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Sample records for purchasing hospital

  1. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) is part of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) long-standing effort to link Medicares payment system to a...

  2. Ethical issues in purchasing: a field study of Midwest hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, K; Motwani, J

    1995-01-01

    A large sum of money is spent annually by salespeople on gifts and favors for purchasing executives. The provision of gifts and favors to buyers remains a common practice despite the fact that it often leads to ethical conflicts for purchasing executives, sales managers, and salespeople. This paper investigates the perceptions of 51 purchasing executives of midwest hospitals regarding their behavior towards certain buying practices, the favors offered by vendors, favors actually accepted, as well as purchasers' discomfort and repayment levels regarding indebtedness. Based on the data analysis, this paper provides conclusions and directions for future research.

  3. Financial characteristics of hospitals purchased by investor-owned chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, M J; Furst, R W

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on the preacquisition financial condition of not-for-profit hospitals acquired by investor-owned hospital chains. Financial ratios are used to determine if not-for-profit hospitals acquired by investor-owned hospital systems have common financial characteristics which make them a likely target for a takeover. The results indicate that during the time period studied, investor-owned hospital systems did tend to purchase hospitals with common financial characteristics and that these characteristics provide a reasonable description of a financially distressed hospital. This finding has important consequences for our health care delivery system. PMID:3771232

  4. 76 FR 39006 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... and 480 [CMS-3239-CN] RIN 0938-AQ55 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing... Value-Based Purchasing Program.'' DATES: Effective Date: These corrections are effective on July 1, 2011... for the hospital value-based purchasing program. Therefore, in section III. 6. and 7. of this notice...

  5. Association between value-based purchasing score and hospital characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borah Bijan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicare hospital Value-based purchasing (VBP program that links Medicare payments to quality of care will become effective from 2013. It is unclear whether specific hospital characteristics are associated with a hospital’s VBP score, and consequently incentive payments. The objective of the study was to assess the association of hospital characteristics with (i the mean VBP score, and (ii specific percentiles of the VBP score distribution. The secondary objective was to quantify the associations of hospital characteristics with the VBP score components: clinical process of care (CPC score and patient satisfaction score. Methods Observational analysis that used data from three sources: Medicare Hospital Compare Database, American Hospital Association 2010 Annual Survey and Medicare Impact File. The final study sample included 2,491 U.S. acute care hospitals eligible for the VBP program. The association of hospital characteristics with the mean VBP score and specific VBP score percentiles were assessed by ordinary least square (OLS regression and quantile regression (QR, respectively. Results VBP score had substantial variations, with mean score of 30 and 60 in the first and fourth quartiles of the VBP score distribution. For-profit status (vs. non-profit, smaller bed size (vs. 100–199 beds, East South Central region (vs. New England region and the report of specific CPC measures (discharge instructions, timely provision of antibiotics and beta blockers, and serum glucose controls in cardiac surgery patients were positively associated with mean VBP scores (p Conclusions Although hospitals serving the poor and the elderly are more likely to score lower under the VBP program, the correlation appears small. Profit status, geographic regions, number and type of CPC measures reported explain the most variation among scores.

  6. Purchasing practices in a hospital environment: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, R; Paderon, E S

    1992-05-01

    The critical state of the hospital industry, as previously described, generates a difficult decision environment for the materiel manager and those in the purchasing function. The unique life- and death circumstances of hospitals impose a further onus on those who manage them. In the name of saving lives, they can find a convenient excuse to disregard all moral principles, forgetting the Socratic dictum "it is not enough that one lives, but that one lives well." Without the moral "right stuff," they can easily give in to the seductions of momentary gains and glory through ethical short-cuts. There is wisdom and consolation in the words that "nice guys may appear to finish last, but usually they're running in a different race." Studies have established a direct relationship between corporate excellence and ethical values. The reality of competition in the hospital industry dictates that the integration of ethics into the life of the organization should happen by design and not by accident. This is what is meant by strategy. If hospitals would strive for excellence to survive and grow, they should have a strategy with a mission statement that also embodies its moral values and moral agenda. Such an approach does not guarantee that an organization will become immune to moral contamination, but it does provide an antidote.

  7. Validating hospital antibiotic purchasing data as a metric of inpatient antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlie; Ritchie, Michael; Alldred, Jason; Daneman, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic purchasing data are a widely used, but unsubstantiated, measure of antibiotic consumption. To validate this source, we compared purchasing data from hospitals and external medical databases with patient-level dispensing data. Antibiotic purchasing and dispensing data from internal hospital records and purchasing data from IMS Health were obtained for two hospitals between May 2013 and April 2015. Internal purchasing data were validated against dispensing data, and IMS data were compared with both internal metrics. Scatterplots of individual antimicrobial data points were generated; Pearson's correlation and linear regression coefficients were computed. A secondary analysis re-examined these correlations over shorter calendar periods. Internal purchasing data were strongly correlated with dispensing data, with correlation coefficients of 0.90 (95% CI = 0.83-0.95) and 0.98 (95% CI = 0.95-0.99) at hospitals A and B, respectively. Although dispensing data were consistently lower than purchasing data, this was attributed to a single antibiotic at both hospitals. IMS data were favourably correlated with, but underestimated, internal purchasing and dispensing data. This difference was accounted for by eight antibiotics for which direct sales from some manufacturers were not included in the IMS database. The correlation between purchasing and dispensing data was consistent across periods as short as 3 months, but not at monthly intervals. Both internal and external antibiotic purchasing data are strongly correlated with dispensing data. If outliers are accounted for appropriately, internal purchasing data could be used for cost-effective evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, and external data sets could be used for surveillance and research across geographical regions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  8. Demographic Factors and Hospital Size Predict Patient Satisfaction Variance- Implications for Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C.; Ornstein, Katherine; Holcombe, Randall F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) incentivizes quality performance based healthcare by linking payments directly to patient satisfaction scores obtained from Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Lower HCAHPS scores appear to cluster in heterogeneous population dense areas and could bias CMS reimbursement. Objective Assess nonrandom variation in patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS. Design Multivariate regression modeling was performed for individual dimensions of HCAHPS and aggregate scores. Standardized partial regression coefficients assessed strengths of predictors. Weighted Individual (hospital) Patient Satisfaction Adjusted Score (WIPSAS) utilized four highly predictive variables and hospitals were re-ranked accordingly. Setting 3,907 HVBP-participating hospitals. Patients 934,800 patient surveys, by most conservative estimate. Measurements 3,144 county demographics (U.S. Census), and HCAHPS. Results Hospital size and primary language (‘non-English speaking’) most strongly predicted unfavorable HCAHPS scores while education and white ethnicity most strongly predicted favorable HCAHPS scores. The average adjusted patient satisfaction scores calculated by WIPSAS approximated the national average of HCAHPS scores. However, WIPSAS changed hospital rankings by variable amounts depending on the strength of the predictive variables in the hospitals’ locations. Structural and demographic characteristics that predict lower scores were accounted for by WIPSAS that also improved rankings of many safety-net hospitals and academic medical centers in diverse areas. Conclusions Demographic and structural factors (e.g., hospital beds) predict patient satisfaction scores even after CMS adjustments. CMS should consider WIPSAS or a similar adjustment to account for the severity of patient satisfaction inequities that hospitals could strive to correct. PMID:25940305

  9. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) – Total Performance Score

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals participating in the Hospital VBP Program and their Clinical Process of Care domain scores, Patient Experience of Care dimension scores, and...

  10. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) – Heart Failure Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals participating in the Hospital VBP Program and their performance rates and scores for the Clinical Process of Care Heart Failure measures.

  11. Orthopedic Implant Value Drivers: A Qualitative Survey Study of Hospital Purchasing Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan Silvia; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Sprague, Sheila; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, degenerative disease that is highly prevalent in the population, yet the factors that affect purchasing decisions related to this condition are poorly understood. A questionnaire was developed and administered to hospital executives across North America to determine the factors that affect purchasing decisions related to OA. Thirty-four individuals participated in the survey. Clinical evidence and cost effectiveness were deemed to be the most important factors in the process of making purchasing decisions. The most important considerations for adopting new technology were whether there was sufficient evidence in the literature, followed by thoughts of key opinion leaders, and cost of intervention/device. Ongoing research is still needed, but the current study allowed us to identify some trends in the data, providing new insight on how hospital purchasing decisions are made, which could have an immediate impact on those currently involved with making these decisions.

  12. Harnessing hospital purchase power to design safe care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, Steven F; Gieras, Izabella A; Gosbee, Laura Lin

    2008-01-01

    Since the Institute of Medicine's well-publicized 1999 report To Err is Human, the healthcare patient safety movement has grown at an exponential pace. However, much more can be done to advance patient safety from a care process design vantage point-improving safety through effective care processes and technology integration. While progress is being made, the chasm between technology developers and caregivers remains a profound void. Why hasn't more been done to expand our view of patient safety to include technology design? Healthcare organizations have not consolidated their purchasing power to expect improved designs. This article will (1) provide an assessment of the present state of healthcare technology management and (2) provide recommendations for collaborative design of safe healthcare delivery systems.

  13. Exploring differences in inpatient drug purchasing cost between two pediatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydert, Per; Poole, Robert

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the hospital cost of purchasing drugs at two children's hospitals is explored with respect to high-cost drugs and drug classes and discussed with regard to differences in hospital setting, drug price, or number of treatments. The purchasing costs of drugs at the two hospitals were retrieved and analyzed. All information was connected to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical code and compared in a Microsoft Access database. The 6-month drug purchasing costs at Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital (ALCH), Stockholm, Sweden, and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford (LPCH), Palo Alto, California, are similar and result in a cost per patient day of US $149 and US $136, respectively. The hospital setting and choice of drug products are factors that influence the drug cost in product-specific ways. Several problems are highlighted when only drug costs are compared between hospitals. For example, the comparison does not take into account the amount of waste, risk of adverse drug events, local dosing strategies, disease prevalence, and national drug-pricing models. The difference in cost per inpatient day at ALCH may indicate that cost could be redistributed in Sweden to support pediatric pharmacy services. Also, when introducing new therapies seen at the comparison hospital, it may be possible to extrapolate the estimated increase in cost.

