WorldWideScience

Sample records for purchasing power parity

  1. Purchasing Power Parity and Heterogeneous Mean Reversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the properties of multivariate tests of purchasing power parity (PPP) that fail to take heterogeneity in the speed of mean reversion across real exchange rates into account. We compare the performance of homogeneous and heterogeneous unit root testing methodologies.

  2. A Survey of Empirical Literature on Purchasing Power Parity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅欣

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been done on purchasing power parity (PPP) and a number of theoretical and empirical models have been built to investigate the relationship between PPP and exchange rate determination. This paper surveys the empirical literature on purchasing power parity.

  3. Purchasing Power Parity : Evidence from a New Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Most economists intuitively consider purchasing power parity (PPP) to be true. Nevertheless, quite surprisingly, the empirical literature is not very supportive for PPP. In this paper, however, we find evidence in favor of PPP using a new test. The test is embedded in a Markov regime-switching model

  4. A Resolution of the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Goldberg, Michael D.; Johansen, Søren

    the "Purchasing Power Parity puzzle". In this paper, we trace the puzzle to exchange rate modelers' use of the "Rational Expectations Hypothesis". We show that once imperfect knowledge is recognized, a monetary model is able to account for the puzzle, as well as other salient features of the data, including...

  5. Purchasing Power Parity : Evidence from a New Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Most economists intuitively consider purchasing power parity (PPP) to be true. Nevertheless, quite surprisingly, the empirical literature is not very supportive for PPP. In this paper, however, we find evidence in favor of PPP using a new test. The test is embedded in a Markov regime-switching model

  6. A Resolution of the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Goldberg, Michael D.; Johansen, Søren;

    the "Purchasing Power Parity puzzle". In this paper, we trace the puzzle to exchange rate modelers' use of the "Rational Expectations Hypothesis". We show that once imperfect knowledge is recognized, a monetary model is able to account for the puzzle, as well as other salient features of the data, including...

  7. The Influence of International Parity on the Exchange Rate: Purchasing Power Parity and International Fisher Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mionel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of the inflationand interest rates on the exchange rates.The analysis tests the relation between the inflation rate and the exchange rate by applying thePurchasing Power Parity Theory, while the relationbetween the interest rate and the inflation rate istested by applying the International Fisher EffectTheory. In order to test the Purchasing Power Paritythe study takes into account the period of time between 1990 – 2009, and the following countries –the USA, Germany, the UK, Switzerland, Canada, Japan and China. As for testing the InternationalFisher Effect Theory the period of time is the same, 1990 – 2009, but a few countries are different –the USA, Germany, the UK, Switzerland, Canada, Australia and New Zeeland. Thus, both theoriesanalyse the USA as home country.

  8. COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS OF PURCHASING POWER PARITY IN REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kozul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the validity of purchasing power parity (PPP hypothesis in the Republic of Croatia. The main aim is to test whether the PPP Theory holds in the case of the Republic of Croatia and whether the PPP Theory is an appropriate method on which monetary policy makers can rely in determining the size of the market exchange rate deviations from its long-run value. The PPP Theory in the Republic of Croatia has been tested using methods of cointegration analysis. Two cointegration tests have been applied: Engle-Granger test and ADL test. The existence of the long-run relationship between the price level in the EMU (expressed in Croatian Kuna and the price level in the Republic of Croatia has been tested using monthly observations of average nominal Croatian Kuna exchange rate against Euro, Consumer Prices Index in the Republic of Croatia (2005=100 and the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices for the European Monetary Union (2005=100 in the period from January 2000. to December 2012. Based on the Engle-Granger test, it can't be concluded if there is a long-run relationship between the two price levels. The non-existence of the long-run relationship between two price levels has also been confirmed by the ADL cointegration test. Thus, on the basis of the cointegration tests it can be concluded that the PPP hypothesis in the Republic of Croatia has not been confirmed.

  9. The International Comparison of Value Added, Productivity and Purchasing Power Parities in Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddison, Angus; Ooststroom, Harry van

    1993-01-01

    This study is part of the ICOP (International Comparison of Output and Productivity) project of the University of Groningen. It presents international comparisons of levels of value added, productivity and purchasing power parities (PPPs) in agriculture for 13 countries for 1975. An early version of

  10. Multilateral comparisons of output, productivity, and purchasing power parities in manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilat, D; Rao, DSP

    This paper presents multilateral comparisons of output, productivity and purchasing power parities in manufacturing, for 1975 and 1987. Two multilateral approaches are considered, namely the Geary-Khamis method and the generalized Theil-Tornqvist method based on the EKS procedure. The paper

  11. Testing for purchasing power parity in 21 African countries using several unit root tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, Niri Martha; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    Purchasing power parity is used as a basis for international income and expenditure comparison through the exchange rate theory. However, empirical studies show disagreement on the validity of PPP. In this paper, we conduct the testing on the validity of PPP using panel data approach. We apply seven different panel unit root tests to test the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis based on the quarterly data on real effective exchange rate for 21 African countries from the period 1971: Q1-2012: Q4. All the results of the seven tests rejected the hypothesis of stationarity meaning that absolute PPP does not hold in those African Countries. This result confirmed the claim from previous studies that standard panel unit tests fail to support the PPP hypothesis.

  12. Testing for purchasing power parity in the long-run for ASEAN-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, Niri Martha; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    For more than a decade, there has been a substantial interest in testing for the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis empirically. This paper performs a test on revealing a long-run relative Purchasing Power Parity for a group of ASEAN-5 countries for the period of 1996-2016 using monthly data. For this purpose, we used the Pedroni co-integration method to test for the long-run hypothesis of purchasing power parity. We first tested for the stationarity of the variables and found that the variables are non-stationary at levels but stationary at first difference. Results of the Pedroni test rejected the null hypothesis of no co-integration meaning that we have enough evidence to support PPP in the long-run for the ASEAN-5 countries over the period of 1996-2016. In other words, the rejection of null hypothesis implies a long-run relation between nominal exchange rates and relative prices.

  13. The Great Appreciation, the Great Depreciation, and the Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    David Papell

    1998-01-01

    Although there has been much recent work on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), neither univariate nor panel methods have produced strong rejections of unit roots in U.S. dollar real exchange rates for industrialized countries during the post-1973 period. We investigate the hypothesis that these non-rejections can be explained by one episode, the large appreciation and depreciation of the dollar in the 1980s, by developing unit root tests which account for this event and maintain long-run PPP. Usi...

  14. EXCHANGE RATE DETERMINATION IN PAKISTAN: EVIDENCE BASED ON PURCHASING POWER PARITY THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad Arshad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the empirical evidence on purchasing power parity (PPP) for Pak-rupee vis-à-vis US-dollar exchange rate using Johansen (1988) and Johansen and Juselius (1990) multivariate cointegration and bound testing approach to cointegration (Pesaran et al., 2001) over the period 1982Q2-2005Q4. We find a considerable support for the existence of long-run PPP. Furthermore, the results of error-correction suggest that nominal exchange rate plays an important role in eliminating deviatio...

  15. A Resolution of the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle: Imperfect Knowledge and Long Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Goldberg, Michael D.; Johansen, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    Asset prices undergo long swings that revolve around benchmark levels. In currency markets, fluctuations involve real exchange rates that are highly persistent and that move in near-parallel fashion with nominal rates. The inability to explain these two regularities with one model has been called...... the "purchasing power parity puzzle." In this paper, we trace the puzzle to exchange rate modelers' use of the "Rational Expectations Hypothesis." We show that once imperfect knowledge is recognized, a monetary model is able to account for the puzzle, as well as other salient features of the data, including...

  16. Comparing costing results in across country economic evaluations: the use of technology specific purchasing power parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, Sarah; Ludbrook, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The number of economic evaluations conducted on a multinational basis is increasing. Therefore, techniques are required to compare the results of such studies in a meaningful manner. This paper explores different approaches to comparing across country cost data applied to a European study of dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease. A price and volume index is created at the level of the individual health care technology and compared to an exchange rate conversion and published purchasing power parities (PPPs). Both exchange rate and PPP conversions when published rates are used fail to accurately reflect the true resource use of the applied health care example. These differences can be related to specific issues of input mix and price variation. Alternatively, the use of technology specific PPPs provided a more robust approach for international comparisons and also have the potential for use in multi-centre economic evaluations within the same country. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Purchasing power parity: Evidence of long memory processes and fractional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Selmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Purchasing Power Parity (PPP theory, which serves as a key to the determination of several models of exchange rates, suggests a long-term relationship between exchange rates and relative prices. It states that the price levels in all the countries are the same when measured in terms of a single currency. The purpose of this study is to model the behavior of the exchange rates of five partner countries of Tunisia, namely, (Germany, the United States, France, Italy, the UK, Morocco and Libya relative to its fundamentals over the period 1990-1999. Beyond the traditional linear cointegration, we use the approaches based on fractional cointegration. We are trying to discriminate between the adjustment dynamics with long memory (but linear and a dynamics of a short memory (nonlinear. Given the important role of the exchange rates in the successful experience of open economies, we are interested, in this work, in analyzing the dynamics of the exchange rates in the long run. The econometric results obtained through the GPH tests, make us consider the PPP as an event in the long run if significant short-term deviations from the PPP cannot exist. Therefore, the analysis of the fractional cointegration makes the deviations, regarding equilibrium, follow a slightly integrated process and therefore capture a much wider group of research parity or mean-reverting behavior.

  18. Validity test of purchasing power parity doctrine: An Indonesian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahabudin Sidiq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to analyze the doctrine purchasing power parity (PPP in Indonesia with the case study of the rupiah exchange rate to U.S. dollar. The autoregressive is used to estimate the relationship between the change of exchange rate and the difference Indonesia–USA inflation rate. The data used in this study are quarterly data obtained from the International Financial Statistics (IFS and Bank Indonesia (BI with the period 1997Q4-2013Q4. The exchange rate that used in this study is using the rate on rupiah to U S dollar. The price data used consumer price index in Indonesia and the United States with a base year of 2000. The results of this study show, that rupiah to the U.S. dollar is undervalued during the free floating exchange rate system and, the PPP doctrine to the case of the rupiah to the U.S. dollar is not valid in the period of this study.

  19. The purchasing power parity in emerging Europe: Empirical results based on two-break analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Zorica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the validity of purchasing power parity (PPP for eight countries from the Emerging Europe: Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Lithuania, Latvia, Serbia and Turkey. Monthly data for euro and U.S. dollar based real exchange rate time series are considered covering the period: January, 2000 - August, 2011. Given significant changes in these economies in this sample it seems plausible to assume that real exchange time series are characterized by more than one time structural break. In order to endogenously determine the number and type of breaks while testing for the presence of unit roots we applied the Lee-Strazicich approach. For two euro based real exchange rate time series (in Hungary and Turkey the unit root hypothesis has been rejected. For the U.S. dollar based real exchange rate time series in Poland, Romania and Turkey the presence of unit root has been rejected. To assess the adjustment dynamics of those real exchange rates that were detected to be stationary with two breaks, the impulse response function is calculated and half-life is estimated. Our overall conclusion is that the persistence of real exchange rate in Emerging Europe is still substantially high. The lack of strong empirical support for PPP suggests that careful policy actions are needed in this region to prevent serious exchange rate misalignment.

  20. Shift in Comparative Advantage, Dynamic Market and Purchasing Power Parity in the East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo,Tri

    2008-01-01

    The regional economic integrations, bilateral trade agreements (BTAs), and otherinternational strategic alliances have affected countries' dynamic comparative advantagesand specialization. Whether there are systematic changes in the comparative advantageand specialization of trade in the East-Asian countries has been a crucial issue for thefuture development of the East-Asian economic integration. One of the most importantissues in the international trade is exchange rate. Purchasing Power Pa...

  1. [Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity: comparison of caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Velázquez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Develop the Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity (Nut3-CiO) as an instrument to compare the caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet between regions or cities in a country over time. Indices of caloric prices were constructed and the "law of one price" was used to derive the Nut3-CiO index. Caloric inflation rates were obtained using basic descriptive statistics. The Nut3-CiO was applied in the major cities of Mexico during the period from January 1996 to December 2010. The statistical behavior of the Nut3-CiO revealed that, in Mexican cities, products for a typical diet are less expensive than products for a healthy diet. The findings showed a cyclical behavior to the index, a high correlation between inflation for the typical diet and inflation for the market basket, and a high persistence of prices. The Nut3-CiO index makes it possible to periodically compare the price differential of two types of diets-typical and healthy-between cities in a single country. This instrument could help health authorities identify the cities where it is easier or more difficult for consumers to access a typical or healthy diet in terms of cost. Furthermore, it makes it possible to estimate the percentage adjustment necessary in each city to attain levels of nutritional purchasing power parity.

  2. A Classroom Experiment on Exchange Rate Determination with Purchasing Power Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David T.; Rebelein, Robert P.; Schneider, Patricia H.; Simpson, Nicole B.; Fisher, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a classroom experiment on exchange rate determination appropriate for undergraduate courses in macroeconomics and international economics. In the experiment, students represent citizens from different countries and need to obtain currency to purchase goods. By participating in an auction to buy currency, students gain a…

  3. A Classroom Experiment on Exchange Rate Determination with Purchasing Power Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David T.; Rebelein, Robert P.; Schneider, Patricia H.; Simpson, Nicole B.; Fisher, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a classroom experiment on exchange rate determination appropriate for undergraduate courses in macroeconomics and international economics. In the experiment, students represent citizens from different countries and need to obtain currency to purchase goods. By participating in an auction to buy currency, students gain a…

  4. Cross-country comparisons of costs: the use of episode-specific transitive purchasing power parities with standardised cost categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Tiemann, Oliver; Stargardt, Tom; Busse, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    International comparisons of healthcare costs are growing in importance for a number of different applications. The use of common approaches to converting costs such as GDP purchasing power parities (PPPs) often does not reflect price differences in healthcare in an appropriate manner. This means that new approaches need to be explored. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of using episode-specific PPPs (ESPPPs) to facilitate cross-country comparisons of healthcare costs and to compare this approach with other common approaches to conversion. Costs for five care episodes from hospitals in eight European countries were obtained from the EU HealthBASKET project. ESPPPs were created by using Fisher-type PPPs in combination with the Eltetö-Köves-Szulc method at the episode level. Differences in ESPPPs among the five care episodes were discussed and compared with other common conversion approaches. We found that ESPPPs-reflected prices and resource use more accurately than conventional conversion approaches such as GDP PPPs and medical care PPPs. This was particularly evident for labour-intensive care episodes in which other conversion approaches revealed problems in the way that labour input had not been considered appropriately. The results demonstrate that ESPPPs are preferable to other common conversion approaches when international healthcare cost comparisons are performed. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Chaos, self-organized criticality, and SETAR nonlinearity: An analysis of purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., T2N 1N4 (Canada)]. E-mail: Serletis@ucalgary.ca; Shahmoradi, Asghar [Faculty of Economics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    This paper uses monthly observations for the real exchange rate between Canada and the United States over the recent flexible exchange rate period (from January 1, 1973 to August 1, 2004) to test purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States using unit root and stationarity tests. Moreover, given the apparent random walk behavior in the real exchange rate, various tests from dynamical systems theory, such as for example, the Nychka et al. [Nychka DW, Ellner S, Ronald GA, McCaffrey D. Finding chaos in noisy systems. J Roy Stat Soc B 1992;54:399-426] chaos test, the Li [Li W. Absence of 1/f spectra in Dow Jones average. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 1991;1:583-97] self-organized criticality test, and the Hansen [Hansen, B.E. Inference when a nuisance parameter is not identified under the null hypothesis. Econometrica 1996;64:413-30] threshold effects test are used to distinguish between stochastic and deterministic origin for the real exchange rate.

  6. The Impact of Structural Break(s on the Validity of Purchasing Power Parity in Turkey: Evidence from Zivot-Andrews and Lagrange Multiplier Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP in Turkey for annual data from 1953 to 2009. While results from both the ADF unit root and the DF-GLS unit root test indicate mixed results, PPP holds for Turkey with the presence of structural breaks which are obtained by Zivot and Andrews and Lagrange Multiplier unit root tests.

  7. Decomposition into Tradables and Nontradables and the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP Hypothesis of the Real Won-dollar Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deockhyun Ryu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the purchasing power parity (PPP hypothesis using the won-dollar real exchange rate and analyze the effect of the decomposition into tradables and non-tradables on the change of the won-dollar real exchange rate. This paper decomposes the CPI-based real exchange rate into two parts according to Engel (1999; one is the relative price of traded goods between the countries, the other is a component that is a weighted difference of the relative price of nontraded-to traded-goods prices in each country. We construct this by comparing the component subsection weights in CPI. The empirical analysis of this paper consists of two parts as follows. First, we conducted a traditional time series analyses of the real exchange rate, tradable and non-tradable parts respectively, thereby testing the PPP hypothesis and other important hypotheses. Secondly, this paper conducted a Mean Squared Error (MSE analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of tradable and non-tradable parts to the change of real exchange rate. From the time series analysis, it is not guaranteed that the PPP hyThe purpose of this paper is to test the purchasing power parity (PPP hypothesis using the won-dollar real exchange rate and analyze the effect of the decomposition into tradables and non-tradables on the change of the won-dollar real exchange rate. This paper decomposes the CPI-based real exchange rate into two parts according to Engel (1999; one is the relative price of traded goods between the countries, the other is a component that is a weighted difference of the relative price of nontraded-to traded-goods prices in each country. We construct this by comparing the component subsection weights in CPI. The empirical analysis of this paper consists of two parts as follows. First, we conducted a traditional time series analyses of the real exchange rate, tradable and non-tradable parts respectively, thereby testing the PPP hypothesis and other

  8. The Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... monetary disturbances have no effect on real exchange rates. It presupposes ... would become a predictive model for exchange rates and a basis for determining currency ...... Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, Vol.

  9. 人民币购买力平价的实证研究%An Empirical Analysis of the Purchasing Power Parities of RMB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 程昊汝; 封思贤

    2009-01-01

    购买力平价是汇率决定最有影响的理论之一,经常成为各国作为制定经济政策的重要依据.能否依据购买力平价理论来制定人民币汇率政策,已成为目前国内关注的焦点.现有文献对人民币购买力平价的检验结论存在明显的分歧.根据我国汇率体制改革各阶段的特点,通过对1994年1月-2008年12月整体时段和分时段数据进行实证检验,表明人民币兑美元汇率并不符合购买力平价理论,这一理论难以成为我国制定人民币汇率政策的依据.%The Purchasing Power Parity Theory (the PPP theory), one of the most influential theories for the de-cision of exchange rate, is frequently adopted as the basis for making economic policies. Recently, whether it can be employed to make the exchange rate policy for RMB has become the focus of attention in our country. A survey of the literature on this issue shows that there are a lot of disputes over the reliability of conclusions ob-tained by using the PPP theory. Taking into consideration the characteristics of our country's exchange rate system in different stages of reform, we made an empirical research on the PPP relationship between RMB and the US dollar over the 1994/1-2008/12 period with the overa[l and the time-segmentod tests both adopted. The results show that the theory of PPP cannot explain the relationship between RMB and the US dollar over this period. Therefore, that theory cannot be used as the basis for making the exchange rate policy for RMB of our country.

  10. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  11. Purchasing power parity and the Taylor rule

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ogaki; Bruce E. Hansen; Ippei Fujiwara; Hyeongwoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that there is a large degree of uncertainty around Rogoff's (1996) consensus half-life of the real exchange rate. To obtain a more efficient estimator, we develop a system method that combines the Taylor rule and a standard exchange rate model to estimate half-lives. Further, we propose a median unbiased estimator for the system method based on the generalized method of moments with nonparametric grid bootstrap confidence intervals. Applying the method to real exchange rates ...

  12. On Singaporean Dollar and Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah; Kian-Ping Lim

    2004-01-01

    This study re-examines the validity of relationship between Singapore Dollar-US Dollar exchange rate and the relative price using the latest econometric methodologies that accounts for non-linearity. Among others, this study finds Exponential Smooth Transition Autoregressive (ESTAR)- type non-linear mean-reverting adjustment process of the nominal Singapore dollar-US dollar rate towards consumer price index ratio. Unlike previous finding of linear cointegration relationship between nominal Si...

  13. GPP Webinar: The Power of Aggregated Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar examining the use of an aggregated model for renewable energy purchases which can lead to significant energy, environmental and financial benefits by addressing administrative cost barriers and leveraging the shared purchasi

  14. THE IMPACT OF EPA'S GREEN POWER PURCHASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    All federal agencies, including EPA, are required to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions attributed to facility energy use by 30% below 1990 levels by 2010. A key approach to reducing facility greenhouse gas emissions, employed by EPA, involves the purchase of "green power...

  15. 7 CFR 1730.64 - Power purchase agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power purchase agreements. 1730.64 Section 1730.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Power purchase agreements. Nothing in this subpart requires the borrower to enter into purchase power...

  16. Control of Power in Parity-Time -Symmetric Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    We investigate wave transport properties of Parity-Time (PT) symmetric lattices that are periodically modulated along the direction of propagation. We demonstrate that in the regime of unbroken PT-symmetry the system Floquet-Bloch modes may interfere constructively leading to either controlled oscillations or linear power absorption and amplification occurring exactly at the phase transition point. The differential power response is effected by the overlap of the gain and loss system distribution with wave intensity pattern that is formed through Rabi oscillations engaging the coupled Floquet-Bloch modes.

  17. Using government purchasing power to reduce equipment standby power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jeffrey; Meier, Alan; Bartholomew, Emily; Thomas, Alison; Glickman, Joan; Ware Michelle

    2003-03-03

    Although the government sector represents only 10 to 15 percent of the economy in most countries, carefully targeted public procurement can play a significant role in market transformation through its influence on both buyers and suppliers. Government leadership in energy-efficient purchasing can set an example for other buyers, while creating opportunities for leading manufacturers and distributors to increase their sales and market share by offering energy-efficient products at competitive prices. Under proper circumstances, a highly visible government purchasing policy can have a disproportionately large influence on the market for efficient products. In the United States, President Bush signed an Executive Order in 2001 directing all federal agencies to buy products with low standby power (1 watt or less where possible). This represents a deliberate choice to use government purchasing - rather than regulations or incentives - as a market-based strategy to encourage energy savings. It also builds upon existing efforts to encourage Federal purchase of energy-efficient products (Energy Star products and others in the top 25th percentile of efficiency). This paper summarizes the Federal Energy Management Program s first 18 months of experience in implementing this Executive Order, including analysis of data on standby power, interactions with manufacturers and industry groups, and the relationship between these efforts and other federal programs concerning product labelling, testing, rating, and efficiency standards. After five years of implementing low-standby power purchasing, we estimate energy savings for federal agencies alone at about 230 GWh/year (worth US$14 million), with spillover effects on the broader market that will save all US consumers nearly 4000 GWh/year (US$300 million).

  18. Exercising purchasing power for preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauffler, H H; Rodriguez, T

    1996-01-01

    Public and private purchasers can shift the focus of the health care system from managing the delivery of medical services to improving health. We report on the efforts of the Pacific Business Group on Health to include health promotion and disease prevention in its definition of health care value, to pay health plans based on their performance in providing appropriate preventive care, and to encourage employers and workers to choose health plans that excel in promoting health. This example serves as a model for other purchasing groups by combining economic incentives and systems of accountability to achieve public health goals.

  19. Do purchasing power parity and uncovered interest rate parity hold in the long run?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1995-01-01

    The long-run foreign transmission effects are analyzed in a multivariate time-series model of Danish and German prices, exchange rates and interest rates. The analysis of the likelihood function reveals that the vector process is I(2), but that a linear transformation of the prices and the nomical...... exchange rate removes the I(2) trend from the data. A structural representation of the full cointegration space is found to facilitate the understanding of the interaction between the goods and the capital market and hence the mechanisms behind the inflationary effects transmitted from abroad...

  20. Gov't to Spur Consumption by Increasing Purchasing Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua

    2005-01-01

      The Chinese central government aims to spur domestic consump tion by increasing consumer purchasing power in the coming years in a bid to continue maintaining a steady development of the nation's economy.……

  1. Gov't to Spur Consumption by Increasing Purchasing Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Chinese central government aims to spur domestic consump tion by increasing consumer purchasing power in the coming years in a bid to continue maintaining a steady development of the nation's economy.

  2. Anomalous parity asymmetry of WMAP power spectrum data at low multpoles: is it cosmological or systematics?

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jaiseung

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the odd-parity preference of the WMAP 7 year power spectrum. Our investigation shows parity asymmetry of the WMAP data (2<= l <=22) is anomalous at 4-in-1000 level. We also find it likely that low quadrupole power is part of this parity asymmetry rather than an isolated anomaly. We have investigated non-cosmological causes for the odd-parity preference, but have not found a definite non-cosmological origin. WMAP7 data possesses most anomalous odd-parity preference, while they have more accurate calibration and less foreground contamination than earlier data. Besides that, the anomaly is associated with the WMAP power spectrum data, in which most efforts have been exerted to minimize systematics. Therefore, we find it unlikely that calibration or foregrounds are the source of the anomaly. We have also considered primordial origin for the parity asymmetry. However, we find primordial origin requires violation of translational invariance on large scales.

  3. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Fátima; Amaral, Marta; Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. This was done through a simple and easy-to-apply methodology to estimate salaries' capitalization rate, by means of the accumulated inflation rate, after taking wage revisions into account. All the career categories in the Ministry of Health and affiliated public sector institutions were considered. Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. These results seem to contradict a commonly held assumption that health sector pay has deteriorated over the years, and with substantial damage for the poorest. Further studies appear to be needed to design a more accurate methodology to better understand the evolution and impact of public sector health workers' remunerations across the years.

  4. Quantum-dot cellular automata based reversible low power parity generator and parity checker design for nanocommunication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jadav Chandra DAS; Debashis DE

    2016-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an emerging area of research in reversible computing. It can be used to design nanoscale circuits. In nanocommunication, the detection and correction of errors in a received message is a major factor. Besides, device density and power dissipation are the key issues in the nanocommunication architecture. For the first time, QCA-based designs of the reversible low-power odd parity generator and odd parity checker using the Feynman gate have been achieved in this study. Using the proposed parity generator and parity checker circuit, a nanocommunication architecture is pro-posed. The detection of errors in the received message during transmission is also explored. The proposed QCA Feynman gate outshines the existing ones in terms of area, cell count, and delay. The quantum costs of the proposed conventional reversible circuits and their QCA layouts are calculated and compared, which establishes that the proposed QCA circuits have very low quantum cost compared to conventional designs. The energy dissipation by the layouts is estimated, which ensures the possibility of QCA nano-device serving as an alternative platform for the implementation of reversible circuits. The stability of the proposed circuits under thermal randomness is analyzed, showing the operational efficiency of the circuits. The simulation results of the proposed design are tested with theoretical values, showing the accuracy of the circuits. The proposed circuits can be used to design more complex low-power nanoscale lossless nanocommunication architecture such as nano-transmitters and nano-receivers.

  5. Thermal power prediction of nuclear power plant using neural network and parity space model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh Myung-Sub,; Cheon Se-Woo,; Chang Soon-Heung,

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports on a power prediction system developed using an artificial neural network paradigm that was combined with a parity space signal validation technique. The parity space signal validation algorithm for the input preprocessing and the backpropagation network algorithm for the network learning are used for the power prediction system. A number of case studies were performed with emphasis on the applicability of the network in a steady-state high power level. The studies reveal that these algorithms can precisely predict the thermal power in a nuclear power plant. It also shows that the error signals resulting from instrumentation problems, even when the signals comprising various patterns are noisy or incomplete, can be properly treated.

  6. Testing parity-violating physics from cosmic rotation power reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Toshiya

    2017-02-01

    We study the reconstruction of the cosmic rotation power spectrum produced by parity-violating physics, with an eye to ongoing and near future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments such as BICEP Array, CMBS4, LiteBIRD and Simons Observatory. In addition to the inflationary gravitational waves and gravitational lensing, measurements of other various effects on CMB polarization open new window into the early Universe. One of these is anisotropies of the cosmic polarization rotation which probes the Chern-Simons term generally predicted by string theory. The anisotropies of the cosmic rotation are also generated by the primordial magnetism and in the Standard Model extention framework. The cosmic rotation anisotropies can be reconstructed as quadratic in CMB anisotropies. However, the power of the reconstructed cosmic rotation is a CMB four-point correlation and is not directly related to the cosmic-rotation power spectrum. Understanding all contributions in the four-point correlation is required to extract the cosmic rotation signal. Assuming inflationary motivated cosmic-rotation models, we employ simulation to quantify each contribution to the four-point correlation and find that (1) a secondary contraction of the trispectrum increases the total signal-to-noise, (2) a bias from the lensing-induced trispectrum is significant compared to the statistical errors in, e.g., LiteBIRD and CMBS4-like experiments, (3) the use of a realization-dependent estimator decreases the statistical errors by 10%-20%, depending on experimental specifications, and (4) other higher-order contributions are negligible at least for near future experiments.

  7. Making the grade: Credit ratings and purchased power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, P.S.

    1993-02-15

    The California Public Utilities Commission last November denied a request by the state's largest electric utilities to increase ratemaking equity ratios to account for alleged financial risk associated with significant levels of purchased power obligations. The decision provides an excellent framework to analyze the debate over treating purchased power obligations as debt equivalents. The California case involved an annual cost-of-capital proceeding in which Pacific Gas and Electric Co., joined by Southern California Edison Co. and San Diego Gas and Electric Co., pointed out that the major credit rating agencies viewed purchased power contracts as debt equivalents. That is, the financial ratios used by the credit rating agencies to gauge each utility's strength were adjusted for obligations that did not appear as debt on balance sheets, namely the boligation to make capacity payments under long-term purchased power agreements. The utilities asserted that unless the Commission acted to support the utilities through ratemaking adjustments, bond ratings would slip. The Commission acknowledged that the rating agencies treat purchased power agreements as debt equivalents, but said the utilities had failed to establish that bond ratings would go down without the requested relief. It described the equity ratio adjustments as premature, but advised that it would recognize an incremental increase in financial risk to investors because the rating agencies were doing the same thing. The Commission added it currently was investigating regulatory changes in two areas that, according to credit analysts, would lower risk for power purchase agreements: (1) transmission access for independent power producers (IPPs), and (2) current ratemaking mechanisms that favored the build over the buy option.

  8. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... changes in the cost of purchased power or energy. 175.13 Section 175.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... purchased power or energy. Whenever the cost of purchased power or energy changes, the effect of the change... accordingly. Rate adjustments due to the change in cost of purchased power or energy shall become effective...

  9. Green Power voluntary purchases: Price elasticity and policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewton, Ross T., E-mail: rtmewton@hotmail.co [University of New England (Australia); Cacho, Oscar J. [School of Business Economics and Public Policy, School of Economics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    Green Power schemes offer electricity from renewable energy sources to customers for a higher price than ordinary electricity. This study examines the demand characteristics of Green Power in Australia and policies which could increase its sales. A sample of 250 pooled time series and cross sectional observations was used to estimate a statistically significant elasticity of demand for Green Power with respect to price of -0.96 with a 95% confidence interval of {+-}68%. The wide variation in market penetration between jurisdictions and between countries for Green Power, and the low awareness of Green Power found by surveys indicate that Green Power sales could be increased by appropriate marketing and government policies. The most cost effective means to increase sales was found to be advertising campaigns although only one Australian example was found, in the state of Victoria in 2005. It was also found that full tax deductibility of the Green Power premium to residential customers, exemption from the Goods and Services Tax and a tax rebate for Green Power are all probably less cost effective for promoting sales than direct government purchase of Green Power, in terms of cost per unit of increased sales.

  10. Green Power voluntary purchases. Price elasticity and policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewton, Ross T. [University of New England (Australia); Cacho, Oscar J. [School of Business Economics and Public Policy, School of Economics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    Green Power schemes offer electricity from renewable energy sources to customers for a higher price than ordinary electricity. This study examines the demand characteristics of Green Power in Australia and policies which could increase its sales. A sample of 250 pooled time series and cross sectional observations was used to estimate a statistically significant elasticity of demand for Green Power with respect to price of -0.96 with a 95% confidence interval of {+-}68%. The wide variation in market penetration between jurisdictions and between countries for Green Power, and the low awareness of Green Power found by surveys indicate that Green Power sales could be increased by appropriate marketing and government policies. The most cost effective means to increase sales was found to be advertising campaigns although only one Australian example was found, in the state of Victoria in 2005. It was also found that full tax deductibility of the Green Power premium to residential customers, exemption from the Goods and Services Tax and a tax rebate for Green Power are all probably less cost effective for promoting sales than direct government purchase of Green Power, in terms of cost per unit of increased sales. (author)

  11. Power Purchase Agreement Checklist for State and Local Governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Canavan, B.; Koenig, R.

    2009-10-01

    This fact sheet provides information and guidance on the solar photovoltaic (PV) power purchase agreement (PPA), which is a financing mechanism that state and local government entities can use to acquire clean, renewable energy. It addressed the financial, logistical, and legal questions relevant to implementing a PPA, but we do not examine the technical details?those can be discussed later with the developer/contractor. This fact sheet is written to support decision makers in U.S. state and local governments who are aware of solar PPAs and may have a cursory knowledge of their structure but they still require further information before committing to a particular project.

  12. Using Power Purchase Agreements for Solar Deployment at Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny; O' Shaughnessy, Eric

    2016-02-24

    More than 60 universities have used solar power purchase agreements (PPAs) to deploy more than 100 megawatts of solar PV on campuses around the country. This webinar is intended for university financial planners and other stakeholders who are assessing the financial aspects of deploying solar. The speakers will provide an overview of how universities are using PPAs and key PPA components. In addition, they will discuss the process of using PPAs, why PPAs make sense for campus solar deployment, and the benefits and challenges for universities. Tools and other resources will be shared to help universities interested in using PPAs for campus solar deployment.

  13. Research on trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase considering consumption of clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guojun, He; Lin, Guo; Zhicheng, Yu; Xiaojun, Zhu; Lei, Wang; Zhiqiang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    In order to reduce the stochastic volatility of supply and demand, and maintain the electric power system's stability after large scale stochastic renewable energy sources connected to grid, the development and consumption should be promoted by marketing means. Bilateral contract transaction model of large users' direct power purchase conforms to the actual situation of our country. Trading pattern of large users' direct power purchase is analyzed in this paper, characteristics of each power generation are summed up, and centralized matching mode is mainly introduced. Through the establishment of power generation enterprises' priority evaluation index system and the analysis of power generation enterprises' priority based on fuzzy clustering, the sorting method of power generation enterprises' priority in trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase is put forward. Suggestions for trading mechanism of large users' direct power purchase are offered by this method, which is good for expand the promotion of large users' direct power purchase further.

  14. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing...

  15. Harnessing hospital purchase power to design safe care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, Steven F; Gieras, Izabella A; Gosbee, Laura Lin

    2008-01-01

    Since the Institute of Medicine's well-publicized 1999 report To Err is Human, the healthcare patient safety movement has grown at an exponential pace. However, much more can be done to advance patient safety from a care process design vantage point-improving safety through effective care processes and technology integration. While progress is being made, the chasm between technology developers and caregivers remains a profound void. Why hasn't more been done to expand our view of patient safety to include technology design? Healthcare organizations have not consolidated their purchasing power to expect improved designs. This article will (1) provide an assessment of the present state of healthcare technology management and (2) provide recommendations for collaborative design of safe healthcare delivery systems.

  16. A slow neutron polarimeter for the measurement of parity-odd neutron rotary power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, W. M.; Anderson, E.; Bass, T. D.; Dawkins, J. M.; Fry, J.; Haddock, C.; Horton, J. C.; Luo, D.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Walbridge, S. B. [Indiana University and Center for the Exploration of Energy and Matter, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Barrón-Palos, L.; Maldonado-Velázquez, M. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Bass, C. D. [LeMoyne College, 1419 Salt Springs Road, Syracuse, New York 13214 (United States); Crawford, B. E. [Gettysburg College, 300 North Washington Street, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325 (United States); Crawford, C. [University of Kentucky, 177 Chem.-Phys. Building, 505 Rose Street, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Esposito, D. [University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States); Gardiner, H. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Gan, K. [The George Washington University, 2121 I Street N.W., Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States); Heckel, B. R.; Swanson, H. E., E-mail: swanson@npl.washington.edu [University of Washington/Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Box 354290, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    We present the design, description, calibration procedure, and an analysis of systematic effects for an apparatus designed to measure the rotation of the plane of polarization of a transversely polarized slow neutron beam as it passes through unpolarized matter. This device is the neutron optical equivalent of a crossed polarizer/analyzer pair familiar from light optics. This apparatus has been used to search for parity violation in the interaction of polarized slow neutrons in matter. Given the brightness of existing slow neutron sources, this apparatus is capable of measuring a neutron rotary power of dϕ/dz = 1 × 10{sup −7} rad/m.

