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Sample records for pure phase object

  1. Coherent imaging of a pure phase object with classical incoherent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Magatti, D.; Gatti, A.

    2007-01-01

    A ghost imaging scheme is used to observe the diffraction pattern of a pure phase object . It is observed that when increasing the spatial coherence the diffraction pattern disappeared from the cross-correlation, while it appeared in the autocorrelation. The cross-correlation contains information...

  2. Reconstruction of purely absorbing, absorbing and phase-shifting, and strong phase-shifting objects from their single-shot in-line holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    We address the problem of reconstructing phase-shifting objects from their single shot in-line holograms. We show that a phase-shifting object cannot be reliably recovered from its in-line hologram by conventional reconstruction routines but that an iterative reconstruction should be applied. We demonstrate examples of simulated in-line holograms of objects with the following properties: purely absorbing, both absorbing and phase shifting, and strong phase-shifting. We investigate the effects of noise and interference resolution in holograms on the reconstruction results and discuss details of an optimal iterative procedure to quantitatively recover the correct absorbing and phase-shifting properties of the object. We also review previously published reconstructions of experimental holograms and summarize the optimal parameters for retrieval of phase-shifting objects from their in-line holograms.

  3. Compact objects in pure Lovelock theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dadhich, Naresh; Chilambwe, Brian

    2016-01-01

    For static fluid interiors of compact objects in pure Lovelock gravity (involving ony one $N$th order term in the equation) we establish similarity in solutions for the critical odd and even $d=2N+1, 2N+2$ dimensions. It turns out that in critical odd $d=2N+1$ dimensions, there can exist no bound distribution with a finite radius, while in critical even $d=2N+2$ dimensions, all solutions have similar behavior. For exhibition of similarity we would compare star solutions for $N =1, 2$ in $d=4$ Einstein and $d=6$ in Gauss-Bonnet theory respectively. We also obtain the pure Lovelock analogue of the Finch-Skea model.

  4. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  5. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  6. Pure Amorphagnosia without Tactile Object Agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shinichirou; Yamada, Mai; Satoh, Hideyo; Satoh, Akira; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    A 54-year-old female showed amorphagnosia without ahylognosia and tactile agnosia 40 days after the onset of right cerebral infarction. Her basic somatosensory functions were normal. The appreciation of substance qualities (hylognosia) was preserved, but the patient's inability to recognize the size and shape (morphagnosia) was confined to 2- and 3-dimensional shapes (amorphagnosia) in the left hand. However, the patient's ability to recognize real daily objects was well preserved. Brain MRI after admission showed ischemic lesions confined to the right pre- and postcentral gyri and the medial frontal cortex on DWI and FLAIR images. An analysis of SPECT images revealed that the most decreased areas were localized to the pre- and postcentral gyri, superior and inferior parietal lobules, supramarginal gyrus, and angular gyrus. Considering the previous reported cases, the responsible lesion for the impaired perception of hylognosia and morphagnosia may not necessarily be confined to the right hemisphere. To date, 5 reports (6 cases) of tactile agnosia have been published; 4 cases presented with both ahylognosia and amorphagnosia, while 1 presented with only amorphagnosia, and another showed amorphagnosia and mild ahylognosia. Our case is the first to present with only amorphagnosia without tactile agnosia. The mechanism for the well-preserved recognition of real objects may depend on the preserved hylognosia. Of note, there have been no reports showing only ahylognosia without amorphagnosia. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether or not patients with preserved hylognosia or morphagnosia retain the ability to perceive real objects.

  7. Pure Amorphagnosia without Tactile Object Agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichirou Kubota

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old female showed amorphagnosia without ahylognosia and tactile agnosia 40 days after the onset of right cerebral infarction. Her basic somatosensory functions were normal. The appreciation of substance qualities (hylognosia was preserved, but the patient’s inability to recognize the size and shape (morphagnosia was confined to 2- and 3-dimensional shapes (amorphagnosia in the left hand. However, the patient’s ability to recognize real daily objects was well preserved. Brain MRI after admission showed ischemic lesions confined to the right pre- and postcentral gyri and the medial frontal cortex on DWI and FLAIR images. An analysis of SPECT images revealed that the most decreased areas were localized to the pre- and postcentral gyri, superior and inferior parietal lobules, supramarginal gyrus, and angular gyrus. Considering the previous reported cases, the responsible lesion for the impaired perception of hylognosia and morphagnosia may not necessarily be confined to the right hemisphere. To date, 5 reports (6 cases of tactile agnosia have been published; 4 cases presented with both ahylognosia and amorphagnosia, while 1 presented with only amorphagnosia, and another showed amorphagnosia and mild ahylognosia. Our case is the first to present with only amorphagnosia without tactile agnosia. The mechanism for the well-preserved recognition of real objects may depend on the preserved hylognosia. Of note, there have been no reports showing only ahylognosia without amorphagnosia. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether or not patients with preserved hylognosia or morphagnosia retain the ability to perceive real objects.

  8. Synthesis of pure Portland cement phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselsky, Andreas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    Pure phases commonly found in Portland cement clinkers are often used to test cement hydration behaviour in simplified experimental conditions. The synthesis of these phases is covered in this paper, starting with a description of phase relations and possible polymorphs of the four main phases...... in Portland cement, i.e. tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium alumino ferrite. Details of the The process of solid state synthesis are is described in general including practical advice on equipment and techniques. Finally In addition, some exemplary mix compositions...

  9. Synthesis of highly phase pure BSCCO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, S.E.; Poeppel, R.B.; Prorok, B.C.; Lanagan, M.T.; Maroni, V.A.

    1995-11-21

    An article and method of manufacture (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor are disclosed. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. 5 figs.

  10. A Pure Object-Oriented Embedding of Attribute Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloane, A.M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a pre-print of: Anthony M. Sloane, Lennart C. L. Kats, Eelco Visser. A Pure Object-Oriented Embedding of Attribute Grammars. In T. Ekman and J. Vinju, editors, Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools, and Applications (LDTA’09), Electronic Notes in Theoretical

  11. Phase Semantics for a Pure Noncommutative Linear Propositional Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Mingsheng

    1999-01-01

    We use a many-sorted language to remove commutativity from phasesemantics of linear logic and show that pure noncommutativeintuitionistic linear propositional logic plus two classical rulesenjoys the soundness and completeness with respect to completelynoncommutative phase semantics.

  12. Phase state dependent current fluctuations in pure lipid membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Wunderlich, B; Idzko, A-L; Keyser, U F; Wixforth, A; Myles, V M; Heimburg, T; Schneider, M F

    2009-01-01

    Current fluctuations in pure lipid membranes have been shown to occur under the influence of transmembrane electric fields (electroporation) as well as a result from structural rearrangements of the lipid bilayer during phase transition (soft perforation). We demonstrate that the ion permeability during lipid phase transition exhibits the same qualitative temperature dependence as the macroscopic heat capacity of a D15PC/DOPC vesicle suspension. Microscopic current fluctuations show distinct characteristics for each individual phase state. While current fluctuations in the fluid phase show spike-like behaviour of short time scales (~ 2ms) with a narrow amplitude distribution, the current fluctuations during lipid phase transition appear in distinct steps with time scales in the order of ~ 20ms. 1 We propose a theoretical explanation for the origin of time scales and permeability based on a linear relationship between lipid membrane susceptibilities and relaxation times in the vicinity of the phase transition.

  13. A reliable procedure to predict salt precipitation in pure phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. O. Beltrão

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a new procedure to compute solid-liquid equilibrium in electrolyte systems that may form pure solid phases at a given temperature, pressure, and global composition. The procedure combines three sub-procedures: phase stability test, minimization of the Gibbs free energy with a stoichiometric formulation of the salt-forming reactions to compute phase splitting, and a phase elimination test. After the phase splitting calculation for a system configuration that has a certain number of phases, the phase stability test establishes whether including an additional phase will reduce the Gibbs free energy further. The criteria used for phase stability may lead, in some cases, to the premature inclusion of phases that should be absent from the final solution but, if this happens, the phase elimination sub-procedure removes them. It is possible to use the procedure with several excess Gibbs free energy models for liquid phase behavior. The procedure has proven to be reliable and fast and the results are in good agreement with literature data.

  14. Conformation of alkanes in the gas phase and pure liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura L; Christakis, Theodore J; Jorgensen, William L

    2006-10-26

    Monte Carlo (MC) statistical mechanics simulations have been carried out for the homologous alkane series of n-butane through n-dodecane in the gas phase and for the pure liquids at 298 K and 1 atm using the OPLS-AA force field. The study addresses potential cumulative deviations of computed properties and potential conformational differences between the gas phase and pure liquids, for example, from self-solvation in the gas phase. The average errors in comparison with experimental data for the computed densities and heats of vaporization are modest at 0.7% and 6.9%, respectively. Also, the invariant gas and liquid-phase results for average end-to-end distances and percentages of trans conformations for each nonterminal C-C bond assert that the conformer populations are not altered upon transfer from the gas phase to the pure liquid for the n-alkanes in this size range. Average end-to-end distances were also computed from the results of conformational searches and corroborated the MC findings. Quantitatively, the OPLS-AA result for the trans population of the C3-C4 bond in n-undecane is in close agreement with the findings from (13)C NMR experiments. Finally, previous work on determining the shortest n-alkane that does not have an all-trans global energy minimum has been extended. The smallest n-alkane with a hairpin geometry that is lower in energy than the all-trans conformer occurs for C(22)H(46) with OPLS-AA, though with a correction for GG sequences, the true turning point is likely in the C(16)-C(18) range.

  15. Multi-Objective Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants Using Pure and Mixed Working Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper G. Andreasen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermal phase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cycle power plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers, which is beneficial for cycle performance. On the other hand, larger heat transfer surface areas are typically required for evaporation and condensation when zeotropic mixtures are used as working fluids. In order to assess the feasibility of using zeotropic mixtures, it is, therefore, important to consider the additional costs of the heat exchangers. In this study, we aim at evaluating the economic feasibility of zeotropic mixtures compared to pure fluids. We carry out a multi-objective optimization of the net power output and the component costs for organic Rankine cycle power plants using low-temperature heat at 90 ∘ C to produce electrical power at around 500 kW. The primary outcomes of the study are Pareto fronts, illustrating the power/cost relations for R32, R134a and R32/R134a (0.65/0.35 mole . The results indicate that R32/R134a is the best of these fluids, with 3.4 % higher net power than R32 at the same total cost of 1200 k$.

  16. Multi-Objective Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants Using Pure and Mixed Working Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo;

    2016-01-01

    For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermal phase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cycle power plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers...... to consider the additional costs of the heat exchangers. In this study, we aim at evaluating the economic feasibility of zeotropic mixtures compared to pure fluids. We carry out a multi-objective optimization of the net power output and the component costs for organic Rankine cycle power plants using low......-temperature heat at 90 ◦C to produce electrical power at around 500 kW. The primary outcomes of the study are Pareto fronts, illustrating the power/cost relations for R32, R134a and R32/R134a (0.65/0.35mole). The results indicate that R32/R134a is the best of these fluids, with 3.4 % higher net power than R32...

  17. Optical tweezers formed by pure phase pupil filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; You, Chenglong; Wang, Mei; Yun, Maojin

    2013-09-01

    The focusing properties of vector beams have attracted great attention and quickly became the subject of extensive worldwide research due to their applications in lithography, optical storage, microscopy, material processing, and optical trapping. Focusing properties of the radially polarized beam and generalized cylindrical vector beams in high numerical aperture system with designed pure phase filter are analyzed in detail by using vector Debye diffraction theory. By utilizing diffractive optical element to partly change the polarization of vector beams, the energy density of light field in the vicinity of focus is studied by the numerical analysis. Numerical simulation result shows that optical bubbles can be obtained by changing the composition and polarization of the incident beams. At last, optical tweezers are constituted by two optical bubbles around the focus.

  18. Optical characterization of phase transitions in pure polymers and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannella, Gianluca A.; Brucato, Valerio; La Carrubba, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.lacarrubba@unipa.it [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace and Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    To study the optical properties of polymeric samples, an experimental apparatus was designed on purpose and set up. The sample is a thin film enclosed between two glass slides and a PTFE frame, with a very thin thermocouple placed on sample for direct temperature measurement. This sample holder was placed between two aluminum slabs, equipped with a narrow slit for optical measurements and with electrical resistances for temperature control. Sample was enlightened by a laser diode, whereas transmitted light was detected with a photodiode. Measurements were carried out on polyethylene-terephtalate (PET) and two different polyamides, tested as pure polymers and blends. The thermal history imposed to the sample consisted in a rapid heating from ambient temperature to a certain temperature below the melting point, a stabilization period, and then a heating at constant rate. After a second stabilization period, the sample was cooled. The data obtained were compared with DSC measurements performed with the same thermal history. In correspondence with transitions detected via DSC (e.g. melting, crystallization and cold crystallization), the optical signal showed a steep variation. In particular, crystallization resulted in a rapid decrease of transmitted light, whereas melting gave up an increase of light transmitted by the sample. Further variations in transmitted light were recorded for blends, after melting: those results may be related to other phase transitions, e.g. liquid-liquid phase separation. All things considered, the apparatus can be used to get reliable data on phase transitions in polymeric systems.

  19. Finding rare objects and building pure samples: Probabilistic quasar classification from low resolution Gaia spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bailer-Jones, C A L; Tiede, C; Sordo, R; Vallenari, A

    2008-01-01

    We develop and demonstrate a probabilistic method for classifying rare objects in surveys with the particular goal of building very pure samples. It works by modifying the output probabilities from a classifier so as to accommodate our expectation (priors) concerning the relative frequencies of different classes of objects. We demonstrate our method using the Discrete Source Classifier, a supervised classifier currently based on Support Vector Machines, which we are developing in preparation for the Gaia data analysis. DSC classifies objects using their very low resolution optical spectra. We look in detail at the problem of quasar classification, because identification of a pure quasar sample is necessary to define the Gaia astrometric reference frame. By varying a posterior probability threshold in DSC we can trade off sample completeness and contamination. We show, using our simulated data, that it is possible to achieve a pure sample of quasars (upper limit on contamination of 1 in 40,000) with a complete...

  20. Investigation of pure- and aerated-liquid jets using ultra-fast X-ray phase contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kuo-Cheng, E-mail: Kuo-Cheng.Lin@wpafb.af.mil [Taitech, Inc., Beavercreek, OH 45430 (United States); Rajnicek, Christopher; McCall, Jonathan; Carter, Campbell [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Fezzaa, Kamel [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Pure- and aerated-liquid jets were observed using the ultra-fast X-ray phase contrast imaging technique. Highly convoluted wrinkle structures were seen on the column surface of a turbulent pure-liquid jet, gas bubbles were discovered inside droplets and ligaments of aerated-liquid sprays, and apparently homogenous two-phase mixtures were observed inside the aerated-liquid injector. The major limitation of this X-ray technique lies in its line-of-sight nature, which can create overlapped objects/interfaces on the X-ray images.

  1. Multi-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycle power plants using pure and mixed working fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermalphase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cyclepower plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers whenthe......-objectiveoptimization of the net power output and the component costs for organic Rankine cycle power plantsusing low-temperature heat at 90 C to produce electrical power at around 500 kW. The primary outcomesof the study are Pareto fronts, illustrating the power/cost relations for R32, R134a and R32/R134a(0.65/0.35mole...

  2. Concentration-driven phase control for low temperature synthesis of phase-pure anatase and rutile titanium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifeng; Xiao, Chunyan; Yamada, Shuhei; Yoshinaga, Kohji; Bu, Xiu R; Zhang, Ming

    2015-06-15

    It is highly desirable to develop controlled synthetic methods at low temperature (anatase without the use of any additives or surfactants or external acids. The formation of crystalline phases is found to be dependent on reaction temperature and highly dependent on concentration. Phase-pure rutile is obtained in two concentration zones while phase-pure anatase is obtained in one concentration zone. The relationship between phases and reaction conditions (concentration and temperature) fits well with the nucleation diffusion rate model.

  3. Second-order phase transitions of pure substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaftenaar, H.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we are dealing with the thermodynamic theory of second-order phase transitions or continuous transitions of unary systems. The first classification of these phase transitions is due to Ehrenfest (1933), based on chemical potentials. First-order transitions are changes in which the der

  4. Phase transitions in pure and dilute thin ferromagnetic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1983-10-01

    The mean-field model of a thin ferromagnetic film where the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling in surface layers can be different from that inside the film is considered. The phase diagram, equations for the second-order phase-transition lines, and the spontaneous magnetization profiles near the phase transitions are given. It is shown that there is no extra-ordinary transition in a thin film. If the thickness of the film tends to infinity the well-known results for the mean-field model of a semi-infinite ferromagnet are obtained. The generalization for disordered dilute thin ferromagnetic films and semi-infinite ferromagnets is also given.

  5. Objectives and methodology of BIOBADASER phase iii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Piedra, Carlos; Hernández Miguel, M Victoria; Manero, Javier; Roselló, Rosa; Sánchez-Costa, Jesús Tomás; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos; Campos, Cristina; Cuende, Eduardo; Fernández-Lopez, Jesús Carlos; Bustabad, Sagrario; Martín Domenech, Raquel; Pérez-Pampín, Eva; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Millan-Arcineas, Ana Milena; Díaz-González, Federico; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús

    2017-09-18

    Describe the objectives, methods and results of the first year of the new version of the Spanish registry of adverse events involving biological therapies and synthetic drugs with an identifiable target in rheumatic diseases (BIOBADASER III). Multicenter prospective registry of patients with rheumatic inflammatory diseases being treated with biological drugs or synthetic drugs with an identifiable target in rheumatology departments in Spain. The main objective of BIOBADASER Phase III is the registry and analysis of adverse events; moreover, a secondary objective was added consisting of assessing the effectiveness by means of the registry of activity indexes. Patients in the registry are evaluated at least once every year and whenever they experience an adverse event or a change in treatment. The collection of data for phase iii began on 17 December 2015. During the first year, 35 centers participated. The number of patients included in this new phase in December 2016 was 2,664. The mean age was 53.7 years and the median duration of treatment was 8.1 years. In all, 40.4% of the patients were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. The most frequent adverse events were infections and infestations. BIOBADASER Phase III has been launched to adapt to a changing pharmacological environment, with the introduction of biosimilars and small molecules in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. This new stage is adapted to the changes in the reporting of adverse events and now includes information related to activity scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  6. Allotropic phase transformation of pure zirconium by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalati, Kaveh, E-mail: kaveh.edalati@zaiko6.zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Horita, Zenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yagi, Shunsuke; Matsubara, Eiichiro [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Pure Zr is processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) at pressures in the range of 1-40 GPa. A phase transformation occurs from {alpha} to {omega} phase during HPT at pressures above {approx}4 GPa while the total fraction of {omega} phase increases with straining and saturates to a constant level at higher strain. This phase transformation leads to microstructural refinement, hardness and strength enhancement and ductility reduction. Lattice parameter measurements confirm that c for {alpha} phase is expanded about 0.6% by the presence of {omega} phase. The temperature for reverse transformation from {omega} to {alpha} phase increases with straining and thus, straining under high pressure increases thermal stability of {omega} phase. The {omega} phase obtained by HPT is stable for more than 400 days at room temperature.

  7. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct imaging of phase objects enables conventional deconvolution in bright field light microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Noemí Hernández Candia

    Full Text Available In transmitted optical microscopy, absorption structure and phase structure of the specimen determine the three-dimensional intensity distribution of the image. The elementary impulse responses of the bright field microscope therefore consist of separate absorptive and phase components, precluding general application of linear, conventional deconvolution processing methods to improve image contrast and resolution. However, conventional deconvolution can be applied in the case of pure phase (or pure absorptive objects if the corresponding phase (or absorptive impulse responses of the microscope are known. In this work, we present direct measurements of the phase point- and line-spread functions of a high-aperture microscope operating in transmitted bright field. Polystyrene nanoparticles and microtubules (biological polymer filaments serve as the pure phase point and line objects, respectively, that are imaged with high contrast and low noise using standard microscopy plus digital image processing. Our experimental results agree with a proposed model for the response functions, and confirm previous theoretical predictions. Finally, we use the measured phase point-spread function to apply conventional deconvolution on the bright field images of living, unstained bacteria, resulting in improved definition of cell boundaries and sub-cellular features. These developments demonstrate practical application of standard restoration methods to improve imaging of phase objects such as cells in transmitted light microscopy.

  9. Features of structure and phase transitions in pure uranium and U-Mo alloys: atomistic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotova, L. N.; Kuksin, A. Yu; Smirnova, D. E.; Starikov, S. V.; Tseplyaev, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    We study structural properties of cubic and tetragonal phases of U-Mo alloys using atomistic simulations: molecular dynamics and density functional theory. For pure uranium and U-Mo alloys at low temperatures we observe body-centered tetragonal (bct) structure, which is similar to the metastable γ°-phase found in the experiments. At higher temperatures bct structure transforms to a quasi body-centered cubic (q-bcc) phase that exhibits cubic symmetry just on the scale of several interatomic spacings or when averaged over time. Instantaneous pair distribution function (PDF) differs from PDF for the time-averaged atomic coordinates corresponding to the bcc lattice. The local positions of uranium atoms in q-bcc lattice correspond to the bct structure, which is energetically favourable due to formation of short U-U bonds. Transition from bct to q-bcc could be considered as ferro-to paraelastic transition of order-disorder type. The temperature of transition depends on Mo concentration. For pure uranium it is equal to about 700 K, which is well below than the upper boundary of the stability region of the α-U phase. Due to this reason, bct phase is observed only in uranium alloys containing metals with low solubility in α-U.

  10. PhasePApy: A robust pure Python package for automatic identification of seismic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Holland, Austin

    2016-01-01

    We developed a Python phase identification package: the PhasePApy for earthquake data processing and near‐real‐time monitoring. The package takes advantage of the growing number of Python libraries including Obspy. All the data formats supported by Obspy can be supported within the PhasePApy. The PhasePApy has two subpackages: the PhasePicker and the Associator, aiming to identify phase arrival onsets and associate them to phase types, respectively. The PhasePicker and the Associator can work jointly or separately. Three autopickers are implemented in the PhasePicker subpackage: the frequency‐band picker, the Akaike information criteria function derivative picker, and the kurtosis picker. All three autopickers identify picks with the same processing methods but different characteristic functions. The PhasePicker triggers the pick with a dynamic threshold and can declare a pick with false‐pick filtering. Also, the PhasePicker identifies a pick polarity and uncertainty for further seismological analysis, such as focal mechanism determination. Two associators are included in the Associator subpackage: the 1D Associator and 3D Associator, which assign phase types to picks that can best fit potential earthquakes by minimizing root mean square (rms) residuals of the misfits in distance and time, respectively. The Associator processes multiple picks from all channels at a seismic station and aggregates them to increase computational efficiencies. Both associators use travel‐time look up tables to determine the best estimation of the earthquake location and evaluate the phase type for picks. The PhasePApy package has been used extensively for local and regional earthquakes and can work for active source experiments as well.

  11. Chiral phase transition and Schwinger mechanism in a pure electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Gaoqing

    2016-01-01

    We systematically study the chiral symmetry breaking and restoration in the presence of a pure electric field in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential. In addition, we also study the effect of the chiral phase transition on the charged pair production due to the Schwinger mechanism. For these purposes, a general formalism for parallel electric and magnetic fields is developed at finite temperature and chemical potential for the first time. In the pure electric field limit $B\\rightarrow0$, we compute the order parameter, the transverse-to-longitudinal ratio of the Goldstone mode velocities, and the Schwinger pair production rate as functions of the electric field. The inverse catalysis effect of the electric field to chiral symmetry breaking is recovered. And the Goldstone mode is find to disperse anisotropically such that the transverse velocity is always smaller than the longitudinal one, especially at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential. As exp...

  12. Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

    2013-03-21

    Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

  13. Simulation of the solidification of pure nickel via the phase-field method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Furtado Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Phase-Field method was applied to simulate the solidification of pure nickel dendrites and the results compared with those predicted by the solidification theory and with experimental data reported in the literature. The model's behavior was tested with respect to some initial and boundary conditions. For an initial condition without supercooling, the smooth interface of the solid phase nucleated at the edges of the domain grew uniformly into the liquid region, without branching. In an initially supercooled melt, the interface became unstable under 260 K supercooling, generating ramifications into the liquid region. The phase-field results for dendrite tip velocity were close to experimental results reported in the literature for supercooling above 50 K, but they failed to describe correctly the nonlinear behavior predicted by the collision-limited growth theory and confirmed by experimental data for low supercooling levels.

  14. Optimized generation of spatial qudits by using a pure phase spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J. J. M.; Rebón, L.; Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.; Ledesma, S.; Iemmi, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present a method for preparing arbitrary pure states of spatial qudits, namely, D-dimensional (D≥slant 2) quantum systems carrying information in the transverse momentum and position of single photons. For this purpose, a set of D slits with complex transmission are displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). In a recent work we have shown a method that requires a single phase-only SLM to control independently the complex coefficients which define the quantum state of dimension D. The amplitude information was codified by introducing phase gratings inside each slit, and the phase value of the complex transmission was added to the phase gratings. After a spatial filtering process, we obtained in the image plane the desired qudit state. Although this method has proven to be a good alternative to compact the previously reported architectures, it presents some features that could be improved. In this paper we present an alternative scheme to codify the required phase values that minimizes the effects of temporal phase fluctuations associated to the SLM where the codification is carried out. In this scheme, the amplitudes are set by appropriate phase gratings addressed at the SLM, while the relative phases are obtained by a lateral displacement of these phase gratings. We show that this method improves the quality of the prepared state and provides very high fidelities of preparation for any state. An additional advantage of this scheme is that a complete 2π modulation is obtained by shifting the grating by one period; hence the encoding is not limited by the phase modulation range achieved by the SLM. Numerical simulations, that take into account the phase fluctuations, show high fidelities for thousands of qubit states covering the whole Bloch sphere surface. Similar analyses are performed for qudits with D = 3 and D = 7.

  15. Synthesis of highly phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, Stephen E.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Prorok, Barton C.; Lanagan, Michael T.; Maroni, Victor A.

    1994-01-01

    An article and method of manufacture of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor.

  16. Visual object agnosia and pure word alexia: correlation of functional magnetic resonance imaging and lesion localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvan, Carmen V; Ulmer, John L; DeYoe, Edgar A; Wascher, Thomas; Mathews, Vincent P; Lewis, James W; Prost, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of a 64-year-old, right-handed female with a metastatic breast cancer lesion involving the left posterior inferior temporal lobe causing complete loss of the ability to recognize visually common objects and words. After her symptoms resolved on corticosteroid therapy, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping demonstrated strong left-hemispheric dominance for word recognition and right-hemispheric dominance for object recognition. The case illustrates the relationships among ventral occipito-temporal cortical activation, lesion localization, and lesion-induced deficits of higher visual function. The relationship between hemispheric dominance determined by fMRI and risk of postoperative deficit depends on the specific visual function of interest.

  17. Non-equilibrium deposition of phase pure Cu2O thin films at reduced growth temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Subramaniyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O is actively studied as a prototypical material for energy conversion and electronic applications. Here we reduce the growth temperature of phase pure Cu2O thin films to 300 °C by intentionally controlling solely the kinetic parameter (total chamber pressure, Ptot at fixed thermodynamic condition (0.25 mTorr pO2. A strong non-monotonic effect of Ptot on Cu-O phase formation is found using high-throughput combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition. This discovery creates new opportunities for the growth of Cu2O devices with low thermal budget and illustrates the importance of kinetic effects for the synthesis of metastable materials with useful properties.

  18. Preparing arbitrary pure states of spatial qudits with a single phase-only spatial light modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Solís-Prosser, M A; Varga, J J M; Rebón, L; Ledesma, S; Iemmi, C; Neves, L

    2013-01-01

    Spatial qudits are D-dimensional ($D\\geq 2$) quantum systems carrying information encoded in the discretized transverse momentum and position of single photons. We present a proof-of-principle demonstration of a method for preparing arbitrary pure states of such systems by using a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). The method relies on the encoding of the complex transmission function corresponding to a given spatial qudit state onto a preset diffraction order of a phase-only grating function addressed at the SLM. Fidelities of preparation above 94% were obtained with this method, which is simpler, less costly, and more efficient than those that require two SLMs for the same purpose.

  19. Ultrasmall and phase-pure W2C nanoparticles for efficient electrocatalytic and photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qiufang; Wang, Yu; Hu, Qi; Zhou, Jigang; Feng, Renfei; Duchesne, Paul N.; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Fengjiao; Han, Na; Li, Yafei; Jin, Chuanhong; Li, Yanguang; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has been primarily focused on WC as one of the most promising earth-abundant electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), whereas the other compound in this carbide family—W2C—has received far less attention. Our theoretical calculations suggest that such a focus is misplaced and W2C is potentially more HER-active than WC. Nevertheless, the preparation of phase pure and sintering-free W2C nanostructures represents a formidable challenge. Here we develop an improved carburization method and successfully prepare ultrasmall and phase-pure W2C nanoparticles. When evaluated for HER electrocatalysis, W2C nanoparticles exhibit a small onset overpotential of 50 mV, a Tafel slope of 45 mV dec−1 and outstanding long-term cycling stability, which are dramatically improved over all existing WC-based materials. In addition, the integration of W2C nanoparticles with p-type Si nanowires enables highly active and sustainable solar-driven hydrogen production. Our results highlight the great potential of this traditionally non-popular material in HER electrocatalysis. PMID:27752046

  20. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. J.; Wang, C. P.; Liu, X. J.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z.-K.; Zhang, T.-Y.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 1011–16.6 × 1011 K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate.

  1. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J J; Wang, C P; Liu, X J; Wang, Y; Liu, Z-K; Zhang, T-Y; Jiang, J Z

    2016-03-04

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 10(11)-16.6 × 10(11) K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate.

  2. Gait Optimization of Biped Robot during Double Support Phase by Pure Dynamic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Jamshidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with dynamic optimization of biped locomotion. The main focus of this research is motion optimization of double support phase. The optimization problem is dealt by using Pontryagins Maximum Principal. For motion optimization of double support phase, the closed kinematic chain has been considered to be opened at appropriate joint and the components of ground reaction forces has been applied on the tip of front leg and finally the penalty method has been used to tighten the leg to its prescribed location. The feasible sets of motion are taken into consideration by using inequality constraint to limit the joint motion. Also the components of ground reaction forces on front leg have been introduced as control variables in optimization of double support phase. The proposed technique has the ability to generate optimal free motions without specifying joint trajectories and minimized the performance criterion based on joint actuating torques. The two point boundary value problem has been solved by implementing a shooting method. This technique allows for specifying a few parameters to characterize gait pattern. The optimization process has the ability to generate a motion with a minimum of postural and kinematics data. Unlike previous research which used computational intelligent techniques for biped gait optimization, this study focuses on development of purely dynamic synthesis of biped motion during the double support phase.

  3. Phase structure of pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory in 5-dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Itou, Etsuko; Nakamoto, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nonperturbative phase structure of five-dimensional SU(3) pure Yang-Mills theory on the lattice. We perform numerical simulations using the Wilson plaquette gauge action on an anisotropic lattice with a four-dimensional lattice spacing (a4) and with an independent value in the fifth dimension (a5). We investigate both cases of a4 > a5 and a4 < a5. The Polyakov loops in the fourth and the fifth directions are observed, and we find that there are four possible phases for the anisotropic five-dimensional quenched QCD theory on the lattice. We determine the critical values of the lattice bare coupling and the anisotropic parameter for each phase transition. Furthermore, we find that there is novel meta-stable vacuum, where the global gauge symmetry would be spontaneously broken. It appears only in the phase where the center symmetry in four dimensions is preserved while the symmetry in the fifth dimension is spontaneously broken.

  4. Synthesis of phase-pure interpenetrated MOF-5 and its gas sorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunuk; Das, Sunirban; Kim, Min Gyu; Dybtsev, Danil N; Kim, Yonghwi; Kim, Kimoon

    2011-04-18

    For the first time, phase-pure interpenetrated MOF-5 (1) has been synthesized and its gas sorption properties have been investigated. The phase purity of the material was confirmed by both single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies and TGA analysis. A systematic study revealed that controlling the pH of the reaction medium is critical to the synthesis of phase-pure 1, and the optimum apparent pH (pH*) for the formation of 1 is 4.0-4.5. At higher or lower pH*, [Zn(2)(BDC)(2)(DMF)(2)] (2) or [Zn(5)(OH)(4)(BDC)(3)] (3), respectively, was predominantly formed. The pore size distribution obtained from Ar sorption experiments at 87 K showed only one peak, at ~6.7 Å, which is consistent with the average pore size of 1 revealed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Compared to MOF-5, 1 exhibited higher stability toward heat and moisture. Although its surface area is much smaller than that of MOF-5 due to interpenetration, 1 showed a significantly higher hydrogen capacity (both gravimetric and volumetric) than MOF-5 at 77 K and 1 atm, presumably because of its higher enthalpy of adsorption, which may correlate with its higher volumetric hydrogen uptake compared to MOF-5 at room temperature, up to 100 bar. However, at high pressures and 77 K, where the saturated H(2) uptake mostly depends on the surface area of a porous material, the total hydrogen uptake of 1 is notably lower than that of MOF-5.

  5. Sparsity assisted phase retrieval of complex valued objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Charu; Khare, Kedar

    2016-04-01

    Iterative phase retrieval of complex valued objects (phase objects) suffers from twin image problem due to the presence of features of image and its complex conjugate in the recovered solution. The twin-image problem becomes more severe when object support is centro-symmetric. In this paper, we demonstrate that by modifying standard Hybrid-Input output (HIO) algorithm using an adaptive sparsity enhancement step, the twin-image problem can be addressed successfully even when the object support is centro-symmetric. Adaptive sparsity enhanced algorithm and numerical simulation for binary as well as gray scale phase objects are presented. The high quality phase recovery results presented here show the effectiveness of adaptive sparsity enhanced algorithm.

  6. Sorption of selenate on soils and pure phases: kinetic parameters and stabilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loffredo, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SECRE/Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Mounier, S. [Laboratoire PROTEE, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, BP 20132, La Garde 83957 (France); Thiry, Y. [Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (Andra), Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Coppin, F., E-mail: frederic.coppin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SECRE/Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-09-15

    This study was conducted to identify the principle selenate carrier phases for two selected soils, by comparing their reactivity with selenate to that of pure phases of the solids. Silica, calcium carbonate, aluminium hydroxide, goethite, bentonite and humic acid were selected as the main soil carrier phases. Comparisons were made first on the parameter values obtained with the best fit of a kinetic sorption model which can discriminate instantaneous sorption from kinetically limited sorption. Then comparisons were made of the ability for each solid to stabilise selenate by measuring the ratio of the partition coefficient for sorption (Kd{sub sorption}) over that of the desorption (Kd{sub desorption}). Kinetics and stabilisation were used to help elucidate the nature of interactions with the test solid phases for a large range of selenate concentrations. The experiments were conducted over 165 h in batch reactors, the solid being isolated from the solution by dialysis tubing, at two pH (5.4 and 8) and three selenate concentrations (1 x 10{sup -3}, 1 x 10{sup -6} and 1 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}). The results obtained showed that only aluminium hydroxide can sorb selenate throughout the studied pH range (pH 5.4 to 8.0). The sorption capacity on this mineral was high (Kd{sub sorption} > 100 to 1 x 10{sup 4} L kg{sup -1}) and the selenate was mainly stabilized by the formation of inner sphere complexes. The sorption on goethite occurred at pH 5.4 (Kd{sub sorption} 52 L kg{sup -1}), mainly as outer sphere complexes, and was null at pH 8. On silica, a weak sorption was observed only at pH 5.4 and at 165 h (Kd{sub sorption} 4 L kg{sup -1}). On bentonite, calcium carbonate and humic acid no significant sorption was observed. Concerning the two soils studied, different behaviours were observed for selenate. For soil Ro (pH 5.4), Kd{sub sorption} was low (8 L kg{sup -1}) compared to soil Bu (pH 8) (70 L kg{sup -1}). The sorption behaviour of selenate on soil Ro was mainly

  7. Solid state synthesis of extra phase-pure Li4Ti5O12 spinel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra phase-pure Li4Ti5O12 spinel with particle sizes less than 500 nm was synthesized by solid state reaction of mechanochemicaly activated mixture of nano anatase and Li2CO3 for a very short annealing time, 4 h at 800°C. Structural and microstructural properties, the mechanism of solid state reaction between anatase and Li2CO3 as well as thermal stability of prepared spinel were investigated using XRPD, SEM and TG/DSC analysis. The mechanism of reaction implies decomposition of Li2CO3 below 250ºC, formation of monoclinic Li2TiO3 as intermediate product between 400 and 600°C and its transformation to Li4Ti5O12 between 600-800ºC. The spinel structure is stable up to 1000ºC when it is decomposed due to Li2O evaporation.

  8. Restricted k-space sampling in pure phase encode MRI of rock core plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2013-06-01

    In the study of rock core plugs with multidimensional MRI, the samples are of a regular cylindrical shape that yields well defined intensity distributions in reciprocal space. The high intensity k-space points are concentrated in the central region and in specific peripheral regions. A large proportion of the k-space points have signal intensities that are below the noise level. These points can be zero-filled instead of being collected experimentally. k-space sampling patterns that collect regions of high intensity signal while neglecting low intensity regions can be naturally applied to a wide variety of pure phase encoding measurements, such as T2 mapping SESPI, hybrid-SESPI and SPRITE, since all imaging dimensions can be under-sampled. With a shorter acquisition time, as fewer experimental data points are required, the RF and gradient duty cycles are reduced, while the image SNR is improved.

  9. Preparations of Pure Alkaline Earth Molybdate Phases from Single Molecular Precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ya-qi; ZHAO Hong; FANG Zhi-min; WAN Hui-lin; XIONG Ming; ZHOU Zhao-hui

    2004-01-01

    The pure phases of alkaline earth molybdates MMoO4, where M=Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba, were synthesized via the calcination of the related citrato oxomolybdate complexes. The mixed metal oxides can be highly dispersed at the atomic level due to the existence of uniform citrato oxomolybdenum precursors in definite composition. The complexing effect helps to produce the fine-grained oxides with particle size in the ultrafine scale(<100 nm) at heat-treatment temperatures below 500 ℃. The structures of the precursor complexes and the finally heat-treated particles were studied by means of IR, XRD, DSC, DTA and TG techniques. The morphologies of the particles were observed by using the SEM technique. The average particle sizes were calculated to be in the range of 30-50 nm based on X-ray diffraction line-broadening and SEM images, indicating the poor conglomeration of crystallite at low temperatures.

  10. Phase Pure Synthesis and Morphology Dependent Magnetization in Mn Doped ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn0.95Mn0.05O nanostructures were synthesized using sol gel derived autocombustion technique. As-burnt samples were thermally annealed at different temperatures (400, 600, and 800°C for 8 hours to investigate their effect on structural morphology and magnetic behavior. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies demonstrated the improvement in crystallinity of phase pure wurtzite structure of Mn doped ZnO with variation of annealing temperature. Energy dispersive X-ray elemental compositional analysis confirmed the exact nominal compositions of the reactants. Electrical resistivity measurements were performed with variation in temperature, which depicted the semiconducting nature similar to parent ZnO after 5 at% Mn doping. Magnetic measurements by superconducting quantum interference device detected an enhanced trend of ferromagnetic interactions in thermally annealed compositions attributed to the improved structural morphology and crystalline refinement process.

  11. Plasma-produced phase-pure cuprous oxide nanowires for methane gas sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Qijin, E-mail: ijin.cheng@xmu.edu.cn; Zhang, Fengyan [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province 361005 (China); Yan, Wei [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience Laboratories, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Randeniya, Lakshman [Plasma Nanoscience Laboratories, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Ostrikov, Kostya [Plasma Nanoscience Laboratories, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-03-28

    Phase-selective synthesis of copper oxide nanowires is warranted by several applications, yet it remains challenging because of the narrow windows of the suitable temperature and precursor gas composition in thermal processes. Here, we report on the room-temperature synthesis of small-diameter, large-area, uniform, and phase-pure Cu{sub 2}O nanowires by exposing copper films to a custom-designed low-pressure, thermally non-equilibrium, high-density (typically, the electron number density is in the range of 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) inductively coupled plasmas. The mechanism of the plasma-enabled phase selectivity is proposed. The gas sensors based on the synthesized Cu{sub 2}O nanowires feature fast response and recovery for the low-temperature (∼140 °C) detection of methane gas in comparison with polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin film-based gas sensors. Specifically, at a methane concentration of 4%, the response and the recovery times of the Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors are 125 and 147 s, respectively. The Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors have a potential for applications in the environmental monitoring, chemical industry, mining industry, and several other emerging areas.

  12. Generation of an ultralong pure longitudinal magnetization needle with high axial homogeneity using an azimuthally polarized beam modulated by pure multi-zone plate phase filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Weichao; Nie, Zhongquan; Zhang, Xueru; Wang, Yuxiao; Song, Yinglin

    2017-08-01

    Based on the vector diffraction theory and the inverse Faraday effect in the magneto-optic film, light-induced magnetization distributions, for a high numerical aperture focusing configuration with an azimuthally polarized beam modulated by an optimized pure multi-zone plate phase filter, are investigated. By making use of the compeletely destructive interference of its inter circle with the π phase shift between adjacent sub-annuli, and the capability to extend the constructive interference in the propagating direction through its narrow outer annulus modulated by three misplaced helical phases, an ultralong (107λ ) magnetization needle with both transverse super-resolution (0.37λ ) and uniform axial field strength is achieved in the focal region. The perfect magnetization needle and the accessible method give a guide for ultrahigh density magnetic storage, fabricating magnetic lattices for spin wave operation, as well as atomic trapping.

  13. On the onset of void swelling in pure tungsten under neutron irradiation: An object kinetic Monte Carlo approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castin, N.; Bakaev, A.; Bonny, G.; Sand, A. E.; Malerba, L.; Terentyev, D.

    2017-09-01

    We propose an object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) model for describing the microstructural evolution in pure tungsten under neutron irradiation. We here focus on low doses (under 1 dpa), and we neglect transmutation in first approximation. The emphasis is mainly centred on an adequate description of neutron irradiation, the subsequent introduction of primary defects, and their thermal diffusion properties. Besides grain boundaries and the dislocation network, our model includes the contribution of carbon impurities, which are shown to have a strong influence on the onset of void swelling. Our parametric study analyses the quality of our model in detail, and confronts its predictions with experimental microstructural observations with satisfactory agreement. We highlight the importance for an accurate determination of the dissolved carbon content in the tungsten matrix, and we advocate for an accurate description of atomic collision cascades, in light of the sensitivity of our results with respect to correlated recombination.

  14. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Candal, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Santos-Sanz, P; Thirouin, A; Silva, J S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, Hv, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, yet not many are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of trans-Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modeled, within the 'TNOs are cool' program, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V band absolute m...

  15. Imaging of Phase Objects using Partially Coherent Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravizza, F. L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Screening high-power laser optics for light intensifying phase objects that cause laserinduced damage on downstream optics is critical to sustaining laser operation. Identifying such flaws on large-apertures is quite challenging since they are relatively small and invisible to conventional inspection methods. A Linescan Phase Differential Imaging (LPDI) system was developed to rapidly identify these flaws on large-aperture optics within a single full-aperture dark-field image. We describe a two-step production phase object screening process consisting of LPDI mapping and image analysis, followed by high-resolution interferometry and propagation based evaluation of the downstream damage potential of identified flaws. An image simulation code capable of modeling the LPDI partially coherent illumination was used to optimize its phase object sensitivity.

  16. Object wave reconstruction by speckle illumination and phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2009-01-01

    An innovative setup for the speckle-based phase retrieval method is proposed. In the conventional setup, a plane wave illuminates the test object and the transmitted wavefront is incident on a diffuser aperture generating a speckle field. The sampled speckle intensities at axially displaced planes...... are input into a phase retrieval algorithm based on a wave propagation equation. In the new setup, the arrangement of the diffuser and the object is reversed. A plane wave incident on the diffuser generates a speckle field which, in turn, is used to illuminate the object. The transmitted wavefront...

  17. Numerical modeling of tokamak breakdown phase driven by pure Ohmic heating under ideal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Peng, Yanli; Zhang, Ya; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    We have simulated tokamak breakdown phase driven by pure Ohmic heating with implicit particle in cell/Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) method. We have found two modes can be differentiated. When performing breakdown at low initial gas pressure, we find that it works at lower density and current, but higher temperature, and requires lower heating power, compared to when having a high initial pressure. Further, two stages can be distinguished during the avalanche process. One is the fast avalanche stage, in which the plasma is heated by induced toroidal electric field. The other is the slow avalanche stage, which begins when the plasma density reaches 1015 m-3. It has been shown that ions are mainly heated by ambipolar field and become stochastic in the velocity distribution. However, when the induced electric field is low, there exists a transition phase between the two stages. Our model simulates the breakdown and early hydrogen burn-through under ideal conditions during tokamak start-up. It adopted fewer assumptions, and can give an idealized range of operative parameters for Ohmic start-up. Qualitatively, the results agree well with certain experimental observations.

  18. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM--Sidhi experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme-Johnson, D W; Haynes, C T

    1981-01-01

    Males (n = 12, M age 25.6 yrs) with clear experiences (CE) of both "pure consciousness" (unbounded inner awareness without thoughts) and the TM--Sidhi techniques (mental procedures derived from Vedic Science to enhance cognitive, perceptual and other abilities) were compared with unclear experience (UE) males (n = 10, M age 25.5 yrs) on creativity (ideational fluency, Torrance, Novel Uses, Verbal) and EEG coherence, a measure of phase stability derived from Fourier series analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance of coherence between four pairs of EEG derivations (F3F4, F3C3, F4C4, C3C4) and a t-test on the creativity variable showed that CE subjects had higher alpha (8--12 Hz) coherence (p = 0.052) and higher creativity (p = 0.011) than UE subjects. Several of the alpha coherence variables were positively correlated with creativity: Bilateral Frontal (F3F4), r = 0.65, p = 0.001; Homolateral Right, r = 0.50, p = 0 .011; mean of the four alpha variables, r = 0.66, p = 0.001; Dominant Alpha (area of highest alpha coherence for each subject) r = 0.64, p = 0.001. It is concluded that: (1) information processing, at least to the extent measured by ideational fluency, is enhanced in those with clear experiences of pure consciousness and the TM--Sidhi techniques, (2) that EEG coherence is a psychophysiological correlate of this subject variable and (3) that the results may be generalizable to the field of information processing and "peak experiences" described in Humanistic psychology.

  19. Pure and stable metallic phase molybdenum disulfide nanosheets for hydrogen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiumei; Sun, Weiwei; Wu, Wei; Chen, Benjamin; Al-Hilo, Alaa; Benamara, Mourad; Zhu, Hongli; Watanabe, Fumiya; Cui, Jingbiao; Chen, Tar-Pin

    2016-02-10

    Metallic-phase MoS2 (M-MoS2) is metastable and does not exist in nature. Pure and stable M-MoS2 has not been previously prepared by chemical synthesis, to the best of our knowledge. Here we report a hydrothermal process for synthesizing stable two-dimensional M-MoS2 nanosheets in water. The metal-metal Raman stretching mode at 146 cm(-1) in the M-MoS2 structure, as predicted by theoretical calculations, is experimentally observed. The stability of the M-MoS2 is associated with the adsorption of a monolayer of water molecules on both sides of the nanosheets, which reduce restacking and prevent aggregation in water. The obtained M-MoS2 exhibits excellent stability in water and superior activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction, with a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at a low potential of -175 mV and a Tafel slope of 41 mV per decade.

