 2014, pp. 8-23 (EJ1026561)]. His arguments from Nietzsche and Spinoza do not carry the weight he supposes, and the conclusions he draws from them about pedagogy would be…
Mackenzie, Jim
2016-01-01
This article responds to Johan Dahlbeck's "Towards a pure ontology: Children's bodies and morality" ["Educational Philosophy and Theory," vol. 46 (1), 2014, pp. 8-23 (EJ1026561)]. His arguments from Nietzsche and Spinoza do not carry the weight he supposes, and the conclusions he draws from them about pedagogy would be…
Hussain, Shah; Schönbichler, Stefan A; Güzel, Yüksel; Sonderegger, Harald; Abel, Gudrun; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K
2013-10-01
Galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids are among the most important pharmacological active groups of natural compounds. This study describes a pre-step in isolation of some selected representatives of these groups from biological samples. A selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for these compounds may help assign classes and isomer designations within complex mixtures. Pure zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate powders (325 mesh) were employed as two new sorbents for optimized SPE of phenolic acids. These sorbents possess electrostatic interaction sites which accounts for additional interactions for carbon acid moieties as compared to hydrophilic and hydrophobic sorbents alone. Based on this principle, a selective SPE method for 1,3,4,5-tetragalloylquinic acid (an anti-HIV and anti-asthamatic agent) as a starting compound was developed and then deployed upon other phenolic acids with success. The recoveries and selectivities of both sorbents were compared to most commonly applied and commercially available sorbents by using high performance liquid chromatography. The nature of interaction between the carrier sorbent and the acidic target molecules was investigated by studying hydrophilic (silica), hydrophobic (C18), mixed-mode (ionic and hydrophobic: Oasis(®) MAX) and predominantly electrostatic (zirconium silicate) materials. The newly developed zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate stationary phases revealed promising results for the selective extraction of galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids from natural sources. It was observed that zirconium silicate exhibited maximum recovery and selectivity for tetragalloylquinic acid (84%), chlorogenic acid (82%) and dicaffeoylquinic acid (94%) among all the tested sorbents.
Kondo, Kenji
2016-09-01
Spin filters using spin-orbit interaction (SOI) are very important in the field of spintronics. Therefore, a theory of devices using SOI is necessary for designing the spin filters. The spin-filtering devices can be used to generate and detect spin polarized currents. Many researchers have reported on the spin-filters using linear Rashba SOI. However, the spin-filters using square and cubic Rashba SOIs are not yet reported. This is surely because the Aharonov-Casher (AC) phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs are ambiguous. In this paper, we try to derive the AC phases acquired under nth order Rashba SOIs, which we call general Rashba SOIs, using non-Abelian SU (2) gauge theory. As a result, we have successfully derived these AC phases without completing the square methods which is useless except for linear Rashba SOI. In the process of derivation of AC phases, we have also found another expression of adiabatic approximation for a pure gauge. This finding will lead to the starting point for deeply understanding the adiabatic approximation. Using the above AC phases under general Rashba SOIs, we investigate the spin filter effect in Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring with double quantum dots (QDs) under general Rashba SOIs. The spin transport is investigated from left nanowire to right nanowire in this structure within tight binding approximation. Especially, we focus on the difference of spin filter effects among general Rashba SOIs. We have obtained the penetrating magnetic flux dependence of spin polarization for the AB ring subject to general Rashba SOIs. It is found that the perfect spin filtering is achieved for all the Rashba SOIs. This result indicates that this AB ring under general Rashba SOIs can be a promising device for spin current generation without ferromagnetic metals. Moreover, this device under different order Rashba SOI behaves in totally different ways in response to penetrating magnetic flux, which is attributed to n times rotation of
Toxicological evaluation of pure hydroxytyrosol.
Auñon-Calles, David; Canut, Lourdes; Visioli, Francesco
2013-05-01
Of all the phenolic constituents of olives and extra virgin olive oil, hydroxytyrosol is currently being actively exploited as a potential supplement or preservative to be employed in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and food industry. In terms of safety profile, hydroxytyrosol has only been investigated as the predominant part of raw olive mill waste water extracts, due to the previous unavailability of appropriate quantities of the pure compound. We report the toxicological evaluation of hydroxytyrosol and, based on the results, propose a No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of 500mg/kg/d.
Electrical spin injection and accumulation at room temperature in an all-metal mesoscopic spin valve
Jedema, F.J.; Filip, A.T.; Wees, B.J. van
2001-01-01
Finding a means to generate, control and use spin-polarized currents represents an important challenge for spin-based electronics, or `spintronics'. Spin currents and the associated phenomenon of spin accumulation can be realized by driving a current from a ferromagnetic electrode into a non-magneti
Theory of the spin Seebeck effect.
Adachi, Hiroto; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi
2013-03-01
The spin Seebeck effect refers to the generation of a spin voltage caused by a temperature gradient in a ferromagnet, which enables the thermal injection of spin currents from the ferromagnet into an attached nonmagnetic metal over a macroscopic scale of several millimeters. The inverse spin Hall effect converts the injected spin current into a transverse charge voltage, thereby producing electromotive force as in the conventional charge Seebeck device. Recent theoretical and experimental efforts have shown that the magnon and phonon degrees of freedom play crucial roles in the spin Seebeck effect. In this paper, we present the theoretical basis for understanding the spin Seebeck effect and briefly discuss other thermal spin effects.
Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris, E-mail: hammel@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2015-05-07
Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.
Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)
Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris
2015-05-01
Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.
Obukhov, Y N
2001-01-08
The gravitational effects in the relativistic quantum mechanics are investigated. The exact Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is constructed for the Dirac particle coupled to the static spacetime metric. As a direct application, we analyze the nonrelativistic limit of the theory. The new term describing the specific spin (gravitational moment) interaction effect is recovered in the Hamiltonian. The comparison of the true gravitational coupling with the purely inertial case demonstrates that the spin relativistic effects do not violate the equivalence principle for the Dirac fermions.
Spin Hall effect induced spin transfer through an insulator
Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Manske, Dirk
2016-09-01
When charge current passes through a normal metal that exhibits the spin Hall effect, spin accumulates at the edge of the sample in the transverse direction. We predict that this spin accumulation, or spin voltage, enables quantum tunneling of spin through an insulator or vacuum to reach a ferromagnet without transferring charge. In a normal metal/insulator/ferromagnetic insulator trilayer (such as Pt/oxide/YIG), the quantum tunneling explains the spin-transfer torque and spin pumping that exponentially decay with the thickness of the insulator. In a normal metal/insulator/ferromagnetic metal trilayer (such as Pt/oxide/Co), the spin transfer in general does not decay monotonically with the thickness of the insulator. Combining with the spin Hall magnetoresistance, this tunneling mechanism points to the possibility of a tunneling spectroscopy that can probe the magnon density of states of a ferromagnetic insulator in an all-electrical and noninvasive manner.