  17. The Power Purchase Optimization Model in China considering the Renewable Energy Risks under Different Risk Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the strategic target of energy conservation and emission reduction, China is vigorously developing its large-scale and distributed renewable energy power generation industry, dominated by wind power and photovoltaic power generation. In the new situation of renewable energy power interconnection, the grid company in China must fully consider the risks caused by renewable energy when making power purchase optimization decisions. This paper sets up a power purchasing model considering the risks of the renewable energy power interconnection and testifies to the effectiveness of the model through a case study. On this basis, this paper puts forward several reasonable suggestions to help the grid company make power purchase decisions under different risk preferences.

  18. THE OBJECTIFICATION OF DEFINITION OF THE PURCHASING POWER OF CONSUMERS IN SHADOW ECONOMY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyukhtenko, N; Makarenko, S; Oliynik, N

    2016-01-01

    .... Proposed the method of calculating the correction coefficient with a view to determining the level of objectification purchasing power of consumers in a shadow economy and the potential capacity...

  19. Nations first federal combined solar power purchase launched by EPA, Forest Service, Energy Department and GSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Forest Service, Department of Energy and General Services Administration announced the first ever federal partnership to purchase solar power. This action follows President Obama's order

  20. Purchasing power parities for industry comparisons using weighted Elteto-Koves-Szulc (EKS) methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, DSP; Timmer, MP

    2003-01-01

    This study has three main objectives. First, it develops a generalization of the commonly used EKS method to multilateral price comparisons. It is shown that the EKS system can be generalized so that weights can be attached to each of the link comparisons used in the EKS computations. These weights

  1. New multi-country evidence on purchasing power parity: multivariate unit root test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.J. Groen (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a likelihood-based multivariate unit root testing framework is utilized to test whether the real exchange rates of G10 countries are non-stationary. The framework uses a likelihood ratio statistic which combines the information across all involved countries while retaining

  2. RE-EXAMINATION OF THE PURCHASING POWER PARITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The empirical record on PPP tests for transition economies is far from being so opulent as it is for the developed market economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by scrutinizing the theory of PPP on a sample of Central and Eastern European economies. The paper has two main advances with respect to previous PPP studies. First, it employs a monthly data base on real exchange rates for a panel of 12 Central and Eastern European economies by testing the theory separately with respect to US dollar and with respect to Euro. Second, we utilise a panel unit root test that involves the estimation of the ADF regression in a SUR framework. Since our study found support for the validity of PPP in some reforming European economies, special attention should be devoted to individual country-specific factors that cause PPP deviations.

  3. On Singaporean Dollar-U.S. Dollar and Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah; Kian-Ping Lim

    2003-01-01

    This study re-examines the validity of relationship between Singapore Dollar-US Dollar exchange rate and the relative price using the latest econometric methodologies that accounts for non-linearity. Among others, this study finds Exponential Smooth Transition Autoregressive (ESTAR)- type non-linear mean-reverting adjustment process of the nominal Singapore dollar-US dollar rate towards consumer price index ratio. Unlike previous finding of linear cointegration relationship between nominal Si...

  4. Non-Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Options for Financing Solar Deployment at Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-01

    Financing solar using power purchase agreements (PPAs) has facilitated solar deployment of more than 100 megawatts (MW) at universities--as compared to 50 MW facilitated by financing models not using PPAs. This brochure, which overviews existing financing models and funding mechanisms available for solar procurement, focuses on non-PPA financing models. For more information on solar deployment at universities using PPAs, refer to Using Power Purchase Agreements for Solar Deployment at Universities.

  5. Designing Wind and Solar Power Purchase Agreements to Support Grid Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Barbara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Power purchase agreements (PPAs) represent one of many institutional tools that power systems can use to improve grid services from variable renewable energy (VRE) generators. This fact sheet introduces the concept of PPAs for VRE generators and provides a brief summary of key PPA components that can facilitate VRE generators to enhance grid stability and serve as a source of power system flexibility.

  6. Investing in threatened species conservation: does corruption outweigh purchasing power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T; Joseph, Liana N; Watson, James E M; Zander, Kerstin K

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in "honest" countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living.

  7. Investing in Threatened Species Conservation: Does Corruption Outweigh Purchasing Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in “honest” countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living. PMID:21818383

  8. Anomalous parity asymmetry of WMAP 7-year power spectrum data at low multipoles: Is it cosmological or systematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-09-01

    It is natural to assume a parity-neutral Universe and accordingly no particular parity preference in the cosmic microwave background sky. However, our investigation based on the WMAP 7-year power spectrum shows there exists a large-scale odd-parity preference with high statistical significance. We also find that the odd-parity preference in WMAP7 data is slightly higher than earlier releases. We have investigated possible origins, and ruled out various noncosmological origins. We also find that the primordial origin requires |Re[Φ(k)]|≪|Im[Φ(k)]| for k≲22/η0, where η0 is the present conformal time. In other words, it requires translational invariance in the primordial Universe to be violated on scales larger than 4Gpc. The Planck surveyor, which possesses wide frequency coverage and systematics distinct from the WMAP, may allow us to resolve the mystery of the anomalous odd-parity preference. Furthermore, polarization maps of large-sky coverage will reduce degeneracy in cosmological origins.

  9. Optimal construction and combined wind and diesel power production in a regional power purchase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautala, P.; Antila, H.; Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Heikkilae, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Automation and Control Inst.

    1998-12-31

    A weak electricity transmission and distribution network and a wind generator were modelled by a non-linear dynamic model. Energy purchase of a small utility was modelled as a linear mixed integer optimisation problem. The dynamic model was used to simulate the effects of distance between the wind generator and a regional power grid and the effects of changes in the production of the wind generator. The optimisation model was used to investigate the effect of the combined diesel and wind production. In this case the results show that if the distance between the generator and the network grid is more than 70 km, then voltage fluctuations exceed acceptable levels. The optimisation provides the value of the combined diesel and wind production. (orig.)

  10. Shandong Direct Power Purchase Pilot Work has Expanded,Shandong Aluminum Factories Will Receive Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    According to news report published on January20,it has been learned from the"Notice on Publishing Name List of Electricity Direct Trading Pilot Users in 2015"published by the Shandong Province Commission of Economy and Information Technology,the number of direct power purchase pilot enterprises in Shandong Province will double in 2015,the number of pilot enterprises will be expanded

  11. Guide to purchasing green power. Renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates and on-site renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-30

    The Guide to Purchasing Green Power is intended for organizations that are considering the merits of buying green power as well as those that have decided to buy it and want help doing so. The Guide was written for a broad audience, including businesses, government agencies, universities, and all organizations wanting to diversify their energy supply and to reduce the environmental impact of their electricity use.The Guide provides an overview of green power markets and describes the necessary steps to buying green power. This section summarizes the Guide to help readers find the information they need.

  12. Using employer purchasing power to improve the quality of perinatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, A G; Milstein, A; Damberg, C L

    1999-01-01

    Large employers have become increasingly involved in helping to set the agenda for quality measurement and improvement. Moreover, they are beginning to hold health care organizations accountable for their performance through marketplace incentives, including the public reporting of comparative quality data and the linkage of reimbursement to performance on quality measures. The Pacific Business Group on Health (PBGH) is an employer coalition that has been prominent in establishing models for collaborative quality measurement and improvement in the California marketplace. PBGH's involvement in quality stems from an environment in which purchasers were faced with high health care costs, yet virtually no information with which to assess the value their employees received from that care. Research indicating widespread variation in performance across health care organizations and seemingly limited oversight for quality of care within the industry has further motivated purchasers' efforts to better understand the quality of care being delivered to their em-ployees. Using the purchasing power of employers representing 2.5-million covered lives, PBGH endeavors to encourage the transition of the health care marketplace from one that competes solely on price to one that competes on price and quality. This entails collaborating with the health care industry to develop and publicly report valid performance data for use by both large employers and consumers of health care services. It also includes communicating to the marketplace purchasers' commitment to making purchasing decisions based on quality as well as cost. PBGH efforts to measure, report, and improve quality have been demonstrated by several undertakings in the perinatal care arena, including research to assess cesarean section rates and newborn readmission rates across California hospitals.employer coalition, purchaser, quality measurement, quality improvement, report cards, perinatal quality of care.

  13. Associations among occupational roles, independence, assistive technology, and purchasing power of individuals with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Daniel Marinho Cezar; Emmel, Maria Luisa Guillaumon

    2013-01-01

    to verify whether there are associations among occupational roles, independence to perform Activities of Daily Living, purchasing power, and assistive technology for individuals with physical disabilities. 91 individuals with physical disabilities participated in the study. The instruments used were: Role Checklist, Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion, Barthel Index, and a Questionnaire to characterize the subjects. an association with a greater number of roles was found among more independent individuals using a lower number of technological devices. Higher purchasing power was associated with a lower functional status of dependence. even though technology was not directly associated with independence, the latter was associated with a greater number of occupational roles, which requires reflection upon independence issues when considering the participation in occupational roles. These findings support interdisciplinary actions designed to promote occupational roles in individuals with physical disabilities.

  14. Purchasing power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison

    Nurses and GPs are working together in Shropshire to introduce clinically-led commissioning, and ensure that the new arrangements improve services despite a tough financial climate. Nursing involvement in the new clinical commissioning group is active and not 'tokenistic'.

  15. Proper use of drugs and relation between purchasing power and cost of treatment prescribed in Casamance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankhoba Dramé, Y

    2016-08-01

    In Senegal, health insurance is available only to employees in the private and public sector and to the elderly (through the Sesame program). The rest of the population, especially different categories of vulnerable people, has no health insurance. Their access to healthcare and to medications is thus limited. In this study, we sought to analyze the relation between purchasing power and costs of treatment prescribed in one city. We questioned the customers leaving pharmacies in Ziguinchor, the administrative center of the lower Casamance, in southern Senegal, and analyzed their prescriptions and over-the-counter purchases. In all, we examined 255 prescriptions/purchases including 643 drugs; 29.4% were written by prescribers in the public health sector. The customers with these prescriptions were less educated, had lower incomes, used taxis more often, and consulted nurses more often than customers with prescriptions from the private health sector. Injectables and INN (international nonproprietary names) were dispensed most often to customers with prescriptions. Dispensing was usually better when the drug was prescribed, and when it was prescribed by a doctor. Nurses appeared to be inadequately trained in the proper use of medications. The percentage of drugs purchased did not depend on the patients' financial means or educational level. Those who most often acquired all of the drugs prescribed were those who had consulted a doctor rather than another type of healthcare provider.

  16. Photovoltaic power: the inadequate purchase price; Photovoltaique: les defauts du tarif d'achat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D. [CNRS, CIRED, GIS LARSEN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2009-03-15

    The current policy of guaranteed purchase prices applied to photovoltaic power lacks rationality: prices are not graduated, commitment times are too long, there is no capping to capacity developed, subsidies (tax credit, direct subsidy, etc) are complex and give too favourable a return time. The lack of differentiation between products may also delay the emergence of new PV technologies. As a result, it is legitimate to envisage a cost/benefit analysis of future subsidies and to wonder about Frances ability, as a second rank player, to catch up with the leaders (Germany, Japan, United States). The report does not criticize policy based on purchase prices in itself: this is suitable or technology close to commercial operation in that it guarantees stable terms close to wholesale electricity market prices. It does, however, criticize adequacy in terms of less advanced PV technology, which results in purchase prices five times that of wind power. The report proposes re-targeting the system to take account of the significant stakes in PV power. Costly incentives for installing land PV cells and units should be quickly reduced, while industrial demonstration budgets deserve increases to further the development of new technologies (improved crystal silicon and thin layers). The demonstration phase and industrial development should be the primary focus, where a large part of potentially promising reductions in costs are likely to be achieved. (author)

  17. Suzanne F. Delbanco on the Leapfrog Group and employer purchasing power. Interview by Pamela K. Scarrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbanco, Suzanne F

    2004-01-01

    Suzanne F. Delbanco, PhD MPH, is the first executive director of The Leapfrog Group, founded by the Business Roundtable. The Leapfrog Group's goal is to mobilize employer purchasing power to initiate breakthrough improvements in the safety, quality, and overall value of healthcare for American consumers. The group's growing consortium of more than 155 Fortune 500 companies and other large private and public healthcare purchasers provides health benefits to more than 34 million Americans; these companies spend more than 62 billion dollars on healthcare annually. Dr. Delbanco is a member of the National Committee for Quality Assurance Purchaser Advisory Council and a board member of Bridges to Excellence. Before joining The Leapfrog Group, she was a senior manager at the Pacific Business Group on Health (PBGH), where she worked on the quality team. Prior to joining PBGH, she worked on reproductive health policy and the changing healthcare marketplace initiative at the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. She has also consulted on health insurance coverage in the temporary employment industry and on the first statewide survey in California of MediCal beneficiaries, and worked as a community Liaison for Kaiser Permanente during the establishment of one of California's first County Organized Health Systems. She holds a PhD in public policy from the Goldman School of Public PoLicy and a MPH from the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley.

  18. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  19. Comprehensive benefit evaluation of direct power-purchase for large consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. N.; Li, Z. H.; Zhou, H. M.; Zhao, Q.; Xu, X. F.

    2017-06-01

    Based on "several opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on further deepening the reform of electric power system" in 2015, this paper analyses the influence of direct power-purchase for large consumers on operation benefit of power grid. In three aspects, such as economic benefit, cleaning benefit and social benefit, the index system is proposed. In which, the profit of saving coal energy consumption, reducing carbon emissions and reducing pollutant emissions is quantitative calculated. Then the subjective and objective weights and index scores are figured out through the analytic hierarchy process, entropy weight method and interval number method. Finally, the comprehensive benefit is evaluated combined with the actual study, and some suggestions are made.

  20. Parity-Violating Neutron Spin Rotation in Hydrogen and Deuterium and the Predictive Power of EFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesshammer, Harald W.

    2013-10-01

    One of the least-explored sectors of the Standard Model is the weak part of the nuclear force. Experiments on hadronic parity-violation (PV) at low energies require one comprehensive theoretical framework with reliable error-estimates to: check data consistency; subtract binding effects; and extract the PV interaction strengths. ``Pion-less'' Effective Field Theory is such a method with minimal theoretical bias. Different PV parameters are probed in np and nd spin rotation. Using naïve dimensional analysis, the signal for standard target densities is. An estimate of the numerical and systematic uncertainties of our calculations indicates excellent convergence. We also show that PV 3-nucleon interactions are suppressed in the nd -system, despite the non-perturbative renormalisation of parity-conserving 3-nucleon interactions. Therefore, few-nucleon experiments can dis-entangle PV 2-nucleon interactions at the 10%-level without introducing new unknowns. Supported in part by the US National Science Foundation under CAREER award PHY- 0645498, by the US Department of Energy under contract DE-FG02-95ER-40907, and by University Facilitating Funds of the George Washington University.

  1. Nonlinear adjustment of real exchange rate towards purchasing power parity from G7: An exponential FISTAR modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Selmi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of the real exchange rate deviations of G7 countries by capturing nonlinearity and long memory features. In this context, we used fractionally integrated STAR (FISTAR models proposed by Van Dijk et al. (2002 [Van Dijk, D., Franses, P.H., Paap, R., (2002, A nonlinear long-memory model with an application to US unemployment, Journal of Econometrics, 110, 135-165.] for a case with an exponential transition function. Indeed, this study can take into account procedures characterized by several dynamic regimes and persistence phenomena. Empirically, the elements of both fractional long memory and threshold non-linearity are present for the real exchange rates of the G-7 countries against the US, notably in the EU countries.

  2. Validity of purchasing power parity for selected Latin American countries: Linear and non-linear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto Fóffano Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine empirically the validity of PPP in the context of unit root tests based on linear and non-linear models of the real effective exchange rate of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. For this purpose, we apply the Harvey et al. (2008 linearity test and the non-linear unit root test (Kruse, 2011. The results show that the series with linear characteristics are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru and those with non-linear characteristics are Mexico and Venezuela. The linear unit root tests indicate that the real effective exchange rate is stationary for Chile and Peru, and the non-linear unit root tests evidence that Mexico is stationary. In the period analyzed, the results show support for the validity of PPP in only three of the seven countries.

  3. Alcohol Consumption in Family Budgets: Effects of Purchasing Power and Households Demographic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García Arancibia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems associated with family alcohol consumption is the effect on household resource distribution, with a larger incidence in those households that are socially more vulnerable. This study examines the influence that household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have on the share of alcoholic beverages in the household budget, using data from Santa Fe, Argentina for the period 2004-2005. Engel parametric curves are estimated using a sample selection model (Tobit type II. The sample is subdivided using the poverty line as the criterion. The results show that the most relevant characteristics differ depending on whether the household is poor or not. In non-poor households, variables such as the age of the household head, the share of women and the number of minors have a statistically significant effect on alcohol’s share of expenditures. In contrast, only characteristics related to purchasing power are relevant in poor households.

  4. THE OBJECTIFICATION OF DEFINITION OF THE PURCHASING POWER OF CONSUMERS IN SHADOW ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tyukhtenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the level of truthfulness of information as to actual volume revenues of workers of the shadow economy. Revealed results of actual solvency of the local population by goods production, work execution, services rendering. Discovered action of currency fluctuation. Analyzed sales of new cars in Ukraine for 2010-2014. Proposed the method of calculating the correction coefficient with a view to determining the level of objectification purchasing power of consumers in a shadow economy and the potential capacity of the sale market of new cars. Defined the optimal selling price of new vehicles in Kherson. Calculated potential market volume of new vehicles and optimal logistic route of their realization in the Kherson region.

  5. Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd; Strömberg, Ulf; Holmén, Anders; Alm, Bernt; Roswall, Josefine; Bergman, Stefan; Dahlgren, Jovanna

    2013-11-15

    Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy. A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n=2,407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. purchasing power. The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p=0.00004): from 16.3% (purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR=1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p=0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio). The neighbourhood purchasing power provided a spatial determinant of low numbers of mothers breastfeeding at four months

  6. Cartel legal limits according to cooperations of purchase of power supply companies; Kartellrechtliche Grenzen bei Einkaufskooperationen von Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiser, Jens

    2009-07-01

    In the optimization of the conditions of purchase the question rises whether and under which conditions products and services may be brought together with other companies. In this case, it is an intra-group co-ordination of the procurement of majority and minority interests as well as co-operation of purchase with suppliers, customers, competitors and third parties. The author of the contribution under consideration gives an answer to these aspects. Apart from general considerations according to cartel law, also the liberalisation of the energy market, the branch structure and the regulation of incentives particularly for power supply companies are considered.

  7. Real interest parity decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Luiz Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the general causes of real interest rate differentials (rids for a sample of emerging markets for the period of January 1996 to August 2007. To this end, two methods are applied. The first consists of breaking the variance of rids down into relative purchasing power pariety and uncovered interest rate parity and shows that inflation differentials are the main source of rids variation; while the second method breaks down the rids and nominal interest rate differentials (nids into nominal and real shocks. Bivariate autoregressive models are estimated under particular identification conditions, having been adequately treated for the identified structural breaks. Impulse response functions and error variance decomposition result in real shocks as being the likely cause of rids.O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as causas gerais dos diferenciais da taxa de juros real (rids para um conjunto de países emergentes, para o período de janeiro de 1996 a agosto de 2007. Para tanto, duas metodologias são aplicadas. A primeira consiste em decompor a variância dos rids entre a paridade do poder de compra relativa e a paridade de juros a descoberto e mostra que os diferenciais de inflação são a fonte predominante da variabilidade dos rids; a segunda decompõe os rids e os diferenciais de juros nominais (nids em choques nominais e reais. Sob certas condições de identificação, modelos autorregressivos bivariados são estimados com tratamento adequado para as quebras estruturais identificadas e as funções de resposta ao impulso e a decomposição da variância dos erros de previsão são obtidas, resultando em evidências favoráveis a que os choques reais são a causa mais provável dos rids.

  8. INFLUENCES OF THE PURCHASING POWER CHANGE ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE AGROALIMETARY MARKETS ON EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the manifested connection between the dynamics of the population purchasing power and the dynamic of agroalimentary markets in general as well as by product types on European Union level. Based on the last data supplied by Eurostat 2013, using the specific methods for studying the correlations, we have detected that increases and decreases of the purchasing power generated similar changes on agroalimentary markets level from the point of view of achieved sales in most of the poorer countries of the European Union, but not in those states which got beyond the average gross domestic product per capita of the European Union. This relationship has been noticed only on the agroalimentary markets as a whole (respectively on the amounts spent by the population for purchasing agroalimentary goods, beverages and tobacco, but not on the level of markets of various types of product (“meat and meat products”, “fruit and vegetables”, “dairy produce, eggs and edible oils and fats”, “beverages”, “sugar and chocolate and sugar confectionery”, “tobacco products”.

  9. Overweight at four years of age in a Swedish birth cohort: influence of neighbourhood-level purchasing power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Josefine; Almqvist-Tangen, Gerd; Holmén, Anders; Alm, Bernt; Bergman, Stefan; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Strömberg, Ulf

    2016-07-11

    A number of child/parental factors have been shown to be significant predictors of childhood overweight, although a better understanding of possible contextual influences of neighbourhood-level characteristics might provide new insights leading to tailored, targeted interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of neighbourhood purchasing power and its relationship with other known risk factors related to childhood overweight in a prospective birth cohort. A prospective, population-based, birth-cohort study was conducted in south-western Sweden, comprising 2,666 infants born in 2007-2008. Childhood overweight was assessed by body mass index (BMI) data from follow-up examinations at four years of age (n = 2,026) and overweight defined according to the International Obesity Task Force. Using logistic regression analysis, the influential child/parental predictors were identified from the candidate predictors, viz. child's gender, as well as birth weight adjusted for gestational age and parental factors at recruitment, including maternal smoking status, maternal BMI (before pregnancy), paternal BMI and parental educational level. The children's residential parishes at follow-up were stratified by parish-level household purchasing power (purchasing power) and the "contextual" influence was analysed. In each such neighbourhood stratum, the adjusted overweight ratio (AOR), i.e. the ratio between the observed number of overweight children and the expected number, taking account of the influential child/parental predictors, was estimated. The prevalence of overweight at four years of age was 11.9 %. In the economically strongest neighbourhoods (i.e. purchasing power), the AOR was 0.60 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.34-0.98). The corresponding empirically Bayes-adjusted AOR was 0.73 (95 % CI: 0.46-1.02; 97 % posterior probability of AOR <1). In the other neighbourhood strata, the statistical evidence of a deviant AOR was weaker. The economically

  10. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers' purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J J; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products - even when presented product information contradicts the label's image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels' potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers' motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers' ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants' pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  11. The power of putting a label on it: Green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf J. J. Hahnel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels, this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e. product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3. Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2. We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3. Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  12. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J. J.; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1–3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information. PMID:26441767

  13. The Rising Powers and Collective Security in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    countries, and the purchasing power parity average ASEAN per capita GDP is just $5,260, 11% that of the USA. ASEAN Finance and Macroeconomic Database...Mearsheimer, ―The Gathering Storm: China‘s Challenge to U.S. Power in Asia,‖ Fourth Annual Michael Hintze Lecture in International Security, Wednesday 4th

  14. Grid parity analysis of stand-alone hybrid microgrids: A comparative study of Germany, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawad M.

    Grid parity for alternative energy resources occurs when the cost of electricity generated from the source is lower than or equal to the purchasing price of power from the electricity grid. This thesis aims to quantitatively analyze the evolution of hybrid stand-alone microgrids in the US, Germany, Pakistan and South Africa to determine grid parity for a solar PV/Diesel/Battery hybrid system. The Energy System Model (ESM) and NREL's Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software are used to simulate the microgrid operation and determine a Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) figure for each location. This cost per kWh is then compared with two distinct estimates of future retail electricity prices at each location to determine grid parity points. Analysis results reveal that future estimates of LCOE for such hybrid stand-alone microgrids range within the 35-55 cents/kWh over the 25 year study period. Grid parity occurs earlier in locations with higher power prices or unreliable grids. For Pakistan grid parity is already here, while Germany hits parity between the years 2023-2029. Results for South Africa suggest a parity time range of the years 2040-2045. In the US, places with low grid prices do not hit parity during the study period. Sensitivity analysis results reveal the significant impact of financing and the cost of capital on these grid parity points, particularly in developing markets of Pakistan and South Africa. Overall, the study helps conclude that variations in energy markets may determine the fate of emerging energy technologies like microgrids. However, policy interventions have a significant impact on the final outcome, such as the grid parity in this case. Measures such as eliminating uncertainty in policies and improving financing can help these grids overcome barriers in developing economies, where they may find a greater use much earlier in time.

  15. 18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reservation charges, energy charges, adders, and any transmission or wheeling charges associated with the... Energy Organization Act, 42 U.S.C. 7171, 7172 and 7173(c) (Supp. IV 1980); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR part 142... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF...

  16. New purchase conditions of the electrical power produced by cogeneration; Nouvelles conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    C. Pierret, the State Secretary at the Industry, is pleased with the EDF policy in favour of the electric power, produced by cogeneration, purchase. The cogeneration is in agreement with the governmental energy and environmental policy. The payment conditions of the new contracts are presented. (A.L.B.)

  17. Estimating the inequality of legal and latent incomes with regard to the purchasing power of ruble in the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Litvintseva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of monetary income differentiation of the population with use of the author's methodical approach with regard to different purchasing power of ruble in the Russian regions. All the population of Russia was rearranged from regional quintile groups into the all-Russian groups that resulted in significant changes of inequality parameters at the interregional level of incomes in comparison with the Rosstat parameters. For the first time an influence of latent incomes to inequality and poverty level in the Russian regions is analyzed. Division of the population of the country into needy and wealthy groups is offered. Calculations and recommendations regarding redistributive overcoming of poverty at the expense of increase of the rate of surtax on incomes of the wealthy group are developed. The models by Pen, Lorenz and Ravallion-Huppi, modified by the authors of the article, were applied in the research. Calculations were carried out for all subjects of the Russian Federation (without the Chechen republic according to the Russian State Statistics Service figures for 2000–2008.

  18. Satin Alma Gücü Paritesi Teorisinin Geçerliligi: G7 Örnegi/Validity of Purchasing Power Parity Theory: The Case of G7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asli Önay Akçay; Filiz Eratas

    2015-01-01

    .... As a result of the analysis, there is evidence that unit root in the real exchange rate is not obtained with the firstgeneration panel unit root test, with the second-generation unit root tests it is...

  19. Energy parity games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent

    2012-11-02

    Energy parity games are infinite two-player turn-based games played on weighted graphs. The objective of the game combines a (qualitative) parity condition with the (quantitative) requirement that the sum of the weights (i.e., the level of energy in the game) must remain positive. Beside their own interest in the design and synthesis of resource-constrained omega-regular specifications, energy parity games provide one of the simplest model of games with combined qualitative and quantitative objectives. Our main results are as follows: (a) exponential memory is sufficient and may be necessary for winning strategies in energy parity games; (b) the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games can be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP; and (c) we give an algorithm to solve energy parity by reduction to energy games. We also show that the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games is logspace-equivalent to the problem of deciding the winner in mean-payoff parity games, which can thus be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP. As a consequence we also obtain a conceptually simple algorithm to solve mean-payoff parity games.

  20. Parity Violation in Neutron Capture Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C; Zanini, Luca

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, the scattering of polarized neutrons on compound nucleus resonances proved to be a powerful experimental technique for probing nuclear parity violation. Longitudinal analyzing powers in neutron transmission measurements on p-wave resonances in nuclei such as $^{139}$La and $^{232}$Th were found to be as large as 10%. Here we examine the possibilities of carrying out a parallel program to measure asymmetries in the $(n,\\gamma$) reaction on these same compound nuclear resonances. Symmetry-violating $(n,\\gamma$) studies can also show asymmetries as large as 10%, and have the advantage over transmission experiments of allowing parity-odd asymmetries in several different gamma-decay branches from the same resonance. Thus, studies of parity violation in the $(n,\\gamma)$ reaction using high efficiency germanium detectors at the Los Alamos Lujan facility, for example, could determine the parity-odd nucleon-nucleon matrix elements in complex nuclei with high accuracy. Additionally, simultaneous stu...

  1. Pester power and its consequences: do European children's food purchasing requests relate to diet and weight outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christina Y; Reisch, Lucia A; Gwozdz, Wencke; Molnár, Dénes; Konstabel, Kenn; Michels, Nathalie; Tornaritis, Michalis; Eiben, Gabriele; Siani, Alfonso; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pigeot, Iris; Lissner, Lauren

    2016-09-01

    Children may influence household spending through 'pester power'. The present study examined pestering through parent-child food shopping behaviours in relation to children's diet and weight status. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses drawn from the IDEFICS study, a cohort study of parents and their children. Children's height and weight were measured and their recent diets were reported by parental proxy based on the Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire-FFQ at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Parents also completed questionnaires at both time points about pestering, including whether the child goes grocery shopping with them, asks for items seen on television and is bought requested food items. Participants were recruited from eight European countries for the IDEFICS study (non-nationally representative sample). Study participants were children aged 2-9 years at enrolment and their parents. A total of 13 217 parent-child dyads were included at baseline. Two years later, 7820 of the children were re-examined. Most parents (63 %) at baseline reported 'sometimes' acquiescing to their children's requests to purchase specific foods. Pestering was modestly associated with weight and diet. At baseline, children whose parents 'often' complied consumed more high-sugar and high-fat foods. Children who 'often' asked for items seen on television were likely to become overweight after 2 years (OR=1·31), whereas 'never' asking protected against overweight (OR=0·72). Pestering was modestly related to diet and weight in cross-sectional, but not longitudinal analyses. Asking for items seen on television had the most robust relationships across child outcomes and over time.

  2. Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility (HPCF) purchases ten Sun Fire(TM) 15K servers to dramatically increase power of eScience research

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility (HPCF), a collaborative environment for data and numerical intensive computing privately run by the University of Cambridge and Cranfield University, has purchased 10 Sun Fire(TM) 15K servers from Sun Microsystems, Inc.. The total investment, which includes more than $40 million in Sun technology, will dramatically increase the computing power, reliability, availability and scalability of the HPCF" (1 page).

  3. A Survey in effects of reducing purchasing power on buying and consumption of detergent and cleaning products among consumers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sheybani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors influencing consumer behavior is economic conditions. This research has been done on the subject of "A Survey in effects of reducing purchasing power on buying and consumption of detergent and cleaning products among consumers in Tehran". The purpose of this research is analyzing the effects of decreased purchasing power on the consumer in detergent products. In this research different factors affecting the consumer behavior, the way these factors enter the consumer black box and are processed under the influence of motivations, attitudes, perceptions, and learning have been discussed. This research is categorized as a descriptive – survey study. The research is categorized as an application survey on a purpose basis. Questionnaires were used for data collecting. 440 questionnaires were distributed and 384 of them were used for analysis. Based on the results of the survey, after processing collected data, all five hypotheses were confirmed. The results show that decreasing purchasing power has had an effect on all stages of the consumer behavior process.

  4. Parity Violation in the NN System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindler M.J.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the apparent experimental discrepancies that sustain interest in the field of lowenergy few-nucleon parity violation. We argue that it is not possible to determine whether present experimental measurements are consistent unless each is understood in terms of a complete EFT with consistent power counting. Towards this end, we present the EFT that describes very low energy parity violating observables associated with two-nucleon scattering and photon-deuteron interactions.

  5. Calculating the purchasing power of tourists in a wine region – a case study from Germany / Kaufkraft von Touristen in einer Weinregion – eine Fallstudie aus Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szolnoki Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this consumer study was firstly to calculate the economic importance, in term of purchasing power, of visitors in the German wine growing region Rheingau, and secondly to examine their demographic and behavioural characteristics, as well as their the motivation using segmentation approach. In the framework of a face-to-face survey, conducted between April and May 2015, a total of 1,555 tourists were interviewed at 18 different locations in the Rheingau. Four wine tourist types were identified by using cluster analysis: 1 Wine and Rheingau lovers, who have a high interest in wine and visit the region several times a year; 2 wine-oriented tourists, who use the culinary offerings of the Rheingau with pleasure but do not come to the region very often; 3 new visitors, who come to the region mainly because of the nature and history; and 4 foreign tourists, who have less knowledge about the Rheingau and buy less wine in the region. With the help of the purchasing power calculation, we can state that approximately 18 % of the total production is purchased directly in the region by tourists.

  6. Lunchtime Food and Drink Purchasing: Young People's Practices, Preferences and Power within and beyond the School Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W. J.; Danesi, G.; Kapetanaki, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights factors that influence young people aged 13-15 years when purchasing food or drink within or beyond the school catering service. The paper draws from a qualitative study of secondary schools in Scotland, which varied in terms of relative socio-economic deprivation and density of food and drink businesses within a 10-min walk.…

  7. Lunchtime Food and Drink Purchasing: Young People's Practices, Preferences and Power within and beyond the School Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W. J.; Danesi, G.; Kapetanaki, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights factors that influence young people aged 13-15 years when purchasing food or drink within or beyond the school catering service. The paper draws from a qualitative study of secondary schools in Scotland, which varied in terms of relative socio-economic deprivation and density of food and drink businesses within a 10-min walk.…

  8. 谈火电总承包工程招标采购管理%On bidding and purchasing management of thermal power primary contractor engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战爱倩

    2012-01-01

    结合多年参与建设工程招标采购管理的实践,阐述了工程招标采购工作的要点及注意事项,通过规范火电工程总承包管理秩序,以提高招标采购质量,为工程合同管理奠定基础,确保工程有序进行,实现总承包工程建设目标。%Combining with the many-year practice of the bidding and purchasing management of the project, the paper illustrates the points and precautions for the bidding and purchasing in the projects, and indicates the improvement of the quality of the bidding and purchasing by regula- ting the primary contractor management order of the thermal power projects, so as to lay the foundation for the engineering contract management, ensure the orderlv engineering, and realize the constnmtion nim~ of the nrimarv t~antrnetnr an~rinaarin~r

  9. Scandinavian Purchase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ford Motor Co.is handing the keys of its Volvo car unit over to a new owner:Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co.Ltd.The Chinese automaker inked a deal with Ford on March 28 purchasing the Volvo brand for $1.8 billion and allowing Geely to expand its foothold in Western markets.

  10. Exploring the market for third-party-owned residential photovoltaic systems: insights from lease and power-purchase agreement contract structures and costs in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Steinberg, Daniel; Margolis, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Over the past several years, third-party-ownership (TPO) structures for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems have become the predominant ownership model in the US residential market. Under a TPO contract, the PV system host typically makes payments to the third-party owner of the system. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the total TPO contract payments made by the customer can differ significantly from payments in which the system host directly purchases the system. Furthermore, payments can vary depending on TPO contract structure. To date, a paucity of data on TPO contracts has precluded studies evaluating trends in TPO contract cost. This study relies on a sample of 1113 contracts for residential PV systems installed in 2010-2012 under the California Solar Initiative to evaluate how the timing of payments under a TPO contract impacts the ultimate cost of the system to the customer. Furthermore, we evaluate how the total cost of TPO systems to customers has changed through time, and the degree to which contract costs have tracked trends in the installed costs of a PV system. We find that the structure of the contract and the timing of the payments have financial implications for the customer: (1) power-purchase contracts, on average, cost more than leases, (2) no-money-down contracts are more costly than prepaid contracts, assuming a customer’s discount rate is lower than 17% and (3) contracts that include escalator clauses cost more, for both power-purchase agreements and leases, at most plausible discount rates. In addition, all contract costs exhibit a wide range, and do not parallel trends in installed costs over time.

  11. the Parent Child Purchase Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Catriona

    2009-01-01

    This is an interpretive inquiry into the ‘parent-child purchase relationship’. This study aims to understand the parent-child purchase relationship from the consumer perspective, rather than the much reported ‘vested interest’ perspective, in order to enhance and inform an understanding of the phenomenon. Commencing with an overview of current literature, specifically that of the pester power phenomenon, to contextualise the theoretical framework, the extant construct of pester power is exami...