  20. Universal synthesis of air stable, phase pure, controllable FeSe2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengrong; Bai, Yongxiao; Deng, Aiying; Bao, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Iron diselenium (FeSe2) is a promising semiconductor for thin-film solar cells because it has a suitable band gap (E g = 1.0 eV) and high absorption coefficient. Despite these prospects, the controllable synthesis of FeSe2 nanostructures and the diversity of their geometries has hardly been studied previously. Here, we described a successful synthesis of phase-pure, high-quality, and stable orthorhombic FeSe2 nanocrystals (NCs) in aqueous solvents. A variety of morphologies of the FeSe2 NCs were achieved by adjusting synthetic methods. FeSe2 nanoparticles with diameters of 30-100 nm were synthesized in the presence of ethylenediamine (en). Moreover, the synthetic approach developed for nanoparticles proved to be quite universal and could be modified to produce nanowires and octahedrons, with which structure the material could display high crystallinity. The diameter of the FeSe2 nanowires was 300-500 nm with a length exceeding 2 μm. The octahedrons displayed lateral dimensions of 1 μm. Meanwhile, the probable growth mechanism and fabrication process of the NCs were proposed. Polycrystalline FeSe2 thin films were fabricated by modifying the sedimentation method. The obvious photoconductivity of FeSe2 has already been observed, and it was considered to be one candidate of solar cell for the very first time.

  1. Phase retrieval for superposed signals from multiple binary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas; Herman, Gabor T.; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the binary superposed phase retrieval problem that aims at reconstructing multiple 0/1-valued functions with nonoverlapping bounded supports from moduli of superpositions of several displaced copies of their individual Fourier transforms. We discuss an application in coherent diffrac...... diffraction imaging of crystalline objects, propose two algorithms, and evaluate their performance by means of simulations. © 2010 Optical Society of America...

  2. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, D W; Eppler, W G; Poland, D N

    2005-02-18

    A 3D solid model-aided object cueing method that matches phase angles of directional derivative vectors at image pixels to phase angles of vectors normal to projected model edges is described. It is intended for finding specific types of objects at arbitrary position and orientation in overhead images, independent of spatial resolution, obliqueness, acquisition conditions, and type of imaging sensor. It is shown that the phase similarity measure can be efficiently evaluated over all combinations of model position and orientation using the FFT. The highest degree of similarity over all model orientations is captured in a match surface of similarity values vs. model position. Unambiguous peaks in this surface are sorted in descending order of similarity value, and the small image thumbnails that contain them are presented to human analysts for inspection in sorted order.

  3. Controllability study on the preparation of pure phase BiFeO{sub 3} thin films by liquid phase self-assembled method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Xuanru, E-mail: renxuanru1986@163.com [C/C Composites Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Tan Guoqiang; Miao Hongyan; Li Ziyu [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Pure phase BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films were prepared on the ITO/glass substrates covered with functionalized OTS self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by controllable liquid phase self-assembled method. The hydrophobic surface of OTS-SAMs was changed into hydrophilic surface after UV irradiation, which is helpful to make BFO precursor solutions fully wet the substrate surface. A dense film was formed only on the hydrophilic silnaol group regions, which shows the selectively deposition of BFO precursors. Changing the pH value of BFO precursor solutions will affect the phase purity. The pure phase BFO thin films can be obtained under various pH values, which indicates that the liquid phase self-assembled method is controllable. All pure phase BFO films are dense, smooth, well-grown polycrystalline films, but the size of grains increased gradually along with the increase of pH values. The micropattern of BiFeO{sub 3} film has clear edges. The possible growth mechanism of BFO thin films was discussed.

  4. Calibration of Mineralization Degree for Dynamic Pure-water Measurement in Horizontal Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Kong, Lingfu; Liu, Xingbin

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity measurement in the process of calculating water content of oil-water two-phase flow of production profile logging in horizontal wells, a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP) is proposed to measure dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow. The structures of conductance sensors which include the SGLCP and ring-shaped conductance probe (RSCP) are analyzed by using the finite-element method (FEM). In the process of simulation, the electric field distribution generated by the SGLCP and RSCP are investigated, and the responses of the measuring electrodes are calculated under the different values of the water resistivity. The static experiments of the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. Results of simulation and experiments demonstrate a nice linearity between the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees. The SGLCP has also a good adaptability to stratified flow, stratified flow with mixing at the interface and dispersion of oil in water and water flow. The validity and feasibility of pure-water electrical conductivity measurement with the designed SGLCP under different mineralization degrees are verified by experimental results.

  5. k-t acceleration in pure phase encode MRI to monitor dynamic flooding processes in rock core plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2014-06-01

    Monitoring the pore system in sedimentary rocks with MRI when fluids are introduced is very important in the study of petroleum reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery. However, the lengthy acquisition time of each image, with pure phase encode MRI, limits the temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal correlations can be exploited to undersample the k-t space data. The stacked frames/profiles can be well approximated by an image matrix with rank deficiency, which can be recovered by nonlinear nuclear norm minimization. Sparsity of the x-t image can also be exploited for nonlinear reconstruction. In this work the results of a low rank matrix completion technique were compared with k-t sparse compressed sensing. These methods are demonstrated with one dimensional SPRITE imaging of a Bentheimer rock core plug and SESPI imaging of a Berea rock core plug, but can be easily extended to higher dimensionality and/or other pure phase encode measurements. These ideas will enable higher dimensionality pure phase encode MRI studies of dynamic flooding processes in low magnetic field systems.

  6. Optimization of hydrothermal synthesis of pure phase zeolite Na-P1 from South African coal fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Gitari, Wilson M; Balfour, Gillian; Hums, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at optimizing the synthesis conditions for pure phase zeolite Na-P1 from three coal fly ashes obtained from power stations in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Synthesis variables evaluated were: hydrothermal treatment time (12-48 hours), temperature (100-160°C) and varying molar quantities of water during the hydrothermal treatment step (H(2)O:SiO(2) molar ratio ranged between 0-0.49). The optimum synthesis conditions for preparing pure phase zeolite Na-P1 were achieved when the molar regime was 1 SiO(2): 0.36 Al(2)O(3): 0.59 NaOH: 0.49 H(2)O and ageing was done at 47°C for 48 hours. The optimum hydrothermal treatment time and temperature was 48 hours and 140°C, respectively. Fly ashes sourced from two coal-fired power plants (A, B) were found to produce nearly same high purity zeolite Na-P1 under identical conditions whereas the third fly ash (C) lead to a low quality zeolite Na-P1 under these conditions. The cation exchange capacity for the high pure phase was found to be 4.11 meq/g. These results highlight the fact that adjustment of reactant composition and presynthesis or synthesis parameters, improved quality of zeolite Na-P1 can be achieved and hence an improved potential for application of zeolites prepared from coal fly ash.

  7. Isotropic-nematic phase equilibria of hard-sphere chain fluids-Pure components and binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Bernardo; van Westen, Thijs; Vlugt, Thijs J H

    2015-02-14

    The isotropic-nematic phase equilibria of linear hard-sphere chains and binary mixtures of them are obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the infinite dilution solubility of hard spheres in the coexisting isotropic and nematic phases is determined. Phase equilibria calculations are performed in an expanded formulation of the Gibbs ensemble. This method allows us to carry out an extensive simulation study on the phase equilibria of pure linear chains with a length of 7 to 20 beads (7-mer to 20-mer), and binary mixtures of an 8-mer with a 14-, a 16-, and a 19-mer. The effect of molecular flexibility on the isotropic-nematic phase equilibria is assessed on the 8-mer+19-mer mixture by allowing one and two fully flexible beads at the end of the longest molecule. Results for binary mixtures are compared with the theoretical predictions of van Westen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 034504 (2014)]. Excellent agreement between theory and simulations is observed. The infinite dilution solubility of hard spheres in the hard-sphere fluids is obtained by the Widom test-particle insertion method. As in our previous work, on pure linear hard-sphere chains [B. Oyarzún, T. van Westen, and T. J. H. Vlugt, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 204905 (2013)], a linear relationship between relative infinite dilution solubility (relative to that of hard spheres in a hard-sphere fluid) and packing fraction is found. It is observed that binary mixtures greatly increase the solubility difference between coexisting isotropic and nematic phases compared to pure components.

  8. Kinetic limit for incubation period of primary phase produced by the combination reaction between two solid heterogeneous pure metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG diangTao; LI JingLong; ZHANG FuSheng; LIN Xin; HUANG WeiDong

    2008-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamics model was constructed to study the combination reaction of two heterogeneous pure metals in diffusion bonding based on the theorem of minimum entropy production and the Curie principle. The correlation between the irreversible reaction and diffusion was discussed, which provided the kinetic inevitability of an incubation period of a primary phase. The analytical de-scriptions of the incubation period and the kinetically critical grain size of the pri-mary phase were deduced. Comparison of the experimental results of AI/Mo inter-facial reaction with the calculations indicated that the performed theoretical analy-sis was reliable.

  9. Influence of the high pressure torsion die geometry on the allotropic phase transformations in pure Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhilyaev, A.P. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, RAS, 450001 Ufa (Russian Federation); Galvez, F. [ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sharafutdinov, A. [Innovation Scientific Technology Center ' Iskra' , 450000 Ufa (Russian Federation); Perez-Prado, M.T., E-mail: teresa.perez.prado@imdea.org [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Materials (IMDEA-Materials), C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-25

    The effect of the press geometry in the {alpha} to {omega} + {beta} transformation in pure Zr by high pressure torsion (HPT) was investigated. Specimens were processed in constrained and unconstrained setups using a wide range of applied pressures and 5 anvil turns. The resulting microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microhardness distributions were measured for each condition. The transformation kinetics and the stability of the fabricated nanostructures are enhanced when using an unconstrained setup. In the samples processed by constrained HPT the full transformation does not take place even at the highest pressures applied. Additionally, post-processing room temperature grain growth of some of the remaining nanocrystalline {alpha}-Zr grains with (0 0 0 1) orientations occurs, leading to a significant decrease in hardness. HRTEM allowed confirming the presence of pure {beta}-Zr.

  10. Phase pure synthesis of BiFeO{sub 3} nanopowders using diverse precursor via co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shami, M. Yasin, E-mail: m_yasin_shami@yahoo.com [Applied Thermal Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Awan, M.S. [Center for Micro and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Anis-ur-Rehman, M. [Applied Thermal Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > Synthesized phase pure BiFeO{sub 3} using diverse precursor by co-precipitation method. > Optimized synthesis and processing parameters. > Thermal behavior, structure and microstructure were analyzed. > Resistivity vs temperature and dielectric constant vs frequency were measured. > Multiferroicity at room temperature was confirmed by M-H and P-E loops. - Abstract: Amorphous powder of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) was synthesized at low-temperature (80 deg. C) by co-precipitation method. Optimal synthesis conditions for phase pure BFO were obtained. Powders were calcined in the temperature range from 400 to 600 deg. C for 1 h. Iso-statically pressed powder was sintered at 500 deg. C for 2 h. Differential scanning calorimetric thermo-gram guided for phase transition, crystallization and melting temperatures. X-ray diffraction confirmed the amorphous nature of as synthesized powder and phase formation of calcined powders. Calcination at temperature {>=}400 deg. C resulted in nano crystalline powders with perovskite structure. Average crystallite size increased with the increase in calcination temperature. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed dense granular microstructure of the sintered samples. The sintered samples exhibited high dc resistivity at room temperature which decreased with the increase in temperature. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent and ac conductivity measurements were carried out in the frequency range (10 Hz to 2 MHz). The samples responded weak electric and magnetic polarization at room temperature with unsaturated and hysteresis free loops, respectively.

  11. Influence of downsizing of zeolite crystals on the orthorhombic ↔ monoclinic phase transition in pure silica MFI-type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalan, Ihab; Michelin, Laure; Rigolet, Séverinne; Marichal, Claire; Daou, T. Jean; Lebeau, Bénédicte; Paillaud, Jean-Louis

    2016-08-01

    The impact of crystal size on the transition orthorhombic ↔ monoclinic phase in MFI-type purely silica zeolites is investigated between 293 and 473 K using 29Si MAS NMR and powder X-ray diffraction. Three silicalite-1 zeolites are synthesized: a material constituted of micron-sized crystals, pseudospherical nanometer-sized crystals and hierarchical porous zeolites with a mesoporous network created by the use of a gemini-type diquaternary ammonium surfactant giving nanosheet zeolites. Our results show for the first time that the orthorhombic ↔ monoclinic phase transition already known for micron-sized particles also occurs in nanometer-sized zeolite crystals whereas our data suggest that the extreme downsizing of the zeolite crystal to one unit cell in thickness leads to an extinction of the phase transition.

  12. Optimize the modulation response of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays as pure phase spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baiheng; Peng, Fei; Kang, Mingwu; Zhou, Jiawu

    2014-11-01

    Twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TN-LCD) are widely used in numerous research fields of optics working as spatial light modulators. Approaches to obtaining desired intensity or phase modulation by TN-LCD have been extensively studied based on the knowledge of TN-LCD's internal structure parameters, e.g., the orientation of LC molecules at the surfaces, the twist angle, the thickness of the LC layer, and the birefringence of the material. Generally TN-LCD placed between two linear polarizers (P) produces coupled intensity and phase modulation. To obtain the commonly used pure phase modulation, quarter wave plates (QWP) are often used in front of and/or behind the LCD. In this paper, we present a method to optimize the optical modulation properties of the TN-LCD to obtain pure phase modulation in the configuration of P-QWP-LCD-QWP-P each with proper orientation. Firstly an improved method for determining the Jones matrix of the TN-LCD without knowing its internal parameters is presented, which is based on the macroscopical Jones matrix descriptions for TN-LCD, linear polarizer and QWP. Only three sets of intensity measurements are needed for the complete determination of the TN-LCD's Jones matrix for a single wavelength. Then Jones matrix calculations are carried out to determine the orientations of the polarizers and QWPs for pure phase modulation response. In addition, we prove that the phase modulation depth (PMD) of the TN-LCD can be further increased provided that the mean intensity transmission is decreased to a lower level, which is very useful when the TN-LCD is used as a phase modulator and the ratio between the intensities of the desired diffracted order relative to the other diffracted orders is required higher. Experimental results coincide well with the optical modulation properties of the TN-LCD predicted by our determined Jones matrix. In contrast to the traditional method which requires knowledge of the TN-LCD's internal structure parameters

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Pure r-Phase Manganese(II) Sulfide without the Use of Organic Reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, F.M.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Zhang, X.V.; Martin, S.T.; Parise, J.B. (SBU); (Harvard)

    2008-06-18

    Recent studies exploring the role of metal sulfides as (photo)catalysts in prebiotic synthesis reactions provide the impetus for finding carbon-free synthesis methods for metal sulfides. The decomposition of organosulfur and organometallic precursor compounds is often the protocol for synthesizing bulk metal chalcogenides, such as manganese sulfide (MnS). Here we report a hydrothermal synthesis method for the formation of MnS in which a MnCl{sub 2} solution is injected into a preheated sulfide solution. By varying the temperature of injection and subsequent aging time, we can control the specific crystal phase of the product. Three MnS polymorphs are known, and two of these, {alpha}-MnS and {gamma}-MnS, form as pure phases in aqueous systems. The initial precipitate formed upon mixing of aqueous solutions of Mn{sup 2+} and S{sup 2-} at ambient temperature is nanocrystalline and is composed of a mixture of {gamma}-MnS (wurtzite structure) and {beta}-MnS (zinc blende structure). {beta}-MnS has not previously been identified as forming under aqueous conditions. The initial binary-phase precipitate can be transformed to pure, highly crystalline {gamma}-MnS by aging at temperatures as low as 150 C within 3 days. Aging to yield pure {alpha}-MnS requires temperatures in excess of 200 C for 3 days. Characterization of the products was performed using powder X-ray diffraction, total scattering and pair distribution function analysis, dynamic light scattering, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Chemical analyses were performed using colorimetric techniques.

  14. Pure component spectral reconstruction from mixture data using SVD, global entropy minimization, and simulated annealing. Numerical investigations of admissible objective functions using a synthetic 7-species data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Effendi; Garland, Marc

    2002-07-15

    A combination of singular value decomposition, entropy minimization, and simulated annealing was applied to a synthetic 7-species spectroscopic data set with added white noise. The pure spectra were highly overlapping. Global minima for selected objective functions were obtained for the transformation of the first seven right singular vectors. Simple Shannon type entropy functions were used in the objective functions and realistic physical constraints were imposed in the penalties. It was found that good first approximations for the pure component spectra could be obtained without the use of any a priori information. The present method out performed the two widely used routines, namely Simplisma and OPA-ALS, as well as IPCA. These results indicate that a combination of SVD, entropy minimization, and simulated annealing is a potentially powerful tool for spectral reconstructions from large real experimental systems. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Preparing arbitrary pure states of spatial qudits with a single phase-only spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J. J. M.; Solís-Prosser, A. M. A.; Rebón, L.; Arias, A.; Neves, L.; Iemmi, C.; Ledesma, S.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new method for preparing multidimensional spatial qudits by means of a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). This method improves previous ones that use two SLMs, one working in amplitude regime and the other in phase regime. To that end, we addressed diffraction gratings on the slits that define the state and then we performed a spatial filtering in the Fourier plane. The amplitude of the coefficients of the quantum state are determined by the modulation deep of the diffraction gratings, and the relative phase is the mean phase value of the diffraction gratings. This encoding result to be more compact, less expensive and use the photons more efficiently.

  16. A Pure-Python Robust Frequency Band Automatic Phase Picker for Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Holland, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    We modify the FPPICK algorithm of Lomax et al. (2012) and implement an automatic phase picking algorithm implemented in Python. The algorithm takes advantage of existing seismological Python libraries, Obspy. The algorithm is designed to work on a variety of instrumentation and automatically adapts to different sampling rates. The time series signals are band-pass filtered for each band, octave, considered within the picker algorithm. The energy of the signal is calculated over an averaging window and multiplied by the instantaneous energy of the signal. This energy time-series is the statistic we can then examine for each frequency band considered. The summary statistic, which allows the identification of a trigger, is simply the maximum value of any frequency bands energy statistic at each sample time. A trigger is identified by using a control chart type statistic to identify when our statistics summary is changing rapidly and exceeds a specified number of standard deviations from the mean of the summary energy statistic. This has the advantage that the picker parameters don't necessarily need to be modified when processing data from a wide variety of instrumentation with different response characteristics. The algorithm also contains a method to determine the first motion direction associated with a pick as well as an uncertainty for the pick. As with any automatic phase identification system false picks can and do occur. A few simple algorithms are implemented to avoid false-picks, the picker can be configured not to include these checks. These algorithms remove picks that occur very close in time, and picks for which a phase has a smaller RMS than the previous time interval. The algorithm uses many techniques within Numpy to improve computation times. The algorithm effectively picks both P- and S-phase from local and regional earthquakes with only small amounts of picker parameter modifications. The picker can pick both P and S phases on local and regional

  17. Synthesis of phase-pure and monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmid, Ryan; Arami, Hamed; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Gonzales, Marcela; Teeman, Eric; Brush, Lucien N.; Browning, Nigel D.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-06-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used for a wide range of biomedical applications requiring precise control over their physical and magnetic properties, which are dependent on their size and crystallographic phase. Here we present a comprehensive template for the design and synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with control over size, size distribution, phase, and resulting magnetic properties. We investigate critical parameters for synthesis of monodisperse SPIONs by organic thermal decomposition. Three different, commonly used, iron containing precursors (iron oleate, iron pentacarbonyl, and iron oxyhydroxide) are evaluated under a variety of synthetic conditions. We compare the suitability of these three kinetically controlled synthesis protocols, which have in common the use of iron oleate as a starting precursor or reaction intermediate, for producing nanoparticles with specific size and magnetic properties. Monodisperse particles were produced over a tunable range of sizes from approximately 2-30 nm. Reaction parameters such as precursor concentration, addition of surfactant, temperature, ramp rate, and time were adjusted to kinetically control size and size-distribution, phase, and magnetic properties. In particular, large quantities of excess surfactant (up to 25 : 1 molar ratio) alter reaction kinetics and result in larger particles with uniform size; however, there is often a trade-off between large particles and a narrow size distribution. Iron oxide phase, in addition to nanoparticle size and shape, is critical for establishing magnetic properties such as differential susceptibility (dm/dH) and anisotropy. As an example, we show the importance of obtaining the required size and iron oxide phase for application to Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), and describe how phase purity can be controlled. These results provide much of the information necessary to determine which iron oxide synthesis protocol is best suited to a particular

  18. Existence and regularity of solutions of a phase field model for solidification with convection of pure materials in two dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luiz Boldrini

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and regularity of weak solutions of a phase field type model for pure material solidification in presence of natural convection. We assume that the non-stationary solidification process occurs in a two dimensional bounded domain. The governing equations of the model are the phase field equation coupled with a nonlinear heat equation and a modified Navier-Stokes equation. These equations include buoyancy forces modelled by Boussinesq approximation and a Carman-Koseny term to model the flow in mushy regions. Since these modified Navier-Stokes equations only hold in the non-solid regions, which are not known a priori, we have a free boundary-value problem.

  19. Phase behavior of a pure alkyl aryl sulfonate surfactant. [Sodium 8-phenyl-n-hexadecyl-p-sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I.; Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.; Scriven, L.E.

    1978-03-01

    Specctroturbidimetry, visual and microscopic observations, ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, conductimetry, and /sup 13/C NMR were used to study the phase behavior of pure sodium 8-phenyl-n-hexadecyl-p-sulfonate in water--NaCl, decane, and water--decane. Solubility of the sulfonate in water is 0.06 wt % at 25/sup 0/C and 0.7 wt % at 90/sup 0/C, and it drops to 0.0002 wt % in 3 wt % NaCl (25/sup 0/C). A liquid crystalline phase in equilibrium with aqueous solution contains 25 wt % water. Nucleation of supersaturated solutions is slow. Dispersability of the sulfonate is high, but NaCl has an adverse effect. 39 references, 13 figs., 5 tables. (DLC)

  20. The isotropic-nematic phase transition of tangent hard-sphere chain fluids—Pure components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Westen, T.; Oyarzun, B.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Gross, J.

    2013-01-01

    An extension of Onsager's second virial theory is developed to describe the isotropic-nematic phase transition of tangent hard-sphere chain fluids. Flexibility is introduced by the rod-coil model. The effect of chain-flexibility on the second virial coefficient is described using an accurate, analyt

  1. Chemical Tagging Can Work: Identification of Stellar Phase-space Structures Purely by Chemical-abundance Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David W.; Casey, Andrew R.; Ness, Melissa; Rix, Hans-Walter; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Hasselquist, Sten; Ho, Anna Y. Q.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Martell, Sarah L.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David L.; Shetrone, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Chemical tagging promises to use detailed abundance measurements to identify spatially separated stars that were, in fact, born together (in the same molecular cloud) long ago. This idea has not yielded much practical success, presumably because of the noise and incompleteness in chemical-abundance measurements. We have succeeded in substantially improving spectroscopic measurements with The Cannon, which has now delivered 15 individual abundances for ∼ {10}5 stars observed as part of the APOGEE spectroscopic survey, with precisions around 0.04 dex. We test the chemical-tagging hypothesis by looking at clusters in abundance space and confirming that they are clustered in phase space. We identify (by the k-means algorithm) overdensities of stars in the 15-dimensional chemical-abundance space delivered by The Cannon, and plot the associated stars in phase space. We use only abundance-space information (no positional information) to identify stellar groups. We find that clusters in abundance space are indeed clusters in phase space, and we recover some known phase-space clusters and find other interesting structures. This is the first-ever project to identify phase-space structures at the survey-scale by blind search purely in abundance space; it verifies the precision of the abundance measurements delivered by The Cannon the prospects for future data sets appear very good.

  2. The SNO+ Scintillator Purification Plant and Projected Sensitivity to Solar Neutrinos in the Pure Scintillator Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Teal; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The SNO+ detector is a neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment utilizing the renovated SNO detector. In the second phase of operation, the SNO+ detector will contain 780 tons of organic liquid scintillator composed of 2 g/L 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). In this phase, SNO+ will strive to detect solar neutrinos in the sub-MeV range, including CNO production neutrinos and pp production neutrinos. To achieve the necessary detector sensitivity, a four-part scintillator purification plant has been constructed in SNOLAB for the removal of ionic and radioactive impurities. We present an overview of the SNO+ scintillator purification plant stages, including distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and metal scavenger columns. We also give the projected SNO+ sensitivities to various solar-produced neutrinos based on the scintillator plant's projected purification efficiency.

  3. XPS characterization scheme for phase-pure epitaxial NbO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadamek, Tobias; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alex

    NbO2 shows a semiconductor-to-metal transition with an associated structural transition of Peierls type. NbO2 and Nb2O5 or mixtures thereof have also shown electrically induced insulator-to-metal transitions. To shed light on the nature of the electrically induced insulator-to-metal transition it is important to grow high phase purity NbO2 and Nb2O5 and compare electrical measurements with mixed niobium oxides and with different electrode materials. Processing NbO2 and avoiding surface oxidation requires ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Niobium oxide thin films where grown in UHV by molecular beam epitaxy on 111-oriented STO substrates and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was shown that the NbO2 3d core level spectrum exhibits an asymmetric spin-orbit peak pair with more spectral weight on the high binding energy side. Based on the shape of the Nb 3d core levels, peak positions relative to the oxygen O 1s peak, and the valence band shape and height ratio of the niobium 4dxy split-off band to the oxygen 2p band, an identification scheme for NbO2 by XPS was devised. Complementary the NbO2 phase was confirmed by reflection high-energy electron and x-ray diffraction analysis.

  4. Numerical study of large-N phase transition of smeared Wilson loops in 4D pure YM theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmayer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In Euclidean four-dimensional SU(N) pure gauge theory, eigenvalue distributions of Wilson loop parallel transport matrices around closed spacetime curves show non-analytic behavior (a 'large-N phase transition') at a critical size of the curve. We focus mainly on an observable composed of traces of the Wilson loop operator in all totally antisymmetric representations, which is regularized with the help of smearing. By studying sequences of square Wilson loops on a hypercubic lattice with standard Wilson action, it is shown that this observable has a nontrivial continuum limit as a function of the physical size of the loop. We furthermore present (preliminary) numerical results confirming that, for large N, the N dependence in the critical regime is governed by the universal exponents 1/2 and 3/4 as expected (Burgers universality).

  5. Synthesis of phase-pure U2N3 microspheres and its decomposition into UN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Chinthaka M; Hunt, Rodney D; Snead, Lance L; Terrani, Kurt A

    2015-01-05

    Uranium mononitride (UN) is important as a nuclear fuel. Fabrication of UN in its microspherical form also has its own merits since the advent of the concept of accident-tolerant fuel, where UN is being considered as a potential fuel in the form of TRISO particles. However, not many processes have been well established to synthesize kernels of UN. Therefore, a process for synthesis of microspherical UN with a minimum amount of carbon is discussed herein. First, a series of single-phased microspheres of uranium sesquinitride (U2N3) were synthesized by nitridation of UO2+C microspheres at a few different temperatures. Resulting microspheres were of low-density U2N3 and decomposed into low-density UN. The variation of density of the synthesized sesquinitrides as a function of its chemical composition indicated the presence of extra (interstitial) nitrogen atoms corresponding to its hyperstoichiometry, which is normally indicated as α-U2N3. Average grain sizes of both U2N3 and UN varied in a range of 1-2.5 μm. These also had a considerably large amount of pore spacing, indicating the potential sinterability of UN toward its use as a nuclear fuel.

  6. Solid-liquid interface free energies of pure bcc metals and B2 phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S R; Gunawardana, K G S H; Mendelev, M I

    2015-04-07

    The solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy was determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for several body centered cubic (bcc) metals and B2 metallic compounds (space group: Pm3̄m; prototype: CsCl). In order to include a bcc metal with a low melting temperature in our study, a semi-empirical potential was developed for Na. Two additional synthetic "Na" potentials were also developed to explore the effect of liquid structure and latent heat on the SLI free energy. The obtained MD data were compared with the empirical Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations. All three relations are found to predict the general trend observed in the MD data for bcc metals obtained within the present study. However, only the Laird and Ewing relations are able to predict the trend obtained within the sequence of "Na" potentials. The Laird relation provides the best prediction for our MD data and other MD data for bcc metals taken from the literature. Overall, the Laird relation also agrees well with our B2 data but requires a proportionality constant that is substantially different from the bcc case. It also fails to explain a considerable difference between the SLI free energies of some B2 phases which have nearly the same melting temperature. In contrast, this difference is satisfactorily described by the Ewing relation. Moreover, the Ewing relation obtained from the bcc dataset also provides a reasonable description of the B2 data.

  7. Morphological and microstructural characterization of nanostructured pure α-phase W coatings on a wide thickness range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo, N., E-mail: nuri.gordillo@gmail.com [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, ETSI de Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Madrid (Spain); Panizo-Laiz, M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, ETSI de Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Tejado, E. [Department of Materials Science, Research Centre on Safety and Durability of Structures and Materials (CISDEM), UPM-CSIC, C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Martinez, I. [Instituto de Energía Solar (IES), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid, IMM-CNM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8 PTM, Tres Cantos, E-28760 Madrid (Spain); Rivera, A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, ETSI de Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, J.Y. [Department of Materials Science, Research Centre on Safety and Durability of Structures and Materials (CISDEM), UPM-CSIC, C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Castro, C. Gómez de [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure α-phase tungsten nanostructures were deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering. • Non-delaminated coatings were achieved at powers ≤50 W. • The coating thicknesses vary from 30 nm up to ∼4.0 μm. • The influence of the substrate on the coating properties was investigated. • We report on the morphological, microstructural and mechanical properties. - Abstract: Nanostructured tungsten (nanoW) coatings have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. First, the influence of the sputtering power on the adhesion of the coatings to the substrate was investigated by depositing coatings at powers varying from 30 up to 220 W. Non-delaminated coatings were achieved at powers ≤50 W. Second, the influence of coating thickness on the morphological, microstructural and mechanical properties was investigated for films deposited at 50 W with thicknesses varying from 30 nm up to ∼4.0 μm. SEM images reveal that all the films are highly compact, consisting of nanometer sized columns that grow perpendicular to the substrate. XRD data evidence that films are monophasic, being made of pure α-phase. All coatings show compressive stress and low micro-strain. Nanoindentation tests show that coatings have a hardness higher than that reported for coarse grained W. No significant dependence of the previous properties on coating thickness was observed. Finally, the influence of the substrate on coatings properties was studied, by depositing a W coating at a power of 50 W on a commercial steel substrate: no significant dependence was found.

  8. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  9. Direct observation of the transient thermal-lensing effect using the phase-object Z-scan technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Song, Yinglin

    2009-01-15

    A phase-object (PO) Z-scan technique, which can conveniently distinguish the transient thermal-lensing effect from the third-order nonlinear refraction, is described. The PO Z-scan trace of the transient thermal-lensing effect shows a valley-peak shape that is very different from the single-valley (peak) shape of the pure negative (positive) third-order nonlinearity. The nonlinear refraction of the C(70)/toluene solution is investigated by using the PO Z scan with 8 ns pulses at 532 nm wavelength as a test.

  10. Object-wave reconstruction by carbon film-based Zernike- and Hilbert-phase plate microscopy: A theoretical study not restricted to weak-phase objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dries, M., E-mail: manuel.dries@kit.edu [Laboratorium fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schultheiss, K.; Gamm, B. [Laboratorium fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rosenauer, A. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Schroeder, R.R. [BioQuant CellNetworks, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gerthsen, D. [Laboratorium fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Transmission electron microscopy phase-contrast images taken by amorphous carbon film-based phase plates are affected by the scattering of electrons within the carbon film causing a modification of the image-wave function. Moreover, image artefacts are produced by non-centrosymmetric phase plate designs such as the Hilbert-phase plate. Various methods are presented to correct phase-contrast images with respect to the scattering of electrons and image artefacts induced by phase plates. The proposed techniques are not restricted to weak-phase objects and linear image formation. Phase-contrast images corrected by the presented methods correspond to those taken by an ideal centrosymmetric, matter-free phase plate and are suitable for object-wave reconstruction. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Object-wave reconstruction by phase plates considering nonlinear image formation. {yields} Requirement of three (five) images in case of Zernike- (Hilbert-) phase plates. {yields} Analytical correction of damping and/or image artefacts induced by phase plates.{yields} Validation by simulation of crystalline silicon.

  11. Influence of Surface Gas-Phase Rare Earth Permeation Plus Laser Melting Solidification on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Pure Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许越; 纪红; 陈湘; 赵连城

    2002-01-01

    The samples of pure Fe were treated by surface gas-phase RE permeation plus laser melting solidification (LMS). The microstructures were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), meanwhile the corrosion resistance was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization. The results show that this treatment can remarkably improve the density and uniformity of microstructure, and enhance corrosion resistance of the pure Fe surface.

  12. Detachment of CVD-grown graphene from single crystalline Ni films by a pure gas phase reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Patrick; Henß, Ann-Kathrin; Weinl, Michael; Diehl, Leo; Keefer, Daniel; Lippmann, Judith; Schulz, Anne; Kraus, Jürgen; Schreck, Matthias; Wintterlin, Joost

    2016-11-01

    Despite great previous efforts there is still a high need for a simple, clean, and upscalable method for detaching epitaxial graphene from the metal support on which it was grown. We present a method based on a pure gas phase reaction that is free of solvents and polymer supports and avoids mechanical transfer steps. The graphene was grown on 150 nm thick, single crystalline Ni(111) films on Si(111) wafers with YSZ buffer layers. Its quality was monitored by using low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. The gas phase etching uses a chemical transport reaction, the so-called Mond process, based on the formation of gaseous nickel tetracarbonyl in ~ 1 bar of CO at ~ 75 °C and by adding small amounts of sulfide catalysts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the detached graphene. It was found that the method successfully removes the nickel from underneath the graphene layer, so that the graphene lies on the insulating oxide buffer layer. Small residual particles of nickel sulfide and cracks in the obtained graphene layer were identified. The defect concentrations were comparable to graphene samples obtained by wet chemical etching and by the bubbling transfer.

  13. A Derivation of Aharonov-Casher Phase and Another Adiabatic Approximation for Pure Gauge Under General Rashba Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Spin filters using spin-orbit interaction (SOI) are very important in the field of spintronics. Therefore, a theory of devices using SOI is necessary for designing the spin filters. The spin-filtering devices can be used to generate and detect spin polarized currents. Many researchers have reported on the spin-filters using linear Rashba SOI. However, the spin-filters using square and cubic Rashba SOIs are not yet reported. This is surely because the Aharonov-Casher (AC) phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs are ambiguous. In this paper, we try to derive the AC phases acquired under nth order Rashba SOIs, which we call general Rashba SOIs, using non-Abelian SU (2) gauge theory. As a result, we have successfully derived these AC phases without completing the square methods which is useless except for linear Rashba SOI. In the process of derivation of AC phases, we have also found another expression of adiabatic approximation for a pure gauge. This finding will lead to the starting point for deeply understanding the adiabatic approximation. Using the above AC phases under general Rashba SOIs, we investigate the spin filter effect in Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring with double quantum dots (QDs) under general Rashba SOIs. The spin transport is investigated from left nanowire to right nanowire in this structure within tight binding approximation. Especially, we focus on the difference of spin filter effects among general Rashba SOIs. We have obtained the penetrating magnetic flux dependence of spin polarization for the AB ring subject to general Rashba SOIs. It is found that the perfect spin filtering is achieved for all the Rashba SOIs. This result indicates that this AB ring under general Rashba SOIs can be a promising device for spin current generation without ferromagnetic metals. Moreover, this device under different order Rashba SOI behaves in totally different ways in response to penetrating magnetic flux, which is attributed to n times rotation of

  14. Low-temperature solid state synthesis and in situ phase transformation to prepare nearly pure cBN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Gang; Zhang, Xiao; Tan, Miao; Zhang, Shunjie; Cui, Deliang; Wang, Qilong

    2011-07-14

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is synthesized by a low-temperature solid state synthesis and in situ phase transformation route with NH(4)BF(4), B, NaBH(4) and KBH(4) as the boron sources and NaN(3) as the nitrogen source. Furthermore, two new strategies are developed, i.e., applying pressure on the reactants during the reaction process and introducing the structural induction effect. These results reveal that the relative contents of cBN are greatly increased by applying these new strategies. Finally, almost pure cBN (∼90%) crystals are obtained by reacting NH(4)BF(4) and NaN(3) at 250 °C and 450 MPa for 24 h, with NaF as the structural induction material. The heterogeneous nucleation mechanism can commendably illuminate the structure induction effect of NaF with face center cubic structure. In addition, the induction effect results in the cBN nanocrystals presenting obvious oriented growth of {111} planes.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalysis of Well-Dispersible Phase-Pure Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhen Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-purity anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using an improved sol-hydrothermal method. The as-prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. TEM results showed that the average particle size of all TiO2 particles was calculated to be (10 ± 1 nm. The XRD analysis indicated that the present sample was fully crystallized and appeared to be highly phase-pure anatase. The BET analysis showed that the as-prepared sample had a very large specific surface area of 186.25 m2/g. The photocatalytic performance of TiO2 nanoparticles was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of X-3B and X-BR solutions. The degradation results revealed that the as-prepared TiO2 showed slightly higher photocatalytic activities than P25. Whereas, the as-synthesized TiO2 can settle down and be separated easily after the photocatalytic reaction finishes.

  16. Imaging phase objects with square-root, Foucault, and Hoffman real filters: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Arkadiusz; Nowicki, Slawomir; Buczynski, Ryszard; Kowalczyk, Marek; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2003-10-10

    Methods of imaging phase objects are considered. First the square-root filter is inferred from a definition of fractional-order derivatives given in terms of the integration of a fractional order called the Riemann-Liouville integral. Then we present a comparison of the performance of three frequency-domain real filters: square root, Foucault, and Hoffman. The phase-object imaging method is useful as a phase-shift measurement technique under the condition that the output image intensity is a known function of object phase. For the square-root filter it is the first derivative of the object phase function. The Foucault filter, in spite of its position, gives output image intensities expressed by Hilbert transforms. The output image intensity obtained with the Hoffman filter is not expressed by an analytical formula. The performance of the filters in a 4f imaging system with coherent illumination is simulated by use of VirtualLab 1.0 software.

  17. Controlling the object phase for g-factor reduction in phase-Constrained parallel MRI using spatially selective RF pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettinger, Adam O; Kannengiesser, Stephan A R; Breuer, Felix A; Vidnyanszky, Zoltan; Blaimer, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Parallel imaging generally entails a reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio of the final image. Phase-constrained methods aim to improve reconstruction quality by using symmetry properties of k-space. Noise amplification in phase-constrained reconstruction depends heavily on the object background phase. The purpose of this work is to present a new approach of using tailored radiofrequency pulses to optimize the object phase distribution in order to maximize the benefit of phase-constrained reconstruction, and to minimize the noise amplification. Intrinsic object phase and coil sensitivity profiles are measured in a prescan. Optimal phase distribution is computed to maximize signal-to-noise ratio in the given setup. Tailored radiofrequency pulses are designed to introduce the optimal phase map in the following accelerated acquisitions, subsequently reconstructed by phase-constrained methods. The potential of the method is demonstrated in vivo with in-plane accelerated (8x) and simultaneous multislice (3x) acquisitions. Mean g-factors are reduced by up to a factor of 2 compared with conventional techniques when an appropriate phase-constrained reconstruction is applied to phase-optimized acquisitions, enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio of the final images and the visibility of small details. Combining phase-constrained reconstruction and phase optimization by tailored radiofrequency pulses can provide notable improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio and reconstruction quality of accelerated MRI. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Image edge enhancement for moving objects with a spiral phase filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mingguang; Bao, Shanshan; Zhong, Zhi; Hao, Bengong; An, Chengquan

    2013-10-01

    A fast image edge enhancement method for moving objects is presented with a spiral phase filter using radial Hilbert transform theory. The spiral phase filter is placed in the Fourier plane of a 4f optical system, and used to process the spectral of objects image to achieve 2-D image edge enhancement of shape-free objects. All the directions of object edge can be enhanced similarly because there is a phase difference π along any diameter direction of the spiral phase filter. The results show that this method has good performance for enhancing the edge of moving objects. The advantages of this method are simple operations, clear edge images, high measurement speed and automatic measurement.

  19. Modeling phase equilibria of alkanols with the simplified PC-SAFT equation of state and generalized pure compound parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenner, Andreas; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT equation of state has been applied to liquid-liquid, vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria for mixtures containing 1-or 2-alkanols with alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, CO2 and water. For the alkanols we use generalized pure compound parameters. This means that two...

  20. Achieving balanced intermixed and pure crystalline phases in PDI-based non-fullerene organic solar cells via selective solvent additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingguang; Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xinxiu; Zhou, Ke; Zhao, Qiaoqiao; Yu, Xinhong; Xing, Rubo; Han, Yanchun

    2014-12-28

    Herein, balanced intermixed and pure crystalline phases in N,N'-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (EP-PDI)-based non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) were achieved via selective solvent additives (SAs). Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  1. Development and Application of an Objective Tracking Algorithm for Tropical Cyclones over the North-West Pacific purely based on Wind Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Daniel J.; Kruschke, Tim; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2017-04-01

    Tropical Cyclones over East Asia have huge socio-economic impacts due to their strong wind fields and large rainfall amounts. Especially, the most severe events are associated with huge economic losses, e.g. Typhoon Herb in 1996 is related to overall losses exceeding 5 billion US (Munich Re, 2016). In this study, an objective tracking algorithm is applied to JRA55 reanalysis data from 1979 to 2014 over the Western North Pacific. For this purpose, a purely wind based algorithm, formerly used to identify extra-tropical wind storms, has been further developed. The algorithm is based on the exceedance of the local 98th percentile to define strong wind fields in gridded climate data. To be detected as a tropical cyclone candidate, the following criteria must be fulfilled: 1) the wind storm must exist for at least eight 6-hourly time steps and 2) the wind field must exceed a minimum size of 130.000km2 for each time step. The usage of wind information is motivated to focus on damage related events, however, a pre-selection based on the affected region is necessary to remove events of extra-tropical nature. Using IBTrACS Best Tracks for validation, it is found that about 62% of all detected tropical cyclone events in JRA55 reanalysis can be matched to an observed best track. As expected the relative amount of matched tracks increases with the wind intensity of the event, with a hit rate of about 98% for Violent Typhoons, above 90% for Very Strong Typhoons and about 75% for Typhoons. Overall these results are encouraging as the parameters used to detect tropical cyclones in JRA55, e.g. minimum area, are also suitable to detect TCs in most CMIP5 simulations and will thus allow estimates of potential future changes.

  2. Two-phase application of multi-objective genetic algorithms in green building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Zmeureanu, R. [Concordia Univ., Centre for Building Studies, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Rivard, H. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Construction Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The application of multi-objective genetic algorithms for green building design in two phases were presented in order to better help designers in the decision-making process. The purpose is to minimize two conflicting criteria: the life-cycle cost and the life-cycle environmental impact. Environmental impact criteria examined include energy and non-energy natural resources, global warming, and acidification. Variables focus on building envelope-related parameters. The application of multi-objective genetic algorithms is divided into two phases. The first phase intends to help designers in understanding the trade-off relationship between the two conflicting criteria. The second phase intends to refine the performance region that is of the designer's interest. The results after the two-phase application of the multi objective genetic algorithm were then presented. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Robust detection scheme on noise and phase jump for phase maps of objects with height discontinuities--theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jing-Feng; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2011-02-14

    This paper proposes a robust noise and phase jump detection scheme for noisy phase maps containing height discontinuities. The detection scheme has two primary functions, namely to detect the positions of noise and to locate the positions of the phase jumps. Generally speaking, the removal of noise from a wrapped phase map causes a smearing of the phase jumps and therefore leads to a loss of definition in the unwrapped phase map. However, in the proposed scheme, the boundaries of the phase jump regions are preserved during the noise detection process. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated using the simulated and experimental wrapped phase maps of a 3D object containing height discontinuities, respectively. It is shown that the noise and phase jump detection scheme enables the precise and efficient detection of three different types of noise, namely speckle noise, residual noise, and noise at the lateral surfaces of the height discontinuities. Therefore, the proposed scheme represents an ideal solution for the pre-processing of noisy wrapped phase maps prior to their treatment using a filtering algorithm and phase unwrapping algorithm.

  4. Influence of strain amount on stabilization of {omega}-phase in pure Ti by severe plastic deformation under high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todaka, Y; Azuma, H; Ohnishi, Y; Umemoto, M [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Hibarigaoka 1-1, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Suzuki, H, E-mail: todaka@martens.pse.tut.ac.j [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    In pure Ti, the influence of shear deformation on the {alpha} to {omega} transformation and the development of texture in the {omega}-phase under high-pressure torsion (HPT) straining were investigated by means of X-ray and neutron diffractions. The fraction of {omega}-phase increased with strain in the {omega}-phase state. Bulk submicrocrystalline {omega}-Ti was fabricated by HPT-straining under the compressive pressure P = 5 GPa with the equivalent strain {epsilon}{sub eq} > 110 at the rotation speed of 3.3 x 10{sup -3} rev. per sec. (0.2 rev. per min.) at room temperature. The texture of {omega}-phase evolved by HPT-straining with the prismatic planes parallel to the shear direction of HPT-straining and the basal planes perpendicular to it.

  5. Isotropic-nematic phase equilibria of hard-sphere chain fluids—Pure components and binary mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarzun, B.; Van Westen, T.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The isotropic-nematic phase equilibria of linear hard-sphere chains and binary mixtures of them are obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the infinite dilution solubility of hard spheres in the coexisting isotropic and nematic phases is determined. Phase equilibria calculations are

  6. Extension of Measurable Region of Object Vibration Phasor in Phase-Modulated TV Holographic Interferometry: Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Nojima, Ken; Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we present an experiment based on the previously reported theory concerning the extension of the measurable region of object vibration phasor in phase-modulated TV holographic interferometry. This theory is based on the following facts: (1) the modulation of speckle interference image is proportional to the Bessel function, (2) its argument indicates the distance between the phasors of phase modulation and object vibration in the complex plane, and (3) the modulation increases as the Bessel function argument approaches zero. The phase modulation phasor is scanned, and at each pixel, one seeks the phase modulation phasor producing the maximum modulation. From the modulations produced by four phase modulation phasors adjacent to the sought phase modulation phasor, the object vibration phasor can be calculated. We analyzed the vibration of a phosphor-bronze rectangular plate with free sides, which were vibrated at the center by a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). Twenty-one phase modulation phasors were employed. The results of measurement were presented, and it was confirmed that the object vibration phasor can be measured in the wider region based on the theory concerning the extension of the measurable region.

  7. Industrial application of green chromatography--I. Separation and analysis of niacinamide in skincare creams using pure water as the mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Strickland, Zackary; Kapalavavi, Brahmam; Marple, Ronita; Gamsky, Chris

    2011-03-15

    In this work, chromatographic separation of niacin and niacinamide using pure water as the sole component in the mobile phase has been investigated. The separation and analysis of niacinamide have been optimized using three columns at different temperatures and various flow rates. Our results clearly demonstrate that separation and analysis of niacinamide from skincare products can be achieved using pure water as the eluent at 60°C on a Waters XTerra MS C18 column, a Waters XBridge C18 column, or at 80°C on a Hamilton PRP-1 column. The separation efficiency, quantification quality, and analysis time of this new method are at least comparable with those of the traditional HPLC methods. Compared with traditional HPLC, the major advantage of this newly developed green chromatography technique is the elimination of organic solvents required in the HPLC mobile phase. In addition, the pure water chromatography separations described in this work can be directly applied in industrial plant settings without further modification of the existing HPLC equipment.

  8. On the behavior of scattering phases in collisions of electrons with multi-atomic objects

    CERN Document Server

    Amusia, M Ya

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the energy dependence of several first scattering phases with multi-atomic object. As concrete examples representing the general trends endohedrals Neon inside C60 and Argon inside C60 are considered. It appeared that the presence of an inner atom, either Ne or Ar, qualitatively affects the scattering phases, in spite of the fact that the fullerene consists of 60 carbon atoms, while the atom staffed inside is only one. Calculations are performed in the one-electron Hartree-Fock (HF) and random phase approximation with exchange (RPAE) for the inner atom while the fullerenes shell is substituted by static potential without and with the polarization potential. It appeared that the total endohedral scattering phase is simply a sum of atomic, Ne or Ar, and fullerenes C60 phases, contrary to the intuitive assumption that the total phases on C60 and Neon inside C60 or Ar inside C60 has to be the same.