Spin caloritronics in graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Angsula; Frota, H. O. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Amazonas, Av. Rodrigo Octavio 3000-Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil)
2015-06-14
Spin caloritronics, the combination of spintronics with thermoelectrics, exploiting both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment in addition to its fundamental electronic charge and temperature, is an emerging technology mainly in the development of low-power-consumption technology. In this work, we study the thermoelectric properties of a Rashba dot attached to two single layer/bilayer graphene sheets as leads. The temperature difference on the two graphene leads induces a spin current, which depends on the temperature and chemical potential. We demonstrate that the Rashba dot behaves as a spin filter for selected values of the chemical potential and is able to filter electrons by their spin orientation. The spin thermopower has also been studied where the effects of the chemical potential, temperature, and also the Rashba term have been observed.
Spin filter and spin valve in ferromagnetic graphene
Song, Yu; Dai, Gang
2015-06-01
We propose and demonstrate that a EuO-induced and top-gated graphene ferromagnetic junction can be simultaneously operated as a spin filter and a spin valve. We attribute such a remarkable result to a coexistence of a half-metal band and a common energy gap for opposite spins in ferromagnetic graphene. We show that both the spin filter and the spin valve can be effectively controlled by a back gate voltage, and they survive for practical metal contacts and finite temperature. Specifically, larger single spin currents and on-state currents can be reached with contacts with work functions similar to graphene, and the spin filter can operate at higher temperature than the spin valve.
Purely Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flávio Ramalho Romero
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma.
Momentum of the Pure Radiation Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The local momentum equation of the pure radiation field is considered in terms of an earlier elaborated and revised electromagnetic theory. In this equation the contribution from the volume force is found to vanish in rectangular geometry, and to become nonzero but negligible in cylindrical geometry. Consequently the radiated momentum is due to the Poynting vector only, as in conventional electrodynamics. It results in physically relevant properties of a photon model having an angular momentum (spin. The Poynting vector concept is further compared to the quantized momentum concept for a free particle, as represented by a spatial gradient operator acting on the wave function. However, this latter otherwise successful concept leads to difficulties in the physical interpretation of known and expected photon properties such as the spin, the negligible loss of transverse momentum across a bounding surface, and the Lorentz invariance.
Spin injection in spin FETs using a step-doping profile
Shen, Min; Saikin, Semion; Cheng, Ming-Cheng
2004-01-01
We investigate effect of a step-doping profile on the spin injection from a ferromagnetic metal contact into a semiconductor quantum well (QW) in spin FETs using a Monte Carlo model. The considered scheme uses a heavily doped layer at the metal/semiconductor interface to vary the Schottky barrier shape and enhance the tunneling current. It is found that spin flux (spin current density) is enhanced proportionally to the total current, and the variation of current spin polarization does not exc...
Nguyen, Minh-Hai; Pai, Chi-Feng; Ralph, Daniel C.; Buhrman, Robert A.
2015-03-01
The spin Hall effect (SHE) in ferromagnet/heavy metal bilayer structures has been demonstrated to be a powerful means for producing pure spin currents and for exerting spin-orbit damping-like and field-like torques on the ferromagnetic layer. Large spin Hall (SH) angles have been reported for Pt, beta-Ta and beta-W films and have been utilized to achieve magnetic switching of in-plane and out-of-plane magnetized nanomagnets, spin torque auto-oscillators, and the control of high velocity domain wall motion. For many of the proposed applications of the SHE it is also important to achieve an effective Gilbert damping parameter that is as low as possible. In general the spin orbit torques and the effective damping are predicted to depend directly on the spin-mixing conductance of the SH metal/ferromagnet interface. This opens up the possibility of tuning these properties with the insertion of a very thin layer of another metal between the SH metal and the ferromagnet. Here we will report on experiments with such trilayer structures in which we have observed both a large enhancement of the spin Hall torque efficiency and a significant reduction in the effective Gilbert damping. Our results indicate that there is considerable opportunity to optimize the effectiveness and energy efficiency of the damping-like torque through engineering of such trilayer structures. Supported in part by NSF and Samsung Electronics Corporation.
Purely tetrahedral quadruple systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI Lijun
2006-01-01
An oriented tetrahedron is a set of four vertices and four cyclic triples with the property that any ordered pair of vertices is contained in exactly one of the cyclic triples. A tetrahedral quadruple system of order n (briefly TQS(n)) is a pair (X,B), where X is an nelement set and B is a set of oriented tetrahedra such that every cyclic triple on X is contained in a unique member of B. A TQS(n) (X, B) is pure if there do not exist two oriented tetrahedra with the same vertex set. In this paper, we show that there is a pure TQS(n) if and only if n≡2,4(mod 6),n＞4,or n≡1,5(mod 12). One corollary is that there is a simple two-fold quadruple system of order n if and only if n≡2,4 (mod 6) and n＞4, or n≡1, 5 (mod 12).Another corollary is that there is an overlarge set of pure Mendelsohn triple systems of order n for n≡1,3(mod 6),n＞3, or n≡0,4 (mod 12).
Spin flips and quantum information for anti-parallel spins
Gisin, Nicolas
1999-01-01
We consider two different ways to encode quantum information, by parallel or anti-parallel pairs of spins. We find that there is more information in the anti-parallel ones. This purely quantum mechanical effect is due to entanglement, not of the states but occuring in the course of the measuring process. We also introduce a range of quantum information processing machines, such as spin-flip and anti-cloning.
Exploring the simplest purely baryonic decay processes
Geng, C Q; Rodrigues, Eduardo
2016-01-01
We propose to search for purely baryonic decay processes at the LHCb experiment. In particular, we concentrate on the decay $\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar pn$, which is the simplest purely baryonic decay mode, with solely spin-1/2 baryons involved. We predict its decay branching ratio to be ${\\cal B}(\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar pn)=(2.0^{+0.3}_{-0.2})\\times 10^{-6}$, which is sufficiently large to make the decay mode accessible to LHCb. Though not considered in general, purely baryonic decays could shed light on the puzzle of the baryon number asymmetry in the universe by means of a better understanding of the baryonic nature of our matter world. As such, they constitute a yet unexplored class of decay processes worth investigating. Our study can be extended to the purely baryonic decays of $\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar p \\Lambda$, $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda \\bar p\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda\\bar \\Lambda\\Lambda$, as well as other similar anti-triplet $b$-baryon decays, such as $\\Xi_b^{0,-}$.