  12. Purchasing in relation to purchasing logistics and purchasing marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Dąbrowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purchasing is the management of the company’s external resources in such way that the supply of all goods and services which are necessary for running, maintaining and managing the company’s primary and support activities is secured at the most favourable conditions. Purchasing activitiy in companies has a technical, commercial, logistical and marketing dimention. Mutual overlaping of the areas of purchasing, logistics and marketing is fully justified. All logistical aspects in purchasing activity should be of interest to purchasing and logistics. The same applies to purchasing and marketing. However, it is unjustified to annex purchasing to one or both of the above-mentioned disciplines.

  13. Proposal to negotiate two blanket purchase contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply of high-power RF grid-tubes for the CERN accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply of different types of RF high-power grid-tubes (triodes and tetrodes) for the operation of CERN accelerators. For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of two blanket purchase contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply of different types of RF high-power grid-tubes (triodes and tetrodes) with: - THALES (FR) for a total amount of 6 800 000 euros (10 540 000 Swiss francs) for a period of five years, subject to revision for inflation from January 2006; - RICHARDSON (DE) for a total amount of 1 100 000 euros (1 705 000 Swiss francs) for a period of five years, subject to revision for inflation from January 2006.

  14. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  15. Stuttering Equivalence for Parity Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cranen, Sjoerd; Willemse, Tim A C

    2011-01-01

    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering equivalence. While, at the outset, it might not be clear that this strategy should pay off, our experiments using typical verification problems illustrate that stuttering equivalence speeds up solving parity games in many cases.

  16. Pester power and its consequences: do European children's food purchasing requests relate to diet and weight outcomes?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Christina Y; Reisch, Lucia A; Gwozdz, Wencke; Molnár, Dénes; Konstabel, Kenn; Michels, Nathalie; Tornaritis, Michalis; Eiben, Gabriele; Siani, Alfonso; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pigeot, Iris; Lissner, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Children may influence household spending through 'pester power'. The present study examined pestering through parent-child food shopping behaviours in relation to children's diet and weight status...

  17. Proposal of a New SI Base Unit for Value. An Hedonic Estimation of the Physical Purchasing Power (PhPP) of Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilla, Steivan

    2006-03-01

    Hitherto, the purchasing power of money, i.e. its transaction value, has been measured in terms of inflation index numbers and consumer baskets. Consumer baskets are variable phenomena and their use as measurement units for value confuses the measuring with the measurand. We propose an invariant numeraire, or value unit, based on the market value of a Planck energy (1956 MJ). Planck units form a natural system of units independent of any civilization. The hedonic estimation of the PhPP of a currency differentiates energy by product as well as by thermodynamic quality (exergy). Following SI rules, we propose to name the value unit walras (Wal) in honour of the economist Leon Walras (1834 - 1910). One Wal can also be interpreted as the minimum cost of physiological life of a reference person during one year. The study uses official disaggregated Swiss Producer and Consumer Price Index data and estimates the PhPP of the Swiss franc in 2003.

  18. 12 CFR 7.1020 - Purchase of open accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of open accounts. 7.1020 Section 7... OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1020 Purchase of open accounts. (a) General. The purchase of open accounts is a... national bank may purchase open accounts in connection with export transactions; the accounts should...

  19. Parametric Risk Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Mercuri; Edit Rroji

    2014-01-01

    Any optimization algorithm based on the risk parity approach requires the formulation of portfolio total risk in terms of marginal contributions. In this paper we use the independence of the underlying factors in the market to derive the centered moments required in the risk decomposition process when the modified versions of Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall are considered. The choice of the Mixed Tempered Stable distribution seems adequate for fitting skewed and heavy tailed distribution...

  20. Parity-Time Synthetic Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Liang; Ma, Renmin; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetry is a fundamental notion in quantum field theories1,2. It has opened a new paradigm for non-Hermitian Hamiltonians ranging from quantum mechanics, electronics, to optics. In the realm of optics, optical loss is responsible for power dissipation, therefore typically degrading device performance such as attenuation of a laser beam. By carefully exploiting optical loss in the complex dielectric permittivity, however, recent exploration of PT symmetry revolutionizes our understandings in fundamental physics and intriguing optical phenomena such as exceptional points and phase transition that are critical for high-speed optical modulators3-9. The interplay between optical gain and loss in photonic PT synthetic matters offers a new criterion of positively utilizing loss to efficiently manipulate gain and its associated optical properties10-19. Instead of simply compensating optical loss in conventional lasers, for example, it is theoretically proposed that judiciously designed delicate modu...

  1. Fourth Generation Parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye-Sung [William and Mary College, BNL, JLAB; Soni, Amarjit [William and Mary College

    2013-01-01

    We present a very simple 4th-generation (4G) model with an Abelian gauge interaction under which only the 4G fermions have nonzero charge. The U(1) gauge symmetry can have a Z_2 residual discrete symmetry (4G-parity), which can stabilize the lightest 4G particle (L4P). When the 4G neutrino is the L4P, it would be a neutral and stable particle and the other 4G fermions would decay into the L4P leaving the trace of missing energy plus the standard model fermions. Because of the new symmetry, the 4G particle creation and decay modes are different from those of the sequential 4G model, and the 4G particles can be appreciably lighter than typical experimental bounds.

  2. 构建电力集团成本领先战略的物资采购策略体系%On the Construction of Materials Purchasing Strategy System of Cost Leadership Strategy in Power Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何成江; 陈宏; 李政

    2012-01-01

    自2006年以来,国华电力在以往集团化物资管理的经验基础上,根据发电企业物资管理特征,应用现代供应链管理理论和战略采购理论,围绕三方面推进采购策略体系创新。一是以集约化管理思想实施组织创新;二是推进采购策略理念体系创新;三是实施采购策略执行体系创新。采购策略体系的创新实现了直接效益和间接效益双提高。%Since 2006, based on the previous experience of collectivized materials management, according to the features of materials management in power generating enterprise, Guohua Electric Power has promoted the innovation of purchasing strategy system from three aspects by applying the theories of modem supply chain management and strategic purchasing: firstly, implementing organizational innovation with the idea of intensive management; secondly, promoting the innovation of purchasing strategy ideational system; thirdly, implementing the innovation of purchasing strategy enforcement system. The innovation of purchasing strategy system has realized the dual improvement of both direct benefits and indirect benefits.

  3. Development of power purchase agreement in the electricity market environment%电力市场环境下购电协议的形成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chira Achayuthakan; Peerapat Vithayasrichareon

    2008-01-01

    The Special Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) is formulated as an alternative structural payment to integrate two different electricity market structures which are traditional monopoly market, referred as the Conventional PPA environment and fully competitive market with Power Pool, referred as Power Pool environment. The Special PPA shall partly repay initial investment to the generators with capacity payment on guaranteed capacity, presumably by half of respective capacity. The non-guaranteed capacity is obliged to market competition in the same manner as that in the Power Pool. Hence the Special PPA both partly guarantees generators investment repayment as well as pursues generators to compete and absorb market risk. The Special PPA also provides the capacity payment for reserve capacity reflecting the cost of system reliability. The Special PPA provides different merits order dispatching in such a way that more generating units are utilized. With the fact that the nature of ESI is investment intensive,the Special PPA mechanism, that payment is distributed more to generators, would highly encourage and attract participation in generation investment.%专用购电协议(SpeciM PPA)作为一种具有选择性的支付方式,融合了2种不同的电力市场结构,即基于传统购电协议的垄断市场和基于电力联营体模式的竞争市场.为支付发电公司最初的投资,专用购电协议把电厂容量的一半作为保证量,按容量费用方式支付;对于没有得到保证的部分容量,按照类似电力联营体的方式参与市场竞争.专用购电协议提供了不同的优先调度方式,可以使得更多的发电机组得到利用;同时对发电公司有所倾斜,能够激励和吸引发电投资.

  4. Purchasing and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Astrid; Mols, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a number of hypotheses relating four purchasing capabilities to two measures of purchasings contribution to innovation. The hypotheses are tested with data collected through a websurvey completed by 321 purchasing professionals in Danish production companies. Our results...... show that integrative, relational, innovative,and intelligence capabilities are positively related to innovation. However, relational capabilities are not found to have significant effect on purchasings contribution to supply and practice innovation, i.e. new markets, new suppliers, and new purchasing...... practices. The relationship between intelligence capabilities and purchasings contribution to product and production innovations depends on the level of innovation capabilities....

  5. Novel designs of nanometric parity preserving reversible compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaei, Soghra; Haghparast, Majid

    2014-08-01

    Reversible logic is a new field of study that has applications in optical information processing, low power CMOS design, DNA computing, bioinformatics, and nanotechnology. Low power consumption is a basic issue in VLSI circuits today. To prevent the distribution of errors in the quantum circuit, the reversible logic gates must be converted into fault-tolerant quantum operations. Parity preserving is used to realize fault tolerant in this circuits. This paper proposes a new parity preserving reversible gate. We named it NPPG gate. The most significant aspect of the NPPG gate is that it can be used to produce parity preserving reversible full adder circuit. The proposed parity preserving reversible full adder using NPPG gate is more efficient than the existing designs in term of quantum cost and it is optimized in terms of number of constant inputs and garbage outputs. Compressors are of importance in VLSI and digital signal processing applications. Effective VLSI compressors reduce the impact of carry propagation of arithmetic operations. They are built from the full adder blocks. We also proposed three new approaches of parity preservation reversible 4:2 compressor circuits. The third design is better than the previous two in terms of evaluation parameters. The important contributions have been made in the literature toward the design of reversible 4:2 compressor circuits; however, there are not efforts toward the design of parity preservation reversible 4:2 compressor circuits. All the scales are in the nanometric criteria.

  6. Winning Cores in Parity Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the novel notion of winning cores in parity games and develop a deterministic polynomial-time under-approximation algorithm for solving parity games based on winning core approximation. Underlying this algorithm are a number properties about winning cores which are interesting...... in their own right. In particular, we show that the winning core and the winning region for a player in a parity game are equivalently empty. Moreover, the winning core contains all fatal attractors but is not necessarily a dominion itself. Experimental results are very positive both with respect to quality...

  7. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  8. Cooperative Purchasing Reduces Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Edwin J.

    1981-01-01

    Several suburban Chicago (Illinois) school districts are members of the South Suburban School Purchasing Cooperative, which serves as a conduit for volume purchases of educational supplies. (Author/MLF)

  9. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  10. New purchase conditions by EDF, of the electrical power produced by the energy valorization installations of domestic wastes and assimilated; Nouvelles conditions d'achat par EDF de l'electricite produite par les installations de valorisation energetique des dechets managers et assimiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The State Secretary for the Industry, C. Pierret, approved the new purchase conditions by EDF, concerning the electric power, produced by the installations of domestic wastes energy valorization. This action is in agreement with the energy policy. The purchase conditions are presented and commented. (A.L.B.)

  11. Revolution through electronic purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Lamming, R.C.; Grickus, I.

    1998-01-01

    Automation is finding its way in the world of purchasing. This development could evoke dramatic effects in the long term, not only on purchasing but even on the market place itself. Nowadays, EDI and CD-ROM are examples of automation applications that purchasing departments use frequently. Internet

  12. Purchase influence attempts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Children have an important influence on a variety of purchasing decisions, with respect to both child-related purchases such as toys, snacks, or sweets and everyday household purchases such as breakfast products and desserts. As children grow older, they even gain a say in their parents' choice of r

  13. 计入电力系统可靠性与购电风险的峰谷分时电价模型%A Peak-Valley TOU Price Model Considering Power System Reliability and Power Purchase Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沧杨; 胡博; 谢开贵; 万凌云; 向彬

    2014-01-01

    Under the environment of power market, according the customers’ demand response to multi interval electricity prices and based on the equilibrium relationship between power supply and its elastic demand a price elasticity matrix under peak-valley time-of-use(TOU) price is derived to reflect consumers’ response to the variation of electricity price. On this basis, taking the maximized revenue of grid corporation as objective function and considering the constraint of reliability, power purchase risk, network loss and so on, a peak-valley TOU price model is built. Through adjusting TOU price, the built model can achieve following aims such as improving power supply reliability of power grid, reduce outage cost, increasing the revenue of power grid corporation and decreasing the power purchase risk, thus a win-win situation of consumers and grid corporation can be attained. To accelerate the update rate of reliability index during the solution of the built model, a cubic spline interpolation model is established to describe power grid reliability varying with load level. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of above-mentioned models, simulation of IEEE RTS -79 is carried out, and the improved effect of load curve under peak-valley TOU price as well as the outage cost and variation of power grid corporation are further analyzed.%在电力市场环境下,针对需求侧用户的多时段电价响应,基于电力供给与电力弹性需求平衡关系推导了峰谷分时电价下的电量电价弹性矩阵,以反映用户对电价变化的响应过程。在此基础上,以电网经营企业收益最大化为目标函数,计入可靠性约束、购电风险和线路损耗等,建立了峰谷分时电价模型。该模型通过分时电价的调节即可达到提高电网供电可靠性、减少停电损失,同时增加电网经营企业收益、降低购电风险的目的,使用户和电网经营企业达到双赢。为提高模型求解过

  14. Little Higgs models and parity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maxim Perelstein

    2006-11-01

    Little Higgs models are an interesting extension of the Standard Model at the TeV scale. They provide a simple and attractive mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. We review one of the simplest models of this class, the Littlest Higgs model, and its extension with parity. The model with parity satisfies precision electroweak constraints without fine-tuning, contains an attractive dark matter candidate, and leads to interesting phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  15. Parity violation and neutrino mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Besides the fact of parity violation in weak interactions, based on evidences from neutrino oscillation and tritium beta decay, a natural conjecture is hat neutrinos may be spacelike particles with a tiny proper mass. A Dirac-type equation for spacelike neutrinos is further investigated and its solutions are discussed. This equation can be written in two spinor equations coupled together via nonzero proper mass while respecting maximum parity violation.

  16. Solving Parity Games on Integer Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz; Mayr, Richard; Sangnier, Arnaud; Sproston, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    We consider parity games on infinite graphs where configurations are represented by control-states and integer vectors. This framework subsumes two classic game problems: parity games on vector addition systems with states (vass) and multidimensional energy parity games. We show that the multidimensional energy parity game problem is inter-reducible with a subclass of single-sided parity games on vass where just one player can modify the integer counters and the opponent can only change contr...

  17. Why does electromagnetism conserve parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, K.S.; Mohapatra, R.N. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The assumption of electrical neutrality of the neutrino in the context of the standard model is shown to explain why electromagnetism conserves parity. We then construct an extension of the standard model where the neutrino has a nonzero but tiny charge. Such theories necessarily imply a parity-violating component in QED and nonconservation of electric charge ({Delta}{ital Q}{ne}0). The strengths of the parity-violating component of QED as well as {Delta}{ital Q}{ne}0 interactions are connected to the nonvanishing neutrino charge {ital Q}{sub {nu}} which is shown to be bounded by {ital Q}{sub {nu}}{le}10{sup {minus}28}{ital e} in the context of these models.

  18. Chirality and gravitational parity violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargueño, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented.

  19. 购买力平价理论在人民币汇率预测中的应用%Purchase Power Parity in the Forecasting of RMB Exchange Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立本; 罗士勋

    2005-01-01

    购买力平价理论是汇率预测的重要方法.应用协整理论对人民币/美元汇率的购买力平价形式进行检验可以发现,购买力平价理论一定时期内在人民币汇率上不成立.应用神经网络技术构造的非线性协整检验,结果显示其预测的效果要明显优于随机游动模型.因此可以认为在引入了非线性的机制后,基于汇率理论的结构式模型在预测汇率变化的能力上有所提高.

  20. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Li, Ren; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro-resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  1. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-01-11

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  2. Interactive Purchasing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper introduces a new class of interactive cooperative purchasing situations and provides an explicit alternative characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games, which offers an alternative to Kohlberg (1971). In our cooperative purchasing situation, the unit price of a commo

  3. Collective purchase behavior toward retail price changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-02-01

    By analyzing a huge amount of point-of-sale data collected from Japanese supermarkets, we find power law relationships between price and sales numbers. The estimated values of the exponents of these power laws depend on the category of products; however, they are independent of the stores, thereby implying the existence of universal human purchase behavior. The rate of sales numbers around these power laws are generally approximated by log-normal distributions implying that there are hidden random parameters, which might proportionally affect the purchase activity.

  4. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-06-01

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  5. Input-output, expandable-parity network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckevitt, J. F., III

    1974-01-01

    Large-scale integrated circuit generates and checks parity of four eight-bit registers. In addition, circuit will indicate by output signal whether parity error exists. Circuit can also generate or check parity of words up to 32 bits. This is done by making appropriate internal wiring connections on the large-scale integrated chip.

  6. Factor investing with risk parity portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Pantchev, V. (Vekil)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This thesis investigates factor investing and risk parity methods by constructing seven risk parity portfolios. We find that both single-factor portfolios and multi-factor risk parity portfolios outperform the market and our benchmarks. The methods produce higher absolute returns and better risk-adjusted returns with lower volatilities and drawdown...

  7. Report about the purchase of electric power by local authorities. Report from the expertise group (August 11, 2004 version); Rapport sur l'achat d'electricite par les collectivites locales. Rapport du groupe d'expertise (version du 11 aout 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The coexistence of both a regulated and a free gas and electricity market leads to a particular situation where public people can launch a call for bids procedure and stop it at any time, in particular if the de-regulated price becomes greater than the regulated one. This report from a working group of experts presents: the electricity purchase and competition (identification of sites concerned by the enforcement of competition and public markets right, towards the abandonment of the 'eligibility declaration' procedure); the general saving linked with power purchase contracts of eligible clients (synopsis of power demand contracts, grid access contracts, power supply contracts and balance contracts); enforcement of the public markets law to the electricity purchase for the supply of eligible town or inter-town sites, and intervention of public cooperation companies in the regrouping of these purchases (determination of market entering modalities and of the contractual framework applicable to these power purchases, advantage and modalities of purchases regrouping under a public cooperation company); document types; glossary. (J.S.)

  8. Quantum Circuits Fanout, Parity and Counting

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher

    1999-01-01

    We propose definitions of QAC^0, the quantum analog of the classical class AC^0 of constant-depth circuits with AND and OR gates of arbitrary fan-in, and QACC^0[q], where n-ary Mod-q gates are also allowed. We show that it is possible to make a `cat' state on n qubits in constant depth if and only if we can construct a parity or Mod-2 gate in constant depth; therefore, any circuit class that can fan out a qubit to n copies in constant depth also includes QACC^0[2]. In addition, we prove the somewhat surprising result that parity or fanout allows us to construct Mod-q gates in constant depth for any q, so QACC^0[2] = QACC^0. Since ACC^0[p] != ACC^0[q] whenever p and q are mutually prime, QACC^0[2] is strictly more powerful than its classical counterpart, as is QAC^0 when fanout is allowed.

  9. Purchasing practices in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Bagchi, Prabir K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a knowledge and understanding of purchasing practices of SMEs in Denmark. The paper is based on the results from a survey among 94 Danish SMEs, mainly within machinery, electronics and electrical, transportation equipment, and medical equipment industries......, and the type of supplier relationships. Finally, the formal position of purchasing in the organization is presented. Here the findings confirm the conventional wisdom that most purchasing employees are without a formal, higher education, and that most of the time is spent on routine transactions. Based...

  10. Parity violation in ternary fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönnenwein, F.; Belozerov, A. V.; Beda, A. G.; Burov, S. I.; Danilyan, G. V.; Martem'yanov, A. N.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shchenev, V. A.; Bondarenko, L. N.; Mostovoĭ, Yu. A.; Geltenbort, P.; Last, J.; Schreckenbach, K.

    1994-01-01

    The parity-violating correlation between incoming neutron spin and fragment momentum has been measured simultaneously for binary and ternary fission of 233U(n, f) and 239Pu(n, f). The experiment has been performed with a polarized cold neutron beam of the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble/France. The ratios of the parity-violating asymmetry coefficients, α ternf and α binnf, for ternary and binary fission, respectively, are found to be {α ternf}/{α binnf = 1.05 ± 0.10 } and 1.12 ± 0.08 for the 233U and 239Pu target nucleus, respectively. Both experiments are compatible with {α ternf}/{α binnf = 1 }. The implications of this result for models of ternary fission are discussed. The conclusion drawn is that ternary particles are emitted at the very last stage of fission.

  11. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability...... to apply leverage. Risk parity portfolios exploit this opportunity by equalizing the risk allocation across asset classes, thus overweighting safer assets relative to their weight in the market portfolio....

  12. [Ash Meadows Purchase Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A proposal sent to the Richard King Mellon Foundation for a loan to fund the purchase of Ash Meadows by the Nature Conservancy. Ash Meadows, set outside of Las Vegas...

  13. Exploring Online Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Examines the setup of American University's electronic procurement system and explains how it works and the benefits it brings to the school. Cautionary advice on setting up an online purchasing system is also offered. (GR)

  14. Employee Stock Purchase Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gary V. Engelhardt; Brigitte C. Madrian

    2004-01-01

    Employee stock purchase plans (ESPPs) are designed to promote employee stock ownership broadly within the firm and provide another tax-deferred vehicle for individual capital accumulation in addition to traditional pensions, 401(k...

  15. 78 FR 39280 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Purchased Power Adder (PPA), produces revenues which are segregated to cover the cost of power purchased to...'s purchased power needs on an average annual basis. The PPA rate will decrease slightly to reflect the declining average cost of purchasing power over the period applied to our projected power needs...

  16. The economic inefficiency of grid parity. The case of German photovoltaics in scenarios until 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegemann, Cosima; Hagspiel, Simeon; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics

    2012-07-01

    Due to massive reductions in the price for photovoltaic (PV) systems, PV grid parity has recently been reached for German households. As PV system prices continue to decrease, the gap between the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) of PV and the retail electricity tariff will grow and trigger investments in residential PV systems for captive electricity generation - even in the absence of any direct financial incentives such as solar power feed-in tariffs. However, while the single household can lower its annual electricity costs through investments in rooftop PV systems for captive electricity generation, the partial optimization of the single household is inefficient from an economic perspective. Households optimize their PV investment by comparing the LCOE of PV to the residential electricity tariff that includes network tariffs, taxes, levies and other surcharges that can be avoided when consuming self-produced PV electricity instead of purchasing electricity from the grid. Therefore, private investments in rooftop PV systems receive an indirect financial incentive in the current regulatory environment. This paper analyzes the consequences of PV grid parity in Germany until 2030 from both the single household and the wholesale market perspective. We find that exempting self-consumed PV electricity from all additional charges induces significant investments in rooftop PV systems and small scale storage systems, allowing for high shares of in-house PV electricity consumption. From the single household perspective, the optimal PV and storage system capacities increase with the number of residents living in the household, enabling households to cover on average 72 % of their annual electricity demand by self-produced PV electricity. The single households's optimization behavior entails direct consequences for the wholesale market, as it changes the residual load both in volume and structure. The inefficiency caused by the partial optimization of single

  17. Predicting Online Purchasing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    W.R BUCKINX; D. VAN DEN POEL

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the contribution of different types of predictors to the purchasing behaviour at an online store. We use logit modelling to predict whether or not a purchase is made during the next visit to the website using both forward and backward variable-selection techniques, as well as Furnival and Wilson’s global score search algorithm to find the best subset of predictors. We contribute to the literature by using variables from four different categories in predicting...

  18. Self-Pay Purchase Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, C. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Calgary Board of Education has successfully operated a self-pay purchase order system to reduce the handling costs for small dollar purchases. A self-pay purchase order is basically a purchase order with a limited-amount check attached. Four exhibits illustrate the system and summarize the procedures. (MLF)

  19. The parity-preserving massive QED3: Vanishing β-function and no parity anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Del Cima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The parity-preserving massive QED3 exhibits vanishing gauge coupling β-function and is parity and infrared anomaly free at all orders in perturbation theory. Parity is not an anomalous symmetry, even for the parity-preserving massive QED3, in spite of some claims about the possibility of a perturbative parity breakdown, called parity anomaly. The proof is done by using the algebraic renormalization method, which is independent of any regularization scheme, based on general theorems of perturbative quantum field theory.

  20. A Multi-Period Electricity Purchasing Model for Power Supply Company%基于时变Copula的供电公司多期购电组合优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗益; 亢娅丽; 郭兴磊

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the power supply company's electricity purchasing problems in an open market ( e. g. medium and long-term contract market and spot market) where power can be freely traded. Owing to the high volatility of electricity price, the power supply company must purchase electricity from different markets to spread price risk based on financial investment portfolio theory. Most of previous literatures mainly research ona power supply company's single-phase decision-making process. However, the decision-making process is a typical multi-phase problem. As the decision made in one stage may influence the decision and profit in the next stage, we need to consider the multi-phase circumstance in order to optimize the risk of accumulated return. It is important to estimate and simulate the loss distribution function of asset portfolio when measuring the risk of accumulated return since the relationships among multiple variables are characterized by their joint distribution. Therefore, we need to carefully analyze the correlation between electric assets before considering the power market's portfolio strategy. Most of the previous literatures assert that price sequence follows a normal distribution and measures the correlation between electric power assets using linear correlation coefficient. Other studies show that thick tail and heteroscedasticity are typical phenomena in the price return series data. This strong nonlinear characteristic between power assets makes it difficult to use linear correlation coefficient to properly describe their relationships. Fortunately, Copula function can be used to describe the non-linear correlation structure between assets. Based on the above analysis, we establish amulti-phase power purchasing model which takes the maximum expected accumulated return and the minimum risk measured by dynamic coherent risk function as objectives. We adopt the time-variation SJC Copula -(GARCH-T, GARCH-GED) model to fit and simulate a series

  1. 75 FR 60745 - Availability of the Bonneville Purchasing Instructions (BPI) and Bonneville Financial Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Availability of the Bonneville Purchasing Instructions (BPI) and Bonneville... of document availability. SUMMARY: Copies of the Bonneville Purchasing Instructions (BPI),...

  2. General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Fergusson, James R

    2014-01-01

    We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains ($\\ell_1 + \\ell_2 + \\ell_3 = {\\rm odd}$). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.

  3. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Fergusson, James R

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: $\\ell_1 + \\ell_2 + \\ell_3 = {\\rm odd}$. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  4. Parity violation in the CMB trispectrum from the scalar sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke

    2016-10-01

    Under the existence of chiral non-Gaussian sources during inflation, the trispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations can break parity. We examine signatures of the induced trispectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. It is confirmed via a harmonic-space analysis that, as a consequence of parity violation, such a CMB trispectrum has nonvanishing signal in the ℓ1+ℓ2+ℓ3+ℓ4=odd domain, which is prohibited in the concordance cosmology. When the curvature trispectrum is parametrized with Legendre polynomials, the CMB signal due to the Legendre dipolar term is enhanced at the squeezed configurations in ℓ space, yielding a high signal-to-noise ratio. A Fisher matrix computation results in a minimum detectable size of the dipolar coefficient in a cosmic-variance-limited-level temperature survey as d1odd=640 . In an inflationary model where the inflaton field couples to the gauge field via an f (ϕ )(F2+F F ˜) interaction, the curvature trispectrum contains such a parity-odd dipolar term. We find that, in this model, the CMB trispectrum yields a high signal-to-noise ratio compared with the CMB power spectrum or bispectrum. Therefore, the ℓ1+ℓ2+ℓ3+ℓ4=odd signal could be a promising observable of cosmological parity violation.

  5. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Gijs; Pol,, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES) and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improved the translation from specification to PBES to preserve the structure of the specification in the PBES, we extended LTSmin to instantiate PBESs to symbolic parity games, and implemented the recur...

  6. MDPs with Energy-Parity Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Richard; Schewe, Sven; Totzke, Patrick; Wojtczak, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Energy-parity objectives combine $\\omega$-regular with quantitative objectives of reward MDPs. The controller needs to avoid to run out of energy while satisfying a parity objective. We refute the common belief that, if an energy-parity objective holds almost-surely, then this can be realised by some finite memory strategy. We provide a surprisingly simple counterexample that only uses coB\\"uchi conditions. We introduce the new class of bounded (energy) storage objectives that, when combined ...

  7. Flavor origin of R-parity

    OpenAIRE

    Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Vicente, Avelino(IFPA, Dep. AGO, Université de Liège, Bat B5, Sart-Tilman, 4000 , Liège 1, Belgium)

    2013-01-01

    Proton stability is guaranteed in the MSSM by assuming a discrete symmetry, R-parity. However, there are additional R-parity conserving higher dimensional operators which violate lepton and baryon numbers and induce fast proton decay. Here we study the possibility that all renormalizable, as well as the most dangerous non-renormalizable, R-parity violating operators are forbidden by a flavor symmetry, providing a common origin for fermion mixing and proton and dark matter stability. We propos...

  8. A Radio Frequency Charge Parity Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Schroer, M. D.; Jung, M.; Petersson, K. D.; Petta, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a total charge parity measurement by detecting the radio frequency signal that is reflected by a lumped element resonator coupled to a single InAs nanowire double quantum dot. The high frequency response of the circuit is used to probe the effects of the Pauli exclusion principle at interdot charge transitions. Even parity charge transitions show a striking magnetic field dependence that is due to a singlet-triplet transition, while odd parity transitions are relatively insensi...

  9. Quaternionic formulation of the exact parity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumby, S.P.; Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R.

    1996-02-28

    The exact parity model (EPM) is a simple extension of the standard model which reinstates parity invariance as an unbroken symmetry of nature. The mirror matter sector of the model can interact with ordinary matter through gauge boson mixing, Higgs boson mixing and, if neutrinos are massive, through neutrino mixing. The last effect has experimental support through the observed solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. In the paper it is shown that the exact parity model can be formulated in a quaternionic framework. This suggests that the idea of mirror matter and exact parity may have profound implications for the mathematical formulation of quantum theory. 13 refs.

  10. 考虑单位购电成本变动的风电场出力偏差约束%Constraint of Wind Farm's Output Deviation Considering Change in Power Purchase Unit Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泓泽; 王宝; 郭森; 苏晨博

    2013-01-01

    为将风电场出力存在偏差时电网公司单位购电成本变化量控制在可接受的范围内,有必要确定其最大变动范围.本文通过构建含风电场的优化调度模型,并借助于原对偶内点算法对其求解,定量识别了风电场出力存在偏差时电网公司单位购电成本变化量及其主要影响因素,进而基于回归分析方法测度了风电场出力偏差幅度的最大变动范围.算例结果验证了该方法的合理性和有效性.%According to the output deviation of wind farm,it is necessary to determine its maximum change range to constrain the change in Grid Company's power purchase unit cost within the acceptable range.This paper quantitatively identifies the change in Grid Company's power purchase unit cost as well as its main influencing factors when wind farm has output deviation by establishing an optimal dispatching model with wind farm considered and applying the primal-dual interior point algorithm to its solving.Subsequently,the maximum change range of wind farm's output deviation is measured on the basis of regression analysis.The results of test example demonstrate the rationality and validity of the proposed method.

  11. Derivation of Dark Matter Parity from Lepton Parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    It is shown that in extensions of the standard model of quarks and leptons where the additive lepton number L is broken by two units, so that Z_{2} lepton parity, i.e., (-1)L which is either even or odd, remains exactly conserved, there is the possibility of stable dark matter without additional symmetry. This applies to many existing simple models of Majorana neutrino mass with dark matter, including some radiative models. Several well-known examples are discussed. This new insight leads to the construction of a radiative type II seesaw model of neutrino mass with dark matter where the dominant decay of the doubly charged Higgs boson ξ++ is into W+W+ instead of the expected li+lj+ lepton pairs for the well-known tree-level model.

  12. Bicycle Purchaser Training Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, William

    A course was developed to provide data to buyers of new bicycles so they could make an informed decision about their purchases. The instructional systems design process (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) was used to analyze the need for a training course on buying and fitting a bicycle. Information was collected…

  13. Tightening Home Purchase Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    More Chinese cities will limit home purchase to cool the red-hot real estate market In June 2011,the average house price in 100 Chinese cities was 8,856 yuan ($1,373)per square meter.Of these cities,house prices in 75 of them increased

  14. Inventory Control and Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mason

    1981-01-01

    An inventory control system stimulates competitive bidding, resulting in the best price for an item. Other cost savings can be achieved by specifying prepayment of freight charges by the successful bidder, seeking standardization of products, and purchasing jointly with nearby municipalities and school districts. (Author/MLF)

  15. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Gijs; Pol, van de Jaco

    2014-01-01

    We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES) and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improv

  16. A New Parity Formula: Triple T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Richard F.

    Triple T, a graduate project to educate (train) teacher trainers, allows participants to view the schools as a total system and gives educators a means of training people to change that system. It offers an opportunity to develop an alternative means for graduate education. An important element in this program is parity. While parity is more a…

  17. A reincarnation of R-parity

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, P B

    1998-01-01

    In supersymmetric theories, R-parity is defined in a way such that it does not commute with the space-time symmetries. We show that, in general sypersymmetric models, one can define a discrete symmetry which commutes with all space-time and gauge symmetries, and whose phenomenological implications are equivalent to those of R-parity.

  18. Parity Violation in Graviton Non-gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Soda, Jiro; Nozawa, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We study parity violation in graviton non-gaussianity generated during inflation. We develop a useful formalism to calculate graviton non-gaussianity. Using this formalism, we explicitly calculate the parity violating part of the bispectrum for primordial gravitational waves in the exact de Sitter spacetime and prove that no parity violation appears in the non-gaussianity. We also extend the analysis to slow-roll inflation and find that the parity violation of the bispectrum is proportional to the slow-roll parameter. We argue that parity violating non-gaussianity can be tested by the CMB. Our results are also useful for calculating three-point function of the stress tensor in the non-conformal field theory through the gravity/field theory correspondence.

  19. High parity and fetal morbidity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Salihu, Hamisu M; Keith, Louis G; Ehiri, John E; Islam, M Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the association between high parity and fetal morbidity outcomes. We analyzed 22,463,141 singleton deliveries at 20 weeks or more of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000. Adjusted odds ratios generated from logistic regression models were used to approximate relative risk for neonatal morbidity in women with 1-4 (moderate parity or type I; referent group), 5-9 (high parity or type II), 10-14 (very high parity or type III) and 15 or more (extremely high parity or type IV) prior live births. Main outcome measures included low and very low birth weight, preterm and very preterm birth, and small and large for gestational age delivery. The overall crude rates for low birth weight, very low birth weight, preterm birth, very preterm birth, and small and large for gestational age were 55, 11, 97, 19, 83, and 129 per 1,000 live births, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for low birth weight, very low birth weight, preterm, and very preterm delivery increased consistently and in a dose-effect fashion with ascending parity (P for trend < .001). In the case of large for gestational age delivery, the adjusted odds ratio showed an inverted-U pattern, being highest among women in the type III parity cluster. The findings with respect to small for gestational age were inconclusive. High parity is a risk factor for adverse fetal outcomes. However, the impact of heightened parity is more manifest as shortened gestation rather than physical size restriction. These findings could prove beneficial for counseling women of high parity.

  20. HDL Implementation of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC Decoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawandip Kaur

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC codes are one of the most promising error-correcting codes approaching Shannon capacity and have been adopted in many applications. These codes offer huge advantages in terms of coding gain, throughput and power dissipation. Error correction algorithms are often implemented in hardware for fast processing to meet the real-time needs of communication systems. However hardwareimplementation of LDPC decoders using traditional Hardware Description Language (HDL based approach is a complex and time consuming task. In this paper HDL Implementation of Low Density Parity Check Decoder architecture is presented with different rates i.e. 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 4/7, 8/9, 9/10 and variable data lengths i.e. 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 bits and consequent changeable precision factor.