  9. Shape and deformation measurements of 3D objects using volume speckle field and phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, A; Chhaniwal, VK; Almoro, Percival;

    2009-01-01

    Shape and deformation measurement of diffusely reflecting 3D objects are very important in many application areas, including quality control, nondestructive testing, and design. When rough objects are exposed to coherent beams, the scattered light produces speckle fields. A method to measure...... the shape and deformation of 3D objects from the sequential intensity measurements of volume speckle field and phase retrieval based on angular-spectrum propagation technique is described here. The shape of a convex spherical surface was measured directly from the calculated phase map, and micrometer......-sized deformation induced on a metal sheet was obtained upon subtraction of the phase, corresponding to unloaded and loaded states. Results from computer simulations confirm the experiments. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America....

  10. Phase retrieval with background compensation in 4f configuration: advanced augmented Lagrangian technique for amplitude object

    CERN Document Server

    Migukin, Artem; Katkovnik, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Generally, wave field reconstructions obtained by phase-retrieval algorithms are noisy, blurred and corrupted by various artifacts such as irregular waves, spots, etc. These disturbances, arising due to many factors such as non-idealities of optical system (misalignment, focusing errors), dust on optical elements, reflections, vibration, are hard to be localized and specified. It is assumed that there is a generalized pupil function at the object plane which describes aberrations in the coherent imaging system manifested at the sensor plane. Here we propose a novel two steps phase-retrieval algorithm to compensate these distortions. We first estimate the cumulative disturbance, called background, using special calibration experiments. Then, we use this background for reconstruction of the object amplitude and phase. The second part of the algorithm is based on the maximum likelihood approach and, in this way, targeted on the optimal amplitude and phase reconstruction from noisy data. Numerical experiments dem...

  11. Establishment of the Coulomb law in the layer phase of a pure U(1) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, K

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine the Layer phase of the five dimensional, anisotropic, Abelian gauge model. Our results are to be compared with the ones of the 4D U(1) gauge model in an attempt to verify that four dimensional physics governs the four dimensional layers. The main results are: i) From the analysis of Wilson loops we verified the $\\frac{1}{R}$ behavior, in the layered phase, for the potential between heavy charges. The renormalized fine structure constant in the layer phase is found to be equal to that of 4D Coulomb phase,$\\alpha_{layer}$=$\\alpha_{4D}$. ii) Based on the helicity modulus analysis we show that the layers are in the Coulomb phase while the transverse bulk space is in the confining phase. We also calculated the renormalized coupling $\\beta_{R}$ and found results compatible with those obtained from the Coulomb potential. Finally we calculated the potential in the 5D Coulomb phase and found $\\frac{1}{R^{2}}$ behavior for the static $q \\bar{q}$ potential. From the study of the helicity modul...

  12. Phase retrieval with the reverse projection method in the presence of object's scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang

    2017-08-01

    X-ray grating interferometry can provide substantially increased contrast over traditional attenuation-based techniques in biomedical applications, and therefore novel and complementary information. Recently, special attention has been paid to quantitative phase retrieval in X-ray grating interferometry, which is mandatory to perform phase tomography, to achieve material identification, etc. An innovative approach, dubbed ;Reverse Projection; (RP), has been developed for quantitative phase retrieval. The RP method abandons grating scanning completely, and is thus advantageous in terms of higher efficiency and reduced radiation damage. Therefore, it is expected that this novel method would find its potential in preclinical and clinical implementations. Strictly speaking, the reverse projection method is applicable for objects exhibiting only absorption and refraction. In this contribution, we discuss the phase retrieval with the reverse projection method for general objects with absorption, refraction and scattering simultaneously. Especially, we investigate the influence of the object's scattering on the retrieved refraction signal. Both theoretical analysis and numerical experiments are performed. The results show that the retrieved refraction signal is the product of object's refraction and scattering signals for small values. In the case of a strong scattering, the reverse projection method cannot provide reliable phase retrieval. Those presented results will guide the use of the reverse projection method for future practical applications, and help to explain some possible artifacts in the retrieved images and/or reconstructed slices.

  13. Microstructure and electrical properties of pure 110K phase in the BiPbSrCaCuO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, E.; Berger, H.; Lévy, F.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.; Burri, G.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the d.c. resistivity and a.c. magnetic susceptibility was investigated in bulk ceramics of the BiPbSrCaCuO system with 2212 - free (2223) phase. The temperature domain needed to synthesize this phase was small and, according to the actual temperature used, the superconducting properties of the samples were strongly modified. The corresponding X-ray diffraction lines of the 110K phase can be indexed in the pseudo-orthorhombic unit cell with parameters 5.40x5.41x37Å 3. SEM microprobe study revealed the presence of several non-superconducting phases and a composition 2.1:0.1:2:2:3 for the cation ratio Bi:Pb:Sr:Ca:Cu of the 110K phase. Electrical measurements (d.c. resistivity and a.c. susceptibility) confirmed the existence of a 2212 - free (2223) phase. A low temperature "tail" in the d.c. electrical resistivity marks the low value of critical current in the samples.

  14. Identification of Mine-Shaped Objects based on an Efficient Phase Stepped-Frequency Radar Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A computational efficient approach to identify very small mine-shaped plastic objects, e.g. M56 Anti-Personnel (AP) mines buried in the ground, is presented. The size of the objects equals the smallest AP-mines in use today, i.e., the most difficult mines to detect with respect to humanitarian mine...... a radar probe is moved automatically to measure in each grid point a set of reflection coefficients from which phase and amplitude information are extracted. Based on a simple processing of the phase information, quarternary image and template cross-correlation a successful detection of metal- and non......-metal mine-shaped objects is possible. Measurements have been performed on loamy soil containing different mine-shaped objects...

  15. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Phase 2: Scientific objectives and experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Chandler, Mark A.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is a co-ordinated international climate modelling initiative to study and understand climate and environments of the Late Pliocene, as well as their potential relevance in the context of future climate change. PlioMIP examines the consistency of model predictions in simulating Pliocene climate and their ability to reproduce climate signals preserved by geological climate archives. Here we provide a description of the aim and objectives of the next phase of the model intercomparison project (PlioMIP Phase 2), and we present the experimental design and boundary conditions that will be utilized for climate model experiments in Phase 2. 

  16. One-Step Nonaqueous Synthesis of Pure Phase TiO2 Nanocrystals from TiCl4 in Butanol and Their Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieping Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure phase TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by an autoclaving treatment of TiCl4 with butanol as a single alcohol source. It was found that the control of molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol played an important role in determining the TiO2 crystal phase and morphology. A high molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol favored the formation of anatase nanoparticles, whereas rutile nanorods were selectively obtained at a low molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized TiO2 was performed in terms of decomposition of organic dye rhodamine B under ultraviolet irradiation. It turned out that the as-synthesized TiO2 crystallites possessed higher photocatalytic activities toward bleaching rhodamine B than Degussa P25, benefiting from theirhigh surface area, small crystal size as well as high crystallinity.

  17. Pure Cubic-Phase Hybrid Iodobismuthates AgBi2 I7 for Thin-Film Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghoon; Yang, Zhenyu; Jain, Ankit; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Liu, Min; Quan, Li Na; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Comin, Riccardo; Fan, James Z; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-08-08

    Bismuth-based hybrid perovskites are candidates for lead-free and air-stable photovoltaics, but poor surface morphologies and a high band-gap energy have previously limited these hybrid perovskites. A new materials processing strategy to produce enhanced bismuth-based thin-film photovoltaic absorbers by incorporation of monovalent silver cations into iodobismuthates is presented. Solution-processed AgBi2 I7 thin films are prepared by spin-coating silver and bismuth precursors dissolved in n-butylamine and annealing under an N2 atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the pure cubic structure (Fd3m) with lattice parameters of a=b=c=12.223 Å. The resultant AgBi2 I7 thin films exhibit dense and pinhole-free surface morphologies with grains ranging in size from 200-800 nm and a low band gap of 1.87 eV suitable for photovoltaic applications. Initial studies produce solar power conversion efficiencies of 1.22 % and excellent stability over at least 10 days under ambient conditions.

  18. Determination of Uric Acid in Human Urine by Ion-exclusion Chromatography with UV Detection Using Pure Water as Mobile Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯升杰; 杨成对; 王辉; 田中一彦; 丁明玉

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate ion-exclusion chromatographic method coupled with a UV detector for the determination of uric acid in human urine samples has been developed. The separation was carried out on an ion-exclusion column using only pure water as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 254 nm and urine sample was injected directly without any pretreatment. Furthermore, the retention behavior of uric acid on the ion-exclusion column was researched when pure water and 1 mmol·L-1 HCI were used as mobile phase, respectively. The stability of uric acid was also further investigated within 28 days, In this method, the linear range of the calibration curve for uric acid was 0.25--100 mg·L-1, and the detection limit calculated at S/N=3 was 0.02mg·L-1 The proposed ion-exclusion chromatographic method has been used for the determination of uric acid in human urine.

  19. Exploring the Phenomenon of "Change of Phase" of Pure Substances Using the Microcomputer-Based-Laboratory (MBL) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierri, Evgenia; Karatrantou, Anthi; Panagiotakopoulos, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We examined how first year students (10th grade) of Greek Senior High School could conceptualize the influence of the molecular weight of saturated fatty acids on the melting and the freezing point, during the "change of phase" phenomenon using the Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) system. Students had to freeze a melted substance,…

  20. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, V.; Nihtianov, S.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, LB, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition(CVD) using diborane (B2H6) is reported. The value of LB is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and co

  1. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, V.; Nihtianov, S.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, LB, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition(CVD) using diborane (B2H6) is reported. The value of LB is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and co

  2. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Rainer N

    2015-05-01

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phase components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. The new model preserves the accuracy of previous temperature

  3. Pure-tone Audiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapul, A. A.; Zubova, E. I.; Torgaev, S. N.; Drobchik, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The research focuses on a pure-tone audiometer designing. The relevance of the study is proved by high incidence of an auditory analyser in older people and children. At first, the article provides information about subjective and objective audiometry methods. Secondly, we offer block-diagram and basic-circuit arrangement of device. We decided to base on STM32F407VG microcontroller and use digital pot in the function of attenuator. Third, we implemented microcontroller and PC connection. C programming language is used for microcontroller’s program and PC’s interface. Fourthly, we created the pure-tone audiometer prototype. In the future, we will implement the objective method ASSR in addition to pure-tone audiometry.

  4. Characterization of the polymer energy landscape in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions with pure and mixed phases

    KAUST Repository

    Sweetnam, Sean

    2014-10-08

    Theoretical and experimental studies suggest that energetic offsets between the charge transport energy levels in different morphological phases of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions may improve charge separation and reduce recombination in polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this work, we use cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis absorption, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize hole energy levels in the polymer phases of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. We observe an energetic offset of up to 150 meV between amorphous and crystalline polymer due to bandgap widening associated primarily with changes in polymer conjugation length. We also observe an energetic offset of up to 350 meV associated with polymer:fullerene intermolecular interactions. The first effect has been widely observed, but the second effect is not always considered despite being larger in magnitude for some systems. These energy level shifts may play a major role in PSC performance and must be thoroughly characterized for a complete understanding of PSC function.

  5. Chemical tagging can work: Identification of stellar phase-space structures purely by chemical-abundance similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, David W; Ness, Melissa; Rix, Hans-Walter; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Chemical tagging promises to use detailed abundance measurements to identify spatially separated stars that were in fact born together (in the same molecular cloud), long ago. This idea has not previously yielded scientific successes, probably because of the noise and incompleteness in chemical-abundance measurements. However, we have succeeded in substantially improving spectroscopic measurements with The Cannon, which has delivered 15 individual abundances for 100,000 stars observed as part of the APOGEE spectroscopic survey, with precisions around 0.04 dex. We test the chemical-tagging hypothesis by looking at clusters in abundance space and confirming that they are clustered in phase space. We identify (by the k-means algorithm) overdensities of stars in the 15-dimensional chemical-abundance space delivered by The Cannon, and plot the associated stars in phase space. We use only abundance-space information (no positional information) to identify stellar groups. We find that clusters in abundance space are...

  6. Phase pure epitaxial growth of BiFeO3 films: An effect of oxygen partial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Das, Sadhan; Majumdar, Abhijit; Katiyal, Sumant; Poojitha, Bommareddy; Saha, Surajit; Shripathi, T.

    2017-09-01

    We report the growth of bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3 (BFO), thin films by varying oxygen partial pressure (230, 100 and 10mTorr) in pulsed laser deposition system using 10% bismuth excess BFO target on SrTiO3 (001) [STO] substrates at 700 °C each for 15 min duration. X-ray diffraction shows the presence of an impurity phase along with BFO peaks for 230 mTorr film, whereas oriented BFO film is observed for 100 mTorr film with a small impurity phase. Importantly, epitaxial growth of BFO is observed without any impurity phase and with sufficiently increased strain for the 10 mTorr film, confirmed by the reciprocal space mapping of (002) and (103) reflections. UV-Raman measurements have been performed on as grown films and the 10 mTorr BFO film after annealing up to 500 °C to check its thermal stability. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) study reveals that the 10 mTorr BFO film shows a lower roughness as compared to 100 mTorr and 230 mTorr films. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis in AFM shows a fourfold symmetric structure suggesting the presence of both modes of pattern-orientation in 230 mTorr BFO film whereas an elongated bright spot along the y-direction in the FFT of 10 mTorr BFO film suggests the growth tendency to be along the y-direction.

  7. Integration of robust filters and phase unwrapping algorithms for image reconstruction of objects containing height discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jing-Feng; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2012-05-07

    For 3D objects with height discontinuities, the image reconstruction performance of interferometric systems is adversely affected by the presence of noise in the wrapped phase map. Various schemes have been proposed for detecting residual noise, speckle noise and noise at the lateral surfaces of the discontinuities. However, in most schemes, some noisy pixels are missed and noise detection errors occur. Accordingly, this paper proposes two robust filters (designated as Filters A and B, respectively) for improving the performance of the phase unwrapping process for objects with height discontinuities. Filter A comprises a noise and phase jump detection scheme and an adaptive median filter, while Filter B replaces the detected noise with the median phase value of an N × N mask centered on the noisy pixel. Filter A enables most of the noise and detection errors in the wrapped phase map to be removed. Filter B then detects and corrects any remaining noise or detection errors during the phase unwrapping process. Three reconstruction paths are proposed, Path I, Path II and Path III. Path I combines the path-dependent MACY algorithm with Filters A and B, while Paths II and III combine the path-independent cellular automata (CA) algorithm with Filters A and B. In Path II, the CA algorithm operates on the whole wrapped phase map, while in Path III, the CA algorithm operates on multiple sub-maps of the wrapped phase map. The simulation and experimental results confirm that the three reconstruction paths provide a robust and precise reconstruction performance given appropriate values of the parameters used in the detection scheme and filters, respectively. However, the CA algorithm used in Paths II and III is relatively inefficient in identifying the most suitable unwrapping paths. Thus, of the three paths, Path I yields the lowest runtime.

  8. From the dilute solution to the pure compound:Extraction strategy based on a multi-stage process of phase separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOUTAUDIER; Christelle; TENU; Richard; COUNIOUX; Jean-Jacques

    2010-01-01

    It is very rare that a one-step process of extraction leads to the pure compound with a high degree of purity specified by an industrial application.The various stages of a synthesis process and possible secondary reactions may lead to the synthesis of more or less complex and highly diluted solutions.In this work,the rationale and strategy for extraction and purification of a high added value compound are discussed.All the thinking is based on the knowledge and the exploitation of phase diagrams and then developed for different unit operations of the process.The most significant research tools are the experimental data and the modelling of phase equilibrium to estimate the yield of each step of extraction.The significant example chosen involves all the basic methods of phase separation,starting with liquid-vapour equilibrium:stripping of high volatility components and then more or less complex distillation are classically employed.The theoretical plateau number can be deduced from the equilibrium equation curves.The second step is based on the study of the liquid-liquid equilibrium and is an intermediate step for enrichment of the solution when distillation is not possible.A final step based on solid-liquid equilibrium consists of the selective crystallization of the pure product at low temperature,in order to satisfy the requirements of purity and safety imposed by industrial use.The conclusion includes all isolation operations in the form of a general extraction and purification scheme.

  9. A VALIDATED REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF DOXOFYLINE IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanka Venkateswararao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC was developed and validated for the determination of doxofylline (DXF in pharmaceutical formulations. Agilent 1100 series HPLC instrument equipped with variable wavelength programmable UV-Visible detector and a chromosil C18 (250mm x 4.6mm, 5μm column with an auto injector was used for the present investigation. A volume of 20µL of working standard of concentration 25µg/mL was injected into the chromatographic system, the component was separated by using the mobile phase of the mixture of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer of pH 5.5 and acetonitrile in the ratio 75:25(v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and the detection of the components was carried out at a wavelength of 275nm. Chemstation software was used for the data acquisition through out the analysis. The system suitable parameters such as number of theoretical plates, tailing factor and resolution were found to be satisfactory. The retention time of the component was found to be at 4.814 minutes. The proposed method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, robustness and ruggedness. The developed method was found to be rapid, simple and sensitive hence it could be used as an alternative method in assay of the doxofylline in any pharmaceutical industries.

  10. OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF CARDIAC AUTONOMIC ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT PHASES OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srujana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide spectrum of biological function is regulated by the cyclic changes in estrogen and progesterone levels during regular menstrual cycle. However limited literature is available concerning the relationship of these hormones and cardiac autonomic activity. In the present study, we hypothesize that there would be heart rate variability during different phases of menstrual cycle, which can be attributed to the effect of ovarian steroids on cardiovascular function in women. The aim of the study is to compare the c ardiac autonomic activity in the different phases of menstrual cycle ( M enstrual, follicular and luteal phases using heart rate variability. The objective is to establish a physiological correlation between the cardiac autonomic activity and different phas es of menstrual cycle. The study was conducted in 48 regularly menstruating young female, of age group 18 - 30yrs, in the Upgraded Department of Physiology, Osmania medical college, from December 2011 to August 2013, using LABCHART software provided by ADLAB S. The power spectral analysis of HRV was used to calculate low frequency(LF , high frequency (HF component and their ratio (LF/HF during menstrual (2±1 days, follicular(11±1 day and luteal phases (20±1day from the first day of bleeding. Results showe d a significant increase was noted in low frequency component in luteal phase compared to follicular phase (p=0.000, whereas, a tendency for increase in high frequency component was observed in follicular phase (p=0.004. Furthermore, LF/HF was significan tly higher in luteal phase than in the follicular phase (p=0.000 indicating an increased sympathetic activity. The conclusion is regulation of autonomic tone is modified during menstrual cycle. The alteration in the balance of ovarian hormones might be re sponsible for these changes.

  11. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, V., E-mail: V.Mohammadi@tudelft.nl; Nihtianov, S. [Department of Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, L{sub B}, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is reported. The value of L{sub B} is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and confirmed analytically in the boron deposition temperature range from 700 °C down to 400 °C. For this temperature range the local loading effect of the boron deposition is investigated on the micro scale. A L{sub B} = 2.2 mm was determined for boron deposition at 700 °C, while a L{sub B} of less than 1 mm was observed at temperatures lower than 500 °C.

  12. Liquid Phase 3D Printing for Quickly Manufacturing Metal Objects with Low Melting Point Alloy Ink

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Conventional 3D printings are generally time-consuming and printable metal inks are rather limited. From an alternative way, we proposed a liquid phase 3D printing for quickly making metal objects. Through introducing metal alloys whose melting point is slightly above room temperature as printing inks, several representative structures spanning from one, two and three dimension to more complex patterns were demonstrated to be quickly fabricated. Compared with the air cooling in a conventional 3D printing, the liquid-phase-manufacturing offers a much higher cooling rate and thus significantly improves the speed in fabricating metal objects. This unique strategy also efficiently prevents the liquid metal inks from air oxidation which is hard to avoid otherwise in an ordinary 3D printing. Several key physical factors (like properties of the cooling fluid, injection speed and needle diameter, types and properties of the printing ink, etc.) were disclosed which would evidently affect the printing quality. In addit...

  13. The Influence of Gas-Phase Hydrogenation Parameters on the Processes of Activation, Sorption and Accumulation of Hydrogen in the Powder of Pure Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudiiarov V.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique for hydrogenation of powder hydrogen-storage materials based on gas-phase hydrogenation method has been developed in this work. The using of developed technique allow prepare pure titanium powder samples with hydrogen concentration in range from 0.5 to 4 wt.%. It was showed, that pressure increasing from 0.5 to 2 atm at constant temperature 400 °C leads to decreasing of powder activation time from 140 to 15 s. Temperature increasing on 50 °C and more degrees leads to significant decreasing of powder activation time. Pressure increasing from 0.5 to 2 atm leads to increasing of hydrogen sorption rate and concentration in 1.27 and 1.19 times respectively. Temperature increasing from 400 to 550 °C leads to increasing of hydrogen sorption rate in 1.3 times, but decreasing of hydrogen concentration in 1.45 times, which associated with decreasing of hydrogen saturation limit. Optimal values of temperature (400 °C and pressure (2 atm for pure titanium powder hydrogenation have been determined.

  14. A Parameterized Pattern-Error Objective for Large-Scale Phase-Only Array Pattern Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    local or heuristic methods to avoid or discard “bad” local minima seems to be the preferred approach. To that end, this work presents a pattern -error... pattern is circularly symmetric, the initial phases were chosen to be circularly symmetric as well. A second-order polynomial in the element distance ...plotting and computation; each point is a true null to working precision.) The mainlobe details A Parameterized Pattern -Error Objective forLarge

  15. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Phase 2: scientific objectives and experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Chandler, Mark A.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is a co-ordinated international climate modelling initiative to study and understand climate and environments of the Late Pliocene, as well as their potential relevance in the context of future climate change. PlioMIP examines the consistency of model predictions in simulating Pliocene climate and their ability to reproduce climate signals preserved by geological climate archives. Here we provide a description of the aim and objectives of the next phase of the model intercomparison project (PlioMIP Phase 2), and we present the experimental design and boundary conditions that will be utilized for climate model experiments in Phase 2. Following on from PlioMIP Phase 1, Phase 2 will continue to be a mechanism for sampling structural uncertainty within climate models. However, Phase 1 demonstrated the requirement to better understand boundary condition uncertainties as well as uncertainty in the methodologies used for data-model comparison. Therefore, our strategy for Phase 2 is to utilize state-of-the-art boundary conditions that have emerged over the last 5 years. These include a new palaeogeographic reconstruction, detailing ocean bathymetry and land-ice surface topography. The ice surface topography is built upon the lessons learned from offline ice sheet modelling studies. Land surface cover has been enhanced by recent additions of Pliocene soils and lakes. Atmospheric reconstructions of palaeo-CO2 are emerging on orbital timescales, and these are also incorporated into PlioMIP Phase 2. New records of surface and sea surface temperature change are being produced that will be more temporally consistent with the boundary conditions and forcings used within models. Finally we have designed a suite of prioritized experiments that tackle issues surrounding the basic understanding of the Pliocene and its relevance in the context of future climate change in a discrete way.

  16. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Phase 2: Scientific Objectives and Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Chandler, Mark A.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is a co-ordinated international climate modelling initiative to study and understand climate and environments of the Late Pliocene, as well as their potential relevance in the context of future climate change. PlioMIP examines the consistency of model predictions in simulating Pliocene climate and their ability to reproduce climate signals preserved by geological climate archives. Here we provide a description of the aim and objectives of the next phase of the model intercomparison project (PlioMIP Phase 2), and we present the experimental design and boundary conditions that will be utilized for climate model experiments in Phase 2. Following on from PlioMIP Phase 1, Phase 2 will continue to be a mechanism for sampling structural uncertainty within climate models. However, Phase 1 demonstrated the requirement to better understand boundary condition uncertainties as well as uncertainty in the methodologies used for data-model comparison. Therefore, our strategy for Phase 2 is to utilize state-of-the-art boundary conditions that have emerged over the last 5 years. These include a new palaeogeographic reconstruction, detailing ocean bathymetry and land-ice surface topography. The ice surface topography is built upon the lessons learned from offline ice sheet modelling studies. Land surface cover has been enhanced by recent additions of Pliocene soils and lakes. Atmospheric reconstructions of palaeo-CO2 are emerging on orbital timescales, and these are also incorporated into PlioMIP Phase 2. New records of surface and sea surface temperature change are being produced that will be more temporally consistent with the boundary conditions and forcings used within models. Finally we have designed a suite of prioritized experiments that tackle issues surrounding the basic understanding of the Pliocene and its relevance in the context of future climate change in a discrete way.

  17. Non-Interferometric Tomography of Phase Objects Using Spatial Light Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative 3D phase retrieval techniques are based on either interferometric techniques such as holography or noninterferometric intensity-based techniques such as the transport of intensity equation (TIE. Interferometric techniques are vibration-sensitive and often use a reference beam requiring complicated optical alignment. In this work we develop a simple, fast, and noninterferometric tomographic 3D phase retrieval technique based on the TIE which does not suffer from such drawbacks. The optical setup is a modified 4f TIE system which uses an SLM to replace the slow translation of the CCD required to record several diffraction patterns in a traditional TIE system. This novel TIE setup is suitable for dynamical events such as imaging biological processes. A rotating mechanical stage is constructed to obtain tomographic phase images of the object. The tomographic reconstruction algorithm is based on the Fourier slice theorem (backprojection algorithm which applies to objects with a small refractive index span. Simulation and experimental results are shown as part of this work. A graphical user interface is developed to perform the TIE tomographic reconstruction algorithm and to synchronize the captured intensities by the CCD, the phase patterns displayed on the SLM, and the Arduino controlled rotating stage assembly.

  18. Self-supported phase-pure Ni3S2 sheet-on-rod nanoarrays with enhanced pseudocapacitive properties and high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun Song; Gui, Yang; Blackwood, Daniel John

    2016-09-01

    In this work, self-supported Ni3S2 nanorod arrays on nickel foam substrate are prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. These phase-pure nanorods possess an interesting secondary structure: the surface is covered with ultrathin Ni3S2 nanosheets. Such an integration of one-dimensional nanorod array with two-dimensional nanosheets combines the advantages of the two components, demonstrating enhanced pseudocapactive performance with a high and very stable areal capacitance over prolonged charge-discharge tests. When the as-prepared material is incorporated as the cathode in an asymmetric supercapacitor, where activated carbon is selected as the anode, the device exhibits highly reversible capacitance with insignificant decay over 3000 cycles. Excellent energy densities of 115 and 102 Wh kg-1 are achieved at power densities of 506 and 1094 W kg-1, respectively. Such a performance can be attributed to the unique sheet-on-rod nanoarray on the nickel foam substrate.

  19. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile compounds from avocado puree after microwave processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mercedes G; Guzmán, G R; Dorantes, A L

    2004-05-14

    Microwave processing offers an alternative to blanch fruits and vegetables, since the application of high temperature and short time often results in minimum damage. An experimental design was used to investigate the effect of microwave time, pH, and avocado leaves (independent variables) on avocado flavor (response) using solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-MS. Among the fully characterized flavor volatiles, 19 compounds were derived from lipid oxidation and only 4 from the avocado leaves. The main components derived from lipids were aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Terpenoids, estragole, and 2-hexenal [E] were volatiles derived from avocado leaves. When leaves were added to fresh and microwaved avocado terpenoids and 2-hexenal [E]/hexanal ratio increased, this behavior was considered to have a positive effect on the sensorial quality of the product. From the statistical analysis of the experimental design, it was possible to determinate that the most important factors influencing the abundance of flavor compounds derived from lipids were microwave time and pH. Maximum values of these compounds were detected at high levels of microwave time and low values of pH. On the other hand, response surface of terpenoids and estragole showed an increment when microwave time and avocado leaf was increased. The region of optimum response was 30 s microwave time, pH 5.5, and 1% of avocado leaf.

  20. Molecular Simulations of the Vapor-Liquid Phase Interfaces of Pure Water Modeled with the SPC/E and the TIP4P/2005 Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, Václav; Celný, David; Planková, Barbora; Němec, Tomáš; Duška, Michal; Hrubý, Jan

    2016-03-01

    In our previous study [Planková et al., EPJWeb. Conf. 92, 02071 (2015)], several molecular simulations of vapor-liquid phase interfaces for pure water were performed using the DL_POLY Classic software. The TIP4P/2005 molecular model was successfully used for the modeling of the density profile and the thickness of phase interfaces together with the temperature dependence of the surface tension. In the current study, the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model for water was employed for the investigation of vapor-liquid phase interfaces over a wide temperature range from 250 K to 600 K. The TIP4P/2005 model was also used with the temperature step of 25 K to obtain more consistent data compared to our previous study. Results of the new simulations are in a good agreement with most of the literature data. TIP4P/2005 provides better results for the saturated liquid density with its maximum close to 275 K, while SPC/E predicts slightly better saturated vapor density. Both models give qualitatively correct representation for the surface tension of water. The maximum absolute deviation from the IAPWS standard for the surface tension of ordinary water is 10.4 mN · m-1 and 4.1 mN · m-1 over the temperature range from 275 K to 600 K in case of SPC/E and TIP4P/2005, respectively.

  1. Formation of complex organic molecules in cold objects: the role of gas-phase reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, Nadia; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Taquet, Vianney

    2015-04-01

    While astrochemical models are successful in reproducing many of the observed interstellar species, they have been struggling to explain the observed abundances of complex organic molecules. Current models tend to privilege grain surface over gas-phase chemistry in their formation. One key assumption of those models is that radicals trapped in the grain mantles gain mobility and react on lukewarm ( ≳ 30 K) dust grains. Thus, the recent detections of methyl formate (MF) and dimethyl ether (DME) in cold objects represent a challenge and may clarify the respective role of grain-surface and gas-phase chemistry. We propose here a new model to form DME and MF with gas-phase reactions in cold environments, where DME is the precursor of MF via an efficient reaction overlooked by previous models. Furthermore, methoxy, a precursor of DME, is also synthesized in the gas phase from methanol, which is desorbed by a non-thermal process from the ices. Our new model reproduces fairly well the observations towards L1544. It also explains, in a natural way, the observed correlation between DME and MF. We conclude that gas-phase reactions are major actors in the formation of MF, DME and methoxy in cold gas. This challenges the exclusive role of grain-surface chemistry and favours a combined grain-gas chemistry.

  2. The Association of Response to a Novel Object with Subsequent Performance and Feather Damage in Adult, Cage-Housed, Pure-Bred Rhode Island Red Laying Hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, K.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Komen, J.; Kemp, B.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In laying hens, behavioral responses measured late in the laying period are associated with decreased performance. If measured early in the laying period, these behavioral responses could be used to predict performance later in life. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the ass

  3. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasting for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred C.

    2010-01-01

    The AMU created new logistic regression equations in an effort to increase the skill of the Objective Lightning Forecast Tool developed in Phase II (Lambert 2007). One equation was created for each of five sub-seasons based on the daily lightning climatology instead of by month as was done in Phase II. The assumption was that these equations would capture the physical attributes that contribute to thunderstorm formation more so than monthly equations. However, the SS values in Section 5.3.2 showed that the Phase III equations had worse skill than the Phase II equations and, therefore, will not be transitioned into operations. The current Objective Lightning Forecast Tool developed in Phase II will continue to be used operationally in MIDDS. Three warm seasons were added to the Phase II dataset to increase the POR from 17 to 20 years (1989-2008), and data for October were included since the daily climatology showed lightning occurrence extending into that month. None of the three methods tested to determine the start of the subseason in each individual year were able to discern the start dates with consistent accuracy. Therefore, the start dates were determined by the daily climatology shown in Figure 10 and were the same in every year. The procedures used to create the predictors and develop the equations were identical to those in Phase II. The equations were made up of one to three predictors. TI and the flow regime probabilities were the top predictors followed by 1-day persistence, then VT and Ll. Each equation outperformed four other forecast methods by 7-57% using the verification dataset, but the new equations were outperformed by the Phase II equations in every sub-season. The reason for the degradation may be due to the fact that the same sub-season start dates were used in every year. It is likely there was overlap of sub-season days at the beginning and end of each defined sub-season in each individual year, which could very well affect equation

  4. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-09-25

    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  5. Identification of superficial defects in reconstructed 3D objects using phase-shifting fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Carlos A.; Restrepo, Alejandro; Branch, John W.

    2016-09-01

    3D reconstruction of small objects is used in applications of surface analysis, forensic analysis and tissue reconstruction in medicine. In this paper, we propose a strategy for the 3D reconstruction of small objects and the identification of some superficial defects. We applied a technique of projection of structured light patterns, specifically sinusoidal fringes and an algorithm of phase unwrapping. A CMOS camera was used to capture images and a DLP digital light projector for synchronous projection of the sinusoidal pattern onto the objects. We implemented a technique based on a 2D flat pattern as calibration process, so the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the camera and the DLP were defined. Experimental tests were performed in samples of artificial teeth, coal particles, welding defects and surfaces tested with Vickers indentation. Areas less than 5cm were studied. The objects were reconstructed in 3D with densities of about one million points per sample. In addition, the steps of 3D description, identification of primitive, training and classification were implemented to recognize defects, such as: holes, cracks, roughness textures and bumps. We found that pattern recognition strategies are useful, when quality supervision of surfaces has enough quantities of points to evaluate the defective region, because the identification of defects in small objects is a demanding activity of the visual inspection.

  6. A method and technique for observing the stereo pseudocolor image of phase change of objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-ying; Duan, Wenshan

    2000-04-01

    A real-time white light stereo pseudocolor encoding method and technique in a microscope is presented, which demonstrated that the phase information of an object is not totally lost in incoherent imaging. The image system is an improved microscope and attached optical elements can be stacked together in the microscope tube, so the structure is compact. The irradiance distribution at the output plane of the microscope is obtained by means of the theory of partially coherent light. At the conditions of that the aperture stop and focal length of condenser are a right magnitude, and the illuminative light source is incoherent or partially coherent, the theoretical analysis indicates that the irradiance distribution at output plane is presented by the stereo pseudocolor image which is characterized by the phase rate-of-change function of input object. A bleached holographic grating as an input object is observed, and its optical parameters are measured directly. Experimental results are discussed, which basically agreed with theoretical analysis.

  7. Glueballs amass at RHIC and LHC Colliders! - The early quarkless 1st order phase transition at $T=270$ MeV - from pure Yang-Mills glue plasma to GlueBall-Hagedorn states

    CERN Document Server

    Stoecker, Horst; Schramm, Stefan; Senzel, Florian; Greiner, Carsten; Beitel, Maxim; Gallmeister, Kai; Gorenstein, Mark; Mishustin, Igor; Vasak, David; Steinheimer, Jan; Struckmeier, Juergen; Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Satarov, Leonid; Xu, Zhe; Zhuang, Pengfei; Csernai, Laszlo P; Sinha, Bikash; Raha, Sibaji; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Panero, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The early stage of high multiplicity pp, pA and AA collider is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. According to pure Yang-Mills Lattice Gauge Theory, this hot pure glue matter undergoes, at a high temperature, $T_c = 270$ MeV, a first order phase transition into a confined Hagedorn-GlueBall fluid. These new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high $p_T$ photons and dileptons, baryon suppression and enhanced strange meson production. We propose to observe this newly predicted class of events at LHC and RHIC.

  8. Formation of complex organic molecules in cold objects: the role of gas phase reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Balucani, Nadia; Taquet, Vianney

    2015-01-01

    While astrochemical models are successful in reproducing many of the observed interstellar species, they have been struggling to explain the observed abundances of complex organic molecules. Current models tend to privilege grain surface over gas phase chemistry in their formation. One key assumption of those models is that radicals trapped in the grain mantles gain mobility and react on lukewarm (>30 K) dust grains. Thus, the recent detections of methyl formate (MF) and dimethyl ether (DME) in cold objects represent a challenge and may clarify the respective role of grain surface and gas phase chemistry. We propose here a new model to form DME and MF with gas phase reactions in cold environments, where DME is the precursor of MF via an efficient reaction overlooked by previous models. Furthermore, methoxy, a precursor of DME, is also synthetized in the gas phase from methanol, which is desorbed by a non-thermal process from the ices. Our new model reproduces fairy well the observations towards L1544. It also...

  9. Fabrication of pure and Ag-doped TiO2 nanorods and study of the lattice strain and the activation energy of the crystalline phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazian, Mehran; Rad, Shima Daliri; Azinabadi, Reza Ramezani

    2013-02-01

    TiO2 nanorods can be used as dye-sensitized solar cells and as various sensors and photocatalysts. These nanorods are synthesized by using a thermal corrosion process in a NaOH solution at 200 °C with TiO2 powder as a source material. In the present work, the synthesis of TiO2 nanorods in anatase, rutile and Ti8O15 phases and the synthesis of TiO2 nanorods by using the sol-gel method and alkaline corrosion to incorporate silver and silver-oxide dopants are reported. The morphologies and the crystalline structures of the TiO2 nanorods are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The obtained results show an aggregation structure at high calcining temperatures with spherical particles and with Ti-O-Ti, Ti-O and Ag-O bonds. The effects of the chemical composition and the calcining temperature on the surface topography, lattice strain and phase crystallization are studied. The activation energy (E) of nanoparticle formation in a pure state during thermal treatment is calculated.

  10. Fabrication of phase and morphology controlled pure rutile and rutile/anatase TiO2 nanostructures in functional ionic liquid/water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Satwant Kaur; Kaur, Navneet; Singh, Vasundhara

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, pure rutile and anatase-rutile TiO2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesised via a green route by hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride with room temperature acidic ionic liquid 3-methyl-1-(3-sulfonylpropyl) imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [HO3S(CH2)3MIM][CF3SO3] in aqueous medium. The influence of pH of the solution by varying molar ratio of substrate and ionic liquid has been investigated in both sol⿿gel and hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 with significant variation in phase, phase composition (ratio of rutile to anatase) and morphology as indicated by various structural analysis such as XRD, TEM, BET, Raman and UV⿿vis absorption spectroscopy. The results indicate formation of a bunch of aligned thin flaky nano-rods of TiO2 which look like nano-flowers with a crystal size of 3⿿5 nm by sol⿿gel method, while in case of hydrothermal method well-defined rutile solid nanorods of TiO2 were formed with variable length in the range of 120⿿170 nm and 20⿿24 nm in width. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared TiO2 samples has been determined by the photodegradation of methyl orange dye (20 ppm) under UV light. Best photocatalytic activity was exhibited by sample S-2 prepared via sol⿿gel method.

  11. Phase retrieval deblurring for imaging of dense object within a low scattering soft biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Maya Aviv; Rivenson, Yair; Meiri, Amihai; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    Tissues are characterized by a strong scattering of visible optical radiation, which prevents one from achieving deep-tissue imaging. We propose a computational imaging technique for the inference of specific macroscopic, spatial phase distribution features of the scattering media. The spatial phase distribution is reconstructed from several defocused intensity images. We empirically demonstrate the method by reconstructing the location of two fibula chicken bones, embedded within chicken breast tissue. The suggested technique is safe, using visible laser illumination, and noninvasive. It is also cost-effective since a simple optical system is used and the images are acquired using a conventional camera, and it does not require interferometric detection as well as direct access to the object in absence of the layer.

  12. Total 3D imaging of phase objects using defocusing microscopy: application to red blood cells

    CERN Document Server

    Roma, P M S; Amaral, F T; Agero, U; Mesquita, O N

    2014-01-01

    We present Defocusing Microscopy (DM), a bright-field optical microscopy technique able to perform total 3D imaging of transparent objects. By total 3D imaging we mean the determination of the actual shapes of the upper and lower surfaces of a phase object. We propose a new methodology using DM and apply it to red blood cells subject to different osmolality conditions: hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions. For each situation the shape of the upper and lower cell surface-membranes (lipid bilayer/cytoskeleton) are completely recovered, displaying the deformation of RBCs surfaces due to adhesion on the glass-substrate. The axial resolution of our technique allowed us to image surface-membranes separated by distances as small as 300 nm. Finally, we determine volume, superficial area, sphericity index and RBCs refractive index for each osmotic condition.

  13. Pure, single phase, high crystalline, chamfered-edge zeolite 4A synthesized from coal fly ash for use as a builder in detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

    2006-09-01

    Single phase chamfered-edge zeolite 4A samples in pure form with a high crystallinity were synthesized by applying step-change of synthesis temperature during hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash. The calcium binding capacity of these zeolite 4A samples (prepared from coal fly ash) and the commercial detergent grade zeolite 4A were tested for usage as a detergent builder. The results show that these zeolite 4A samples behaved similarly as the commercial one in removing calcium ions during the washing cycle. Moreover, from the leaching tests (evaluation of toxicological safety), the results show that these zeolite 4A samples leached the same elements (Sb, As, Se and Tl) as the commercial one with the concentrations in the same order of magnitude. This shows that the toxicological effect of the coal fly ash converted zeolite 4A was not worse than that of the commercial sample. Finally, economic and environmental aspects of converting coal fly ash to useful products were discussed.

  14. Hydride-vapor-phase epitaxial growth of highly pure GaN layers with smooth as-grown surfaces on freestanding GaN substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Konno, Taichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Horikiri, Fumimasa

    2017-08-01

    Thick (20-30 µm) layers of highly pure GaN with device-quality smooth as-grown surfaces were prepared on freestanding GaN substrates by using our advanced hydride-vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) system. Removal of quartz parts from the HVPE system markedly reduced concentrations of residual impurities to below the limits of detection by secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Appropriate gas-flow management in the HVPE system realized device-quality, smooth, as-grown surfaces with an excellent uniformity of thickness. The undoped GaN layer showed insulating properties. By Si doping, the electron concentration could be controlled over a wide range, down to 2 × 1014 cm-3, with a maximum mobility of 1150 cm2·V-1·s-1. The concentration of residual deep levels in lightly Si-doped layers was in the 1014 cm-3 range or less throughout the entire 2-in. wafer surface. These achievements clearly demonstrate the potential of HVPE as a tool for epitaxial growth of power-device structures.

  15. Multi-objective optimization approach for cost management during product design at the conceptual phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga Prasad, K. G.; Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Narayana Rao, K.

    2014-03-01

    The effective cost management during the conceptual design phase of a product is essential to develop a product with minimum cost and desired quality. The integration of the methodologies of quality function deployment (QFD), value engineering (VE) and target costing (TC) could be applied to the continuous improvement of any product during product development. To optimize customer satisfaction and total cost of a product, a mathematical model is established in this paper. This model integrates QFD, VE and TC under multi-objective optimization frame work. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to show the performance of the proposed model. Goal programming is adopted to attain the goals of maximum customer satisfaction and minimum cost of the product.

  16. Digital holographic setups for phase object measurements in micro and macro scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lédl Vít

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of properties of so called phase objects is being solved for more than one Century starting probably with schlieren technique 1. Classical interferometry served as a great measurement tool for several decades and was replaced by holographic interferometry, which disposes with many benefits when compared to classical interferometry. Holographic interferometry undergone an enormous development in last decade when digital holography has been established as a standard technique and most of the drawbacks were solved. The paper deals with scope of the huge applicability of digital holographic interferometry in heat and mass transfer measurement from micro to macro scale and from simple 2D measurement up to complex tomographic techniques. Recently the very complex experimental setups are under development in our labs combining many techniques leading to digital holographic micro tomography methods.

  17. Formation dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced phase objects in transparent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod-Blondin, A.; Rosenfeld, A.; Stoian, R.; Audouard, E.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrashort pulse lasers offer the possibility to structure the bulk of transparent materials on a microscale. As a result, the optical properties of the irradiated material are locally modified in a permanent fashion. Depending on the irradiation parameters, different types of laser-induced phase objects can be expected, from uniform voxels (that can exhibit higher or lower refractive index than the bulk) to self-organized nanoplanes. We study the physical mechanisms that lead to material restructuring, with a particular emphasis on events taking place on a sub picosecond to a microsecond timescale following laser excitation. Those timescales are particularly interesting as they correspond to the temporal distances between two consecutive laser pulses when performing multiple pulse irradiation: burst microprocessing usually involves picosecond separation times and high repetition rate systems operate in the MHz range. We employ a time-resolved microscopy technique based on a phase-contrast microscope setup extended into a pump-probe scheme. This methods enables a dynamic observation of the complex refractive index in the interaction region with a time resolution better than 300 fs. In optical transmission mode, the transient absorption coefficient can be measured for different illumination wavelengths (400 nm and 800 nm). The phase-contrast mode provides qualitative information about the real part of the transient refractive index. Based on the study of those transient optical properties, we observe the onset and relaxation of the laser-generated plasma into different channels such as defect creation, sample heating, and shockwave generation. The majority of our experiments were carried out with amorphous silica, but our method can be applied to the study of all transparent media.

  18. A dual-frequency online PMP method with phase-shifting parallel to moving direction of measured object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuang; Cao, Yiping; Wu, Yingchun; Chen, Cheng; Wan, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    A dual-frequency online phase measurement profilometry (PMP) method with phase-shifting parallel to moving direction of measured object is proposed in this paper. The high-frequency fringe is used for the better modulation patterns in pixel matching and it is not modified by the measured object's surface. Based on the relative positive between the moving measured object and digital light processing (DLP), the high-frequency fringe in each dual-frequency deformed pattern after pixel matching is the same. As a result, the phase can be calculated directly by the improved Stoilov algorithm without filtering out the low-frequency component containing the measured object's height information. As there is no filtering process in phase calculation, the valid information loss can be avoided so that the accuracy of the proposed method can be guaranteed. Simulations and experiments prove the method's feasibility and precision.

  19. Hydrogen-bond-dynamics-based switching of conductivity and magnetism: a phase transition caused by deuterium and electron transfer in a hydrogen-bonded purely organic conductor crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Akira; Yamada, Shota; Isono, Takayuki; Kamo, Hiromichi; Nakao, Akiko; Kumai, Reiji; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Nishio, Yutaka; Mori, Hatsumi

    2014-08-27

    A hydrogen bond (H-bond) is one of the most fundamental and important noncovalent interactions in chemistry, biology, physics, and all other molecular sciences. Especially, the dynamics of a proton or a hydrogen atom in the H-bond has attracted increasing attention, because it plays a crucial role in (bio)chemical reactions and some physical properties, such as dielectricity and proton conductivity. Here we report unprecedented H-bond-dynamics-based switching of electrical conductivity and magnetism in a H-bonded purely organic conductor crystal, κ-D3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as κ-D). This novel crystal κ-D, a deuterated analogue of κ-H3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as κ-H), is composed only of a H-bonded molecular unit, in which two crystallographically equivalent catechol-fused ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (Cat-EDT-TTF) skeletons with a +0.5 charge are linked by a symmetric anionic [O···D···O](-1)-type strong H-bond. Although the deuterated and parent hydrogen systems, κ-D and κ-H, are isostructural paramagnetic semiconductors with a dimer-Mott-type electronic structure at room temperature (space group: C2/c), only κ-D undergoes a phase transition at 185 K, to change to a nonmagnetic insulator with a charge-ordered electronic structure (space group: P1). The X-ray crystal structure analysis demonstrates that this dramatic switching of the electronic structure and physical properties originates from deuterium transfer or displacement within the H-bond accompanied by electron transfer between the Cat-EDT-TTF π-systems, proving that the H-bonded deuterium dynamics and the conducting TTF π-electron are cooperatively coupled. Furthermore, the reason why this unique phase transition occurs only in κ-D is qualitatively discussed in terms of the H/D isotope effect on the H-bond geometry and potential energy curve.