Spin-transfer torque induced spin waves in antiferromagnetic insulators
Daniels, Matthew; Guo, Wei; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Xiao, Di; Xiao, Jiang
2015-03-01
We explore the possibility of exciting spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic films by injecting spin current at the surface. We analyze both magnetically compensated and uncompensated interfaces. We find that the spin current induced spin-transfer torque can excite spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic materials and that the chirality of the excited spin wave is determined by the polarization of the injected spin current. Furthermore, the presence of magnetic surface anisotropy can greatly increase the accessibility of these excitations. Supported by NSF EFRI-1433496 (M.W.D), U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering (D.X. & G.M.S.), Major State Basic Research Project of China and National Natural Science Foundation of China (W.G. and J.X.).
Analytic definition of spin structure
Avetisyan, Zhirayr; Saveliev, Nikolai; Vassiliev, Dmitri
2016-01-01
We work on a parallelizable time-orientable Lorentzian 4-manifold and prove that in this case the notion of spin structure can be equivalently defined in a purely analytic fashion. Our analytic definition relies on the use of the concept of a non-degenerate two-by-two formally self-adjoint first order linear differential operator and gauge transformations of such operators. We also give an analytic definition of spin structure for the 3-dimensional Riemannian case.
Spin coherence time analytical estimations
Orlov, Yuri
2015-01-01
Section I presents a variety of analytical estimations related to spin coherence time (SCT) in a purely electric frozen-spin ring. The main result is that, in the case of m > 0 and vertical oscillations only, the kinetic energy equilibrium shift equals zero, that is, SCT does not depend on these oscillations. Section II contains additional information on this case concerning terminology, electric field definition and vertical oscillations.
Electric-field strength and doping level controlled spin-valley transport in a silicene np junction
Hua, Tao; Zhai, Xuechao; Yang, Zhihong; Wang, Shendong; Li, Bin
2016-10-01
The performance of np junction, as the basic unit of electronic devices, often determines the prospect of a material. We here investigate the spin- and valley-polarized transport in a silicene np junction, where a ferromagnetic field and a perpendicular electric field are applied in the p-doped region. It is found that pure spin current with valley polarization can be obtained under the control of electric-field strength and doping level, arising from the specific dispersion with spin- and valley-polarizations. By tuning the electric field properly, one can even realize a controllable state that supports 100% spin- and valley-polarized transport. At fixed electric field, we also demonstrate that the ferromagnetic field can greatly affect the ratios of spin- and valley-polarizations. These findings suggest that silicene is a promising material for application in future spintronics and valleytronics devices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李艳; 蔡杰; 吕鹏; 邹阳; 万明珍; 彭冬晋; 顾倩倩; 关庆丰
2012-01-01
利用强流脉冲电子束（HCPEB）装置对金属纯钛进行轰击,采用X射线衍射,扫描电子显微镜及透射电子显微镜技术详细分析了轰击样品表层的结构和缺陷.X射线衍射分析表明,HCPEB能够在材料表层诱发幅值为GPa量级的压应力,并在（100）,（102）和（103）晶面出现择优取向.表层微观结构的观察表明：HCPEB轰击后材料表层发生了马氏体相变,形成了大量的片状马氏体组织;此外,HCPEB轰击还在辐照表面诱发了强烈的塑性变形,一次轰击后,晶粒内部的塑性变形以（100）晶面的位错滑移为主,位错密度显著提高;多次轰击后,样品变形结构发生变化,变形孪晶的数量明显增多.这些变形微结构不仅影响表层的织构演化行为,而且还能细化晶粒,进而提高材料表面硬度,为HCPEB技术进行纯钛表面强化提供了一条有效的途径.%The specimens of polycrystalline pure titanium are irradiated by high-current pulsed electron beam （HCPEB）. Surface microstruc- tures and defects induced by HCPEB irradiation are investigated by using X-ray diffraction （XRD）, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy technique. The XRD results show that the high value of stress （GPa order） is introduced into the irradiated surface layer, and the characteristics of preferential orientations （100）, （102） and （103） are present after HCPEB treatment. The surface microstructure observations indicate that martensitic transformation occurs in the irradiated surface and a large number of plate martensite structures are formed in the irradiated surface. Moreover, strong plastic deformation is triggered by HCPEB treatment. After one pulse, （100） type slip bands are formed in the interior of grain, which leads to the increase of dislocation density. After multi- pulses, deformation microstructures change significantly, and the number of deformation twins increases evidently
2013-01-01
This book covers all principal aspects of currently investigated frustrated systems, from exactly solved frustrated models to real experimental frustrated systems, going through renormalization group treatment, Monte Carlo investigation of frustrated classical Ising and vector spin models, low-dimensional systems, spin ice and quantum spin glass. The reader can - within a single book - obtain a global view of the current research development in the field of frustrated systems.This new edition is updated with recent theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in the field of frustrated
Inertial effect on spin-orbit coupling and spin transport
Basu, B.; Chowdhury, Debashree
2013-08-01
We theoretically study the renormalization of inertial effects on the spin dependent transport of conduction electrons in a semiconductor by taking into account the interband mixing on the basis of k→ṡp→ perturbation theory. In our analysis, for the generation of spin current we have used the extended Drude model where the spin-orbit coupling plays an important role. We predict enhancement of the spin current resulting from the renormalized spin-orbit coupling effective in our model in cubic and non-cubic crystals. Attention has been paid to clarify the importance of gauge fields in the spin transport of this inertial system. A theoretical proposition of a perfect spin filter has been done through the Aharonov-Casher like phase corresponding to this inertial system. For a time dependent acceleration, effect of k→ ṡp→ perturbation on the spin current and spin polarization has also been addressed. Furthermore, achievement of a tunable source of polarized spin current through the non uniformity of the inertial spin-orbit coupling strength has also been discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
在2004年奥林匹克赛事中，中国的李婷，孙甜甜取得了中国网球第一个金牌一女子双打冠军。忘记不了当时李婷挥动着她的BABOLAT（百保力）网拍Pure Drive Zylon 360°激动地拥抱着孙甜甜吵闹着，幸福地哭着的情景。
Bergshoeff, Eric A; Kallosh, Renata; Van Proeyen, Antoine
2015-01-01
Using superconformal methods we derive an explicit de Sitter supergravity action invariant under spontaneously broken local ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetry. The supergravity multiplet interacts with a nilpotent goldstino multiplet. We present a complete locally supersymmetric action including the graviton and the fermionic fields, gravitino and goldstino, no scalars. In the global limit when supergravity multiplet decouples, our action reproduces the Volkov-Akulov theory. In the unitary gauge where goldstino vanishes we recover pure supergravity with the positive cosmological constant. The classical equations of motion, with all fermions vanishing, have a maximally symmetric solution: de Sitter space.