  1. 大规模风电接入下含大用户直购电的电力系统调度模型研究%An Analysis Model of Power System With Large-scale Wind Power and Transaction Mode of Direct Power Purchase by Large Consumers Involved in System Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文韬; 王秀丽; 吴雄; 姚力

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Large-scale integration of wind power makes the peak regulation become more and more complex. At the same time, the influence on power system by carrying out the transaction mode of direct power purchase by large consumers is still urgently needed to research because this transaction mode is a key link of innovation in electric power market to introduce competition in the retail side. Therefore, depending on the attention degree of wind power the decision makers pay, two system scheduling models with this transaction mode involved in were set up. Those were comprehensive benefits priority scheduling model and wind power priority scheduling model. These two models both aimed to maximum the expected profit of power generation system considering the randomness of the wind power output. Then auto-regressive and moving average (ARMA) model and Monte Carlo technique were taken to simulate a large number of wind power scenarios, and scenario reduction algorithm is developed to get a finite number of representative scenarios. Also, peak and valley time price was considered and mixed integer programming technique were used to obtain the operational aspects of every unit and the arrangement of the power directly purchased by the large consumers in all scenarios. What’s more, the economic and running benefits of this transaction mode could also be calculated using above methods. Test system is used to verify the rationality and feasibility of the proposed models and algorithm.%大规模风电的接入使得电力系统的调峰问题愈发复杂。与此同时,作为电力市场改革进程中开放售电侧竞争的重要环节,开展大用户直购电对系统调度与运行的影响仍亟待研究。对此,依据决策者对于风电重视程度的不同建立两种包含大用户直购电的调度模型,分别为风电效益权衡模型和风电优先调度模型。模型均以最大化发电系统运行期望效益为目标,

  2. Revisiting purchasing competence - In a project context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    2015-01-01

    purchasing and competences required undertaking these activities. Four overall purchasing competence areas were identified. Hence, four propositions related to the purchasing competence were developed by iteratively combining elements from the purchasing literature with an empirical inquiry in an offshore...

  3. The "Parity" Anomaly On An Unorientable Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The "parity" anomaly -- more accurately described as an anomaly in time-reversal or reflection symmetry -- arises in certain theories of fermions coupled to gauge fields and/or gravity in a spacetime of odd dimension. The "parity" anomaly has traditionally been studied on orientable manifolds only, but recent developments involving topological superconductors have made it clear that one can get more information by asking what happens on an unorientable manifold. In this paper, we analyze the "parity" anomaly for fermions coupled to gauge fields and gravity in $2+1$ dimensions. We consider applications to gapped boundary states of a topological superconductor and to M2-branes in string/M-theory.

  4. Flavor origin of R-parity

    CERN Document Server

    Morisi, S; Vicente, A

    2013-01-01

    Proton stability is guaranteed in the MSSM by assuming a discrete symmetry, R-parity. However, there are additional R-parity conserving higher dimensional operators which violate lepton and baryon numbers and induce fast proton decay. Here we study the possibility that all renormalizable, as well as the most dangerous non-renormalizable, R-parity violating operators are forbidden by a flavor symmetry, providing a common origin for fermion mixing and proton and dark matter stability. We propose a specific model based on the Delta(27) discrete symmetry.

  5. Local Strategy Improvement for Parity Game Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Friedmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of solving a parity game is at the core of many problems in model checking, satisfiability checking and program synthesis. Some of the best algorithms for solving parity game are strategy improvement algorithms. These are global in nature since they require the entire parity game to be present at the beginning. This is a distinct disadvantage because in many applications one only needs to know which winning region a particular node belongs to, and a witnessing winning strategy may cover only a fractional part of the entire game graph. We present a local strategy improvement algorithm which explores the game graph on-the-fly whilst performing the improvement steps. We also compare it empirically with existing global strategy improvement algorithms and the currently only other local algorithm for solving parity games. It turns out that local strategy improvement can outperform these others by several orders of magnitude.

  6. Parity violation in few-nucleon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Parity-violating interactions between nucleons are the manifestation of an interplay between strong and weak quark-quark interactions at the hadronic level. Because of the short range of the weak interactions, these parity-violating forces provide a unique probe of low-energy strong interactions. In addition, a better understanding of parity violation in nuclei could also shed light on problems in the hadronic weak interactions involving strange quarks. An ongoing experimental program is mapping out the weak component of the nuclear force in few-nucleon systems. Recent theoretical progress in analyzing and interpreting hadronic parity violation in such systems, based on effective field theory methods, will be described. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  7. Parity Measurements, Decoherence and Spiky Wigner Functions

    CERN Document Server

    D'Almeida, A M O

    2003-01-01

    Notwithstanding radical conceptual differences between classical and quantum mechanics, it is usually assumed that physical measurements concern observables common to both theories . Not so with the eigenvalues ($\\pm 1$) of the parity operator. The effect of such a measurement on a mixture of even and odd states of the harmonic oscillator is akin to separating at a single stroke a pair of shuffled card decks: the result is a set of definite parity, though otherwise mixed. The Wigner function should be a sensitive probe for this phenomenon, for it can be interpreted as the expectation value of the parity operator. We here derive the general form of Wigner functions $W_{\\pm}$, resulting from an ideal parity measurement on $W(\\x)$. Even if $W(\\x)$ resembles a classical distribution, $W_{\\pm}$ displays a quantum spike, which is positive for $W_+$ and negative for $W_-$. However we conjecture that $W_+$ always has negative values.

  8. Polarized protons and parity violating asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueman, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for utilizing parity violating effects, associated with polarized protons, to study the standard model, proton structure, and new physics at the SPS Collider is summarized. 24 references.

  9. Testing R-parity with geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang-Hui [Department of Mathematics, City University, London,Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); School of Physics, NanKai University,94 Weijin Road, Tianjin, 300071 (China); Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Jejjala, Vishnu [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, and School of Physics,University of the Witwatersrand,1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Matti, Cyril [Department of Mathematics, City University, London,Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, and School of Physics,University of the Witwatersrand,1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Nelson, Brent D. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University,360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    We present a complete classification of the vacuum geometries of all renormalizable superpotentials built from the fields of the electroweak sector of the MSSM. In addition to the Severi and affine Calabi-Yau varieties previously found, new vacuum manifolds are identified; we thereby investigate the geometrical implication of theories which display a manifest matter parity (or R-parity) via the distinction between leptonic and Higgs doublets, and of the lepton number assignment of the right-handed neutrino fields. We find that the traditional R-parity assignments of the MSSM more readily accommodate the neutrino see-saw mechanism with non-trivial geometry than those superpotentials that violate R-parity. However there appears to be no geometrical preference for a fundamental Higgs bilinear in the superpotential, with operators that violate lepton number, such as νHH̄, generating vacuum moduli spaces equivalent to those with a fundamental bilinear.

  10. Nuclear Parity Violation from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Thorsten; Rinaldi, Enrico; Vranas, Pavlos; Nicholson, Amy; Strother, Mark; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The electroweak interaction at the level of quarks and gluons are well understood from precision measurements in high energy collider experiments. Relating these fundamental parameters to Hadronic Parity Violation in nuclei however remains an outstanding theoretical challenge. One of the most interesting observables in this respect is the parity violating hadronic neutral current: it is hard to measure in collider experiments and is thus the least constrained observable of the Standard Model. Precision measurements of parity violating transitions in nuclei can help to improve these constraints. In these systems however, the weak interaction is masked by effects of the seven orders of magnitude stronger non-perturbative strong interaction. Therefore, in order to relate experimental measurements of the parity violating pion-nucleon couplings to the fundamental Lagrangian of the SM, these non-perturbative effects have to be well understood. In this paper, we are going to present a Lattice QCD approach for comput...

  11. Individual and Group Dynamics in Purchasing Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Lei; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2010-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is of constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behaviors of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchasing orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plot. It's found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and t...

  12. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  13. Polarizing primordial gravitational waves by parity violation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Anzhong; Zhao, Wen; Zhu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    We study primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) in the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) theory of quantum gravity, in which high-order spatial derivative terms, including the ones violating parity, generically appear in order to be UV complete. Because of the parity violation and non-adiabatic evolution, a large polarization of PGWs becomes possible, and it could be well within the range of detection for the forthcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations.

  14. Leptogenesis from R parity non-conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambye, T. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Ma, E. [Riverside Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sarkar, U. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India)

    2000-07-01

    It is known that realistic neutrino masses for neutrino oscillations may be obtained from R parity nonconserving supersymmetry. It is also known that such interactions would erase any preexisting lepton or baryon asymmetry of the Universe because of the inevitable intervention of the electroweak sphalerons. It is showed how a crucial subset of these R parity nonconserving terms may in fact create its own successful leptogenesis.

  15. Flavored bilinear R-parity violation

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzocchi, F; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F; Vicente, A

    2012-01-01

    Bilinear R-parity violation (BRPV) provides the simplest intrinsically supersymmetric neutrino mass generation scheme. While neutrino mixing parameters can be probed in high energy accelerators, they are unfortunately not predicted by the theory. Here we propose a model based on the discrete flavor symmetry $A_4$ with a single R-parity violating parameter, leading to maximal atmospheric mixing and a small but nonzero reactor angle, in agreement with experiment.

  16. Controlled quantum state transfer via parity measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this work,a scheme for controlled quantum state transfer is proposed using parity measurement in a cavity-waveguide system.As two special cases,two schemes of controlled quantum state transfer for one qubit and two qubits are investigated in detail.An important advantage is that controlled quantum state transfer can be completed by single-qubit rotations and the measurement of parity.Therefore,the present scheme might be realized in the scope of current experimental technology.

  17. Controlled quantum state transfer via parity measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Quan; LI JiuHui

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a scheme for controlled quantum state transfer is proposed using parity measurement in a cavity-waveguide system. As two special cases, two schemes of controlled quantum state transfer for one qubit and two qubits are investigated in detail. An important advantage is that controlled quantum state transfer can be completed by single-qubit rotations and the measurement of parity. Therefore, the present scheme might be realized in the scope of current experimental technology.

  18. Reproductive performance of second parity sows: relations with subsequent reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, L.L.; Soede, N.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Feitsma, H.; Kemp, B.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine relations between reproductive performance, i.e. being a repeat breeder and litter size, in 2nd parity and reproductive performance in later parities. In addition, relations between the 1st and 2nd parity litter size and litter size in later parities were

  19. Parity-dependent non-commutative quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) with parity (or space reflection) in two dimensions. Using the parity operators Ri, we construct the deformed Heisenberg algebra with parity in the non-commutative plane. We use this algebra to discuss the isotropic harmonic Hamiltonian with parity.

  20. ISSUES RELATING TO PURCHASE AND POST PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    DR. M. SAKTHIVEL MURUGAN AND R.M.SHANTHI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Consumer is the king and it is the consumer who determines what a business is. The wealth of products and services produced in a country make our economy strong. Almost all the products have a number of alternative supplies and the consumer should make a decision to buy products of a particular brand. Consumers make two types of purchases. Trial purchase and repeat purchases. If a consumer is induced to purchase for the first time, a smaller quantity than usual and with certain degr...

  1. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  2. Effect of live weight development and reproduction in first parity on reproductive performance of second parity sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, L.L.; Soede, N.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Feitsma, H.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    An impaired reproductive performance in second parity compared to first parity sows, decreases reproductive efficiency and, perhaps, longevity of sows. This study aims to quantify the effect of live weight development and reproduction in first parity on reproductive performance of second parity

  3. What tell us LHC data about Higgs boson parity

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, I F

    2016-01-01

    Recently CMS and ATLAS announced that they had measured the Higgs boson parity. Here we note that their approach can determine this parity only under the additional assumption that this particle has a definite parity. If parity conservation is violated in the Higgs sector, the parity of observed "Higgs" boson does not exist. The approach used in the mentioned experiments does not allow to observe such opportunity. In this sense titles of mentioned CMS and ATLAS publications are misleading.

  4. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the energy of aquifers or of underground rocks and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to electricity; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie des nappes aquiferes ou des roches souterraines et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  5. Octet negative parity to octet positive parity electromagnetic transitions in light cone QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, T M

    2014-01-01

    Light cone QCD sum rules for the electromagnetic transition form factors among positive and negative parity octet baryons are derived. The unwanted contributions of the diagonal transitions among positive parity octet baryons are eliminated by combining the sum rules derived from different Lorentz structures. The $Q^2$ dependence for the transversal and longitudinal helicity amplitudes are studied.

  6. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION IN PURCHASING PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    de Santis, Rodrigo Barbosa; de Aguiar, Eduardo Pestana; Goliatt, Leonardo .

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Strategic sourcing is an important technique within supply chain management area that allows companies to understand their purchasing portfolio and to better take advantage of their bargain power versus key suppliers, reducing supply risks to an acceptable minimum. The Kraljic portfolio matrix is an important model for evaluating materials and services categoriesin two main aspects: the importance of a particular purchasing and the complexity of the supply market. Although, the clas...

  7. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective-Food Spending Patterns of Low-Income Households: Will Increasing Purchasing Power Result in Healthier Food Choices?

    OpenAIRE

    Frazao, Elizabeth; Andrews, Margaret S.; Smallwood, David M.; Prell, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp Program provides benefits that low-income households can use to purchase food in grocery stores. The rise in obesity has raised the question of whether food stamp participants would purchase more healthy foods, such as fruits and vegetables, if food stamp benefits were higher. This report examines household food spending patterns and how they differ across income levels to provide insight into how participants might change their food spending in response to additional income.

  8. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Kant

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improved the translation from specification to PBES to preserve the structure of the specification in the PBES, we extended LTSmin to instantiate PBESs to symbolic parity games, and implemented the recursive parity game solving algorithm by Zielonka for symbolic parity games. We use Multi-valued Decision Diagrams (MDDs to represent sets and relations, thus enabling the tools to deal with very large systems. The transition relation is partitioned based on the structure of the specification, which allows for efficient manipulation of the MDDs. We performed two case studies on modular specifications, that demonstrate that the new method has better time and memory performance than existing PBES based tools and can be faster (but slightly less memory efficient than the symbolic model checker NuSMV.

  9. Compact-Parity Testing and Testable Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-yi

    2005-01-01

    Parity testing is one of the compact testing techniques,which, traditionally, relies on applying all 2n input combinations to an n-input combinational circuit without need of knowing the implementation of the circuits under test. The faults can be detected just by observing and comparing its parity of whole output of circuit with the expectation one. The way seemed to be less interesting to the test engineers in the past days, mainly due to the reasons of its exhaustive testing and time-consuming, which became a barrier as the number of input lines gets growing. However its great facility and convenience in testing still interest to the engineers who need to have a quick look at the qualities of the circuits without generating the test patterns for a given circuit to be tested. In this paper, a new approach called pseudo-parity testing is presented to deal with the dilemma we are facing: i. e. to change an exhaustive parity testing into a non-exhaustive one, followed by a pseudoparity testable design to help realize the new way of pseudoparity testing. The idea of pseudo-parity testing presented in this paper may resume its spirits towards its promising future.

  10. Moderate-Density Parity-Check Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzan, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new type of short to moderate block-length, linear error-correcting codes, called moderate-density parity-check (MDPC) codes. The number of ones of the parity-check matrix of the codes presented is typically higher than the number of ones of the parity-check matrix of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. But, still lower than those of the parity-check matrix of classical block codes. The proposed MDPC codes are cyclic and are designed by constructing idempotents using cyclotomic cosets. The construction is simple and allows finding short block-length, high-rate codes with good minimum distance. Inspired by some recent iterative soft-input soft-output (SISO) decoders used in a context of classical block codes, we propose a low complexity, efficient, iterative decoder called Auto-Diversity (AD) decoder. AD decoder is based on belief propagation (BP) decoder and takes advantage of the fundamental property of automorphism group of the constructed cyclic code.

  11. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  12. Purchasing practice in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Luitzen; Telgen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The purchasing function is of great importance for the business community as well as for governmental organizations. In industrial companies purchasing already accounts for 60 to 90 percent of total turnover. This share is expected to grow as companies tend to increasingly outsource their non-core a

  13. 12 CFR 925.20 - Stock purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stock purchase. 925.20 Section 925.20 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase... outstanding advances. (b) Timing of minimum stock purchase. (1) Within 60 calendar days after an...

  14. From monopoly price to an economically appropriate renumeration. A competition law and energy industry law analysis for the determination of the purchase price in the competition for power distribution systems; Vom Monopolpreis zur wirtschaftlich angemessenen Verguetung. Eine wettbewerbs- und energiewirtschaftsrechtliche Analyse zur Kaufpreisermittlung im Wettbewerb um Energieverteilnetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachse, Anna Birka Leona

    2013-06-01

    The central question of the competition for power distribution systems is: monopoly price or economically reasonable compensation. The author of the contribution under consideration determines the limits arising from the legally induced system of competition for the grids for the amount of purchase price. The contribution also examines what is meant by a commercially reasonable remuneration in this context. The central question of a proper evaluation method for determining the price of a grid is to be answered.

  15. Observation of Parity Nonconservation in Moller Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony, P L; Arroyo, C; Baird, K G; Bega, K; Biesiada, J; Bosted, P E; Breuer, M; Carr, R; Cates, G D; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Cooke, M; Decker, Franz Josef; Decowski, P; Deur, A; Emam, W; Erickson, R; Fieguth, T; Field, C; Gao, J; Gustafsson, K K; Hicks, R S; Holmes, R; Hughes, E W; Humensky, T B; Jones, G M; Kaufman, L J; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kumar, K S; Lhuillier, D; Lombard-Nelsen, R M; Mastromarino, P; Mayer, B; McKeown, R D; Michaels, R; Olson, M; Paschke, K D; Peterson, G A; Pitthan, R; Pope, K; Relyea, D; Rock, S E; Saxton, O; Shapiro, G; Singh, J; Souder, P A; Szalata, Z M; Tobias, W A; Tonguc, B T; Turner, J; Tweedie, B; Vacheret, A; Walz, D; Weber, T; Weisend, J; Whittum, D H; Woods, M; Younus, I

    2003-01-01

    We report a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Moller) scattering: A_PV = -175 +/- 30 (stat.) +/- 20 (syst.) parts per billion. This first direct observation of parity nonconservation in Moller scattering leads to a measurement of the electron's weak charge at low energy Q^e_W = -0.059 +/- 0.012. This is consistent with the Standard Model expectation at the current level of precision: sin^2\\theta_W(M_Z)_MSbar = 0.2279 +/- 0.0026 (stat.) +/- 0.0018 (syst.) +/- 0.0006 (theory).

  16. On Cuneo's Defence of The Parity Premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J.E. Rutten

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In his book 'The Normative Web' Terence Cuneo provides a core argument for a paradigmatic instance of moral realism. At the heart of this instance lies the ontological thesis that there are irreducible moral facts. The parity premise is the first and main premise of Cuneo's core argument. It claims that 'if moral facts do not exist, then epistemic facts do not exist'. In this paper I first introduce and explain Cuneo's core argument. Subsequently I present and interpret his defence of the parity premise. It will be shown that Cuneo's defence, although intriguing, is not adequate and should therefore be refuted.

  17. Measuring Permissiveness in Parity Games: Mean-Payoff Parity Games Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bouyer, Patricia; Olschewski, Jörg; Ummels, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We study nondeterministic strategies in parity games with the aim of computing a most permissive winning strategy. Following earlier work, we measure permissiveness in terms of the average number/weight of transitions blocked by the strategy. Using a translation into mean-payoff parity games, we prove that the problem of computing (the permissiveness of) a most permissive winning strategy is in NP intersected coNP. Along the way, we provide a new study of mean-payoff parity games. In particular, we prove that the opponent player has a memoryless optimal strategy and give a new algorithm for solving these games.

  18. Measuring Permissiveness in Parity Games: Mean-Payoff Parity Games Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyer P.; Markey N.; Olschewski J.; Ummels M.

    2011-01-01

    We study nondeterministic strategies in parity games with the aim of computing a most permissive winning strategy. Following earlier work, we measure permissiveness in terms of the average number/weight of transitions blocked by the strategy. Using a translation into mean-payoff parity games, we prove that the problem of computing (the permissiveness of) a most permissive winning strategy is in NP intersected coNP. Along the way, we provide a new study of mean-payoff parity games. In particul...

  19. Parity violation in deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souder, P. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    AA beam of polarized electrons at CEBAF with an energy of 8 GeV or more will be useful for performing precision measurements of parity violation in deep inelastic scattering. Possible applications include precision tests of the Standard Model, model-independent measurements of parton distribution functions, and studies of quark correlations.

  20. Parity and the spin{statistics connection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J A Morgan

    2005-09-01

    A simple demonstration of the spin-statistics connection for general causal fields is obtained by using the parity operation to exchange spatial coordinates in the scalar product of a locally commuting field operator, evaluated at position x, with the same field operator evaluated at -x, at equal times.

  1. R Parity Violation Constraints and Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S

    1998-01-01

    The constraints on trilinear R parity violating couplings $\\lambda'_{ijk}$ following from ({\\em i}) the neutrino mass resulting due to the induced vacuum expectation value for the sneutrino and (ii) the charm squark interpretation for the HERA anomalous events are discussed in this talk.}

  2. Parity May Determine Levels of Some Antioxidant Minerals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidant minerals - copper and manganese, in rural pregnant women of different parities. Subjects and ... prevention of human diseases and that deficiencies may .... body over parity is cumulative and that those studies that recorded a ...

  3. TIME HORIZON AND UNCOVERED INTEREST PARITY IN EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlida Hanim Mohd Salleh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to re-examine the well-known empirical puzzle of uncovered interest parity (UIP for emerging market economies with different prediction time horizons. The empirical results obtained using dynamic panel and time series techniques for monthly data from January 1995 to December 2009 eventually show that the panel data estimates are more powerful than those obtained by applying individual time series estimations and the significant contribution of the exchange rate prediction horizons in determining the status of UIP. This finding reveals that at the longer time horizon, the model has better econometric specification and thus more predictive power for exchange rate movements compared to the shorter time period. The findings can also be a signalling of well-integrated currency markets and a reliable guide to international investors as well as for the orderly conduct of monetary authorities.

  4. New identities from quantum-mechanical sum rules of parity-related potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Ayorinde, O A; Belloni, M; Robinett, R W

    2010-01-01

    We apply quantum mechanical sum rules to pairs of one-dimensional systems defined by potential energy functions related by parity. Specifically, we consider symmetric potentials, $V(x) = V(-x)$, and their parity-restricted partners, ones with $V(x)$, but defined only on the positive half-line. We extend recent discussions of sum rules for the quantum bouncer by considering the parity-extended version of this problem, defined by the symmetric linear potential, $V(z) = F|z|$ and find new classes of constraints on the zeros of the Airy function, $Ai(z)$, and its derivative $Ai'(z)$. We also consider the parity-restricted version of the harmonic oscillator and find completely new classes of mathematical relations, unrleated to those of the ordinary oscillator problem. These two soluble quantum-mechanical systems defined by power-law potentials provide examples of how the form of the potential (both parity and continuity properties) affects the convergence of quantum-mechanical sum rules. We also discuss semi-clas...

  5. New identities from quantum-mechanical sum rules of parity-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayorinde, O A; Chisholm, K; Belloni, M [Physics Department, Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 (United States); Robinett, R W, E-mail: seayorinde@davidson.ed, E-mail: kechisholm@davidson.ed, E-mail: mabelloni@davidson.ed, E-mail: rick@phys.psu.ed [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    We apply quantum-mechanical sum rules to pairs of one-dimensional systems defined by potential energy functions related by parity. Specifically, we consider symmetric potentials, V(x) = V(- x), and their parity-restricted partners, ones with V(x) but defined only on the positive half-line. We extend recent discussions of sum rules for the quantum bouncer by considering the parity-extended version of this problem, defined by the symmetric linear potential, V(z) = F|z| and find new classes of constraints on the zeros of the Airy function, Ai({zeta}), and its derivative, Ai'({zeta}). We also consider the parity-restricted version of the harmonic oscillator and find completely new classes of mathematical relations, unrelated to those of the ordinary oscillator problem. These two soluble quantum-mechanical systems defined by power-law potentials provide examples of how the form of the potential (both parity and continuity properties) affects the convergence of quantum-mechanical sum rules. We also discuss semi-classical predictions for expectation values and the Stark effect for these systems.

  6. New identities from quantum-mechanical sum rules of parity-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, O. A.; Chisholm, K.; Belloni, M.; Robinett, R. W.

    2010-06-01

    We apply quantum-mechanical sum rules to pairs of one-dimensional systems defined by potential energy functions related by parity. Specifically, we consider symmetric potentials, V(x) = V(- x), and their parity-restricted partners, ones with V(x) but defined only on the positive half-line. We extend recent discussions of sum rules for the quantum bouncer by considering the parity-extended version of this problem, defined by the symmetric linear potential, V(z) = F|z| and find new classes of constraints on the zeros of the Airy function, Ai(ζ), and its derivative, Ai'(ζ). We also consider the parity-restricted version of the harmonic oscillator and find completely new classes of mathematical relations, unrelated to those of the ordinary oscillator problem. These two soluble quantum-mechanical systems defined by power-law potentials provide examples of how the form of the potential (both parity and continuity properties) affects the convergence of quantum-mechanical sum rules. We also discuss semi-classical predictions for expectation values and the Stark effect for these systems.

  7. On the parity complexity measures of Boolean functions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang,Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaoyun

    2010-01-01

    The parity decision tree model extends the decision tree model by allowing the computation of a parity function in one step. We prove that the deterministic parity decision tree complexity of any Boolean function is polynomially related to the non-deterministic complexity of the function or its complement. We also show that they are polynomially related to an analogue of the block sensitivity. We further study parity decision trees in their relations with an intermediate variant of the decisi...

  8. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Parity in Vermont: Employer Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Margo Rosenbach

    2003-01-01

    Many of the findings from this analysis of employer responses to the parity law run counter to popular perceptions. Even though many employer organizations are wary of mental health and substance abuse parity, most Vermont employers were satisfied with the parity law overall. Employers did not drop coverage or self-insure to avoid the mandate. However, many Vermont employers did not understand the law very well and wanted more information about parity.

  9. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) is part of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) long-standing effort to link Medicares payment system to a...

  10. Organising purchasing and (strategic) sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina; Boer, Harry; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2015-01-01

    mature role in corporate strategy. These changes have serious implications for the purchasing process, its characteristics and organisation. Previous research indicates that none of the prevailing solutions, functional departments and cross-functional teams, embedded in a centralised, decentralised......The role of purchasing has changed over the past two to three decades. The focus is no longer limited to purchasing manufacturing inputs, but also includes sourcing of innovations from, and even co-developing technologies together with, suppliers. Furthermore, purchasing has obtained a much more...... or hybrid overall structure, deliver the expected results. Contingency theory predicts that the success of a firm depends on the fit among characteristics of, amongst others, the firm’s processes and organisational structure. The objective of this paper is to propose and illustrate a processbased...

  11. CNMI Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...

  12. Guam Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DAWR collects Trip Ticket or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish directly from the fishermen. Similar to the trip ticket system in Saipan, this is a...

  13. Tourist characteristics and purchasing decision

    OpenAIRE

    OZDIPCINER, Nuray

    2008-01-01

    Purchasing decisions has always been subject to discussion in the literature. Incentives of consumers and factors affect their decision making process have been an agenda especially for marketing researchers. This study aims to find out the main factors which influence purchasing decision of 500 tourists in Mediterranean region of Turkey. In data analysis, SPSS technique is used and because data do not show normal distribution characteristic, Mann- Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests are app...

  14. 24 CFR 291.515 - Purchaser qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in § 291.530) at the time he/she submits a bid to purchase a home through the program and at the time of closing on the purchase of the home; (b) The person must certify to his/her good faith intention... Next Door Sales Program § 291.515 Purchaser qualifications. To qualify to purchase a home through...

  15. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  16. 25 CFR 117.20 - Purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase orders. 117.20 Section 117.20 Indians BUREAU OF... Purchase orders. Purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent for expenditures authorized by the... prevent hardship or suffering, purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent against the...

  17. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the... determination has been made by the Secretary, as permitted by the provisions of the act, that such purchase...

  18. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure that all purchased or otherwise received product...

  19. 品牌社会权力对购买意愿的影响--基于“评价-情感-应对”理论的实证%Impact of Brand Social Power on Purchase Intention--An Empirical Analysis based on“S-O-R”Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢强; 付华

    2016-01-01

    Brand social power,which is a new brand concept,has the ability to influence consumer behavior. To enrich the theoretical research on brand social power and provide enterprises with more theoretical support,on the basis of the relevant literature about brand social power,with the aid of“S-O-R”theory,the theory model,which explains the influence of brand social power on consumers’purchase intention through brand attitude,is conducted;and the mechanism concerning the impact of brand social power on consumers’purchase intention is analyzed. It is found that:first,brand social power has positive impacts on consumers’purchase intention and each of the five forms of brand social power has a positive impact on consumers’ purchase intention;second,brand social power has positive impacts on brand attitude of consumers;third,brand attitude plays an intermediary role in the relationship between brand social power and the consumer’purchase intention;and fourth,brand familiarity plays a moderating role in the relationship between brand social power and brand attitude. In terms of marketing practice,the enterprises should pay attention to the formation of consumers’brand attitude during the process of brand building, carry out market segmentation according to brand social power to foster competitive advantages,and maintain the consistence of brand value during the process of brand extending.%品牌社会权力作为一种新的品牌构念,构成了能够影响消费者行为的新的社会能力。为丰富品牌社会权力的理论研究,为企业利用品牌社会权力促进消费者购买提供理论支持,可借鉴品牌社会权力相关研究,结合“评价—情感—应对”理论,构建品牌社会权力通过品牌态度影响购买意愿的理论模型,对品牌社会权力影响消费者购买意愿的内化机制进行研究。研究发现,品牌社会权力积极影响消费者购买意愿,且品牌社会权力的五种形式

  20. Is grid parity an indicator for PV market expansion in the Netherlands?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M. [Stichting Monitoring Zonnestroom, Korte Elisabethstraat 6, 3511 JG Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Grid parity occurred in the residential sector in the Netherlands in the period 2011-2012, because the levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) for a typical residential PV system (0.6-5 kWp) was well below 0.2 euro/kWh, for interest rates between 3 and 8%, while the retail electricity price was 0.23 euro/kWh, propelling a significant increase in installed PV capacity in the residential sector. It is revealing to discuss the constellation of factors that have led to grid parity in the Netherlands, and whether they will lead to continued market expansion. These factors include those relevant to the industry (i.e. the cost learning curve and the overcapacity) as well as those specific to the Netherlands (various policy incentives, net-metering, as well as large-scale purchasing actions). 'Grid parity' may not reflect the growth perspectives for the industry because it gives no information on the adequacy of the PV system prices to impel market expansion, or on the complexity and controls on grid electricity pricing, which depend only to a small degree on generation costs. Low PV system prices were accompanied by an increase in installations but 'unhealthy' prices will not necessarily mean continued market expansion. The continuation of the cost learning curve to drive down PV prices depends to a certain degree on R and D budgets, which are under severe pressure in the current environment. Grid parity in the residential sector has been accompanied by a surge of installations, however this trend is not being paralleled by the non-residential sectors.

  1. Parity non-conservation in rubidium atom

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A; Roberts, B

    2012-01-01

    Currently the theoretical uncertainty limits the interpretation of the atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) measurements. We calculate the PNC $5s$ - $6s$ electric dipole transition amplitude in rubidium and demonstrate that rubidium is a good candidate to search for new physics beyond the standard model since accuracy of the atomic calculations in rubidium can be higher than in cesium. PNC in cesium is currently the best low-energy test of the standard model, therefore, similar measurements for rubidium present a good option for further progress in the field. We also calculate nuclear spin-dependent part of the parity non-conserving (PNC) amplitude which is needed for the extraction of the nuclear anapole moment from the PNC measurements.

  2. Biochirality and parity violating energy difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Biochirality originates from the chiral influences in the universe. The parity non-conservation of weak neutral current, which takes place through the exchange of neutral boson Z0 combined with the long range Coulomb interaction in atoms and molecules, produces a parity violating energy difference (PVED). In this note, the fact is to be indicated that there is a λ-type second order phase transition of D- and L-alanine (valine) at a certain critical temperature Tc. The PVED is to be calculated as 6×10-5eV/molecule by varieties of modern physical and chemical methods including the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), SQUID, single crystal X-ray diffraction spectra,Iow-temperature 1H.MAS ssNMR, Raman spectra and ultrasonic measurement. A mechanism that differs from Salam's hypotheses is also discussed here.

  3. [Revelation of purchase system of developed nation to large medical equipment group purchase in our country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Guan, Bing; Liu, Shan

    2011-01-01

    There were some features of purchase system in developed nation, such as clear purchase objectives flexible methods, standard programming, emphasis on competition and open process. The measures suggested include playing the role of competition purchasing; establishing the e-business modern purchasing information system; establishing legislation system; and completing business purchasing.

  4. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchase of home; affordability of purchase. 982.632 Section 982.632 Housing and Urban Development...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for financing purchase of a home to be assisted under the homeownership option. Such PHA requirements may...

  5. Gender Parity in Critical Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sangeeta; Burns, Karen E A; Machado, Flavia R; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Cook, Deborah J; Calfee, Carolyn S; Ware, Lorraine B; Burnham, Ellen L; Kissoon, Niranjan; Marshall, John C; Mancebo, Jordi; Finfer, Simon; Hartog, Christiane; Reinhart, Konrad; Maitland, Kathryn; Stapleton, Renee D; Kwizera, Arthur; Amin, Pravin; Abroug, Fekri; Smith, Orla; Laake, Jon H; Shrestha, Gentle S; Herridge, Margaret S

    2017-02-27

    Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate healthcare for specific clinical circumstances. These documents inform and shape patient care around the world. In this perspective we discuss the importance of diversity on guideline panels, the disproportionately low representation of women on critical care guideline panels, and existing initiatives to increase the representation of women in corporations, universities and government. We propose five strategies to ensure gender parity within critical care medicine.

  6. Constraint on parity-violating muonic forces

    OpenAIRE

    Barger, Vernon; Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Keung, Wai-yee; Marfatia, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Using the nonobservance of missing mass events in the leptonic kaon decay $K \\to \\mu X$, we place a strong constraint on exotic parity-violating gauge interactions of the right-handed muon. By way of illustration, we apply it to an explanation of the proton size anomaly that invokes such a new force; scenarios in which the gauge boson decays invisibly or is long-lived are constrained.

  7. One plus two-body random matrix ensembles with parity: Density of states and parity ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Vyas, Manan; Srivastava, P C

    2011-01-01

    One plus two-body embedded Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices with parity [EGOE(1+2)-$\\pi$] generated by a chaos producing two-body interaction in the presence of a mean-field, for spinless identical fermion systems, is defined in terms of two mixing parameters and a gap between the positive $(\\pi=+)$ and negative $(\\pi=-)$ parity single particle (sp) states. Numerical calculations are used to demonstrate, using realistic values of the mixing parameters appropriate for some nuclei, that this ensemble generates Gaussian form (with corrections) for fixed parity eigenvalue densities (i.e. state densities). The random matrix model also generates many features in parity ratios of state densities that are similar to those predicted by a method based on the Fermi-gas model for nuclei. We have also obtained a simple formula for the spectral variances defined over fixed-$(m_1,m_2)$ spaces, where $m_1$ is the number of fermions in the $+$ve parity sp states and $m_2$ is the number of fermions in the $-$ve ...

  8. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  9. Finding the Right Purchasing Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    School administrators are faced with a wide variety of choices and a huge market when it comes to products and technology. According to a report issued in March by market research firm Compass Intelligence, school districts spend over $18 billion annually on IT-related purchases, and the market is projected to grow to nearly $21 billion by 2015.…

  10. Finding the Right Purchasing Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    School administrators are faced with a wide variety of choices and a huge market when it comes to products and technology. According to a report issued in March by market research firm Compass Intelligence, school districts spend over $18 billion annually on IT-related purchases, and the market is projected to grow to nearly $21 billion by 2015.…

  11. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  12. Parity Violating Electron Scattering in the Relativistic Eikonal Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Tie-Kuang; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The parity violating electron scattering is investigated in the relativistic Eikonal approximation. The parity violating asymmetry parameters for many isotopes are calculated. In calculations the proton and neutron densities are obtained from the relativistic mean-field theory. We take Ni isotopes as examples to analyse the behaviour of the parity violating asymmetry parameters. The results show that the parity violating asymmetry parameter is sensitive to the difference between the proton and neutron densities. The amplitude of the parity violating asymmetry parameter increases with the distance between the minima of proton and neutron form factors. Our results are useful for future parity violating electron scattering experiments. By comparing our results with experimental data one can test the validity of the relativistic mean-field theory in calculating the neutron densities of nuclei.