  20. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  1. Hybridization of phase retrieval and off-axis digital holography for high resolution imaging of complex shape objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a hybrid method of phase retrieval and off-axis digital holography is proposed for imaging of the complex shape objects. Off-axis digital hologram and in-line hologram are recorded. The approximate phase distributions in the recording plane and object plane are obtained by constrained optimization approach from the off-axis hologram, and they are used as the initial value and the constraints in the phase retrieval for eliminating the twin image of in-line holography. Numerical simulations and optical experiments were carried out to validate the proposed method.

  2. Boosted object hardware trigger development and testing for the Phase I upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Giordon Holtsberg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Global Feature Extraction (gFEX) module is a Level 1 jet trigger system planned for installation in ATLAS during the Phase 1 upgrade in 2018. The gFEX selects large-radius jets for capturing Lorentz-boosted objects by means of wide-area jet algorithms refined by subjet information. The architecture of the gFEX permits event-by-event local pile-up suppression for these jets using the same subtraction techniques developed for offline analyses. The gFEX architecture is also suitable for other global event algorithms such as missing transverse energy (MET), centrality for heavy ion collisions, and "jets without jets". The gFEX will use 4 processor FPGAs to perform calculations on the incoming data and a Hybrid APU-FPGA for slow control of the module. The gFEX is unique in both design and implementation and substantially enhance the selectivity of the L1 trigger and increases sensitivity to key physics channels.

  3. Influence of limited random-phase of objects on the image quality of 3D holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Liu, Juan; Yang, Minqiang; Li, Xin; Xue, Gaolei; Wang, Yongtian

    2017-02-01

    Limited-random-phase time average method is proposed to suppress the speckle noise of three dimensional (3D) holographic display. The initial phase and the range of the random phase are studied, as well as their influence on the optical quality of the reconstructed images, and the appropriate initial phase ranges on object surfaces are obtained. Numerical simulations and optical experiments with 2D and 3D reconstructed images are performed, where the objects with limited phase range can suppress the speckle noise in reconstructed images effectively. It is expected to achieve high-quality reconstructed images in 2D or 3D display in the future because of its effectiveness and simplicity.

  4. Evaluation of the dark-medium objective lens in counting asbestos fibers by phase-contrast microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Nelson, John H; Kashon, Michael L; Harper, Martin

    2015-06-01

    A Japanese round-robin study revealed that analysts who used a dark-medium (DM) objective lens reported higher fiber counts from American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) chrysotile samples than those using a standard objective lens, but the cause of this difference was not investigated at that time. The purpose of this study is to determine any major source of this difference by performing two sets of round-robin studies. For the first round-robin study, 15 AIHA PAT samples (five each of chrysotile and amosite generated by water-suspended method, and five chrysotile generated by aerosolization method) were prepared with relocatable cover slips and examined by nine laboratories. A second round-robin study was then performed with six chrysotile field sample slides by six out of nine laboratories who participated in the first round-robin study. In addition, two phase-shift test slides to check analysts' visibility and an eight-form diatom test plate to compare resolution between the two objectives were examined. For the AIHA PAT chrysotile reference slides, use of the DM objective resulted in consistently higher fiber counts (1.45 times for all data) than the standard objective (P-value counts between the two objectives were not significantly different. No statistically significant differences were observed in the visibility of blocks of the test slides between the two objectives. Also, the DM and standard objectives showed no pattern of differences in viewing the fine lines and/or dots of each species images on the eight-form diatom test plate. Among various potential factors that might affect the analysts' performance of fiber counts, this study supports the greater contrast caused by the different phase plate absorptions as the main cause of high counts for the AIHA PAT chrysotile slides using the DM objective. The comparison of fiber count ratios (DM/standard) between the AIHA PAT chrysotile samples and chrysotile field

  5. Acquiring multi-viewpoint image of 3D object for integral imaging using synthetic aperture phase-shifting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Min-Ok; Kim, Nam; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Jeon, Seok-Hee; Gil, Sang-Keun

    2009-02-01

    We propose a method generating elemental images for the auto-stereoscopic three-dimensional display technique, integral imaging, using phase-shifting digital holography. Phase shifting digital holography is a way recording the digital hologram by changing phase of the reference beam and extracting the complex field of the object beam. Since all 3D information is captured by the phase-shifting digital holography, the elemental images for any specifications of the lens array can be generated from single phase-shifting digital holography. We expanded the viewing angle of the generated elemental image by using the synthetic aperture phase-shifting digital hologram. The principle of the proposed method is verified experimentally.

  6. Measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factor in a pure-phase InAs nanowire double quantum dot in the Pauli spin-blockade regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiyin; Huang, Shaoyun, E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn; Lei, Zijin [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, H. Q., E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate direct measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factors in a semiconductor nanowire double quantum dot. The device is made from a single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowire on top of an array of finger gates on a Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate and the measurements are performed in the Pauli spin-blockade regime. It is found that the double quantum dot exhibits a large singlet-triplet energy splitting of Δ{sub ST} ∼ 2.3 meV, a strong spin-orbit interaction of Δ{sub SO} ∼ 140 μeV, and a large and strongly level-dependent Landé g factor of ∼12.5. These results imply that single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowires are desired semiconductor nanostructures for applications in quantum information technologies.

  7. Spatial resolution of proton tomography. Methods, initial phase space and object thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Uwe [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Vetsuisse Faculty; Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Aarau (Switzerland). Hirslanden Medical Center; Pedroni, Eros; Lomax, Tony [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Center for Proton Therapy; Hartmann, Matthias; Besserer, Juergen [Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Aarau (Switzerland). Hirslanden Medical Center

    2012-07-01

    Proton radiography and tomography was investigated since the early 1970s because of its low radiation dose, high density resolution and ability to image directly proton stopping power. However, spatial resolution is still a limiting factor and as a consequence experimental methods and image reconstruction should be optimized to improve position resolution. Methods: Spatial resolution of proton radiography and tomography is given by multiple Coloumb scattering (MCS) of the protons in the patient. In this paper we employ an improved MCS model to study the impact of various proton tomographic set-ups on the spatial resolution, such as different combinations of entrance and exit coordinate and angle measurements, respectively, initial particle energy and angular confusion of the incident proton field. Results: It was found that best spatial resolution is obtained by measuring in addition to the entrance and exit coordinates also the entrance and exit angles. However, by applying partial backprojection and by using a perfect proton fan beam a sufficient spatial resolution can be achieved with less experimental complexity (measuring only exit angles). It was also shown that it is essential to use the most probable proton trajectory to improve spatial resolution. A simple straight line connection for image reconstruction results in a spatial resolution which is not clinically sufficient. The percentage deterioration of spatial resolution due to the angular confusion of the incident proton field is less than the phase space in mrad. A clinically realistic proton beam with 10 mrad angular confusion results in a less than 10% loss of spatial resolution. Conclusions: Clinically sufficient spatial resolution can be either achieved with a full measurement of entrance and exit coordinates and angles, but also by using a fan beam with small angular confusion and an exit angle measurement. It is necessary to use the most probable proton path for image reconstruction. A simple

  8. Observation of Phase Objects by Using an X-ray Microscope with a Foucault Knife-Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Sasaya, T.; Imai, Y.; Iwata, S.; Zama, K.; Aoki, S.

    2011-09-01

    An x-ray microscope with a zone plate was assembled at the synchrotron radiation source of BL3C, Photon Factory. A Foucault knife-edge was set at the back focal plate of the objective zone plate and phase retrieval was tested by scanning the knife-edge. A preliminary result shows that scanning the knife-edge during exposure was effective for phase retrieval. Phase-contrast tomography was investigated using differential projection images calculated from two Schlieren images with the oppositely oriented knife-edges. Fairly good reconstruction images of polystyrene beads and spores could be obtained.

  9. On image pre-processing for PIV of single- and two-phase flows over reflecting objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, Niels G.; Willems, Paul; Sint Annaland, Martin van; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Kemperman, Antoine J.B.; Wessling, Matthias; Meer, Walter G.J. van der [University of Twente, Faculty of Science and Technology, Institute of Mechanics, Processes and Control Twente (IMPACT), Enschede (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    A novel image pre-processing scheme for PIV of single- and two-phase flows over reflecting objects which does not require the use of additional hardware is discussed. The approach for single-phase flow consists of image normalization and intensity stretching followed by background subtraction. For two-phase flow, an additional masking step is added after the background subtraction. The effectiveness of the pre-processing scheme is shown for two examples: PIV of single-phase flow in spacer-filled channels and two-phase flow in these channels. The pre-processing scheme increased the displacement peak detectability significantly and produced high quality vector fields, without the use of additional hardware. (orig.)

  10. Fully automated, high speed, tomographic phase object reconstruction using the transport of intensity equation in transmission and reflection configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh; Nehmetallah, George; Tran, Dat; Darudi, Ahmad; Soltani, Peyman

    2015-12-10

    While traditional transport of intensity equation (TIE) based phase retrieval of a phase object is performed through axial translation of the CCD, in this work a tunable lens TIE is employed in both transmission and reflection configurations. These configurations are extended to a 360° tomographic 3D reconstruction through multiple illuminations from different angles by a custom fabricated rotating assembly of the phase object. Synchronization circuitry is developed to control the CCD camera and the Arduino board, which in its turn controls the tunable lens and the stepper motor to automate the tomographic reconstruction process. Finally, a MATLAB based user friendly graphical user interface is developed to control the whole system and perform tomographic reconstruction using both multiplicative and inverse radon based techniques.

  11. In-line phase-contrast imaging for strong absorbing objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Caro, Liberato; Giannini, Cinzia [Istituto di Cristallografia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IC-CNR), via Amendola 122/O, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Cedola, Alessia; Bukreeva, Inna; Lagomarsino, Stefano [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IFN-CNR), via Cinto Romano 42, I-00156 Roma (Italy)

    2008-11-21

    Phase-contrast imaging is one of the most important emerging x-ray imaging techniques. In this work we analyse, from a theoretical point of view, the in-line phase-contrast image formation under general assumptions. The approach is based on wave-optical theory (Fresnel/Kirchoff diffraction integrals) and on the formalism of the mutual coherence function for the evolution of the coherence wavefield properties. Our theoretical model can be applied to phase-contrast imaging realized both by using highly coherent synchrotron radiation and micro-focus x-ray laboratory sources. Thus, the model is suitable for widespread applications, ranging from material science to medical imaging of human body parts. However, it cannot be applied to polychromatic sources, although the validity of the model does not require particularly demanding characteristics of monochromaticity. In addition, for moderate phase gradients, a useful analytical formula of the phase-contrast visibility is derived, based on the a priori knowledge of source size and distance, pixel detector size, defocus distance, material/tissue dielectric susceptibility and characteristic scales of transversal and longitudinal non-uniformities of the material/tissue dielectric susceptibility. Comparisons both with experimental results published by other authors and with simulations based on a Fourier optics approach have been reported, to confirm the validity of the proposed analytical formula.

  12. Spectro-refractometry of individual microscopic objects using swept-source quantitative phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Hwang; Jang, Jaeduck; Park, Yongkeun

    2013-11-05

    We present a novel spectroscopic quantitative phase imaging technique with a wavelength swept-source, referred to as swept-source diffraction phase microscopy (ssDPM), for quantifying the optical dispersion of microscopic individual samples. Employing the swept-source and the principle of common-path interferometry, ssDPM measures the multispectral full-field quantitative phase imaging and spectroscopic microrefractometry of transparent microscopic samples in the visible spectrum with a wavelength range of 450-750 nm and a spectral resolution of less than 8 nm. With unprecedented precision and sensitivity, we demonstrate the quantitative spectroscopic microrefractometry of individual polystyrene beads, 30% bovine serum albumin solution, and healthy human red blood cells.

  13. Quark Phase Transition in Compact Objects and Multimessenger Astronomy: Neutrino Signals, Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, V. V.; Vlasyuk, V. V.; Petkov, V. B.

    2016-06-01

    The International Workshop on Quark Phase Transition in Compact Objects and Multimessenger Astronomy: Neutrino Signals, Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts (October, 7-14, 2015) was dedicated to Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD) Phase Transitions and observational signals of these transitions related to formation of compact astrophysical objects. The aim of this workshop was to bring together researchers working on the problems of behavior of matter under critical conditions achievable in such astrophysical objects as "strange" or "hybrid" stars and in laboratories at heavy-ion collisions to discuss fundamental issues and recent developments. Topics included both observations (radio, optical and X-ray astronomy, gamma ray bursts, gravitational waves, neutrino detection, heavy-ion collisions, etc.) and theory (supernova simulations, proto-neutron and neutron stars, equation of state of dense matter, neutron star cooling, unstable modes, nucleosynthesis, explosive transitions, quark-gluon plasma).

  14. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasting for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to update the lightning probability forecast equations developed in Phase I. In the time since the Phase I equations were developed, new ideas regarding certain predictors were formulated and a desire to make the tool more automated was expressed by 45 WS forecasters. Five modifications were made to the data: 1) increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, 2) modified the valid area to match the lighting warning areas, 3) added the 1000 UTC CCAFS sounding to the other soundings in determining the flow regime, 4) used a different smoothing function for the daily climatology, and 5) determined the optimal relative humidity (RH) layer to use as a predictor. The new equations outperformed the Phase I equations in several tests, and improved the skill of the forecast over the Phase I equations by 8%. A graphical user interface (GUI) was created in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that gathers the predictor values for the equations automatically. The GUI was transitioned to operations in May 2007 for the 2007 warm season.

  15. Linear analytical solution to the phase diversity problem for extended objects based on the Born approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrei, R.M.; Smith, C.S.; Fraanje, P.R.; Verhaegen, M.; Korkiakoski, V.A.; Keller, C.U.; Doelman, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give a new wavefront estimation technique that overcomes the main disadvantages of the phase diversity (PD) algorithms, namely the large computational complexity and the fact that the solutions can get stuck in a local minima. Our approach gives a good starting point for an iterativ

  16. Comparison of single distance phase retrieval algorithms by considering different object composition and the effect of statistical and structural noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R C; Rigon, L; Longo, R

    2013-03-25

    Phase retrieval is a technique for extracting quantitative phase information from X-ray propagation-based phase-contrast tomography (PPCT). In this paper, the performance of different single distance phase retrieval algorithms will be investigated. The algorithms are herein called phase-attenuation duality Born Algorithm (PAD-BA), phase-attenuation duality Rytov Algorithm (PAD-RA), phase-attenuation duality Modified Bronnikov Algorithm (PAD-MBA), phase-attenuation duality Paganin algorithm (PAD-PA) and phase-attenuation duality Wu Algorithm (PAD-WA), respectively. They are all based on phase-attenuation duality property and on weak absorption of the sample and they employ only a single distance PPCT data. In this paper, they are investigated via simulated noise-free PPCT data considering the fulfillment of PAD property and weakly absorbing conditions, and with experimental PPCT data of a mixture sample containing absorbing and weakly absorbing materials, and of a polymer sample considering different degrees of statistical and structural noise. The simulation shows all algorithms can quantitatively reconstruct the 3D refractive index of a quasi-homogeneous weakly absorbing object from noise-free PPCT data. When the weakly absorbing condition is violated, the PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA obtain better result than PAD-BA and PAD-MBA that are shown in both simulation and mixture sample results. When considering the statistical noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio values decreases as the photon number is reduced. The structural noise study shows that the result is progressively corrupted by ring-like artifacts with the increase of structural noise (i.e. phantom thickness). The PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA gain better density resolution than the PAD-BA and PAD-MBA in both statistical and structural noise study.

  17. On the texture, phase and tensile properties of commercially pure Ti produced via selective laser melting assisted by static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nan; Yuan, Hao; Coddet, Pierre; Ren, Zhongming; Bernage, Charles; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Tensile strength and ductility of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) processed commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti) were simultaneous enhanced by preforming the melting/solidification processes under Static Magnetic Field (SMF). The effects of SMF on microstructure and tensile properties were examined. The SMF-SLMed CP-Ti sample presents a microstructure of fine acicular martensitic α'-Ti and lath-shaped α-Ti. Meanwhile, the texture structure of SLMed CP-Ti was eliminated after adding a SMF. The SMF-SLM process offers new avenues to ameliorate the microstructure and improve the mechanical properties of SLMed sample.

  18. Non-invasive objective devices for monitoring the inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling phases of cutaneous wound healing and skin scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud-Din, Sara; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2016-08-01

    Objective evaluation of cutaneous wounds through the use of non-invasive devices is important for diagnosis, monitoring treatment response and can lead to the development of improved theranostic strategies. The need for objective monitoring of wound healing and scar formation is evident as this enables accurate diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis for clinicians and allows for the standardisation and validation of methodology for researchers. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the current application of non-invasive objective technologies for the assessment of wound healing through the different phases of repair. We propose that cutaneous healing parameters can be split into three core domains: anatomical, mechanical and physiological. These categories can be further subdivided with respect to specific phases of healing. There is no single instrument, which can measure all the parameters of healing simultaneously; thus, it is important to choose the correct device for the particular healing characteristics being monitored. However, multiprobe systems, which include a number of devices connected to one main unit, are useful as they enable multiple measurements of different parameters. Many of the devices have not been validated against histological examination. Additionally, some of the instruments have not been evaluated in all wound or scar types and may not be useful throughout all phases of cutaneous wound healing. In conclusion, non-invasive objective devices are useful in the assessment of cutaneous wound healing, as these tools can link the treatment and diagnosis by evaluating response to treatment and thus could aid as a marker for healing and scar maturation.

  19. Measurement of the velocity of a quantum object: A role of phase and group velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Mikaila; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.

    2017-08-01

    We consider the motion of a quantum particle in a free space. Introducing an explicit measurement procedure for velocity, we demonstrate that the measured velocity is related to the group and phase velocities of the corresponding matter waves. We show that for long distances the measured velocity coincides with the matter wave group velocity. We discuss the possibilities to demonstrate these effects for the optical pulses in coherently driven media or for radiation propagating in waveguides.

  20. Formation of complex organic molecules in cold objects: the role of gas phase reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Balucani, Nadia; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Taquet, Vianney

    2015-01-01

    While astrochemical models are successful in reproducing many of the observed interstellar species, they have been struggling to explain the observed abundances of complex organic molecules. Current models tend to privilege grain surface over gas phase chemistry in their formation. One key assumption of those models is that radicals trapped in the grain mantles gain mobility and react on lukewarm (>30 K) dust grains. Thus, the recent detections of methyl formate (MF) and dimethyl ether (DME) ...

  1. A Two-Phase Flow Solver for Incompressible Viscous Fluids, Using a Pure Streamfunction Formulation and the Volume of Fluid Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    Accurate multi-phase flow solvers at low Reynolds number are of particular interest for the simulation of interface instabilities in the co-processing of multilayered material. We present a two-phase flow solver for incompressible viscous fluids which uses the streamfunction as the primary variab...

  2. Full-matrix capture with phased shift migration for flaw detection in layered objects with complex geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a method for an ultrasonic imaging with a phased array based on a wave migration algorithm. The method allows for imaging layered objects with lateral velocity variations such as objects with a complex geometry or layers that are not perpendicular to the array's axis. The full-matrix capture ensures that there is enough information to reconstruct an image even when the wave indication angle is large. The method is implemented in a omega-k domain. The proposed algorithm is first tested in a single simulation of a concave object with side drilled holes under the concave surface. For evaluating the algorithm's performance three experiments are presented: one with a tilted object (surface not perpendicular with respect to the array axis) with side drilled holes and two experiments of an object with concave surface and two artificial defects under it. The results presented in the paper verify that the proposed method reconstructs images from the data gathered with the phased array.

  3. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  4. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  5. A two-phase fuzzy programming model for a complex bi-objective no-wait flow shop scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study no-wait flow shop problem where setup times depend on sequence of operations. The proposed problem considers sequence-independent removal times, release date with an additional assumption that there are some preliminary setup times. There are two objectives of weighted mean tardiness and makespan associated with the proposed model of this paper. We formulate the resulted problem as a mixed integer programming, where a two-phase fuzzy programming is implemented to solve the model. To examine the performance of the proposed model, we generate several sample data, randomly and compare the results with other methods. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed two-phase model of this paper performed relatively better than Zimmerman's single-phase fuzzy method.

  6. Intercalation Crystallization of Phase-Pure ..alpha..-HC(NH2)2PbI3 upon Microstructurally Engineered PbI2 Thin Films for Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Kwun, Joonsuh; Game, Onkar S.; Zhao, Yixin; Pang, Shuping; Padture, Nitin P.; Zhu, Kai

    2016-03-28

    The microstructure of the solid-PbI2 precursor thin film plays an important role in the intercalation crystallization of the formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite (..alpa..-HC(NH2)2PbI3). It is shown that microstructurally engineered PbI2 thin films with porosity and low crystallinity are the most favorable for conversion into uniform-coverage, phase-pure ..alpha..-HC(NH2)2PbI3 perovskite thin films. Planar perovskite solar cells fabricated using these thin films deliver power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 13.8%.

  7. Effect of sonochemical synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles and coagulation bath temperature on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes prepared via phase inversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedini Reza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, asymmetric pure CA and CA/ TiO2 composite membranes were prepared via phase inversion by dispersing TiO2 nanopaticles in the CA casting solutions induced by immersion precipitation in water coagulation bath. TiO2 nanoparticles, which were synthesized by the sonochemical method, were added into the casting solution with different concentrations. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles concentration (0 wt. %, 5wt.%, 10wt.%, 15wt.%, 20wt.% and 25wt.% and coagulation bath temperature (CBT= 25°C, 50°C and 75°C on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux (PWF of the prepared membranes were studied and discussed. Increasing TiO2 concentration in the casting solution film along with higher CBT resulted in increasing the membrane thickness, water content (WC, membrane porosity and pure water flux (PWF, also these changes facilitate macrovoids formation. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA shows that thermal stability of the composite membranes were improved by the addition of TiO2 nanopaticles. Also TGA results indicated that increasing CBT in each TiO2 concentration leads to the decreasing of decomposition temperature (Td of hybrid membranes.

  8. Pliocene Model Intercomparison (PlioMIP) Phase 2: scientific objectives and experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, A. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Dolan, A. M.; Rowley, D.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Chandler, M. A.; Hunter, S. J.; Lunt, D. J.; Pound, M.; Salzmann, U.

    2015-08-01

    The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is a co-ordinated international climate modelling initiative to study and understand climate and environments of the Late Pliocene, and their potential relevance in the context of future climate change. PlioMIP operates under the umbrella of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), which examines multiple intervals in Earth history, the consistency of model predictions in simulating these intervals and their ability to reproduce climate signals preserved in geological climate archives. This paper provides a thorough model intercomparison project description, and documents the experimental design in a detailed way. Specifically, this paper describes the experimental design and boundary conditions that will be utilised for the experiments in Phase 2 of PlioMIP.

  9. Thermoelastic properties of solid phases: C++ object oriented library “SolidEOS”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakov, Sergey V.

    2005-07-01

    A new object-oriented C++ library (SolidEOS) for calculating the thermoelastic properties of solids is presented. The implementation is based on the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye equation of state (EOS) augmented by lowest order correction for anharmonicity. Several commonly used static EOS like Birch-Murnaghan and Vinet models are available. Although some widely used approximation for the Debye-Grüneisen parameter and static EOS are implemented, the final behaviour of the EOS can be easily modified by overloading predefined virtual functions. The article provides a basic physical background of the modern theory of high-pressure EOS. The detailed documentation of the class hierarchy is summarized in the appendix, which accompanies the source. Several examples of practical use are given in the appendix as well. The library is appropriate for applications in geophysics, petrology, material science or any other field where thermodynamic and elastic properties of solids are relevant. The source code is available from the Computers & Geoscience software archive.

  10. Light Curves of Dwarf Plutonian Planets and other Large Kuiper Belt Objects: Their Rotations, Phase Functions and Absolute Magnitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Sheppard, Scott S

    2007-01-01

    (Abridged) I report new light curves and determine the rotations and phase functions of several large Kuiper Belt objects, including the dwarf planet Eris (2003 UB313). (120348) 2004 TY364 shows a light curve which if double-peaked has a period of 11.70+-0.01 hours and peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.22+-0.02 magnitudes. (84922) 2003 VS2 has a well defined double-peaked light curve of 7.41+-0.02 hours with a 0.21+-0.02 magnitude range. (126154) 2001 YH140 shows variability of 0.21+-0.04 magnitudes with a possible 13.25+-0.2 hour single-peaked period. The seven new KBOs in the sample which show no discernible variations within the uncertainties on short rotational time scales are 2001 UQ18, (55565) 2002 AW197, (119979) 2002 WC19, (120132) 2003 FY128, (136108) Eris 2003 UB313, (90482) Orcus 2004 DW, and (90568) 2004 GV9. The three medium to large sized Kuiper Belt objects 2004 TY364, Orcus and 2004 GV9 show fairly steep linear phase curves (~0.18 to 0.26 mags per degree) between phase angles of 0.1 and 1.5 degrees....

  11. The liquid phase epitaxy approach for the successful construction of ultra-thin and defect-free ZIF-8 membranes: Pure and mixed gas transport study

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama

    2014-01-01

    The liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) method was effectively implemented to deliberately grow/construct ultrathin (0.5-1 μm) continuous and defect-free ZIF-8 membranes. Permeation properties of different gas pair systems (O 2-N2, H2-CO2, CO2-CH 4, C3H6-C3H8, CH 4-n-C4H10) were studied using the time lag technique. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics for real-time testing of phase objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Aggarwal; Sushil K Kaura; D P Chhachhia; A K Sharma

    2004-11-01

    The paper describes a simple and cost effective method for the realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics, which use minimal bulk optical components. The optical arrangement in the proposed method involves a very simple alignment procedure and inexpensive holographic recording material is used in the formation of holographic optical elements. The proposed interferometer set-up is quite suitable for performing optical test studies on phase (transparent) objects in real-time. Recording schemes for the formation of holographic optical elements and the related technique for the realization of the interferometer set-up along with the experimental results have been presented.

  13. Rehabilitation of pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reading problems caused by brain injury (alexia) are common, either as a part of an aphasic syndrome, or as an isolated symptom. In pure alexia, reading is impaired while other language functions, including writing, are spared. Being in many ways a simple syndrome, one would think...... that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions like alexia severity, and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia...... in the reviewed studies, have associated deficits like agraphia or aphasia and thus do not strictly conform to the diagnosis. Few studies report clear and generalisable effects of training, none report control data, and in many cases the reported findings are not supported by statistics. We can, however...

  14. Rehabilitation of pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie

    2013-01-01

    that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions like alexia severity, and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia......Acquired reading problems caused by brain injury (alexia) are common, either as a part of an aphasic syndrome, or as an isolated symptom. In pure alexia, reading is impaired while other language functions, including writing, are spared. Being in many ways a simple syndrome, one would think...... in the reviewed studies, have associated deficits like agraphia or aphasia and thus do not strictly conform to the diagnosis. Few studies report clear and generalisable effects of training, none report control data, and in many cases the reported findings are not supported by statistics. We can, however...

  15. Direct synthesis of pure H3S from S and H elements: No evidence of the cubic superconducting phase up to 160 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Bastien; Marizy, Adrien; Loubeyre, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The H3S compound was reproducibly synthesized by laser heating hydrogen-embedded solid sulfur samples at various pressures above 75 GPa in a diamond anvil cell. X-ray diffraction studies were conducted up to 160 GPa and the crystal structure has been identified with space group C c c m . The stability of this sole orthorhombic H3S phase up to 160 GPa contradicts ab initio calculations that predict the stability of a sequence of two metallic superconductive structures above 110 GPa, with R 3 m and I m 3 ¯m symmetries. This work also has strong implications for the current understanding of the 200 K superconductivity phenomenon in H2S since it seems to rule out the hypothesis of the decomposition of H2S into sulfur and superconducting H3S .

  16. A Robust Programming Approach to Bi-objective Optimization Model in the Disaster Relief Logistics Response Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saffarian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents and natural disasters and crises coming out of them indicate the importance of an integrated planning to reduce their effected. Therefore, disaster relief logistics is one of the main activities in disaster management. In this paper, we study the response phase of the disaster management cycle and a bi-objective model has been developed for relief chain logistic in uncertainty condition including uncertainty in traveling time an also amount of demand in damaged areas. The proposed mathematical model has two objective functions. The first one is to minimize the sum of arrival times to damaged area multiplying by amount of demand and the second objective function is to maximize the minimum ratio of satisfied demands in total period in order to fairness in the distribution of goods. In the proposed model, the problem has been considered periodically and in order to solve the mathematical model, Global Criterion method has been used and a case study has been done at South Khorasan.

  17. New approach based on solid-phase extraction for the assessment of organic compound pollutions in so-called pharmaceutically pure water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Wolska, Lidia; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2008-07-01

    The application of a new kind of technique involving solid-phase extraction coupled with thermal desorption (SPE-TD) to the qualitative analysis of water used in pharmaceutical products was evaluated. Comparative analyses performed by the purge and trap (PT) technique were also conducted. The application of this SPE-TD technique resulted in the isolation of a large number of compounds from the water sample. The SPE-TD technique is applied to less volatile compounds, whereas the PT technique is used for more volatile and nonpolar ones. These two techniques should be applied in order to achieve complete identification and quantitative determination. Additionally, an attempt to identify organic compounds in pharmaceutical products was also conducted. The compounds present in such products include aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters. The influence of storage on the quality of water was also investigated. For samples characterized by a longer storage time, qualitatively richer chromatograms were obtained, which confirmed that components were released from the packaging (especially polyethylene) which entered the stored product.

  18. Conclusive discrimination among N equidistant pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Luis; Hermann-Avigliano, Carla; Salazar, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A. B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    We find the allowed complex overlaps for N equidistant pure quantum states. The accessible overlaps define a petal-shaped area on the Argand plane. Each point inside the petal represents a set of N linearly independent pure states and each point on its contour represents a set of N linearly dependent pure states. We find the optimal probabilities of success of discriminating unambiguously in which of the N equidistant states the system is. We show that the phase of the involved overlap plays an important role in the probability of success. For a fixed overlap modulus, the success probability is highest for the set of states with an overlap with phase equal to zero. In this case, if the process fails, then the information about the prepared state is lost. For states with a phase different from zero, the information could be obtained with an error-minimizing measurement protocol.

  19. Pure optical dynamical color encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, Fabian; Tebaldi, Myrian; Fredy Barrera, John; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    We introduce a way to encrypt-decrypt a color dynamical phenomenon using a pure optical alternative. We split the three basic chromatic channels composing the input, and then each channel is processed through a 4f encoding method and a theta modulation applied to the each encrypted frame in every channel. All frames for a single channel are multiplexed. The same phase mask is used to encode all the information. Unlike the usual procedure we do not multiplex the three chromatic channels into a single encoding media, because we want to decrypt the information in real time. Then, we send to the decoding station the phase mask and the three packages each one containing the multiplexing of a single channel. The end user synchronizes and decodes the information contained in the separate channels. Finally, the decoding information is conveyed together to bring the decoded dynamical color phenomenon in real-time. We present material that supports our concepts.

  20. Dahlbeck and Pure Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to Johan Dahlbeck's "Towards a pure ontology: Children's bodies and morality" ["Educational Philosophy and Theory," vol. 46 (1), 2014, pp. 8-23 (EJ1026561)]. His arguments from Nietzsche and Spinoza do not carry the weight he supposes, and the conclusions he draws from them about pedagogy would be…

  1. Dahlbeck and Pure Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to Johan Dahlbeck's "Towards a pure ontology: Children's bodies and morality" ["Educational Philosophy and Theory," vol. 46 (1), 2014, pp. 8-23 (EJ1026561)]. His arguments from Nietzsche and Spinoza do not carry the weight he supposes, and the conclusions he draws from them about pedagogy would be…

  2. Solid-phase extraction of galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids from natural sources (Galphimia glauca and Arnicae flos) using pure zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate powders as sorbents inside micro spin columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shah; Schönbichler, Stefan A; Güzel, Yüksel; Sonderegger, Harald; Abel, Gudrun; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2013-10-01

    Galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids are among the most important pharmacological active groups of natural compounds. This study describes a pre-step in isolation of some selected representatives of these groups from biological samples. A selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for these compounds may help assign classes and isomer designations within complex mixtures. Pure zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate powders (325 mesh) were employed as two new sorbents for optimized SPE of phenolic acids. These sorbents possess electrostatic interaction sites which accounts for additional interactions for carbon acid moieties as compared to hydrophilic and hydrophobic sorbents alone. Based on this principle, a selective SPE method for 1,3,4,5-tetragalloylquinic acid (an anti-HIV and anti-asthamatic agent) as a starting compound was developed and then deployed upon other phenolic acids with success. The recoveries and selectivities of both sorbents were compared to most commonly applied and commercially available sorbents by using high performance liquid chromatography. The nature of interaction between the carrier sorbent and the acidic target molecules was investigated by studying hydrophilic (silica), hydrophobic (C18), mixed-mode (ionic and hydrophobic: Oasis(®) MAX) and predominantly electrostatic (zirconium silicate) materials. The newly developed zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate stationary phases revealed promising results for the selective extraction of galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids from natural sources. It was observed that zirconium silicate exhibited maximum recovery and selectivity for tetragalloylquinic acid (84%), chlorogenic acid (82%) and dicaffeoylquinic acid (94%) among all the tested sorbents.

  3. Purely Functional Structured Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Obua, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...

  4. Purely Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ramalho Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma.

  5. Purely tetrahedral quadruple systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Lijun

    2006-01-01

    An oriented tetrahedron is a set of four vertices and four cyclic triples with the property that any ordered pair of vertices is contained in exactly one of the cyclic triples. A tetrahedral quadruple system of order n (briefly TQS(n)) is a pair (X,B), where X is an nelement set and B is a set of oriented tetrahedra such that every cyclic triple on X is contained in a unique member of B. A TQS(n) (X, B) is pure if there do not exist two oriented tetrahedra with the same vertex set. In this paper, we show that there is a pure TQS(n) if and only if n≡2,4(mod 6),n>4,or n≡1,5(mod 12). One corollary is that there is a simple two-fold quadruple system of order n if and only if n≡2,4 (mod 6) and n>4, or n≡1, 5 (mod 12).Another corollary is that there is an overlarge set of pure Mendelsohn triple systems of order n for n≡1,3(mod 6),n>3, or n≡0,4 (mod 12).

  6. On the theory of the reconstruction of a weak phase-amplitude object from its images, especially in electron microscopy. I. Isoplanatic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, H.A.; Hoenders, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the reconstruction of a weak phase-amplitude object from its intensity image. This problem occurs in electron microscopy where the weak object approximation holds for not too low accelerating voltages (E>~100 keV). Isoplanatic imaging is assumed. The illumination is supposed

  7. PURE DRIVE GT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    在2004年奥林匹克赛事中,中国的李婷,孙甜甜取得了中国网球第一个金牌一女子双打冠军。忘记不了当时李婷挥动着她的BABOLAT(百保力)网拍Pure Drive Zylon 360°激动地拥抱着孙甜甜吵闹着,幸福地哭着的情景。

  8. Pure de Sitter Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Kallosh, Renata; Van Proeyen, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Using superconformal methods we derive an explicit de Sitter supergravity action invariant under spontaneously broken local ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetry. The supergravity multiplet interacts with a nilpotent goldstino multiplet. We present a complete locally supersymmetric action including the graviton and the fermionic fields, gravitino and goldstino, no scalars. In the global limit when supergravity multiplet decouples, our action reproduces the Volkov-Akulov theory. In the unitary gauge where goldstino vanishes we recover pure supergravity with the positive cosmological constant. The classical equations of motion, with all fermions vanishing, have a maximally symmetric solution: de Sitter space.

  9. Structure of the Intermetallic Compound Ni3Al Synthesized under Compression of the Powder Mixture of Pure Elements Part II: Influence of Alloying by Boron on the Phase Composition and the Microstructure of Grains of the Main Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Ni3B phase was formed when boron (0.5 at. pct B) was added to the intermetallic of stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric (Ni-24 at. pct Al) compounds. In the alloy of stoichiometric composition the particles of Ni3B phase has the size around 0.1μm and is located on the grain boundary of the main phase. The decreasing of concentrations of Al in the off-stoichiometric alloy leads to increase in the degree of the long-range order parameter, increasing the concentrations of boron in the solid solution and decreasing its localization on the grain boundary.Microalloying of boron leads to increasing in the fraction of grain monodomains with dislocations up to 0.7 in the alloy of the off-stoichiometric composition and up to 1 in the alloy of the stoichiometric composition. It was established the correlation between the degree of the concentration inhomogeneity, average density of the dislocations and the average long range-order parameter.

  10. Coherent digital demodulation of single-camera N-projections for 3D-object shape measurement: co-phased profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, M; Garnica, G; Estrada, J C; Quiroga, A

    2013-10-21

    Fringe projection profilometry is a well-known technique to digitize 3-dimensional (3D) objects and it is widely used in robotic vision and industrial inspection. Probably the single most important problem in single-camera, single-projection profilometry are the shadows and specular reflections generated by the 3D object under analysis. Here a single-camera along with N-fringe-projections is (digital) coherent demodulated in a single-step, solving the shadows and specular reflections problem. Co-phased profilometry coherently phase-demodulates a whole set of N-fringe-pattern perspectives in a single demodulation and unwrapping process. The mathematical theory behind digital co-phasing N-fringe-patterns is mathematically similar to co-phasing a segmented N-mirror telescope.

  11. Pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Rafael B; Monteiro, Rodrigo C; Souza, Thiago N S de; Aragão, Augusto J de; Burity, Camila R T; Nóbrega, Júlio C de A; Oliveira, Natália S C de; Abrantes, Ramon B; Dantas Júnior, Luiz B; Cartaxo Filho, Ricardo; Negromonte, Gustavo R P; Sampaio, Rafael da C R; Britto, Cesar A

    2014-01-01

    Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190 mL) with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O). Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully.

  12. Pure Parsimony Xor Haplotyping

    CERN Document Server

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri; Rizzi, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    The haplotype resolution from xor-genotype data has been recently formulated as a new model for genetic studies. The xor-genotype data is a cheaply obtainable type of data distinguishing heterozygous from homozygous sites without identifying the homozygous alleles. In this paper we propose a formulation based on a well-known model used in haplotype inference: pure parsimony. We exhibit exact solutions of the problem by providing polynomial time algorithms for some restricted cases and a fixed-parameter algorithm for the general case. These results are based on some interesting combinatorial properties of a graph representation of the solutions. Furthermore, we show that the problem has a polynomial time k-approximation, where k is the maximum number of xor-genotypes containing a given SNP. Finally, we propose a heuristic and produce an experimental analysis showing that it scales to real-world large instances taken from the HapMap project.

  13. Pure parsimony xor haplotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri; Rizzi, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    The haplotype resolution from xor-genotype data has been recently formulated as a new model for genetic studies. The xor-genotype data is a cheaply obtainable type of data distinguishing heterozygous from homozygous sites without identifying the homozygous alleles. In this paper, we propose a formulation based on a well-known model used in haplotype inference: pure parsimony. We exhibit exact solutions of the problem by providing polynomial time algorithms for some restricted cases and a fixed-parameter algorithm for the general case. These results are based on some interesting combinatorial properties of a graph representation of the solutions. Furthermore, we show that the problem has a polynomial time k-approximation, where k is the maximum number of xor-genotypes containing a given single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Finally, we propose a heuristic and produce an experimental analysis showing that it scales to real-world large instances taken from the HapMap project.

  14. Analysis of double support phase of biped robot and multi-objective optimization using genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rega Rajendra; Dilip Kumar Pratihar

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with multi-objective optimization in gait planning of a 7-dof biped robot during its double support phase, while ascending and descending some staircases. For determining dynamic balance margin of the robot in terms of zero-moment point, its double support phase has been assumed to be consisting of two single support phases on non-coincidental parallel surfaces. Thus, dynamic balance margin of the biped robot during its double support phase is obtained by using a virtual zero-moment point of the system. Moreover, a smooth transition from single to double support phases in a cycle is to be maintained for the walking robots. Two contrasting objectives, namely power consumption and dynamic balance margin have been considered during optimization. Pareto-optimal fronts of solutions are obtained using genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm, separately. To the best of the authors' knowledge, it is the first attempt to solve multi-objective optimization problem in double support phase of a biped robot.

  15. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  16. Behavior of CaO and Calcium in pure Magnesium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HA Seong-Ho; LEE Jin-Kyu; JO Hyung-Ho; JUNG Seung-Boo; KIM Shae K.

    2006-01-01

    Mg alloys exhibit a number of good properties such as low density, good castability and high specific strength.However, molten Mg and Mg alloys are ignited without the melt protective gases during melting and casting process due to their high reactivity.The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of Ca and CaO on pure Mg through microstructure observation, ignition test and phase analysis.With increasing Ca and CaO contents, the ignition resistance of Ca or CaO added pure Mg is increased and the grains are refined.As results of XRD and EDS, CaO is reduced to Ca in CaO added pure Mg.Mg2Ca phase is formed even in 0.1 wt.%CaO added pure Mg by reduction mechanism, while Mg2Ca phase is formed over 1.35 wt.% Ca added pure Mg.

  17. Pure Laparoscopic Augmentation Ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Rebouças

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. Presentation A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190mL with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O. Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully. The patient was placed in the exaggerated Trendelenburg position. A four-port transperitoneal technique was used. A segment of ileum approximately 15-20cm was selected and divided with its pedicle. The ileal anastomosis and creation of ileal U-shaped plate were performed laparoscopically, without staplers. Bladder mobilization and longidutinal cystotomy were performed. Enterovesical anastomosis was done with continuous running suture. A suprapubic cystostomy was placed through a 5mm trocar. Results The total operative time was 335 min. The blood loss was minimal. The patient developed ileus in the early days, diet acceptance after the fourth day and was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. The urethral catheter was removed after 2 weeks. At 6-month follow-up, a cystogram showed a significant improvement in bladder capacity. The patient adhered well to clean intermittent self-catheterization and there was no report for febrile infections

  18. Detectability comparison of simulated objects within a dense breast phantom using high energy x-ray phase sensitive and conventional imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Wei; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the detectability of simulated objects within a dense breast phantom using high energy x-rays for phase sensitive breast imaging in comparison with a conventional imaging system. A 5 cm thick phantom was used which represented a compressed breast consisting of 70% glandular and 30% adipose tissue ratio in non-uniform background. The phantom had a 6 × 6 matrix of holes with milled depths ranging from 1 to 0.1 mm and diameters ranging from 4.25 to 0.25 mm representing simulated tumors. The in-line phase sensitive prototype was equipped with a micro-focus x-ray source and a flat panel detector with a 50 μm pixel pitch, both mounted on an optical rail. Phase contrast image of the phantom was acquired at 120 kVp, 4.5 mAs at source to object distance (SOD) of 68 cm and source to image detector distance (SIDD) of 170 cm with a geometric magnification (M) of 2.5. A 2.5 mm aluminum (Al) filter was used for beam hardening. The conventional image was acquired using the same porotype with the phantom in contact with the detector at 40 kVp, 12.5 mAs under SID = 68 cm. The mean glandular dose (Dg) for both the acquisitions was 1.3 mGy. The observer study and CNR analyses indicated that the phase contrast image had higher disk detectability as compared to the conventional image. The edge enhancement provided by the phase sensitive images warrants in identifying boundaries of malignant tissues and in providing optimal results in phase retrieval process. The potential demonstrated by this study for imaging a dense breast with a high energy phase sensitive x-ray imaging to improve tumor detection in warrants further investigation of this technique.

  19. Phase-contrast imaging of a soft biological object using X-pinch as X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Wang, X. X.; Zou, X. B.; Zeng, N. G.; He, L. Y.

    2008-07-01

    The X-ray emission from an X-pinch was measured with diamond photoconducting detectors and a pinhole camera, and the results show that the X-ray source of the X-pinch is extremely small in size and high in brightness. As such, the X-pinch could be considered as an X-ray point source having a high spatial coherence that is required by a simplified scheme of X-ray phase-contrast imaging. The X-pinch was used as X-ray source for the phase-contrast imaging of a weakly X-ray-absorbing mosquito and an image with high contrast was obtained.

  20. The effect of the inter-phase delay interval in the spontaneous object recognition test for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Thygesen, Kristin Sjølie; Nielsen, Thomas Rune

    2007-01-01

    In the neuroscience community interest for using the pig is growing. Several disease models have been developed creating a need for validation of behavioural paradigms in these animals. Here, we report the effect of different inter-phase delay intervals on the performance of Göttingen minipigs in...

  1. A Pure Object-Oriented Embedding of Attribute Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloane, A.M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Attribute grammars are a powerful specification paradigm for many language processing tasks, particularly semantic analysis of programming languages. Recent attribute grammar systems use dynamic scheduling algorithms to evaluate attributes by need. In this paper, we show how to remove the need for a

  2. Hyper Extremely Red Objects in the Subaru Deep Field Evidence for Primordial Elliptical Galaxies in the Dusty Starburst Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Totani, T; Iwamuro, F; Maihara, T; Motohara, K; Totani, Tomonori; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Motohara, Kentaro

    2001-01-01

    We report observational analyses and theoretical interpretations of unusually red galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). A careful analysis of the SDF data revealed a population with unusually red near-infrared (NIR) colors of J - K >~ 3-4, with higher confidence than the previous SDF result. Their surface number density drastically increases at K >~ 22 and becomes roughly the same with that of dusty starburst galaxies detected by submillimeter observations in recent years. These colors are even redder than the known population of the extremely red objects (EROs), and too red to explain by passively evolving elliptical galaxies which are the largest population of EROs. Hence these hyper extremely red objects (HEROs) should be considered as a distinct population from EROs. We discuss several possible interpretations of these enigmatic objects, and we show that these red NIR colors, K-band and sub-mm flux, and surface number density are quantitatively best explained by primordial elliptical galaxies reddened ...

  3. Visual processing in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Habekost, Thomas; Gerlach, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Whether pure alexia is a selective disorder that affects reading only, or if it reflects a more general visual disturbance, is highly debated. We have investigated the selectivity of visual deficits in a pure alexic patient (NN) using a combination of psychophysical measures, mathematical modelling...

  4. Pure neuritic leprosy: Current status and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Narasimha Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure neuritic leprosy has always been an enigma due to its clinical and management ambiguities. Although only the Indian Association of Leprologist's classification recognizes 'pure neuritic leprosy' as a distinct sub group of leprosy, cases nonetheless are reported from various countries of Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, indicating its global relevance. It is important to maintain pure neuritic leprosy as a subgroup as it constitutes a good percentage of leprosy cases reported from India, which contributes to more than half of global leprosy numbers. Unfortunately, a high proportion of these patients present with Grade 2 disability at the time of initial reporting itself due to the early nerve involvement. Although skin lesions are absent by definition, when skin biopsies were performed from the skin along the distribution of the affected nerve, a proportion of patients demonstrated leprosy pathology, revealing sub-clinical skin involvement. In addition on follow-up, skin lesions are noted to develop in up to 20% of pure neuritic leprosy cases, indicating its progression to manifest cutaneous disease. Over the decades, the confirmation of diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy has been subjective, however, with the arrival and use of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS for nerve imaging, we have a tool not only to objectively measure and record the nerve thickening but also to assess the morphological alterations in the nerve including echo texture, fascicular pattern and vascularity. Management of pure neuritic leprosy requires multidrug therapy along with appropriate dose of systemic corticosteroids, for both acute and silent neuritis. Measures for pain relief, self-care of limbs and physiotherapy are important to prevent as well as manage disabilities in this group of patients.