  14. Value-based purchasing and hospital acquired conditions: are we seeing improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Zhao, Mei; Haley, D Rob

    2014-12-01

    To determine if the Value-Based Purchasing Performance Scoring system correlates with hospital acquired condition quality indicators. This study utilizes the following secondary data sources: the American Hospital Association (AHA) annual survey and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) Value-Based Purchasing and Hospital Acquired Conditions databases. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used to examine the effect of CMS total performance score on counts of hospital acquired conditions. Hospital structure variables including size, ownership, teaching status, payer mix, case mix, and location were utilized as control variables. The secondary data sources were merged into a single database using Stata 10. Total performance scores, which are used to determine if hospitals should receive incentive money, do not correlate well with quality outcome in the form of hospital acquired conditions. Value-based purchasing does not appear to correlate with improved quality and patient safety as indicated by Hospital Acquired Condition (HAC) scores. This leads us to believe that either the total performance score does not measure what it should, or the quality outcome measurements do not reflect the quality of the total performance scores measure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Critical Analysis of Purchasing Arrangements in Kenya: The Case of the National Hospital Insurance Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munge, Kenneth; Mulupi, Stephen; Barasa, Edwine W; Chuma, Jane

    2017-07-18

    Purchasing refers to the process by which pooled funds are paid to providers in order to deliver a set of health care interventions. Very little is known about purchasing arrangements in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and certainly not in Kenya. This study aimed to critically analyse purchasing arrangements in Kenya, using the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) as a case study. We applied a principal-agent relationship framework, which identifies three pairs of principal-agent relationships (government-purchaser, purchaser-provider, and citizen-purchaser) and specific actions required within them to achieve strategic purchasing. A qualitative case study approach was applied. Data were collected through document reviews (statutes, policy and regulatory documents) and in-depth interviews (n=62) with key informants including NHIF officials, Ministry of Health (MoH) officials, insurance industry actors, and health service providers. Documents were summarised using standardised forms. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using a thematic framework approach. The regulatory and policy framework for strategic purchasing in Kenya was weak and there was no clear accountability mechanism between the NHIF and the MoH. Accountability mechanisms within the NHIF have developed over time, but these emphasized financial performance over other aspects of purchasing. The processes for contracting, monitoring, and paying providers do not promote equity, quality, and efficiency. This was partly due to geographical distribution of providers, but also due to limited capacity within the NHIF. There are some mechanisms for assessing needs, preferences, and values to inform design of the benefit package, and while channels to engage beneficiaries exist, they do not always function appropriately and awareness of these channels to the beneficiaries is limited. Addressing the gaps in the NHIF's purchasing performance requires a number of approaches

  16. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Performance: Do Organizational and Market Characteristics Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Edwardson, Nick; Zhao, Mei

    The hospital value-based purchasing (HVBP) program of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services challenges hospitals to deliver high-quality care or face a reduction in Medicare payments. How do different organizational structures and market characteristics enable or inhibit successful transition to this new model of value-based care? To address that question, this study employs an institutional theory lens to test whether certain organizational structures and market characteristics mediate hospitals' ability to perform across HVBP domains.Data from the 2014 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, Area Health Resource File, the Medicare Hospital Compare Database, and the association between external environment and hospital performance are assessed through multiple regression analysis. Results indicate that hospitals that belong to a system are more likely than independent hospitals to score highly on the domains associated with the HVBP incentive arrangement. However, varying and sometimes counterintuitive market influences bring different dimensions to the HVBP program. A hospital's ability to score well in this new value arrangement may be heavily based on the organization's ability to learn from others, implement change, and apply the appropriate amount of control in various markets.

  17. Demographic factors and hospital size predict patient satisfaction variance--implications for hospital value-based purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Ornstein, Katherine A; Holcombe, Randall F

    2015-08-01

    Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) incentivizes quality performance-based healthcare by linking payments directly to patient satisfaction scores obtained from Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Lower HCAHPS scores appear to cluster in heterogeneous population-dense areas and could bias Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) reimbursement. Assess nonrandom variation in patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS. Multivariate regression modeling was performed for individual dimensions of HCAHPS and aggregate scores. Standardized partial regression coefficients assessed strengths of predictors. Weighted Individual (hospital) Patient Satisfaction Adjusted Score (WIPSAS) utilized 4 highly predictive variables, and hospitals were reranked accordingly. A total of 3907 HVBP-participating hospitals. There were 934,800 patient surveys by the most conservative estimate. A total of 3144 county demographics (US Census) and HCAHPS surveys. Hospital size and primary language (non-English speaking) most strongly predicted unfavorable HCAHPS scores, whereas education and white ethnicity most strongly predicted favorable HCAHPS scores. The average adjusted patient satisfaction scores calculated by WIPSAS approximated the national average of HCAHPS scores. However, WIPSAS changed hospital rankings by variable amounts depending on the strength of the predictive variables in the hospitals' locations. Structural and demographic characteristics that predict lower scores were accounted for by WIPSAS that also improved rankings of many safety-net hospitals and academic medical centers in diverse areas. Demographic and structural factors (eg, hospital beds) predict patient satisfaction scores even after CMS adjustments. CMS should consider WIPSAS or a similar adjustment to account for the severity of patient satisfaction inequities that hospitals could strive to correct. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  18. Is There a Relationship Between Value-Based Purchasing and Hospital Profitability? An Exploratory Study of Missouri Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jason S; Broom, Kevin D; Counte, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Recent US legislation is attempting to transition inpatient Medicare payments to a value-based purchasing (VBP) program. The VBP program is a pay-for-performance (P4P) system that incentivizes hospitals to improve patient satisfaction, health outcomes, and adherence to clinical protocols while simultaneously holding down costs. Our study evaluates (1) the impact of financial performance on the VBP adjustments and (2) whether there is a correlation between the VBP adjustment and the financial performance of Missouri hospitals that opted into the program. While upward and downward adjustments to the inpatient base rate may be related to hospital financial performance, prior financial performance may also be related to the adjustments. Financial health may allow facilities to invest and position the hospital for favorable future P4P adjustments. The results of our analysis indicate the VBP adjustment to the inpatient base rate is very small (±0.18%), clustered around zero, and is not correlated with financial performance. We also find that financial performance and improvement in the years prior to the adjustment are not related to the VBP adjustment or its respective components. This suggests that CMS is avoiding penalizing less profitable facilities, but the adjustment is also so small and tightly clustered around zero that it is failing to provide an adequate incentive to hospitals. The costs of improving patient satisfaction, clinical process adherence, health care outcomes, and efficiency above that of peers coupled with the growing number of metrics being used to calculate the VBP adjustments call into question the financial incentives of the hospital VBP program.

  19. Financial Performance of Hospitals in the Mississippi Delta Region Under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program and Hospital Value-based Purchasing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Karim, Saleema; Wan, Fei; Nevola, Adrienne; Morris, Michael E; Bird, T Mac; Tilford, J Mick

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies showed that the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) and the Hospital Value-based Purchasing Program (HVBP) disproportionately penalized hospitals caring for the poor. The Mississippi Delta Region (Delta Region) is among the most socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in the United States. The financial performance of hospitals in the Delta Region under both HRRP and HVBP remains unclear. To compare the differences in financial performance under both HRRP and HVBP between hospitals in the Delta Region (Delta hospitals) and others in the nation (non-Delta hospitals). We used a 7-year panel dataset and applied difference-in-difference models to examine operating and total margin between Delta and non-Delta hospitals in 3 time periods: preperiod (2008-2010); postperiod 1 (2011-2012); and postperiod 2 (2013-2014). The Delta hospitals had a 0.89% and 4.24% reduction in operating margin in postperiods 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the non-Delta hospitals had 1.13% and 1% increases in operating margin in postperiods 1 and 2, respectively. The disparity in total margins also widened as Delta hospitals had a 1.98% increase in postperiod 1, but a 0.30% reduction in postperiod 2, whereas non-Delta hospitals had 1.27% and 2.28% increases in postperiods 1 and 2, respectively. The gap in financial performance between Delta and non-Delta hospitals widened following the implementation of HRRP and HVBP. Policy makers should modify these 2 programs to ensure that resources are not moved from the communities that need them most.

  20. Activity Based Costing (ABC as an Approach to Optimize Purchasing Performance in Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. El-Deeb

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABC (Activity Based Costing system has proved success in both products and services. The researchers propose using a new model through the application of ABC approach that can be implemented in purchasing department as one of the most dynamic departments in service sector to optimize purchasing activities performance. The researchers propose purchasing measures, targeting customers’ loyalty ensuring the continuous flow of supplies. The researchers used the questionnaire as a tool of data collection method for verifying the hypothesis of the research. Data obtained was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The results of the research based on limited survey that have been distributed to number of hotels in Great Cairo region. Our research was targeting three hundred purchasing manager and staff through five star hotels. It is recognized that further research is necessary to establish the exact nature of the causal linkages between proposed performance measures and strategic intent in order to gain insights into practice elsewhere.

  1. Influence Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction towards Drug Purchase Intention in Anggrek Outpatient Pharmacy Depo at Hasan Sadikin Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of service is an evaluation which focused on customer’s awareness about a structural construction of a service or product that involves 5 main aspects which are tangibility, empathy, responsiveness, reliability and assurance. Based on monthly reports of pharmacy installation only about 30% of patients buy drugs in the Anggrek out patient depo out off patients visiting Anggrek out patient specialist clinic in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of service quality and customer satisfaction to purchase intention in the Anggrek out patient depo Hasan Sadikin hospital at Bandung. The method used in this study is analytical survey with cross sectional design. The samples used were 200 patients, consist of 104 customers who have visited more than one times and 96 first visit costumer to this clinic. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using Smart PLS V 2.0 software. The results of this study showed that the service quality with tangible dimensions, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy are affecting the customer satisfaction with a score of 12.755 t-count (greater than t-table 1.983 and a positive value of the original sample of 0.800. Customer satisfaction affecting the customer purchase intentions with t-count is greater than t-table values of 5.012 and 0.726 of the original positive sample. While the service quality does not directly influence customer purchase intention with the t-test is smaller than t-table is 1.455 and the negative of the original sample -0.287. Some of service quality influence customers that causes not purchasing drugs from the out patient depo there are effect of unavailability of counseling, long waiting time of service, the need for special counseling room, a spacious waiting room, and the completeness of drug availability.

  2. Influence Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction towards Drug Purchase Intention in Anggrek Outpatient Pharmacy Depo at Hasan Sadikin Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of service is an evaluation which focused on customer’s awareness about a structural construction of a service or product that involves 5 main aspects which are tangibility, empathy, responsiveness, reliability and assurance. Based on monthly reports of pharmacy installation only about 30% of patients buy drugs in the Anggrek out patient depo out off patients visiting Anggrek out patient specialist clinic in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of service quality and customer satisfaction to purchase intention in the Anggrek out patient depo Hasan Sadikin hospital at Bandung. The method used in this study is analytical survey with cross sectional design. The samples used were 200 patients, consist of 104 customers who have visited more than one times and 96 first visit costumer to this clinic. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using Smart PLS V 2.0 software. The results of this study showed that the service quality with tangible dimensions, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy are affecting the customer satisfaction with a score of 12.755 t-count (greater than t-table 1.983 and a positive value of the original sample of 0.800. Customer satisfaction affecting the customer purchase intentions with t-count is greater than t-table values of 5.012 and 0.726 of the original positive sample. While the service quality does not directly influence customer purchase intention with the t-test is smaller than t-table is 1.455 and the negative of the original sample -0.287. Some of service quality influence customers that causes not purchasing drugs from the out patient depo there are effect of unavailability of counseling, long waiting time of service, the need for special counseling room, a spacious waiting room, and the completeness of drug availability.