  13. New parity, same old attitude towards psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-03-01

    Full parity of health insurance benefits for treatment of mental illness, including substance use disorders, is a major achievement. However, the newly-published regulations implementing the legislation strongly endorse aggressive managed care as a way of containing costs for the new equality of coverage. Reductions in "very long episodes of out-patient care," hospitalization, and provider fees, along with increased utilization, are singled out as achievements of managed care. Medical appropriateness as defined by expert medical panels is to be the basis of authorizing care, though clinicians are familiar with a history of insurance companies' application of "medical necessity" to their own advantage. The regulations do not single out psychotherapy for attention, but long-term psychotherapy geared to the needs of each patient appears to be at risk. The author recommends that the mental health professions strongly advocate for the growing evidence base for psychotherapy including long-term therapy for complex mental disorders; respect for the structure and process of psychotherapy individualized to patients' needs; awareness of the costs of aggressive managed care in terms of money, time, administrative burden, and interference with the therapy; and recognition of the extensive training and experience required to provide psychotherapy as well as the stresses and demands of the work. Parity in out-of-network benefits could lead to aggressive management of care given by non-network practitioners. Since a large percentage of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals stay out of networks, implementation of parity for out-of-network providers will have to be done in a way that respects the conditions under which they would be willing and able to provide services, especially psychotherapy, to insured patients. The shortage of psychiatrists makes this an important access issue for the insured population in need of care.

  14. Understanding Consumer Purchase of Free-of Cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Risborg, Marie Søndergaard; Steen, Christina Donslund

    2012-01-01

    This study concerns the free-of trend on the cosmetics market as expressed by a tendency among consumers to prefer cosmetics that are free of certain ingredients. Combining the Theory of Reasoned Action with a value-driven approach, this study empirically investigates the association between...... consumers' personal values and their attitude and behaviour associated with purchasing free-of cosmetics. A quantitative online survey of 250 Danish female consumers was conducted using self-administering questionnaires. The findings indicate that consumers' willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics (R......² = .48) is both influenced by attitude (β = .65) and perceived subjective norm (β = .21) with attitude having the largest predictive power. Moreover, consumers' attitude towards willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics seems to be value driven. Our results indicate that two values, self-transcendence (β...

  15. Some aspects of -parity violating supersymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourov Roy

    2000-07-01

    I briefly review a scenario where -parity is explicitly broken through a term bilinear in the lepton and Higgs superfields in the superpotential. An immediate consequence of the presence of this term is the generation of a massive neutrino at the tree level. Constraints on the parameter space are discussed in the context of recent super-Kamiokande results on atmospheric neutrinos. The testability of such models is emphasized through the observation of comparable numbers of muons and taus, produced together with the -boson, in decays of the lightest neutralino. Some other phenomenological implications of such a scenario are also discussed.

  16. Coupled oscillators with parity-time symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoy, Eduard N.

    2017-02-01

    Different models of coupled oscillators with parity-time (PT) symmetry are studied. Hamiltonian functions for two and three linear oscillators coupled via coordinates and accelerations are derived. Regions of stable dynamics for two coupled oscillators are obtained. It is found that in some cases, an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. A family of Hamiltonians for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained. An extension to high-dimensional PT-symmetric systems is discussed.

  17. Parity effects in 120° spin spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Matthias; Kubetzka, André; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2014-01-31

    The magnetic ground state of biatomic Fe chains on the reconstructed (5×1)-Ir(001) surface is a cycloidal 120° spin spiral. Spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy reveals a striking variation of magnetic field dependences among the chains, which we attribute to parity effects resulting from finite lengths. Numerical simulations show that the chains are divided in three symmetry classes with the exact number of atoms in the chain determining the size and direction of their net magnetic moment. In contrast to antiferromagnetic systems, the three-atom periodicity causes the effective anisotropy to alternate between out of plane, in plane, and quenched.

  18. Testing Spontaneous Parity Violation at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chin-Aik

    2008-01-01

    We construct a supersymmetric SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R X U(1)_B-L model in which a discrete symmetry (C-parity) implements strict left-right symmetry in the scalar (Higgs) sector. Although two electroweak bidoublets are introduced to accommodate the observed fermion masses and mixings, a natural missing partner mechanism insures that a single pair of MSSM Higgs doublets survives below the left-right symmetry breaking scale. If this scale happens to lie in the TeV range, several new particles potentially much lighter than the SU(2)_R charged gauge bosons W_R^+- will be accessible at the LHC.

  19. Testing spontaneous parity violation at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Aik; Shafi, Qaisar

    2008-03-01

    We construct a supersymmetric SU(2)L × SU(2)R × U(1) B - L model in which a discrete symmetry (C-parity) implements strict left-right symmetry in the scalar (Higgs) sector. Although two electroweak bidoublets are introduced to accommodate the observed fermion masses and mixings, a natural missing partner mechanism insures that a single pair of MSSM Higgs doublets survives below the left-right symmetry breaking scale. If this scale happens to lie in the TeV range, several new particles potentially much lighter than the SU(2)R charged gauge bosons WR± will be accessible at the LHC.

  20. Parity Breaking Medium and Squeeze Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianov, A A; Soldati, R

    2016-01-01

    The transition between a Minkowski space region and a parity breaking medium domain is thoroughly discussed. The requirement of continuity of the field operator content across the separating boundary of the two domains leads to Bogolyubov transformations, squeezed pairs states and squeeze operators that turn out to generate a functional SU(2) algebra. According to this algebraic approach, the reflection and transmission probability amplitude across the separating boundary are computed. The suitable generalization of the well known Sauter-Schwinger-Nikishov formula to the emission or absorption of squeezed pairs out of the vacuum is obtained.

  1. Cavity tests of parity-odd Lorentz violations in electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Matthew; Petroff, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Electromagnetic resonant cavities form the basis for a number modern tests of Lorentz invariance. The geometry of most of these experiments implies unsuppressed sensitivities to parity-even Lorentz violations only. Parity-odd violations typically enter through suppressed boost effects, causing a reduction in sensitivity by roughly 4 orders of magnitude. Here we discuss possible techniques for achieving unsuppressed sensitivities to parity-odd violations using asymmetric resonators.

  2. Evaluating impulse purchases generated by affections and advertisement effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakash Kamble

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Impulse buying occurs when a consumer experiences a sudden, often powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. This on-going research considers the affections generated by con-sumers towards the chocolate brand which is endorsed by a celebrity. The Dual Mediation Hypoth-esis Model (DMH is used to ascertain the ad effectiveness of the product/ brand, in this research advertisement featuring the celebrity. The affections generated by the ad leads to generation of af-fection towards the brand leading to purchase a product/ brand. The chocolate brand selected for the research has high market share and manufactures chocolate based products catering to all classes of consumers. The research primarily focuses on the significance of affections generated by the adver-tisement for the product. The purchase decision for such products is usually based on consumer impulses and attitudes towards the product/ brand. A convenience sample of 116 individuals was considered for the research and the survey was done using questionnaire method. The findings from the analysis revealed that the consumers purchased the products due to the impulses and af-fections generated by the ad and brand. There was no clear linkage between the celebrity and brand which lead to purchase intentions of the product/ brand. The Dual Mediation Model was found to be applicable as the affections towards the brand and the ad resulted in purchase intention.

  3. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders....

  4. On the parity complexity measures of Boolean functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; 10.1016/j.tcs.2010.03.027

    2010-01-01

    The parity decision tree model extends the decision tree model by allowing the computation of a parity function in one step. We prove that the deterministic parity decision tree complexity of any Boolean function is polynomially related to the non-deterministic complexity of the function or its complement. We also show that they are polynomially related to an analogue of the block sensitivity. We further study parity decision trees in their relations with an intermediate variant of the decision trees, as well as with communication complexity.

  5. Magnetic moments of negative-parity baryons in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, T M

    2014-01-01

    Using the most general form of the interpolating current for the octet baryons, the magnetic moments of the negative-parity baryons are calculated within the light-cone sum rules. The contributions coming from diagonal transitions of the positive-parity baryons, and also from non-diagonal transition between positive and negative-parity baryons are eliminated by considering the combinations of different sum rules corresponding to the different Lorentz structures. A comparison of our results on magnetic moments of the negative-parity baryons with the other approaches existing in literature is presented.

  6. Deterministic entanglement of superconducting qubits by parity measurement and feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristè, D; Dukalski, M; Watson, C A; de Lange, G; Tiggelman, M J; Blanter, Ya M; Lehnert, K W; Schouten, R N; DiCarlo, L

    2013-10-17

    The stochastic evolution of quantum systems during measurement is arguably the most enigmatic feature of quantum mechanics. Measuring a quantum system typically steers it towards a classical state, destroying the coherence of an initial quantum superposition and the entanglement with other quantum systems. Remarkably, the measurement of a shared property between non-interacting quantum systems can generate entanglement, starting from an uncorrelated state. Of special interest in quantum computing is the parity measurement, which projects the state of multiple qubits (quantum bits) to a state with an even or odd number of excited qubits. A parity meter must discern the two qubit-excitation parities with high fidelity while preserving coherence between same-parity states. Despite numerous proposals for atomic, semiconducting and superconducting qubits, realizing a parity meter that creates entanglement for both even and odd measurement results has remained an outstanding challenge. Here we perform a time-resolved, continuous parity measurement of two superconducting qubits using the cavity in a three-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and phase-sensitive parametric amplification. Using postselection, we produce entanglement by parity measurement reaching 88 per cent fidelity to the closest Bell state. Incorporating the parity meter in a feedback-control loop, we transform the entanglement generation from probabilistic to fully deterministic, achieving 66 per cent fidelity to a target Bell state on demand. These realizations of a parity meter and a feedback-enabled deterministic measurement protocol provide key ingredients for active quantum error correction in the solid state.

  7. Integrable nonlinear parity-time symmetric optical oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Absar U; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a balanced parity-time symmetric optical microring arrangement are analytically investigated. By considering gain and loss saturation effects, the pertinent conservation laws are explicitly obtained in the Stokes domain-thus establishing integrability. Our analysis indicates the existence of two regimes of oscillatory dynamics and frequency locking, both of which are analogous to those expected in linear parity-time symmetric systems. Unlike other saturable parity time symmetric systems considered before, the model studied in this work first operates in the symmetric regime and then enters the broken parity-time phase.

  8. Grid-Parity Solar Power for Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Inflation Rate during the Life of the Camp Roberts Demonstration EPC Engineering, Procurement, and Construction ESTCP Environmental Security Technology...include, but are not limited to, Camp Roberts’ staff, maintenance contractors , construction crew, and security personnel. Since the project was...implemented by Nanosolar and Belectric, one of Nanosolar’s EPC partners. The design consists of an aluminum and glulam beam installed on a free field to

  9. The Negative Parity Bands in $^{156}$Gd

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschel, Michael; Curien, Dominique; Dudek, Jerzy; Haas, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin is the world most intense neutron source for research. Using the ultra high-resolution crystal spectrometers GAMS installed at the in-pile target position H6/H7 it is possible to measure nuclear state lifetimes using the Gamma Ray Induced Recoil (GRID) technique. In bent crystal mode, the spectrometers allow to perform spectroscopy with a dynamic range of up to six orders magnitude. At a very well collimated external neutron beam it is possible to install a highly efficient germanium detector array to obtain coincidences and angular correlations. The mentioned techniques were used to study the first two negative parity bands in $^{156}$Gd. These bands have been in the focus of interest since they seem to show signatures of a tetrahedral symmetry. A surprisingly high B(E2) value of about 1000 W.u. for the $4^- \\rightarrow 2^-$ transition was discovered. It indicates that the two first negative parity bands cannot be considered to be signature partners.

  10. Religiosity and the Transition to Nonmarital Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott James

    2014-01-01

    Nonmarital parity is associated with several negative outcomes, including health problems, educational problems, and poverty. Understanding the risk and protective factors associated with nonmarital parenthood can inform policy and interventions, reducing both the incidences and associated consequences. The current study focuses on how intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity (the degree to which individuals or groups employ religious ideology in forming values and making decisions) are related to the timing of nonmarital parity using discrete time hazard modeling of a nationally representative sample of adolescent females (N=7,367) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The majority of the sample (86 %) claimed a religious affiliation and almost a third (32 %) had a nonmarital birth during the study. Even though the majority of the sample is White (67 %), Black and Hispanic females were more likely to experience a nonmarital birth. Results indicate that intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and religious affiliation assert protective effects for some populations while religious affiliation increases risk in the full model. Recommendations for policy, intervention, and future research are offered. PMID:25298755

  11. Regional Energy-Saving Electricity Market and Stochastic Programming Power Purchasing Model Considering Assessment on Energy Consumption in Trans-Provincial Transaction%考虑跨省交易能耗评估的区域节能电力市场与随机规划购电模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文旭; 颜伟; 王俊梅; 郭琳; 黄淼; 邱大强

    2013-01-01

    In the environment of regional common electricity market and considering the assessment on energy-consumption in trans-provincial transaction, a regional energy-saving market mode and stochastic programming power purchasing mode for provincial power grid under such a mode are proposed, thus the energy conservation and consumption reduction are expanded from intra-provincjal market to regional market. Firstly, a trading pattern for regional energy-saving electricity market is constructed, in which the basic flow of trans-provincial transaction in regional electricity market, the method to declare energy consumption level of provincial in trans-provincial electric power selling and the method to determine marginal energy consumption level in trans-provincial transaction as well as indices to evaluate energy-saving effect from trans-provincial transaction are included. Secondly, under the constructed trading pattern of regional energy-saving electricity market and considering the functional relation between the determination of electric power and that of electricity quantity during the transaction and such stochastic factors as market price, green energy generation and demand of load, a stochastic programming power purchasing model for provincial power grid, in which the assessment on energy consumption in the trans-provincial transaction, is built. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed regional energy- saving electricity market and the built power purchasing model are verified by results of the simulation based on basic power purchasing data of a certain provincial electricity market from regional electricity market in June, 2010.%在区域共同电力市场环境下,考虑跨省交易的能耗评估提出了区域节能市场模式以及该模式下的省级电网随机规划购电模型,将节能降耗工作的开展从省内市场扩展到了区域市场.首先,构建了区域节能市场交易模式.其具体包括区域市场跨省交易的基本流程、

  12. Guide to Effective Purchasing. Operational Management Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frediani, Pam

    This manual is intended to help create and sustain good relations between purchasers and suppliers of foods and related products. It is designed to guide anyone involved in the purchasing function: purchasing officers and managers in medium and large establishments, food and beverage managers, catering managers, chefs, caterers, restaurateurs,…

  13. Guide to Effective Purchasing. Operational Management Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frediani, Pam

    This manual is intended to help create and sustain good relations between purchasers and suppliers of foods and related products. It is designed to guide anyone involved in the purchasing function: purchasing officers and managers in medium and large establishments, food and beverage managers, catering managers, chefs, caterers, restaurateurs,…

  14. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 813.202 Section 813.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING... Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  15. 48 CFR 808.603 - Purchase priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 808.603 Section 808.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION... Industries, Inc. (FPI) 808.603 Purchase priorities. Contracting officers may purchase supplies and...

  16. 48 CFR 8.706 - Purchase exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase exceptions. 8.706... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.706 Purchase exceptions. (a) Ordering offices may acquire supplies or... in a purchase exception granted by the designated central nonprofit agency. (b) The central...

  17. 48 CFR 408.706 - Purchase exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase exemptions. 408... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.706 Purchase exemptions. Prior to applying to the Committee for a purchase exemption, the chief of the contracting office should provide advance notice to...

  18. 48 CFR 8.704 - Purchase priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.704... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.704 Purchase priorities. (a) The Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act requires the Government to purchase supplies or services on the Procurement List, at prices established by the...

  19. 48 CFR 8.603 - Purchase priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.603... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.603 Purchase... shall purchase supplies and services in the following priorities: (a) Supplies. (1) Federal...

  20. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchasing policy. 601.100 Section 601.100 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The...

  1. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase elements (trust, usefulness, interactivity and altruism motivation are effective on purchase intention. The results of the study will be able to create effective sale strategies for the online stores of nonprofit organizations.

  2. Study on Electricity Purchase Optimization in Coordination of Electricity and Carbon Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dunnan; Meng, Yaru; Zhang, Shuo

    2017-07-01

    With the establishment of carbon emissions trading market in China, the power industry has become an important part of the market participants. The power grid enterprises need to optimize their own strategies in the new environment of electricity market and carbon market coordination. First, the influence of electricity and carbon trading coordination on electricity purchase strategy for grid enterprises was analysed in the paper. Then a power purchase optimization model was presented, which used the minimum cost of low carbon, energy saving and environment protection as the goal, the power generation capacity, installed capacity and pollutant emission as the constraints. Finally, a provincial power grid was taken as an example to analyse the model, and the optimization order of power purchase was obtained, which provided a new idea for the low carbon development of power grid enterprises.

  3. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign...

  4. 78 FR 40953 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701 and 741 RIN 3133-AEOO Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and Assumption of Liabilities; Extension of Effective Date AGENCY: National... Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets...

  5. China's Role in Purchasing Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva; Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ In current world market,"Made-in-China"often means good price and competitive quality.In terms of China's trade pattern,more than half of Chinese exporting products belong to processing trade industry according to the demands and requirements of international orders.On the purchasing chain,China is learning from its international partners.Safety and quality always tops all issues.

  6. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  7. Total on-line purchasing system (TOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.

    1995-11-01

    The Information Management Division (IMD) at LLNL is developing a new purchasing system for the Procurement Department. The first major development of this new system is called, {open_quotes}Total On-Line Purchasing System{close_quotes} (TOPS). TOPS will help speed up the requisitioning process by having requisitions electronically entered by requesters and electronically sent to buyers to be put on Purchase Orders. The new purchasing system will use Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), to help increase transaction flows for shipping notices, RFQs, Quotes, Purchase Orders, and Invoices. ANSI X.12 is the EDI standard that this new EC will use.

  8. Perceived Purchase Risk in the Technological Goods Purchase Context: An Instrument Development and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Salehudin, Imam

    2010-01-01

    Each purchase decision is most likely to be a risky decision. Woodside and DeLozier (1976) proposed that consumer purchase-related behaviors correspond to the perceived level of risk in the purchase. Therefore, understanding consumer’s perceived purchase risk is paramount for marketers –especially marketers of high risk products. This study intends to develop a valid and reliable instrument in measuring consumer’s perceived purchase risk using the concept of perceived risk by Peter and Ryan (...

  9. Dense Matter and Neutron Stars in Parity Doublet Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, S; Negreiros, R; Steinheimer, J

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the properties of dense matter and neutron stars. In particular we discuss model calculations based on the parity doublet picture of hadronic chiral symmetry. In this ansatz the onset of chiral symmetry restoration is reflected by the degeneracy of baryons and their parity partners. In this approach we also incorporate quarks as degrees of freedom to be able to study hybrid stars.

  10. On Design of Parity Preserving Reversible Adder Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Bolhassani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    In this paper novel parity preserving reversible logic blocks are presented and verified. Then, we present cost-effective parity preserving reversible implementations of Full Adder, 4:2 Compressor, Binary to BCD converter, and BCD adder using these blocks. The proposed parity preserving reversible BCD adder is designed by cascading the presented 4-digit parity preserving reversible Full Adder and a parity preserving reversible Binary to BCD Converter. In this design, instead of realizing the detection and correction unit, we design a Binary to BCD converter that its inputs are the output of parity preserving binary adder, and its output is a parity preserving BCD digit. In addition, several theorems on the numbers of garbage outputs, constant inputs, quantum cost and delay of the designs have been presented to show its optimality. In the presented circuits, the delay and the quantum cost are reduced by deriving designs based on the proposed parity preserving reversible blocks. The advantages of the proposed designs over the existing ones are quantitatively described and analysed. All the scales are in the Nano-metric area.

  11. Parity, breastfeeding and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Sanne Ae; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Wood, Angela M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is uncertainty about the direction and magnitude of the associations between parity, breastfeeding and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined the separate and combined associations of parity and breastfeeding practices with the incidence of CHD later in life among...

  12. Optimized parity preserving quantum reversible full adder/subtractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Bolhassani, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Reversible logic is one of the indispensable aspects of emerging technologies for reducing physical entropy gain, since reversible circuits do not lose information in the form of internal heat during computation. This paper aimed to initiate constructing parity preserving reversible circuits. A novel parity preserving reversible block, HB is presented. Then a new design of a cost-effective parity preserving reversible full adder/subtractor (PPFA/S) is proposed. Next, we suggested a new parity preserving binary to BCD converter. Finally, we proposed new realization of parity preserving reversible BCD adder. The proposed designs are cost-effective in terms of quantum cost and delay. All the scales are in the NANO-metric area.

  13. Spectroscopy of {sup 40}Ca and negative-parity bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torilov, S.; Oertzen, W. von; Kokalova, Tz [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195, Berlin (Germany); Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Thummerer, S.; Bohlen, H.G. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Angelis, G.de [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Tumino, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Axiotis, M.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Napoli, D.R.; Poli, M.De [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Farnea, E.; Lenzi, S.M.; Ur, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Padova (Italy); Rousseau, M.; Papka, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, IReS, Strasbourg (France)

    2004-03-01

    We have studied the reactions {sup 28}Si+{sup 24}Mg{yields}{sup 52}Fe{yields}{sup 4}0Ca{sup *}+3{alpha} as well as the binary channel {sup 52}Fe{yields}{sup 4}0Ca{sup *}+{sup 12}C{sup *}, in order to search for deformed states, which form rotational bands in {sup 40}Ca. We observe positive- and negative-parity bands. The negative-parity band is proposed to be a partner of an inversion doublet with the positive-parity states being based on 4p-4h configurations. The properties of the positive-parity states are discussed on the basis of the shell model and the parity doublet on the basis of a cluster model with intrinsic reflection asymmetric shapes. (orig.)

  14. Nonreciprocal Multiferroic Superlattices with Broken Parity Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenghua; Zhang, Weiyi

    Multiferroic materials are characterized by the coexistence of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic (or antiferromagnetic) orders, the coupling to lattice vibration can be invoked either through piezoelectric or piezomagnetic effects. In this paper, the polaritonic band structures of multiferroic superlattices composed of oppositely polarized domains are investigated using the generalized transfer matrix method. For the primitive cell with broken parity symmetry, the polaritonic band structure is asymmetrical with respect to the forward and backward propagation directions (nonreciprocality). In particular, the band extreme points move away from the Brillouin zone center. This asymmetry in band-gap positions and widths can be used to design compact one-way optical isolators, while the extremely slow light velocities near the asymmetrical upper edges of lower bands includes the essential ingredients for designing slow light devices.

  15. Electromagnetic matrix elements for negative parity nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Benjamin; Leinweber, Derek; Mahbub, Selim; Menadue, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Here we present preliminary results for the evaluation of the electromagnetic form factors for the lowest-lying negative-parity, spin-$\\frac{1}{2}$ nucleons, namely the $S_{11}(1535)$ and $S_{11}(1650)$, through the use of the variational method. We find that the characteristics of the electric form factor, $G_{E}$, are similar between these states, however significant differences are observed between the quark-sector contributions to the magnetic form factor, $G_{M}$. Within simple constituent quark models, these states are understood to be admixtures of $s=\\frac{1}{2}$ and $s=\\frac{3}{2}$ states coupled to orbital angular momentum $\\ell = 1$. Our results reveal a qualitative difference in the manner in which the singly-represented quark sector contributes to these baryon magnetic form factors.

  16. Parity-time symmetric quantum critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ashida, Yuto; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Symmetry plays a central role in the theory of phase transitions. Parity-time (PT) symmetry is an emergent notion in synthetic nonconservative systems, where the gain-loss balance creates a threshold for spontaneous symmetry breaking across which spectral singularity emerges. Considerable studies on PT symmetry have been conducted in optics and weakly interacting open quantum systems. Here by extending the idea of PT symmetry to strongly correlated many-body systems, we discover unconventional quantum critical phenomena, where spectral singularity and quantum criticality conspire to yield an exotic universality class which has no counterpart in known critical phenomena. Moreover, we find that superfluid correlation is anomalously enhanced owing to winding renormalization group flows in a PT-symmetry-broken quantum critical phase. Our findings can experimentally be tested in ultracold atoms.

  17. Parity nonconservation in /sup 19/F nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsener, K.; Gruebler, W.; Koenig, V.; Schmelzbach, P.A.; Ulbricht, J.; Vuaridel, B.; Singy, D.; Forstner, C.; Zhang, W.Z.

    1987-01-12

    The parity nonconserving asymmetry A/sub ..gamma../ in the decay of polarized /sup 19/F/sup */(110 keV) nuclei has been measured. A value of A/sub ..gamma../=-(6.83 +- 2.11) x 10/sup -5/ (total error) was found. Systematic errors are extensively investigated and found to be small. The absolute normalization is given by the /sup 19/F/sup */ polarization, which is found to be rho/sub F/=-0.52 +- 0.08 in a separate experiment, using a calibrated Compton polarimeter. The new result A/sub ..gamma../(/sup 19/F) is compared to earlier experiments and recent theoretical calculations. From an analysis including /sup 18/F and /sup 21/Ne results, constraints on the weak meson-nucleon coupling constants f/sub ..pi../ and h/sub rho//sup 0/ are deduced. Agreement with calculations based on the standard electroweak theory and QCD is found.

  18. Parity Violation Experiments with Rare Earth Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budker, Dmitry

    1997-10-01

    Since the first suggestions (V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and I. B. Khriplovich, Z. Phys. D1, 243 (1986).), (A. Gongora and P. G. H. Sandars, J. Phys. B 19, L291 (1986).) to search for parity violation in the rare earth atoms, experiments have been carried out by groups in Novosibirsk, Oxford, Hiroshima and Berkeley with Sm, Yb and Dy. The status of these experiments will be reviewed, with some details given on recent Berkeley Dy results ( A.-T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, Submitted to Phys. Rev. A.). Progress of the Berkeley Yb experiment ( D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4165 (1995).), ( C.J. Bowers, D. Budker, E.D. Commins, D. DeMille, S.J. Freedman, A.-T. Nguyen, S.-Q. Shang, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3103-9(1996). ) will be described elsewhere at this meeting by C. J. Bowers et al.

  19. Phenomenology of Bilinear Broken R-parity

    CERN Document Server

    Restrepo, D A

    2001-01-01

    The straightforward supersymmetrization of the Standard Model (SM) results in a phenomenologically inconsistent theory in which Baryon number ($B$) and Lepton number ($L$) are violated by dimension 4 operators, inducing fast proton decay. Proton stability allows only for separate $L$ or $B$ violation and, if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles, $L$ violating terms must be present. In this thesis I will study a Supersymmetric Standard Model (SSM) realization with $B$ conservation and minimal $L$ violation. In this framework $L$ is mildly violated only by super-renormalizable terms, allowing for small neutrino Majorana masses. This model is more predictive than the Baryon-Parity SSM. The induced dimension 4 $L$ violating couplings are not arbitrary, and automatically satisfy all experimental constraints. After introducing the theoretical framework for supersymmetric models without Lepton number, I will discuss the phenomenology of the (unstable) lightest neutralino and of the lightest stop. I will show tha...

  20. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  1. Planck intermediate results. XLIX. Parity-violation constraints from polarization data

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Benabed, K; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Carron, J; Chiang, H C; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Contreras, D; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Di Valentino, E; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Doré, O; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Dusini, S; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fantaye, Y; Finelli, F; Forastieri, F; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Gerbino, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hivon, E; Huang, Z; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leahy, J P; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Matarrese, S; Mauri, N; McEwen, J D; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Morgante, G; Moss, A; Natoli, P; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Patanchon, G; Patrizii, L; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Polastri, L; Polenta, G; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Ruiz-Granados, B; Sandri, M; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Sirignano, C; Sirri, G; Spencer, L D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Tenti, M; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, F; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    Parity violating extensions of the standard electromagnetic theory cause in vacuo rotation of the plane of polarization of propagating photons. This effect, also known as cosmic birefringence, impacts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy angular power spectra, producing non-vanishing $T$--$B$ and $E$--$B$ correlations that are otherwise null when parity is a symmetry. Here we present new constraints on an isotropic rotation, parametrized by the angle $\\alpha$, derived from Planck 2015 CMB polarization data. To increase the robustness of our analyses, we employ two complementary approaches, in harmonic space and in map space, the latter based on a peak stacking technique. The two approaches provide estimates for $\\alpha$ that are in agreement within statistical uncertainties and very stable against several consistency tests. Considering the $T$--$B$ and $E$--$B$ information jointly, we find $\\alpha = 0.31^{\\circ} \\pm 0.05^{\\circ} \\, ({\\rm stat.})\\, \\pm 0.28^{\\circ} \\, ({\\rm syst.})$ from the harmon...

  2. Research on the Purchasing Power Parity of China Mainland,China HK SAR, China Macau and China Taiwan: Empirical Examination Based on Canner & Hansen TAR Model%两岸三地长期购买力平价研究:基于Caner & Hansen门限自回归模型的实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓亚; 尤海波

    2012-01-01

    购买力平价理论是基础性且应用广泛的汇率决定理论.以往研究主要是在线性或非线性模型的框架下,应用检验时间序列平稳性的传统检验方法验证购买力平价是否成立.作者尝试在非线性的研究框架下,基于Caner和Hansen的门限自回归模型,特别针对门限效应和非线性状态下的平稳性用Wald检验和非线性单位根检验对中国大陆和两岸三地的长期购买力平价进行实证研究.实证分析结果表明,人民币兑港币和澳门元的实际汇率呈非线性关系,而人民币兑台币的实际汇率不存在门限效应;此外,基于非线性关系的平稳性检验的结果显示,中国大陆与中国香港、中国澳门、中国台湾之间的长期购买力平价关系均不成立.

  3. Parity Influences the Demeanor of Sows in Group Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Taya; Pluske, John R; Miller, David W; Collins, Teresa; Fleming, Patricia A

    2017-08-28

    Across the globe, producers are moving from individual housing to group housing for sows during gestation. Producers typically group sows of a range of parities together, although the impacts are largely unknown. This study examined the behavioral expression at mixing for young, midparity, and older sows. Ten mixed-parity groups were filmed at mixing on a commercial piggery. One-minute clips were edited from continuous footage where focal sows of known parity could be identified, and scored for qualitative behavioral expression. Parity 2 and 6 sows were more calm/tired than Parity 4 sows, who were more active/energetic. Parity 2 sows were more curious/inquisitive than Parity 4 and 6 sows, who were more anxious/frustrated. Correlations between qualitative behavioral expression and activity indicated sows scored as more calm/tired spent a greater proportion of time standing, while sows scored as more active/energetic spent more time performing avoidance behavior. Different body language is likely to reflect physical or affective differences in how sows cope with mixing.

  4. Purchasing behavior of Fairtrade customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ambrožová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume of corporate social responsibility (CSR activities is increasing worldwide; the European Union considers CSR to be one of the ways to achieve the most competitive economy and CSR awareness is also rising among companies in the Czech Republic, their customers, and the public. Bearing this in mind, Fairtrade goods, a subset of CSR and sustainable development, is an attractive step for vendors to take towards their customers. In this paper, we try to learn who the buyers of Fairtrade products are and what their motivation is in order to help Fairtrade dealers know their target group better, while at the same time helping expand this target group for organizations such as Fairtrade Czech Republic. We utilize an empirical survey and employ both univariate and bivariate statistical analyses (descriptives, associations, correlations for this purpose. While some previous findings were confirmed, such as (the influence of age and education on Fairtrade purchasing behavior, moral principles and quality of the product being stated as the most important motives to buy Fairtrade products, the significance of the Fairtrade logo and certificate for the buyers’ awareness one was disproved. According to the gathered data, the economic situation of a household does not affect Fairtrade purchasing behavior.

  5. Transition magnetic moments between negative parity heavy baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, T M; Savci, M

    2015-01-01

    The transition magnetic moments between negative parity, spin-1/2 heavy baryons are studied in framework of the light cone QCD sum rules. By constructing the sum rules for different Lorentz structures, the unwanted contributions coming from negative (positive) to positive (negative) parity transitions are removed. It is found that the magnetic moments between neutral negative parity heavy $\\Xi_Q^{\\prime 0}$ and $\\Xi_Q^0$ baryons are very small. Magnetic moments of the $\\Sigma_Q \\to \\Lambda_Q$ and $ \\Xi_Q^{\\prime \\pm} \\to \\Xi_Q^\\pm$ transitions are quite large and can be measured in further experiments.

  6. An anisotropic scattering treatment for the even parity transport equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akherraz, B. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DRN/DMT/SERMA/CEN Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Fedon-Magnaud, C. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DRN/DMT/SERMA/CEN Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Lautard, J.J. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DRN/DMT/SERMA/CEN Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1993-04-01

    This work introduces an extension of the even-odd parity flux formulation to the treatment of anisotropic scattering with the finite element formulation. To keep a similar form to the even parity transport equation in the isotropic case, we define a 'direction-dependent cross section'. We have only two unkown functions (the even parity flux, and the direction dependent cross section), that are calculated via an iterative process. We consider the multigroup equation for the eigenvalue problem and we present some numerical tests to prove the effectiveness of this method. (orig.)

  7. An anisotropic scattering treatment for the even parity transport equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akherraz, B.; Fedon-Magnaud, C.; Lautard, J.J.

    1993-06-01

    This work introduces an extension of the even-odd parity flux formulation to the treatment of anisotropic scattering with the finite element formulation. To keep a similar form to the even parity transport equation in the isotropic case, we define a `direction-dependent cross section`. We have only two unknown functions (the even parity flux, and the direction dependent cross section), that are calculated via an iterative process. We consider the multigroup equation for the eigenvalue problem and we present some numerical tests to prove the effectiveness of this method.

  8. Parity and age at menopause in a Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, B

    1986-01-01

    A random sample of 151 Danish women who had undergone natural menopause reported the age at which this occurred and answered a questionnaire. A significant association was found between parity and age at menopause after correction for the effects of age at the first and last births, weight, smoking...... and occupation. However, there is no evidence that the age at menopause has fallen in recent decades, even though the average parity in developed populations has dropped dramatically over this period. It is therefore possible that potential fertility is a confounding variable in the relationship between parity...... and age at menopause....

  9. Light Stop MSSM versus R-parity violation

    CERN Document Server

    Porod, Werner; Valle, José W F

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of the lightest stops in models where R-parity is broken by bilinear terms. In this class of models we consider scenarios where the R-parity breaking two-body decay stop_1 -> tau + b competes with the leading three-body decays stop_1 -> W^+ + b + neutralino_1, H^+ + b + neutralino_1, b slepton^+_i neutrino_l, b sneutrino_l l^+ (l=e, mu, tau). We demonstrate that the R-parity violating decay can be the dominant one. In particular we focus on the implications for a future electron posistion Linear Collider.

  10. Parity and age at menopause in a Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, B

    1986-01-01

    A random sample of 151 Danish women who had undergone natural menopause reported the age at which this occurred and answered a questionnaire. A significant association was found between parity and age at menopause after correction for the effects of age at the first and last births, weight, smoking...... and occupation. However, there is no evidence that the age at menopause has fallen in recent decades, even though the average parity in developed populations has dropped dramatically over this period. It is therefore possible that potential fertility is a confounding variable in the relationship between parity...... and age at menopause....

  11. Sunscreen Purchase Intention amongst Young Moroccan Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bachleda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Employing structural equation modeling and an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB incorporating the additional influence of price perception as a conceptual framework, this paper explored the determinants of sunscreen purchase intention for young Moroccan adults. Consistent with the TPB, results confirmed the importance of subjective norms, attitude and perceived control in shaping sunscreen purchase intention. However, contrary to assumptions price was not found to be a significant factor in sunscreen purchase intention. Results of this study support the application of the TPB in the sunscreen purchase context and highlight the importance of using its constructs over price in the development of effective marketing campaigns.

  12. Library Purchasing Consortia in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ball

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of library purchasing consortia across the United Kingdom is uneven and sector-dependent. Only higher education libraries show a well developed regional infrastructure of purchasing consortia covering virtually all eligible libraries. While there are clear sectoral disparities amongst the library purchasing consortia surveyed, the size of consortium expenditure seems to determine whether procurement professionals are involved. Thus in those whose spend consistently exceeds European Commission guidelines’ thresholds, the involvement of purchasing professionals is much more likely, and also crucial to the successful navigation of such procedures.