  5. Pure neuritic leprosy: Current status and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P Narasimha; Suneetha, Sujai

    2016-01-01

    Pure neuritic leprosy has always been an enigma due to its clinical and management ambiguities. Although only the Indian Association of Leprologist's classification recognizes 'pure neuritic leprosy' as a distinct sub group of leprosy, cases nonetheless are reported from various countries of Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, indicating its global relevance. It is important to maintain pure neuritic leprosy as a subgroup as it constitutes a good percentage of leprosy cases reported from India, which contributes to more than half of global leprosy numbers. Unfortunately, a high proportion of these patients present with Grade 2 disability at the time of initial reporting itself due to the early nerve involvement. Although skin lesions are absent by definition, when skin biopsies were performed from the skin along the distribution of the affected nerve, a proportion of patients demonstrated leprosy pathology, revealing sub-clinical skin involvement. In addition on follow-up, skin lesions are noted to develop in up to 20% of pure neuritic leprosy cases, indicating its progression to manifest cutaneous disease. Over the decades, the confirmation of diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy has been subjective, however, with the arrival and use of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) for nerve imaging, we have a tool not only to objectively measure and record the nerve thickening but also to assess the morphological alterations in the nerve including echo texture, fascicular pattern and vascularity. Management of pure neuritic leprosy requires multidrug therapy along with appropriate dose of systemic corticosteroids, for both acute and silent neuritis. Measures for pain relief, self-care of limbs and physiotherapy are important to prevent as well as manage disabilities in this group of patients.

  6. Resolution enhancement by extrapolation of coherent diffraction images: a quantitative study about the limits and a numerical study of non-binary and phase objects

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    In coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) the resolution with which the reconstructed object can be obtained is limited by the numerical aperture of the experimental setup. We present here a theoretical and numerical study for achieving super-resolution by post-extrapolation of coherent diffraction images, such as diffraction patterns or holograms. We proof that a diffraction pattern can unambiguously be extrapolated from just a fraction of the entire pattern and that the ratio of the extrapolated signal to the originally available signal, is linearly proportional to the oversampling ratio. While there could be in principle other methods to achieve extrapolation, we devote our discussion to employing phase retrieval methods and demonstrate their limits. We present two numerical studies; namely the extrapolation of diffraction patterns of non-binary and that of phase objects together with a discussion of the optimal extrapolation procedure.

  7. Research on object-plane constraints and hologram expansion in phase retrieval algorithms for continuous-wave terahertz inline digital holography reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Qi; Cui, Shanshan

    2014-10-20

    In terahertz inline digital holography, zero-order diffraction light and conjugate images can cause the reconstructed image to be blurred. In this paper, three phase retrieval algorithms are applied to conduct reconstruction based on the same near-field diffraction propagation conditions and image-plane constraints. The impact of different object-plane constraints on CW terahertz inline digital holographic reconstruction is studied. The results show that in the phase retrieval algorithm it is not suitable to impose restriction on the phase when the object is not isolated in the transmission-type CW terahertz inline digital holography. In addition, the effects of zero-padding expansion, boundary replication expansion, and apodization operation on reconstructed images are studied. The results indicate that the conjugate image can be eliminated, and a better reconstructed image can be obtained by adopting an appropriate phase retrieval algorithm after the normalized hologram extending to the minimum area, which meets the applicable range of the angular spectrum reconstruction algorithm by means of boundary replication.

  8. Pure compared with mixed serous endometrial carcinoma: two different entities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, T.; Ham, M.A. van; Wiersma van Tilburg, J.M.; Zomer, S.F.; Bol, M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : To analyze whether mixed compared with pure uterine papillary serous carcinoma histology affects clinical outcome, and to assess uterine papillary serous carcinoma for its association with the precursor lesion endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma. METHODS: : A multi-institution observa

  9. On the nature of the enigmatic object IRAS 19312+1950: A rare phase of massive star formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Cordiner, M A; Charnley, S B; Justtanont, K; Cox, N L J; Smith, R G; Tielens, A G G M; Wirström, E S; Milam, S N; Keane, J V

    2016-01-01

    IRAS 19312+1950 is a peculiar object that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery, with combined maser properties similar to an evolved star and a young stellar object (YSO). To help determine its true nature, we obtained infrared spectra of IRAS 19312+1950 in the range 5-550 $\\mu$m using the Herschel and Spitzer space observatories. The Herschel PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source at 170 $\\mu$m, indicative of a large, dusty circumstellar envelope. The far-IR CO emission line spectrum reveals two gas temperature components: $\\approx0.22M_{\\odot}$ of material at $280\\pm18$ K, and $\\approx1.6M_{\\odot}$ of material at $157\\pm3$ K. The OI 63 $\\mu$m line is detected on-source but no significant emission from atomic ions was found. The HIFI observations display shocked, high-velocity gas with outflow speeds up to 90 km s$^{-1}$ along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify ice absorption bands due to H$_2$O at 5.8 $\\mu$m and CO$_2$ at 15 $\\mu$m. The spect...

  10. On the Nature of the Enigmatic Object IRAS 19312+1950: A Rare Phase of Massive Star Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Justtanont, K.; Cox, N. L. J.; Smith, R. G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Wirström, E. S.; Milam, S. N.; Keane, J. V.

    2016-09-01

    IRAS 19312+1950 is a peculiar object that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery, with combined maser properties similar to an evolved star and a young stellar object (YSO). To help determine its true nature, we obtained infrared spectra of IRAS 19312+1950 in the range 5-550 μm using the Herschel and Spitzer space observatories. The Herschel PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source at 170 μm, indicative of a large, dusty circumstellar envelope. The far-IR CO emission line spectrum reveals two gas temperature components: ≈0.22 M ⊙ of material at 280 ± 18 K, and ≈1.6 M ⊙ of material at 157 ± 3 K. The O i 63 μm line is detected on-source but no significant emission from atomic ions was found. The HIFI observations display shocked, high-velocity gas with outflow speeds up to 90 km s-1 along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify ice absorption bands due to H2O at 5.8 μm and CO2 at 15 μm. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a massive, luminous (˜2 × 104 L ⊙) central source surrounded by a dense, warm circumstellar disk and envelope of total mass ˜500-700 M ⊙, with large bipolar outflow cavities. The combination of distinctive far-IR spectral features suggest that IRAS 19312+1950 should be classified as an accreting, high-mass YSO rather than an evolved star. In light of this reclassification, IRAS 19312+1950 becomes only the fifth high-mass protostar known to exhibit SiO maser activity, and demonstrates that 18 cm OH maser line ratios may not be reliable observational discriminators between evolved stars and YSOs. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  11. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  12. Relativity of pure states entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Bengtsson, Ingemar

    2002-01-01

    Entanglement of any pure state of an N times N bi-partite quantum system may be characterized by the vector of coefficients arising by its Schmidt decomposition. We analyze various measures of entanglement derived from the generalized entropies of the vector of Schmidt coefficients. For N >= 3 they generate different ordering in the set of pure states and for some states their ordering depends on the measure of entanglement used. This odd-looking property is acceptable, since these incomparable states cannot be transformed to each other with unit efficiency by any local operation. In analogy to special relativity the set of pure states equivalent under local unitaries has a causal structure so that at each point the set splits into three parts: the 'Future', the 'Past' and the set of noncomparable states.

  13. "Pure" cutaneous histiocytosis-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, S L; Botero, F; Hurwitz, S; Pearson, H A

    1981-11-15

    The case histories of two young children who experienced skin rashes involving various areas of the body are reported. The diagnosis of pure cutaneous histiocytosis-X was established after extensive studies revealed no other organ involvement. The patients were treated with oral corticosteroids. Currently, both children are in good health, show no evidence of disease, and have been followed over a four-to-five-year period. Therapy with corticosteroids may not be indicated with pure cutaneous histiocytosis-X unless there is evidence of extracutaneous dissemination or rapid progression of the disease.

  14. Pure Spinors for General Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Fre', Pietro

    2008-01-01

    We show the equivalence of the different types of pure spinor constraints geometrically derived from the Free Differential Algebras of N=2 d=10 supergravities. Firstly, we compute the general solutions of these constraints, using both a G_2 and an SO(8) covariant decomposition of the 10d chiral spinors. Secondly, we verify that the number of independent degrees of freedom is equal to that implied by the Poincare' pure spinor constraints so-far used for superstrings, namely twenty two. Thirdly, we show the equivalence between the FDA type IIA/B constraints among each other and with the Poincare' ones.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF VEGETABLE PUREES AND DRINKS BY LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    At. Kraevska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to investigate the possibility for development of vegetable purees and drinks by lactic acid fermentation. It was found that by the direct lactic acid fermentation of Lb.plantarum strain 226/1 the vitamin composition of vegetable purees is preserved and the biological value is increased. Drinks, prepared from fermented vegetable purees were remarkable with the pleasant lactic acid taste, the sucrose-acid composition was stable and balanced and they can be used both in the rational and in the dietary nutrition.

  16. Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok k. Hemal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.

  17. First results on headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of volatile organic compounds emitted by wax objects in museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuati-Derieux, A; Thao, S; Langlois, J; Regert, M

    2008-04-11

    Sampling volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a large variety of materials is nowadays a very useful technique for analytical purpose. In the field of cultural heritage, it can be applied to identify some constituents of museum artefacts off-gassing VOCs without sampling on the object itself. In this study, we focused on objects made of wax. First volatiles emitted by a reference beeswax were trapped and identified by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This allowed to identify numerous volatile biomarkers, namely saturated n-alkanes from C(10) to C(21), saturated n-carboxylic acids containing 6-12 carbon atoms, benzene and cinnamic derivatives that may be considered as volatile biomarkers of beeswax. The SPME strategy was then performed at the Orsay museum (Paris) in a showcase containing a wax sculpture "Le Mineur de la Loire" by J.-J. Carriès. The use of beeswax in this sculpture was unequivocally confirmed by the VOCs concentrated in the showcase, together with a set of characteristic molecular compounds identified by HT-GC/MS. HS-SPME-GC/MS thus appears to be a powerful in situ and non-invasive analytical technique that allows to identify natural substances in the field of cultural heritage without any sampling of solid matter from the object. The results obtained are promising for orientating the strategy of preventive conservation related to works of art characterised by important emission of VOCs.

  18. Crystal structure of pure ZrO{sub 2} nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamas, D.G. [CINSO - Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397 (1603) Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: dlamas@citefa.gov.ar; Rosso, A.M. [CINSO - Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397 (1603) Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Anzorena, M. Suarez [CINSO - Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397 (1603) Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez, A. [DEICOR - Departamento de Investigaciones en Corrosion, CITEFA, J.B. de La Salle 4397 (1603) Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bellino, M.G. [CINSO - Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397 (1603) Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabezas, M.D. [CINSO - Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397 (1603) Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Walsoee de Reca, N.E. [CINSO - Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397 (1603) Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Craievich, A.F. [Instituto de Fisica, FAP, USP, Travessa R da Rua do Matao, No.187, Cidade Universitaria (05508-900) Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-09-15

    The crystal structure of pure (undoped) zirconia nanopowders synthesized by different wet-chemical routes has been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Whereas some previous authors reported the retention of the cubic phase in similar materials, we demonstrate here that pure zirconia nanopowders with average crystallite sizes ranging from 5 to 10 nm exhibit the tetragonal phase. In addition, our results suggest that a tetragonal-to-cubic transition for decreasing crystallite size could eventually occur at a very small critical crystallite size.

  19. Tailored jump operators for purely dissipative quantum magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    I propose an architecture for the realization of dissipative quantum many-body spin models. The dissipative processes are mediated by interactions with auxiliary particles and lead to a widely tunable class of correlated quantum jump operators. These findings enable the investigation of purely dissipative spin models, where coherent dynamics is entirely absent. I provide a detailed review of a recently introduced variational method to analyze such dissipative quantum many-body systems, and I discuss a specific example in terms of a purely dissipative Heisenberg model, for which I find an additional disordered phase that is not present in the corresponding ground state phase diagram.

  20. Tailored jump operators for purely dissipative quantum magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Weimer, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    I propose an archtitecture for the realization of dissipative quantum many-body spin models. The dissipative processes are mediated by interactions with auxiliary particles and lead to a widely tunable class of correlated quantum jump operators. These findings enable the investigation of purely dissipative spin models, where coherent dynamics is entirely absent. I provide a detailed review of a recently introduced variational method to analyze such dissipative quantum many-body systems, and I discuss a specific example in terms of a purely dissipative Heisenberg model, for which I find an additional disordered phase that is not present in the corresponding ground state phase diagram.

  1. The Level-1 Calorimeter Global Feature Extractor (gFEX) Boosted Object Trigger for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho Toro, Reina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Global Feature Extractor (gFEX) module is a planned component of the Level 1 online trigger system for the ATLAS experiment planned for installation during the Phase I upgrade in 2018. This unique single electronics board with multiple high speed processors will receive coarse-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters enabling the identification in real time of large-radius jets for capturing Lorentz-boosted objects such as top quarks, Higgs, $Z$ and $W$ bosons. The gFEX architecture also facilitates the calculation of global event variables such as missing transverse energy, centrality for heavy ion collisions, and event-by-event pile-up energy density. Details of the electronics architecture that provides these capabilities are presented, along with results of tests of the prototype systems now available. The status of the firmware algorithm design and implementation as well as monitoring capabilities are also presented.

  2. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  3. Manifolds of interconvertible pure states

    OpenAIRE

    Sinolecka, Magdalena M.; Zyczkowski, Karol; Kus, Marek

    2001-01-01

    Local orbits of a pure state of an N x N bi-partite quantum system are analyzed. We compute their dimensions which depends on the degeneracy of the vector of coefficients arising by the Schmidt decomposition. In particular, the generic orbit has 2N^2 -N-1 dimensions, the set of separable states is 4(N-1) dimensional, while the manifold of maximally entangled states has N^2-1 dimensions.

  4. Manifolds of interconvertible pure states

    CERN Document Server

    Sinolecka, M M; Kus, M; Sinolecka, Magdalena M.; Zyczkowski, Karol; Kus, Marek

    2002-01-01

    Local orbits of a pure state of an N x N bi-partite quantum system are analyzed. We compute their dimensions which depends on the degeneracy of the vector of coefficients arising by the Schmidt decomposition. In particular, the generic orbit has 2N^2 -N-1 dimensions, the set of separable states is 4(N-1) dimensional, while the manifold of maximally entangled states has N^2-1 dimensions.

  5. Multimedia programming with pure data

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    A quick and comprehensive tutorial book for media designers to jump-start interactive multimedia production with computer graphics, digital audio, digital video, and interactivity, using the Pure Data graphical programming environment.An introductory book on multimedia programming for media artists/designers who like to work on interactivity in their projects, digital art/design students who like to learn the first multimedia programming technique, and audio-visual performers who like to customize their performance sets

  6. Pure Electric and Pure Magnetic Resonances in Near-Infrared Metal Double-Triangle Metamaterial Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhi-Shen; PAN Jian; CHEN Zhuo; ZHAN Peng; MIN Nai-Ben; WANG Zhen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography.We demonstrate that each double-triangle can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator.It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions,individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance,but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band.Therefore,switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover,both the electric and magnetic resonances axe shown to allow for a tunability over a large spectral range down to near-infrared.%We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. We demonstrate that each double-triable can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator. It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions, individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance, but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band. Therefore, switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover, both the electric and magnetic resonances are shown to allow for a tunability over

  7. The chemistry of episodic accretion in embedded objects. 2D radiation thermo-chemical models of the post-burst phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rab, Ch.; Elbakyan, V.; Vorobyov, E.; Güdel, M.; Dionatos, O.; Audard, M.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W.-F.; Woitke, P.; Postel, A.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Episodic accretion is an important process in the evolution of young stars and their environment. The observed strong luminosity bursts of young stellar objects likely have a long lasting (i.e. longer than the burst duration) impact on the chemical evolution of the disk and envelope of young stars. Aims: We aim to investigate the observational signatures of the chemical evolution in the post-burst phase for embedded sources. With such signatures it is possible to identify targets that experienced a recent luminosity burst. Methods: We present a new model for the chemistry of episodic accretion based on the two dimensional, radiation thermo-chemical disk code PRODIMO (PROtoplanetary DIsk MOdel). We have extended PRODIMO with a proper treatment for envelope structures. For a representative Class I model, we calculated the chemical abundances in the post-burst phase and produced synthetic observables such as intensity maps and radial intensity profiles. Results: During a burst, many chemical species, such as CO, sublimate from the dust surfaces. As the burst ends they freeze out again (post-burst phase). This freeze-out happens from inside-out due to the radial density gradient in the disk and envelope structure. This inside-out freeze-out produces clear observational signatures in spectral line emission, such as rings and distinct features in the slope of radial intensity profiles. We fitted synthetic C18O J = 2-1 observations with single and two component fits and find that post-burst images are much better matched by the latter. Comparing the quality of such fits therefore allows identification of post-burst targets in a model-independent way. Conclusions: Our models confirm that it is possible to identify post-burst objects from spatially resolved CO observations. However, to derive proper statistics, such as the strength and frequencies of bursts, from observations it is important to consider the inclination and structure of the target and dust

  8. Production of fermented chestnut purees by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, G; Di Capua, M; Coppola, R; Aponte, M

    2012-09-03

    The objective of this study was to develop a new chestnut-based puree, in order to seasonally adjust the offer and use the surplus of undersized production, providing, at the same time, a response to the growing demand for healthy and environmentally friendly products. Broken dried chestnuts have been employed to prepare purees to be fermented with six different strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei. The fermented purees were characterized by a technological and sensorial point of view, while the employed strains were tested for their probiotic potential. Conventional in vitro tests have indicated the six lactobacilli strains as promising probiotic candidates; moreover, being the strains able to grow and to survive in chestnut puree at a population level higher than 8 log₁₀ CFU/mL along 40 days of storage at 4 °C, the bases for the production of a new food, lactose-free and with reduced fat content, have been laid.

  9. Pressure-induced structural transformations in pure and Ru-doped 0.9PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3-0.1PbTiO3 near the morphotropic phase boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeselmann, N.; Maier, B. J.; Mihailova, B.; Angel, R. J.; Zhao, J.; Gospodinov, M.; Paulmann, C.; Ross, N.; Bismayer, U.

    2012-01-01

    Pressure-induced structural transformations in relaxor-based perovskite-type (ABO3) 0.9PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3-0.1PbTiO3 single crystals which have a very high piezoelectric response were studied by single-crystal x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy at room temperature and pressures up to 18.1 GPa. Changes in the state of long-range order were observed near 1.0, 2.1, and 5.9 GPa. Initially, upon pressure increase, the ferroic deviation of the atomic positions from the cubic structure is reduced, but the ferroelectric twinning is enhanced, and near 1.0 GPa, the intrinsic ferroelectric multiphase domain pattern formed in the as-synthesized crystals is changed. At 2.1 GPa, the system undergoes a phase transition from a ferroelectric to a relaxor state, which exhibits an average cubic structure but still contains polar nanoregions. At 5.9 GPa, a reversible phase transition typical of Pb-based perovskite-type relaxors occurs, namely a cubic-to-antiferrodistortive phase transition resulting in a long-range order of antiphase octahedral tilts. On decompression, the ferroelectric state reappears below 2.1 GPa, and the local atomic structure is fully recovered at ambient pressure, but the final domain texture differs from the initial one. Ruthenium doping on the B site does not influence the pressure-induced structural transformations.

  10. Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.pierobon@unipd.it [Università di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states is derived starting from their representation as displaced and squeezed multimode vacuum states. The approach is new and appears to be simpler and more general than previous ones starting from the phase-space representation given by the characteristic or Wigner function. Fock expansion is performed in terms of easily evaluable two-variable Hermite–Kampé de Fériet polynomials. A relatively simple and compact expression for the joint statistical distribution of the photon numbers in the different modes is obtained. In particular, this result enables one to give a simple characterization of separable and entangled states, as shown for two-mode and three-mode Gaussian states.

  11. Synaptic devices based on purely electronic memristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ruobing [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Li, Jun; Zhuge, Fei, E-mail: zhugefei@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Zhu, Liqiang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Cao, Hongtao, E-mail: zhugefei@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Fu, Bing; Li, Kang [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2016-01-04

    Memristive devices have been widely employed to emulate biological synaptic behavior. In these cases, the memristive switching generally originates from electrical field induced ion migration or Joule heating induced phase change. In this letter, the Ti/ZnO/Pt structure was found to show memristive switching ascribed to a carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites (e.g., oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials) in ZnO. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be controllably adjusted by regulating the current compliance level or voltage amplitude. Multi-level conductance states can, therefore, be realized in such memristive device. The spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in this type of synaptic device. Compared with filamentary-type memristive devices, purely electronic memristors have potential to reduce their energy consumption and work more stably and reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

  12. Universality in pure gravity mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ibe, Masahiro [University of Tokyo, ICRR, Kashiwa (Japan); University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    If low-energy supersymmetry is realized in nature, the apparent discovery of a Higgs boson with mass around 125 GeV suggests a supersymmetric mass spectrum in the TeV or multi-TeV range. Multi-TeV scalar masses are a necessary component of supersymmetric models with pure gravity mediation or in any model with strong moduli stabilization. Here, we show that full scalar mass universality remains viable as long as the ratio of Higgs vevs, tan{beta}, is relatively small (

  13. Toxicological evaluation of pure hydroxytyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auñon-Calles, David; Canut, Lourdes; Visioli, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Of all the phenolic constituents of olives and extra virgin olive oil, hydroxytyrosol is currently being actively exploited as a potential supplement or preservative to be employed in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and food industry. In terms of safety profile, hydroxytyrosol has only been investigated as the predominant part of raw olive mill waste water extracts, due to the previous unavailability of appropriate quantities of the pure compound. We report the toxicological evaluation of hydroxytyrosol and, based on the results, propose a No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of 500mg/kg/d.

  14. Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure Anthracyclinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmatowicz, Osman; Szechner, Barbara

    The anthracycline antibiotics are among the most important clinical drugs used in the treatment of human cancer. The search for new agents with improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced cardiotoxicity stimulated considerable efforts in the synthesis of new analogues. Since the biological activity of anthracyclines depends on their natural absolute configuration, various strategies for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones (aglycones) have been developed. They comprise: resolution of racemic intermediate, incorporation of a chiral fragment derived from natural and non-natural chiral pools, asymmetric synthesis with the use of a chiral auxiliary or a chiral reagent, and enantioselective catalysis. Synthetic advances towards enantiopure anthracyclinones reported over the last 17 years are reviewed.

  15. Pure dysarthria due to an insular infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Saiko; Kamitsukasa, Ikuo

    2010-06-01

    Cortical infarction presenting with pure dysarthria is rarely reported. Previous studies have reported pure dysarthria due to cortical stroke at the precentral gyrus or middle frontal gyrus. We report a 72-year-old man who developed pure dysarthria caused by an acute cortical infarction in the insular cortex. The role of the insula in language has been difficult to assess clinically because of the rarity of pure insular strokes. Our patient showed pure dysarthria without aphasia, indicating that pure dysarthria can be the sole manifestation of insular infarctions.

  16. ABSOLUTELY E-PURE MODULES AND E-PURE SPLIT MODULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hangyu

    2011-01-01

    We first introduce the concepts of absolutely E-pure modules and Epure split modules. Then, we characterize the IF rings in terms of absolutely E-pure modules. The E-pure split modules are also characterized.

  17. A two-phase procedure for a multi-objective programming problem with fuzzy coefficients based on group decision making for project selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraç Eren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional Development Agencies (RDAs play a major role in ensuring sustainability and reducing inter-regional and intra-regional development disparities in line with the principles and policies set in the National Development Plan and Programs. This is done by enhancing cooperation among the public and private sectors, as well as non-governmental organizations. To achieve these targets, RDAs use certain tools such as financial support programs, technical support programs, and the like. Accordingly, an effective evaluation mechanism is crucial in selecting projects that have more added value and higher multiplier effects. In this regard, determining the right parameters that assist in choosing the best projects should be clearly demonstrated. In this study, the selection of projects according to the evaluating criteria of support mechanisms considered by RDAs are discussed through the procedure provided by a practical solution methodology, which is an integration of fuzzy parametric programming (FPP and fuzzy linear programming (FLP. Later, a two-phase procedure is introduced to solve multi-objective fuzzy linear programming problems.

  18. A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Study of Phase-Shift Sound Therapy for Tinnitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijneman, Karin M.; de Kleine, Emile; van Dijk, Pim

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the treatment of tinnitus with a phase-shifting pure tone to that of the same tone treatment without phase shifting. Study Design. A double-blind crossover randomized controlled trial. Setting. This study was conducted at the Univer

  19. Cognition versus Constitution of Objects: From Kant to Modern Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Classical mechanics in phase space as well as quantum mechanics in Hilbert space lead to states and observables but not to objects that may be considered as carriers of observable quantities. However, in both cases objects can be constituted as new entities by means of invariance properties of the theories in question. We show, that this way of reasoning has a long history in physics and philosophy and that it can be traced back to the transcendental arguments in Kant’s critique of pure reason.

  20. History and theology of Korean pentecostalism: Sunbogeum (pure gospel) Pentecostalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Ig-Jin

    2003-01-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the context and texture of Korean Pentecostalism - Sunbogeum (pure Gospel) Pentecostalism. This study shows that Sunbogeum Pentecostalism is the complex product of four factors: first, Korean religio-social circumstances; second, the doctrine of classical

  1. History and theology of Korean pentecostalism: Sunbogeum (pure gospel) Pentecostalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Ig-Jin

    2003-01-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the context and texture of Korean Pentecostalism - Sunbogeum (pure Gospel) Pentecostalism. This study shows that Sunbogeum Pentecostalism is the complex product of four factors: first, Korean religio-social circumstances; second, the doctrine of classical P

  2. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on pure magnesium from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4274 (October 2011), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No....

  3. Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; O'Neil, T. M.; Valentini, F.

    2012-10-01

    Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low-frequency branch of near-linear Langmuir (plasma) waves: the frequency is such that the complex dielectric function (Dr, Di) has Dr= 0; and ``flattening'' of f(v) near the wave phase velocity vph gives Di=0 and eliminates Landau damping. Here, we observe standing axisymmetric EAWs in a pure ion column.footnotetextF. Anderegg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 095001 (2009). At low excitation amplitudes, the EAWs have vph˜1.4 v, in close agreement with near-linear theory. At moderate excitation strengths, EAW waves are observed over a range of frequencies, with 1.3 v vphvph.footnotetextF. Valentini et al., arXiv:1206.3500v1. Large amplitude EAWs have strong phase-locked harmonic content, and experiments will be compared to same-geometry simulations, and to simulations of KEENfootnotetextB. Afeyan et al., Proc. Inertial Fusion Sci. and Applications 2003, A.N.S. Monterey (2004), p. 213. waves in HEDLP geometries.

  4. 固相烧结法制备高纯LaCoO3粉末%Pure LaCoO3 Powders by Solid-phase Sintering Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋更新

    2013-01-01

    LaCoO3 is a typical ABO3 perovskite-type compounds. It has excellent chemical stability and good e-lectrical conductivity under high temperature,due to their potential applications in energetics both as cathodes and solid electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells,and both in environmental catalysis for pollutant decomposition and colossal magnetoresistance materials. Found by XRD and XPS studies,the best ratio of synthesis of LaCoO3 by solid-phase sintering method is Co La=105%,the optimum sintering time of 50 hours.%LaCoO3是典型的ABO3型钙钛矿化合物。它具有优异的化学稳定性和高温下的良导电性,在环境催化分解、汽车尾气处理、巨磁阻材料、二次电池和燃料电池的电极材料等方面都有着十分广泛的应用前景。通过XRD谱和XPS研究发现,固相烧结法制备LaCoO3的最佳配比为Co La=105%,最佳烧结时间为50小时。

  5. Dual Target Search is Neither Purely Simultaneous nor Purely Successive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Kyle R; Menneer, Tamaryn; Nomani, Mohammad S; Stroud, Michael J; Donnelly, Nick

    2017-08-31

    Previous research shows that visual search for two different targets is less efficient than search for a single target. Stroud, Menneer, Cave and Donnelly (2012) concluded that two target colours are represented separately based on modeling the fixation patterns. Although those analyses provide evidence for two separate target representations, they do not show whether participants search simultaneously for both targets, or first search for one target and then the other. Some studies suggest that multiple target representations are simultaneously active, while others indicate that search can be voluntarily simultaneous, or switching, or a mixture of both. Stroud et al.'s participants were not explicitly instructed to use any particular strategy. These data were revisited to determine which strategy was employed. Each fixated item was categorised according to whether its colour was more similar to one target or the other. Once an item similar to one target is fixated, the next fixated item is more likely to be similar to that target than the other, showing that at a given moment during search, one target is generally favoured. However, the search for one target is not completed before search for the other begins. Instead, there are often short runs of one or two fixations to distractors similar to one target, with each run followed by a switch to the other target. Thus, the results suggest that one target is more highly weighted than the other at any given time, but not to the extent that search is purely successive.

  6. Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓宇; 陈刚; 张亶; 王肖虹; 董光昌

    2004-01-01

    Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms, commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack. In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm,we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms. First, a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices. Then, by using probability theory and algebraic principles, the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then, by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices, we improve a specific decryption al-gorithm. Finally, some simulation results are shown.

  7. Bringing Planctomycetes into pure culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Lage

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Planctomycetes have been known since the description of Planctomyces bekefii by Gimesi at the beginning of the twentieth century (1924, although the first axenic cultures were only obtained in the 1970s. Since then, eleven genera with fourteen species have been validly named and five candidatus genera belonging to the anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox bacteria have also been discovered. However, Planctomycetes diversity is much broader than these numbers indicate, as shown by environmental molecular studies. In recent years the authors have attempted to isolate and cultivate additional strains of Planctomycetes. This paper provides a summary of the isolation work that was carried out to obtain in pure culture Planctomycetes from several environmental sources. The following strains and planctomycetes have been successfully isolated: two freshwater strains from the sediments of an aquarium, which were described as a new genus and species, Aquisphaera giovannonii; several Rhodopirellula strains from the sediments of a water treatment recycling tank of a marine fish farm; and more than 140 planctomycetes from the biofilm community of macroalgae. This collection comprises several novel taxa that are being characterized and described. Improvements in the isolation methodology were made in order to optimize and enlarge the number of Planctomycetes isolated from the macroalgae. The existence of an intimate and an important relationship between planctomycetes and macroalgae reported before by molecular studies is therefore supported by culture dependent methods.

  8. Isomerically Pure Tetramethylrhodamine Voltage Reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Parker E; Kulkarni, Rishikesh U; Al-Abdullatif, Sarah H; Miller, Evan W

    2016-07-27

    We present the design, synthesis, and application of a new family of fluorescent voltage indicators based on isomerically pure tetramethylrhodamines. These new Rhodamine Voltage Reporters, or RhoVRs, use photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) as a trigger for voltage sensing, display excitation and emission profiles in the green to orange region of the visible spectrum, demonstrate high sensitivity to membrane potential changes (up to 47% ΔF/F per 100 mV), and employ a tertiary amide derived from sarcosine, which aids in membrane localization and simultaneously simplifies the synthetic route to the voltage sensors. The most sensitive of the RhoVR dyes, RhoVR 1, features a methoxy-substituted diethylaniline donor and phenylenevinylene molecular wire at the 5'-position of the rhodamine aryl ring, exhibits the highest voltage sensitivity to date for red-shifted PeT-based voltage sensors, and is compatible with simultaneous imaging alongside green fluorescent protein-based indicators. The discoveries that sarcosine-based tertiary amides in the context of molecular-wire voltage indicators prevent dye internalization and 5'-substituted voltage indicators exhibit improved voltage sensitivity should be broadly applicable to other types of PeT-based voltage-sensitive fluorophores.

  9. Objective measures of sleep and dim light melatonin onset in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger H; Sørensen, Eli; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed.

  10. The neuroanatomy of pure apraxia of speech in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Jones, David T; Strand, Edythe A; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Duffy, Joseph R; Josephs, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    The left insula or Broca's area have been proposed as the neuroanatomical correlate for apraxia of speech (AOS) based on studies of patients with both AOS and aphasia due to stroke. Studies of neurodegenerative AOS suggest the premotor area and the supplementary motor areas as the anatomical correlates. The study objective was to determine the common infarction area in patients with pure AOS due to stroke. Patients with AOS and no or equivocal aphasia due to ischemic stroke were identified through a pre-existing database. Seven subjects were identified. Five had pure AOS, and two had equivocal aphasia. MRI lesion analysis revealed maximal overlap spanning the left premotor and motor cortices. While both neurodegenerative AOS and stroke induced pure AOS involve the premotor cortex, further studies are needed to establish whether stroke-induced AOS and neurodegenerative AOS share a common anatomic substrate.

  11. Pure variation and organic stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanvallon, Jérôme

    2012-09-01

    The fundamental problem posed by Darwin distinguishes his theory from any transformism of the past as well as any evolutionism to come: since variation is inherent to the living, it is a question of explaining, not at all why the living varies, but instead why the living does not vary in all directions to the point of constituting a continuum of forms varying ad infinitum. What limits and stabilizes this intrinsically unlimited variation, allowing certain forms to subsist and multiply to the detriment of others, is natural selection. This double principle of intrinsic variation/extrinsic selection constitutes a vector for the unification of reality that underlies Jean-Jacques Kupiec's ontophylogenesis as well as Deleuze and Guattari's global philosophy of Nature. Therefore, everything would potentially tend to incessantly vary. The work of Kupiec and others identifies an intrinsic random variation within ontogenesis itself. For Deleuze and Guattari, it is nothing but the figure, already selected by the organic stratum, of a more fundamental or pure variation. But, in fact, nothing really varies incessantly: everything undergoes a selective pressure according to which nothing subsists as such except what manages to endure through invariance (physical stratum) or reproduction (organic stratum). Thus, organic stratification only retains from variation what ensures and augments this reproduction. In this sense, every organism stratifies, i.e. submits to its imperative of subsistence and reproduction, a body without organs that varies in itself and always tends to escape the organism, for better (intensifications of life) or worse (cancerous pathologies). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The iterative self-consistent reaction-field method: The refractive index of pure water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.; Mikkelsen, K. V.; Ratner, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present different microscopic models for describing electromagnetic properties of condensed phases and the models involve iterative self-consistent procedures for calculating the properties. We report calculations of the frequency-dependent refractive index of pure water. We investigate...

  13. Tame Kernels of Pure Cubic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yun CHENG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study the p-rank of the tame kernels of pure cubic fields.In particular,we prove that for a fixed positive integer m,there exist infinitely many pure cubic fields whose 3-rank of the tame kernel equal to m.As an application,we determine the 3-rank of their tame kernels for some special pure cubic fields.

  14. Dissipation-induced pure Gaussian state

    CERN Document Server

    Koga, Kei

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides some necessary and sufficient conditions for a general Markovian Gaussian master equation to have a unique pure steady state. The conditions are described by simple matrix equations, thus they can be easily applied to the so-called environment engineering for pure Gaussian state preparation. In particular, it is shown that for any given pure Gaussian state we can actually construct a dissipative process yielding that state as the unique steady state.

  15. A pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospadov, Egor; Rothstein, Stuart M

    2015-01-14

    The objective of pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo is to calculate physical properties that are independent of the importance sampling function being employed in the calculation, save for the mismatch of its nodal hypersurface with that of the exact wave function. To achieve this objective, we report a pure-sampling algorithm that combines features of forward walking methods of pure-sampling and reptation quantum Monte Carlo (RQMC). The new algorithm accurately samples properties from the mixed and pure distributions simultaneously in runs performed at a single set of time-steps, over which extrapolation to zero time-step is performed. In a detailed comparison, we found RQMC to be less efficient. It requires different sets of time-steps to accurately determine the energy and other properties, such as the dipole moment. We implement our algorithm by systematically increasing an algorithmic parameter until the properties converge to statistically equivalent values. As a proof in principle, we calculated the fixed-node energy, static α polarizability, and other one-electron expectation values for the ground-states of LiH and water molecules. These quantities are free from importance sampling bias, population control bias, time-step bias, extrapolation-model bias, and the finite-field approximation. We found excellent agreement with the accepted values for the energy and a variety of other properties for those systems.

  16. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  17. Object crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  18. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    objectives may direct students’ learning (Duchastel and Merrill, 1973; Kapfer , 1970; Kibler et al., 1974), since such objectives may provide...matter learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(1): 67-70 (1971). Kapfer , P. G. Behavioral objectives and the curriculum processor. Educational

  19. Pure spin current induced by adiabatic quantum pumping in zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souma, Satofumi, E-mail: ssouma@harbor.kobe-u.ac.jp; Ogawa, Matsuto [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-05-05

    We show theoretically that pure spin current can be generated in zigzag edged graphene nanoribbons through the adiabatic pumping by edge selective pumping potentials. The origin of such pure spin current is the spin splitting of the edge localized states, which are oppositely spin polarized at opposite edges. In the proposed device, each edge of the ribbon is covered by two independent time-periodic local gate potentials with a definite phase difference, inducing the edge spin polarized current. When the pumping phase difference is opposite in sign between two edges, the total charge currents is zero and the pure edge spin current is generated.

  20. The Expansion Postponement in Pure Type Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋方敏

    1997-01-01

    The expansion postponement problem in Pure Type Systems is an open problem raised by R.Pollack in 1992.In this paper,the author presents a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for this problem and a set of sufficient conditions for it.The author also gives some properties for pure typ systems without the expansion rule.

  1. Measuring the entanglement of bipartite pure states

    CERN Document Server

    Sancho, J M

    2000-01-01

    The problem of the experimental determination of the amount of entanglement of a bipartite pure state is addressed. We show that measuring a single observable does not suffice to determine the entanglement of a given unknown pure state of two particles. Possible minimal local measuring strategies are discussed and a comparison is made on the basis of their best achievable precision.

  2. Fundamentals of the pure spinor formalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents recent developments within the pure spinor formalism, which has simplified amplitude computations in perturbative string theory, especially when spacetime fermions are involved. Firstly the worldsheet action of both the minimal and the non-minimal pure spinor formalism is derive

  3. 纯MgB2和碳掺杂MgB2超导块材在酸浸过程中相成分和微观结构的演变%Investigation on Phase and Microstructure Compari-son of Pure and Carbon-Doped MgB2 Superconduct-ing Bulks during Acid Exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊晓梅; 闫果; 刘国庆; 王庆阳; 冯勇

    2009-01-01

    采用X射线衍射仪和扫描电镜系统研究了纯MgB2和碳掺杂MgB2超导块材在的盐酸溶液中(pH=2)酸浸后的相成分和微观结构演变过程.XRD结果显示,纯MgB2和碳掺杂MgB2超导块材均迅速与盐酸反应而分解.分解反应在5 h后完全结束,主要的固态产物是B(OH)3和MgCl2(6H2O).SEM结果显示,纯MgB2和碳掺杂MgB2超导块材与酸反应都是从晶界处开始,与纯MgB2块材相比,碳掺杂MgB2块材在与酸反应后仍保持致密的结构特征.而对酸浸10 min后纯MgB2和碳掺杂MgB2块材的临界超导转变温度测定结果显示,碳掺杂MgB2块材的临界超导转变温度保持不变,说明碳掺杂可提高MgB2在酸中的稳定性.%The phase composition and microstructure evolution of pure and carbon-doped MgB2 bulks exposed to hydrochloric acid (pH=2) for different time were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) systematically. XRD results show the decomposition of pure and carbon-doped MgB2 bulks exposed to acid is rapid decay with exposure time. The decomposition reaction will finish completely after 5 h exposure and the main solid products are B(OH)3 and MgCl2(6H2O). The SEM results demonstrate that the reaction among pure and carbon-doped MgB2 as well as HCl occurs at grain boundaries. But the grain connection of carbon-doped MgB2 is better than that of pure MgB2 after acid exposure. The Tc of MgB2 decreases after 10 min acid exposure, but Tc is almost unchanged in carbon-doped MgB2 after the same exposure. This result indicates that substitution of C for boron in MgB2 can improve of the resistance to the corrosion of acid.

  4. Pure iron and other magnetic minerals in meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses of 37 samples from 25 different types of meteorite are analyzed with the focus on the presence of pure (nickel-free) iron in them. It is established that the metallic particles in the studied meteorites cluster in three isolated groups: (1) pure iron, (2) kamacite with mode 3-6% Ni, and (3) taenite with mode ˜50% Ni. The hiatuses in the Fe-Ni alloy compositions between these groups of magnetic grains contradict the Fe-Ni phase diagram, which predicts a continuous series of solid solutions in this system. This isolated distribution of the compositions of the metallic particles in the meteorites is reasonably accounted for by the specific properties of the melt (melts) and the processes of their crystallization and decomposition in space. It is suggested that pure iron in the meteorites could have been formed by either of two scenarios. According to the "primary," pure iron crystallizes from the melt, and according to the "secondary" scenario, it is produced by the decomposition of the solid solution.

  5. History and theology of Korean pentecostalism: Sunbogeum (pure gospel) Pentecostalism

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the context and texture of Korean Pentecostalism - Sunbogeum (pure Gospel) Pentecostalism. This study shows that Sunbogeum Pentecostalism is the complex product of four factors: first, Korean religio-social circumstances; second, the doctrine of classical Pentecostalism; third, the influence of the American Assemblies of God; and fourth, the person Yonggi Cho. Accordingly, it is a dynamic indigenized spiritual movement/theology which has been develop...

  6. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  7. Conformal pure radiation with parallel rays

    CERN Document Server

    Leistner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We define pure radiation metrics with parallel rays to be n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian metrics that admit a parallel null line bundle K and whose Ricci tensor vanishes on vectors that are orthogonal to K. We give necessary conditions in terms of the Weyl, Cotton and Bach tensors for a pseudo-Riemannian metric to be conformal to a pure radiation metric with parallel rays. Then we derive conditions in terms of tractor calculus that are equivalent to the existence of a pure radiation metric with parallel rays in a conformal class. We also give an analogous result for n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian pp-waves.

  8. Pure red cell aplasia and associated thymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rosu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure red cell aplasia is a rare cause of anemia, caused by an absence of red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. It is usually a paraneoplastic syndrome, associated most commonly with large-cell granular lymphocyte leukemia but also thymoma. For patients who present both pure red cell aplasia and thymoma, thymectomy leads to an initial remission of the aplasia in 30% of cases. However, sustained remission may require the addition of medications such as corticosteroids, cyclospo­rine, or cyclophosphamide. We present a case of pure red cell aplasia associated with a thymoma in an otherwise healthy 80 year-old woman.

  9. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  10. Object theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Heiberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    possibilities to emerge. We present a study in which the Object Theatre approach is applied to redesign socially shared everyday products that are located in public places. This project demonstrates how Object Theatre offers a broad perspective form which to explore and present product interactions....... In particular, it emphasises the understanding of a product by relating and changing perspectives, and takes into account context of use and diverse social settings....

  11. Atomic model of liquid pure Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using a θ-θX-ray diffractometer, the liquid structure of pure Fewas investigated and the diffraction intensity, structure factor, pair distribution function as well as the coordination number and atomic distance were obtained. The experimental results showed that there was also a pre-peak on the curve of the structure factor of liquid pure Fe. The pre-peak is a mark of medium-range order in melts. According to the characteristics of pre-peak, an atomic model of liquid pure Fe is constructed, namely, the structure of liquid pure Fe is a combination of clusters consisting of bcc cells with shared vertexes and other atoms with random dense atom distribution.

  12. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cimmino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%, analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7% patients. The number of patients with a prescription of analgesics steadily increased during the years 1989-1999. The diagnoses in patients assuming analgesics were: osteoarthritis (47.1%, inflammatory arthritis (24.2%, soft tissue rheumatisms (13.7%, nonspecific arthralgia/myalgia (7.5%, and connective tissue diseases (2.6%. Peripheral analgesics were used in 188 (82.5% patients and central analgesics were used in the remaining 40 patients (17.5%. Analgesic drugs were used mainly in degenerative joint conditions. The indications for analgesics in the 55 patients with inflammatory arthrits were: (a partial or total remission of arthritis; for this reason non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were no longer required in 18 patients; (b to increase the analgesic effect of NSAIDs in 23 patients; (c contraindications to NSAIDs in 14 patients (renal failure in 2 patients, gastritis in 10, allergy and bleeding in the remaining two. Conclusions: About 14% of our outpatients were treated with analgesics with an increasing trend in the examined period. The main indications for analgesics are degenerative conditions but they can be used also in selected patients with arthritis.

  13. Entropy product measure for multipartite pure states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wancang; LIU Dan; PAN Feng; LONG Guilu

    2006-01-01

    An entanglement measure for multipartite pure states is formulated using the product of the von Neumann entropy of the reduced density matrices of the constituents.Based on this new measure, all possible ways of the maximal entanglement of the triqubit pure states are studied in detail and all types of the maximal entanglement have been culate the degree of entanglement, and an improvement is given in the area near the zero entropy.

  14. Diphenylhydantoin-induced pure red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, Usha; Malhotra, Purnima; Joshi, Panul

    2006-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon complication of diphenylhydantoin therapy. It has not been reported in Indian literature. Awareness of the entity helps in establishing the cause of anaemia in these patients and alerts the physicians to the need of comprehensive haematological monitoring in these patients. A case of 58-year-old male who developed pure red cell aplasia following three months of diphenylhydantoin therapy is reported here.

  15. Expander Graphs in Pure and Applied Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Expander graphs are highly connected sparse finite graphs. They play an important role in computer science as basic building blocks for network constructions, error correcting codes, algorithms and more. In recent years they have started to play an increasing role also in pure mathematics: number theory, group theory, geometry and more. This expository article describes their constructions and various applications in pure and applied mathematics.

  16. Dark fermentation on biohydrogen production: Pure culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Show, Kuan-Yeow; Su, Ay

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of literature reports on the pure hydrogen-producers under anaerobic environment. Challenges and perspective of biohydrogen production with pure cultures are also outlined.

  17. a New Object Based Method for Automated Extraction of Urban Objects from Airborne Sensors Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2012-07-01

    The classification of urban objects such as buildings, trees and roads from airborne sensors data is an essential step in numerous mapping and modelling applications. The automation of this step is greatly needed as the manual processing is costly and time consuming. The increasing availability of airborne sensors data such as aerial imagery and LIDAR data offers new opportunities to develop more robust approaches for automatic classification. These approaches should integrate these data sources that have different characteristics to exceed the accuracy achieved using any individual data source. The proposed approach presented in this paper fuses the aerial images data with single return LIDAR data to extract buildings and trees for an urban area. Object based analysis is adopted to segment the entire DSM data into objects based on height variation. These objects are preliminarily classified into buildings, trees, and ground. This primary classification is used to compute the height to ground for each object to help improve the accuracy of the second phase of classification. The overlapping perspective aerial images are used to build an ortho-photo to derive a vegetation index value for each object. The second phase of classification is performed based on the height to ground and the vegetation index of each object. The proposed approach has been tested using three areas in the centre of the city of Vaihingen provided by ISPRS test project on urban classification and 3D building reconstruction. These areas have historic buildings having rather complex shapes, few high-rising residential buildings that are surrounded by trees, and a purely residential area with small detached houses. The results of the proposed approach are presented based on a reference solution for evaluation purposes. The classification evaluation exhibits highly successful classification results of buildings class. The proposed approach follows the exact boundary of trees based on LIDAR data

  18. Rehabilitation of pure alexia: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reading problems caused by brain injury (alexia) are common, either as a part of an aphasic syndrome, or as an isolated symptom. In pure alexia, reading is impaired while other language functions, including writing, are spared. Being in many ways a simple syndrome, one would think that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions, such as alexia severity and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia in the reviewed studies, have associated deficits such as agraphia or aphasia and thus do not strictly conform to the diagnosis. Few studies report clear and generalisable effects of training, none report control data, and in many cases the reported findings are not supported by statistics. We can, however, tentatively conclude that Multiple Oral Re-reading techniques may have some effect in mild pure alexia where diminished reading speed is the main problem, while Tacile-Kinesthetic training may improve letter identification in more severe cases of alexia. There is, however, still a great need for well-designed and controlled studies of rehabilitation of pure alexia. PMID:23808895

  19. On γ-Fe→α-Fe in pure iron and pealitic in eutectoid steel transformation and ordered displacement mechanism of iron atom individuals at transitional phase boundary%纯铁γ-Fe到α-Fe和共析钢的珠光体转变与过渡相界铁原子个体有序位移机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞德刚

    2012-01-01

    The γ-Fe→α-Fe transformation of pure iron obeys the mechanism of iron atom individuals displacement of the transitional phase boundary, this mechanism is essentially equivalent to classical shear and different from diffusional mechanism. All the precipitation of proeutectoid ferrite certainly obeys the individual ordered displacement mechanism of iron atom at the transitional phase boundary, it is the first rule of solid transformation. Prior exclusion of carbon content of overcooling austenite is prerequisite for phase transformation of the overcooling non-carbon austenite to non-carbon ferrite, it is the second rule of solid transformation. The pealitic decomposition essentially is the pealitic ferrite precipitation of overcooling non-carbon austenite. It is argued that the diffusional mechanism of iron atom individual disordered displacement is not existence, and in fact the solid these transformations occurs by the mechanism of ordered displacement of multiple iron atoms or individual iron atom. The classification of shear and diffusinnal mechanism in solid transformation is meaningless.%纯铁γ-Fe的α-Fe转变遵循过渡相界铁原子个体有序位移机制,这个机制本质上等同于切变而差异于扩散机制。凡是过冷含碳奥氏体的先共析铁素体析出,必然服从相界铁原子个体有序位移机制;这是固态相变第一法则;凡是无碳铁素体必然得自过冷无碳奥氏体,故过冷含碳奥氏体务必预先除碳,这是第二法则。珠光体分解实质上为过冷无碳奥氏体的珠光体铁素体层片的析出,等轴铁素体的析出亦然。在此不存在铁原子个体无序位移扩散机制。铁碳系统固态相变存在群体有序位移切变与过渡相界个体有序机制两类型机制,切变和扩散两类型的分类不具现实和理论意义,这是固态相变物理的科学发展。

  20. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian categories...