  3. The impact of the National Treatment Purchase Fund on numbers of core urology training cases at University Hospital Galway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harney, T J

    2011-06-01

    Since the National Treatment Purchase Fund (NTPF) scheme was introduced in 2002, public patients waiting longer than three months for investigations and treatment are offered care in the private medical sector. Our aim was to assess the impact of the NTPF scheme on the number of training cases performed at University Hospital Galway (UHG). The number and type of urological procedures performed in the private medical sector under the NTFP scheme in 2008 were obtained from the UHG waiting list office. The number of these procedures performed on public patients by trainees at UHG in 2008 was determined retrospectively by reviewing theatre records. A significant number of core urology procedures were performed in the private sector via the NTPF scheme. Cancer centre designation and implementation of the EWTD will also place further pressures on urological training opportunities in Ireland.

  4. Increase in hospital purchase of hand hygiene products: The importance of focusing on the right product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Manisha; Prasad, Amber; Dhaliwal, Navneet; Gupta, A K; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol-based handrub (AHR) consumption is positively correlated with increases in hand hygiene (HH) compliance. In our 2,000-bed hospital in India, multiple awareness drives have been conducted to promote HH. This study aimed to determine the quantitative effect of these campaigns on use of HH products (soap and AHR) in the hospital. Over the last 6 years, bar soap consumption has increased by 389.15%, whereas that of AHR increased by 146.7%. We also evaluated microbial contamination of 99 bar soap and 60 liquid soap samples in our hospital for a year. Of the samples, 61 (61.6%) of the bar soaps and 2 (3.3%) of the liquid soaps were found to be contaminated with various organisms (P liquid soaps instead of bar soaps for handwashing purposes. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Group purchasing: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetrich, J G

    1987-07-01

    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.

  6. Messy but Fair: The ACA's Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program and the Notice-and-Comment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Janus

    2017-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) promulgated a new Medicare program called the Value-Based Purchasing Program (VBPP) as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA). Like many other regulatory agencies, CMS used the Notice-and-Comment process to issue proposed rules, solicit public comments, and then publish final rules. Conventional literature suggests that CMS should disproportionately favor business interests during the Notice-and-Comment process, mainly due to the business interests' greater resources and capacity to draft well-reasoned comments. However, this article argues against this presumption and contends instead that CMS listens equally well to both business interest comments and private citizen comments during the formation of the VBPP. With regard to the VBPP and the ACA, CMS appears to be resisting disproportionate sway by business interests and is instead privileging the ACA's goal of improving healthcare quality.

  7. Retailer-Led Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Price Increase Reduces Purchases in a Hospital Convenience Store in Melbourne, Australia: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Miranda R; Peeters, Anna; Lancsar, Emily; Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Corben, Kirstan; Stevenson, Christopher E; Palermo, Claire; Backholer, Kathryn

    2018-06-01

    Limited evidence has been gathered on the real-world impact of sugar-sweetened beverage price changes on purchasing behavior over time or in community-retail settings. Our aim was to determine changes in beverage purchases, business outcomes, and customer and retailer satisfaction associated with a retailer-led sugar-sweetened beverage price increase in a convenience store. We hypothesized that purchases of less-healthy beverages would decrease compared to predicted sales. A convergent parallel mixed methods design complemented sales data (122 weeks pre-intervention, 17 weeks during intervention) with stakeholder interviews and customer surveys. Electronic beverage sales data were collected from a convenience store in Melbourne, Australia (August through November 2015). Convenience store staff completed semi-structured interviews (n=4) and adult customers exiting the store completed surveys (n=352). Beverages were classified using a state government framework. Prices of "red" beverages (eg, nondiet soft drinks, energy drinks) increased by 20%. Prices of "amber" (eg, diet soft drinks, small pure fruit juices) and "green" beverages (eg, water) were unchanged. Changes in beverage volume, item sales, and revenue during the intervention were compared with predicted sales. Sales data were analyzed using time series segmented regression while controlling for pre-intervention trends, autocorrelation in sales data, and seasonal fluctuations. Beverage volume sales of red (-27.6%; 95% CI -32.2 to -23.0) and amber (-26.7%; 95% CI -39.3 to -16.0) decreased, and volume of green beverages increased (+26.9%; 95% CI +14.1 to +39.7) in the 17th intervention week compared with predicted sales. Store manager and staff considered the intervention business-neutral, despite a small reduction in beverage revenue. Fifteen percent of customers noticed the price difference and 61% supported the intervention. A 20% sugar-sweetened beverage price increase was associated with a reduction

  8. Purchasing and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Astrid; Mols, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a number of hypotheses relating four purchasing capabilities to two measures of purchasings contribution to innovation. The hypotheses are tested with data collected through a websurvey completed by 321 purchasing professionals in Danish production companies. Our results...... show that integrative, relational, innovative,and intelligence capabilities are positively related to innovation. However, relational capabilities are not found to have significant effect on purchasings contribution to supply and practice innovation, i.e. new markets, new suppliers, and new purchasing...... practices. The relationship between intelligence capabilities and purchasings contribution to product and production innovations depends on the level of innovation capabilities....

  9. Purchasing portfolio usage and purchasing sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models have caused considerable controversy in literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing a strong disagreement on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question whether or not the use of purchasing portfolio models should

  10. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  11. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  12. The value of group purchasing organizations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the valuable role of group purchasing organizations (GPOs) in hospital purchasing in the United States. For over 100 years old GPOs have helped hospitals and other health care providers realize savings and create contracting efficiencies by aggregating purchasing volume to negotiate discounts with manufacturers, distributors and other vendors. The US has recently enacted a series of healthcare reforms to correct some of the historical concerns regarding cost, quality and access. GPOs are expected to continue to play a critical role in the business of hospital purchasing and may potential export that other countries may wish to examine.

  13. Revolution through electronic purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Lamming, R.C.; Grickus, I.

    1998-01-01

    Automation is finding its way in the world of purchasing. This development could evoke dramatic effects in the long term, not only on purchasing but even on the market place itself. Nowadays, EDI and CD-ROM are examples of automation applications that purchasing departments use frequently. Internet

  14. Responsible Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  15. International Green Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  16. Uranium purchases report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs

  17. Purchasing practices in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Bagchi, Prabir K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a knowledge and understanding of purchasing practices of SMEs in Denmark. The paper is based on the results from a survey among 94 Danish SMEs, mainly within machinery, electronics and electrical, transportation equipment, and medical equipment industries....... The results are compared with a similar study encompassing 224 SMEs in Indiana, USA. First, the level of purchasing complexity is discussed. There are similarities between the two surveys in terms of purchasing's influence on product quality and productivity, and percentage of total costs. However, the degree...... on the results from the two surveys, we discuss the managerial and research implications for purchasing practices in SMEs....

  18. Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...

  19. Horizontal cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2007-01-01

    Purchasing in groups is a concept that is becoming increasingly popular in both the private and public sector. Often, the advantages such as lower purchase pricese, learning from each other, and reduced transaction costs outweigh set-up and management costs and drawbacks such as disclosure of

  20. Interactive Purchasing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper introduces a new class of interactive cooperative purchasing situations and provides an explicit alternative characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games, which offers an alternative to Kohlberg (1971). In our cooperative purchasing situation, the unit price of a

  1. Product Purchases by DLC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains a list of items in case units by category and supplier that have been purchased by the Department of Liquor Control in the past month. Update...

  2. Mastering one's electricity purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, D.

    2005-01-01

    Manager of about 50000 public lighting areas, the inter-cities energy syndicate of Loire (SIEL) has started in 2003 a procedure in order to chose his electric power supplier conformably with the new rules of public electricity purchase and with the new organization of the electricity market. This article presents this approach and its experience feedback, concretized by the European call for bids launched by SIEL for the annual purchase of about 186 GWh of electric power. (J.S.)

  3. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  4. Predicting Online Purchasing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    W.R BUCKINX; D. VAN DEN POEL

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the contribution of different types of predictors to the purchasing behaviour at an online store. We use logit modelling to predict whether or not a purchase is made during the next visit to the website using both forward and backward variable-selection techniques, as well as Furnival and Wilson’s global score search algorithm to find the best subset of predictors. We contribute to the literature by using variables from four different categories in predicting...

  5. Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The challenge could be briefly seen in these terms: hospitals as places for treatment where there’s a technology focus and hospitals for healing where there’s a human focus. In the 60s - 70s wave of new hospital building, an emphasis on technology can be seen. It’s time to move from the technology...... focus. It is not enough to consider only the factors of function within architecture, hygiene, economy and logistics. We also need to look at aspects of aesthetics, bringing nature into the building, art, color, acoustics, volume and space as we perceive them. Contemporary methods and advances...... placed, accessible, provided with plenty of greenery, and maximize sensory impressions, providing sounds, smells, sight and the possibility to be touched. This is a very well documented area I can say. Hygiene, in terms of architecture can give attention to hand wash facilities and their positioning...

  6. Uranium purchases report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B,'' Uranium Marketing Activities,'' are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year's report. The report contains a glossary of terms

  7. Uranium purchases report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B ''Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data

  8. Bicycle Purchaser Training Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, William

    A course was developed to provide data to buyers of new bicycles so they could make an informed decision about their purchases. The instructional systems design process (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) was used to analyze the need for a training course on buying and fitting a bicycle. Information was collected…

  9. E-procurement in the Brazilian healthcare system: the impact of joint drug purchases by a hospital network Proceso de compras en línea en el sistema de salud brasileño: impacto de la adquisición conjunta de medicamentos por una red hospitalaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sigulem

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of e-procurement to obtain supplies for a network of seven university hospitals with a joint purchase system. METHODS: The study was carried out between October 2003 and October 2005. We analyzed nine joint purchases of 37 pharmaceutical items. All the items were purchased in at least two-thirds of the nine occasions and/or were among the 10 items with the highest expenditure. The following aspects were recorded: price, number of suppliers providing quotes, type of supplier (distributor or manufacturer, reference value (lowest price paid per item by each hospital prior to the establishment of the joint purchase system, unit price for first purchase, and unit price for last purchase. The percent variation in price was compared in relation to the reference value, first and last purchases, and average unit price for the nine purchases. RESULTS: A decrease in price > 10% was observed in 47% of the medications analyzed. A decrease > 20% was recorded in 32% of the 37 items. Five items (midazolam 5 mg 3 mL, tramadol 100 mg 2 mL, vancocin 500 mg vial, ceftazidime 1 g vial and cefepime 1 g vial had a decrease > 50% in unit cost in the first purchase compared to the last purchase value. The unit price for 26 items (70% had an average reduction of 23%. CONCLUSIONS: E-procurement was successful in achieving real savings. The results show that the incorporation of new management technologies such as e-procurement in the healthcare setting may help overcome the management gap in the healthcare sector.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la utilización de un proceso de compras en línea para obtener suministros para una red de siete hospitales universitarios con un sistema conjunto de adquisición. MÉTODOS: Este estudio se realizó entre octubre de 2003 y octubre de 2005. Se analizaron nueve adquisiciones conjuntas de 37 productos farmacéuticos. Todos los productos se adquirieron al menos en seis de las nueve ocasiones o estaban entre los 10

  10. Professionalising purchasing organisations : towards a purchasing development model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van A.J.; Rozemeijer, F.A.; Rietveld, G.; Lamming, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    How does purchasing develops as a discipline over time in large international organisations? What are the drivers and enablers behind the development of purchasing? Is there an ideal growthpath for purchasing in organisations? These subjects are discussed in this paper by, firstly, providing an

  11. Decision support for contemporary purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenborg, van R.H.A.; Boer, de L.; Cox, A.; Lamming, R.