de Vries, Eric Kornelis; Kamerbeek, Alexander; Koirala, Nikesh; Brahlek, Matthew; Salehi, Maryam; Oh, Seongshik; van Wees, Bart; Banerjee, Tamalika
2015-01-01
Topological insulators provide a new platform for spintronics due to the spin texture of the surface states that are topologically robust against elastic backscattering. Here we report on an investigation of the measured voltage obtained from efforts to electrically probe spin-momentum locking in
Spin and charge thermopower effects in the ferromagnetic graphene junction
Vahedi, Javad; Barimani, Fattaneh
2016-08-01
Using wave function matching approach and employing the Landauer-Buttiker formula, a ferromagnetic graphene junction with temperature gradient across the system is studied. We calculate the thermally induced charge and spin current as well as the thermoelectric voltage (Seebeck effect) in the linear and nonlinear regimes. Our calculation revealed that due to the electron-hole symmetry, the charge Seebeck coefficient is, for an undoped magnetic graphene, an odd function of chemical potential while the spin Seebeck coefficient is an even function regardless of the temperature gradient and junction length. We have also found with an accurate tuning external parameter, namely, the exchange filed and gate voltage, the temperature gradient across the junction drives a pure spin current without accompanying the charge current. Another important characteristic of thermoelectric transport, thermally induced current in the nonlinear regime, is examined. It would be our main finding that with increasing thermal gradient applied to the junction the spin and charge thermovoltages decrease and even become zero for non zero temperature bias.
Jatiyanon, Kitakorn; Soodchomshom, Bumned
2016-06-01
Strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in graphene grown on tungsten disulfide (SW2) has been recently observed, leading to energy gap opening by SOI. Energy gap in graphene may also be induced by sublattice symmetry breaking (SSB) where energy level in A-sublattice is not equal to that in B-sublattice. SSB-gap may be produced by growing graphene on hexagonal boron nitride or silicon carbide. In this work, we investigate transport property in a SOI/SSB/SOI gapped graphene junction, focusing the effect of interplay of SOI and SSB. We find that, lattice-pseudospin polarization (L-PSP) can be controlled perfectly from +100% to -100% by gate voltage. This is due to the fact that in graphene grown on SW2, the carriers carry lattice-pseudospin degree of freedom "up and down". The SSB-gapped graphene exhibits pseudo-ferromagnetism to play the role of lattice-pseudospin filtering barrier. It is also found that the SOI and SSB-gaps in graphene may be measured by characteristic of L-PSP in the junction. The proposed controllable-lattice-pseudospin currents may be applicable for graphene-based pseudospintronics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eltschka, Matthias; Krzyk, Stephen; Nowak, Ulrich; Klaeui, Mathias [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Woetzel, Mathias [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Rhensius, Jan [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Heyderman, Laura [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)
2010-07-01
The understanding of the interplay between spin-polarized currents and magnetization as well as the determination of the spin torque terms are of scientific interest and essential for many proposed applications. Using transmission electron microscopy we investigate thermally activated domain walls (DWs) jumping back and forth between two pinning sites in permalloy wires at room temperature. The motion is of pure thermal origin without the influence of external magnetic fields or electron currents. Considering the DW as a quasi particle in a local potential with two metastable states we show that this DW movement can be described by an Arrhenius law. Subsequently, we investigate the change of the local potential by constant currents which are far below the threshold values needed for DW propagation and do not induce significant heating. Based on a 1D description of the spin transfer torque effect and the Arrhenius law we derive the non-adiabatic coefficient {beta} for a transverse and a vortex DW.
Semiclassical spin transport in spin-orbit-coupled bands.
Culcer, Dimitrie; Sinova, Jairo; Sinitsyn, N A; Jungwirth, T; MacDonald, A H; Niu, Q
2004-07-23
Motivated by recent interest in novel spintronics effects, we develop a semiclassical theory of spin transport that is valid for spin-orbit coupled bands. Aside from the obvious convective term in which the average spin is transported at the wave packet group velocity, the spin current has additional contributions from the wave packet's spin and torque dipole moments. Electric field corrections to the group velocity and carrier spin contribute to the convective term. Summing all terms we obtain an expression for the intrinsic spin-Hall conductivity of a hole-doped semiconductor, which agrees with the Kubo formula prediction for the same quantity. We discuss the calculation of spin accumulation, which illustrates the importance of the torque dipole near the boundary of the system.
Pure word deafness and pure anarthria in a patient with frontotemporal dementia.
Iizuka, O; Suzuki, K; Endo, K; Fujii, T; Mori, E
2007-04-01
A 66-year-old right-handed man developed pure anarthria following pure word deafness. In addition to language disorders, his behavior gradually changed and finally included violence against his wife. Brain magnetic resonance imagings revealed atrophy of the left perisylvian area, which included the inferior half of the precentral gyrus and the upper portion of the superior temporal gyrus, consistent with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). It has been documented as either a disorder of expressive language or as an impaired understanding of word meaning. Unlike with pure anarthria, pure word deafness is not included in the clinical diagnostic current criteria for FTD. However, a large variety of language symptoms can appear in FTD according to the distribution of pathological changes in the frontotemporal cortices. This case suggests that pure word deafness could be a prodomal symptom of FTD.
Nonequilibrium spin-polarized thermal transport in ferromagnetic-quantum dot-metal system
Xu, Li; Li, Zhi-Jian; Niu, Pengbin; Nie, Yi-Hang
2016-10-01
We use nonequilibrium Green function to analyze the nonequilibrium spin-polarized thermal transport through the ferromagnetic-quantum dot-metal system, in which a quantum dot (QD) is coupled to the ferromagnetic and metal electrodes with the voltage bias and the temperature shift. The differential thermoelectric conductance L (θ) is always zero and has no relation with the temperature shift when ε is equal to the Fermi level. The positive and negative values of L (θ) manifest the thermoelectric characteristic of electron-like (or hole-like) carrier when the temperature shift is nonzero. The electrostatic potential U becomes spin-dependent, and makes the dot level renormalization when the ferromagnetic-quantum dot-metal system is driven by the voltage bias and the temperature shift. We define that the spin polarization of the currents between the spin current Is and the electric current Ic is denoted as Is /Ic. The spin polarization Is /Ic shows novel and unique physical phenomenon when the voltage bias and the temperature shift are changed in the nonequilibrium state. Another interesting phenomenon is that we can obtain the pure spin current and a zero point of the thermocurrent Ith by adjusting the voltage bias and the temperature shift.
Mosendz, O.; Vlaminck, V.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.
2010-01-01
Spin pumping is a mechanism that generates spin currents from ferromagnetic resonance over macroscopic interfacial areas, thereby enabling sensitive detection of the inverse spin Hall effect that transforms spin into charge currents in nonmagnetic conductors. Here we study the spin-pumping-induced v
Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck Effect
Wu, SM; W. Zhang; Kc, A; Borisov, P.; Pearson, JE; Jiang, JS; Lederman, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Bhattacharya, A
2015-01-01
We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF_{2}. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF_{2} (110) (30 nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF_{2} (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF_{2} through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop t...
Pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty.
Rebouças, Rafael B; Monteiro, Rodrigo C; Souza, Thiago N S de; Aragão, Augusto J de; Burity, Camila R T; Nóbrega, Júlio C de A; Oliveira, Natália S C de; Abrantes, Ramon B; Dantas Júnior, Luiz B; Cartaxo Filho, Ricardo; Negromonte, Gustavo R P; Sampaio, Rafael da C R; Britto, Cesar A
2014-01-01
Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190 mL) with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O). Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully.
Pure Parsimony Xor Haplotyping
Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri; Rizzi, Romeo
2010-01-01
The haplotype resolution from xor-genotype data has been recently formulated as a new model for genetic studies. The xor-genotype data is a cheaply obtainable type of data distinguishing heterozygous from homozygous sites without identifying the homozygous alleles. In this paper we propose a formulation based on a well-known model used in haplotype inference: pure parsimony. We exhibit exact solutions of the problem by providing polynomial time algorithms for some restricted cases and a fixed-parameter algorithm for the general case. These results are based on some interesting combinatorial properties of a graph representation of the solutions. Furthermore, we show that the problem has a polynomial time k-approximation, where k is the maximum number of xor-genotypes containing a given SNP. Finally, we propose a heuristic and produce an experimental analysis showing that it scales to real-world large instances taken from the HapMap project.
Pure parsimony xor haplotyping.
Bonizzoni, Paola; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri; Rizzi, Romeo
2010-01-01
The haplotype resolution from xor-genotype data has been recently formulated as a new model for genetic studies. The xor-genotype data is a cheaply obtainable type of data distinguishing heterozygous from homozygous sites without identifying the homozygous alleles. In this paper, we propose a formulation based on a well-known model used in haplotype inference: pure parsimony. We exhibit exact solutions of the problem by providing polynomial time algorithms for some restricted cases and a fixed-parameter algorithm for the general case. These results are based on some interesting combinatorial properties of a graph representation of the solutions. Furthermore, we show that the problem has a polynomial time k-approximation, where k is the maximum number of xor-genotypes containing a given single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Finally, we propose a heuristic and produce an experimental analysis showing that it scales to real-world large instances taken from the HapMap project.
Tsuda, Shibun; Nguyen, Minh-Hai; Terasawa, Daiju; Fukuda, Akira; Sawada, Anju
2016-03-01
We investigate the huge longitudinal resistance (HLR) at which the magnetoresistance of the ν =2/3 fractional quantum Hall state (QHS) is increased with dynamic nuclear spin polarization. We measure the magnetoresistance temperature dependence in the resistively saturated HLR by increasing the temperature of the sample rapidly in order to prevent relaxation of the nuclear spin polarization. The obtained results indicate that the magnetoresistance decreases as the temperature increases. The Hall resistance in the HLR is also measured and found to exhibit a plateau close to a quantized value. We discuss the negative magnetoresistance temperature dependence with a stripe-shaped domain state deformed by the nuclear spin polarization.
Geometric Photonic Spin Hall Effect with Metapolarization
2014-01-01
We develop a geometric photonic spin Hall effect (PSHE) which manifests as spin-dependent shift in momentum space. It originates from an effective space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase created by artificially engineering the polarization distribution of the incident light. Unlikely the previously reported PSHE involving the light-matter interaction, the resulting spin-dependent splitting in the geometric PSHE is purely geometrically depend upon the polarization distribution of light whi...
Spin switches for compact implementation of neuron and synapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quang Diep, Vinh, E-mail: vdiep@purdue.edu; Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Behin-Aein, Behtash [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Inc., Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)
2014-06-02
Nanomagnets driven by spin currents provide a natural implementation for a neuron and a synapse: currents allow convenient summation of multiple inputs, while the magnet provides the threshold function. The objective of this paper is to explore the possibility of a hardware neural network implementation using a spin switch (SS) as its basic building block. SS is a recently proposed device based on established technology with a transistor-like gain and input-output isolation. This allows neural networks to be constructed with purely passive interconnections without intervening clocks or amplifiers. The weights for the neural network are conveniently adjusted through analog voltages that can be stored in a non-volatile manner in an underlying CMOS layer using a floating gate low dropout voltage regulator. The operation of a multi-layer SS neural network designed for character recognition is demonstrated using a standard simulation model based on coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations, one for each magnet in the network.
Spin waves in exchange-coupled double layers in the presence of spin torques
Baláž, Pavel; Barnaś, Józef
2015-03-01
Spin-wave spectra of a double magnetic layer are calculated theoretically in the macroscopic limit. Magnetic dynamics is described in terms of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, and both static (of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida type) and dynamic (via spin pumping) interlayer couplings are taken into account. The influence of spin pumping and spin transfer torque on the spin-wave spectra (frequency and damping factor) has been studied for both parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations. The spin-wave spectrum in the parallel magnetic state is reciprocal, while in the antiparallel configuration it is nonreciprocal. In both cases, a substantial reduction of the spin-wave lifetimes due to spin pumping to the nonmagnetic metallic layers has been found. In the parallel configuration, this reduction appears mainly for optical modes, while in the antiparallel configuration, it is remarkable for all modes. In turn, the spin torque due to spin current flowing from a metallic layer, created for instance by the spin Hall effect, gives rise to significant changes in the damping factors as well, but these modifications depend on the sign of spin current. For one spin current orientation, the spin-wave damping becomes reduced and may disappear for some modes at a specific threshold value of the spin current, indicating magnetic instability in the system due to spin transfer torque. For the opposite spin current, the damping is enhanced, which indicates stabilization of the corresponding magnetic state.
Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand
2016-03-03
We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.
Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect
Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand
2016-03-01
We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2 . A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30 nm )/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2 (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9 T ) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.
Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study
Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin; Kannan, M. Bobby; Ye, Qingsong; Blawert, Carsten
2014-05-01
An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO-PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (Rp) of the PEO-PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (icorr) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO-PLLA coating reduced the icorr by almost 100%. As expected, the Rp of the PEO-PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the Rp of the PEO-PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack.
Biswas, Ayan K; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo
2015-07-17
In artificial neural networks, neurons are usually implemented with highly dissipative CMOS-based operational amplifiers. A more energy-efficient implementation is a 'spin-neuron' realized with a magneto-tunneling junction (MTJ) that is switched with a spin-polarized current (representing weighted sum of input currents) that either delivers a spin transfer torque or induces domain wall motion in the soft layer of the MTJ to mimic neuron firing. Here, we propose and analyze a different type of spin-neuron in which the soft layer of the MTJ is switched with mechanical strain generated by a voltage (representing weighted sum of input voltages) and term it straintronic spin-neuron. It dissipates orders of magnitude less energy in threshold operations than the traditional current-driven spin neuron at 0 K temperature and may even be faster. We have also studied the room-temperature firing behaviors of both types of spin neurons and find that thermal noise degrades the performance of both types, but the current-driven type is degraded much more than the straintronic type if both are optimized for maximum energy-efficiency. On the other hand, if both are designed to have the same level of thermal degradation, then the current-driven version will dissipate orders of magnitude more energy than the straintronic version. Thus, the straintronic spin-neuron is superior to current-driven spin neurons.