  1. Positive phase space distributions and uncertainty relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jan

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to a widespread belief, Wigner's theorem allows the construction of true joint probabilities in phase space for distributions describing the object system as well as for distributions depending on the measurement apparatus. The fundamental role of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations in Schroedinger form (including correlations) is pointed out for these two possible interpretations of joint probability distributions. Hence, in order that a multivariate normal probability distribution in phase space may correspond to a Wigner distribution of a pure or a mixed state, it is necessary and sufficient that Heisenberg's uncertainty relation in Schroedinger form should be satisfied.

  2. Proving Nontrivial Topology of Pure Bismuth by Quantum Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S.; Feng, B.; Arita, M.; Takayama, A.; Liu, R.-Y.; Someya, T.; Chen, W.-C.; Iimori, T.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Cheng, C.-M.; Tang, S.-J.; Komori, F.; Kobayashi, K.; Chiang, T.-C.; Matsuda, I.

    2016-12-01

    The topology of pure Bi is controversial because of its very small (˜10 meV ) band gap. Here we perform high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements systematically on 14-202 bilayer Bi films. Using high-quality films, we succeed in observing quantized bulk bands with energy separations down to ˜10 meV . Detailed analyses on the phase shift of the confined wave functions precisely determine the surface and bulk electronic structures, which unambiguously show nontrivial topology. The present results not only prove the fundamental property of Bi but also introduce a capability of the quantum-confinement approach.

  3. Proving Nontrivial Topology of Pure Bismuth by Quantum Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S; Feng, B; Arita, M; Takayama, A; Liu, R-Y; Someya, T; Chen, W-C; Iimori, T; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Cheng, C-M; Tang, S-J; Komori, F; Kobayashi, K; Chiang, T-C; Matsuda, I

    2016-12-02

    The topology of pure Bi is controversial because of its very small (∼10  meV) band gap. Here we perform high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements systematically on 14-202 bilayer Bi films. Using high-quality films, we succeed in observing quantized bulk bands with energy separations down to ∼10  meV. Detailed analyses on the phase shift of the confined wave functions precisely determine the surface and bulk electronic structures, which unambiguously show nontrivial topology. The present results not only prove the fundamental property of Bi but also introduce a capability of the quantum-confinement approach.

  4. Probabilistically Perfect Cloning of Two Pure States: Geometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerokhin, V.; Shehu, A.; Feldman, E.; Bagan, E.; Bergou, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    We solve the long-standing problem of making n perfect clones from m copies of one of two known pure states with minimum failure probability in the general case where the known states have arbitrary a priori probabilities. The solution emerges from a geometric formulation of the problem. This formulation reveals that cloning converges to state discrimination followed by state preparation as the number of clones goes to infinity. The convergence exhibits a phenomenon analogous to a second-order symmetry-breaking phase transition.

  5. Nokia PureView oversampling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Tero; Alakarhu, Juha; Salmelin, Eero; Partinen, Ari

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes Nokia's PureView oversampling imaging technology as well as the product, Nokia 808 PureView, featuring it. The Nokia PureView imaging technology is the combination of a large, super high resolution 41Mpix with high performance Carl Zeiss optics. Large sensor enables a pixel oversampling technique that reduces an image taken at full resolution into a lower resolution picture, thus achieving higher definition and light sensitivity. One oversampled super pixel in image file is formed by using many sensor pixels. A large sensor enables also a lossless zoom. If a user wants to use the lossless zoom, the sensor image is cropped. However, up-scaling is not needed as in traditional digital zooming usually used in mobile devices. Lossless zooming means image quality that does not have the digital zooming artifacts as well as no optical zooming artifacts like zoom lens system distortions. Zooming with PureView is also completely silent. PureView imaging technology is the result of many years of research and development and the tangible fruits of this work are exceptional image quality, lossless zoom, and superior low light performance.

  6. Structural anatomy of pure and hemianopic alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, A P; Spitsyna, G; Plant, G T; Wise, R J S

    2006-09-01

    The two most common types of acquired reading disorder resulting from damage to the territory of the dominant posterior cerebral artery are hemianopic and pure alexia. Patients with pronounced hemianopic alexia have a right homonymous hemianopia that encroaches into central or parafoveal vision; they read individual words well, but generate inefficient reading saccades when reading along a line of text. Patients with pure alexia also often have a hemianopia but are more disabled, making frequent errors on individual words; they have sustained damage to a brain region that supports efficient word identification. To investigate the differences in lesion site between hemianopic alexia and pure alexia groups, as rehabilitative techniques differ between the two conditions. High-resolution magnetic resonance images were obtained from seven patients with hemianopic alexia and from six patients with pure alexia caused by a left occipital stroke. The boundary of each lesion was defined and lesion volumes were then transformed into a standard stereotactic space so that regional comparisons could be made. The two patient groups did not differ in terms of damage to the medial left occipital lobe, but those with pure alexia had additional lateral damage to the posterior fusiform gyrus and adjacent tissue. Clinicians will be able to predict the type of reading disorder patients with left occipital lesions have from simple tests of reading speed and the distribution of damage to the left occipital lobe on brain imaging. This information will aid management decisions, including recommendations for reading rehabilitation.

  7. Pure plate bending in couple stress theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjesfandiari, Ali R; Dargush, Gary F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the pure bending of plates within the framework of modified couple stress theory (M-CST) and consistent couple stress theory (C-CST). In this development, it is demonstrated that M-CST does not describe pure bending of a plate properly. Particularly, M-CST predicts no couple-stresses and no size effect for the pure bending of the plate into a spherical shell. This contradicts our expectation that couple stress theory should predict some size effect for such a deformation pattern. Therefore, this result clearly demonstrates another inconsistency of indeterminate symmetric modified couple stress theory (M-CST), which is based on considering the symmetric torsion tensor as the curvature tensor. On the other hand, the fully determinate skew-symmetric consistent couple stress theory (C-CST) predicts results for pure plate bending that tend to agree with mechanics intuition and experimental evidence. Particularly, C-CST predicts couple-stresses and size effects for the pure bending of the ...

  8. Objective becoming

    CERN Document Server

    Skow, Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Bradford Skow presents an original defense of the 'block universe' theory of time, often said to be a theory according to which time does not pass. Along the way, he provides in-depth discussions of alternative theories of time, including those in which there is 'robust passage' of time or 'objective becoming': presentism, the moving spotlight theory of time, the growing block theory of time, and the 'branching time' theory of time. Skow explains why the moving spotlight theory is the best of these arguments, and rebuts several popular arguments against the thesis that time passes. He surveys the problems that the special theory of relativity has been thought to raise for objective becoming, and suggests ways in which fans of objective becoming may reconcile their view with relativistic physics. The last third of the book aims to clarify and evaluate the argument that we should believe that time passes because, somehow, the passage of time is given to us in experience. He isolates three separate arguments thi...

  9. The Bipolar Depression Electrical Treatment Trial (BETTER: Design, Rationale, and Objectives of a Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial and Data from the Pilot Study Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo de Sampaio Pereira Junior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bipolar depression (BD is a prevalent condition, with poor therapeutic options and a high degree of refractoriness. This justifies the development of novel treatment strategies, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS that showed promising results in unipolar depression. Methods. We describe a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial using tDCS for refractory, acutely symptomatic BD (the bipolar depression electrical treatment trial, BETTER. Sixty patients will be enrolled and assessed with clinical and neuropsychological tests. The primary outcome is change (over time and across groups in the scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items. Biological markers such as blood neurotrophins and interleukins, genetic polymorphisms, heart rate variability, and motor cortical excitability will be assessed. Twelve anodal-left/cathodal-right 2 mA tDCS sessions over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex will be performed in 6 weeks. Results. In the pilot phase, five patients received active tDCS and were double-blindly assessed, two presenting clinical response. TDCS was well-tolerated, with no changes in cognitive scores. Conclusion. This upcoming clinical trial will address the efficacy of tDCS for BD on different degrees of refractoriness. The evaluation of biological markers will also help in understanding the pathophysiology of BD and the mechanisms of action of tDCS.

  10. How Low Can You Go: Spatial Frequency Sensitivity in Pure Alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Nielsen, S.; Habekost, T.

    Objective: Pure alexia is a seemingly selective deficit in reading, follow- ing focal lesions to the posterior left hemisphere. The hallmark feature of pure alexia is a word length effect in single word reading, where reaction times may increase with hundreds of milliseconds per additional letter...... in a word. Other language functions, including writing, are intact. It has been suggested that pure alexia is caused by a general deficit in visual processing, one that affects reading disproportionally compared to other visual stimuli. The most concrete hypothesis to date suggests that pure alexia...... is caused by a lack of sensitivity to particular spatial frequencies (e.g., Fiset et al., 2006), and that this results in the characteristic word length effect, as well as effects of letter confusability on reading times. Participants and Methods: We have tested this hypothesis in a patient with pure alexia...

  11. Dynamic recrystallization behavior of commercial pure aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-zhong; ZHANG Xin-ming; CHEN Ming-an; LIU Zi-juan

    2006-01-01

    The flow stress feature and microstructure evolvement of a commercial pure aluminum were investigated by compression on Gleeble-1500 dynamic materials test machine. Optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to analyze the deformation microstructure of the commercial pure aluminum.The results show that the flow stress tends to be constant after a peak value and the dynamic recovery occurs when the deformation temperatures is 220 ℃ with the strain rate of 0.01 s-1; while the dynamic recrystallization occurs when the deformation temperature is higher than 380 ℃, and the flow stress exhibits a single peak at 460 ℃ with different strain rates from 0.001 s-1 to 1 s-1, and continuous dynamic recrystallization and geometric dynamic recrystallization occur during the hot compression of the commercial pure aluminum.

  12. Comparison of Diesel Engine Characteristic Using Pure Coconut Oil, Pure Palm Oil, and Pure Jatropha Oil as Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman K. Reksowardojo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine can be operated on either pure plant oil (PPO oil or biodiesel. Biodiesel production process is expensive due to many stages of processes, while PPO has a lower cost of production, lower energy consumption, and simpler process. There are several potential biofuel resources in Indonesia such as coconut, palm, and jatropha. They are tropical plants with large amonts of their quantity. Experiment was conducted in 17 hours engine running test (endurance test with various operating cycle conditions. Test fuels are pure coconut oil (PCO, pure palm oil (PPaO, pure jatropha oil (PJO, and diesel fuel (DF as a datum. Each PPO blends with diesel fuel with composition 50%-volume. As a result, PCO has higher BSFC (10% before endurance test in comparison with diesel fuel, also PPaO (13% and PJO (27% show a similar condition. Surprisingly, all PPO have BSFC almost similar with DF after endurance test due to decreasing of engine components friction. On the other hand, PPO produces more uncompleted combustion than DF. Phosporus content has major responsibility of deposit growth. PCO, PPaO, and PJO result more engine deposits in comparison with DF, which accounts for 139,7%, 232,9%, and 288,9% respectively. Based on wear analysis, PCO has the best antiwear property among test fuels, whereas the worst is DF.

  13. Surviving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Murjas, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Surviving Objects (2012) is a devised multi-media practice-as-research performance based on extensive interviews conducted with my elderly mother and recorded on a hand-held device. Our conversations concern her experiences as a child refugee following violent deportation by the Soviet Army from Eastern Poland to Siberia (1941), and her subsequent route, via Persia, to a British-run refugee camp in Northern Rhodesia, where she remained for 6 years before arriving in the UK. In order to aid my...

  14. pH-responsive lyotropic liquid crystals for the preparation of pure cubic zirconia nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei Yan; Liu, Jin Rong; He, Zhang; Cao, Zhen Zhu; Li, Cai Hong; Gao, Yan Fang

    2016-07-01

    We present a lyotropic liquid crystal system consisting of SDS/Triton X-100/water at 25 °C. This system is respond to pH variations with a phase switch. When pH is altered from alkaline (pH 13) to acidic (pH 2) conditions, phase change occurs from a bicontinuous hexagonal phase to a partially hexagonal phase until it disappears. The hexagonal phase under alkaline conditions is stable. Thus, this system is an ideal candidate for the preparation of pure cubic ZrO2 nanoparticles. XRD results confirm that the as-synthesized powder is composed of pure cubic ZrO2. These nanoparticles also exhibit a thermal stability of up to 800 °C. The size and morphological characteristics of the nanoparticles are greatly affected by ZrOCl2 concentration. The mechanism of zirconia nanoparticle synthesis in a lyotropic hexagonal phase was proposed.

  15. pH-responsive lyotropic liquid crystals for the preparation of pure cubic zirconia nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei Yan; Liu, Jin Rong; He, Zhang; Cao, Zhen Zhu; Li, Cai Hong; Gao, Yan Fang [Inner Mongolia University of Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, Hohhot (China)

    2016-07-15

    We present a lyotropic liquid crystal system consisting of SDS/Triton X-100/water at 25 C. This system is respond to pH variations with a phase switch. When pH is altered from alkaline (pH 13) to acidic (pH 2) conditions, phase change occurs from a bicontinuous hexagonal phase to a partially hexagonal phase until it disappears. The hexagonal phase under alkaline conditions is stable. Thus, this system is an ideal candidate for the preparation of pure cubic ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles. XRD results confirm that the as-synthesized powder is composed of pure cubic ZrO{sub 2}. These nanoparticles also exhibit a thermal stability of up to 800 C. The size and morphological characteristics of the nanoparticles are greatly affected by ZrOCl{sub 2} concentration. The mechanism of zirconia nanoparticle synthesis in a lyotropic hexagonal phase was proposed. (orig.)

  16. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  17. Leadership and Stewardship of the Laboratory (Objective 4.1) Notable Outcome - Phase II Alternative Analysis and PNNL Site Plan Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittman, Jeffery P.; Cassidy, Stephen R.; Mosey, Whitney LC; Leitz, Erlan M.; Oukrop, Lanson J.

    2013-07-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) have recently completed an effort to identify the current state of the campus and gaps that exist with regards to space needs, facilities and infrastructure. This effort has been used to establish a campus strategy to ensure PNNL is ready to further the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) mission. Ten-year business projections and the impacts on space needs were assessed and incorporated into the long-term facility plans. In identifying/quantifying the space needs for PNNL, the following categories were addressed: Multi-purpose Programmatic (wet chemistry and imaging laboratory space), Strategic (Systems Engineering and Computation Analytics, and Collaboration space), Remediation (space to offset the loss of the Research Technology Laboratory [RTL] Complex due to decontamination and demolition), and Optimization (the exit of older and less cost-effective facilities). The findings of the space assessment indicate a need for wet chemistry space, imaging space, and strategic space needs associated with systems engineering and collaboration space. Based on the analysis, a 10-year campus strategy evolved that balanced four strategic objectives, as directed by the DOE Office of Science (DOE-SC): • Mission Alignment - maintain customer satisfaction • Reasonable & Achievable - do what makes sense from a practical and cost perspective • Campus Continuity - increase the federal control of assets and follow the Campus Master Plan • Guiding Principles - modern, collaborative, flexible, and sustainable. This strategy considered the following possible approaches to meet the identified space needs: • Institutional General Plant Project (IGPP) funded projects • Third party leased facilities • Science Laboratory Infrastructure (SLI) line item funded projects. Pairing the four strategic objectives with additional key metrics as criteria for selection, an initial

  18. Aerobic granulation of pure bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil S ADAV; Duu-Jong LEE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to cultivate aer-obic granules by pure bacterial strain, Bacillus thuringien-sis, in a sequencing batch reactor. Stable granules sized 2.0-2.2 mm were formed in the reactor after a five-week cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent settling attributes, and degraded phenol at rates of 1.49 and concentration, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopic test results show that Bacillus thuringiensis was distributed over the initial small aggregates, and the outer edge of the granule was away from the core regime in the following stage.

  19. Pure word deafness and pure anarthria in a patient with frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, O; Suzuki, K; Endo, K; Fujii, T; Mori, E

    2007-04-01

    A 66-year-old right-handed man developed pure anarthria following pure word deafness. In addition to language disorders, his behavior gradually changed and finally included violence against his wife. Brain magnetic resonance imagings revealed atrophy of the left perisylvian area, which included the inferior half of the precentral gyrus and the upper portion of the superior temporal gyrus, consistent with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). It has been documented as either a disorder of expressive language or as an impaired understanding of word meaning. Unlike with pure anarthria, pure word deafness is not included in the clinical diagnostic current criteria for FTD. However, a large variety of language symptoms can appear in FTD according to the distribution of pathological changes in the frontotemporal cortices. This case suggests that pure word deafness could be a prodomal symptom of FTD.

  20. Computer modelling of solidification of pure metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Barkhudarov, M R

    1995-01-01

    differencing advection algorithm used in the simulations, the Leith's method is incorporated into the public domain two-dimensional SOLA code. It is shown that the resulting scheme is unconditionally stable despite being explicit. Two numerical models have been developed to describe the volumetric changes during solidification in pure metals and alloys and to predict shrinkage defects in the castings of general three-dimensional configuration. The first model is based on the full system of the Continuity, Navier-Stokes and Enthalpy Equations. Volumetric changes are described by introducing a source term in the Continuity Equation which is a function of the rate of local phase transformation. The model is capable of simulating both volumetric shrinkage and expansion. The second simplified shrinkage model involves the solution of only the Enthalpy Equation. Simplifying assumptions that the feeding flow is governed only by gravity and solidification rate and that phase transformation proceeds only from liquid to...

  1. Geometry of n-state systems, pure and mixed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, M S [Physics Department, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901-4401 (United States); Boya, L J [Departamento de Fiica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univeridad de Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Mims, M [Center for Particle Physics, Univesity of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 787121081 (United States); Sudarshan, E C G [Center for Particle Physics, Univesity of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 787121081 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    We discuss the geometry of states of quantum systems in an n-dimensional Hilbert space in terms of an explicit parameterization of all such systems. The geometry of the space of pure as well as mixed states for n-state systems is discussed. The parameterization is particularly useful since it allows for the simple construction and isolation of various physically meaningful subspaces of the space of all density matrices. This is used to describe possible geometric phases, their calculation, and analyze entropy and purity (or linear entropy) functions. In particular we provide conditions under which nontrivial abelian and/or nonabelian geometric phases aris in these subspaces in terms of the given parameterization, an explicit example is given, and multidimensional ientopic surfaces are discused.

  2. Objective thermomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly, utilizing the Weyl-Matolcsi description of spacetime. This restricts the range of definable kinematic quantities heavily. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but a relaxed metric, too, that represents the natural geometric structure of the solid. The comparison of the instantaneous metric to the relaxed one is the basis of the definition of the elastic state variable, the elastic deformedness tensor. Thermal expansion is conceived as the temperature dependence of the relaxed metric. As opposed to this reversible type of change, plasticity means an irreversible change in the relaxed metric, and is describable via a plastic change rate tensor. The relat...

  3. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, D; Terra-Cunha, M O

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. Our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of monogamy of entanglement. Then we propose a polygamy of entanglement, which express that if a general multipartite state is maximally entangled it is necessarily factorized by any other system.

  4. Implicit Reading in Chinese Pure Alexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Xu, Mingwei; Luo, Benyan; Weng, Xuchu

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that some patients with pure alexia display evidence of implicit access to lexical and semantic information about words that they cannot read explicitly. This phenomenon has not been investigated systematically in Chinese patients. We report here a case study of a Chinese patient who met the criteria for pure…

  5. Pure science and the problem of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Heather

    2014-06-01

    How should we understand scientific progress? Kuhn famously discussed science as its own internally driven venture, structured by paradigms. He also famously had a problem describing progress in science, as problem-solving ability failed to provide a clear rubric across paradigm change--paradigm changes tossed out problems as well as solving them. I argue here that much of Kuhn's inability to articulate a clear view of scientific progress stems from his focus on pure science and a neglect of applied science. I trace the history of the distinction between pure and applied science, showing how the distinction came about, the rhetorical uses to which the distinction has been put, and how pure science came to be both more valued by scientists and philosophers. I argue that the distinction between pure and applied science does not stand up to philosophical scrutiny, and that once we relinquish it, we can provide Kuhn with a clear sense of scientific progress. It is not one, though, that will ultimately prove acceptable. For that, societal evaluations of scientific work are needed.

  6. Binomial Squares in Pure Cubic Number Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Let K = Q(\\omega) with \\omega^3 = m be a pure cubic number field. We show that the elements\\alpha \\in K^\\times whose squares have the form a - \\omega form a group isomorphic to the group of rational points on the elliptic curve E_m: y^2= x^3 - m.

  7. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics (NJPAP) is a journal dedicated to the ... Variations of surface temparature with solar activity at two stations in the tropics ... Activation energy of psuedobinary alloy of Al-Bi-Se mixed systems · EMAIL ...

  8. Evolution of Pure States into Mixed States

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J

    1993-01-01

    In the formulation of Banks, Peskin and Susskind, we show that one can construct evolution equations for the quantum mechanical density matrix $\\rho$ with operators which do not commute with hamiltonian which evolve pure states into mixed states, preserve the normalization and positivity of $\\rho$ and conserve energy. Furthermore, it seems to be different from a quantum mechanical system with random sources.

  9. Pure Gravitational Back-Reaction Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, N C

    2013-01-01

    After discussing the various issues regarding and requirements on pure quantum gravitational observables in homogeneous-isotropic conditions, we construct a composite operator observable satisfying most of them. We also expand it to first order in the loop counting parameter and suggest it as a physical quantifier of gravitational back-reaction in an initially inflating cosmology.

  10. A fatal case of pure metaphyseal chondroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Moghadam, Reza Nafisi; Abrisham, Jalil

    2013-08-23

    The chondroblastoma (CB) is a rare cartilaginous tumour; it represents less than 1% of all bone tumours. It is mostly localised at the level of the epiphysis of long bones. We report a fatal case of pure metaphyseal CB of the tibia in a 9-year-old boy whose pulmonary metastases developed soon after operative therapy of the primary tumour.

  11. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K; Nielsen, J E; Fallentin, E

    1997-01-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus...

  12. Exploring the simplest purely baryonic decay processes

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, C Q; Rodrigues, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We propose to search for purely baryonic decay processes at the LHCb experiment. In particular, we concentrate on the decay $\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar pn$, which is the simplest purely baryonic decay mode, with solely spin-1/2 baryons involved. We predict its decay branching ratio to be ${\\cal B}(\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar pn)=(2.0^{+0.3}_{-0.2})\\times 10^{-6}$, which is sufficiently large to make the decay mode accessible to LHCb. Though not considered in general, purely baryonic decays could shed light on the puzzle of the baryon number asymmetry in the universe by means of a better understanding of the baryonic nature of our matter world. As such, they constitute a yet unexplored class of decay processes worth investigating. Our study can be extended to the purely baryonic decays of $\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar p \\Lambda$, $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda \\bar p\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda\\bar \\Lambda\\Lambda$, as well as other similar anti-triplet $b$-baryon decays, such as $\\Xi_b^{0,-}$.

  13. Ape Metaphysics: Object Individuation without Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natacha; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2008-01-01

    Developmental research suggests that whereas very young infants individuate objects purely on spatiotemporal grounds, from (at latest) around 1 year of age children are capable of individuating objects according to the kind they belong to and the properties they instantiate. As the latter ability has been found to correlate with language, some…

  14. Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled pure Mg

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Myoung Youp Song; Young Jun Kwak; Seong Ho Lee; Hye Ryoung Park

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg were studied at 593 K under 12 bar H2. In order to increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates, pure Mg was ground under hydrogen atmosphere (reactive mechanical grinding, RMG) and its hydrogen storage properties were subsequently investigated. Pure Mg absorbed hydrogen very slowly. At the number of cycles () of 1, pure Mg absorbed 0.05 wt% H for 5 min, 0.08 wt% H for 10 min and 0.29 wt% H for 60 min at 593 K under 12 bar H2. Activation was completed at the fifth cycle. At = 6, pure Mg absorbed 1.76 wt% H for 5 min, 2.17 wt% H for 10 min and 3.40 wt% H for 60 min. The activation of pure Mg after RMG was completed at the sixth cycle. At = 7, pure Mg after RMG absorbed 2.57 wt% H for 5 min, 3.21 wt% H for 10 min and 4.15 wt% H for 60 min.

  15. Rotation of vertically oriented objects during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Klaus-G.

    2012-10-01

    Vertically oriented objects, such as tombstones, monuments, columns, and stone lanterns, are often observed to shift and rotate during earthquake ground motion. Such observations are usually limited to the mesoseismal zone. Whether near-field rotational ground motion components are necessary in addition to pure translational movements to explain the observed rotations is an open question. We summarize rotation data from seven earthquakes between 1925 and 2009 and perform analog and numeric rotation testing with vertically oriented objects. The free-rocking motion of a marble block on a sliding table is disturbed by a pulse in the direction orthogonal to the rocking motion. When the impulse is sufficiently strong and occurs at the `right' moment, it induces significant rotation of the block. Numeric experiments of a free-rocking block show that the initiation of vertical block rotation by a cycloidal acceleration pulse applied orthogonal to the rocking axis depends on the amplitude of the pulse and its phase relation to the rocking cycle. Rotation occurs when the pulse acceleration exceeds the threshold necessary to provoke rocking of a resting block, and the rocking block approaches its equilibrium position. Experiments with blocks subjected to full 3D strong motion signals measured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake confirm the observations from the tests with analytic ground motions. Significant differences in the rotational behavior of a monolithic block and two stacked blocks exist.

  16. Black Hole Attractors and Pure Spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Jonathan P.; Maloney, Alexander; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2006-02-21

    We construct black hole attractor solutions for a wide class of N = 2 compactifications. The analysis is carried out in ten dimensions and makes crucial use of pure spinor techniques. This formalism can accommodate non-Kaehler manifolds as well as compactifications with flux, in addition to the usual Calabi-Yau case. At the attractor point, the charges fix the moduli according to {Sigma}f{sub k} = Im(C{Phi}), where {Phi} is a pure spinor of odd (even) chirality in IIB (A). For IIB on a Calabi-Yau, {Phi} = {Omega} and the equation reduces to the usual one. Methods in generalized complex geometry can be used to study solutions to the attractor equation.

  17. New Perspective of High-Pure Silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The discovery in the middle of 1950s of the semi-con ducting properties of crystalline silicon has led to the impetu ous development of electric power facilities, the sun-power industry, and particularly, the microelectronic industry. The increasing demand for the high-pure silicon requires the production of synthetic crystals. The raw material for the syn thetic crystals, the so-called technical, or metallurgical silicon, is obtained from quartzite and quartz of superior quality by means of carbon-thermal reduction of silicon using an electric arc discharge. The complexity of the technological process, high cost of the related facilities, worsening environmental pollution, and narrow-mindedness of a raw material company are attributed to the rise in price of the final product-silicon plates, resulting in the fall in the production of high-pure silicon, normally used in sun storage batteries.

  18. Performance of broiler fed pure glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dássia Daiane Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments evaluated the pure glycerin in broiler chicken diets. Experiment 1 was a metabolism test using total feces sampling method with 96 male chickens aging from 17 to 25 d when animals were fed on two treatments: diet1 = no glycerin and diet2 = 60g/kg of glycerin. The apparent metabolized energy measured 4015 kcal/kg and the apparent metabolized corrected for nitrogen balance was 3911 kcal/kg. Experiment 2 evaluated weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion in 480 chicks at 6, 20 and 34 d old fed on diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg of glycerin. The results indicate that pure glycerin in chicken diets, as a source of energy must take into consideration the age of the animals and it may be added up to 120 g/kg, from 20 to 41 d of age.

  19. Pure and doped boron nitride nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Terrones

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available More than ten years ago, it was suggested theoretically that boron nitride (BN nanotubes could be produced. Soon after, various reports on their synthesis appeared and a new area of nanotube science was born. This review aims to cover the latest advances related to the synthesis of BN nanotubes. We show that these tubes can now be produced in larger amounts and, in particular, that the chemistry of BN tubes appears to be very important to the production of reinforced composites with insulating characteristics. From the theoretical standpoint, we also show that (BN-C heteronanotubes could have important implications for nanoelectronics. We believe that BN nanotubes (pure and doped could be used in the fabrication of novel devices in which pure carbon nanotubes do not perform very efficiently.

  20. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hall

    2003-12-01

    interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to belowreplacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens’ “pure relationship” concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are more likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  1. Effective pure states for bulk quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, E.; Chuang, I.; Laflamme, R.

    1997-11-01

    In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Corey et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla qubits and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high temperature and low temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal to noise behavior of each.

  2. Development of Soybean Highly Pure Powdered Lecithin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guihua; Gu Keren; Liang Shaohua

    2002-01-01

    This project makes use ofCondensed Soybean Phospholipids (CSP) toproduce highly pure powdered soybean lecithin.In the production technology, the first step is tode-oil by continuous y delivered mater al, higheffective mixing CSP with acetone and circularextraction. The second step is to centrifugallyseparate the lecithin miscellaneous liquid intomiscellaneous oil and solid-state lecithin withacetone. Then the mixing oil can be separatedinto crude oil and acetone by vaporization andcondensation. If the acetone contains too muchwater, it should be rectified for use circularly.Solid state lecithin with acetone can be madeinto highly pure powdered soybean lecithin(acetone insoluble matter >95% ) under thefollowing conditions: vacuum 750mmHg,temperature 60℃, time 20 minutes. Theproduction not only reaches the domestic andoversea quality index, but also has favorablehydrophilic property, which makes it becomenatural food additive and sanitarian nurture.

  3. Photoionizaton of Pure and Doped Helium Nanodroplets

    CERN Document Server

    Mudrich, M

    2014-01-01

    Helium nanodroplets, commonly regarded as the "nearly ideal spectroscopic matrix", are being actively studied for more than two decades now. While they mostly serve as cold, weakly perturbing and transparent medium for high-resolution spectroscopy of embedded molecules, their intrinsic quantum properties such as microscopic superfluidity still are subject-matter of current research. This article reviews recent work on pure and doped He nanodroplets using PI spectroscopy, an approach which has greatly advanced in the past years. While the notion of the ideal spectroscopic matrix mostly no longer holds in this context, photoionization techniques provide detailed insights into the photo-physical properties of pure and doped He nanodroplets and their relaxation dynamics following electronic excitation. Exploiting nowadays available high laser fields, even highly ionized states of matter on the nanoscale can be formed. Our particular focus lies on recent experimental progress including fs time-resolved spectroscop...

  4. How Pure Components Control Polymer Blend Miscibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald; Lipson, Jane; Higgins, Julia

    2012-02-01

    We present insight into some intriguing relationships revealed by our recent studies of polymer mixture miscibility. Applying our simple lattice-based equation of state, we discuss some of the patterns observed over a sample of experimental blends. We focus on the question of how much key information can one determine from a knowledge of just the pure components only, and further, on the role of separate enthalpic and entropic contributions to the miscibility behavior. One interesting correlation connects the value of the difference in pure component energetic parameters with that of the mixed segment interactions, suggesting new possibilities for predictive modeling. We also show how in some cases these two parameter groupings act as separate controls determining the entropy and enthalpy of mixing. Also discussed are the different patterns exhibited for UCST-type and LCST-type blends, these being revealed in some cases by simple examination of the underlying microscopic parameters.

  5. Pure Sensory Stroke due to Lenticulocapsular Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益阶; 王国瑾; 潘松青

    2003-01-01

    @@ Pure sensory stroke (PSS) caused by lenticulo-capsular hemorrhage is rare. In this article, we re-ported 4 patients with PSS due to lenticulocapsularhemorrhage, including 3 men and 1 woman (mean age,58 years; range, 54 to 65 years), whose lesions couldbe identified by head computed tomographic (CT)scan and clinical findings correlated with the radio-logical lesions. All patients except 1 had hyperten-sion.

  6. Acquired pure red cell aplasia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata R Dafale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA is a rare occurrence in children.This is a case of an eight year old girl child who developed acquired PRCA secondary to long term intake of sodium Valproate. This case is reported to review the causes of PRCA in children and to reconsider the use of drugs of longer duration in children and adults.

  7. Pure waterjet drilling of articular bone

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Christian; Dunnen, Steven den; Kraaij, Gert; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical application of waterjet technology for machining tough human tissues, such as articular bone, has advantages, as it produces clean sharp cuts without tissue heating. Additionally, water supply is possible via flexible tubing, which enables minimally invasive surgical access. This pilot study investigates whether drilling bony tissue with pure waterjets is feasible. Water pressures between 20 and 120 MPa with an orifice of 0.6 mm were used to create waterjets to drill blind boring...

  8. Les Problemes de l'alexie pure (Problems of Pure Alexia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremin, Helgard

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews studies done on alexia and describes experiments designed to distinguish qualitatively between pure alexia (marked by the absence of oral and written problems) and other forms of alexia. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  9. Global empirical potentials from purely rotational measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dattani, Nikesh S; Sun, Ming; Johnson, Erin R; Roy, Robert J Le; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2014-01-01

    The recent advent of chirped-pulse FTMW technology has created a plethora of pure rotational spectra for molecules for which no vibrational information is known. The growing number of such spectra demands a way to build empirical potential energy surfaces for molecules, without relying on any vibrational measurements. Using ZnO as an example, we demonstrate a powerful technique for efficiently accomplishing this. We first measure eight new ultra-high precision ($\\pm2$ kHz) pure rotational transitions in the $X$-state of ZnO. Combining them with previous high-precision ($\\pm50$ kHz) pure rotational measurements of different transitions in the same system, we have data that spans the bottom 10\\% of the well. Despite not using any vibrational information, our empirical potentials are able to determine the size of the vibrational spacings and bond lengths, with precisions that are more than three and two orders of magnitude greater, respectively, than the most precise empirical values previously known, and the mo...

  10. On constructing purely affine theories with matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Liebscher, D.-E.

    2016-08-01

    We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schrödinger's purely affine theory (Schrödinger in Space-time structure. Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 1950), where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.

  11. On constructing purely affine theories with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schroedinger's purely affine theory [21], where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.

  12. Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winnie

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  13. Pure zeolite synthesis from silica extracted from coal fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, N.; Querol, X.; Plana, F.; Andres, J.M.; Janssen, M.; Nugteren, H. [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. Earth Science ' Jaume Almera'

    2002-07-01

    Pure zeolites can be synthesised from silica extracted from fly ash by alkaline leaching. If the process is optimised the solid residue arising from this extraction may also contain a relatively high content of zeolitic material mixed with residual fly ash components. Both the pure and the impure zeolitic material have a high potential for application in waste-water and flue gas-cleaning technologies. The silica extraction potential of 23 European coal fly ashes covering most of the possible fly ash types is investigated in this study. Optimisation of leaching processes, by varying temperature, time and alkali/fly ash rates, permitted extraction yields up to 140 g of SiO{sub 2} per kg using a single step process, but the extraction yields may reach up to 210 g kg{sup -1} by applying thermal pre-treatments prior to the extraction. The solid residue arising from the silica extraction experiments shows a high NaP1 zeolite content. A high Si/Al ratio of the glass matrix, the occurrence of easily soluble silica phases in the original fly ash and a high reactive surface area were found to be the major parameters influencing silica extraction. High purity 4A and X zeolitic material was obtained by combining the silica extracts from the Meirama fly ash and a waste solution from the Al-anodising industry. The results allowed conversion of the silica extraction yields to an equivalent 630 g of pure 4A-X zeolite per kg of fly ash with a cation exchange capacity of 4.7 meq g{sup -1}.

  14. Tribological and Impact Fatigue Behaviors of Pure Titanium Treated by Plasma Ni Alloying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenxia; HE Zhiyong; WANG Yingqin; LIU Xiaoping; TANG Bin

    2012-01-01

    Ni modified layer is prepared on the surface of pure titanium by plasma surface alloying technique.Surface appearance,micro-structure morphology,composition distribution,phase structure and microhardness of Ni modified layer are analyzed.Tribological performance and fatigue behaviors of Ni modified layer of pure titanium are observed using Pin-on-disc tribometer and repeated impact test.The results indicate that the surface mean Ni concentration of Ni modified layer is nearly 18% which is composed of TiNi,Ti2Ni and Ti phase.The maximum surface microhardness of Ni modified layer is approximately 580 HV which is almost two-fold of the hardness of the substrate.The wear resistance of Ni modified layer is improved obviously.The wear mechanism of Ni modified layer shows slight abrasion wearing,while pure titanium is abrasion and adhesion wearing.Ni modified layer presents better impact fatigue strength.

  15. Seq-NMS for Video Object Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Wei; Khorrami, Pooya; Paine, Tom Le; Ramachandran, Prajit; Babaeizadeh, Mohammad; Shi, Honghui; Li, Jianan; Yan, Shuicheng; Huang, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Video object detection is challenging because objects that are easily detected in one frame may be difficult to detect in another frame within the same clip. Recently, there have been major advances for doing object detection in a single image. These methods typically contain three phases: (i) object proposal generation (ii) object classification and (iii) post-processing. We propose a modification of the post-processing phase that uses high-scoring object detections from nearby frames to boo...

  16. How Low Can You Go: Spatial Frequency Sensitivity in Pure Alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Nielsen, S.; Habekost, T.

    (LK). LK shows significant effects of word length and letter confusability on reaction times in single word reading, while her writing and other language skills are intact. In two experiments, we in- vestigate LK’s performance with simple patterns of different spatial fre- quency (Gabor patches......Objective: Pure alexia is a seemingly selective deficit in reading, follow- ing focal lesions to the posterior left hemisphere. The hallmark feature of pure alexia is a word length effect in single word reading, where reaction times may increase with hundreds of milliseconds per additional letter...... in a word. Other language functions, including writing, are intact. It has been suggested that pure alexia is caused by a general deficit in visual processing, one that affects reading disproportionally compared to other visual stimuli. The most concrete hypothesis to date suggests that pure alexia...

  17. Effects of the breed, sex and age on cellular content and growth factor release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma and pure-platelet rich gel

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Carlos E; López Catalina; Álvarez María E; Samudio Ismael J; Prades Marta; Carmona Jorge U

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is no information on the effects of the breed, gender and age on the cellular content and growth factor (GF) release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma (P-PRP) and pure-platelet rich gel (P-PRG). The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the cellular composition of P-PRP with whole blood and platelet poor plasma (PPP); 2) to compare the concentration of transforming GF beta 1 (TGF-β1) and platelet derived GF isoform BB (PDGF-BB) between P-PRP treated with n...

  18. The optimal pure Gaussian state canonically associated to a Gaussian quantum state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosson, Maurice de [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona 371 79 (Sweden)]. E-mail: mdg@bth.se

    2004-09-20

    We show, using the symplectically invariant notion of 'quantum blob', that it is possible to attach a canonical optimal Gaussian pure state to an arbitrary quantum state. When at least one pair of conjugate variables satisfies the minimum uncertainty condition, then the associated Gaussian is uniquely determined up to an overall phase factor.

  19. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Fruit Purees and Relationship with Sensory Analysis Carried out by Infants (12 to 24 mo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inarejos-García, A M; Mancebo-Campos, V; Cañizares, P; Llanos, J

    2015-05-01

    Fruit purees are one of the foods earliest introduced foods in infants' diet during the complementary period. The rheological characteristics together with the sensory analysis are decisive factors for the acceptance of the food product by the infant. The sensory analysis of three commercial fruit purees (mixed fruits, pear, and plum) was studied by employing a new objective sensory parameter named as SAIR (Sensory Acceptance by Infants Ratio), which is the quotient between the percentage of puree consumed (%) by the time (seconds) throughout the storage time. In parallel, the rheological characteristics of the purees were analyzed in order to obtain a relationship with the SAIR parameter. It was proved that the best acceptance of the product (higher SAIR) was observed for such purees showing a lower apparent viscosity (lower consistency index, "K") and a less pseudoplastic behavior (higher flow behavior index, "n"). These results may help to obtain higher acceptance values based on easy obtainable and objective parameters.

  20. Effect Of Natural Convection On Directional Solidification Of Pure Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczak T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the modeling of the directional solidification process of pure metal. During the process the solidification front is sharp in the shape of the surface separating liquid from solid in three dimensional space or a curve in 2D. The position and shape of the solid-liquid interface change according to time. The local velocity of the interface depends on the values of heat fluxes on the solid and liquid sides. Sharp interface solidification belongs to the phase transition problems which occur due to temperature changes, pressure, etc. Transition from one state to another is discontinuous from the mathematical point of view. Such process can be identified during water freezing, evaporation, melting and solidification of metals and alloys, etc.

  1. Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA, prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease.

  2. Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: an enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M; Ray, S; Kundu, S; Chakrabarti, P

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease.

  3. Pure transperitoneal laparoscopic correction of retrocaval ureter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guo-qing; XU Li-wei; LI Xin-de; LI Gong-hui; YU Yan-lan; YU Da-min; ZHANG Zhi-gen

    2012-01-01

    Background Retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital abnormality.Operative repair is always suggested in cases of significant functional obstruction.Laparoscopic procedures have been employed as the minimally invasive therapeutic option for retrocaval ureter.However,the laparoscopic techniques for retrocaval ureter might be technically challenging to some surgeons.The aim of this article was to present our experience and surgical techniques of pure transperitoneal laparoscopic pyelopyelostomy and ureteroureterostomy in nine patients with retrocaval ureter.Methods A total of nine patients of retrocaval ureter underwent pure laparoscopic pyelopyelostomy or ureteroureterostomy.The operation was performed with the patients placed in the 70-degree lateral decubitus position via a three port transperitoneal approach with two 10-mm and one 5-mm ports.The distal part of the dilated renal pelvis was transected at the ureteropelvic junction and the ureter was relocated anterior to the inferior vena cava.The tension-free pyeloureteral or ureteroureteral anastomosis was completed with the intracorporal freehand suturing and in situ knot-tying techniques combined with interrupted and continuous fashion.A double J ureteral stent was inserted in an antegrade manner during laparoscopy.Intravenous urography or computerized tomography and renal ultrasonography were performed after 3 months postoperatively.Results All operations were completed laparoscopically,and no open conversion was required.The mean operative time was 135 minutes (range,70-250 minutes),with minimal blood loss (less than 60 ml).No intra-operative complications or significant bleeding occurred.All patients presented mild postoperative pain and quick convalescence.The symptoms disappeared and hydronephrosis decreased substantially after surgery.Conclusions Pure transperitoneal laparoscopic correction for retrocaval ureter was associated with an excellent outcome,minimal invasiveness and short hospital stay.It is

  4. Development and Certification of Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) Experiment # 15012-U, "Near RealTime Water Quality Monitoring Demonstration for ISS Biocides Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Shcultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D,; Lipert, Robert J.; Limardo, Jose G.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2009-01-01

    Scientists and engineers from the Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group are working with researchers at the University of Utah and Iowa State University to develop and certify an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE). The kit will be launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment and evaluated on the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the acceptability of CSPE technology for routine inflight water quality monitoring. Iodine and silver, the biocides used in the US and Russian on-orbit water systems, will serve as test analytes for the technology evaluation. This manuscript provides an overview of the CSPE SDTO experiment and details the development and certification of the experimental water quality monitoring kit. Initial results from reagent and standard solution stability testing and environmental testing performed on the kit hardware are also reported.

  5. Development and Certification of Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) Experiment # 15012-U, "Near RealTime Water Quality Monitoring Demonstration for ISS Biocides Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Shcultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D,; Lipert, Robert J.; Limardo, Jose G.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2009-01-01

    Scientists and engineers from the Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group are working with researchers at the University of Utah and Iowa State University to develop and certify an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE). The kit will be launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment and evaluated on the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the acceptability of CSPE technology for routine inflight water quality monitoring. Iodine and silver, the biocides used in the US and Russian on-orbit water systems, will serve as test analytes for the technology evaluation. This manuscript provides an overview of the CSPE SDTO experiment and details the development and certification of the experimental water quality monitoring kit. Initial results from reagent and standard solution stability testing and environmental testing performed on the kit hardware are also reported.

  6. Needleless Electrospinning of Pure and Blended Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmelsmann, Nils; Homburg, Sarah Vanessa; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer with bactericidal, fungicidal, hemostatic and other interesting properties. It can be used, e.g., in medical products, as a filter medium, in biotechnological purposes etc. For these possible applications, nanofiber mats with a large inner surface will be most efficient. This is why in a recent project, the electrospinning properties of pure chitosan as well as chitosan blended with poly(ethylene oxide) were investigated. Using a needleless nanospinning process, the technology under examination can be upscaled from lab to industrial scale, enabling direct transfer of the gained experiences to the intended application.

  7. Pure spinor equations to lift gauged supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, and INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2014-01-31

    We rewrite the equations for ten-dimensional supersymmetry in a way formally identical to a necessary and sufficient G-structure system in N=2 gauged supergravity, where all four-dimensional quantities are replaced by combinations of pure spinors and fluxes in the internal space. This provides a way to look for lifts of BPS solutions without having to reduce or even rewrite the ten-dimensional action. In particular this avoids the problem of consistent truncation, and the introduction of unphysical gravitino multiplets.

  8. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.

    2005-10-01

    We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.

  9. Purely cubic action for string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

  10. Quantum correlations support probabilistic pure state cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Luis, E-mail: lroa@udec.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alid-Vaccarezza, M.; Jara-Figueroa, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolución 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2014-02-01

    The probabilistic scheme for making two copies of two nonorthogonal pure states requires two auxiliary systems, one for copying and one for attempting to project onto the suitable subspace. The process is performed by means of a unitary-reduction scheme which allows having a success probability of cloning different from zero. The scheme becomes optimal when the probability of success is maximized. In this case, a bipartite state remains as a free degree which does not affect the probability. We find bipartite states for which the unitarity does not introduce entanglement, but does introduce quantum discord between some involved subsystems.

  11. Pure and Public, Popular and personal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    In the article I reexamine the traditional aesthetical and political critiques of popular culture and reevaluate the social and communicative potential of bestselling cultural artifacts such as highly popular television series. First, I sketch the alleged aesthetic and social problems of popular...... and the exclusions of the public sphere. I argue that the ideals of a pure aesthetic and a public sphere neglect issues that are crucial to the type of commonality at stake in popular cultural artifacts: personal issues, social conflicts, and what is pleasurable to the senses or has to do with emotions. Third, I...