    1996-01-01

    The new business environment has confronted purchasing with an increasingly dynamic and un-predictable environment. While purchasing fonnerly could afford to be reactive to changes in demand specifications, supply markets and supply performance results, the new business environment requires

  12. REAL ESTATE PURCHASE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujorel FLOREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presented herein represents a field with good present and future perspectives, especially because real estate property is not under the incidence of a single normative act regarding the sale-purchase agreement of such goods, and given the fact that there are specific legal provisions with respect to various real estate categories and the localization of such property. The article deals with the sale-purchase agreement of various real estate categories, such as fields, buildings, the correspondent lots, urban area, farm, and forests fields, focusing on some particularities. A special care is attributed to examining the applicable laws with regard to the purchase agreements of field lands, the special conditions to be taken into account, the persons that may act as buyers, including foreigners, those without citizenship, and legal persons of a nationality other than Romanian. Finally, a special concern is given to the formalities required for legally exerting the pre-emptive right and the applicable sanctions in that respect.

  13. Surgical lights. Making a purchase decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M M

    1987-11-01

    Based on the preceding factors, a profile can be made for each light. The profile should include the following information: product literature with detailed information about the light, the average score from each of the six categories on the questionnaire, a summary of positive and negative comments from the questionnaire (recurring comments can identify significant factors), recommendations from other hospitals using the light, warranty and service information and any pertinent information about the vendor and manufacturer, information or comments from the clinical engineer, the purchasing agent, and the architect/engineer, and information about possible purchase agreements. Once the profiles of the lights are finished, present them to the OR committee or group charged with making the final decision. The information will enable the group to compare the lights and will serve as a basis for either the final purchase or a detailed bid specification. If cost is a major factor in the decision, the evaluation results can be used to justify purchasing lights that are more expensive but that the users believe are clearly superior. This constitutes the "professional justification" that some government institutions require to circumvent regulations that require buying the low-bid product. Although the result of this selection process is clearly a subjective decision, it is an informed subjective decision. Once the lights are installed, the staff members' satisfaction with the lights will not be based on objective criteria but on the same subjective opinions that were used to justify the selection.

  14. Revisiting purchasing competence - In a project context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    2015-01-01

    purchasing and competences required undertaking these activities. Four overall purchasing competence areas were identified. Hence, four propositions related to the purchasing competence were developed by iteratively combining elements from the purchasing literature with an empirical inquiry in an offshore...

  15. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  16. Should general practitioners purchase health care for their patients? The total purchasing experiment in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyke, Sally; Mays, Nicholas; Street, Andrew; Bevan, Gwyn; McLeod, Hugh; Goodwin, Nick

    2003-09-01

    Until relatively recently, general practitioners (GPs) have been allowed to work independently, with no requirement to consider the resource implications of their referral and prescribing decisions. In order to align the interests of GPs with the overall objectives of health systems a number of countries have introduced primary care based capitation, funds pooling and budget holding either as experiments or as an overall policy. Are these experiments and policies likely to work? This paper presents evidence from the UK total purchasing experiment, which was the first major quasi-market development in the NHS to be independently evaluated from the outset. Total purchasing gave volunteer groups of practices freedom to purchase all hospital and community health services for their patients. The evidence suggests that whilst GPs have great potential as purchasers, they also have considerable limitations. The expectation that they will be able to improve the quality of patient experience of care, or to alter the use of resources, may not be generally realised. GP-based purchasing may be more appropriate where the task is to alter the balance or location of care between hospital and extramural settings. However, budgetary incentives are not 'magic potions' which have similar effects on behaviour wherever they are introduced. Holding budgets and having independent contracts, while important pre-requisites for being taken seriously in a quasi-market, were not sufficient for effective total purchasing. The paper concludes that health systems should not only value innovation and experimentation and encourage learning from evaluative research; they should also recognise the importance of supportive circumstances for any innovation to effect real and sustained change.

  17. Purchasing Power and Purchasing Strategies - Insights From the Humanitarian Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pazirandeh, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss how buyers practice purchasing strategies in an asymmetric power situation favoring suppliers, and how their purchasing strategies practiced impact their purchasing power and buyer-supplier relationships. Organizations enter exchange relationships to access required resources not produced internally, and are exposed to uncertainty from not being able to fully control or predict flow of resources. Consequently they become dependent on their partners. Their leve...

  18. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  19. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  20. Solar results purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.

    2001-01-01

    Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)

  1. Solar results purchasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.

    2001-07-01

    Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)

  2. Achieving Consumer Purchase Payoffs: A Used Car Purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott; Maynes, Blanche R.

    1997-01-01

    This case study of a used car purchase illuminates the concepts and principles that should guide purchase decisions. It suggests that consumers should be aware there is little correlation between price and quality; competent shopping yields better quality; and consumers must decide their preferred trade-off between price and quality. (SK)

  3. Stakeholder challenges in purchasing medical devices for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Saba; Dickerson, Terry; Clarkson, John

    2013-03-01

    This study identifies the stakeholders who have a role in medical device purchasing within the wider system of health-care delivery and reports on their particular challenges to promote patient safety during purchasing decisions. Data was collected through observational work, participatory workshops, and semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were analyzed and coded. The study takes a systems-based and engineering design approach to the study. Five hospitals took part in this study, and the participants included maintenance, training, clinical end-users, finance, and risk departments. The main stakeholders for purchasing were identified to be staff from clinical engineering (Maintenance), device users (Clinical), device trainers (Training), and clinical governance for analyzing incidents involving devices (Risk). These stakeholders display varied characteristics in terms of interpretation of their own roles, competencies for selecting devices, awareness and use of resources for purchasing devices, and attitudes toward the purchasing process. The role of "clinical engineering" is seen by these stakeholders to be critical in mediating between training, technical, and financial stakeholders but not always recognized in practice. The findings show that many device purchasing decisions are tackled in isolation, which is not optimal for decisions requiring knowledge that is currently distributed among different people within different departments. The challenges expressed relate to the wider system of care and equipment management, calling for a more systemic view of purchasing for medical devices.

  4. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  5. Purchasing practice in dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Telgen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The purchasing function is of great importance for the business community as well as for governmental organizations. In industrial companies purchasing already accounts for 60 to 90 percent of total turnover. This share is expected to grow as companies tend to increasingly outsource their non-core

  6. A Guide to Developing a Sustainable Food Purchasing Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Universities, colleges, hospitals and other institutions throughout the United States are starting to think seriously about the impact of purchasing on the environment, human health, labor, animal welfare and other concerns. It is increasingly clear that, as mission-driven organizations committed to the public good, these institutions can be…

  7. CNMI Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...

  8. SPLC Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  9. The Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... reject the unit root hypothesis in real exchange rates may simply be due to the shortness ..... Violations of Purchasing Power Parity and Their Implications for Efficient ... Official Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market:.

  10. Guam Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DAWR collects Trip Ticket or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish directly from the fishermen. Similar to the trip ticket system in Saipan, this is a...

  11. Value creation and purchasing strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, as European manufacturers face fierce competition from new Asian sources, suppliers are looked to as sources of competitive advantage. This article discusses the strategic role that differentiated purchasing and supply management represents in support of companies overall

  12. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure that all purchased or otherwise received product and...

  13. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  14. Organising purchasing and (strategic) sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina; Boer, Harry; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2015-01-01

    mature role in corporate strategy. These changes have serious implications for the purchasing process, its characteristics and organisation. Previous research indicates that none of the prevailing solutions, functional departments and cross-functional teams, embedded in a centralised, decentralised...... or hybrid overall structure, deliver the expected results. Contingency theory predicts that the success of a firm depends on the fit among characteristics of, amongst others, the firm’s processes and organisational structure. The objective of this paper is to propose and illustrate a processbased...... typological theory of purchasing and (strategic) sourcing organisation....

  15. Finding the Right Purchasing Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    School administrators are faced with a wide variety of choices and a huge market when it comes to products and technology. According to a report issued in March by market research firm Compass Intelligence, school districts spend over $18 billion annually on IT-related purchases, and the market is projected to grow to nearly $21 billion by 2015.…

  16. Purchasing non-utility power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackeen, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses Houston Lighting and Power Company's procedure for purchasing power from cogenerators. By way of introduction, HL and P is the eighth largest electric utility in the United States in terms of kilowatt-hour sales and the second largest purchaser of natural gas in the nation. HL and P is also the principal utility providing electric service to the massive petrochemical industry in Southeast Texas. Of the 4,800 MW of cogeneration available, HL and P buys 945 MW under firm contracts, wheel 1,600 MW to other utilities, buy 400 MW under non-firm contracts and the balance is self-generation used to displace power which would otherwise be purchased from HL and P. With all this cogeneration capacity available, the problem until recently has been managing the surplus. HL and P now is finding itself in the unaccustomed position of needing to buy additional power or build plants to meet the modest growth it forecasts for Houston. The need for additional capacity coincides with the expiration of cogeneration contracts in 1993 and 1994. To meet this capacity need, they are determined to avoid buying cogeneration at a very high price and on delivery terms which do not reflect realistic benefits to their electric customers. The paper gives information on the background on PUC regulations and legislation, then briefly reviews the procedure for purchase of cogenerated power in Texas

  17. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY; Behçet Yalın ÖZKARA

    2017-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase eleme...

  18. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...

  19. Purchasing management experience of Haiyang nuclear power project construction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing is one of the important aspects to ensure the safety and quality of the nuclear power plant. This paper, combining the purchasing peculiarity and purchasing process of Haiyang nuclear power project, summarizes experiences of Haiyang nuclear power project in promoting its purchasing management level in aspects of purchasing method choosing, purchasing plan management, purchasing process optimization, purchasing contract implementation and purchasing surveillance, etc. (author)

  20. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchasing policy. 601.100 Section 601.100 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The Postal...

  1. Purchasing. School Business Management Handbook Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Purchasing, one of the most highly specialized activities in school administration, involves securing material or service in the right quantity and quality, at the right time, and for the right price. This handbook, intended as a guide for purchasing agents, details principles essential for operating a school purchasing office in New York State.…

  2. Guide to Effective Purchasing. Operational Management Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frediani, Pam

    This manual is intended to help create and sustain good relations between purchasers and suppliers of foods and related products. It is designed to guide anyone involved in the purchasing function: purchasing officers and managers in medium and large establishments, food and beverage managers, catering managers, chefs, caterers, restaurateurs,…

  3. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 813.202 Section 813.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING... Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among all...

  4. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  5. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase elements (trust, usefulness, interactivity and altruism motivation are effective on purchase intention. The results of the study will be able to create effective sale strategies for the online stores of nonprofit organizations.