Pure Laparoscopic Augmentation Ileocystoplasty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael B. Rebouças
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. Presentation A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190mL with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O. Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully. The patient was placed in the exaggerated Trendelenburg position. A four-port transperitoneal technique was used. A segment of ileum approximately 15-20cm was selected and divided with its pedicle. The ileal anastomosis and creation of ileal U-shaped plate were performed laparoscopically, without staplers. Bladder mobilization and longidutinal cystotomy were performed. Enterovesical anastomosis was done with continuous running suture. A suprapubic cystostomy was placed through a 5mm trocar. Results The total operative time was 335 min. The blood loss was minimal. The patient developed ileus in the early days, diet acceptance after the fourth day and was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. The urethral catheter was removed after 2 weeks. At 6-month follow-up, a cystogram showed a significant improvement in bladder capacity. The patient adhered well to clean intermittent self-catheterization and there was no report for febrile infections
Spin Hall effect by surface roughness
Zhou, Lingjun
2015-01-08
The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡杰; 季乐; 杨盛志; 张在强; 刘世超; 李艳; 王晓彤; 关庆丰
2013-01-01
High-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) technique was applied to irradiate the samples of pure zirconium. The microstruc-tures and defects of the irradiated surface are investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD results show that the high value of stress (GPa order) is introduced within the irradiated surface layer, while the formation of {0002}, {10¯12}, {11¯20} and {10¯13} textures are present after HCPEB irradiation. Mi-crostructure observations demonstrate that the surface craters are rarer, and almost no craters are present after multiple pulses HCPEB irradiation, which is evidently different from the case of other metal materials irradiated by HCPEB. Moreover, a large number of ultrafine grains are formed on the irradiated surface. Martensitic transformation occurs and severe plastic deformation is also induced due to the superfast melting and cooling processes. After one- pulse irradiation, the dislocations are the dominant defects, while the amount of twins is less. After five pulses, the dislocation density and the number of deformation twins increase evidently, whereas dense deformation twins are the central microstructures after ten-pulse irradiation, coupled with the appearance of secondary twins occasionally. The formation of these deformed structures results in a significant effect both on the evolution of surface textures and on grain refinement. It is suggested that HCPEB technique provides an impactful approach for hardening of zirconium and zirconium alloys.% 利用强流脉冲电子束(HCPEB)技术对金属纯锆进行表面处理，采用 X 射线衍射，扫描电子显微镜及透射电子显微镜详细分析了辐照诱发的表层微观结构和缺陷. X 射线分析结果表明， HCPEB 辐照后在材料表层诱发幅值为GPa 量级的压应力，并形成{0002}，{10¯12}，{11¯20}及{10¯13}织构.表层微观结构观察表明，
Thermal spin pumping and magnon-phonon-mediated spin-Seebeck effect
Uchida, K.; Ota, T.; Adachi, H; Xiao, J.; Nonaka, T.; Kajiwara, Y; Bauer, G. E. W.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.
2011-01-01
The spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) in ferromagnetic metals and insulators has been investigated systematically by means of the inverse spin-Hall effect (ISHE) in paramagnetic metals. The SSE generates a spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in a ferromagnet, which injects a spin current into an attached paramagnetic metal. In the paramagnet, this spin current is converted into an electric field due to the ISHE, enabling the electric detection of the SSE. The observation of the SSE is ...
Spin-SILC: CMB polarisation component separation with spin wavelets
Rogers, Keir K.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Leistedt, Boris; McEwen, Jason D.; Pontzen, Andrew
2016-08-01
We present Spin-SILC, a new foreground component separation method that accurately extracts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarisation E and B modes from raw multifrequency Stokes Q and U measurements of the microwave sky. Spin-SILC is an internal linear combination method that uses spin wavelets to analyse the spin-2 polarisation signal P = Q + iU. The wavelets are additionally directional (non-axisymmetric). This allows different morphologies of signals to be separated and therefore the cleaning algorithm is localised using an additional domain of information. The advantage of spin wavelets over standard scalar wavelets is to simultaneously and self-consistently probe scales and directions in the polarisation signal P = Q + iU and in the underlying E and B modes, therefore providing the ability to perform component separation and E-B decomposition concurrently for the first time. We test Spin-SILC on full-mission Planck simulations and data and show the capacity to correctly recover the underlying cosmological E and B modes. We also demonstrate a strong consistency of our CMB maps with those derived from existing component separation methods. Spin-SILC can be combined with the pseudo- and pure E-B spin wavelet estimators presented in a companion paper to reliably extract the cosmological signal in the presence of complicated sky cuts and noise. Therefore, it will provide a computationally-efficient method to accurately extract the CMB E and B modes for future polarisation experiments.
Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark eJohnson
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.
Observation of thermally driven field-like spin torque in magnetic tunnel junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bose, Arnab, E-mail: arnabbose@ee.iitb.ac.in; Jain, Sourabh; Asam, Nagarjuna; Bhuktare, Swapnil; Singh, Hanuman; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Shukla, Amit Kumar; Konishi, Katsunori; Lam, Duc Duong; Fujii, Yuya; Miwa, Shinji; Suzuki, Yoshishige [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)
2016-07-18
We report the thermally driven giant field-like spin-torque in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on application of heat current from top to bottom. The field-like term is detected by the shift of the magneto-resistance hysteresis loop applying temperature gradient. We observed that the field-like term depends on the magnetic symmetry of the MTJ. In asymmetric structures, with different ferromagnetic materials for free and fixed layers, the field-like term is greatly enhanced. Our results show that a pure spin current density of the order of 10{sup 9 }A/m{sup 2} can be produced by creating a 120 mK temperature difference across 0.9 nm thick MgO tunnelling barrier. Our results will be useful for writing MTJ and domain wall-based memories using thermally driven spin torque.
Buhl, M; Erbe, A; Grebing, J; Wintz, S; Raabe, J; Fassbender, J
2013-01-01
Changing and detecting the orientation of nanomagnetic structures, which can be used for durable information storage, needs to be developed towards true nanoscale dimensions for keeping up the miniaturization speed of modern nanoelectronic components. Therefore, new concepts for controlling the state of nanomagnets are currently in the focus of research in the field of nanoelectronics. Here, we demonstrate reproducible switching of a purely metallic nanopillar placed on a lead that conducts a spin-polarized current at room temperature. Spin diffusion across the metal-metal (Cu to CoFe) interface between the pillar and the lead causes spin accumulation in the pillar, which may then be used to set the magnetic orientation of the pillar. In our experiments, the detection of the magnetic state of the nanopillar is performed by direct imaging via scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM).