  13. Odd-parity superconductivity in Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huazhou; Chao, Sung-Po; Aji, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional superconducting states of matter are realized in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. In particular, nondegenerate bands can support odd-parity superconductivity with rich topological content. Here we study whether this is the case for Weyl semimetals. These are systems whose low-energy sector, in the absence of interactions, is described by linearly dispersing chiral fermions in three dimensions. The energy spectrum has nodes at an even number of points in the Brillouin zone. Consequently both intranodal finite momentum pairing and internodal BCS superconductivity are allowed. For local attractive interaction the finite momentum pairing state with chiral p-wave symmetry is found to be most favorable at finite chemical potential. The state is an analog of the superfluid 3He A phase, with Cooper pairs having finite center-of-mass momentum. For chemical potential at the node the state is preempted by a fully gapped charge density wave. For nonlocal attraction the BCS state wins out for all values of the chemical potential.

  14. Positive Parity $D_s$ Mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovec, Luka [Stefan Inst., Ljubljana; Lang, C. B. [Graz U.; Mohler, Daniel [Fermilab; Prelovsek, Sasa [Stefan Inst., Ljubljana; Woloshyn, R. M. [TRIUMF

    2015-11-12

    We study the positive parity charmed strange mesons using lattice QCD, the only reliable ab initio method to study QCD at low energies. Especially the experimentally observed $D_{s0}^*(2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ have challenged theory for quite some time. The dynamical lattice QCD simulations are performed at two distinct pion masses, $m_{\\pi}$ = 266 MeV and 156 MeV, using both $\\bar{c}s$ as well as $DK$ and $D^*K$ scattering operators in the construction of the correlation matrix in order to take into the account threshold effects. While the $J^P = 0^+$ channel benefited most from the inclusion of scattering operators, it was also crucial for the case of the $D_{s1}(2460)$. Using the L\\"uscher method, which relates the finite volume spectrum to the infinite volume scattering matrix, we were able to determine the near threshold behavior of the scattering amplitude. From it we extracted the binding momenta and the masses of the below-threshold bound states $D_{s0}^*(2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ by determining the pole positions of the scattering amplitudes. Our results compare well with experiment, resolving a long standing discrepancy between theory and experiment.

  15. Positive parity $D_s$ mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Leskovec, Luka; Mohler, Daniel; Prelovsek, Sasa; Woloshyn, R M

    2015-01-01

    We study the positive parity charmed strange mesons using lattice QCD, the only reliable ab initio method to study QCD at low energies. Especially the experimentally observed $D_{s0}^*(2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ have challenged theory for quite some time. The dynamical lattice QCD simulations are performed at two distinct pion masses, $m_{\\pi}$ = 266 MeV and 156 MeV, using both $\\bar{c}s$ as well as $DK$ and $D^*K$ scattering operators in the construction of the correlation matrix in order to take into the account threshold effects. While the $J^P = 0^+$ channel benefited most from the inclusion of scattering operators, it was also crucial for the case of the $D_{s1}(2460)$. Using the L\\"uscher method, which relates the finite volume spectrum to the infinite volume scattering matrix, we were able to determine the near threshold behavior of the scattering amplitude. From it we extracted the binding momenta and the masses of the below-threshold bound states $D_{s0}^*(2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ by determining the ...

  16. Reevaluating Bounds on Flavor-Changing Neutral Current Parameters in R-parity Conserving and R-parity Violating Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, J P; Saha, Jyoti Prasad; Kundu, Anirban

    2004-01-01

    We perform a systematic reevaluation of the constraints on the flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) parameters in R-parity conserving and R-parity violating supersymmetric models. As a typical process, we study the constraints coming from the measurements on the B0-\\bar{B0} system on the supersymmetric $\\delta^d_{13}$ parameters, as well as on the products of the lambda' type R-parity violating couplings. Present data allows us to put constraints on both the real and the imaginary parts of the relevant parameters.

  17. Three Dimensions of the Legalization of Government Purchasing Public Sports Service Power%政府购买公共体育服务权法治化的三个维度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟

    2015-01-01

    政府购买公共体育服务权法治化是政府购买公共体育服务法治化的基石.应从三个维度完成其法治化 :一是以法治的方式厘清政府购买公共体育服务权的边界 ,确保政府购买公共体育服务权正当行使 ;二是以法治的方式规制政府购买公共体育服务权 ,将政府购买公共体育服务权"关进制度的笼子" ;三是以法治的方式合理划分政府间购买公共体育服务权与体育事权 ,保障政府向公众提供高质量和充足的公共体育服务.%The legalization of government procurement public sports service power is key to a-chieve the legalization of government procurement public sports service .The legalization of gov-ernment procurement public sports service power must be completed in three dimensions from the rule of law .The first dimension ,it clarifies the boundaries of government procurement pub-lic sports service power in order to ensure that government procurement public sports service power is a legitimate exercise by way of the rule of law ;the second dimension ,it regulates gov-ernment procurement public sports service power in order to be locked cage by way of the rule of law ;a third dimension ,it is a reasonable division among government procurement public sports service power and sports authority powers in order to protect the government to provide high quality and adequate public sports services by way of the rule of law .

  18. Bilinear R-parity Violation and Small Neutrino Masses a Self-consistent Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Mira, J M; Restrepo, D A; Valle, José W F

    2000-01-01

    We study extensions of supersymmetric models without R-parity which include an anomalous U(1)_H horizontal symmetry. Bilinear R-parity violating terms induce a neutrino mass at tree level of approximately $(\\theta^2)^\\delta$ eV where $\\theta\\approx 0.22$ is the U(1)_H breaking parameter and $\\delta$ is an integer number that depends on the horizontal charges of the leptons. For $\\delta=1$ a unique self-consistent model arises in which i) all the superpotential trilinear R-parity violating couplings are forbidden by holomorphy; ii) the tree level neutrino mass falls in the range suggested by the atmospheric neutrino problem; iii) radiative contributions to neutrino masses are strongly suppressed resulting in a squared solar mass difference of few 10^{-8} eV^2 which only allows for the LOW (or quasi-vacuum) solution to the solar neutrino problem; iv) the neutrino mixing angles are not suppressed by powers of $\\theta$ and can naturally be large.

  19. Probing parity doubling in nucleons at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Gert; Hands, Simon; Jäger, Benjamin; Praki, Chrisanthi; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2015-01-01

    The spectrum of nucleons and their parity partners is studied as a function of temperature spanning the deconfinement transition. We analyse our results using the correlation functions directly, exponential fits in the hadronic phase, and the Maximum Entropy Method. These techniques all indicate that there is degeneracy in the parity partners' channels in the deconfined phase. This is in accordance with the expectation that there is parity doubling and chiral symmetry in the deconfined phase. In the hadronic phase, we also find that the nucleon ground state is largely independent of temperature, whereas there are substantial temperature effects in the negative parity channel. All results are obtained using our FASTSUM 2+1 flavour ensembles.

  20. Hadronic Parity Violation at Next-to-Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Tiburzi, B C

    2012-01-01

    The flavor-conserving non-leptonic weak interaction can be studied experimentally through the observation of parity violation in nuclear and few-body systems. At hadronic scales, matrix elements of parity-violating four-quark operators ultimately give rise to the parity violating couplings between hadrons, and such matrix elements can be calculated non-perturbatively using lattice QCD. In this work, we investigate the running of isovector parity-violating operators from the weak scale down to hadronic scales using the renormalization group. We work at next-to-leading order in the QCD coupling, and include both neutral-current and charged-current interactions. At this order, results are renormalization scheme dependent, and we utilize 't Hooft-Veltman dimensional regularization. The evolution of Wilson coefficients at leading and next-to-leading order is compared. Next-to-leading order effects are shown to be non-negligible at hadronic scales.

  1. Hadronic parity violation at next-to-leading order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburzi, B. C.

    2012-03-01

    The flavor-conserving nonleptonic weak interaction can be studied experimentally through the observation of parity violation in nuclear and few-body systems. At hadronic scales, matrix elements of parity-violating four-quark operators ultimately give rise to the parity-violating couplings between hadrons, and such matrix elements can be calculated nonperturbatively using lattice QCD. In this work, we investigate the running of isovector parity-violating operators from the weak scale down to hadronic scales using the renormalization group. We work at next-to-leading order in the QCD coupling, and include both neutral-current and charged-current interactions. At this order, results are renormalization-scheme dependent, and we utilize ’t Hooft-Veltman dimensional regularization. The evolution of Wilson coefficients at leading and next-to-leading order is compared. Next-to-leading-order effects are shown to be non-negligible at hadronic scales.

  2. Dynamical R-parity violations from exotic instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Addazi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We show how R-parity can be dynamically broken by non-perturbative quantum gravity effects. In particular, in D-brane models, Exotic instantons provide a simple and calculable mechanism for the generation of R-parity violating bilinear, trilinear and higher order superpotential terms. We show examples of MSSM-like D-brane models, in which one Exotic Instanton induces only one term among the possible R-parity violating superpotentials. Naturally, the idea can be generalized for other gauge groups. As a consequence, a dynamical violation of R-parity does not necessarily destabilize the proton, {\\it i.e} a strong fine tuning is naturally avoided, in our case. For example, a Lepton violating superpotential term can be generated without generating Baryon violating ones, and {\\it viceversa}. This has strong implications in phenomenology: neutrino, neutron-antineutron, electric dipole moments, dark matter and LHC physics.

  3. Dynamical R-parity Breaking at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shao-Long; Mohapatra, Rabindra N; Zhang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    In a class of extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with (B-L)/left-right symmetry that explains the neutrino masses, breaking R-parity symmetry is an essential and dynamical requirement for successful gauge symmetry breaking. Two consequences of these models are: (i) a new kind of R-parity breaking interaction that protects proton stability but adds new contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay and (ii) an upper bound on the extra gauge and parity symmetry breaking scale which is within the large hadron collider (LHC) energy range. We point out that an important prediction of such theories is a potentially large mixing between the right-handed charged lepton ($e^c$) and the superpartner of the right-handed gauge boson ($\\widetilde W_R^+$), which leads to a brand new class of R-parity violating interactions of type $\\widetilde{\\mu^c}^\\dagger\

  4. Iron-Based Superconductors as Odd-Parity Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Parity is a fundamental quantum number used to classify a state of matter. Materials rarely possess ground states with odd parity. We show that the superconducting state in iron-based superconductors is classified as an odd-parity s-wave spin-singlet pairing state in a single trilayer FeAs/Se, the building block of the materials. In a low-energy effective model constructed on the Fe square bipartite lattice, the superconducting order parameter in this state is a combination of an s-wave normal pairing between two sublattices and an s-wave η pairing within the sublattices. The state has a fingerprint with a real-space sign inversion between the top and bottom As/Se layers. The results suggest that iron-based superconductors are a new quantum state of matter, and the measurement of the odd parity can help to establish high-temperature superconducting mechanisms.

  5. Probing bilinear R-parity violating supergravity at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    De Campos, F; Magro, M B; Porod, Werner; Restrepo, D; Hirsch, M; Valle, J W F

    2008-01-01

    We study the collider phenomenology of bilinear R-parity violating supergravity, the simplest effective model for supersymmetric neutrino masses accounting for the current neutrino oscillation data. At the CERN Large Hadron Collider the center-of-mass energy will be high enough to probe directly these models through the search for the superpartners of the Standard Model particles. We analyze the impact of R-parity violation on the canonical supersymmetry searches - that is, we examine how the decay of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) via bilinear R-parity violating interactions degrades the average expected missing momentum of the reactions and show how this diminishes the reach in the 'usual' channels for supersymmetry searches. However, the R-parity violating interactions lead to an enhancement of the final states containing isolated same-sign di-leptons and trileptons, compensating the reach loss in the fully inclusive channel. Moreover we show how the searches for displaced vertices associated t...

  6. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  7. 48 CFR 1553.213 - Small purchases and other simplified purchase procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Small purchases and other simplified purchase procedures. 1553.213 Section 1553.213 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1553.213 Small purchases and...

  8. Collaborative e-Purchasing for Hospitals: IT for addressing collaborative purchasing impediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, Robbert; Versendaal, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative purchasing are many, yet in the healthcare sector, in particular at hospitals, it is still uncommon. In this paper we identify major impediments for collaborative purchasing, resulting in a first component of our proposed collaborative e-purchasing model for hospitals;

  9. “Will My Risk Parity Strategy Outperform?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    A letter is presented in response to the article "Will My Risk Parity Strategy Outperform?" by Robert Anderson, Stephen Bianchi, and Lisa Goldberg, which appeared in the November/December 2012 issue.......A letter is presented in response to the article "Will My Risk Parity Strategy Outperform?" by Robert Anderson, Stephen Bianchi, and Lisa Goldberg, which appeared in the November/December 2012 issue....

  10. On the static Casimir effect with parity-breaking mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosco, C.D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina); Remaggi, M.L. [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2017-03-15

    We study the Casimir interaction energy due to the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the presence of two mirrors, described by 2+1-dimensional, generally nonlocal actions, which may contain both parity-conserving and parity-breaking terms. We compare the results with the ones corresponding to Chern-Simons boundary conditions and evaluate the interaction energy for several particular situations. (orig.)

  11. Towards a new measurement of parity violation in dysprosium

    CERN Document Server

    Leefer, N; Antypas, D; Budker, D

    2014-01-01

    The dysprosium parity violation experiment concluded nearly 17 years ago with an upper limit on weak interaction induced mixing of nearly degenerate, opposite parity states in atomic dysprosium. While that experiment was limited in sensitivity by statistics, a new apparatus constructed in the interim for radio-frequency spectroscopy is expected to provide significant improvements to the statistical sensitivity. Preliminary work from the new PV experiment in dysprosium is presented with a discussion of the current statistical sensitivity and outlook.

  12. Fermionic quantum systems: controllability and the parity superselection rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeier, Robert; Schulte-Herbrueggen, Thomas [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching (Germany); Zimboras, Zoltan; Keyl, Michael [Institute for Scientific Interchange Foundation, Villa Gualino, Viale Settimio Severo 75, 10131 Torino (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    We study controllability and simulability of fermionic quantum systems which observe the parity superselection rule. Superselection rules describe the existence of non-trivial symmetries (e.g., the parity operator) that commute with all physical observables. We present examples of fermionic sytems such as quasifree and translation-invariant ones and develop readily applicable conditions for the controllability of fermionic systems by studying their symmetries. As an application, we discuss under which conditions fermionic and spin systems can simulate each other.

  13. Parity nonconservation in polarized electron scattering at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1979-10-01

    Recent observations of parity violation in inelastic scattering of electrons at high energy is discussed with reference to the process e(polarized) + D(unpolarized) ..-->.. e + X. The kinetics of this process, the idealized case of scattering from free quark targets, experimental techniques and results, and relations to atomic physics of parity violation in bismuth and thallium atoms with a model independent analysis. 17 references. (JFP)

  14. Calculation of parity non-conservation in xenon and mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A

    2012-01-01

    We use configuration interaction technique to calculate parity non-conservation (PNC) in metastable Xe and Hg [proposal of the experiment in L. Bougas et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 210801 (2012)]. Both, nuclear spin-independent and nuclear spin-dependent (dominated by the nuclear anapole moment) parts of the amplitude are considered. The amplitudes are strongly enhanced by proximity of the states of opposite parity.

  15. 76 FR 6820 - Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development at the C-Drop, a Feature of the Klamath Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Power Administration's (Western) purchasing and/or marketing the power, contact Ms. Sonja Anderson... would have the first opportunity to purchase and/or market the power that would be generated under any lease of power privilege. Under this process, Western would both purchase and market the power...

  16. The utility of web mining for epidemiological research: studying the association between parity and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Xu, Songhua; Han, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    The World Wide Web has emerged as a powerful data source for epidemiological studies related to infectious disease surveillance. However, its potential for cancer-related epidemiological discoveries is largely unexplored. Using advanced web crawling and tailored information extraction procedures, the authors automatically collected and analyzed the text content of 79 394 online obituary articles published between 1998 and 2014. The collected data included 51 911 cancer (27 330 breast; 9470 lung; 6496 pancreatic; 6342 ovarian; 2273 colon) and 27 483 non-cancer cases. With the derived information, the authors replicated a case-control study design to investigate the association between parity (i.e., childbearing) and cancer risk. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each cancer type and compared to those reported in large-scale epidemiological studies. Parity was found to be associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.75-0.82), pancreatic cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.72-0.83), colon cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI, 0.60-0.74), and ovarian cancer (OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.54-0.62). Marginal association was found for lung cancer risk (OR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.81-0.92). The linear trend between increased parity and reduced cancer risk was dramatically more pronounced for breast and ovarian cancer than the other cancers included in the analysis. This large web-mining study on parity and cancer risk produced findings very similar to those reported with traditional observational studies. It may be used as a promising strategy to generate study hypotheses for guiding and prioritizing future epidemiological studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Litigation Provides Clues to Ongoing Challenges in Implementing Insurance Parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kelsey N; Huskamp, Haiden A; Goldman, Howard H; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-08-11

    Over the past twenty-five years, thirty-seven states and the US Congress have passed mental health and substance use disorder (MH/SUD) parity laws to secure nondiscriminatory insurance coverage for MH/SUD services in the private health insurance market and through certain public insurance programs. However, in the intervening years, litigation has been brought by numerous parties alleging violations of insurance parity. We examine the critical issues underlying these legal challenges as a framework for understanding the areas in which parity enforcement is lacking, as well as ongoing areas of ambiguity in the interpretation of these laws. We identified all private litigation involving federal and state parity laws and extracted themes from a final sample of thirty-seven lawsuits. The primary substantive topics at issue include the scope of services guaranteed by parity laws, coverage of certain habilitative therapies such as applied behavioral analysis for autism spectrum disorders, credentialing standards for MH/SUD providers, determinations regarding the medical necessity of MH/SUD services, and the application of nonquantitative treatment limitations under the 2008 federal parity law. Ongoing efforts to achieve nondiscriminatory insurance coverage for MH/SUDs should attend to the major issues subject to private legal action as important areas for facilitating and monitoring insurer compliance. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  18. 2006 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sponsored by Economic Daily and the China Machinery Enterprises Management Association, the 2006 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum will be held in Tianjin on July 11-13. This represents another high-level dialogue and exchange between the government and the auto industry hot on the heels of the 2005 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum. This event is launched to promote

  19. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 13.202 Section 13.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Threshold 13.202 Purchase guidelines. (a) Solicitation, evaluation of quotations, and award. (1) To...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments § 1280.217 Lamb purchases....

  1. 48 CFR 1313.302 - Purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 1313.302 Section 1313.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisitions Methods 1313.302 Purchase orders....

  2. Creating a Purchase Order Using Spreadsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indusi, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the creation of a company purchase order complete with the names of items to be purchased, cost, quantity, discounts, sales tax, and balance due. It requires students to apply their knowledge and understanding of percentages and also gives students an opportunity to understand the mathematics they use with algebraic formulas. (AIM)

  3. 7 CFR 17.3 - Purchase authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expense of the participant. (2) Purchase authorizations may permit cotton textiles processed beyond the... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase authorizations. 17.3 Section 17.3 Agriculture... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.3...

  4. Purchasing decision behaviour by Chinese supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study on the relative importance of supplier selection criteria as rated by seafood purchasers for Chinese supermarkets. A sample of 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu participated in the study. The purchasers rated product quality as the most...

  5. Involving purchasing in new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, EJ; Biemans, WG; de Kort, JF

    2002-01-01

    Purchasing is evolving into a strategic business activity and thus also a potential contributor to the successful development of new products. However, the literature on the involvement of purchasing in new product development (NPD) is sorely lacking. We conducted an exploratory study to investigate

  6. 48 CFR 1913.505 - Purchase order and related forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Purchase order and related... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SMALL PURCHASES AND OTHER SIMPLIFIED PURCHASE PROCEDURES Purchase Orders 1913.505 Purchase order and related forms....

  7. Purchasing and inventory control systems management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, J C

    1984-02-01

    This article introduces a 13-part series of articles on managing the purchasing and inventory control systems for the hospital pharmacy department. The series will focus on the various components of the purchasing and inventory control process. Though the purchasing and inventory control functions are substantially interrelated, each will be presented separately. Most installments will present examples of applications in a wide variety of institutional settings. Topics to be discussed include historical perspectives, assessment of vendors and product selection, bid solicitation and contract negotiation, evaluation of drug procurement alternatives, development of a purchasing system, coordinating the purchasing process, objectives of inventory control, quantitative measurement of inventory control, methods of inventory control, management of the system, automated information systems, and quality assurance.

  8. 18 CFR 292.309 - Termination of obligation to purchase from qualifying facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of obligation to purchase from qualifying facilities. 292.309 Section 292.309 Conservation of Power and Water... Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) qualifies as a market described in § 292.309(a)(3), and there is a...

  9. Effect of live weight development and reproduction in first parity on reproductive performance of second parity sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, L L; Soede, N M; Graat, E A M; Feitsma, H; Kemp, B

    2010-10-01

    An impaired reproductive performance in second parity compared to first parity sows, decreases reproductive efficiency and, perhaps, longevity of sows. This study aims to quantify the effect of live weight development and reproduction in first parity on reproductive performance of second parity sows, i.e. pregnancy rate as well as litter size. Measures of sow development (live weight at first insemination, farrowing and weaning) and reproduction (total number of piglets born, weaning to insemination interval, lactation period, number piglets weaned) were recorded on two experimental farms. Logistic regression analysis was done for the binary outcome 'non-pregnancy from first insemination after first weaning' (yes/no). General linear regression analysis was used for litter size from 1st insemination in second parity. Repeat breeders were omitted from the analysis on litter size in second parity, since a prolonged period between weaning and conception can positively influence litter size. Farms differed significantly in measures of sow live weight development and therefore data were analyzed per farm. Compared with gilts from farm A, gilts from farm B were older and heavier at: first insemination (275±0.9 days and 145±0.8kg for farm B vs. 230±0.6 days and 124±0.5kg for farm A), first farrowing (resp. 189±1.1 vs. 181±0.9kg) and first weaning (resp. 165±1.1 vs. 156±0.9kg). Weight loss during pregnancy was similar for both farms (resp. 24.9±0.7 and 23.7±1.0kg). Gilts from farm A, however, gained more weight in the period between first insemination and first weaning compared with gilts from farm B (resp. 36.1±0.8 and 20.9±1.3kg). Non-pregnancy in second parity was 11% for farm A and 15% for farm B. Litter sizes in first and second parity were, respectively, 10.7±0.1 and 11.6±0.2 for farm A and 11.8±0.1 and 11.6±0.1 for farm B. Variables associated with non-pregnancy and litter size in second parity differed between farms. On farm A, mainly sow live weight

  10. On a parity property in the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval-Villalbazo, A

    2004-01-01

    The main issue in this paper is to discuss a parity property that appears in the expressions for the distorted spectrum of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. When using the convolution integrals method involving scattering laws we argue that the distorted spectrum contains a new term, which is an odd power of the frequency. Such a term, absent in the conventional approaches, implies a crossover frequency which differs in value form the ones reported in the literature by a significant, in principle observable, amount. Also, such term casts doubt on the demanding need of computing complicated relativistic calculations. The relationship of our approach with the existing calculations is discussed.

  11. 48 CFR 413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... purchase card. 413.301 Section 413.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. USDA policy and procedures on use of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are established in Departmental Regulation Series 5000....

  12. 75 FR 82095 - Purchase of Irrevocable Commitments Before Standard Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Doc No: 2010-32827] PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION Purchase of Irrevocable Commitments Before... taking further regulatory action or providing specific guidance on purchase of irrevocable commitments... a request for public comment on purchase of irrevocable commitments before standard termination...

  13. 48 CFR 2413.505 - Purchase order and related forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Purchase order and related... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACTING TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Purchase Orders 2413.505 Purchase order and related forms....

  14. 48 CFR 970.4402 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Management and Operating Contractor Purchasing 970.4402 Contractor purchasing system....

  15. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.

  16. Perbedaan Post Purchase Regret Berdasarkan Perilaku Pada Konsumen Wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Fardhani, Diah

    2014-01-01

    Post purchase regret is a negative emotion of consumer after evaluating the purchase decision has been made, the evaluation is conducted based on the outcome and process of consumer decision making. This study was a comparative quantitative study aimed to determine differences on post purchase regret based on unplanned and substitute purchasing behavior. The research hypothesis was the differences in post purchase regret based on unplanned behavior and substitute purchasing. The study involve...

  17. Process improvement in ICT services purchasing : Case study: Posti Oy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about purchasing ICT services and the empirical research is made for Posti Oy. The aim of the research is to describe present ICT services purchasing procedures in theory and in practice in Posti Oy, and also to give recommendations for improvement of the ICT services purchasing process in Posti Oy. The research includes mainly recent theory of ICT services purchasing and is not adaptable to any other type of service purchasing since service purchasing types differ between ...

  18. Locally parity-time-symmetric and globally parity-symmetric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W. W.; Herrero, R.; Botey, M.; Staliunas, K.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a class of systems holding parity-time (PT ) symmetry locally, whereas being globally P symmetric. The potential, U =U (|r |) , fulfills PT symmetry with respect to periodically distributed points r0:U (| r0+r |) =U*(| r0-r |) being r0≠0 . We show that such systems hold unusual properties arising from the merging of the two different symmetries, leading to a strong field localization and enhancement at the double-symmetry center, r =0 , when the coupling of outward to inward propagating waves is favored. We explore such general potentials in one and two dimensions, which could have actual realizations combining gain-loss and index modulations in nanophotonic structures. In particular, we show how to render a broad aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser into a bright and narrow beam source, as a direct application.

  19. Intention to purchase organic food among young consumers: Evidences from a developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rambalak; Pathak, Govind Swaroop

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the consumer's intention to purchase organic food in the context of a developing nation (India) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Further, the study has incorporated additional constructs (moral attitude, health consciousness and environmental concern) in the TPB and measured its appropriateness. Responses were collected from 220 young consumers adopting convenience sampling approach. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs. The findings reported that the TPB partially supported the organic food purchase intention. Among the additional constructs incorporated, moral attitude and health consciousness positively influenced the consumer's intention to purchase organic food. The study has supported the inclusion of new constructs in the TPB as it has improved the predictive power of the proposed framework in determining consumer's intention to purchase organic food.

  20. Hadronic weak charges and parity-violating forward Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Spiesberger, Hubert

    2016-11-01

    Background: Parity-violating elastic electron-nucleon scattering at low momentum transfer allows one to access the nucleon's weak charge, the vector coupling of the Z -boson to the nucleon. In the Standard Model and at tree level, the weak charge of the proton is related to the weak mixing angle and accidentally suppressed, QWp ,tree=1 -4 sin2θW≈0.07 . Modern experiments aim at extracting QWp at ˜1 % accuracy. Similarly, parity nonconservation in atoms allows to access the weak charge of atomic nuclei. Purpose: We consider a novel class of radiative corrections due to the exchange of two photons, with parity violation in the hadronic/nuclear system. These corrections are prone to long-range interactions and may affect the extraction of sin2θW from the experimental data at the relevant level of precision. Methods: The two-photon exchange contribution to the parity-violating electron-proton scattering amplitude is studied in the framework of forward dispersion relations. We address the general properties of the parity-violating forward Compton scattering amplitude and use relativistic chiral perturbation theory to provide the first field-theoretical proof that it obeys a superconvergence relation. Results: We show that the significance of this new correction increases with the beam energy in parity-violating electron scattering, but the superconvergence relation protects the formal definition of the weak charge as a limit at zero-momentum transfer and zero energy. We evaluate the new correction in a hadronic model with pion loops and the Δ (1232 ) resonance, supplemented with a high-energy contribution. For the kinematic conditions of existing and upcoming experiments we show that two-photon exchange corrections with hadronic or nuclear parity violation do not pose a problem for the interpretation of the data in terms of the weak mixing angle at the present level of accuracy. Conclusions: Two-photon exchange in presence of hadronic or nuclear parity violation

  1. Odd-parity superconductivity in bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuharu; Yanase, Youichi

    2017-08-01

    Spin-orbit coupling in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) causes spin-valley locking, giving rise to unconventional optical, transport, and superconducting properties. In this paper, we propose exotic superconductivity in bilayer group-IV TMDCs by symmetry control. The sublattice-dependent "hidden" spin-orbit coupling arising from local inversion symmetry breaking in the crystal structure may stabilize the odd-parity superconductivity by purely s -wave local pairing interaction. The stability of the odd-parity superconducting state depends on the bilayer stacking. The 2 Hb stacking in MoX2 and WX2 (X =S ,Se) favors the odd-parity superconductivity due to interlayer quantum interference. On the other hand, the odd-parity superconductivity is suppressed by the 2 Ha stacking of NbSe2. Calculating the phase diagram of the tight-binding model derived from first-principles band calculations, we conclude that the intercalated bilayer MoS2 and WS2 are candidates for a new class of odd-parity superconductors by spin-orbit coupling.

  2. Negative-parity nucleon excited state in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Keisuke; Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    Spectral functions of the nucleon and its negative-parity excited state in nuclear matter are studied by using QCD sum rules and the maximum entropy method (MEM). It is found that in-medium modifications of the spectral functions are attributed mainly to density dependencies of the and condensates. The MEM reproduces the lowest-energy peaks of both the positive- and negative-parity nucleon states at finite density up to ρ ˜ρN (normal nuclear matter density). As the density grows, the residue of the nucleon ground state decreases gradually while the residue of the lowest negative-parity excited state increases slightly. On the other hand, the positions of the peaks, which correspond to the total energies of these states, are almost density independent for both parity states. The density dependencies of the effective masses and vector self-energies are also extracted by assuming phenomenological mean-field-type propagators for the peak states. We find that, as the density increases, the nucleon effective mass decreases while the vector self-energy increases. The density dependence of these quantities for the negative-parity state on the other hand turns out to be relatively weak.

  3. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  4. Dialogue. Industry consolidation: what's at stake for consumers and purchasers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, W; Allen, J; Wider, J J; Ray, C G

    1998-08-01

    The behavioral healthcare field has undergone massive consolidation, especially in the last year. Health plans, hospital systems, and community-based organizations have all been affected. Economists argue that consolidation is a logical consequence of the current, competitive healthcare market. But consumers and purchasers wonder if the mergers and acquisitions will benefit them. Efficient markets are supposed to stimulate competition in ways that reward purchasers and consumers of services. When prices go down and quality improves as a result of competitive market forces, then the market has functioned properly and has served its purpose. Behavioral healthcare, however, is an essential human service, not a commodity. And the consumers and purchasers of healthcare are typically not the same person or entity, which also makes the healthcare market different from the markets for cars, computers, food, or any other type of consumer product. More than 100 million Americans now receive managed behavioral health benefits from only three companies. With such intense power concentrated in the hands of such a small number of providers, the time has come to evaluate the impact of the consolidation trend. In the following dialogue article, leaders, representing different interest groups review the benefits and risks of massive industry consolidation, and propose solutions to the critical challenges that it raises.

  5. Purchasing and Supply Organisation in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mugurusi, Godfrey; Bals, Lydia

    The increasing global competition, declining product life cycles and high market uncertainties are making organizations rethink their operations. Offshoring is among the many strategies organizations are using to redefine their operations and grow market presence. However, it is still not clear...... which impact offshoring has on the organization’s purchasing and supply operations. This paper is about the changes in the purchasing and supply organization (PSO) as the process of offshoring production occurs. How new purchasing structures and practices emerge and (how) the old purchasing structures......, observations and archival analysis. The preliminary findings suggest that the PSO changes dramatically when the company relocates production activities through the captive offshoring mode. However, these structural changes are somewhat intermittent but deterministically influenced partly by the offshoring...

  6. Purchasing and Supply Organisation in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mugurusi, Godfrey; Bals, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    The increasing global competition, declining product life cycles and high market uncertainties are making organizations rethink their operations. Offshoring is among the many strategies organizations are using to redefine their operations and grow market presence. However, it is still not clear...... which impact offshoring has on the organization’s purchasing and supply operations. This paper is about the changes in the purchasing and supply organization (PSO) as the process of offshoring production occurs. How new purchasing structures and practices emerge and (how) the old purchasing structures......, observations and archival analysis. The preliminary findings suggest that the PSO changes dramatically when the company relocates production activities through the captive offshoring mode. However, these structural changes are somewhat intermittent but deterministically influenced partly by the offshoring...

  7. The Effectiveness of Advertising Matching Purchase Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef; G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands

  8. Primer for Purchasing Computer Programs: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delf, Robert M.

    1981-01-01

    The second article in a series of three to help purchasers obtain the best computer programs for their budgets, deals with bid solicitation and software evaluation. The first article appeared in the July 1981 issue. (Author/MLF)

  9. Foreign Purchases and Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Foreign capital first entered China's real estate market in the late 1980s. Right now, under the expectations of a rise in the value of RMB,this sector has seen increasing interest from foreign purchasers and investors.

  10. Online Purchasing Intentions of Croatian Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Vojvodic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing importance of online shopping, it is crucial to better understand factors that influence customers’ purchasing behaviour in an electronic commerce environment. In order to explore which factorsdetermine the propensity of customers towards online purchase a binary probit regression was used. The data was collected through survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 426 Croatian customers from the DubrovnikNeretvaCounty. Research results show that customers who feel insecure are less likely to make an online pur-chase.Additionally, place and environment are proven to be significant factorsof electronic retailing.The results also indicate that the probability of actual online purchase increases with higher customers’ purchase intentions

  11. Obesity prevention at the point of purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Lesser, L I

    2016-05-01

    The point of purchase is when people may make poor and impulsive decisions about what and how much to buy and consume. Because point of purchase strategies frequently work through non-cognitive processes, people are often unable to recognize and resist them. Because people lack insight into how marketing practices interfere with their ability to routinely eat healthy, balanced diets, public health entities should protect consumers from potentially harmful point of purchase strategies. We describe four point of purchase policy options including standardized portion sizes; standards for meals that are sold as a bundle, e.g. 'combo meals'; placement and marketing restrictions on highly processed low-nutrient foods; and explicit warning labels. Adoption of such policies could contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We also discuss how the policies could be implemented, along with who might favour or oppose them. Many of the policies can be implemented locally, while preserving consumer choice.

  12. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  13. INFLUENCE OF THE BRAND ON PURCHASE DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISS MARTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the brand on purchase decision has been and is still extensively studied by marketers, researchers, economists, manufacturers (especially the multinational companies. In the present study we aimed to find out if the brand influences the purchase decision of consumers in general (brand products/services. A survey has been conducted in September 2016 on a number of 225 people, residents of Tîrgu Mureş city, from Romania, aged between 15 and 65+. The collected data were analyzed to comply with the obiectives and also to draw conclusions. From the study it is reveal that the purchase decision of a potencial buyer is influenced by a number of factors, in particularly by the quality and price. We chose to study the influence of brand on purchase decision, a very topical subject that can never be fully exhausted.

  14. Comparative analysis of Japanese Just-in-Time Purchasing and Traditional Indian Purchasing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Singh,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Just-in –Time purchasing strategy is being recognized as a corner stone of the Japanese success story. Just-in –Time Purchasing has received an increasing amount of attention throughout the world due to its potential for quality improvement and cost saving. Today many reputed Indian industries have also switched to the Japanese JIT Purchasing concept to improve their product quality and productivity. This paper discusses the major activities of JIT Purchasing and provides a comparative analysis of differences between the JIT urchasing and traditional Indian purchasing systems. In this article the problems encountered in JIT Purchasing implementation and its benefits, the companies benefited in India and other countries are also discussed.

  15. Phenomenology of the Little Higgs model with X-Parity

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas, A; Wyler, D

    2009-01-01

    In the popular littlest Higgs model, T-parity can be broken by Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms induced by a strongly coupled UV completion. On the other hand, certain models with multiple scalar multiplets (called moose models) permit the implementation of an exchange symmetry (X-parity) such that it is not broken by the WZW terms. Here we present a concrete and realistic construction of such a model. The little Higgs model with X-Parity is a concrete and realistic implementation of this idea. In this contribution, the properties of the model are reviewed and the collider phenomenology is discussed in some detail. We also present new results on the decay properties and LHC signatures of the light triplet scalars that are predicted by this model.

  16. Hadronic Parity Violation: a New View through the Looking Glass

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey-Musolf, M J; Page, Shelley A.; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the strangeness changing hadronic weak interaction have produced a number of puzzles that have so far evaded a complete explanation within the Standard Model. Their origin may lie either in dynamics peculiar to weak interactions involving strange quarks or in more general aspects of the interplay between strong and weak interactions. In principle, studies of the strangeness conserving hadronic weak interaction using parity violating hadronic and nuclear observables provide a complementary window on this question. However, progress in this direction has been hampered by the lack of a suitable theoretical framework for interpreting hadronic parity violation measurements in a model-independent way. Recent work involving effective field theory ideas has led to the formulation of such a framework while motivating the development of a number of new hadronic parity violation experiments in few-body systems. In this article, we review these recent developments and discuss the prospects and opportunities fo...