  6. Value-based purchasing of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obremskey, William T; Dail, Teresa; Jahangir, A Alex

    2012-04-01

    Health care in the United States is known for its continued innovation and production of new devices and techniques. While the intention of these devices is to improve the delivery and outcome of patient care, they do not always achieve this goal. As new technologies enter the market, hospitals and physicians must determine which of these new devices to incorporate into practice, and it is important these devices bring value to patient care. We provide a model of a physician-engaged process to decrease cost and increase review of physician preference items. We describe the challenges, implementation, and outcomes of cost reduction and product stabilization of a value-based process for purchasing medical devices at a major academic medical center. We implemented a physician-driven committee that standardized and utilized evidence-based, clinically sound, and financially responsible methods for introducing or consolidating new supplies, devices, and technology for patient care. This committee worked with institutional finance and administrative leaders to accomplish its goals. Utilizing this physician-driven committee, we provided access to new products, standardized some products, decreased costs of physician preference items 11% to 26% across service lines, and achieved savings of greater than $8 million per year. The implementation of a facility-based technology assessment committee that critically evaluates new technology can decrease hospital costs on implants and standardize some product lines.

  7. 78 FR 37946 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... purchasing credit union may have years of experience dealing with only one or a few originators. These credit...; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and Assumption of Liabilities AGENCY... reorganize the loan participation rule and focus on the purchase side of loan participation transactions. The...

  8. How and when service quality and satisfaction simultaneously influence purchase intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ying; Li, Shyh-Jane; Yang, Miles M

    2011-08-01

    Th e purpose of this study is to examine how and when service quality and satisfaction simultaneously influence purchase intentions. The study tries to explore and clarify the relationship between service quality and satisfaction, and to examine whether satisfaction simultaneously moderates and mediates the relationship between perceived service quality and purchase intentions. A field survey was conducted for the outpatients of 12 regional hospitals in Taiwan. The findings show that the effects of different dimensions of service quality on purchase intentions are not equal across satisfied and unsatisfied patients. This study provides empirical evidence that show how the dual roles of the moderator and mediator manipulated together by satisfaction, work to affect purchase intentions in hospital settings. In addition, the relationships between service quality and satisfaction are also clarified.

  9. Local Purchasing of Journals is Required in Addition to a Nationally Purchased Collection to Meet the Information Needs of NHS Staff. A review of: Glover, Steven William, John Addison, Colette Gleghorn, and John Bramwell. “Journal Usage in NHS Hospitals: A Comparison Report of Total Usage at an Acute NHS Trust and a Specialist NHS Trust in the North West of England.” Health Information and Libraries Journal 24.3 (2007: 193‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Kelson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ To compare journal usage between an acute National Health Service (NHS Trust and a specialist NHS Trust located in North West England to provide some evidence as to how well the National Core Content Collection (provided by ProQuest meets the needs of staff in these settings.Design ‐ Comparative studySetting ‐ An acute NHS Trust, comprising four hospital sites, and a cancer specialist NHS Trust based on a single site. Both Trusts are located in North West England. The cancer specialist NHS Trust is a teaching hospital with undergraduate nurses, medical students, and student radiographers. This Trust is also closely associated with an adjoining cancer research institute. The acute NHS Trust has a large number of healthcare staff in training and was not described as a teaching hospital.Subjects ‐ Staff of the respective NHS Trusts. The staff numbers for each organisation were not provided.Methods ‐ COUNTER usage statistics of online journals, obtained from publisher administration tools, were collected for one year covering the period 1 December 2005 to 30 November 2006. Where available, the number of photocopies made from print journals during the same period by library users for their own use was also included. All full‐text downloads of journal articles were counted as part of this study, hence the possibility of double counting if a single article was requested in both HTML and PDF versions. Details of free or open access articles accessed without the need for a username and password were not included in the study. To encourage use of the electronic journals, library services at both Trusts implemented a number of initiatives to maximize publicity. These included direct e‐mails to staff, posters, and presentations to staff. Athens registration, required for access to the electronic journal collections, was promoted as part of the induction process for new library users. Staff members were encouraged to apply for the

  10. Purchasing behavior of Fairtrade customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ambrožová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume of corporate social responsibility (CSR activities is increasing worldwide; the European Union considers CSR to be one of the ways to achieve the most competitive economy and CSR awareness is also rising among companies in the Czech Republic, their customers, and the public. Bearing this in mind, Fairtrade goods, a subset of CSR and sustainable development, is an attractive step for vendors to take towards their customers. In this paper, we try to learn who the buyers of Fairtrade products are and what their motivation is in order to help Fairtrade dealers know their target group better, while at the same time helping expand this target group for organizations such as Fairtrade Czech Republic. We utilize an empirical survey and employ both univariate and bivariate statistical analyses (descriptives, associations, correlations for this purpose. While some previous findings were confirmed, such as (the influence of age and education on Fairtrade purchasing behavior, moral principles and quality of the product being stated as the most important motives to buy Fairtrade products, the significance of the Fairtrade logo and certificate for the buyers’ awareness one was disproved. According to the gathered data, the economic situation of a household does not affect Fairtrade purchasing behavior.

  11. New options for purchasing electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig

  12. Customers' willingness to purchase new store brands

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Stephan; Dobbelstein, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing customers’ willingness to purchase new store brands. Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops a 3 £ 3 design to investigate the impact of price and quality positioning on the willingness to purchase new store brands in five product groups. A total of 990 respondents completed a questionnaire about store brand perception, aspects of purchasing behavior and willingness to buy. Data are analyzed with analysis...

  13. THE USE OF PARTNERSHIP IN PURCHASING

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA SIMA; GEORGE BĂLAN

    2014-01-01

    The partnership is now increasingly used in all areas thanks to the synergy it implies and of the benefits demonstrated. And in today's economy benefits of the partnership are widely recognized. Partnership in purchase makes no exception. This paper presents the benefits of a partnership-based purchases compared to those of traditional purchasing. Less well known is that a partnership built and/or implemented incorrectly and may result in additional costs and thus lead to disadvantages for...

  14. A computer-based purchase management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Subramani, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The details of a computer-based purchase management system developed to meet the specific requirements of Madras Regional Purchase Unit (MRPU) is given. Howe ver it can be easily modified to meet the requirements of any other purchase department. It covers various operations of MRPU starting from indent processing to preparation of purchase orders and reminders. In order to enable timely management action and control facilities are provided to generate the necessary management information reports. The scope for further work is also discussed. The system is completely menu driven and user friendly. Appendix A and B contains the menu implemented and the sample outputs respectively. (author)

  15. Library Purchasing Consortia in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ball

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of library purchasing consortia across the United Kingdom is uneven and sector-dependent. Only higher education libraries show a well developed regional infrastructure of purchasing consortia covering virtually all eligible libraries. While there are clear sectoral disparities amongst the library purchasing consortia surveyed, the size of consortium expenditure seems to determine whether procurement professionals are involved. Thus in those whose spend consistently exceeds European Commission guidelines’ thresholds, the involvement of purchasing professionals is much more likely, and also crucial to the successful navigation of such procedures.

  16. Evolving Purchasing and Supply Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    2018-01-01

    this challenge, a comprehensive contingency framework of PSO structures is presented. The framework is based on existing literature on PSO contingency factors as well as analysis of two case companies. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective for understanding the PSO...... and combining a detailed view of macro-level structural dimensions with micro-level characteristics. These macro-level dimensions comprise category, business unit, geography and activity. The micro-level characteristics comprise centralization, formalization, specialization, participation and standardization....... From a theoretical perspective, the contingency framework opens up insights that can be leveraged in future studies in the fields of hybrid PSOs, global sourcing organizations, and International Purchasing Offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies...

  17. POINT-OF-PURCHASE SIGNS, IMPULSE PURCHASES, AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE "DESIRE TO TOUCH"

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Joann; Childers, Terry

    2000-01-01

    What is the role of touch in consumer behavior? Consumers are especially motivated to touch some products before buying them, and for some people, those high in "desire to touch", touching before buying is especially important. In addition, some situations encourage consumers to touch goods before purchasing them. How do these relate to impulse purchases? People high in their "desire to touch" are more likely to make impulse purchases. Point-of-purchase signs that encourage touching a product...

  18. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  19. Purchasing portfolio models: a critique and update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models have spawned considerable discussion in the literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing considerable divergence in opinion on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question of whether or not the use of purchasing

  20. Purchasing decision behaviour by Chinese supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study on the relative importance of supplier selection criteria as rated by seafood purchasers for Chinese supermarkets. A sample of 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu participated in the study. The purchasers rated product quality as the most...

  1. Exploring purchasing involvement in product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.; Weele, van A.J.

    2003-01-01

    With increasing outsourcing and the growing importance of product innovation as a means for creating competitive advantage, the integration of purchasing and product development processes has become a key issue for many firms. Although, consequently, the integration of purchasing and suppliers in

  2. Critical success factors for managing purchasing groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan; de Boer, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we identify critical success factors for managing small and intensive purchasing groups by comparing successful and unsuccessful purchasing groups in a large-scale survey. The analysis of our data set suggests the following success factors: no enforced participation, sufficient

  3. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 13.202 Section 13.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Threshold 13.202 Purchase guidelines. (a) Solicitation, evaluation of quotations, and award. (1) To the...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments § 1280.217 Lamb purchases. (a...

  5. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  7. The fundamentals of power purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The challenges facing Ontario consumers in the year 2000 regarding the purchase of electricity are the focus of this paper. As Ontario's electric power industry changes from a monopoly based public service to a competition-driven supply and demand marketplace, consumers in the province will be faced with the complex and difficult task of buying electricity in an open market. Electricity products will be available as commodities in a desegregated state. That is, consumers will be able to buy electricity from a power generator, as well as arranging its transportation and distribution. Consumers will have to understand the cost factors involved and the components which factor into the pricing of electricity. In this context, the paper defines electricity as a commodity and discusses issues such as supply and demand (given that electricity cannot be stored), energy losses, regional markets, impact of externalities, demand elasticity, and hourly pricing. Non-commodity cost factors such as stranded debt, ancillary services, infrastructure and personnel, metering, electricity trading and futures contracts are also reviewed. 19 refs., 2 figs

  8. New models intensify the purchase of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesimaeki, P.; Lampinen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Models, designed for planning and optimisation of the purchase of energy, combined with high-quality expertise have an impact on the costs of energy companies. Optimisation has a significant role in power plant investments and in planning the power distribution of wholesale electric power. After the liberation of the electricity markets, the planning of the electricity purchase and the optimisation have obtained totally new roles in estimating the cost effects of present and new customers. Electrowatt-Ekono has developed a windows-based COPSIM software for planning of electric power purchase. The software is in active use in Electrowatt-Ekono. The energy purchase is optimised on yearly basis or on a shorter period by one hour steps based on hourly variation of energy purchase, power plant characteristics, power consumption rates and the prices of the fuels, power and heat. COPSIM takes the effect of external temperature on the power generation of backpressure and gas turbine plants into account. The software optimises also the power distribution of wholesale power. By the software it is possible to model different types of power plants, purchase of power, power sales, different power plant shares, thermal power stations, purchase and sales of heat, heat storage and heat transfer between different heating networks

  9. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.