Buhl, M.; Erbe, A.; Grebing, J.; Wintz, S.; Raabe, J.; Fassbender, J.
2013-01-01
Changing and detecting the orientation of nanomagnetic structures, which can be used for durable information storage, needs to be developed towards true nanoscale dimensions for keeping up the miniaturization speed of modern nanoelectronic components. Therefore, new concepts for controlling the state of nanomagnets are currently in the focus of research in the field of nanoelectronics. Here, we demonstrate reproducible switching of a purely metallic nanopillar placed on a lead that conducts a spin-polarized current at room temperature. Spin diffusion across the metal-metal (Cu to CoFe) interface between the pillar and the lead causes spin accumulation in the pillar, which may then be used to set the magnetic orientation of the pillar. In our experiments, the detection of the magnetic state of the nanopillar is performed by direct imaging via scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). PMID:24126435
Spin selective filtering of polariton condensate flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, T. [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Antón, C.; Martín, M. D. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Liew, T. C. H. [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Hatzopoulos, Z. [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Viña, L. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Instituto de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Eldridge, P. S., E-mail: eldridge@udel.edu [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Savvidis, P. G., E-mail: psav@materials.uoc.gr [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2015-07-06
Spin-selective spatial filtering of propagating polariton condensates, using a controllable spin-dependent gating barrier, in a one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity ridge waveguide is reported. A nonresonant laser beam provides the source of propagating polaritons, while a second circularly polarized weak beam imprints a spin dependent potential barrier, which gates the polariton flow and generates polariton spin currents. A complete spin-based control over the blocked and transmitted polaritons is obtained by varying the gate polarization.
Controlled spatial separation of spins and coherent dynamics in spin-orbit-coupled nanostructures
Lo, Shun-Tsung; Chen, Chin-Hung; Fan, Ju-Chun; Smith, L. W.; Creeth, G. L.; Chang, Che-Wei; Pepper, M.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Chen, Tse-Ming
2017-07-01
The spatial separation of electron spins followed by the control of their individual spin dynamics has recently emerged as an essential ingredient in many proposals for spin-based technologies because it would enable both of the two spin species to be simultaneously utilized, distinct from most of the current spintronic studies and technologies wherein only one spin species could be handled at a time. Here we demonstrate that the spatial spin splitting of a coherent beam of electrons can be achieved and controlled using the interplay between an external magnetic field and Rashba spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanostructures. The technique of transverse magnetic focusing is used to detect this spin separation. More notably, our ability to engineer the spin-orbit interactions enables us to simultaneously manipulate and probe the coherent spin dynamics of both spin species and hence their correlation, which could open a route towards spintronics and spin-based quantum information processing.
Wang, Qiuru; Zhang, Wanli; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Wenxu
2016-11-01
The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) has been detected and separated from spin rectification effect (SRE) by inverting spin injection direction in metallic system. This work is based on the relation between the two effects and the spin injection direction: the sign of VISHE changes because of the reversing direction of spin injection while the VSRE is independent on it. According to the different voltage signals before and after the spin injection inverted, the pure VISHE and VSRE are calculated by utilizing the method of addition and subtraction. The signals can be separated in a wide range of frequency and power.
Thermal spin pumping and magnon-phonon-mediated spin-Seebeck effect
Uchida, K.; Ota, T.; Adachi, H.; Xiao, J.; Nonaka, T.; Kajiwara, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.
2012-01-01
The spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) in ferromagnetic metals and insulators has been investigated systematically by means of the inverse spin-Hall effect (ISHE) in paramagnetic metals. The SSE generates a spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in a ferromagnet, which injects a spin current into
Experimental Test of the Spin Mixing Interface Conductivity Concept
Weiler, M.; Althammer, M.; Schreier, M.; Lotze, J.; Pernpeintner, M.; Meyer, S.; Huebl, H.; Gross, R.; Kamra, A.; Xiao, J.; Chen, Y.T.; Jiao, H.J.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Goennenwein, S.T.B.
2013-01-01
We perform a quantitative, comparative study of the spin pumping, spin Seebeck, and spin Hall magnetoresistance effects, all detected via the inverse spin Hall effect in a series of over 20 yttrium iron garnet/Pt samples. Our experimental results fully support present, exclusively spin current-ba
Introduction of Spin-Orbit Interaction into Graphene with Hydrogenation
Nakamura, Taketomo; Haruyama, Junji; Katsumoto, Shingo
2016-10-01
The introduction of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) into graphene with weak hydrogenation (˜0.1%) by the dissociation of hydrogen silsesquioxane resist has been confirmed through the appearance of the inverse spin Hall effect. The spin current was produced by spin injection from permalloy electrodes excluding a non-spin-related experimental artifact.
Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schindler, Christoph
2012-05-15
In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.
Spin-flip noise in a multiterminal spin valve
Belzig, Wolfgang; Zareyan, Malek
2004-01-01
We study shot noise and cross-correlations in a four terminal spin-valve geometry using a Boltzmann-Langevin approach. The Fano factor (shot noise to current ratio) depends on the magnetic configuration of the leads and the spin-flip processes in the normal metal. In a four-terminal geometry, spin-flip processes are particularly prominent in the cross-correlations between terminals with opposite magnetization.
Spin Pumping from a Quantum Dot in the Presence of Decoherence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIONG Yong-Jian; GE Sen-Quan
2008-01-01
We study the pumped spin current of an interacting quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single lead in the presence Using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique,we show that ESR-induced spin flip can generate finite spin current with no charge transport.Both the Coulomb interaction and spin decoherence decrease the amplitude of spin current.The dependence of pumped spin current on the intensity and frequency of ESR field,and the spin decoherence is discussed.
Joule heating in spin Hall geometry
Taniguchi, Tomohiro
2016-07-01
The theoretical formula for the entropy production rate in the presence of spin current is derived using the spin-dependent transport equation and thermodynamics. This theory is applicable regardless of the source of the spin current, for example, an electric field, a temperature gradient, or the Hall effect. It reproduces the result in a previous work on the dissipation formula when the relaxation time approximation is applied to the spin relaxation rate. By using the developed theory, it is found that the dissipation in the spin Hall geometry has a contribution proportional to the square of the spin Hall angle.
Thermal Spin Dynamics of Yttrium Iron Garnet
Barker, Joseph; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.