  17. Hadronic Parity Violation: A New View Through the Looking Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Page, Shelley A.

    2006-11-01

    Studies of the strangeness-changing hadronic weak interaction have produced a number of puzzles that have evaded a complete explanation within the Standard Model. Their origin may lie either in dynamics peculiar to weak interactions involving strange quarks or in more general aspects of the interplay between strong and weak interactions. In principle, studies of the strangeness-conserving hadronic weak interaction using parity-violating hadronic and nuclear observables provide a complementary window to this question. However, progress in this direction has been hampered by the lack of a suitable theoretical framework for interpreting hadronic parity violation measurements in a model-independent way. Recent work involving effective field theory ideas has led to the formulation of such a framework, simultaneously motivating the development of a number of new hadronic parity violation experiments in few-body systems. We review these recent developments and discuss the prospects and opportunities for further experimental and theoretical progress.

  18. Dynamics of Localized Structures in Systems with Broken Parity Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Javaloyes, J; Marconi, M; Giudici, M

    2016-01-01

    A great variety of nonlinear dissipative systems are known to host structures having a correlation range much shorter than the size of the system. The dynamics of these Localized Structures (LSs) have been investigated so far in situations featuring parity symmetry. In this letter we extend this analysis to systems lacking of this property. We show that the LS drifting speed in a parameter varying landscape is not simply proportional to the parameter gradient, as found in parity preserving situations. The symmetry breaking implies a new contribution to the velocity field which is a function of the parameter value, thus leading to a new paradigm for LSs manipulation. We illustrate this general concept by studying the trajectories of the LSs found in a passively mode-locked laser operated in the localization regime. Moreover, the lack of parity affects significantly LSs interactions which are governed by asymmetrical repulsive forces.

  19. Searches for R-parity violating Supersymmetry at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Büscher, V; Williams, M

    1997-01-01

    Searches for pair-production of Supersymmetric particles under the assumption that R-parity is not conserved have been performed using the data collected by ALEPH at centre-of-mass energies of 130-172 GeV. The results for a dominant R-parity violating coupling LLE, for which the observed candidate events in the data are in agreement with the SM expectation, translate into lower limits on the mass of charginos, neutralinos, sleptons, sneutrinos and squarks. We also give preliminary results on the search for charginos, sleptons and sneutrinos via a dominant LQD coupling, and discuss the implications of our results on the R-parity violating interpretations of the recently reported excess of high Q2 events at HERA, and the ALEPH four jet anomaly.

  20. Relaxing the parity conditions of asymptotically flat gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Dehouck, François

    2011-12-01

    Four-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes at spatial infinity are defined from first principles without imposing parity conditions or restrictions on the Weyl tensor. The Einstein-Hilbert action is shown to be a correct variational principle when it is supplemented by an anomalous counterterm which breaks asymptotic translation, supertranslation and logarithmic translation invariance. Poincaré transformations as well as supertranslations and logarithmic translations are associated with finite and conserved charges which represent the asymptotic symmetry group. Lorentz charges as well as logarithmic translations transform anomalously under a change of regulator. Lorentz charges are generally nonlinear functionals of the asymptotic fields but reduce to well-known linear expressions when parity conditions hold. We also define a covariant phase space of asymptotically flat spacetimes with parity conditions but without restrictions on the Weyl tensor. In this phase space, the anomaly plays classically no dynamical role. Supertranslations are pure gauge and the asymptotic symmetry group is the expected Poincaré group.

  1. The connection between Dirac dynamic and parity symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Villalobos, C H Coronado

    2016-01-01

    Dirac spinors are important objects in the current literature, the algebraic structure presented in the text-books is a general method to write it, however, not unique. The purpose of the present work is to show an alternative approach to construct Dirac spinors, considering the interchange between the Lorentz representation space (1/2,0) and (0,1/2) made by the "Magic of Pauli matrices" and not by parity, as commonly it was thought. As it is well known, parity operator is related with the Dirac dynamics. The major focus is to establish the relation between Dirac dynamics with parity operator, the reverse path shown in L. D. Speran\\c{c}a (2014).

  2. Parity-Violating Hydrodynamics in 2+1 Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kristan; Kovtun, Pavel; Meyer, Rene; Ritz, Adam; Yarom, Amos

    2011-01-01

    We study relativistic hydrodynamics of normal fluids in two spatial dimensions. When the microscopic theory breaks parity, extra transport coefficients appear in the hydrodynamic regime, including the Hall viscosity, and the anomalous Hall conductivity. In this work we classify all the transport coefficients in first order hydrodynamics. We then use properties of response functions and the positivity of entropy production to restrict the possible coefficients in the constitutive relations. All the parity-breaking transport coefficients are dissipationless, and some of them are related to the thermodynamic response to an external magnetic field and to vorticity. In addition, we give a holographic example of a strongly interacting relativistic fluid where the parity-violating transport coefficients are computable.

  3. The connection between Dirac dynamic and parity symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado Villalobos, C. H.; Bueno Rogerio, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Dirac spinors are important objects in the current literature, the algebraic structure presented in the text-books is a general method to write it, however, not unique. The purpose of the present work is to show an alternative approach to construct Dirac spinors, considering the interchange between the Lorentz representation space (1/2, 0) and (0, 1/2) made by the magic of Pauli matrices and not by parity, as was commonly thought. As is well known, the parity operator is related with the Dirac dynamics, as can be seen in Sperança L. D., Int. J. Mod. Phys. D, 2 (2014) 1444003. The major focus is to establish the relation between the Dirac dynamics with the parity operator, i.e., the reverse path shown in the paper by Sperança.

  4. New G -parity violating amplitude in the J /ψ decay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini Ferroli, R.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Maggiora, M.; Pacetti, S.; Yan, L.; Bertani, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Felici, G.; Patteri, P.; Wang, Y. D.; Zallo, A.; Bettoni, D.; Cibinetto, G.; Farinelli, R.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Mezzadri, G.; Santoro, V.; Savrié, M.; Bianchi, F.; Greco, M.; Marcello, S.; Spataro, S.; Carloni Calame, C. M.; Montagna, G.; Nicrosini, O.; Piccinini, F.

    2017-02-01

    The J /ψ meson has negative G parity so that, in the limit of isospin conservation, its decay into π+π- should be purely electromagnetic. However, the measured branching fraction B (J /ψ →π+π- ) exceeds by more than 4.5 standard deviations the expectation computed according to BABAR data on the e+e- →π+π- cross section. The possibility that the two-gluon plus one-photon decay mechanism is not suppressed by G -parity conservation is discussed, even by considering other multipion decay channels. As also obtained by phenomenological computation, such a decay mechanism could be responsible for the observed discrepancy. Finally, we notice that the BESIII experiment, having the potential to perform an accurate measurement of the e+e- →π+π- cross section in the J /ψ mass energy region, can definitely prove or disprove this strong G -parity-violating mechanism by confirming or confuting the BABAR data.

  5. Novel Higgs decay signals in R-parity violating models

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Restrepo, D; Yaguna, Carlos E

    2008-01-01

    In supersymmetric models the lightest Higgs boson may decay with a sizable branching ratio into a pair of light neutralinos. We analyze such decays within the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation, where the neutralino itself is unstable and decays into Standard Model fermions. We show that the R-parity violating couplings induce novel Higgs decay signals that might facilitate the discovery of the Higgs boson at colliders. At the LHC, the Higgs may be observed, for instance, through its decay -via two neutralinos- into final states containing missing energy and isolated charged leptons such as $l^\\pm l^\\mp, l^\\pm l^\\pm, 3l$, and $4l$. Another promising possibility is the search for the displaced vertices associated with the neutralino decay. We also point out that Higgs searches at the LHC might additionally provide the first evidence of R-parity violation.

  6. Central bank purchases of government bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Samuel; Kim, Jaehong

    2015-01-01

    We develop a microfounded model, where agents have the possibility to trade money for government bonds in an over-the-counter market. It allows us to address important open questions about the effects of central bank purchases of government bonds, these being: under what conditions these purchases can be welfare-improving, what incentive problems they mitigate, and how large these effects are. Our main finding is that this policy measure can be welfare-improving, by correcting a pecuniary ext...

  7. Identification of Demand Models of Multiple Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Sher; Kyoo il Kim

    2012-01-01

    We study the nonparametric identification of distributions of utility functions in a multiple purchase setting with a finite number of consumers. Each utility function takes as arguments subsets or, alternatively, quantities of the multiple goods. We exploit mathematical insights from auction theory to generically identify the distribution of utility functions. We use price variation and aggregate data on the sales of each product, but not on individual level purchases or the total sales of b...

  8. Purchase Contract Management for Fashion Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qunzhi; TSAO Debi

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a tow-stage purchase contract for fashion products to manage the buyer's cost. In addition to require a commitment, the purchase contract allows the buyer to adjust the commitment at a later stage. We model the buyer's problem and obtain explicit formulae to describe the buyer's optimal behavior. We analyze the effect of parameters on the buyer's cost and prove that such contract can decrease the buyer's cost numerically.

  9. Online Purchasing Intentions of Croatian Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Katija Vojvodic; Matea Matic

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing importance of online shopping, it is crucial to better understand factors that influence customers’ purchasing behaviour in an electronic commerce environment. In order to explore which factorsdetermine the propensity of customers towards online purchase a binary probit regression was used. The data was collected through survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 426 Croatian customers from the Dubrovnik- NeretvaCounty. Research results show that customers who feel...

  10. Consumer involvement in nonprescription medicine purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, P; Madhavan, S; McClung, G; Riley, D

    1994-01-01

    As self-medication with nonprescription drugs becomes increasingly popular and important in this era of escalating health care costs and growing consumer sophistication, the degree of consumer involvement in the purchase decision becomes an important factor. High involvement suggests active information-seeking behavior and, therefore, a greater likelihood of appropriate nonprescription drug use. The authors assess consumer involvement in nonprescription medicine purchase decisions and the use of expert sources of information.

  11. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Ma...

  12. Strategics links between purchases and logistics functions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is meant to global companies that would implement purchasing and logistics strategies in order to win a competitive edge and increase their performance. The purpose of this thesis is to learn about the organization of purchasing and logistics functions within global companies. Not only to discover their organization but also to understand their operational principal and realize how strategic and important those function can be to an international company. The Case Stu...

  13. U.S. Southern Command Government Purchase Card Controls Need Improvement to Prevent Improper Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    Comptroller and Staff Judge Advocate officials approved the request on September 28, 2011. Gift items purchased included 11 iPod Touch devices engraved...cardholder made the payment on September 29, 2011. The USSOUTHCOM Protocol Office received the iPods in November 2011 and stored them in the gift...locker. Consequently, the iPods were an unnecessary purchase because they did not meet the needs of the command during the fiscal year the purchase

  14. Sows’ parity and coconut oil postnatal supplement on piglets performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan S Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of sows’ of different parities and the supplement of coconut oil for piglets, on the development of litter. Materials and methods. A total of 51 sows of different parities and their 642 piglets were used in the trial. Each piglet was weighed and identified at birth in a sequential order. They were randomly distributed in two treatments (CG=control group and TG=test group. TG piglets had the first access to a dosage of 3.0 ml of coconut oil 12 hours after birth, and the second at 36 h after the first. Piglets were weighed at 21 days. In order to analyze the effect of the coconut oil supplement as a function of the weight at birth, piglets were grouped according to their weight (0.600 to 0.900 kg; 1.000 to 1.499kg; 1.500 to 1.999 kg; and 2.000 to 2.499 kg. Results. Sows parity affected the number and weight of born piglets. Sows in 4th, 5th and 7th parity had a larger litter than those from the 2nd parity. Sows from 2nd and 3rd parity had a lower number of piglets but heavier litter. No effect of the coconut oil supplement on neonatal piglets’ performance was found. Conclusions. The coconut meal was neither beneficial to neonatal piglets nor to those with low weight at birth, which usually present low body energy.

  15. Measurement of parity violation in electron–quark scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Pan, K.; Subedi, R.; Deng, X.; Ahmed, Z.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Armstrong, D. S.; Arrington, J.; Bellini, V.; Beminiwattha, R.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M. M.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deconinck, W.; Deur, A.; Dutta, C.; El Fassi, L.; Erler, J.; Flay, D.; Franklin, G. B.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilad, S.; Giusa, A.; Glamazdin, A.; Golge, S.; Grimm, K.; Hafidi, K.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmes, R.; Holmstrom, T.; Holt, R. J.; Huang, J.; Hyde, C. E.; Jen, C. M.; Jones, D.; Kang, Hoyoung; King, P. M.; Kowalski, S.; Kumar, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; LeRose, J. J.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; McNulty, D.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Meddi, F.; Meekins, D. G.; Mercado, L.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Myers, K. E.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman,; Oh, Y.; Parno, D.; Paschke, K. D.; Phillips, S. K.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Quinn, B.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Rider, K.; Riordan, S.; Roche, J.; Rubin, J.; Russo, G.; Saenboonruang, K.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Silwal, R.; Sirca, S.; Souder, P. A.; Suleiman, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Sutera, C. M.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ye, L.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.

    2014-02-05

    Symmetry permeates nature and is fundamental to all laws of physics. One example is parity (mirror) symmetry, which implies that flipping left and right does not change the laws of physics. Laws for electromagnetism, gravity and the subatomic strong force respect parity symmetry, but the subatomic weak force does not. Historically, parity violation in electron scattering has been important in establishing (and now testing) the standard model of particle physics. One particular set of quantities accessible through measurements of parity-violating electron scattering are the effective weak couplings C2q, sensitive to the quarks chirality preference when participating in the weak force, which have been measured directly3, 4 only once in the past 40?years. Here we report a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in electron-quark scattering, which yields a determination of 2C2u???C2d (where u and d denote up and down quarks, respectively) with a precision increased by a factor of five relative to the earlier result. These results provide evidence with greater than 95 per cent confidence that the C2q couplings are non-zero, as predicted by the electroweak theory. They lead to constraints on new parity-violating interactions beyond the standard model, particularly those due to quark chirality. Whereas contemporary particle physics research is focused on high-energy colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider, our results provide specific chirality information on electroweak theory that is difficult to obtain at high energies. Our measurement is relatively free of ambiguity in its interpretation, and opens the door to even more precise measurements in the future.

  16. Measurement of parity violation in electron-quark scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Symmetry permeates nature and is fundamental to all laws of physics. One example is parity (mirror) symmetry, which implies that flipping left and right does not change the laws of physics. Laws for electromagnetism, gravity and the subatomic strong force respect parity symmetry, but the subatomic weak force does not. Historically, parity violation in electron scattering has been important in establishing (and now testing) the standard model of particle physics. One particular set of quantities accessible through measurements of parity-violating electron scattering are the effective weak couplings C2q, sensitive to the quarks' chirality preference when participating in the weak force, which have been measured directly only once in the past 40 years. Here we report a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in electron-quark scattering, which yields a determination of 2C2u - C2d (where u and d denote up and down quarks, respectively) with a precision increased by a factor of five relative to the earlier result. These results provide evidence with greater than 95 per cent confidence that the C2q couplings are non-zero, as predicted by the electroweak theory. They lead to constraints on new parity-violating interactions beyond the standard model, particularly those due to quark chirality. Whereas contemporary particle physics research is focused on high-energy colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider, our results provide specific chirality information on electroweak theory that is difficult to obtain at high energies. Our measurement is relatively free of ambiguity in its interpretation, and opens the door to even more precise measurements in the future.

  17. Signatures of the Minimal Moose Model With Exact Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A.; Schwaller, P.; Wyler, D.

    2010-03-01

    In the popular littlest Higgs model, T-parity can be broken by Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms induced by a strongly coupled UV completion. On the other hand, certain models with multiple scalar multiplets (called moose models) permit the implementation of T-parity such that it is not broken by the WZW terms. Here we present a concrete realization of such a model, and discuss the phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider, in particular differences with respect to the littlest Higgs model.

  18. Unnatural parity resonance states in positron-excited hydrogen scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jia; Zhou Ya-Jun; Wang Yuan-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The coupled-channels optical method for positron scattering has been applied to investigate resonance states with unnatural parities in a positron-excited hydrogen system.The positronium formation channels and continuum channel are included via a complex equivalent local potential.Resonance states with angular momenta L =1 to L =2 and parities (-1)L+1 are calculated.Resonance energies and widths are reported and compared with other theoretical calculations.We found that the opening positronium formation channels play an important role in forming nondipole Feshbach resonances.

  19. Neuro-parity pattern recognition system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Van Alstine, Rollin G.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Yue, Yong

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring a process and determining its condition. Initial data is sensed, a first set of virtual data is produced by applying a system state analyzation to the initial data, a second set of virtual data is produced by applying a neural network analyzation to the initial data and a parity space analyzation is applied to the first and second set of virtual data and also to the initial data to provide a parity space decision about the condition of the process. A logic test can further be applied to produce a further system decision about the state of the process.

  20. The Weak Parity-Violating Pion-Nucleon Coupling (Revised)

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, E M; Kisslinger, L S

    2009-01-01

    We use QCD sum rules to obtain the weak parity-violating pion-nucleon coupling constant $f_{\\pi NN}$. We find that $f_{\\pi NN}\\approx 2\\times 10^{-8}$, about an order of magnitude smaller than the ``best estimates'' based on quark models. This result follows from the cancellation between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD processes not found in quark models, but explicit in the QCD sum rule method. Our result is consistent with the experimental upper limit found from $^{18}$F parity-violating measurements.

  1. Effect of sow parity on vaginal electrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezác, P; Kukla, R; Pöschl, M

    2002-08-15

    The influence of sow parity on the changes of vaginal impedance after weaning was examined. Sows were monitored twice a day for oestrus via exposure to a sexually mature boar. The criterion for confirmation of ovulation was an increase in plasma progesterone levels above 12.5 nmol l(-1) 8 and 12 days after oestrus onset. The impedance measurements were carried out by a four-terminal method. In sows of all parities, the vaginal impedance decreased gradually after weaning (P four-terminal method.

  2. Parity nonconservation in dielectronic recombination of multiply charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, M G; Currell, F J

    2007-01-01

    We discuss a parity nonconserving (PNC) asymmetry in the cross section of dielectronic recombination of polarized electrons on multiply charged ions with Z>40. This effect is strongly enhanced for close doubly-excited states of opposite parity in the intermediate compound ion. Such states are known for He-like ions. However, these levels have large energy and large radiative widths which hampers observation of the PNC asymmetry. We argue that accidentally degenerate states of the more complex ions may be more suitable for the corresponding experiment.

  3. Observation of Parity Nonconservation in Møller Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, P. L.; Arnold, R. G.; Arroyo, C.; Baird, K.; Bega, K.; Biesiada, J.; Bosted, P. E.; Breuer, M.; Carr, R.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Cooke, M.; Decker, F. J.; Decowski, P.; Deur, A.; Emam, W.; Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Field, C.; Gao, J.; Gustafsson, K.; Hicks, R. S.; Holmes, R.; Hughes, E. W.; Humensky, T. B.; Jones, G. M.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kumar, K. S.; Lhuillier, D.; Lombard-Nelsen, R.; Mastromarino, P.; Mayer, B.; McKeown, R. D.; Michaels, R.; Olson, M.; Paschke, K. D.; Peterson, G. A.; Pitthan, R.; Pope, K.; Relyea, D.; Rock, S. E.; Saxton, O.; Shapiro, G.; Singh, J.; Souder, P. A.; Szalata, Z. M.; Tobias, W. A.; Tonguc, B. T.; Turner, J.; Tweedie, B.; Vacheret, A.; Walz, D.; Weber, T.; Weisend, J.; Whittum, D.; Woods, M.; Younus, I.

    2004-05-01

    We report a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Møller) scattering: APV=[-175±30(stat)±20(syst)]×10-9. This first direct observation of parity nonconservation in Møller scattering leads to a measurement of the electron's weak charge at low energy QeW=-0.053±0.011. This is consistent with the standard model expectation at the current level of precision: sin(2θW(MZ)MS¯=0.2293±0.0024(stat)±0.0016(syst)±0.0006(theory).

  4. The connection between Dirac dynamic and parity symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Dirac spinors are important objects in the current literature, the algebraic structure presented in the text-books is a general method to write it, however, not unique. The purpose of the present work is to show an alternative approach to construct Dirac spinors, considering the interchange between the Lorentz representation space (1/2,0) and (0,1/2) made by the "Magic of Pauli matrices" and not by parity, as commonly it was thought. As it is well known, parity operator is related with the Di...

  5. Parity Violation and Electric Dipole Moments in Atoms and Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2012-11-01

    We review the current status of the study of parity and time invariance violation in atoms, nuclei and molecules. We focus on parity nonconservation (PNC) in cesium (CS) and three of the most promising areas of research: (i) PNC in a chain of isotopes, (ii) search for nuclear anapole moments, and (iii) search for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of atoms and molecules, which in turn are caused by either an electron EDM or nuclear T, P-odd moments such as a nuclear EDM or nuclear Schiff moment.

  6. 31 CFR 316.6 - Purchase of bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of bonds. 316.6 Section 316....6 Purchase of bonds. Series E bonds were purchased, as follows: (a) Over-the-counter for cash—(1... purchase Series E bonds at banks or other financial institutions authorized to issue such bonds. Stamps...

  7. 48 CFR 213.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... purchase card. 213.301 Section 213.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (1) “United States... accordance with 201.603-3(b) also may use the Governmentwide commercial purchase card to make a purchase...

  8. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase... purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity... provision at 52.207-4, Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies, and 7.204 for guidance on handling responses...

  9. 48 CFR 52.207-5 - Option To Purchase Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option To Purchase....207-5 Option To Purchase Equipment. As prescribed in 7.404, insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Option To Purchase Equipment (FEB 1995) (a) The Government may purchase the...

  10. 48 CFR 13.302-2 - Unpriced purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unpriced purchase orders...-2 Unpriced purchase orders. (a) An unpriced purchase order is an order for supplies or services, the price of which is not established at the time of issuance of the order. (b) An unpriced purchase...

  11. 41 CFR 51-5.4 - Purchase exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purchase exceptions. 51-5... Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 5-CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS § 51-5.4 Purchase exceptions. (a) A central nonprofit agency will normally grant a purchase...

  12. 45 CFR 400.148 - Purchase of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of services. 400.148 Section 400.148... Services Purchase of Services § 400.148 Purchase of services. A state may provide services directly or it may purchase services from public or private service providers. Conditions of Eligibility for...

  13. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage that includes coverage for targeted low-income children if the State establishes that— (a) Purchase...

  14. 31 CFR 346.3 - Purchase of bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of bonds. 346.3 Section 346... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.3 Purchase of bonds. (a) Agencies. Individual Retirement Bonds may be purchased over... be able to arrange for the purchase of the bonds through such institutions, but only the...

  15. 48 CFR 13.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... purchase card. 13.301 Section 13.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (a) Except as provided in 32.1108(b)(2), the Governmentwide commercial purchase card is authorized for use in making and/or paying for purchases of supplies, services,...

  16. 14 CFR 399.39 - Equipment purchase deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment purchase deposits. 399.39 Section... Equipment purchase deposits. Equipment purchase deposits are advance payments made by air carriers to manufacturers for the purchase of equipment to be delivered in the future, or funds segregated by air...

  17. 41 CFR 101-29.209 - Purchase description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purchase description. 101... DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.209 Purchase description. A purchase description is any informal product description prepared for one-time use only or for small purchases when issuance of a formal...

  18. 31 CFR 341.3 - Purchase of bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of bonds. 341.3 Section 341... BONDS § 341.3 Purchase of bonds. (a) Agencies. Retirement Plan Bonds may be purchased over-the-counter... 20226. Customers of commercial banks and trust companies may be able to arrange for the purchase of...

  19. 7 CFR 1780.62 - Utility purchase contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utility purchase contracts. 1780.62 Section 1780.62..., Constructing and Inspections § 1780.62 Utility purchase contracts. Applicants proposing to purchase water or... may be requested. Form RD 442-30, “Water Purchase Contract,” may be used when appropriate. If...

  20. 36 CFR 223.101 - Determination of purchaser responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser has a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics; (5) The purchaser has or is able to... and governmental business commitments; (3) The purchaser has a satisfactory performance record on... applicable laws and regulations. (c) If the prospective purchaser is a small business concern and...

  1. A Framework for Assessing the Commercialization of Photovoltaic Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqub, Mahdi

    An effective framework does not currently exist with which to assess the viability of commercializing photovoltaic (PV) power generation in the US energy market. Adopting a new technology, such as utility-scale PV power generation, requires a commercialization assessment framework. The framework developed here assesses the economic viability of a set of alternatives of identified factors. Economic viability focuses on simulating the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) as a key performance measure to realize `grid parity', or the equivalence between the PV electricity prices and grid electricity prices for established energy technologies. Simulation results confirm that `grid parity' could be achieved without the current federal 30% investment tax credit (ITC) via a combination of three strategies: 1) using economies of scale to reduce the LCOE by 30% from its current value of 3.6 cents/kWh to 2.5 cents/kWh, 2) employing a longer power purchase agreement (PPA) over 30 years at a 4% interest rate, and 3) improving by 15% the "capacity factor", which is the ratio of the total annual generated energy to the full potential annual generation when the utility is continuously operating at its rated output. The lower than commercial-market interest rate of 4% that is needed to realize `grid parity' is intended to replace the current federal 30% ITC subsidy, which does not have a cash inflow to offset the outflow of subsidy payments. The 4% interest rate can be realized through two proposed finance plans: The first plan involves the implementation of carbon fees on polluting power plants to produce the capital needed to lower the utility PPA loan term interest rate from its current 7% to the necessary 4% rate. The second plan entails a proposed public debt finance plan. Under this plan, the US Government leverages its guarantee power to issue bonds and uses the proceeds to finance the construction and operation of PV power plants with PPA loan with a 4% interest rate for a

  2. Nuclear isospin mixing and elastic parity-violating electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Sarriguren, P. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: sarriguren@iem.cfmac.csic.es; Moya de Guerra, E.; Udias, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Donnelly, T.W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sick, I. [Departement fuer Physik, Universitaet Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    The influence of nuclear isospin mixing on parity-violating elastic electron scattering is studied for the even-even, N=Z nuclei {sup 12}C, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 28}Si, and {sup 32}S. Their ground-state wave functions have been obtained using a self-consistent axially-symmetric mean-field approximation with density-dependent effective two-body Skyrme interactions. Some differences from previous shell-model calculations appear for the isovector Coulomb form factors which play a role in determining the parity-violating asymmetry. To gain an understanding of how these differences arise, the results have been expanded in a spherical harmonic oscillator basis. Results are obtained not only within the plane-wave Born approximation, but also using the distorted-wave Born approximation for comparison with potential future experimental studies of parity-violating electron scattering. To this end, for each nucleus the focus is placed on kinematic ranges where the signal (isospin-mixing effects on the parity-violating asymmetry) and the experimental figure-of-merit are maximized. Strangeness contributions to the asymmetry are also briefly discussed, since they and the isospin mixing contributions may play comparable roles for the nuclei being studied at the low momentum transfers of interest in the present work.

  3. Negative-parity nucleon excited state in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtani, Keisuke; Oka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Spectral functions of the nucleon and its negative parity excited state in nuclear matter are studied using QCD sum rules and the maximum entropy method (MEM). It is found that in-medium modifications of the spectral functions are attributed mainly to density dependencies of the $\\langle \\bar{q}q \\rangle $ and $\\langle q^{\\dagger}q \\rangle $ condensates. The MEM reproduces the lowest-energy peaks of both the positive and negative parity nucleon states at finite density up to $\\rho \\sim \\rho_N$ (normal nuclear matter density). As the density grows, the residue of the nucleon ground state decreases gradually while the residue of the lowest negative parity excited state increases slightly. On the other hand, the positions of the peaks, which correspond to the total energies of these states, are almost density independent for both parity states. The density dependencies of the effective masses and vector self-energies are also extracted by assuming the mean-field green functions for the peak states. We find that,...

  4. A Multi-Core Solver for Parity Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de Jaco; Weber, Michael; Černá, I.; Lüttgen, G.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a parallel algorithm for solving parity games, with applications in, e.g., modal mu-calculus model checking with arbitrary alternations, and (branching) bisimulation checking. The algorithm is based on Jurdzinski's Small Progress Measures. Actually, this is a class of algorithms, depend

  5. The Fixpoint-Iteration Algorithm for Parity Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bruse

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the model checking problem for the modal mu-calculus reduces to the problem of solving a parity game and vice-versa. The latter is realised by the Walukiewicz formulas which are satisfied by a node in a parity game iff player 0 wins the game from this node. Thus, they define her winning region, and any model checking algorithm for the modal mu-calculus, suitably specialised to the Walukiewicz formulas, yields an algorithm for solving parity games. In this paper we study the effect of employing the most straight-forward mu-calculus model checking algorithm: fixpoint iteration. This is also one of the few algorithms, if not the only one, that were not originally devised for parity game solving already. While an empirical study quickly shows that this does not yield an algorithm that works well in practice, it is interesting from a theoretical point for two reasons: first, it is exponential on virtually all families of games that were designed as lower bounds for very particular algorithms suggesting that fixpoint iteration is connected to all those. Second, fixpoint iteration does not compute positional winning strategies. Note that the Walukiewicz formulas only define winning regions; some additional work is needed in order to make this algorithm compute winning strategies. We show that these are particular exponential-space strategies which we call eventually-positional, and we show how positional ones can be extracted from them.

  6. Radiative decays of negative parity heavy baryons in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Agamaliev, A K; Savcı, M

    2016-01-01

    The transition form factors responsible for the radiative $\\Sigma_Q \\to \\Lambda_Q \\gamma$ and $\\Xi_Q^\\prime \\to \\Xi \\gamma$ decays of the negative parity baryons are examined within light cone QCD sum rules. The decay widths of the radiative transitions are calculated using the obtained results of the form factors.

  7. Parity-Violating Interaction Effects in the np System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schiavilla; J.A. Carlson; M. Paris

    2003-09-03

    We investigate parity-violating observables in the np system, including the longitudinal asymmetry and neutron-spin rotation in np elastic scattering, the photon asymmetry in np radiative capture, and the asymmetries in deuteron photo-disintegration d(gamma,n)p in the threshold region and electro-disintegration d(e,e`)np in quasi-elastic kinematics. To have an estimate of the model dependence for the various predictions, a number of different, latest-generation strong-interaction potentials--Argonne v18, Bonn 2000, and Nijmegen I--are used in combination with a weak-interaction potential consisting of pi-, rho-, and omega-meson exchanges--the model known as DDH. The complete bound and scattering problems in the presence of parity-conserving, including electromagnetic, and parity-violating potentials is solved in both configuration and momentum space. The issue of electromagnetic current conservation is examined carefully. We find large cancellations between the asymmetries induced by the parity-violating interactions and those arising from the associated pion-exchange currents. In the np capture, the model dependence is nevertheless quite small, because of constraints arising through the Siegert evaluation of the relevant E1 matrix elements. In quasi-elastic electron scattering these processes are found to be insignificant compared to the asymmetry produced by gamma-Z interference on individual nucleons.

  8. Relaxing the parity conditions of asymptotically flat gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compère, G.; Dehouck, F.

    2011-01-01

    Four-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes at spatial infinity are defined from first principles without imposing parity conditions or restrictions on the Weyl tensor. The Einstein-Hilbert action is shown to be a correct variational principle when it is supplemented by an anomalous counterterm

  9. Hadronic weak charges and parity-violating forward Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Gorchtein, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Parity-violating elastic electron-nucleon scattering at low momentum transfer allows one to access the nucleon's weak charge, the vector coupling of the $Z$-boson to the nucleon. In the Standard Model and at tree level, the weak charge of the proton is related to the weak mixing angle and accidentally suppressed, $Q_W^{p,\\,{\\rm tree}}=1-4\\sin^2\\theta_W\\approx0.07$. Modern experiments aim at extracting $Q_W^p$ at $\\sim1\\%$ accuracy. Similarly, parity non-conservation in atoms allows to access the weak charge of atomic nuclei. We consider a novel class of radiative corrections, an exchange of two photons with parity violation in the hadronic/nuclear system. These corrections may affect the extraction of $\\sin^2\\theta_W$ from the experimental data at the relevant level of precision because they are affected by long-range interactions similar to other parity-violating radiative corrections, such as, e.g., the $\\gamma Z$-exchange, which has obtained much attention recently. We show that the significance of this ne...

  10. Nuclear Spin Dependent Parity Violation in Diatomic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntas, Emine; Cahn, Sidney; Demille, David

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear spin-dependent parity violation (NSD-PV) effects arise from exchange of the Z0 boson between electrons and the nucleus, and from interaction of electrons with the nuclear anapole moment, a parity-odd magnetic moment. The latter scales with nucleon number of the nucleus A as A2/3 , whereas the Z0 coupling is independent of A. Thus the former is the dominant source of NSD-PV for nuclei with A >= 20 . We study NSD-PV effects using diatomic molecules, where signals are dramatically amplified by bringing rotational levels of opposite parity close to degeneracy in a strong magnetic field. The NSD-PV interaction matrix element is measured using a Stark-interference technique. We present results that demonstrate statistical sensitivity to NSD-PV effects surpassing that of any previous atomic parity violation measurement, using the test system 138Ba19F. We report our progress on measuring and cancelling systematic effects due to combination of non-reversing stray E-fields, Enr with B-field inhomogeneities. Short-term prospects for measuring the nuclear anapole moment of 137Ba19F are discussed. In the long term, our technique is sufficiently general and sensitive to enable measurements across a broad range of nuclei.

  11. Dynamical P-parity breaking in effective quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianov, A A; Yudichev, V L

    1995-01-01

    Fermion models with selfinteraction including derivatives of fields are investigated in the strong coupling regime. The existence of three phases is established in the two channel model near tricritical point. The special phase of dynamical P-parity breaking is found.

  12. Parity and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Per; Ipsen, Sidsel; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    a population-based cohort study including all Danish women who gave birth during year 1982-1983 (n = 100238). The cohort was identified in the National Birth Register and information on maternal age and parity was retracted from the register. The women were followed in the National Patient Register through...

  13. From parity violation to hadronic structure and more

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, K; Kox, S; Lhuillier, D; Maas, F; Page, S; Papanicolas, C; Stiliaris, S; Wiele, J; rd International Workshop on From Parity Violation to Hadronic Structure and More (PAVI06); PAVI 06; PAVI 2006

    2007-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the third international workshop on “From Parity Violation to Hadronic Structure and more ...” which was held from May 16 to May 20, 2006, at the George Eliopoulos conference center on the Greek island of Milos. It is part of a series that started in Mainz in 2002 and was followed by a second workshop in Grenoble in 2004. While originally initiated by the extraction of the strangeness contribution to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, the workshop series has continuously broadened the focus to the application of Parity Violation using hadronic probes and to Parity Violation experiments in atomic physics. Meanwhile there have been many exciting new proposals for using Parity Violation in other areas like in the search for new physics beyond the standard model or in exploring hadron structure. There are also close connections to the open question on the size of the two photon exchange amplitude. Fifty years after the 1956 proposal of Lee and Yang to test t...

  14. Parity and Prestige in English Secondary Education Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Olive Banks' work Parity and Prestige in English Secondary Education made a major and distinctive contribution to the literature on the historical development of secondary education. Her work exemplified a close relationship between sociology and history, examined a vital and enduring theme that continues to be relevant and pervasive, helped to…

  15. Boson permutation and parity operators: Lie algebra and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Richard A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)]. E-mail: richard.campos@mailaps.org; Gerry, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)

    2006-08-14

    We show that dichotomic permutation and parity operators for a two-dimensional boson system form an su(2) algebra with a unitary operator that relates, in quantum optics, to a balanced beamsplitter. The algebra greatly simplifies the input-output transformations of states through quantum nonlinear systems such as the Kerr interferometer or the kicked top.

  16. Determinant factors of industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of internet for business purchasing related activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shook Mei Chan; Siohong Tih

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to examine a path model and the mediating effect of perceived communication convenience towards explaining industrial purchasing personnel’s Internet adoption for business purchasing related activities. It involves sequencing paths examining the predictive effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on perceived communication convenience. Consequently, perceived communication convenience would influence Internet adoption as commun...