  12. Pure seminoma: A review and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Pure seminoma is a rare pathology of the young adult, often discovered in the early stages. Its prognosis is generally excellent and many therapeutic options are available, especially in stage I tumors. High cure rates can be achieved in several ways: standard treatment with radiotherapy is challenged by surveillance and chemotherapy. Toxicity issues and the patients' preferences should be considered when management decisions are made. This paper describes firstly the management of primary seminoma and its nodal involvement and, secondly, the various therapeutic options according to stage. PMID:21819630

  13. [XX 'pure' gonadal dysgenesis and XYY syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoki; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2004-02-01

    XX 'pure' gonadal dysgenesis is a disease related to Turner's syndrome. Patients of this disease are characterized by normal female external genitalia, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea and sexual infantilism. Recently, it has been reported that point mutations of the FSH receptor gene may be one of cause of this disease. The relationship between criminal behavior and XYY syndrome is still controversial. Increased incidence of disomic sperm in 47,XYY males has been reported by fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH). Genetic counseling should be done when they undergo intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  14. Powder injection molding of pure titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shibo; DUAN Bohua; HE Xinbo; QU Xuanhui

    2009-01-01

    An improved wax-based binder was developed for powder injection molding of pure titanium. A critical powder loading of 69 vol.% and a pseudo-plastic flow behavior were obtained by the feedstock based on the binder. The injection molding, debinding, and sintering process were studied. An ideal control of carbon and oxygen contents was achieved by thermal debinding in vacuum atmosphere (10-3 Pa). The mechanical properties of as-sintered specimens were less than those of titanium made by the conventional press-sintering process. Good shape retention and ±0.04 mm dimension deviation were achieved.

  15. Study on pure silica core optical fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An optimal refractive index profile of pure silica core optical fiber (PSCF) was designed, in combination with the characters of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. Techniques of preform fabrication by a new furnace round heating MCVD process and fiber drawing process were reviewed. Difficulties in doping fluorine in silica, widening the depressed-index cladding and maintaining the index of fiber core were discussed. Methods used to overcome these difficulties were given at the same time. Additionally, the optimal refractive index profiles of PSCF were presented.

  16. Purely cubic action for string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

  17. The Pure Virtual Braid Group Is Quadratic

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Peter

    2011-01-01

    If an augmented algebra K over Q is filtered by powers of its augmentation ideal I, the associated graded algebra gr_I K need not in general be quadratic: although it is generated in degree 1, its relations may not be generated by homogeneous relations of degree 2. In this paper we give a criterion which is equivalent to gr_I K being quadratic. We apply this criterion to the group algebra of the pure virtual braid group (also known as the quasi-triangular group), and show that the corresponding associated graded algebra is quadratic.

  18. Purely Four-dimensional Viable Anomaly Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Harnik, R; Pierce, A T; Harnik, Roni; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    Anomaly mediation of supersymmetry breaking solves the supersymmetric flavor problem thanks to its ultraviolet-insensitivity. However, it suffers from two problems: sleptons have negative masses-squared, and there are likely bulk moduli that spoil the framework. Here, we present the first fully ultraviolet-insensitive model of anomaly mediation with positive slepton masses-squared in a purely four-dimensional framework. Our model is based on the additional D-term contributions to the sparticle masses of Arkani-Hamed, Kaplan, HM, and Nomura, and the conformal sequestering mechanism of Luty and Sundrum.

  19. Measure and integral with purely ordinal scales

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    We develop a purely ordinal model for aggregation functionals for lattice valued functions, comprising as special cases quantiles, the Ky Fan metric and the Sugeno integral. For modeling findings of psychological experiments like the reflection effect in decision behaviour under risk or uncertainty, we introduce reflection lattices. These are complete linear lattices endowed with an order reversing bijection like the reflection at 0 on the real interval $[-1,1]$. Mathematically we investigate the lattice of non-void intervals in a complete linear lattice, then the class of monotone interval-valued functions and their inner product.

  20. Electrostatic Precipitation in Nearly Pure Gaseous Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Cox, Bobby; Ritz, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitation was performed in a nearly pure gaseous nitrogen system as a possible remedy for black dust contaminant from high pressure 6000 psi lines at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The results of a prototype electrostatic precipitator that was built and tested using nitrogen gas at standard atmospheric pressures is presented. High voltage pulsed waveforms are generated using a rotating spark gap system at 30 Hz. A unique dust delivery system utilizing the Venturi effect was devised that supplies a given amount of dust per unit time for testing purposes.

  1. Defective spatial imagery with pure Gerstmann's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carota, Antonio; Di Pietro, Marie; Ptak, Radek; Poglia, Davide; Schnider, Armin

    2004-01-01

    Gerstmann's syndrome comprises finger agnosia, peripheral agraphia, anarithmetia, and right-left confusion. We here report a single-case study of an 85-year-old ambidextrous man who exhibited pure Gerstmann's syndrome (i.e., without aphasia) 10 weeks after a stroke involving the angular gyrus in the left parietal lobe. We hypothesize that, in this case, the main cognitive denominator of Gerstmann's tetrad was a severe dysfunction in mental rotation and translation. This report provides further evidence for the spatial nature of Gerstmann's syndrome.

  2. On the importance of PURE - Public Understanding of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars; Kandpal, Tara C.

    2013-09-15

    Public understanding of science (PUS) is a central concept among science communicators. Public understanding of renewable energy (PURE) is proposed as an important sub-concept of PUS. The aim of this paper is to interest and invite renewable energy scientists to join a PURE research project. Four separate important questions for a PURE research project can be identified: (A) Is PURE important? (B) Which issues of PURE are the most important ones, according to renewable energy scientists? (C) What understanding of renewable energy has the general public today, worldwide? (D) How to achieve PURE?.

  3. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many changes which have characterized the second demographic transition, shifts in fertility and union formation have attracted a great deal of interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to below-replacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens' "pure relationship" concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are morel likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  4. (Not so) pure Lovelock Kasner metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Camanho, Xián O; Molina, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational interaction is expected to be modified for very short distances. This is particularly important in situations in which the curvature of spacetime is large in general, such as close to the initial cosmological singularity. The gravitational dynamics is then captured by the higher curvature terms in the action, making it difficult to reliably extrapolate any prediction of general relativity. In this note we review pure Lovelock equations for Kasner-type metrics. These equations correspond to a single $N$th order Lovelock term in the action in $d=2N+1,\\,2N+2$ dimensions, and they capture the relevant gravitational dynamics when aproaching the big-bang singularity within the Lovelock family of theories. These are classified in several isotropy types. Some of these families correspond to degenerate classes of solutions, such that their dynamics is not completely determined by the equations of pure Lovelock gravity. Instead, these Kasner solutions become sensitive to the subleading terms in the Lo...

  5. LHC Signals of Pure Gravity Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldstein Brian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is mounting that natural supersymmetry at the weak scale is not realized in nature. This evidence comes from collider searches, a lack of new flavor changing neutral current effects, and now also the size of the measured Higgs mass. On the other hand, string theory suggests that supersymmetry might be present at some energy scale, and gauge coupling unification and dark matter imply that that energy scale may be relatively low. The simplest model to address all of these hints is arguably “pure gravity mediation”, in which the scalar superpartner masses are taken to be perhaps 100 TeV, with gauginos automatically acquiring loop factor suppressed masses of order TeV. The gauginos might then be the only superpartners accessible to the LHC. Unification and LSP dark matter are maintained (with a wino LSP at the cost of a 10−5 or 10−6 fine tuning. Here I will discuss the structure and LHC phenomenology of pure gravity mediation.

  6. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krabbe, K.; Fallentin, E.; Herning, M. [Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre Hospital, Kettegaard alle 30, DK-2650 Hvidovre (Denmark); Nielsen, J.E.; Fenger, K. [Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Section of Neurogenetics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus callosum on one midsagittal slice and the area of the brain on one axial slice were measured and a ``corpus-callosum index`` expressing the size of the corpus callosum relative to that of the brain was calculated. Cross-sectional areas and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the spinal cord at the levels of C 2, C 5, T 3, T 6, T 9 and T 11 were measured. No significant differences between patients and controls were found on qualitative evaluation of the images. The patients had a significantly smaller corpus callosum and ``corpus-callosum index`` than controls. This finding, not reported previously, might indicate that the disease process in pure HSP is not confined to the spinal cord. The anteroposterior diameters of the spinal cord at T 3 and T 9 were significantly smaller in patients than in controls. This might correspond to the degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and the dorsal columns described at neuropathological examination. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Development of Soybean Highly Pure Powdered Lecithin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiGuihua; GuKeren; LiangShaohua

    2002-01-01

    This project makes use of Condensed Soybean Phospholipids(CSP)to produce highly pure powdered soybean lecithin.In the production technology,the first step is to de-oil by continuously delivered material,high effective mixing CSP with acetone and circular extraction.The second step is to centrifugally separate the lecithin miscellaneous liquid into miscellaneous oil and solid-state lecithin with acetone.Then the mixing oil can be separated into crude oil and acetone by vaporization and condensation.If the acetone contains too much water,it shoud be rectified for use circularly.Solid state lecithin with acetone can be made into highly pure powdered soybean lecithin (acetone insoluble matter >95%)under the following conditions:vacuum 750mmHg,temperature 60℃,time 20 minutes.The production not only reaches the domestic and oversea quality index,but also has favorable hydrophilic property,which makes it become natural food additive and sanitarian nurture.

  8. Generation of phase-only Fresnel hologram based on down-sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Chow, Y-T; Poon, T-C

    2014-10-20

    We present a novel non-iterative method for generating phase-only Fresnel holograms. The intensity image of the source object scene is first down-sampled with uniform grid-cross lattices. A Fresnel hologram is then generated from the intensity and the depth information of the sampled object points. Subsequently, only the phase component of the hologram is preserved, resulting in a pure phase hologram that we call the sampled-phase-only hologram (SPOH). Experimental evaluation reveals that the numerical, as well as the optical reconstructed images of the proposed phase-only hologram derived with our method are of high visual quality. Moreover, the reconstructed optical image is brighter, and less affected by phase noise contamination on the hologram as compared with those generated with existing error-diffusion approaches.

  9. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  10. New RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation of Sulfapyridine in Pure and Tablet Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tirumaleswara Rao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a simple, selective, stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of sulfapyridine in pure and in tablet dosage form. The proposed RP-HPLC method was validated in compliance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The mobile phase consists a mixture of Acetonitrile: water: 1.0 % ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio of 70:27:3 v/v/v. Column used ODS, C18 RP- COLUMN (4.6mmx250mm having 5µm particle size. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and detection was carried out by UV- visible spectrophotometer and was observed that the maximum absorbance (λmax was obtained at 256nm, retention time 4.40mins. The proposed method has permitted the quantification of sulfapyridine over linearity in the range of 5-30µg/mL and its percentage recovery was found to be 99.99%. The proposed RP-HPLC method of sulfapyridine was also found to be robust and rugged as there was no significant change in the peak area, peak shape and retention time. On the basis of above facts it is concluded that “the developed RP-HPLC method was found to be easily applicable and is expected to be widely used for the routine QC analysis of sulfapyridine in the pharmaceutical industry”.

  11. MicroPure imaging for the evaluation of microcalcifications in gouty arthritis involving the first metatarsophalangeal joint: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of MicroPure, a new ultrasound image processing technique, in identifying microcalcifications (formed by monosodium urate crystals in the first metatarsophalangeal joints attacked by gout compared to gray-scale ultrasound images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients who fulfilled the study inclusion criteria underwent gray-scale ultrasound and MicroPure examinations of the first metatarsophalangeal joints attacked by gout. Static images of the target areas were acquired using gray-scale ultrasound and MicroPure. Two independent and blinded investigators analyzed the images to determine the number of microcalcifications and to score for image quality and artifacts. RESULTS: The two investigators observed significantly more microcalcifications with MicroPure compared to gray-scale ultrasound (ρ<0.001. The level of agreement between the investigators consistently increased from gray-scale ultrasound to MicroPure imaging (gray-scale interclass correlation coefficient of 0.69 vs. MicroPure interclass correlation coefficient of 0.81. One investigator preferred the MicroPure image quality over gray-scale ultrasound (ρ<0.001, but the other investigator disagreed (ρ<0.001. Both investigators observed fewer artifacts with MicroPure than with gray-scale ultrasound (ρ<0.009. CONCLUSION: MicroPure imaging identified significantly more microcalcifications than gray-scale ultrasound.

  12. Numerical simulation on rapid melting and nonequilibrium solidification of pure metals and binary alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠希东; 陈国良; 杨院生; 胡壮麒

    2002-01-01

    A heat and mass transfer modelling containing phase transformation dynamics is made for pure metals and binary alloys under pulsed laser processing. The nonequilibrium effects of processing parameters and physical properties are evaluated on the melting and solidification of pure metals (Al, Cu, Fe and Ni) and Al-Cu alloys. It is shown that the energy intensity of laser beam and physical properties of metals and the solute concentration of alloys have important effect on the interface temperature, melting and solidification velocity, melting depth and non-equilibrium partition coefficient. This situation is resulted from the interaction of heat transfer, redistribution of solute, solute trapping and growth kinetics.

  13. Inorganic chemistry: Direct syntheses from pure liquid SO3 and from trivalent and pentavalent nitrogen derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandorpe, B.; Heubel, J.

    1977-01-01

    From pure liquid SO3 direct synthesis reactions were carried out with N2O5, NO2Cl, NOCl which yielded N2O54SO3, 3SO3, 2SO3-NO2Cl2SO3-NOCl2SO3 and NOCl2SO3, the latter being obtained for the first time in the pure state. In all cases the crystallized product was obtained by separating the constituents of the mixture and then going through a single viscous liquid phase.

  14. Pure Red Cell Aplasia Caused by Acute Hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae Heon; Oh, Suk Joong; Hong, Soojung; Lee, Kyu Bek; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is characterized as a normocytic anemia associated with reticulocytopenia and the absence of erythroblasts in the bone marrow. Pure red cell aplasia can be induced by various causes such as thymoma, connective tissue disease, viral infection, lymphoma, and adverse drug reactions. There have been only a few reports of pure red cell aplasia associated with acute viral hepatitis A. In Korea, no case of pure red cell aplasia caused by acute hepatitis A has yet been reported....

  15. Hologram of a pure state black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we extend the Hamilton-Kabat-Lifschytz-Lowe (HKLL) holographic smearing function method to reconstruct (quasi)local anti-de Sitter bulk scalar observables in the background of a large anti-de Sitter black hole formed by null shell collapse (a "pure state" black hole), from the dual conformal field theory which is undergoing a sudden quench. In particular, we probe the near horizon and subhorizon bulk locality. First, we construct local bulk operators from the conformal field theory in the leading semiclassical limit, N →∞ . Then, we look at effects due to the finiteness of N , where we propose a suitable coarse-graining prescription involving early and late time cutoffs to define semiclassical bulk observables which are approximately local, their departure from locality being nonperturbatively small in N . Our results have important implications on the black hole information problem.

  16. Anomalous rectification in a purely electronic memristor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingrui; Pan, Ruobing; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Yang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Zhuge, Fei

    2016-10-01

    An anomalous rectification was observed in a purely electronic memristive device Ti/ZnO/Pt. It could be due to (1) an Ohmic or quasi-Ohmic contact at the ZnO/Pt interface and (2) a Schottky contact at the Ti/ZnO interface. The Ohmic contact originates from the reduction of ZnO occurring in the whole film instead of only at the Ti/ZnO interface. The Schottky contact may come from moisture adsorbed in the nanoporous ZnO. The conduction in the electroformed device is controlled by the carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites, inducing a poor rectification and high nonlinearity. Furthermore, a complementary resistive switching was achieved.

  17. Momentum of the Pure Radiation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The local momentum equation of the pure radiation field is considered in terms of an earlier elaborated and revised electromagnetic theory. In this equation the contribution from the volume force is found to vanish in rectangular geometry, and to become nonzero but negligible in cylindrical geometry. Consequently the radiated momentum is due to the Poynting vector only, as in conventional electrodynamics. It results in physically relevant properties of a photon model having an angular momentum (spin. The Poynting vector concept is further compared to the quantized momentum concept for a free particle, as represented by a spatial gradient operator acting on the wave function. However, this latter otherwise successful concept leads to difficulties in the physical interpretation of known and expected photon properties such as the spin, the negligible loss of transverse momentum across a bounding surface, and the Lorentz invariance.

  18. Evolving spacetimes with purely radial tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasre Esfahani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this study time-dependent and spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations in an anisotropic background with a purely radial tension are presented. There exist three classes of solutions,1 An open spacetime with a wormhole at its center. 2 A conical spacetime. 3 A closed spacetime. These inhomogeneous solutions are reduced to FRW spacetimes in matter-dominated era, asymptotically. Therefore, they can be used to describe local inhomogeneities that are not considered in the standard model. For the wormhole solution. it is explicity shown that the considered matter is non-exotic, that is, it does not violate the energy conditions. Also, static solutions are studied. There is only one static solution,a conical spacetime. In this case, the matter satisfies the energy condition critically.

  19. Pure White Cell Aplasia and Necrotizing Myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Geon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure white cell aplasia (PWCA is a rare hematologic disorder characterized by the absence of neutrophil lineages in the bone marrow with intact megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. PWCA has been associated with autoimmune, drug-induced, and viral exposures. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old female who presented with severe proximal weakness without pain and was found to have PWCA with nonspecific inflammatory necrotizing myositis and acute liver injury on biopsies. These findings were associated with a recent course of azithromycin and her daily use of a statin. Myositis improved on prednisone but PWCA persisted. With intravenous immunoglobulin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor therapies, her symptoms and neutrophil counts improved and were sustained for months.

  20. Hologram of a pure state black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Shubho R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we extend the HKLL holographic smearing function method to reconstruct (quasi)local AdS bulk scalar observables in the background of a large AdS black hole formed by null shell collapse (a "pure state" black hole), from the dual CFT which is undergoing a sudden quench. In particular, we probe the near horizon and sub-horizon bulk locality. First we construct local bulk operators from the CFT in the leading semiclassical limit, $N\\rightarrow\\infty$. Then we look at effects due to the finiteness of $N$, where we propose a suitable coarse-graining prescription involving early and late time cut-offs to define semiclassical bulk observables which are approximately local; their departure from locality being non-perturbatively small in $N$. Our results have important implications on the black hole information problem.

  1. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  2. Bipedal nanowalker by pure physical mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Juan; Hou, Ruizheng; Efremov, Artem; Liu, Ruchuan; van der Maarel, Johan RC; Wang, Zhisong

    2013-01-01

    Artificial nanowalkers are inspired by biomolecular counterparts from living cells, but remain far from comparable to the latter in design principles. The walkers reported to date mostly rely on chemical mechanisms to gain a direction; they all produce chemical wastes. Here we report a light-powered DNA bipedal walker based on a design principle derived from cellular walkers. The walker has two identical feet and the track has equal binding sites; yet the walker gains a direction by pure physical mechanisms that autonomously amplify an intra-site asymmetry into a ratchet effect. The nanowalker is free of any chemical waste. It has a distinct thermodynamic feature that it possesses the same equilibrium before and after operation, but generates a truly non-equilibrium distribution during operation. The demonstrated design principle exploits mechanical effects and is adaptable for use in other nanomachines.

  3. 7 CFR 201.64 - Pure live seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined...

  4. Tractable Quantification of Entanglement for Multipartite Pure States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Nian-Quan; WANG Yu-Jian; ZHENG Yi-Zhuang; CAI Gen-Chang

    2008-01-01

    We present kth-order entanglement measure and global kth-order entanglement measure for multipartite pure states, and extend Bennett's measure of partial entropy for bipartite pure states to a multipartite case. These measures are computable and can effectively classify and quantify the entanglement of multipartite pure states.

  5. Social cognition in "pure" delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bömmer, Isabel; Brüne, Martin

    2006-09-01

    Introduction. Delusional disorders are characterised by monothematic, "encapsulated" and incorrigible false beliefs and misinterpretations of social signals. Due to the rarity of cases with "pure" delusional disorder (DD) in clinical settings most studies of social cognition in delusional patients have focused on patients with paranoid schizophrenia. In the present study we sought to examine emotion recognition, theory of mind abilities, and pragmatic language comprehension in patients with delusional disorder. Methods. Social cognition was assessed in 21 patients recruited over a 3-year period who were diagnosed with delusional disorder, paranoid, erotomanic, or jealous type. In addition to an emotion recognition and theory of mind test battery, we included a novel German Proverb Test, which has been found indicative of subtle theory of mind deficits in schizophrenic patients. Executive functioning was assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Psychopathology was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS). Patients' task performance was compared to a group of 22 healthy control persons paralleled for verbal intelligence, education, and age. Results. Patients with DD made significantly more perseverative errors in the WCST, they performed more poorly on the theory of mind tasks and the proverb test, but were unimpaired in basic emotion recognition abilities relative to controls. When executive functioning was co-varied out, the group differences in theory of mind disappeared, whereas the greater propensity of patients with DD to interpret proverbs literally remained significant. Conclusions. In "pure" DD the basic social cognitive abilities appear to be preserved. Difficulties in metaphorical speech comprehension and executive functioning could, however, indicate more subtle social cognitive deficits in these patients.

  6. Hole transport in pure and doped hematite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peilin; Carter, Emily A.

    2012-07-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a promising candidate for use in photovoltaic (PV) and photoelectrochemical devices. Its poor conductivity is one major drawback. Doping hematite either p-type or n-type greatly enhances its measured conductivity and is required for potential p-n junctions in PVs. Here, we study hole transport in pure and doped hematite using an electrostatically embedded cluster model with ab initio quantum mechanics (unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory). Consistent with previous work, the model suggests that hole hopping is via oxygen anions for pure hematite. The activation energy for hole mobility is predicted to be at least 0.1 eV higher than the activation energy for electron mobility, consistent with the trend observed in experiments. We examine four dopants—magnesium(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and manganese(II/III) in direct cation substitution sites—to gain insight into the mechanism by which conductivity is improved. The activation energies are used to assess qualitative effects of different dopants. The hole carriers are predicted to be attracted to O anions near the dopants. The magnitude of the trapping effect is similar among the four dopants in their +2 oxidation states. The multivalent character of Mn doping facilitates local hole transport around Mn centers via a low-barrier O-Mn-O pathway, which suggests that higher hole mobility can be achieved with increasing Mn doping concentration, especially when a network of these low-barrier pathways is produced. Our results suggest that the experimentally observed conductivity increase in Mg-, Ni-, and Cu-doped p-type hematite is mostly due to an increase in hole carriers rather than improved mobility, and that Mg-, Ni-, and Cu-doping perform similarly, while the conductivity of Mn-doped hematite might be significantly improved in the high doping concentration limit.

  7. Production of pure hydrogen by ethanol dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santacesaria, E.; Carotenuto, G.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M. [Naples ' ' Federico II' ' Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-12-30

    Hydrogen production from bio-ethanol is one of the most promising renewable processes to generate electricity using fuel cells. In this work, we have studied the production of pure hydrogen as by product of ethanol dehydrogenation reaction. This reaction is promoted by copper based catalysts and according to the catalyst used and the operative conditions gives place to acetaldehyde or ethyl acetate as main products. We studied in particular the performance of a commercial copper/copper chromite catalyst, supported on alumina and containing barium chromate as promoter that has given the best results. By operating at low pressure and temperature with short residence times, acetaldehyde is more selectively produced, while, by increasing the pressure (10-30 bars), the temperature (200-260 C) and the residence time (about 100 (grams hour/mol) of ethanol contact time) the selectivity is shifted to the production of ethyl acetate. However, in both cases pure hydrogen is obtained, as by product, that can easily be separated. Hydrogen obtained in this way is exempt of CO and can be directly fed to fuel cells without any inconvenience. In this work, runs performed in different operative conditions have been reported with the scope to individuate the best conditions. A carrier of H{sub 2} 6% in N{sub 2} has been used. The studied catalyst has also shown a good thermal stability with respect to sintering phenomena, that generally occurs during the dehydrogenation on other copper catalysts. Hydrogen productivities of 8-39 mol{sub H2} (gcat){sup -1}(h){sup -1} have been obtained for the explored temperature range 200-260 C. At last, the most accredited reaction mechanism is reported and discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (orig.)

  8. 多目标优化的相控阵三维方向调制方法%Three-dimensional Direction Modulation of Phased Array Based on Multi-objective Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志川; 吴蒙

    2016-01-01

    针对无线通信系统物理层安全,提出一种基于多目标优化的相控天线阵三维方向调制技术。研究了基于相控阵的二维方向调制技术,在此基础上,引入俯仰角构建三维方向调制技术,并采用多目标优化的遗传算法,通过第二目标函数将非期望俯仰角上的星座图畸变最大化,保证合法接收者垂直方向上的信息传输安全,同时克服单目标遗传算法产生的调制信号对俯仰角的不敏感性。对算法进行仿真性能分析,并给出了物理层安全中潜在的研究方向。%Aiming at the physical layer security of wireless communication system,a new method of 3D directional modulation technology based on multi-objective optimization is proposed. The two-dimensional direction modulation technology is studied based on phased ar-ray,and on this basis,the pitch angle is introduced to construct the three-dimensional direction modulation technique. The genetic algo-rithm for multi-objective optimization is adopted,and the second objective function is used to maximize the constellation distortion and guarantee the safety of information transmission receiver in a vertical direction,at the same time,overcoming the insensitivity of single ob-jective genetic algorithm to generate a modulated signal of angle of pitch. The simulation performance of the algorithm is analyzed,and the potential research direction of physical layer security is given.

  9. A Direct Torque Control Algorithm of Five-phase Permanent-magnet Machines With Multi-objective Optimization%五相永磁同步电机多目标优化直接转矩控制算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛诚; 宋文胜; 冯晓云

    2016-01-01

    The multi-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) has the property of small size, low noise and high power density, so it has been widely used in high-power and low-voltage occasion. Based on the analysis of traditional direct torque control (DTC) models and space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technologies, a fixed switching frequency modified DTC algorithm of five-phase PMSM with multi-objective optimization was proposed, which aims at improving the trajectory of stator flux effectively, reducing torque ripples and low harmonic components of stator currents. The proposed algorithm brings the following benefits: such as fast torque control dynamic response, the fixed switching frequency, the optimization control of torque, stator flux and stator phase currents. Simulation and experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.%多相永磁同步电机驱动系统因具有体积小、噪声低、功率密度高等诸多优点,在低压、大功率输出及可靠性要求高的场合已得到了广泛关注和应用。该文以五相永磁同步电机为研究对象,分析并建立传统直接转矩控制(direct torque control,DTC)算法数学模型,在此基础上,以进一步优化转矩纹波及磁链轨迹,降低定子电流低次谐波为控制目标,结合空间矢量脉宽调制(space vector pulse width modulation, SVPWM)技术,提出改进DTC的定频多目标优化控制模型。该算法不仅保持了传统DTC快速的转矩控制动态响应,实现了开关频率恒定及转矩的无稳态误差,同时也兼顾了定子磁链以及相电流的优化控制。仿真和实验结果均表明该算法的正确性和有效性。

  10. Steam tables for pure water as an ActiveX component in Visual Basic 6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra P.

    2003-11-01

    The IAPWS-95 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of pure water was implemented as an ActiveX component ( SteamTables) in Visual Basic 6.0. For input parameters as temperature ( T=190-2000 K) and pressure ( P=3.23×10 -8-10,000 MPa) the program SteamTables calculates the following properties: volume ( V), density ( D), compressibility factor ( Z0), internal energy ( U), enthalpy ( H), Gibbs free energy ( G), Helmholtz free energy ( A), entropy ( S), heat capacity at constant pressure ( Cp), heat capacity at constant volume ( Cv), coefficient of thermal expansion ( CTE), isothermal compressibility ( Ziso), velocity of sound ( VelS), partial derivative of P with T at constant V (d Pd T), partial derivative of T with V at constant P (d Td V), partial derivative of V with P at constant T (d Vd P), Joule-Thomson coefficient ( JTC), isothermal throttling coefficient ( IJTC), viscosity ( Vis), thermal conductivity ( ThrmCond), surface tension ( SurfTen), Prandtl number ( PrdNum) and dielectric constant ( DielCons) for the liquid and vapor phases of pure water. It also calculates T as a function of P (or P as a function of T) along the sublimation, saturation and critical isochor curves, depending on the values of P (or T). The SteamTables can be incorporated in a program in any computer language, which supports object link embedding (OLE) in the Windows environment. An application of SteamTables is illustrated in a program in Visual Basic 6.0 to tabulate the values of the thermodynamic properties of water and vapor. Similarly, four functions, Temperature(Press), Pressure(Temp), State(Temp, Press) and WtrStmTbls(Temp, Press, Nphs, Nprop), where Temp, Press, Nphs and Nprop are temperature, pressure, phase number and property number, respectively, are written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to use the SteamTables in a workbook in MS-Excel.

  11. Incremental multiple objective genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Guan, Sheng-Uei

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents a new genetic algorithm approach to multiobjective optimization problems--incremental multiple objective genetic algorithms (IMOGA). Different from conventional MOGA methods, it takes each objective into consideration incrementally. The whole evolution is divided into as many phases as the number of objectives, and one more objective is considered in each phase. Each phase is composed of two stages. First, an independent population is evolved to optimize one specific objective. Second, the better-performing individuals from the single-objecive population evolved in the above stage and the multiobjective population evolved in the last phase are joined together by the operation of integration. The resulting population then becomes an initial multiobjective population, to which a multiobjective evolution based on the incremented objective set is applied. The experiment results show that, in most problems, the performance of IMOGA is better than that of three other MOGAs, NSGA-II, SPEA, and PAES. IMOGA can find more solutions during the same time span, and the quality of solutions is better.

  12. Accelerating degradation rate of pure iron by zinc ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Pure iron has been considered as a promising candidate for biodegradable implant applications. However, a faster degradation rate of pure iron is needed to meet the clinical requirement. In this work, metal vapor vacuum arc technology was adopted to implant zinc ions into the surface of pure iron. Results showed that the implantation depth of zinc ions was about 60 nm. The degradation rate of pure iron was found to be accelerated after zinc ion implantation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the implanted zinc ions brought a slight increase on cytotoxicity of the tested cells. In terms of hemocompatibility, the hemolysis of zinc ion implanted pure iron was lower than 2%. However, zinc ions might induce more adhered and activated platelets on the surface of pure iron. Overall, zinc ion implantation can be a feasible way to accelerate the degradation rate of pure iron for biodegradable applications. PMID:27482462

  13. Advanced 3D Object Identification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase I effort, OPTRA developed object detection, tracking, and identification algorithms and successfully tested these algorithms on computer-generated...

  14. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell,D.A; Broadhead, L.W.; Harrell, W.J.

    2006-03-31

    The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightly controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is

  15. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  16. Optical characterization of pure vegetable oils and their biodiesels using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, S.; Anwar, S.; Waheed, A.; Maraj, M.

    2016-04-01

    Great concern regarding energy resources and environmental polution has increased interest in the study of alternative sources of energy. Biodiesels as an alternative fuel provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. The Raman spectra of pure biodiesels of soybean oil, olive oil, coconut oil, animal fats, and petroleum diesel are optically characterized for quality and biofuel as an alternative fuel. The most significant spectral differences are observed in the frequency range around 1457 cm-1 for pure petroleum diesel, 1427 for fats biodiesel, 1670 cm-1 for pure soybean oil, 1461 cm-1 for soybean oil based biodiesel, 1670 cm-1 for pure olive oil, 1666 cm-1 for olive oil based biodiesel, 1461 cm-1 for pure coconut oil, and 1460 cm-1 for coconut oil based biodiesel, which is used for the analysis of the phase composition of oils. A diode pump solid-state laser with a 532 nm wavelength is used as an illuminating light. It is demonstrated that the peak positions and relative intensities of the vibrations of the oils can be used to identify the biodiesel quality for being used as biofuel.

  17. Pure Land or Pure Mind?: Locus of Awakening and American Popular Religious Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Payne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two sections, each with its own distinct goal, forming an interrelated whole. The first introduces “locus of awakening,” and applies it to the relative success in America of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, compared to Pure Land Buddhism. The explanatory power of the concept is demonstrated by also considering Soka Gakkai. The difference between popular culture treatments of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, and Pure Land Buddhism was the problematic leading to identifying locus of awakening as an aspect of Buddhist thought. The second section locates it in the history of Buddhist thought, demonstrating that it is not a modern conceptualization of the path, not one created in response to Euro–American religio-therapeutic culture. Locus of awakening is, instead, part of the continuity of the Buddhist tradition, and does not fall on one side or the other of the sometimes overdrawn dichotomy between Asian and American Buddhisms.

  18. Hyperbolic billiards of pure D=4 supergravities

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, M; Henneaux, Marc; Julia, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    We compute the billiards that emerge in the Belinskii-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz (BKL) limit for all pure supergravities in D=4 spacetime dimensions, as well as for D=4, N=4 supergravities coupled to k (N=4) Maxwell supermultiplets. We find that just as for the cases N=0 and N=8 investigated previously, these billiards can be identified with the fundamental Weyl chambers of hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras. Hence, the dynamics is chaotic in the BKL limit. A new feature arises, however, which is that the relevant Kac-Moody algebra can be the Lorentzian extension of a twisted affine Kac-Moody algebra, while the N=0 and N=8 cases are untwisted. This occurs for N=5, N=3 and N=2. An understanding of this property is provided by showing that the data relevant for determining the billiards are the restricted root system and the maximal split subalgebra of the finite-dimensional real symmetry algebra characterizing the toroidal reduction to D=3 spacetime dimensions. To summarize: split symmetry controls chaos.

  19. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics. PMID:28045029

  20. Reexamination of pure qubit work extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Max F; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2014-11-01

    Many work extraction or information erasure processes in the literature involve the raising and lowering of energy levels via external fields. But even if the actual system is treated quantum mechanically, the field is assumed to be classical and of infinite strength, hence not developing any correlations with the system or experiencing back-actions. We extend these considerations to a fully quantum mechanical treatment by studying a spin-1/2 particle coupled to a finite-sized directional quantum reference frame, a spin-l system, which models an external field. With this concrete model together with a bosonic thermal bath, we analyze the back-action a finite-size field suffers during a quantum-mechanical work extraction process and the effect this has on the extractable work and highlight a range of assumptions commonly made when considering such processes. The well-known semiclassical treatment of work extraction from a pure qubit predicts a maximum extractable work W=kTlog2 for a quasistatic process, which holds as a strict upper bound in the fully quantum mechanical case and is attained only in the classical limit. We also address the problem of emergent local time dependence in a joint system with a globally fixed Hamiltonian.

  1. Crystal Structure Refinement of Synthetic Pure Gyrolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Baltušnikas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pure calcium silicate hydrate – gyrolite was prepared under the saturated steam pressure at 473 K temperature in rotating autoclave. The crystal structure of synthetic gyrolite was investigated by X-ray diffraction and refined using Le Bail, Rietveld and crystal structure modelling methods. Background, peak shape parameters and verification of the space group were performed by the Le Bail full pattern decomposition. Peculiarities of interlayer sheet X of gyrolite unit cell were highlighted by Rietveld refinement. Possible atomic arrangement in interlayer sheet X was solved by global optimization method. Most likelihood crystal structure model of gyrolite was calculated by final Rietveld refinement. It was crystallographically showed, that cell parameters are: a = 0.9713(2 nm, b = 0.9715(2 nm, c = 2.2442(3 nm and alfa = 95.48(2 º, beta = 91.45(2 °, gamma = l20.05(3 °.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5460

  2. Non-universalities in pure gravity mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ibe, Masahiro [University of Tokyo, ICRR, Kashiwa (Japan); University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    The simplest model of pure gravity mediation contains only two free parameters: the gravitino mass and tan{beta}. Scalar masses are universal at some high energy renormalization scale and gaugino masses are determined through anomalies and depend on the gravitino mass and the gauge couplings. This theory requires a relatively large gravitino mass (m{sub 3/2}>or similar 300 TeV) and a limited range in tan{beta}{approx_equal}1.7-2.5. Here we generalize the theory to allow for non-universality in the Higgs soft masses. This introduces zero, one or two new free parameters associated with Higgs soft masses. This generalization allows us to greatly increase the allowed range in tan{beta} and it allows one to find viable solutions with lower m{sub 3/2}. The latter is important if we hope to find a low energy signal from gluinos. Some special cases of these non-universalities are suggestive of Higgs bosons as Nambu-Goldstone bosons or a partial no-scale structure for the Higgs doublets. Thus, we probe signatures at the weak scale and structures at the GUT and/or Planck scale. (orig.)

  3. Foaming of mixtures of pure hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. V.; Woods, W. W.

    1950-01-01

    Mixtures of pure liquid hydrocarbons are capable of foaming. Nine hydrocarbons were mixed in pairs, in all possible combinations, and four proportions of each combination. These mixtures were sealed in glass tubes, and the foaming was tested by shaking. Mixtures of aliphatic with other aliphatic hydrocarbons, or of alkyl benzenes with other alkyl benzenes, did not foam. Mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons with alkyl benzenes did foam. The proportions of the mixtures greatly affected the foaming, the maximum foaming of 12 of 20 pairs being at the composition 20 percent aliphatic hydrocarbon, 80 percent alkyl benzene. Six seconds was the maximum foam lifetime of any of these mixtures. Aeroshell 120 lubricating oil was fractionated into 52 fractions and a residue by extraction with acetone in a fractionating extractor. The index of refraction, foam lifetime, color, and viscosity of these fractions were measured. Low viscosity and high index fractions were extracted first. The viscosity of the fractions extracted rose and the index decreased as fractionation proceeded. Foam lifetimes and color were lowest in the middle fractions. Significance is attached to the observation that none of the foam lifetimes of the fractions or residue is as high as the foam lifetime of the original Aeroshell, indicating that the foaming is not due to a particular foaming constituent, but rather to the entire mixture.

  4. Triplet Pairing in pure neutron matter

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivas, Sarath

    2016-01-01

    We study the zero temperature BCS gaps for the triplet channel in pure neutron matter using Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) evolved interactions. We use the dependence of the results on the SRG resolution scale, as a tool to analyze medium and many-body corrections. In particular, we study the effects of including the three-body interactions at leading order, which appear at N2LO in the Chiral EFT, as well as that of the first-order self-energy corrections on the zero temperature gap. In addition we also extract the transition temperature as a function of densities and verify the BCS scaling of the zero temperature gaps to the transition temperature. We observe that the self-energy effects are very crucial in order to reduce the SRG resolution scale dependence of the results, while the three-body effects at the leading order do not change the two-body resolution scale dependence. On the other hand, the results depend strongly on the three-body cut-off, emphasizing the importance of the missing higher-o...

  5. Pure gauge spin-orbit couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikakhwa, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Planar systems with a general linear spin-orbit interaction (SOI) that can be cast in the form of a non-Abelian pure gauge field are investigated using the language of non-Abelian gauge field theory. A special class of these fields that, though a 2×2 matrix, are Abelian are seen to emerge and their general form is given. It is shown that the unitary transformation that gauges away these fields induces at the same time a rotation on the wave function about a fixed axis but with a space-dependent angle, both of which being characteristics of the SOI involved. The experimentally important case of equal-strength Rashba and Dresselhaus SOI (R+D SOI) is shown to fall within this special class of Abelian gauge fields, and the phenomenon of persistent spin helix (PSH) that emerges in the presence of this latter SOI in a plane is shown to fit naturally within the general formalism developed. The general formalism is also extended to the case of a particle confined to a ring. It is shown that the Hamiltonian on a ring in the presence of equal-strength R+D SOI is unitarily equivalent to that of a particle subject to only a spin-independent but θ-dependent potential with the unitary transformation relating the two being again the space-dependent rotation operator characteristic of R+D SOI.

  6. Photoionization Dynamics in Pure Helium Droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Wang, Chia C.; Poisson,Lionel; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2007-02-04

    The photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy of pure He droplets are investigated at photon energies between 24.6 eV (the ionization energy of He) and 28 eV. Time-of-flight mass spectra and photoelectron images were obtained at a series of molecular beam source temperatures and pressures to assess the effect of droplet size on the photoionization dynamics. At source temperatures below 16 K, the photoelectron images are dominated by fast electrons produced via direct ionization of He atoms, with a small contribution from very slow electrons with kinetic energies below 1 meV arising from an indirect mechanism. The fast photoelectrons have as much as 0.5 eV more kinetic energy than those from atomic He at the same photon energy. This result is interpreted and simulated within the context of a 'dimer model', in which one assumes vertical ionization from two nearest neighbor He atoms to the attractive region of the He2+ potential energy curve. Possible mechanism for the slow electrons, which were also seen at energies below IE(He), are discussed, including vibrational autoionizaton of Rydberg states comprising an electron weakly bound to the surface of a large HeN+ core.

  7. Shifting from preconceptions to pure wonderment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porr, Caroline

    2005-07-01

    The author reflects upon her role as a public health nurse striving to attain practice authenticity. Client assessment and nursing interventions were seemingly sufficient until she became curious about 'Who is this person sitting across from me?' and 'What are her experiences in the world as a lone parent living in poverty at the margins of society?' The author begins to think that she could shift from mere client investigation to pure wonderment about the Other by imagining herself as a researcher, an explorer of another's life world. Ultimately this process enables her to enhance the 'caring' in her practice with the knowledge gained of the perceptions and meanings impoverished clients assigned to their everyday lives. Jurgen Habermas' theory of communicative competence serves as the reference map guiding exploration. The author uses Habermas' theoretical principles of intersubjective mutuality--the validity claims of comprehensibility, truth, sincerity, and legitimacy. Comprehensibility embodies understanding, an attitude of unconditional acceptance, and care respect of another's individual person and self-defined reality. Intersubjective mutuality also requires that one dwell in the moment with the Other, satisfied that communication is founded on truth. Sincerity implies fostering the Other's expression of authentic self apart from oppressive distracters. Lastly, legitimacy reconciles the author's altruistic pursuit to know the Other's ontological truth with the reality of the present world.

  8. Triplet pairing in pure neutron matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Sarath; Ramanan, S.

    2016-12-01

    We study the zero-temperature BCS gaps for the triplet channel in pure neutron matter using similarity renormalization group (SRG) evolved interactions. We use the dependence of the results on the SRG resolution scale as a tool to analyze medium and many-body corrections. In particular, we study the effects of including the three-body interactions at leading order, which appear at next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) in the chiral effective field theory (EFT), as well as that of the first-order self-energy corrections on the zero-temperature gap. In addition we also extract the transition temperature as a function of densities and verify the BCS scaling of the zero-temperature gaps to the transition temperature. We observe that the self-energy effects are very crucial in order to reduce the SRG resolution scale dependence of the results, while the three-body effects at the leading order do not change the two-body resolution scale dependence. On the other hand, the results depend strongly on the three-body cutoff, emphasizing the importance of the missing higher-order three-body effects. We also observe that self-energy effects reduce the overall gap as well as shift the gap closure to lower densities.

  9. Twofold symmetries of the pure gravity action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2017-01-01

    We recast the action of pure gravity into a form that is invariant under a twofold Lorentz symmetry. To derive this representation, we construct a general parameterization of all theories equivalent to the Einstein-Hilbert action up to a local field redefinition and gauge fixing. We then exploit this freedom to eliminate all interactions except those exhibiting two sets of independently contracted Lorentz indices. The resulting action is local, remarkably simple, and naturally expressed in a field basis analogous to the exponential parameterization of the nonlinear sigma model. The space of twofold Lorentz invariant field redefinitions then generates an infinite class of equivalent representations. By construction, all off-shell Feynman diagrams are twofold Lorentz invariant while all on-shell tree amplitudes are automatically twofold gauge invariant. We extend our results to curved spacetime and calculate the analogue of the Einstein equations. While these twofold invariances are hidden in the canonical approach of graviton perturbation theory, they are naturally expected given the double copy relations for scattering amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity.

  10. Non-universalities in pure gravity mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason L.; Ibe, Masahiro; Olive, Keith A.; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-10-01

    The simplest model of pure gravity mediation contains only two free parameters: the gravitino mass and tan β. Scalar masses are universal at some high energy renormalization scale and gaugino masses are determined through anomalies and depend on the gravitino mass and the gauge couplings. This theory requires a relatively large gravitino mass ( m 3/2≳300 TeV) and a limited range in tan β≃1.7-2.5. Here we generalize the theory to allow for non-universality in the Higgs soft masses. This introduces zero, one or two new free parameters associated with Higgs soft masses. This generalization allows us to greatly increase the allowed range in tan β and it allows one to find viable solutions with lower m 3/2. The latter is important if we hope to find a low energy signal from gluinos. Some special cases of these non-universalities are suggestive of Higgs bosons as Nambu-Goldstone bosons or a partial no-scale structure for the Higgs doublets. Thus, we probe signatures at the weak scale and structures at the GUT and/or Planck scale.

  11. Non-Universalities in Pure Gravity Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jason L; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2013-01-01

    The simplest model of pure gravity mediation contains only two free parameters: the gravitino mass and \\tan\\beta. Scalar masses are universal at some high energy renormalization scale and gaugino masses are determined through anomalies and depend on the gravitino mass and the gauge couplings. This theory requires a relatively large gravitino mass (m_{3/2}\\gtrsim 300\\,TeV) and a limited range in \\tan \\beta \\simeq 1.7--2.5. Here we generalize the theory to allow for non-universality in the Higgs soft masses. This introduces zero, one or two new free parameters associated with Higgs soft masses. This generalization allows us to greatly increase the allowed range in \\tan \\beta and it allows one to find viable solutions with lower m_{3/2}. The latter is important if we hope to find a low energy signal from gluinos. Some special cases of these non-universalities are suggestive of Higgs bosons as Nambu-Goldstone bosons or a partial no-scale structure for the Higgs doublets. Thus, we probe signatures at the weak scal...

  12. Evaluation on correction factor for in-line X-ray phase contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Mingli; Huang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ran [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging; Yin, Hongxia; Liu, Yunfu; Wang, Zhenchang [Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China). Medical Imaging Center; Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Inst. of Applied Physics

    2011-07-01

    X-ray in-line phase contrast computed tomography (CT) is an effective nondestructive tool, providing 3D distribution of the refractive index of weakly absorbing low-Z object with high resolution and image contrast, especially with high-brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Modified Bronnikov's algorithm (MBA), one of the in-line phase contrast CT reconstruction algorithms, can reconstruct the refractive index distribution of a pure phase object with a single computed tomographic data set. The key idea of the MBA is to use a correction factor in the filter function to stabilize the behavior at low frequencies. In this paper, we evaluate the influences of the correction factor to the final reconstruction results of the absorption-phase-mixed objects with analytical simulation and actual experiments. The limitations of the MBA are discussed finally. (orig.)

  13. Refractometry of microscopic objects using digital holography

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Mats; Sebesta, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Digital holography has some desirable properties for refractometry of microscopic objects since it gives phase and amplitude information of an object in all depths of focus from one set of exposures. The refractive index of the object can be determined by observation of the movements of the Becke lines between different focus depths. It is also shown that one single phase image provides an independent technique to determine sign of the relief between an object and the surroun...

  14. UFO: "Unidentified" Floating Object Driven by Thermocapillarity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yuejun

    2010-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we show thermocapillary actuation of a binary drop of water and heptanol where the binary drop in motion takes on a UFO-like shape. On a parylene-coated silicon surface subjected to a linear temperature gradient, a pure heptanol droplet quickly moves to the cold side by the Marangoni stress, while a pure water droplet remains stuck due to a large contact angle hysteresis. When the water droplet was encapsulated by a thin layer of heptanol and thermally actuated, the binary droplet takes on a peculiar shape resembling an UFO, i.e. an "unidentified" floating object as the mechanism is not yet completely understood. Our finding suggests that pure liquid droplets (e.g. aqueous solutions) that are not conducive to thermocapillary actuation can be made so by encapsulating them with another judiciously chosen liquid (e.g. heptanol).