  10. 48 CFR 970.4402 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Management and Operating Contractor Purchasing 970.4402 Contractor purchasing system. ...

  11. Exploring Customer Purchasing Intention over Online Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Samadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the correlation among perceived benefits, perceived risks and perceived website quality towards online purchasing intention with one of the online store in Singapore. This study used online questionnaire survey to collect 180 completed responses of male and female Singaporean aged 20 and above. The findings showed that there was a significant correlation between perceived benefits, perceived website quality and online purchasing intention while there was no significant correlation between perceived risks and online purchasing intention. Implication and limitation of this study also discussed.

  12. Perbedaan Post Purchase Regret Berdasarkan Perilaku Pada Konsumen Wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Fardhani, Diah

    2014-01-01

    Post purchase regret is a negative emotion of consumer after evaluating the purchase decision has been made, the evaluation is conducted based on the outcome and process of consumer decision making. This study was a comparative quantitative study aimed to determine differences on post purchase regret based on unplanned and substitute purchasing behavior. The research hypothesis was the differences in post purchase regret based on unplanned behavior and substitute purchasing. The study involve...

  13. DEMAND AND QUALITY UNCERTAINTY IN PECAN PURCHASING DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Timothy A.; Florkowski, Wojciech J.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized Heckman model of purchase decisions incorporating perceived consumer quality attributes, ease of purchase, and familiarity with marketing outlets as factors influencing pecan purchases is estimated. Marketing efforts that encourage consumers to expand expenditures on nut products increase both the probability of pecan purchases and the amount purchased. Consumers who use all types of nuts in a wider variety of foods tend to purchase pecans more frequently. A diverse set of marke...

  14. The Role of Patient Safety in the Device Purchasing Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Todd R; Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Keselman, Alla; Tang, Xiaozhou; Brixey, Juliana J; Paige, Danielle; Turley, James P

    2005-01-01

    To examine how patient safety considerations are incorporated into medical device purchase decisions, individuals involved in recent infusion pump purchasing decisions at three different health care...

  15. Finding purchase activity patterns in small & medium enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Geert J.

    2015-01-01

    Finding purchase activity patterns in Small & Medium Enterprises in a research program to enable SMEs to improve their purchase and company performance. Posterpresentatie KCO conferentie, 16 november 2015.

  16. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  17. European Union Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  18. GPP Webinar: The Power of Aggregated Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar examining the use of an aggregated model for renewable energy purchases which can lead to significant energy, environmental and financial benefits by addressing administrative cost barriers and leveraging the shared purchasi

  19. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  20. The Effectiveness of Advertising Matching Purchase Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef (Joost); G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands

  1. INFLUENCE OF THE BRAND ON PURCHASE DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISS MARTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the brand on purchase decision has been and is still extensively studied by marketers, researchers, economists, manufacturers (especially the multinational companies. In the present study we aimed to find out if the brand influences the purchase decision of consumers in general (brand products/services. A survey has been conducted in September 2016 on a number of 225 people, residents of Tîrgu Mureş city, from Romania, aged between 15 and 65+. The collected data were analyzed to comply with the obiectives and also to draw conclusions. From the study it is reveal that the purchase decision of a potencial buyer is influenced by a number of factors, in particularly by the quality and price. We chose to study the influence of brand on purchase decision, a very topical subject that can never be fully exhausted.

  2. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  3. Purchasing social responsibility : a conceptual study

    OpenAIRE

    Mørk, Eirik; Solheim, Kristian Hauge

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on Purchasing Social Responsibility (PSR). Suppliers play an important role in the overall corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts of the purchasing firm. The purpose of this paper is to explore potential firm performance effects from PSR, which contributes to an area of research that is limited at this point. The aim is to develop a survey instrument based on a set of formulated hypotheses and a conceptual framework. These are grounded in a literature review of core ...

  4. Impact of Advertising Appeals on Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Jovanović; Tamara Vlastelica; Slavica Cicvarić Kostić

    2016-01-01

    Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional an...

  5. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Matea; Puh, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Ma...

  6. Absolute purchasing power parity in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhibai; Bian, Zhicun

    2015-01-01

    Different from popular studies that focus on relative purchasing power parity, we study absolute purchasing power parity (APPP) in 21 main industrial countries. Three databases are used. Both the whole period and the sub-period are analyzed. The empirical proof shows that the phenomenon that APPP holds is common, and the phenomenon that APPP does not hold is also common. In addition, some country pairs and the pooled country data indicate that the nearer the GDPPs of two countries are, the mo...

  7. Strategic Capacity Rationing to Induce Early Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Liu; Garrett J. van Ryzin

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic pricing offers the potential to increase revenues. At the same time, it creates an incentive for customers to strategize over the timing of their purchases. A firm should ideally account for this behavior when making its pricing and stocking decisions. In particular, we investigate whether it is optimal for a firm to create rationing risk by deliberately understocking products. Then, the resulting threat of shortages creates an incentive for customers to purchase early at higher price...

  8. INVENTORY DECISIONS WITH DECREASING PURCHASING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    XIANGPEI HU; HUIMIN WANG; YUNZENG WANG

    2012-01-01

    Costs of many items drop systematically throughout their life-cycles, due to advances in technology and competition. Motivated by the management of service parts for some high-tech products, this paper studies inventory decisions for such items. In a periodic review setting with stochastic demand, we model the purchasing costs of successive periods as a stochastic and decreasing sequence. Unit selling price of the item is determined as some mark-up of the purchasing cost and, hence, will chan...

  9. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....

  10. Accounting issues: should the merger be treated as purchase or pooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, S A

    1985-05-01

    Under accounting rules, a merger or consolidation can be treated as either a purchase or pooling. A purchase causes an adjustment in the selling hospital's asset basis to fair market value with goodwill often resulting. Such an adjustment is usually favorable for a taxable acquisition but not a tax-free reorganization. A pooling, on the other hand, results in the assets of the two organizations being merged together with no adjustment in asset values or increase in goodwill. The requirements for pooling are strict but the result is the carryover of assets at historical cost, usually favorable for reporting EPS.

  11. Moving healthcare quality forward with nursing-sensitive value-based purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kevin T; Cimiotti, Jeannie P; Abusalem, Said; Coty, Mary-Beth

    2012-12-01

    To underscore the need for health system reform and emphasize nursing measures as a key component in our healthcare reimbursement system. Nursing-sensitive value-based purchasing (NSVBP) has been proposed as an initiative that would help to promote optimal staffing and practice environment through financial rewards and transparency of structure, process, and patient outcome measures. This article reviews the medical, governmental, institutional, and lay literature regarding the necessity for, method of implementation of, and potential impact of NSVBP. Research has shown that adverse events and mortality are highly dependent on nurse staffing levels and skill mix. The National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI), along with other well-developed indicators, can be used as nursing-sensitive measurements for value-based purchasing initiatives. Nursing-sensitive measures are an important component of value-based purchasing. Value-based purchasing is in its infancy. Devising an effective system that recognizes and incorporates nursing measures will facilitate the success of this initiative. NSVBP needs to be designed and incentivized to decrease adverse events, hospital stays, and readmission rates, thereby decreasing societal healthcare costs. NSVBP has the potential for improving the quality of nursing care by financially motivating hospitals to have an optimal nurse practice environment capable of producing optimal patient outcomes by aligning cost effectiveness for hospitals to that of the patient and society. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. 48 CFR 52.207-5 - Option To Purchase Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option To Purchase....207-5 Option To Purchase Equipment. As prescribed in 7.404, insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Option To Purchase Equipment (FEB 1995) (a) The Government may purchase the equipment...

  13. 7 CFR 1753.68 - Purchasing special equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchasing special equipment. 1753.68 Section 1753.68... AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Purchase and Installation of Special Equipment § 1753.68 Purchasing special equipment. (a) General. (1) Equipment purchases are...

  14. 36 CFR 223.101 - Determination of purchaser responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser has a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics; (5) The purchaser has or is able to... and governmental business commitments; (3) The purchaser has a satisfactory performance record on... applicable laws and regulations. (c) If the prospective purchaser is a small business concern and the...

  15. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  16. Determinant factors of industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of internet for business purchasing related activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shook Mei Chan; Siohong Tih

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to examine a path model and the mediating effect of perceived communication convenience towards explaining industrial purchasing personnel’s Internet adoption for business purchasing related activities. It involves sequencing paths examining the predictive effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on perceived communication convenience. Consequently, perceived communication convenience would influence Internet adoption as commun...

  17. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  18. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  19. THE USE OF PARTNERSHIP IN PURCHASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA SIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The partnership is now increasingly used in all areas thanks to the synergy it implies and of the benefits demonstrated. And in today's economy benefits of the partnership are widely recognized. Partnership in purchase makes no exception. This paper presents the benefits of a partnership-based purchases compared to those of traditional purchasing. Less well known is that a partnership built and/or implemented incorrectly and may result in additional costs and thus lead to disadvantages for both companies. For this reason, the paper aims to present what a partnership is, to show which steps should be taken to build a successful partnership and to exemplify through companies which have implemented correctly this type of collaboration, obtaining exceptional results.

  20. Alcohol purchasing by ill heavy drinkers; cheap alcohol is no single commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J; Chick, J; Black, H; Rees, C; O'May, F; Rush, R; McPake, B A

    2015-12-01

    Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. 639 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol (recruited within NHS hospital clinics (in- and out-patient settings) 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh) responded to a questionnaire documenting demographic data and last week's or a 'typical' weekly consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase). Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile was derived as proxy of sociodemographic status. Median consumption was 184.8 (IQR = 162.2) UK units/week paying a mean of 39.7 pence per alcohol unit (£0.397). Off-sales accounted for 95% of purchases with 85% of those purchase the majority of their drinks from off-sale settings seeking the cheapest drinks, often favouring local suppliers. While beer was popular, recent legislation impacting on the sale of multibuys may prevent the heaviest drinkers benefiting from the lower beer prices available in supermarkets. Non-etheless, drinkers were able to offset higher unit prices with cheaper drink types and maintain high levels of consumption. Whilst price is key, heavy drinkers are influenced by other factors and adapt their purchasing as necessary. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. PERAN PRODUCT CUES AND RISK AVERSION PADA PURCHASE INTENTION DAN POST PURCHASE FEELINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rejeki Ekasasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research aimed to investigate the influence of extrinsic cues and intrinsic cues and risk aversion towards purchase intention and post-purchase feeling of counterfeited computer software and music CD. This research study collected data from two populations which are students and employee. Approximately 128 respondents involved to give respond for the survey. The analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM show that product cues and risk aversion give different significant impact towards purchase intention and post-purchase feeling of counterfeited computer software and music CD. The research concluded that risk aversion and extrinsic cues has a significant influence to purchase intention of counterfeited computer software while it does not appear similar result to music CD. Moreover, the study revealed that for both counterfeited computer software and music CD, the purchase intention is proven to have negative significant influence towards post-purchase feelings.Keywords: risk aversion, extrinsic cues, intrinsic cues, purchase intention, post-purchase feelingsAbstrakTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh atribut ekstrinsik dan intrinsic produk serta aspek menolak resiko terhadap niat beli dan perasaan paska beli software computer dan CD music bajakan. Penelitian ini diharapkan akan memperoleh sebuah model dengan pendekatan cultural dan strategi bisnis untuk memblokir atau mengurangi produk bajakan yang dapat diakses konsumen di pasar. Data primer akan dikumpulkan dari dua populasi, kelompok mahasiswa dan kelompok pekerja, dari empat kota besar di Indonesia yaitu Jakarta, Semarang, Surabaya, dan Yogyakarta. Lebih kurang 128 responden terlibat dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aspek atribut produk yang bersifat ekstrinsik dan aspek menolak resiko terbukti memiliki hubungan signifikan mempengaruhi niat beli software computer, akan tetapi lain tidak demikian pada niat beli CD music bajakan

  2. Obesity prevention at the point of purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Lesser, L I

    2016-05-01

    The point of purchase is when people may make poor and impulsive decisions about what and how much to buy and consume. Because point of purchase strategies frequently work through non-cognitive processes, people are often unable to recognize and resist them. Because people lack insight into how marketing practices interfere with their ability to routinely eat healthy, balanced diets, public health entities should protect consumers from potentially harmful point of purchase strategies. We describe four point of purchase policy options including standardized portion sizes; standards for meals that are sold as a bundle, e.g. 'combo meals'; placement and marketing restrictions on highly processed low-nutrient foods; and explicit warning labels. Adoption of such policies could contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We also discuss how the policies could be implemented, along with who might favour or oppose them. Many of the policies can be implemented locally, while preserving consumer choice. © 2016 World Obesity.