2016-11-01
The magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet can be grown with near perfection and is therefore and ideal conduit for spin currents. It is a complex material with 20 magnetic moments in the unit cell. In spite of being a ferrimagnet, YIG is almost always modeled as a simple ferromagnet with a single spin wave mode. We use the method of atomistic spin dynamics to study the temperature evolution of the full spin wave spectrum, in quantitative agreement with neutron scattering experiments. The antiferromagnetic or optical mode is found to suppress the spin Seebeck effect at room temperature and beyond due to thermally pumped spin currents with opposite polarization to the ferromagnetic mode.
Shen, SQ; Ma, X.; Hu, L.; R. Tao
2004-01-01
In a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the external electric field may cause a spin Hall current in the direction perpendicular to the electric field. This effect was called the intrinsic spin Hall effect. In this paper, we investigate the influences of spin accumulation on this intrinsic spin Hall effect. We show that due to the existence of boundaries in a real sample, the spin Hall current generated by the intrinsic spin Hall effect will cause spin accumulation ...
Ryan, E. M.; Garcia, A. G. F.; Braganca, P. M.; Fuchs, G. D.; Emley, N. C.; Read, J. C.; Tan, E.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.; Katine, J. A.
2007-03-01
Recently, light terbium (Tb) doping in thin films of permalloy (Py) has been shown to increase the damping parameter α by several orders of magnitude [1]. To directly study the effect of increased α on spin-transfer systems, we have fabricated 0.004 um^2 Py/Cu/Py nanopillar spin valves with 0 and 2% Tb in the free layer, and measured critical currents across a range of temperatures from 4.2 K to 295 K. We find that the critical currents for reversibly switching the free layer, generally expected to be proportional to α, are several times larger on average in the 2% Tb samples than in pure Py samples, and increase linearly with decreasing temperature. We will also discuss FMR data, and data for switching with fast pulses from 1 to 100 nsec at both 150 K and room temperature, along with matching simulations that allows us to extract α and other spin-torque parameters [2]. These results suggest one approach for controllably reducing the negative impact of spin-torque effects on nanoscale spin valve and read head sensors, and achieving a deeper understanding of these spin-torque devices. [1] W. Bailey, P. Kabos, F. Mancoff, and S. E. Russek, IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 1749 (2001). [2] P. M. Braganca, et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 112507 (2005).
Spin and charge Nernst effect in a four-terminal quantum dot ring
Yang, Xi; Zheng, Jun; Li, Chun-Lei; Guo, Yong
2015-02-01
Based on the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function technique, we study the spin and charge Nernst effect in a four-terminal quantum dot (QD) ring device, in which the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) is taken into the QDs and the magnetic field penetrates the ring. We find that only with the assistance of RSOI, can the pure spin Nernst effect occur by applying a thermal bias without any magnetic field or ferromagnetic materials in the system. Under certain RSOI and magnetic field strengths, spin-down or spin-up currents can be driven from terminal 2 or 4. The sign and the magnitude of the spin currents or voltages can be modulated by adjusting the RSOI-induced phase factor and the magnetic flux. Moreover, the magnitude of the Nernst effect can be remarkably enhanced by the intra-dot Coulomb blockade. The Nernst coefficient is predicted to be more than two times larger than the case of zero Coulomb interaction. Our results indicate that such a four-terminal QD ring may be used as a manipulative thermoelectric generator.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curtright, T.L., E-mail: curtright@miami.edu [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); Van Kortryk, T.S., E-mail: vankortryk@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States); Zachos, C.K., E-mail: zachos@anl.gov [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States)
2017-02-05
The number of times spin s appears in the Kronecker product of n spin j representations is computed, and the large n asymptotic behavior of the result is obtained. Applications are briefly sketched. - Highlights: • We give a self-contained derivation of the spin multiplicities that occur in n-fold tensor products of spin-j representations. • We make use of group characters, properties of special functions, and asymptotic analysis of integrals. • We emphasize patterns that arise when comparing different values of j, and asymptotic behavior for large n. • Our methods and results should be useful for various statistical and quantum information theory calculations.
Visual processing in pure alexia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Starrfelt, Randi; Habekost, Thomas; Gerlach, Christian
2010-01-01
Whether pure alexia is a selective disorder that affects reading only, or if it reflects a more general visual disturbance, is highly debated. We have investigated the selectivity of visual deficits in a pure alexic patient (NN) using a combination of psychophysical measures, mathematical modelling...
Spatially Encoded Pseudo-Pure States for NMR Quantum Information Processing
Sharf, Y; Cory, D G; Sharf, Yehuda; Havel, Timothy F.; Cory, David G.
2000-01-01
Quantum information processing by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy uses pseudo-pure states to mimic the evolution and observations on true pure states. A new method of preparing pseudo-pure states is described, which involves the selection of the spatially labeled states of an ancilla spin with which the spin system of interest is correlated. This permits a general procedure to be given for the preparation of pseudo-pure states on any number of spins, subject to the limitations imposed by the loss of signal from the selected subensemble. The preparation of a single pseudo-pure state is demonstrated by carbon and proton NMR on 13C-labeled alanine. With a judicious choice of magnetic field gradients, the method further allows encoding of up to 2^N pseudo-pure states in independent spatial modes in an N+1 spin system. Fast encoding and decoding schemes are demonstrated for the preparation of four such spatially labeled pseudo-pure states.
Spin-torque switching of a nano-magnet using giant spin hall effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashish V. Penumatcha
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The Giant Spin Hall Effect(GSHE in metals with high spin-orbit coupling is an efficient way to convert charge currents to spin currents, making it well-suited for writing information into magnets in non-volatile magnetic memory as well as spin-logic devices. We demonstrate the switching of an in-plane CoFeB magnet using a combination of GSHE and an external magnetic field. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current is used to estimate the spin hall angle with the help of a thermal activation model for spin-transfer torque switching of a nanomagnet.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Recchia, C.H.; Pennington, C.H.; Hauglin, H.; Lafyatis, G.P. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 174 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
1995-10-01
We report {sup 63}Cu NMR spin-echo experiments on a high-quality single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} ({ital T}{sub {ital c}}=93 K), to which we have bonded leads for both transport current pulse applications and four-point resistance measurements. For a 9 T field with {ital H}{sub 0} parallel to {ital c}, the resistive transition onsets at 90 K, and {ital R} fully reaches zero at {ital T}{sub {ital R}=0}=76 K. The superconducting state NMR linewidth, however, does not exceed the normal-state value until {ital T}{lt}{ital T}{sub {ital R}=0}, where it is in agreement with predictions based on measured penetration depths. We discuss the possibility that a vortex liquid is present within the resistive transition, with vortex diffusion occurring at a rate fast enough to induce motional narrowing of the vortex lattice contribution to the NMR linewidth. We use the Einstein relation to show that this rapid vortex diffusion implies an upper bound for the correlation length for vortex motion. Inclusion of transport current pulses in the spin-echo pulse sequence is found to have no effect on the magnitude of the spin-echo signal for {ital T} both greater and less than {ital T}{sub {ital R}=0}.