  17. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  18. A testable parity conservative gate in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkaj, Ehsan Taher; Heikalabad, Saeed Rasouli

    2017-01-01

    There are important challenges in current VLSI technology such as feature size. New technologies are emerging to overcome these challenges. One of these technologies is quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) but it also has some disadvantages. One of the very important challenges in QCA is the occurrence of faults due to its very small area. There are different ways to overcome this challenge, one of which is the testable logic gate. There are two types of testable gate; reversible gate, and conservative gate. We propose a new testable parity conservative gate in this paper. This gate is simulated with QCADesigner and compared with previous structures. Power dissipation of proposed gate investigated using QCAPro simulator as an accurate power estimator tool.

  19. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  20. Long-Lived stop at the LHC with or without R-parity

    OpenAIRE

    Covi, L.; Dradi, F.

    2014-01-01

    We consider scenarios of gravitino LSP and DM with stop NLSP both within R-parity conserving and R-parity violating supersymmetry (RPC and RPV SUSY, respectively). We discuss cosmological bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the gravitino abundance and then concentrate on the signals of long-lived stops at the LHC as displaced vertices or metastable particles. Finally we discuss how to distinguish R-parity conserving and R-parity breaking stop decays if they happen withi...

  1. Fermion algebra with Z{sub p}-graded parity: Representation and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Sang, E-mail: mimip4444@hanmail.net

    2015-01-23

    In this paper we discuss the fermion algebra with Z{sub p}-graded parity. We show that the fermion algebra with Z{sub 2}-graded parity is equivalent to the paraboson algebra. For the fermion algebra with the Z{sub p}-parity, Fock representation is also discussed. Finally, we discuss the thermodynamics of a particle obeying the fermion algebra with Z{sub p}-parity.

  2. Quench dynamics and parity blocking in Majorana wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Suraj; Shivamoggi, Vasudha; Vishveshwara, Smitha; Sen, Diptiman

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically explore quench dynamics in a finite-sized topological fermionic p-wave superconducting wire with the goal of demonstrating that topological order can have marked effects on such non-equilibrium dynamics. In the case studied here, topological order is reflected in the presence of two (nearly) isolated Majorana fermionic end bound modes together forming an electronic state that can be occupied or not, leading to two (nearly) degenerate ground states characterized by fermion parity. Our study begins with a characterization of the static properties of the finite-sized wire, including the behavior of the Majorana end modes and the form of the tunnel coupling between them; a transfer matrix approach to analytically determine the locations of the zero energy contours where this coupling vanishes; and a Pfaffian approach to map the ground state parity in the associated phase diagram. We next study the quench dynamics resulting from initializing the system in a topological ground state and then dynamically tuning one of the parameters of the Hamiltonian. For this, we develop a dynamic quantum many-body technique that invokes a Wick’s theorem for Majorana fermions, vastly reducing the numerical effort given the exponentially large Hilbert space. We investigate the salient and detailed features of two dynamic quantities—the overlap between the time-evolved state and the instantaneous ground state (adiabatic fidelity) and the residual energy. When the parity of the instantaneous ground state flips successively with time, we find that the time-evolved state can dramatically switch back and forth between this state and an excited state even when the quenching is very slow, a phenomenon that we term ‘parity blocking’. This parity blocking becomes prominently manifest as non-analytic jumps as a function of time in both dynamic quantities.

  3. Calculation of three-body nuclear reactions with angular-momentum and parity-dependent optical potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Deltuva, A

    2016-01-01

    Angular-momentum or parity-dependent nonlocal optical potentials for nucleon-${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}$ scattering able to fit differential cross section data over the whole angular regime are developed and applied to the description of deuteron-${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}$ scattering in the framework of three-body Faddeev-type equations for transition operators. Differential cross sections and deuteron analyzing powers for elastic scattering and ${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}(d,p){}^{17}\\mathrm{O}$ transfer reactions are calculated using a number of local and nonlocal optical potentials and compared with experimental data. Angular-momentum or parity-dependence of the optical potential turns out to be quite irrelevant in the considered three-body reactions while nonlocality is essential for a successful description of the differential cross section data, especially in transfer reactions.

  4. Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalek, Vivienne

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

  5. An empirical test for parities between metal prices at the LME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); P. Kofman (Paul)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractA stock price parity reflects the known resources of the commodities, while a flow parity concerns short-term supplies. Prices may not only converge in the long-run to a fixed stock parity, but also move toward sequences of short-run flow equilibria. Cointegration analysis is used in an

  6. Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalek, Vivienne

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

  7. The second parity sow : causes and consequences of variation in reproductive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    Many sows show reduced litter sizes in their second parity compared with their first parity. The aim of the current thesis was to describe causes and consequences of variation on second parity reproductive performance and to evaluate if feeding strategies during early gestation affect reproductive p

  8. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  9. Collaborative Purchasing of Complex Technologies in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    the needs of the buyers within the purchasing group) and customer alignment (i.e. aligning buyers’ needs with the vendors offering strategies) and investigate how they manifest in the case of CP of complex technology in the Danish National Healthcare System. Findings: – Shareholder alignment requires...... appropriate management of the relationships, expertise and guidance in simplifying procedures and effective management of the purchasing group. Customer alignment is facilitated by buyers’ understating of the vendor’s design options, which are moderated by the vendor’s design strategies. Research limitations....../implications: – The findings and generalizations from a single case study are limited to the complexity of the purchased technology and the specific cultural context. However the paper represents the first explorative study that poses the attention on the relevance of shareholder and customer alignment in CP. Practical...

  10. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    illustrate with our empirical analysis on global sourcing organization design at Global Chemical Company (GCC, a pseudonym) that revisiting the conventional wisdom about global sourcing organization designs is required; by engaging in a detailed, subfirm level of analysis on the design of the purchasing......This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....

  11. A computerized purchase order management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S; Villez, P A

    1991-01-01

    Order processing and parts issuing are within the scope of an inventory management system and, as such, it was logical to incorporate the Purchase Order Management Menu into the biomedical engineering inventory management system. The Purchase Order Management function was implemented using the services of a biomedical engineering technician who is a staff member. Software development time (two months) was the only resource that was necessary to incorporate this function into the inventory system. This function, implemented on a PC, provided locally functions that had not been available on the mainframe-based hospital purchasing system. These functions directly addressed the needs of the users, who in this case are the staff members of the department of biomedical engineering at University Hospital, Stony Brook, New York.

  12. Catalyzing Mass Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Using University Driven Green Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Joshua M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of the purchase power of the higher education system to catalyze the economy of scale necessary to ensure market competitiveness for solar photovoltaic electricity. Design/methodology/approach: The approach used here was to first determine the demand necessary to construct "Solar City…

  13. Catalyzing Mass Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Using University Driven Green Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Joshua M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of the purchase power of the higher education system to catalyze the economy of scale necessary to ensure market competitiveness for solar photovoltaic electricity. Design/methodology/approach: The approach used here was to first determine the demand necessary to construct "Solar City…

  14. Time constraints in the alcohol purchase task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Murphy, James G; Henley, Amy J; Reed, Florence D DiGennaro; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2017-06-01

    Hypothetical purchase tasks have advanced behavioral economic evaluations of demand by circumventing practical and ethical restrictions associated with delivering drug reinforcers to participants. Numerous studies examining the reliability and validity of purchase task methodology suggest that it is a valuable method for assessing demand that warrants continued use and evaluation. Within the literature examining purchase tasks, the alcohol purchase task (APT) has received the most investigation, and currently represents the most experimentally validated variant. However, inconsistencies in purchase task methodology between studies exist, even within APT studies, and, to date, none have assessed the influence of experimental economic constraints on responding. This study examined changes in Q0 (reported consumption when drinks are free), breakpoint (price that suppresses consumption), and α (rate of change in demand elasticity) in the presence of different hypothetical durations of access to alcohol in an APT. One hundred seventy-nine participants (94 males, 85 females) from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed 3 APTs that varied in the duration of time at a party (i.e., access to alcoholic beverages) as described in the APT instructions (i.e., vignette). The 3 durations included 5-hr (used by Murphy et al., 2013), 1-hr, and 9-hr time frames. We found that hypothetical duration of access was significantly related to Q0 and breakpoint at the individual level. Additionally, group-level mean α decreased significantly with increases in duration of access, thus indicating relatively higher demand for alcohol with longer durations of access. We discuss implications for conducting hypothetical purchase task research and alcohol misuse prevention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. 78 FR 48185 - Notice of Intent To Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development on the San Juan-Chama Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... under a lease of power privilege. Western would have the first opportunity to purchase and/or market the...) 756-2175. Information related to Western's purchasing and/or marketing of the power may be obtained by... proposal(s) that may have been submitted by a non-preference entity. Power Purchasing and/or Marketing...

  16. Purchasing Organization and Design: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph H. Glock

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a comprehensive literature review of the organization of purchasing covering the period from 1967 to 2009. The review provides a structured overview of prior research topics and findings and identifies gaps in the existing literature that may be addressed in future research. The intention of the review is to a synthesize prior research, b provide researchers with a structural framework on which future research on the organization of purchasing may be oriented, and c suggest promising areas for future research.

  17. Single Ra{sup +} ion spectroscopy - towards a measurement of atomic parity violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Portela, Mayerlin; Mohanti, A.; Dijck, E.A.; Bekker, H.; Boell, O.; Berg, J. van den; Giri, G.S.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Santra, B.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    The sensitivity of the Atomic Parity Violation (APV) signal grows faster than the third power of the atomic number Z. Ra{sup +} (Z=88) is heaviest alkaline earth ion available. A single trapped Ra{sup +} ion opens a very promising path for a measurement atomic parity violation. One of the experimental challenges is the localization of the ion within a fraction of an optical wavelength. For this the current experiments are focused on trapping and laser cooling of Ba{sup +} ions as a precursor for Ra{sup +}. Ba{sup +} ions are trapped and laser cooled in a precision hyperbolic Paul trap. Work towards single Ba{sup +} ion localization and detection is in progress. Recently the hyperfine structure of the 6d{sub 2}D{sub 3/2} states and the isotope shift of the 6d{sub 2}D{sub 3/2}-7p{sub 2}P{sub 1/2} transition in the isotopes {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +} has been measured in online laser spectroscopy experiments at the KVI AGOR/TRIμP facility. These results are essential for the interpretation of an APV measurement in Ra{sup +}.

  18. Parity-odd and CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M., Jr.; Silva, Madson R. O.

    2010-05-01

    This work examines the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and parity-odd electrodynamics of the standard model extension. The starting point is the partition function computed for an arbitrary and sufficiently small tensor (kF)ανρφ [see R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., J. S. Rodrigues, and M. R. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 085026 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.80.085026]. After specializing the Lorentz-violating tensor (kF)ανρφ for the leading-order-nonbirefringent and parity-odd coefficients, the partition function is explicitly carried out, showing that it is a power of the Maxwell partition function. Also, it is observed that the Lorentz invariance violation coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black-body angular energy density distribution. Planck’s radiation law retains its usual frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the same form, except for a global proportionality constant.

  19. Polarized neutron beam properties for measuring parity-violating spin rotation in liquid {sup 4}He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micherdzinska, A.M., E-mail: amicherd@gwu.ed [Indiana University/IU Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Bass, C.D. [Indiana University/IU Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Bass, T.D. [Indiana University/IU Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Gan, K. [George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Luo, D. [Indiana University/IU Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Markoff, D.M. [North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Mumm, H.P.; Nico, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Opper, A.K. [George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Sharapov, E.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Snow, W.M. [Indiana University/IU Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Swanson, H.E. [University of Washington/CENPA, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zhumabekova, V. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Al-Farabi Ave. 71, 050038 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2011-03-01

    Measurements of parity-violating neutron spin rotation can provide insight into the poorly understood nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. Because the expected rotation angle per unit length is small (10{sup -7} rad/m), several properties of the polarized cold neutron beam phase space and the neutron optical elements of the polarimeter must be measured to quantify possible systematic effects. This paper presents (1) an analysis of a class of possible systematic uncertainties in neutron spin rotation measurements associated with the neutron polarimetry, and (2) measurements of the relevant neutron beam properties (intensity distribution, energy spectrum, and the product of the neutron beam polarization and the analyzing power as a function of the beam phase space properties) on the NG-6 cold neutron beam-line at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. We conclude that the phase space nonuniformities of the polarimeter in this beam are small enough that a parity-violating neutron spin rotation measurement in n-{sup 4}He with systematic uncertainties at the 10{sup -7} rad/m level is possible.

  20. The effective chiral Lagrangian from dimension-six parity and time-reversal violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, J. de, E-mail: devries.jordy@gmail.com [KVI, Theory Group, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mereghetti, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Timmermans, R.G.E. [KVI, Theory Group, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Kolck, U. van [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay (France); Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    We classify the parity- and time-reversal-violating operators involving quark and gluon fields that have effective dimension six: the quark electric dipole moment, the quark and gluon chromo-electric dipole moments, and four four-quark operators. We construct the effective chiral Lagrangian with hadronic and electromagnetic interactions that originate from them, which serves as the basis for calculations of low-energy observables. The form of the effective interactions depends on the chiral properties of these operators. We develop a power-counting scheme and calculate within this scheme, as an example, the parity- and time-reversal-violating pion–nucleon form factor. We also discuss the electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light nuclei. -- Highlights: •Classification of T-odd dimension-six sources based on impact on observables. •Building of the chiral Lagrangian for each dimension-six source. •Calculation of the PT-odd pion–nucleon form factor for each source. •Discussion of hadronic EDMs for each source and comparison with the theta term.

  1. High Resolution GHZ and Thz (ftir) Spectroscopy and Theory of Parity Violation and Tunneling for 1,2-DITHIINE (C4H4S2) as a Candidate for Measuring the Parity Violating Energy Difference Between Enantiomers of Chiral Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Sieghard; Bolotova, Irina; Chen, Ziqiu; Fábri, Csaba; Horny, Lubos; Quack, Martin; Seyfang, Georg; Zindel, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We report high resolution spectroscopic results for 1,2-dithiine-(1,2-dithia-3,5-cyclohexadiene,C4H4S2) in the Gigahertz and Terahertz spectroscopic ranges and exploratory theoretical calculations of parity violation and tunneling processes in view of a possible experimental determination of the parity violating energy difference ΔpvE in this chiral molecule. Theory predicts that the parity violating energy difference in the ground state (ΔpvE≃11x10-11(hc) wn)is in principle measurable as it is much larger than the calculated tunneling splitting for the symmetrical potential Δ±E≃10-24(hc) wn. With a planar transition state for stereomutation at about 2500 wn tunneling splittings become appreciable above 2300 wn. This makes levels of well defined parity accessible to parity selection by available powerful infrared lasers and thus useful for one of the existing experimental approaches towards molecular parity violation. The new GHz spectra lead to greatly improved ground state rotational parameters for 1,2-dithiine. These are used as starting point for the first successful analyses of high resolution interferometric Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, THz) spectra for the fundamentals ν17 (1308.873 wn or 39.23903 THz), ν22 (623.094 wn or 18.67989 THz) and ν3 (1544.900 wn or 46.314937 THz) for which highly accurate spectroscopic parameters are reported. The results are discussed in relation to current efforts to measure ΔpvE.a-. M. Quack , Fundamental Symmetries and Symmetry Violations from High-resolution Spectroscopy, Handbook of High Resolution Spectroscopy, M. Quack and F. Merkt eds.,John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, New York, 2001, vol. 1, ch. 18, pp. 659-722 S. Albert, I. Bolotova, Z. Chen, C. Fábri, L. Horny, M. Quack, G. Seyfang and D. Zindel,Proceedings of the 20th Symposium on Atomic, Cluster and Surface Physics (SASP 2016), Innsbruck University Press, 2016, pp. 127-130, ISBN:978-3-903122-04-8. and to be published P. Dietiker, E. Miloglyadov, M

  2. Purchasing power: getting the best for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthorpe, Jill; Iliffe, Steve

    2008-11-01

    At first glance, commissioning mental health may look like a heart-sink project, but it need not be. In fact, the opposite may be true. This report argues that consistent application of a long-term strategy, which allows the accumulation of small changes across agencies and disciplines, is likely to be the key to success. It sets out the issues that need to be addressed, the pitfalls to avoid, and examines a series of objectives for commissioners.

  3. Genetic correlations between first parity and accumulated second to last parity reproduction traits as selection aids to improve sow lifetime productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udomsak Noppibool

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this research was to estimate genetic correlations between number of piglets born alive in the first parity (NBA1, litter birth weight in the first parity (LTBW1, number of piglets weaned in the first parity (NPW1, litter weaning weight in the first parity (LTWW1, number of piglets born alive from second to last parity (NBA2+, litter birth weight from second to last parity (LTBW2+, number of piglets weaned from second to last parity (NPW2+ and litter weaning weight from second to last parity (LTWW2+, and to identify the percentages of animals (the top 10%, 25%, and 50% for first parity and sums of second and later parity traits. Methods The 9,830 records consisted of 2,124 Landrace (L, 724 Yorkshire (Y, 2,650 LY, and 4,332 YL that had their first farrowing between July 1989 and December 2013. The 8-trait animal model included the fixed effects of first farrowing year-season, additive genetic group, heterosis of the sow and the litter, age at first farrowing, and days to weaning (NPW1, LTWW1, NPW2+, and LTWW2+. Random effects were animal and residual. Results Heritability estimates ranged from 0.08±0.02 (NBA1 and NPW1 to 0.29±0.02 (NPW2+. Genetic correlations between reproduction traits in the first parity and from second to last parity ranged from 0.17±0.08 (LTBW1 and LTBW2+ to 0.67±0.06 (LTWW1 and LTWW2+. Phenotypic correlations between reproduction traits in the first parity and from second to last parity were close to zero. Rank correlations between LTWW1 and LTWW2+ estimated breeding value tended to be higher than for other pairs of traits across all replacement percentages. Conclusion These rank correlations indicated that selecting boars and sows using genetic predictions for first parity reproduction traits would help improve reproduction traits in the second and later parities as well as lifetime productivity in this swine population.

  4. Minimal bosonization of supersymmetry with Z{sub p}-graded parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Sang [Department of Physics and Research Institute of Natural Science, College of Natural Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper we consider the Z{sub p}-graded parity generalizing the ordinary (or Z{sub 2}-graded) parity. Using the Z{sub p}-graded parity operator, we discuss the minimal bosonization of the N=2 SUSY with Z{sub p}-graded parity. The lowest energy level is shown to be infinitely degenerate. In order to avoid the infinite degeneracy of the ground state we introduce the paraboson algebra to obtain the para-supersymmetry. Finally, we discuss the hidden SUSY with Z{sub 3}-graded parity. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. The impacts of electronic word of mouth in social media on consumers` purchase intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, C.; Erkan, I

    2014-01-01

    The influence of Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) on consumers` purchase intentions has been known for a long time. However, eWOM has gained a new dimension with the advent of social media. Before this new phenomenon, people were able to talk with anonymous people on the Internet. Social media enable people to talk with friends and acquaintances, on the Internet. This new way of eWOM might be more powerful in terms of triggering purchase intention. This study discusses the electronic word of m...

  6. Who is the purchaser of nutrition-labeled products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Koch-Hansen, Pia

    2017-01-01

    . This holds both across countries and across products. In Denmark education is positively correlated with label purchase, while in the Netherlands it is income. Generally, the observable characteristics of the consumers are poor in explaining the probability of purchasing labelled products which suggests...... are based on stated observation or purchase intentions.......Purpose The aim of this paper is to determine how the typical purchasers of products with nutrition symbols differ from other purchasers with respect to socio-demographic characteristics. Furthermore we examine if the typical purchaser is similar across six product types in Denmark...

  7. Nanosolar: Delivering Grid-Parity Solar Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, Brian [Nanosolar, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2012-05-31

    Nanosolar has developed proprietary technology based on Copper-Indium-Gallium-diSelenide (CIGS) absorber technology that allows the printing of this semiconductor material using a high-speed, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing process. A central challenge in cost-effectively constructing a large-area CIGS-based solar cell or module is that the elements of the CIGS layer must be within a narrow stoichiometric ratio on nano-, meso-, and macroscopic length scale in all three dimensions in order for the resulting cell or module to be highly efficient. Achieving precise stoichiometric composition over relatively large substrate areas is however difficult using traditional vacuum-based deposition processes. For example, it is difficult to uniformly deposit compounds and/or alloys containing more than one element by sputtering or evaporation. Both techniques rely on deposition approaches that are limited to line-of-sight and limited-area sources, tending to result in poor surface coverage. Line-of-sight trajectories and limited-area sources can result in non-uniform three-dimensional distribution of the elements in all three dimensions and/or poor film-thickness uniformity over large areas. These non-uniformities can occur over the nano-, meso-, and/or macroscopic scales. Such non-uniformity also alters the local stoichiometric ratios of the absorber layer, decreasing the potential power conversion efficiency of the complete cell or module. Nanosolar has overcome these challenges by printing nanoparticulate CIGS precursor materials onto low-cost metal foil substrates, and performing a rapid thermal processing to convert the nanoparticulate coating into a CIGS absorber layer By locking in the appropriate stochiometry into the nanoparticulate precursor material, spatial uniformity is ensured in the coated layers, while printing at high speed and throughput minimizes solar cell cost.

  8. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... are pledged as collateral for a loan issued under any Commodity Credit Corporation price support...

  9. Probability numeracy and health insurance purchase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.

  10. Income, Cultural Norms and Purchases of Counterfeits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Lede (Madesta)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe conjecture that individual purchases of counterfeit products could be motivated by income and prices, but that another driver is cultural norms. To put the latter conjecture to an empirical test we make use of the unique situation of Surinamese people who live in Suriname and in the

  11. The Effectiveness of Advertising Matching Purchase Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef; G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands informationa

  12. Probability numeracy and health insurance purchase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.

  13. Obesity Prevention at the Point of Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Lesser, Lenard I.

    2017-01-01

    The point of purchase is when people may make poor and impulsive decisions about what and how much to buy and consume. Since point of purchase strategies frequently work through non-cognitive processes, people are often unable to recognize and resist them. Because people lack insight into how marketing practices interfere with their ability to routinely eat healthy, balanced diets, public health entities should protect consumers from point of purchase strategies. We describe four point of purchase policy options including standardized portion sizes; standards for meals that are sold as a bundle, e.g. “combo meals”; placement and marketing restrictions on highly processed low-nutrient foods; and explicit warning labels. Adoption of such policies could contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We also discuss how the policies could be implemented, along with who might favor or oppose them. Many of the policies can be implemented locally, while preserving consumer choice. PMID:26910361

  14. Cooperative purchasing within the United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2005-01-01

    To support cooperative purchasing within the United Nations we carried out an empirical study in 2004, mainly to define cooperation forms, and to identify and rank motives and critical factors for cooperation. Important reasons to work together turn out to be lower prices and transaction costs, shar

  15. 48 CFR 813.302 - Purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 813.302 Section 813.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 813.302...

  16. 48 CFR 13.302 - Purchase orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 13.302 Section 13.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 13.302...

  17. Automating the purchasing and inventory control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T W

    1985-05-01

    Factors involved in computerizing the purchasing and inventory control functions in hospital pharmacies are described. When initiating an automated purchasing and inventory control system, a feasibility study should first be conducted to determine the extent of automation needed to develop a cost-effective system. The design of the system will depend on the extent to which the department of materials management is involved with other hospital departments. The advantages and disadvantages of decentralized versus centralized systems are discussed, and criteria for selecting hardware and software vendors are presented. A return-on-investment analysis should be performed to validate the benefits or savings expected from implementing the new automated system. Factors to consider during implementation of the new system and future developments affecting purchasing and inventory control systems, such as bar coding, are discussed. With the current concern about rapidly rising health-care costs and the need to enhance productivity, the development and implementation of automated purchasing and inventory control systems are important strategies for institutions to pursue now.

  18. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; Vet, De Emely; Ridder, De Denise T.D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  19. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823023; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  20. [Recommendations for the control of purchasing procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowicz, A

    2013-06-01

    The main relevant and useful process purchase choice of equipments and supplies as well as supplier evaluation are presented. Documents to develop to meet the accreditation standard ISO/FDIS 15189-2012 are listed. This article is intended to assist the biologist in his approach to mandatory certification.

  1. A Little Higgs Model with Exact Dark Matter Parity

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas, A; Wyler, D

    2009-01-01

    Based on a recent idea by Krohn and Yavin, we construct a little Higgs model with an internal parity that is not broken by anomalous Wess-Zumino-Witten terms. The model is a modification of the "minimal moose" models by Arkani-Hamed et al. and Cheng and Low. The new parity prevents large corrections to oblique electroweak parameters and leads to a viable dark matter candidate. It is shown how the complete Standard Model particle content, including quarks and leptons together with their Yukawa couplings, can be implemented. Successful electroweak symmetry breaking and consistency with electroweak precision constraints is achieved for natural paramters choices. A rich spectrum of new particles is predicted at the TeV scale, some of which have sizable production cross sections and striking decay signatures at the LHC.

  2. Parity space-based fault diagnosis of CCBII braking system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志武; 杨迎泽; 王晶; 李赟

    2013-01-01

    Fault diagnosis is a key issue of the CCBII(computer controlled brake II) braking system, because the CCBII braking system is very complicated and nonlinear, which may exhibit isolated and multi-component coupled faults. A parity space-based method was proposed for fault diagnosis of CCBII braking systems. Firstly, the mathematical models were established according to three function modules of CCBII braking systems where the air fluid theory was utilized. Then, parity vector and threshold function were designed for each output of the system so as to identify more system faults. Fault character matrix was built based on the causal relationship between the output and the fault according to the system function and internal structure. Finally, fault detection and isolation can be realized by the comparison of the observed system output and the fault character matrix. Simulation results show that the proposed method is entirely feasible and effective.

  3. Experiments on parity violation in the compound nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Results from experiments that measure parity-violating longitudinal asymmetries in the scattering of epithermal neutrons from compound-nuclear resonances at the Manuel Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos are discussed. Parity non-conserving asymmetries have been observed for many p-wave resonances in a single target. Measurements were performed on several nuclei in the mass region of A-100 and A-230. The statistical model of the compound nucleus provides a theoretical basis for extracting mean-squared matrix elements from the experimental asymmetry data, and for interpreting the mean-squared matrix elements. The constraints on the weak meson-exchange couplings calculated from the compound-nucleus asymmetry data agree qualitatively with the results from few-body and light-nuclei experiments. For all nuclei but {sup 232}Th measured asymmetries have random signs. For {sup 232}Th eight of eight measured asymmetries are positive. This phenomenon is discussed in terms or doorway models.

  4. Novel Parity-Preserving Designs of Reversible 4-Bit Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xue-mei; Chen, Fu-long; Wang, Hong-tao; Sun, Yun-xiang; Guo, Liang-min

    2014-04-01

    Reversible logic has attracted much attention in recent years especially when the calculation with minimum energy consumption is considered. This paper presents two novel approaches for designing reversible 4-bit comparator based on parity-preserving gates, which can detect any fault that affects no more than a single logic signal. In order to construct the comparator, three variable EX-OR gate (TVG), comparator gate (CPG), four variable EX-OR gate block (FVGB) and comparator gate block (CPGB) are designed, and they are parity-preserving and reversible. Their quantum equivalent implementations are also proposed. The design of two comparator circuits is completed by using existing reversible gates and the above new reversible circuits. All these comparators have been modeled and verified in Verilog hardware description language (Verilog HDL). The Quartus II simulation results indicate that their circuits' logic structures are correct. The comparative results are presented in terms of quantum cost, delay and garbage outputs.

  5. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan; Cheng, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-02-02

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  6. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  7. Searches for R-parity-violating supersymmetry at colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Sirois, Y

    2000-01-01

    The search for R-parity-violating supersymmetry at existing colliders is reviewed with emphasis on the sensitivity to the new Yukawa couplings lambda , lambda ' (inducing lepton-number-violating interactions) and lambda " (inducing baryon-number-violating interactions). One dramatic consequence of the existence any such nonvanishing coupling is the instability of supersymmetric matter. The extent to which this affects the sensitivity to other free parameters of minimal supersymmetric models has been extensively studied at LEP and is briefly reviewed. Given that supersymmetric matter has not been observed yet, and since its existence still cannot be ruled out, we concentrate here on the important question of a possible "discovery" of supersymmetry (if it exists) through the R- parity-violating couplings. The case of resonant production of sleptons via lambda ' and squarks via lambda " at the Tevatron, as well as the case of resonant production of sneutrinos at LEP involving lambda , is briefly discussed. A par...

  8. Symbolic Detection of Permutation and Parity Symmetries of Evolution Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Moataz

    2017-06-18

    We introduce a symbolic computational approach to detecting all permutation and parity symmetries in any general evolution equation, and to generating associated invariant polynomials, from given monomials, under the action of these symmetries. Traditionally, discrete point symmetries of differential equations are systemically found by solving complicated nonlinear systems of partial differential equations; in the presence of Lie symmetries, the process can be simplified further. Here, we show how to find parity- and permutation-type discrete symmetries purely based on algebraic calculations. Furthermore, we show that such symmetries always form groups, thereby allowing for the generation of new group-invariant conserved quantities from known conserved quantities. This work also contains an implementation of the said results in Mathematica. In addition, it includes, as a motivation for this work, an investigation of the connection between variational symmetries, described by local Lie groups, and conserved quantities in Hamiltonian systems.

  9. Parity-doublet representation of Majorana fermions and neutron oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a parity-doublet theorem for the representation of the intrinsic parity of Majorana fermions, which is expected to be useful also in condensed matter physics, and it is illustrated to provide a criterion of neutron-antineutron oscillation in a BCS-like effective theory with $\\Delta B=2$ baryon number violating terms. The CP violation in the present effective theory causes no direct CP violating effects in the oscillation itself, which is demonstrated by the exact solution, although it influences the neutron electric dipole moment in the leading order of small $\\Delta B=2$ parameters. An analogue of Bogoliubov transformation, which preserves P and CP, is crucial in the analysis.

  10. Parity violation in p-wave neutron resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, E I; Penttilae, S I; Mitchell, G E

    2001-01-01

    Parity violation in p-wave resonances has been studied by measuring the cross section longitudinal asymmetries at neutron energies up to 300-2000 eV. The measurements were performed using the polarization set-up at the pulsed spallation neutron source of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centre. Parity violations were observed in 75 resonances of Br, Rh, Pd, Ag, Sn, In, Sb, I, Cs, Xe, La, Th, and U. Statistical methods were developed to determine the weak interaction r. m. s. matrix elements and the corresponding widths GAMMA subomega. The average value of GAMMA subomega is about 1.8 x 10 sup - sup 7 eV. The individual GAMMA subomega are consistent with a constant varying mass dependence at the availability of fluctuations

  11. Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grames, J.; Hansknect, J.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

    2011-11-01

    To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

  12. Gravitational violation of R parity and its cosmological signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezinsky, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Antarctica) (Italy)]|[Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russia); Joshipura, A.S. [Theoretical Physics Group, Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Valle, J.W. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - C.S.I.C. Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    1998-01-01

    Discrete R parity (R{sub P}) is usually imposed in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) as an unbroken symmetry. In this paper we study very weak gravitationally induced R-parity breaking, described by nonrenormalizable terms inversely proportional to the Planck mass. The lightest supersymmetric particle, a neutralino, is unstable but its lifetime exceeds the age of the Universe and thus it can serve as a dark matter (DM) particle. The neutralino lifetime is severely constrained from below due to the production of positrons and antiprotons, diffuse gamma radiation, etc. The violation of R{sub P} generated gravitationally by dimension-five operators in the MSSM is shown to violate these constraints if they are suppressed only by the Planck scale. A general theoretical analysis of gravitationally induced R{sub P} violation is performed and two plausible and astrophysically consistent scenarios for achieving the required suppression are identified and discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Gravitino Dark Matter in R-Parity Breaking Vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Buchmüller, W; Hamaguchi, K; Ibarra, A; Yanagida, T; Buchmuller, Wilfried; Covi, Laura; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Ibarra, Alejandro; Yanagida, Tsutomu

    2007-01-01

    We show that in the case of small R-parity and lepton number breaking couplings, primordial nucleosynthesis, thermal leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter are naturally consistent for gravitino masses m_{3/2} \\gsim 5 GeV. We present a model where R-parity breaking is tied to B-L breaking, which predicts the needed small couplings. The metastable next-to-lightest superparticle has a decay length that is typically larger than a few centimeters, with characteristic signatures at the LHC. The photon flux produced by relic gravitino decays may be part of the apparent excess in the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray flux obtained from the EGRET data for a gravitino mass m_{3/2} \\sim 10 GeV. In this case, a clear signal can be expected from GLAST in the near future.

  14. Spontaneous parity violation and SUSY strong gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ohki, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2012-07-27

    We suggest simple models of spontaneous parity violation in supersymmetric strong gauge theory. We focus on left-right symmetric model and investigate vacuum with spontaneous parity violation. Non-perturbative effects are calculable in supersymmetric gauge theory, and we suggest new models. Our models show confinement, so that we try to understand them by using a dual description of the theory. The left-right symmetry breaking and electroweak symmetry breaking are simultaneously occurred with the suitable energy scale hierarchy. This structure has several advantages compared to the MSSM. The scale of the Higgs mass (left-right breaking scale) and that of VEVs are different, so the SUSY little hierarchy problems are absent. The second model also induces spontaneous supersymmetry breaking.

  15. The Uncovered Interest Parity in the Foreign Exchange (FX Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Ricardo Micheloto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work verifies the uncovered interest rates parity (UIP in the FX (foreign exchange emerging markets by using the panel cointegration technique. The data involves several developing countries that compose the EMBI+ Global Index. We compare the results of several panel estimators: OLS (ordinary list square, DOLS (dynamic OLS and FMOLS (fully modified OLS. This new panel technique can handle problems of either non-stationary series (spurious regression or small problem. This latter problem has being considered one of the main causes for distorting the UIP empirical results. By using this approach, we check the UIP in the FX (foreign exchange emerging markets. These markets are more critical because they have been subjected to changing FX regimes and speculative attacks. Our results do not corroborate the uncovered interest parity for the developing countries in the recent years. Thus, the forward premium puzzle may hold in the FX emergent markets.

  16. Neutrino mass patterns, -parity violating supersymmetry and associated phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswarup Mukhopadhyaya

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by the recent super-Kamiokande results on atmospheric neutrinos, we incorporate massive neutrinos, with large angle oscillation between the second and third generations, in a theory with -parity violating supersymmetry. The general features of such a theory are briefly reviewed. We emphasize its testability through the observation of comparable numbers of muons and taus, produced together with the -boson, in decays of the lightest neutralino. A distinctly measurable decay gap is anotherremarkable feature of such a scenario.

  17. Compensating defrauded shareholders in insolvency: is parity the answer?

    OpenAIRE

    Mamutse, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies recent developments in Australian and US law permitting compensation for defrauded investors. For insolvent companies, these developments have drawn attention to the possibility of investor claims being satisfied on parity with the claims of ordinary unsecured creditors. This paper proposes that such a shift may be justified on the basis of a modern perspective of the principles underpinning corporate law. However, account must also be taken of the more practica...

  18. Even parity excitations of the nucleon in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. G. Lasscock; J. N. Hedditch; W. Kamleh; D. B. Leinweber; W. Melnitchouk; A. G. Williams; J. M. Zanotti

    2007-09-01

    We study the spectrum of the even parity excitations of the nucleon in quenched lattice QCD. We extend our earlier analysis by including an expanded basis of nucleon interpolating fields, increasing the physical size of the lattice, including more configurations to enhance statistics and probing closer to the chiral limit. With a review of world lattice data, we conclude that there is little evidence of the Roper resonance in quenched lattice QCD.

  19. Parity Violation in Atoms and Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchiat, Marie-Anne; PAVI'97

    1999-01-01

    This work is an extensive review of the advances in the field of parity violation experiments in electron scattering at high energy and and in atomic physics. The results are a challenge to the standard electroweak theory and the understanding of hadron structure. The theoretical framework is presented at a pedagogical level, experiments and future projects are reviewed, and the results and their interpretation are discussed.

  20. Pyramid diffraction in parity-time-symmetric optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of wave packets in two-dimensional parity-time-symmetric optical lattices near the phase-transition point are analytically studied. A novel fourth-order equation is derived for the envelope of these wave packets. A pyramid diffraction pattern is demonstrated in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. Blow-up is also possible in the nonlinear regime for both focusing and defocusing nonlinearities.