  15. Study on pure IL VIV of a free spanning pipeline under general boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wan-hai; Xu, Jing-yu; Wu, Ying-xiang; Ji, Chun-ning

    2017-03-01

    Pipeline spans may occur due to natural seabed irregularities or local scour of bed sediment. The pure in-line (IL) vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) analysis of the free spans is an important subject for design of pipeline in uneven seabed. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of pure IL VIV of a free spanning pipeline under general boundary conditions. An IL wake oscillator model which can describe the coupling of pipeline structure and fluctuating drag is introduced and employed. The coupled partial differential equations of structure and wake are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations using two-mode Galerkin method. Some case studies are presented and thoroughly discussed in order to investigate the effects of internal fluid, axial force and boundary conditions on the pure IL VIV.

  16. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  17. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  18. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  19. Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on San Juan Basin Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. A. M. Gasem; R. L. Robinson; S. R. Reeves

    2002-03-01

    The major objectives of this project were to (a) measure the adsorption behavior of pure methane, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and their binary and ternary mixtures on wet Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia; (b) correlate the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data using the extended Langmuir model, the Langmuir model, the loading ratio correlation and the Zhou-Gasem-Robinson equation of state; and (c) establish sorption-time estimates for the pure components. Specific accomplishments are summarized below regarding the complementary tasks involving experimental work and data correlation. Representative coal samples from BP Amoco Tiffany Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 were prepared, as requested. The equilibrium moisture content and particle size distribution of each coal sample were determined. Compositional coal analyses for both samples were performed by Huffman Laboratories, Inc. Pure gas adsorption for methane on wet Tiffany coal samples from Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 was measured separately at 130 F (327.6 K) and pressures to 2000 psia (13.7 MPa). The average expected uncertainty in these data is about 3% (9 SCF/ton). Our measurements indicate that the adsorption isotherms of the two coal samples exhibit similar Langmuir-type behavior. For the samples from the two wells, a maximum variation of about 5% in the amount adsorbed is observed at 2000 psia. Gas adsorption isotherms were measured for pure methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} on a wet, mixed Tiffany coal sample. The coal sample was an equal-mass mixture of coals from Well No.1 and Well No.10. The adsorption measurements were conducted at 130 F at pressures to 2000 psia. The adsorption isotherms have average expected experimental uncertainties of 3% (9 SCF/ton), 6% (8 SCF/ton), and 7% (62 SCF/ton) for methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}, respectively. Adsorption isotherms were measured for methane/nitrogen, methane/CO{sub 2} and nitrogen/CO{sub 2} binary mixtures on wet, mixed Tiffany coal at 130 F and

  20. Aerobic and two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion with pure oxygen and air aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Ros, Milenko

    2008-01-01

    The degradability of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was studied. The objective was establishing the degree of degradation using either air or pure oxygen at different temperatures. Sludge treated with pure oxygen was degraded at temperatures from 22 degrees C to 50 degrees C while samples treated with air were degraded between 32 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Using air, sludge is efficiently degraded at 37 degrees C and at 50-55 degrees C. With oxygen, sludge was most effectively degraded at 38 degrees C or at 25-30 degrees C. Two-stage anaerobic-aerobic processes were studied. The first anaerobic stage was always operated for 5 days HRT, and the second stage involved aeration with pure oxygen and an HRT between 5 and 10 days. Under these conditions, there is 53.5% VSS removal and 55.4% COD degradation at 15 days HRT - 5 days anaerobic, 10 days aerobic. Sludge digested with pure oxygen at 25 degrees C in a batch reactor converted 48% of sludge total Kjeldahl nitrogen to nitrate. Addition of an aerobic stage with pure oxygen aeration to the anaerobic digestion enhances ammonium nitrogen removal. In a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion process within 8 days HRT of the aerobic stage, the removal of ammonium nitrogen was 85%.

  1. Effect of silica coating on the bond strength of milled pure titanium to dental porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiantao; Ye, Xiuhua; Chang, Shaohai; Liu, Lang; Zhang, Yiping; Lin, Shiyao

    2016-10-01

    The creation of a high bond strength between machined computer-manufactured pure titanium and porcelain remains problematic, and the effects of a silica coating on the bond strength of milled pure titanium bonded to dental porcelain require further investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of machined pure titanium, with an intermediate coating of silica, to dental porcelain. In this work, 24 specimens of milled pure titanium were prepared and randomly divided into test and control groups, in which the test group was coated with silica using the sol-gel dipping technique. The metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated, according to ISO 9693 standards, using the three-point bending test, and scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the microstructure and elemental composition of the specimens. The bonding strength of the silica-coated group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and more residual porcelain on the metal surface could be observed in the silica-coated group. Therefore, the application of a silica intermediate coating produced using the sol-gel method could significantly improve the bond strength between machined pure titanium and porcelain.

  2. Peccei-Quinn symmetric pure gravity mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ibe, Masahiro [University of Tokyo, ICRR, Kashiwa (Japan); University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Successful models of pure gravity mediation (PGM) with radiative electroweak symmetry breaking can be expressed with as few as two free parameters, which can be taken as the gravitinomass and tan β. These models easily support a 125-126 GeV Higgs mass at the expense of a scalar spectrum in the multi-TeV range and a much lighter wino as the lightest supersymmetric particle. In these models, it is also quite generic that the Higgs mixing mass parameter, μ, which is determined by the minimization of the Higgs potential is also in the multi-TeV range. For μ > 0, the thermal relic density of winos is too small to account for the darkmatter. The same is true for μ < 0 unless the gravitinomass is of order 500 TeV. Here, we consider the origin of a multi-TeV μ parameter arising from the breakdown of a Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry. A coupling of the PQ-symmetry breaking field, P, to the MSSM Higgs doublets, naturally leads to a value of μ ∝ left angle P right angle {sup 2}/M{sub P} ∝ O(100) TeV and of the order that is required in PGM models. In this case, axions make up the dark matter or some fraction of the dark matter with the remainder made up from thermal or non-thermal winos. We also provide solutions to the problem of isocurvature fluctuations with axion dark matter in this context. (orig.)

  3. Modeling of liquid phases

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been given to the rigor of mathematical developments. This second volume in the set is devoted to the study of liquid phases.

  4. Interfacial adsorption in two-dimensional pure and random-bond Potts models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytas, Nikolaos G.; Theodorakis, Panagiotis E.; Malakis, Anastasios

    2017-03-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the finite-size scaling behavior of the interfacial adsorption of the two-dimensional square-lattice q -states Potts model. We consider the pure and random-bond versions of the Potts model for q =3 ,4 ,5 ,8 , and 10, thus probing the interfacial properties at the originally continuous, weak, and strong first-order phase transitions. For the pure systems our results support the early scaling predictions for the size dependence of the interfacial adsorption at both first- and second-order phase transitions. For the disordered systems, the interfacial adsorption at the (disordered induced) continuous transitions is discussed, applying standard scaling arguments and invoking findings for bulk critical properties. The self-averaging properties of the interfacial adsorption are also analyzed by studying the infinite limit-size extrapolation of properly defined signal-to-noise ratios.

  5. On the relation between hybrid and pure spinor string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, Sebastian [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper we revisit Berkovits' pure spinor formalism in lower dimensions. We are particularly interested in relating a six-dimensional pure spinor action previously constructed in the literature to other superstring formalisms. In order to gain some insight into six-dimensional pure spinors, we first derive their action by gauge-fixing the classical six-dimensional Green-Schwarz action. We then consider a hybrid pure spinor construction in which the spacetime symmetries of six of the ten dimensions are described in pure spinor variables, while the remaining four dimensions are parameterized in terms of RNS variables. We relate this pure spinor formalism to the Berkovits-Vafa-Witten hybrid formalism of string theory on R{sup 6} x T{sup 4}. (orig.)

  6. Factors contributing to the rheology of tomato puree

    OpenAIRE

    Abson, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum Iycopersicum) puree is created by homogenising the flesh of tomato fruits. The viscosity of this material and the fibrous content is of commercial interest. Tomato puree consists of suspended particles (consisting of whole cells, broken cells and cellular fragments) in an aqueous serum. The contribution of the non-soluble and soluble material to tomato puree rheology was studied with reference to the varying composition of solids and firmness of tomato fruit at four stages of ...

  7. Are all noisy quantum states obtained from pure ones?

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, L; Popescu, S

    2001-01-01

    We ask what type of mixed quantum states can arise when a number of separated parties start by sharing a pure quantum state and then this pure state becomes contaminated by noise. We show that not all mixed states arise in this way. This is even the case if the separated parties actively try to degrade their initial pure state by arbitrary local actions and classical communication.

  8. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object....

  9. POISSON TRAFFIC PROCESSES IN PURE JUMP MARKOV PROCESSES AND GENERALIZED NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Chengxuan; XU Guanghui

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present the conditions under which the traffic processes in a pure jump Markov process with a general state space are Poisson processes, and give a simple proof of PASTA type theorem in Melamed (1982) and Walrand (1988).Furthermore, we consider a generalized network with phase type negative arrivals and show that the network has a product-form invariant distribution and its traffic processes which represent the customers exiting from the network are Poisson processes.

  10. ActionScript Developer's Guide to PureMVC

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    Gain hands-on experience with PureMVC, the popular open source framework for developing maintainable applications with a Model-View-Controller architecture. In this concise guide, PureMVC creator Cliff Hall teaches the fundamentals of PureMVC development by walking you through the construction of a complete non-trivial Adobe AIR application. Through clear explanations and numerous ActionScript code examples, you'll learn best practices for using the framework's classes in your day-to-day work. Discover how PureMVC enables you to focus on the purpose and scope of your application, while the f

  11. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  12. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  13. Characterization of microarc oxidation coatings on pure titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The morphology, composition, and phase structure of the oxide coatings produced on the surface of pure titaniumby alternating-current microarc discharge in aluminate solution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronmicroscopy. The profiles of the hardness H and the elastic modulus E in the coatings were determined using a nanoindenta-tion method. The concentration distributions of Ti, Al, and O in the coating show that this coating over 30 μm thick containstwo layers: an outer layer and an inner layer. The oxide coating is mainly composed of TiO2 rutile and Al2TiO5 compounds.During oxidation, the temperature in the microarc discharge channel was very high to make the local coating molten. Fromthe surface to the interior of the coating, H and E increase gradually, and then reach maximum values of 9.78 GPa and 176GPa respectively at a distance of 7 μm from the coating/titanium interface. They are also rather high near the interface.

  14. Management by objectives in medical group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozis, D E

    1986-01-01

    When the concept of management by objectives first emerged, it was heralded by many as the long-sought secret to employee motivation. The MBO technique, involving the three primary functions of objective setting, objective using, and employee involvement, is described here in terms of both theory and practice. Although it does have its pitfalls and is certainly not the "ultimate answer," MBO in medical group practice does have its merits when properly introduced. It is much more than a purely academic concept, and its major strength lies in its recognition of the importance of human resources in getting the job done.

  15. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives

  16. Pure JavaScript Storyline Layout Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-10-02

    This is a JavaScript library for a storyline layout algorithm. Storylines are adept at communicating complex change by encoding time on the x-axis and using the proximity of lines in the y direction to represent interaction between entities. The library in this disclosure takes as input a list of objects containing an id, time, and state. The output is a data structure that can be used to conveniently render a storyline visualization. Most importantly, the library computes the y-coordinate of the entities over time that decreases layout artifacts including crossings, wiggles, and whitespace. This is accomplished through multi-objective, multi-stage optimization problem, where the output of one stage produces input and constraints for the next stage.

  17. Fluid echoes in a pure electron plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J H; O'Neil, T M; Driscoll, C F

    2005-01-21

    Experimental observations of diocotron wave echoes on a magnetized electron column are reported, representing Kelvin wave echoes on a rotating near-ideal fluid. The echoes occur by reversal of an inviscid wave damping process, and the phase-space mixing and unmixing are directly imaged. The basic echo characteristics agree with a simple nonlinear ballistic theory. At late times, the echo is degraded, and the maximal observed echo times agree with a theory of electron-electron collisions acting on separately evolving velocity classes.

  18. Purely geometric path integral for spin foams

    CERN Document Server

    Shirazi, Atousa Chaharsough

    2013-01-01

    Spin-foams are a proposal for defining the dynamics of loop quantum gravity via path integral. In order for a path integral to be at least formally equivalent to the corresponding canonical quantization, at each point in the space of histories it is important that the integrand have not only the correct phase -- a topic of recent focus in spin-foams -- but also the correct modulus, usually referred to as the measure factor. The correct measure factor descends from the Liouville measure on the reduced phase space, and its calculation is a task of canonical analysis. The covariant formulation of gravity from which spin-foams are derived is the Plebanski-Holst formulation, in which the basic variables are a Lorentz connection and a Lorentz-algebra valued two-form, called the Plebanski two-form. However, in the final spin-foam sum, one sums over only spins and intertwiners, which label eigenstates of the Plebanski two-form alone. The spin-foam sum is therefore a discretized version of a Plebanski-Holst path integ...

  19. Oxidation driven decomposition of CeNbO4 in pure oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Vullum, Fride; Grande, Tor

    2008-01-01

    CeNbO4 possess oxygen hyper-stoichiometry at ambient and moderate temperature. At elevated temperature CeNbO4+δ is thermally reduced to near stoichiometric CeNbO4 accompanied by a structural phase transition. Above the phase transition temperature re-oxidation of the material occurred in pure oxygen atmosphere, and in-situ X-ray diffraction revealed that CeNbO4 decomposed to CeO2 and CeNb3O9. Upon further heating CeNbO4 reappeared by a solid state reaction between CeO2 and CeNb3O9. The presen...

  20. Screening masses in the SU(3) pure gauge theory and universality

    CERN Document Server

    Falcone, R; Gravina, M; Papa, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We determine from Polyakov loop correlators the screening masses in th e deconfined phase of the (3+1)d SU(3) pure gauge theory at finite temperature near transition, for two different channels of angular momentum and parity. Their ratio is compared with that of the massive excitations with the same quantum numbers in the 3d 3-state Potts model in the broken phase near the transition point at zero magnetic field. Moreover we study the inverse decay length of the correlation between the real parts and between the imaginary parts of the Polyakov loop and compare the results with expectations from perturbation theory and mean-field Polyakov loop models.

  1. Screening masses in the SU(3) pure gauge theory and universality

    CERN Document Server

    Falcone, Rossella; Gravina, Mario; Papa, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We determine from Polyakov loop correlators the screening masses in the deconfined phase of the (3+1)d SU(3) pure gauge theory at finite temperature near the transition, for two different channels of angular momentum and parity. Their ratio is compared with that of the massive excitations with the same quantum numbers in the 3d 3-state Potts model in the broken phase near the transition point at zero magnetic field. Moreover we study the inverse decay length of the correlation between the real parts and between the imaginary parts of the Polyakov loop and compare the results with expectations from perturbation theory and mean-field Polyakov loop models.

  2. Simple shear of deformable square objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagus, Susan H.; Lan, Labao

    2003-12-01

    Finite element models of square objects in a contrasting matrix in simple shear show that the objects deform to a variety of shapes. For a range of viscosity contrasts, we catalogue the changing shapes and orientations of objects in progressive simple shear. At moderate simple shear ( γ=1.5), the shapes are virtually indistinguishable from those in equivalent pure shear models with the same bulk strain ( RS=4), examined in a previous study. In theory, differences would be expected, especially for very stiff objects or at very large strain. In all our simple shear models, relatively competent square objects become asymmetric barrel shapes with concave shortened edges, similar to some types of boudin. Incompetent objects develop shapes surprisingly similar to mica fish described in mylonites.

  3. Auditory Repetition Priming Is Impaired in Pure Alexic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Diane; Miller, Kimberly M.; Larsen, Jary

    2004-01-01

    Alexia without agraphia, or ''pure'' alexia, is an acquired impairment in reading that leaves writing skills intact. Repetition priming for visually presented words is diminished in pure alexia. However, it is not possible to verify whether this priming deficit is modality-specific or modality independent because reading abilities are compromised.…

  4. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-05

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

  5. The study of antioxidant activity of multicomponent vegetable puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Trushechkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied the antioxidant activity of multicomponent vegetable puree, consisting of 20 % of eggplant, 20 % of zucchini, 16 % of bell peppers, 15 % of tomatoes, 14 % of carrots, 10 % of onions and 5 % of garlic. These results showed an increase in concentration of the antioxidant activity of puree and, consequently, increase its quality.

  6. Benzoic Acid and Chlorobenzoic Acids: Thermodynamic Study of the Pure Compounds and Binary Mixtures With Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Thomas; Zherikova, Kseniya V; Verevkin, Sergey P; Held, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Benzoic acid is a model compound for drug substances in pharmaceutical research. Process design requires information about thermodynamic phase behavior of benzoic acid and its mixtures with water and organic solvents. This work addresses phase equilibria that determine stability and solubility. In this work, Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) was used to model the phase behavior of aqueous and organic solutions containing benzoic acid and chlorobenzoic acids. Absolute vapor pressures of benzoic acid and 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorobenzoic acid from literature and from our own measurements were used to determine pure-component PC-SAFT parameters. Two binary interaction parameters between water and/or benzoic acid were used to model vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of water and/or benzoic acid between 280 and 413 K. The PC-SAFT parameters and 1 binary interaction parameter were used to model aqueous solubility of the chlorobenzoic acids. Additionally, solubility of benzoic acid in organic solvents was predicted without using binary parameters. All results showed that pure-component parameters for benzoic acid and for the chlorobenzoic acids allowed for satisfying modeling phase equilibria. The modeling approach established in this work is a further step to screen solubility and to predict the whole phase region of mixtures containing pharmaceuticals.

  7. Keeping consumers safe: food providers' perspectives on pureed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Twelve focus groups were conducted in five sites with 80 allied health providers to identify their perspectives on providing pureed food to consumers. Thematic care analysis was completed to summarize and interpret these data. Providers' greatest concern was keeping consumers safe, and the right texture was prioritized over sensory appeal and acceptance. Providers recognized that these foods impacted the quality of life of consumers and worked to rationalize these diets with residents/patients and their families. In addition, offering foods they knew to be poorly accepted affected their self-concept as providers. As a result of these challenges, they did whatever they could in the kitchen and tableside to promote intake of pureed foods. Those in the "food chain" of pureed food provision suggested several ways to further improve these products. Greater communication between those who assist consumers with eating and those who produce the pureed food they consume is needed to promote acceptable pureed products.

  8. Dynamics of pure tone audiometry and DPOAE changes induced by glycerol in Meniere's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka-Strom, Agnieszka; Pospiech, Lucyna; Zatonski, Maciej; Bochnia, Marek

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to follow up the dynamics of pure tone threshold and DPOAE amplitude changes induced by glycerol with reference to its activity in the inner ear. Selection was made among 38 patients with Meniere's disease for those having positive glycerol test. Pure-tone audiometry and DP-gram were performed in four series: as an initial examination before glycerol intake, 1, 2 and 3 h after. Audiometric changes formed distinct biphasal pattern at all frequencies between 250 and 4,000 Hz. The most dynamic pure tone threshold decrease occurred during the first hour. Between the first and second hour after glycerol ingestion there was a phase of no significant hearing changes. Further pure tone threshold decrease went on within the third hour reaching its top. Observing DPOAE changes, the highest DP amplitude growth occurred after the second and the third hour at DP-gram frequencies 2, 3 and 4 kHz. The fastest DP-amplitude increase was registered as well during the first hour after glycerol ingestion. In 11 persons with both audiometry and DPOAE positive glycerol test, parallel dynamics in the course of the glycerol test was observed. Biphasal glycerol test dynamics suggests the possibility of two mechanisms of glycerol activity in the inner ear.

  9. Non-ionic surfactants do not consistently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Chen, Hongmei; Qi, Feng; Zhao, Xuebing; Liu, Dehua

    2015-04-01

    Non-ionic surfactants have been frequently reported to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass and pure cellulose. However, how the hydrolysis condition, substrate structure and cellulase formulation affect the beneficial action of surfactants has not been well elucidated. In this work, it was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose was not consistently improved by surfactants. Contrarily, high surfactant concentration, e.g. 5 g/L, which greatly improved the hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated substrates, actually showed notable inhibition to pure cellulose conversion in the late phase of hydrolysis. Under an optimal hydrolysis condition, the improvement by surfactant was limited, but under harsh conditions surfactant indeed could enhance cellulose conversion. It was proposed that non-ionic surfactants could interact with substrates and cellulases to impact the adsorption behaviors of cellulases. Therefore, the beneficial action of surfactants on pure cellulose hydrolysis is influenced by hydrolysis condition, cellulose structural features and cellulase formulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetics and mechanical study of plasma electrolytic carburizing for pure iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşlu, F.; Usta, M.

    2011-02-01

    In this work, plasma electrolytic surface carburizing of pure iron in aqueous solution consisting of water, glycerin and NH4Cl was investigated. Surface carburizing was carried out in 20% glycerin solution treated at 750 °C, 800 °C, 900 °C and 950 °C temperatures for 5, 10 and 30 min. The formation of hard carbon-rich layer on the surface of pure iron was confirmed by XRD analysis. Metallographic and SEM studies revealed a rough and dense carburized layer on the surface of the pure iron. Experimental results showed that the thickness of the carburized layers changes with the time and temperature. The average thickness of the carburized layer ranged from 20 to 160 μm. The hardness of the carburized samples decreased with the distance from the surface to the interior of the test material. The average hardness values of the carburized layers on the substrate ranged 550-850 HV, while the hardness of the substrate ranged from 110 HV to 170 HV. The dominant phases formed on the pure iron were found to be a mixture of cementite (Fe3C), martensite (Fe + C) and austenite (FCC iron) confirmed by XRD. Wear resistance in all plasma electrolytic carburized samples is considerably improved in relation to the untreated specimen. After carburizing, surface roughness of the samples was increased. Friction coefficients were also increased because of high surface roughness.

  11. {beta}-ray Angular Distribution from Purely Nuclear Spin Aligned {sup 20}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamisono, K., E-mail: minamiso@nscl.msu.edu [NSCL/MSU (United States); Matsuta, K.; Minamisono, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Levy, C. D. P. [TRIUMF (Canada); Nagatomo, T.; Ogura, M. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Sumikama, T. [RIKEN (Japan); Behr, J. A.; Jackson, K. P. [TRIUMF (Canada); Fujiwara, H.; Mihara, M.; Fukuda, M. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2004-12-15

    The alignment correlation term in the {beta}-decay angular distribution from purely nuclear spin aligned {sup 20}Na has been measured for the first time. The final objective is to test the G parity symmetry, one of the fundamental symmetry in the weak nucleon current. For artificial creation of the alignment, the knowledge of the hyperfine interaction of {sup 20}Na implanted in a single-crystal ZnO was utilized.

  12. KINETIKA FERMENTASI SELULOSA MURNI OLEH Trichoderma reesi QM 9414 MENJADI GLUKOSA DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA JERAMI PADI BEBAS LIGNIN [Kinetics of Pure Cellulose Fermentation by Trichoderma Reesei QM 9414 to Glucose and Its Application of on Lignin Free Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iyan Sofyan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were: 1 to determine aeration rate and substrate concentration of pure cellulose to produce maximum glucose by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 at 30 oC, and agitation 150 rpm; 2 to study the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 to glucose and its implication upon fermentation of the lignin free rice straw. The experiment was arranged in factorial randomized complete design in three times replication. Treatments consisted of three levels of aeration (1,00 vvm; 1,5 vvm; 2,0 vvm and three levels of substrate concentration (0,75 ; 1,00 ; 1,25 % w/v. The results showed that at the exponential phase the average specific growth of Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was 0,05374 hour-1, the maximum glucose product concentration of pure cellulose was 0.1644 gL-1,and the oxygen transfer was 0,0328 mg L-1 hour-1. According to t-test, the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation model just the same as the lignin free rice straw fermentation.The enzymes produced by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 in pure cellulose fermentation media followed the Michaelis-Menten model. The enzyme kinetic parameters were the maximum growth rate was 37x10-3 hour-1 and Michaelis-Menten constant was ½ maximum μ =17,5x10-3 hour-1. The volumetric oxygen transfer (KLa using rice straw was 0,0337 mg.hour-1. The value of KLa could be used for conversion from bioreactor at laboratory scale to commercial scale design.

  13. Broadband echo sequence using a pi composite pulse for the pure NQR of a spin I = 32 powder sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odin

    2000-04-01

    This work presents a numerical approach to optimizing sequences with composite pulses for the pure NQR of a spin I = 32 powder sample. The calculations are based on a formalism developed in a previous paper, which allows a fast powder-averaging procedure to be implemented. The framework of the Cayley-Klein matrices to describe space rotations by 2 x 2 unitary and unimodular complex matrices is used to calculate the pulse propagators. The object of such a study is to design a high-performance echo sequence composed of a single preparation pulse and a three-pulse composite transfer pulse. We mean a sequence leading to a large excitation bandwidth with a good signal-to-noise ratio, a flat excitation profile near the irradiation frequency, and a good linearity of the phase as a function of frequency offset. Such a composite echo sequence is intended to give a better excitation profile than the classical Hahn (θ)-tau-(2θ) echo sequence. It is argued that in pure NQR of a powder sample, the sequence must be optimized as a whole since both the excitation and the reception of the signal depend on the relative orientation of the crystallites with respect to the coil axis. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a global approach is presented. An extensive numerical study of the composite echo sequence described above is performed in this article. The key of the discrimination between the sequences lies in using the first five reduced moments of the excitation profile as well as an estimator of the phase linearity. Based on such information, we suggest that the echo sequence that best fulfills our criterion is (1)(0)-tau-(0.35)(0)(2.1)(pi)(0.35)(0), the pulse angles omega(RF)t(p) being in radians. The subscripts are the relative pulse phases. We outlined the way to implement the spin echo mapping method to reconstruct large spectra with this sequence, and it is shown that it reduces the acquisition time by a factor of 1.7 if compared to the classical Hahn echo. Some

  14. Value of high-frequency ultrasonography with virtual touch tissue quantification in diagnosis of breast pure mucinous carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Shi; Guang Yang; Jialing Wu; Wenlin Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to analyze the characters of breast pure mucinous carcinomas on highfrequency ultrasonography with virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ). Methods: A total of 12 patients (with breast pure mucinous carcinomas) and a group of 30 patients (with adenofibroma of breast) underwent breast examination with high-frequency ultrasonography to analyze the characters of images, and with VTQ to analyze the elastic character. Results: In the conventional ultrasound imaging, statistical differences were found between two groups in the shape, the boundary and the internal echo of the lesions. In the VTQ, the mean of shearing wave speed (Vs) in pure mucinous carcinomas was less than in adenofibroma of breast. Conclusion: Conventional high-frequency ultrasonography combining with VTQ have significant value in diagnosis of breast pure mucinous carcinoma.

  15. A uniqueness result for propagation-based phase contrast imaging from a single measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Maretzke, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phase contrast imaging seeks to reconstruct the complex refractive index of an unknown sample from scattering intensities, measured for example under illumination with coherent X-rays. By incorporating refraction, this method yields improved contrast compared to purely absorption-based radiography but involves a phase retrieval problem which, in general, allows for ambiguous reconstructions. In this paper, we show uniqueness of propagation-based phase contrast imaging for compactly supported objects in the near field regime, based on a description by the projection- and paraxial approximations. In this setting, propagation is governed by the Fresnel propagator and the unscattered part of the illumination function provides a known reference wave at the detector which facilitates phase reconstruction. The uniqueness theorem is derived using the theory of entire functions. Unlike previous results based on exact solution formulae, it is valid for arbitrary complex objects and requires intensity measurements only ...

  16. Pure or Compound Dualism? Considering Afresh the Prospects of Pure Substance Dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Ryan Farris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Substance dualism has received much attention from philosophers and theologians in contemporary literature. Whilst it may have been fashionable in the recent past to dismiss substance dualism as an unviable and academically absurd position to hold, this is no longer the case. My contention is not so much the merits of substance dualism in general, but a more specified variation of substance dualism. My specific contribution to the literature in this article is that I argue for the viability of pure substance dualism as a more satisfactory option in contrast to compound or composite varieties of substance dualism. I put forth one argument and tease out the implications that make compound dualism less than satisfactory. I conclude that, minimally, more work is required on compound variations of dualism to make it a more appealing and a philosophically satisfactory option.

  17. Development of Object and Grasping Knowledge by Robot Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Detry, Renaud; Pugeault, Nicolas;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a bootstrapping cognitive robot system that—mainly based on pure exploration—acquires rich object representations and associated object-specific grasp affordances. Such bootstrapping becomes possible by combining innate competences and behaviours by which the system gradually enriches...

  18. Reflective type objective based spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography for high-sensitive structural and functional imaging of cochlear microstructures through intact bone of an excised guinea pig cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2013-03-01

    Most of the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) systems for high resolution imaging of biological specimens are based on refractive type microscope objectives, which are optimized for specific wave length of the optical source. In this study, we present the feasibility of using commercially available reflective type objective for high sensitive and high resolution structural and functional imaging of cochlear microstructures of an excised guinea pig through intact temporal bone. Unlike conventional refractive type microscopic objective, reflective objective are free from chromatic aberrations due to their all-reflecting nature and can support a broadband of spectrum with very high light collection efficiency.

  19. Structural, electronic, and hyperfine properties of pure and Ta-doped m-ZrO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M.A.; Alonso, R.E.; Errico, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    A combination of experiments and ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations has been applied to examine electronic, structural, and hyperfine interactions in pure and Ta-doped zirconium dioxide in its monoclinic phase (m-ZrO2). From the theoretical point of view, the full-potential linear augmented...

  20. Pure SF6 and SF6-N2 mixture gas hydrates equilibrium and kinetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Bo Ram; Lee, Yoon Seok; Kim, Soo Min; Park, Hye Ok; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Yeong-Do; Kim, Yang Do

    2009-10-15

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), whether pure or mixed with inexpensive inert gas, has been widely used in a variety of industrial processes, but it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. For this reason, it is necessary to separate and/or collect it from waste gas streams. In this study, we investigated the pure SF6 and SF6-N2 mixture gas hydrates formation equilibrium aswell asthe gas separation efficiency in the hydrate process. The equilibrium pressure of SF6-N2 mixture gas was higher than that of pure SF6 gas. Phase equilibrium data of SF6-N2 mixture gas was similar to SF6 rather than N2. The kinetics of SF6-N2 mixture gas was controlled by the amount of SF6 at the initial gas composition as well as N2 gas incorporation into the S-cage of structure-II hydrate preformed by the SF6 gas. Raman analysis confirmed the N2 gas incorporation into the S-cage of structure-II hydrate. The compositions in the hydrate phase were found to be 71, 79, 80, and 81% of SF6 when the feed gas compositions were 40, 65, 70, and 73% of SF6, respectively. The present study provides basic information for the separation and purification of SF6 from mixed SF6 gas containing inert gases.

  1. Physical limits of pure superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for a local hyperthermia agent in nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeun, Minhong; Lee, Sanghoon; Kyeong Kang, Jae; Tomitaka, Asahi; Wook Kang, Keon; Il Kim, Young; Takemura, Yasushi; Chung, Kyung-Won; Kwak, Jiyeon; Bae, Seongtae

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic and AC magnetically induced heating characteristics of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (IONs) with different mean diameters, d, systematically controlled from 4.2 to 22.5 nm were investigated to explore the physical relationship between magnetic phase and specific loss power (SLP) for hyperthermia agent applications. It was experimentally confirmed that the IONs had three magnetic phases and correspondingly different SLP characteristics depending on the particle sizes. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that pure superparamagnetic phase IONs (d limiting for hyperthermia applications due to smaller AC hysteresis loss power (Néel relaxation loss power) originated from lower out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility.

  2. [The left central gyral lesion and pure anarthria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, M; Odashima, K; Fujii, T; Suzuki, K; Saitou, J; Yamadori, A

    2000-05-01

    We report a very rare case of pure anarthria with lesion analysis. A 44-year-old right-handed man suffered from a cerebral infarction with a mild right hemiparesis and speech disturbance. An MRI of the brain 1.5 months post onset revealed a lesion confined to the left central gyrus. One month after the onset, his spontaneous speech was dysprosodic and laborious. It was contaminated with dysarthria and phonological paraphasias. However, language comprehension, repetition and naming abilities were normal. Most remarkably he showed no impairment in writing with his left hand. Over the following months, his difficulties in verbal output showed general amelioration, but the isolated impairment in the domain of articulation characterized by dysprosody, dysarthria, and phonological paraphasia persisted. As for the symptomatology of pure anarthria resulting from precentral gyral lesions, there have been controversies about its pureness. Some argue that the so called pure anarthria always shows some degree of writing disturbances, albeit mild in degree. Others maintain there certainly exists the pure type without any signs of agraphia. In the present case lesions were limited to the central gyrus but spared the lowest opercular portion. The previous reports of pure anarthria that had mild agraphia all had lesions involving the opercular portion. We conclude the sparing of this area is most likely related with sparing of writing capacity in pure anarthria.

  3. Selecting a Reference Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  4. Converting a carbon preform object to a silicon carbide object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process for converting in depth a carbon or graphite preform object to a silicon carbide object, silicon carbide/silicon object, silicon carbide/carbon-core object, or a silicon carbide/silicon/carbon-core object, by contacting it with silicon liquid and vapor over various lengths of contact time in a reaction chamber. In the process, a stream comprised of a silicon-containing precursor material in gaseous phase below the decomposition temperature of said gas and a coreactant, carrier or diluent gas such as hydrogen is passed through a hole within a high emissivity, thin, insulating septum into the reaction chamber above the melting point of silicon. The thin septum has one face below the decomposition temperature of the gas and an opposite face exposed to the reaction chamber. Thus, the precursor gas is decomposed directly to silicon in the reaction chamber. Any stream of decomposition gas and any unreacted precursor gas from the reaction chamber is removed. A carbon or graphite preform object placed in the reaction chamber is contacted with the silicon. The carbon or graphite preform object is recovered from the reactor chamber after it has been converted to a desired silicon carbide, silicon and carbon composition.

  5. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  6. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  7. Laser surface alloying of commercially pure titanium with boron and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, N.; Kulka, M.; Dziarski, P.; Przestacki, D.

    2014-06-01

    Laser surface alloying with boron and carbon was applied to produce the composite layers, reinforced by the hard ceramic phases (titanium borides and titanium carbides), on commercially pure titanium. The external cylindrical surface of substrate material was coated by paste containing boron, boron and graphite, or graphite. Then, the laser re-melting was carried out with using the continuous-wave CO2 laser. This enabled the formation of laser-borided, laser-borocarburized, and laser-carburized layers. The microstructure or the re-melted zone consisted of the hard ceramic phases (TiB+TiB2, TiB+TiB2+TiC, or TiC) located in the eutectic mixture of Tiα'-phase with borides, borides and carbides, or carbides, respectively. All the composite layers were characterized by the sufficient cohesion. The significant increase in microhardness and in wear resistance of all the laser-alloyed layers was observed in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The percentage of hard ceramic phases in more plastic eutectic mixture influenced the measured microhardness values. The dominant wear mechanism (abrasive or adhesive) depended on the method of laser alloying, and the type of test used. The wear tests for longer duration, without the change in the counter specimen, created the favourable conditions for adhesive wear, while during the shorter tests the abrasive wear dominated, as a rule.

  8. Compressibility and structural behavior of pure and Fe-doped SnO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, F.; Ferrari, S.; Pampillo, L. G.; Saccone, F. D.; Errandonea, D.; Santamaria-Perez, D.; Segura, A.; Vilaplana, R.; Popescu, C.

    2017-02-01

    We have performed high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on nanoparticles of pure tin dioxide (particle size ∼30 nm) and 10 mol % Fe-doped tin dioxide (particle size ∼18 nm). The structural behavior of undoped tin dioxide nanoparticles has been studied up to 32 GPa, while the Fe-doped tin dioxide nanoparticles have been studied only up to 19 GPa. We have found that both samples present at ∼13 GPa a second-order structural phase transition from the ambient pressure tetragonal rutile-type structure (P42/mnm) to an orthorhombic CaCl2-type structure (space group Pnnm). No phase coexistence was observed for this transition. Additionally, pure SnO2 presents a phase transition to a cubic structure at ∼24 GPa. The evolution of the lattice parameters with pressure and the room-temperature equations of state are reported for the different phases. The reported results suggest that the partial substitution of Sn by Fe induces an enhancement of the bulk modulus of SnO2. Results are compared with previous studies on bulk and nanocrystalline SnO2. The effects of pressure on Sn-O bonds are also analyzed.

  9. Pure-rotational H2 thermometry by ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Bohlin, Alexis; Patterson, Brian D.; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2017-06-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is a sensitive technique for probing highly luminous flames in combustion applications to determine temperatures and species concentrations. CARS thermometry has been demonstrated for the vibrational Q-branch and pure-rotational S-branch of several small molecules. Practical advantages of pure-rotational CARS, such as multi-species detection, reduction of coherent line mixing and collisional narrowing even at high pressures, and the potential for more precise thermometry, have motivated experimental and theoretical advances in S-branch CARS of nitrogen (N2), for example, which is a dominant species in air-fed combustion processes. Although hydrogen (H2) is of interest given its prevalence as a reactant and product in many gas-phase reactions, laser bandwidth limitations have precluded the extension of CARS thermometry to the H2 S-branch. We demonstrate H2 thermometry using hybrid femtosecond/picosecond pure-rotational CARS, in which a broadband pump/Stokes pulse enables simultaneous excitation of the set of H2 S-branch transitions populated at flame temperatures over the spectral region of 0-2200 cm-1. We present a pure-rotational H2 CARS spectral model for data fitting and compare extracted temperatures to those from simultaneously collected N2 spectra in two systems of study: a heated flow and a diffusion flame on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner. From 300 to 650 K in the heated flow, the H2 and N2 CARS extracted temperatures are, on average, within 2% of the set temperature. For flame measurements, the fitted H2 and N2 temperatures are, on average, within 5% of each other from 300 to 1600 K. Our results confirm the viability of pure-rotational H2 CARS thermometry for probing combustion reactions.

  10. Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturzo, Melania; Finizio, Andrea; Memmolo, Pasquale; Puglisi, Roberto; Balduzzi, Donatella; Galli, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro

    2012-09-07

    We show that sharp imaging and quantitative phase-contrast microcopy is possible in microfluidics in flowing turbid media by digital holography. In fact, in flowing liquids with suspended colloidal particles, clear vision is hindered and cannot be recovered by any other microscopic imaging technique. On the contrary, using digital holography, clear imaging is possible thanks to the Doppler frequency shift experienced by the photons scattered by the flowing colloidal particles, which do not contribute to the interference process, i.e. the recorded hologram. The method is illustrated and imaging results are demonstrated for pure phase objects, i.e. biological cells in microfluidic channels.

  11. Parity-time symmetry from stacking purely dielectric and magnetic slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Gear, James; Chu, S T; Rotter, Stefan; Li, Jensen

    2015-01-01

    We show that Parity-time symmetry in matching electric permittivity to magnetic permeability can be established by considering an effective Parity operator involving both mirror symmetry and coupling between electric and magnetic fields. This approach extends the discussion of Parity-time symmetry to the situation with more than one material potential. We show that the band structure of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with alternating purely dielectric and purely magnetic slabs can undergo a phase transition between propagation modes and evanescent modes when the balanced gain/loss parameter is varied. The cross-matching between different material potentials also allows exceptional points of the constitutive matrix to appear in the long wavelength limit where they can be used to construct ultrathin metamaterials with unidirectional reflection.

  12. Studies on structural and electrical properties of pure and doped h-YMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, K. N.; Rajyaguru, Bhargav; Solanki, Sapana; Shrimali, V. G.; Sagapariya, Khushal; Markna, J. H.; Solanki, P. S.; Shah, N. A.

    2016-05-01

    In the present communication, we report the results of the structural and electrical studies on pure YMnO3 (YMO) and Zr doped Y0.95Zr0.05MnO3 (YZMO) samples, synthesized using low cost sol-gel technique. To understand the structural properties, structural phases present and effect of doping on the structural behavior, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were carried out for both the samples understudy. XRD results reveal the single phasic nature of both the samples having hexagonal unit cell structure. Improved crystal structure has been observed for pure YMnO3 sample while doping of Zr at Y-site degrades the structure of the sample. Improved dielectric constant and enhanced AC conductivity (σa) have been discussed on the basis of charge carrier polarization and correlated barrier hopping due to the localized state.

  13. Observational Constraints on Purely Kinetic/c-Essence Dark Energy Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rong-Jia; GAO Xiang-Ting

    2009-01-01

    We consider constraints on purely kinetic k-essence models from the latest observational data (including 182 gold SNIa data,the shift parameter,and the acoustic scale).We find the best-fit values of the parameters are Ωm = 0.37 ±0.01 and κo = 0.064 ± 0.013 at 68.3% confidence level.The phase transition from deceleration to acceleration is found to occur at redshift zq=0~0.48-0.52 in 68.3% confidence level limits.By applying modelcomparison statistics (F-test,AICc,and BIC),we find that the purely kinetic k-essence scenario is favored over the A CDM model by the combined data.These results are also confirmed by combined data 307 SNIa + R + la.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Ca-Mg-P Containing Coating on Pure Magnesium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjin Lu; Lili Tan; Honglia. ng Xiang; Bingchun Zhang; Ke Yang; Yangde Li

    2012-01-01

    A biodegradable Ca-P coating mainly consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was fabricated on pure magnesium via the chemical deposition in a simulated Hank’s solution. The method significantly accelerated the coating formation on magnesium. Moreover, the morphology, phase/chemical composition, the coating formation mechanism as well as degradation behavior in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution were in- vestigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the coating had three layers and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the coating mainly contained Ca3(PO4)2 and (Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2. Elec- trochemical test showed that the corrosion current density (Icorr) of the coated Mg was decreased by about one order of magnitude as compared to that of pure magnesium. The immersion test indicated that the coating could obviously reduce the degradation rate.

  15. Raman spectroscopy analysis of air grown oxide scale developed on pure zirconium substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurpaska, L., E-mail: lukasz.kurpaska@ncbj.gov.pl [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France); National Center for Nuclear Research, St. A. Soltana 7/23, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Favergeon, J. [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France); Lahoche, L. [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France); Laboratoire des Technologies Innovantes, Université de Picardie Jules-Verne, EA 3899, Avenue des Facultés – Le Bailly, 80025 Amiens Cedex (France); El-Marssi, M. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules-Verne, 33 rue St. Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex (France); Grosseau Poussard, J.-L. [LaSIE UMR-CNRS 7356, Pole Sciences et Technologie, Universite de La Rochelle, av. M Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle, Cedex (France); Moulin, G.; Roelandt, J.-M. [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France)

    2015-11-15

    Using Raman spectroscopy technique, external and internal parts of zirconia oxide films developed at 500 °C and 600 °C on pure zirconium substrate under air at normal atmospheric pressure have been examined. Comparison of Raman peak positions of tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia phases, recorded during the oxide growth at elevated temperature, and after cooling at room temperature have been presented. Subsequently, Raman peak positions (or shifts) were interpreted in relation with the stress evolution in the growing zirconia scale, especially closed to the metal/oxide interface, where the influence of compressive stress in the oxide is the biggest. Reported results, for the first time show the presence of a continuous layer of tetragonal zirconia phase developed in the proximity of pure zirconium substrate. Based on the Raman peak positions we prove that this tetragonal layer is stabilized by the high compressive stress and sub-stoichiometry level. Presence of the tetragonal phase located in the outer part of the scale have been confirmed, yet its Raman characteristics suggest a stress-free tetragonal phase, therefore different type of stabilization mechanism. Presented study suggest that its stabilization could be related to the lattice defects introduced by highstoichiometry of zirconia or presence of heterovalent cations. - Highlights: • The oxide layer consists of a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phases, clearly distinguishable by Raman spectroscopy. • The layer located close to the metal/oxide interphase consists mainly of the tetragonal phase. • Small amount of tetragonal layer located in the external oxide scale have been observed. • Stabilization mechanism of the tetragonal phase located in the external part of the oxide have been proposed.

  16. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract......Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...

  17. Sleep deprivation impairs spontaneous object-place but not novel-object recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroko; Yamada, Kazuo; Pavlides, Constantine; Ichitani, Yukio

    2014-09-19

    Effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on one-trial recognition memory were investigated in rats using either a spontaneous novel-object or object-place recognition test. Rats were allowed to explore a field in which two identical objects were presented. After a delay period, they were placed again in the same field in which either: (1) one of the two objects was replaced by another object (novel-object recognition); or (2) one of the sample objects was moved to a different place (object-place recognition), and their exploration behavior to these objects was analyzed. Four hours SD immediately after the sample phase (early SD group) disrupted object-place recognition but not novel-object recognition, while SD 4-8h after the sample phase (delayed SD group) did not affect either paradigm. The results suggest that sleep selectively promotes the consolidation of hippocampal dependent memory, and that this effect is limited to within 4h after learning.

  18. Determination of Plant Hormone IAA and GA3 by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Pure Culture by Solid Phase Extraction and HPLC%固相萃取-HPLC测定外生菌根真菌产生植物激素IAA和GA3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简利茹; 李哲斐; 韩青梅; 黄雪玲

    2011-01-01

    离体发酵培养条件下,外生菌根真菌产生的植物激素释放到培养液中,由于菌液成分复杂,高效液相直接测定培养液中的植物激素有一定困难,应用C18萃取小柱提取纯化培养液中菌根真菌产生的2种植物激素,选择出合适的液相色谱测定条件.结果表明,经过纯化富集,采用Waters SymmetryShieldTM RP18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,以体积分数为35%的乙腈/水溶液(磷酸调pH至3.0)为流动相,流速1.0 mL/min,柱温35℃,波长210 nm下检测,植物激素IAA和GA3分离效果理想,回收率分别大于96.8%和95.4%,最低检出限(S/N=3)分别为0.053和0.072 mg/L.%Plant hormone was produced by ectomycorrhizal fungi under in vitro culture condition. It is difficult to determine plant hormone directly by high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) because of complicated components of liquid culture. In this paper, C18 solid phase column was used to extract and purify two plant hormone produced by ectomycorrhizal fungi and an analytical method for reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography(RP-HPLC) was developed. The results indicated that, good isolation of indole-acetic acid(IAA) and gibberellin acid (GA3) was obtained on a Waters SymmetryShield? RP18(4. 6 mmX250 mm, 5 μm) column. 35% acetonitrile (pH 3. 0) was used as mobile phases at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL/min. The column temperature was 35 ℃ and UV wavelength was 210 nm. The recoveries of IAA and GA3 were more than 96. 8% and 95. 4% respectively. The detection limits of two plant hormones were 0. 053 mg/L and 0. 072 mg/L based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  19. Pure mechanical wear loss measurement in corrosive wear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yanliang Huang; Xiaoxia Jiang; Sizuo Li

    2000-12-01

    The method for the measurement of the pure mechanical wear loss for 321 stainless steel, 1045 steel and pure iron in the study of the synergy between corrosion and wear was studied. The methods studied included the measurement in distilled water, by cathodic protection and by adding inhibitor KI, and all were compared with the wear loss in air. The experiment showed that the pure mechanical wear losses and friction coefficients obtained by the three methods were close to each other and can be used to calculate the various wear components in the study of the interaction of corrosion and wear, but the measurements in distilled water for pure iron and 1045 steel are not recommended due to their corrosion.

  20. Gravitation, Electromagnetism and the Cosmological Constant in Purely Affine Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popławski, Nikodem J.

    The Eddington Lagrangian in the purely affine formulation of general relativity generates the Einstein equations with the cosmological constant. The Ferraris-Kijowski purely affine Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field, which has the form of the Maxwell Lagrangian with the metric tensor replaced by the symmetrized Ricci tensor, is dynamically equivalent to the Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangian in the metric formulation. We show that the sum of the two affine Lagrangians is dynamically inequivalent to the sum of the analogous Lagrangians in the metric-affine/metric formulation. We also show that such a construction is valid only for weak electromagnetic fields. Therefore the purely affine formulation that combines gravitation, electromagnetism and the cosmological constant cannot be a simple sum of terms corresponding to separate fields. Consequently, this formulation of electromagnetism seems to be unphysical, unlike the purely metric and metric-affine pictures, unless the electromagnetic field couples to the cosmological constant.