  3. Impact of Advertising Appeals on Purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Jovanović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional and rational advertising appeals on the purchase intention. The results of the empirical research, conducted using the focus groups method, are shown in this paper and the focus group participants were members of the student population.The research results indicate that different advertising appeals may have a different impact on the consumer’s purchase intention; in case of women, the emotional appeal has a stronger impact while for men it is the rational appeal, while “fear appeal” proved to be effective to a certain point, after which it causes selective perception and rejection. This implies that depending on the product, its purpose and target group, advertisers can choose the type of appeal, combination of the appeals and their creative presentation, based on the empirical confirmation of the efficiency the approach.

  4. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  5. Purchase Behavior of Consumers for Seafood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omezzine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is a key component in production and marketing decisions. Fish consumers play a key role because fishermen and distributors recognize their purchase choices as a determinant to their operation. Consumers make buying decisions according to market conditions and to various attributes of the product, namely the specie, the form, the place of purchase, the size and the quality. This study is aimed at providing information on Oman consumers’ attitudes and preferences for fish purchase form and market outlets using an information-processing model. It identifies factors for predicting changes in market demand for fish products and services as a result of changes in consumers attributes. Results indicate that on-shore fish markets are the most preferred outlets for the coastal population while retailers and Oman National Fisheries Company are the commonly used outlets. Results also show that whole fish is the most preferred form of purchase for both rural and urban medium to low-income consumers while a large proportion of high-income consumers in urban regions prefer mainly sliced fish. Market development efforts should focus on the organization of on-shore fish markets in coastal regions, and retailers and Oman Fisheries Company’s outlets in the inland areas. Forms other than whole fish may be promoted for sale in supermarkets and specialized shops for the urban high-income consumers group..

  6. Marketing occupational health: exploring the purchaser perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes-Evans, O; Woods, A

    2013-01-01

    There may be scope for providers of occupational health (OH) services to improve their communication and marketing to those who purchase their services, but the research literature contains little information about purchasers' perceptions of OH. There is no documented overview that fully captures the purchasers' perspective. To explore current and potential purchasers' thinking about OH. Iterative purposive sampling was carried out to identify participants for semi-structured interviews. Respondents were obtained through progressively wider networking, starting with personal and organizational contacts and networking events. This was continued until no major new information was appearing. Health issues were not always recognized as related to OH. Some respondents had little understanding of OH or perceived it with very negative connotations. Some also sought information at first from the internet and personal contacts. The giving of expert advice on a situation was generally seen as a central feature of OH services. Most believed OH included sickness absence management. Respondents spoke of problems such as insufficient, inappropriate or partisan recommendations and also process or turnaround time problems. Clarity and building good working relationships were identified as positive factors. OH providers should review their various activities to address these points, as well as reviewing the knowledge and skills that their staff can contribute.

  7. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J E; Li, Q; Abrams, S M; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K M

    2005-04-01

    To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts.

  8. Parental influence on consumer and purchase behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Parental influence on consumer and purchase behaviour of Generation Y. 21 ... Department of Marketing Management. University of Pretoria ... The decision, however, in making ... exactly what role social environment and ... influences on the younger Generation Y are very .... as parents, peers, the mass media, retail stores,.

  9. Purchasing Power Parity and Heterogeneous Mean Reversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the properties of multivariate tests of purchasing power parity (PPP) that fail to take heterogeneity in the speed of mean reversion across real exchange rates into account. We compare the performance of homogeneous and heterogeneous unit root testing methodologies.

  10. Purchasing Power Parity and the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes purchasing power parity (PPP) for the euro area. We study the impact of the introduction of the euro in 1999 on the behavior of real exchange rates. We test the PPP hypothesis for a panel of real exchange rates within the euro area over the period 1973-2003. Our

  11. Purchasing to improve health systems performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Ray; Jakubowski, Elke; Figueras, Josep

    2005-01-01

    ... as they formulate purchasing strategies so that they can increase effectiveness and improve performance in their own national context An assessment of the intersecting roles of citizens, the government and the providers * * * Written by leading health policy analysts, this book is essential reading for health policy makers, planners and managers as well as resear...

  12. Key state legislative provisions on purchasing alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to function effectively in post-reform healthcare markets, behavioral healthcare professionals must understand and interact with health purchasing alliances. Healthcare reform initiatives based upon the principles of managed competition envision an important role for cooperative health purchasing organizations, or "health alliances," that collect premiums and contract with health plans for the provision of comprehensive health services delivered within the framework of a standardized benefit package. Health purchasing alliances have already been implemented in eight states, and this trend is expected to grow. The following article illustrates the structure and authority of the health alliances that are already in operation, and is presented here to give Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow journal readers an up-to-date overview of reforming healthcare markets. This matrix arrays recent state laws which we identify as clearly including components of managed competition or purchasing alliances. Other states undoubtedly have elements of reform that include some aspects of these concepts. For example, under legislation, a Vermont health care authority was established and, among other things, charged with developing two comprehensive reform proposals, one of which will involve multipayors and the other a single-payor system. Options will likely embody many of the activities of alliances. Vermont is not included in this matrix because these provisions are still in the developmental stage.

  13. 24 CFR 291.515 - Purchaser qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GNND Sales Program: (a) The person must be employed as a law enforcement officer (as described in § 291... in § 291.530) at the time he/she submits a bid to purchase a home through the program and at the time... to continue employment as a law enforcement officer (as described in § 291.520), teacher (as...

  14. Probability numeracy and health insurance purchase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.

  15. Job profile research for the purchasing profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Wesselink, R.; Bruijstens, H.Chr.J.

    2005-01-01

    The study reported in this article is based on theories about job and competence analysis and a project in which job profiles were developed that were aimed at providing a framework of reference for evaluating in-service training programmes for purchasing professionals (professional buyers of goods

  16. Purchasing green to become greener: Factors influence consumers’ green purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vazifehdoust

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an integrated model that combines the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA and two categories of variables, personal and marketing, to investigate the attitudinal and behavioral decision factors to purchase green products. The model derived and tested via structural equation modeling on a sample of 374 consumers from the Guilan province in Iran. The results show that attitude is explained by consumers’ environmental concern, quality of green products, green advertising and green labeling. The results of the structural equation analysis indicate that attitude positively influences intention to purchase green products. Green purchasing intention also influences on green purchasing behavior. This paper also discusses the implications of the results for marketers and researchers.

  17. A STUDY OF ONLINE PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR- INVESTIGATING SOCIAL MEANING OF ONLINE PURCHASE IN TAIWAN

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Che-wen

    2008-01-01

    To justify the applicability of previous researches of online purchase in the Eastern culture, 237 samples in Taiwan are examined with questionnaire adapted from previous researches. Based on the assumption of rational behaviour that online purchase intention leads to behaviour, factors influencing them are examined and discussed. The result indicates that demographic attributes, perceived consequence, conspicuous meaning, information sources and reference group are confirmed to impact online...

  18. Post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers. The aim is to determine the prevalence of selective exposure, and the impact of motor vehicle features and dissonance respectively. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers The results indicate that the majority of consumers do not engage in post-purchase selective advertisement readership behaviour. Furthermore, whilst motor vehicle features (make, model, dealership, month of purchases/ time lapse after purchases do not influence consumers' repeat purchase intentions, reported dissonance and the magnitude of cognitive dissonance experienced have a significant impact. Opsomming Hierdie studie evalueer die reaksie van verbruikers op advertensies nadat hulle n voertuig aangekoop het. Die doel was om vas te stel in watter n mate verbruikers selektiefis met advertensies en watter effek voertuig-eienskappe en dissonansie op die moontlikheid het om weer dieselfde voertuig te koop. Die empiriese anahse is mtgevoer op n steekproefvan 200 eicnaars van nuwe voertuie. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat die meerderheid van verbruikers me advertensies selektief lees nan aankoop me.Verder blyk dit dat die eienskappe vann motorvoertmg fabnkaat, model handelaar, maand van aankoop/tydsverloop na aankoop nie n verbruiker beinvloed om dieselfde voertuig weer te koop nie. Gerapporteerde dissonansie en die omvang van kognitiewe dissonansie na n aankoop, blyk tog 'n betekenisvolle impak te he.

  19. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  20. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Laura H; Ausink, John A; Campbell, Nancy F; Drew, John G; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    .... First, the contracting community did not have a comprehensive, detailed database of contingency purchases that would allow analyses of the types and amounts of goods and services purchased to support...

  1. Consumer-purchasing Motives in Nigerian Cellular Phone Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumer-purchasing Motives in Nigerian Cellular Phone Market: An Empirical Investigation. ... Nigerian consumers to identify their motives for purchasing new mobile phones on one hand, and factors affecting operator choice on the other.

  2. Webinar: Simplifying Sustainable Purchasing Through Guidelines and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar will cover EPA’s effort to simplify green purchasing through recommendations of specifications, standards, and ecolabels. EPA’s work in this area is intended to help federal purchasers identify and procure environmentally sustainable products.

  3. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Leasing Versus Purchasing Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arceneaux, Alan

    1997-01-01

    .... In constructing this model, several factors were considered, including: The purchase cost of computer equipment, annual lease payments, depreciation costs, the opportunity cost of purchasing, tax revenue implications and various leasing terms...

  4. An agency theory perspective on the purchase of marketing services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, W.L.; Ellram, L.M.; Bals, L.; Hartmann, E.; Valk, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    The purchase of business services has become an important part of organizations' acquisition of external resources, and is therefore receiving growing scholarly attention. The supply management function is increasingly supporting more complex service purchases, including a wide range of marketing

  5. Children's influence on family purchase decision in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Tanvi

    2008-01-01

    The importance of children in purchase decision making has grown over the years. They not only make purchase decisions for personal consumption but they also influence family purchase decision-making (Kaur and Singh, 2006). This research looks at available literature, which is discussed with respect to children influence on product categories, decision-making stages, socialising agents like parents, peers and media and role of family communication in purchase decision making. Demographic vari...

  6. Logistic strategies in purchasing process of metallurgical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grzybowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some selected logistic strategies concerning purchasing process in production companies. Costs referring to realizing and organizing purchasing process are a substantial part of total costs of a company. In order to make a company’s purchasing and supply processes efficient, it is necessary to take some steps to prepare purchasing strategy. This operation was the reason for presenting the subject in this study.

  7. Logistic strategies in purchasing process of metallurgical companies

    OpenAIRE

    Grzybowska, K.; Gajdzik, B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents some selected logistic strategies concerning purchasing process in production companies. Costs referring to realizing and organizing purchasing process are a substantial part of total costs of a company. In order to make a company’s purchasing and supply processes efficient, it is necessary to take some steps to prepare purchasing strategy. This operation was the reason for presenting the subject in this study.

  8. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  9. Determinants of intention to purchase leisure travel over the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Moital, Miguel; Vaughan, Roger; Edwards, Jonathan; Peres, Rita

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 years on since the launch of the Internet, there are clear differential levels of adoption of the Internet for purchasing leisure travel across countries. In some countries, such as Portugal, only a minority of travel purchasing is conducted over the Internet. This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of adoption of purchasing over the Internet by evaluating the determinants of intention to adopt the Internet for purchasing leisure travel. A number of variables are...

  10. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Heijboer, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision problems. New quantitative models are developed for these decision problems using a range of mathematical techniques, thereby contributing to the further development of purchasing theory and its appliati...

  11. Scaling Consumers' Purchase Involvement: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kraigher-Krainer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional scale, called ECID Scale, is presented in this paper. The scale is based on a comprehensive model and captures the two antecedent factors of purchase-related involvement, namely whether motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic and whether risk is perceived as low or high. The procedure of scale development and item selection is described. The scale turns out to perform well in terms of validity, reliability, and objectivity despite the use of a small set of items – four each – allowing for simultaneous measurements of up to ten purchases per respondent. The procedure of administering the scale is described so that it can now easily be applied by both, scholars and practitioners. Finally, managerial implications of data received from its application which provide insights into possible strategic marketing conclusions are discussed.

  12. The Corporate Sector Purchase Programme (CSPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Large-scale asset purchase programmes are a form of monetary policy in which market interest rates are reduced by different amounts at different maturities – and lower them at the long rates that affect investment and consumption decisions. They are designed to stimulate spending by increasing...... liquidity, raising asset prices, creating wealth effects, lowering borrowing costs and increasing investment. Corporate bond purchases (CSPP) are complementary to, not an alternative to standard QE policies. They increase the impact of QE policies; widen the pool of (potentially) high quality assets...... that can be used (itself a risk reducing measure that reduces the pressure on reserves); and make it easier to steer economic performance by reducing risk premia, that is sectoral or regional interest spreads. That not only reduces average borrowing costs; it delivers better economic performance where...

  13. Consumer Purchase Behaviour for Green Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Sharma; J. Sonwalkar; Maohar Kapse

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concern for climate change and global warming is increasing at global level which results in stimulating the interest of firms toward environmental protection and sustainable development. Many firms have started developing green products to meet the demand of environmentally conscious consumers. These firms are now interested in finding the determinants of environmentally conscious consumers’ behaviour in order to develop effective marketing strategy to ensure the green purchase ...

  14. Purchasing power parity a different approach

    OpenAIRE

    Σακελλής, Παναγιώτης

    2001-01-01

    Historically, Purchasing Power Parity (henceforth PPP) provides the simplest explanation of long-run exchange rate determination, according to which the equilibrium exchange rate between domestic and foreign currencies equals the ratio between domestic and foreign prices. A few years ago, PPP validity theory seemed like a fairly dull research topic. On the one hand the unavoidable effects of floating exchange rates made it obvious to even its most stubborn defenders that PPP is not a short-ru...

  15. Nonlinear Trend and Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    luo, yinghao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, the evidence on the purchasing power parity (PPP) in the long run is still a matter of debate. The difficulties of the problem are the possible nonstationarity of relative price indices and nominal exchange rates. The traditional ways to deal with nonstationarity such as unit root model and cointegration have some problems. In this paper, to deal with nonstationarity, we apply the Hodrick-Prescott (HP) trend-cycle filter in real busine...

  16. Comparison of Cooperative and Noncooperative Purchasing in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Beth W.; Strohbehn, Catherine; Shelly, Mark C.; Arendt, Susan; Gregoire, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare food cost and public school foodservice directors' satisfaction between districts participating in school foodservice cooperatives or group purchasing arrangements and districts purchasing independently. It also assessed the prevalence of purchasing cooperatives in school foodservice and…

  17. 5 CFR 4001.105 - Purchase of System institution assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System institution assets... SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION § 4001.105 Purchase of System institution assets. (a) Prohibition on purchasing assets owned by a System...

  18. 5 CFR 4101.105 - Purchase of System institution assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION § 4101.105 Purchase of System institution assets. (a) Prohibition on purchasing assets owned by a System institution. No covered employee, or... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System institution assets...

  19. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased

    OpenAIRE

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Findings Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation...

  20. Move of Purchasing Offices TS – AB* – AT*

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The TS – AB* - AT* Purchasing Offices and the Purchasing Pool have moved to Building 5 – 2nd and *3rd floors. The phone and fax numbers are unchanged. We apologize for any inconvenience caused by the move. Thank you for your understanding. Finance Department – Purchasing Service.

  1. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision

  2. 13 CFR 120.641 - Disclosure to purchasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure to purchasers. 120.641 Section 120.641 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Miscellaneous Provisions § 120.641 Disclosure to purchasers. (a) Information to purchaser. Prior...

  3. Designing ordering and inventory management methodologies for purchased parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Looman, Arnold; Ruffini, F.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a method for redesigning the ordering and inventory management methodologies for purchased parts in a manufacturing firm. The method takes the perspective of the purchasing and logistics manager, defines clusters of purchased items, and subsequently assigns each cluster to a

  4. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased ...

  5. 48 CFR 970.5244-1 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5244-1 Contractor purchasing system. As prescribed in 970.4403 insert the following clause: Contractor Purchasing System (AUG 2009) (a) General. The Contractor...

  6. 26 CFR 1.405-1 - Qualified bond purchase plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchase plan must conform to the definition of a pension plan in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of § 1.401-1, or the.... Accordingly, even though a qualified bond purchase plan is designed as a pension plan, it need not provide... apply in a nondiscriminatory manner. (ii) A qualified bond purchase plan which is designed as a pension...

  7. 20 CFR 416.919f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the specific... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 416.919f...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1519f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the specific... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 404.1519f...

  9. Implications of a classification of forms of cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan; Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Dittrich, K.; Jaspers, F.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Our main objective is to classify different forms of cooperative purchasing, i.e. purchasing groups. Based on a literature review, empirical findings, and new institutional economics we employ a classification: the highway matrix. In this matrix we distinguish five forms of cooperative purchasing

  10. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country or...

  11. Operating years 1993 through 1995 power purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is obligated to supply electric power to its contractual customers. Based on a forecast of growing customer loads and assuming Critical Period water conditions in the Columbia River Basin, BPA is planning to meet a firm energy deficit during the four operating years (OY) 1992 through 1995, i.e., August 1991 through July 1995. BPA has executed several power purchase agreements to cover the projected OY 1992 deficit. The proposed action is to extend two existing one-year power purchase agreements for an additional three years to cover the four-year Critical Period energy deficit. The extension of these two one-year power purchase agreements would: (1) increase BPA's firm energy load-carrying capability; (2) allow BPA to meet its firm energy contractual commitments over the remaining three years of the four-year Critical Period from August 1, 1992, to July 31, 1995; (3) provide flexibility for BPA's use of hydroelectric resources over the Critical Period; and (4) increase system reliability. Under Critical Period water conditions, absent the proposed action, projected loads would exceed the capability of the Federal power system to serve those loads. The purpose of BPA's proposed action is to assure consistency with its statutory responsibilities, including those found in the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act)

  12. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  13. Consumers and green electricity : profiling potential purchasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.; Scott, D.; Parker, P.

    2001-01-01

    Electricity markets around the world are being opened to competition and environmental concerns are prompting consumers to consider buying electricity that has been generated by renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power. This report profiles the potential purchaser of such green electricity. It presents 3 sets of hypotheses, each drawing upon the literature on green product purchasers. It is suggested that those who are willing to pay higher premiums for green electricity are likely to have certain demographic characteristics and social values. This study is based on a case-study of a survey conducted in the Waterloo region of southern Ontario, Canada, the objective of which was to determine what kind of people are potential green electricity purchasers. Results were presented to power managers and marketers. A 158-item survey was sent to 1,110 individuals, between September 2000 and April 2001. A total of 474 questionnaires were answered, for a response rate of 43 per cent. It was noted that although the response rate was high, the survey may not be representative because the respondents were older, better educated, and wealthier than the general population. In addition, the respondents had previously indicated they were willing to pay $25 for a home energy evaluation, suggesting a special interest in issues regarding energy and the environment. It was determined that attitudinal characteristics, such as liberalism and perceived consumer effectiveness, ideally identify the potential green electricity buyer. 34 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  15. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Green brand awareness and customer purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Braimah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Green environmental issues have been of topical interest to both researchers and industrialists for some time now. Research on green brands is relatively limited, especially in developing countries, such as Ghana. This study is therefore designed to determine the relationship between customer awareness of green brand issues and their everyday purchase intentions. Using quantitative techniques, the study interviewed 316 people, conveniently selected from various shopping points in Accra. The study found that, the overwhelming majority of respondents though familiar with green issues did not concern themselves with green issues in their everyday purchase decisions. Again, majority of respondents (54% familiar with environmental issues confirmed they would not switch from their preferred brands to less fancied brands even if the less fancied brands were more environmentally friendly. It was also confirmed in the study that price, brand name and convenience, performed better than customer concerns for green issues, in influencing respondents’ purchase decisions. It would therefore be strategically significance if advocates, policy makers and business leaders reduce the cost of green products to the final consumer, intensive public education campaigns, coupled with strategic brand building efforts to enhance the level of green brand consumption.

  17. ANTESEDEN PERCEIVED RISK PADA PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sri Rejeki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of perceived risk to purchase intention  private label products in Indonesia modern market. This study used primary data sources obtained directly by distributing questionnaires using purposive sampling techniques, gathered 200 respondents with minimum criteria of period at least 18 years while maximum of period is > 61 years and have bought private label products. The dependent variable in this study is purchase intention, while independent variables are considered functional risk, perceived financial risk, physical risk, and perception of psychological risk. Data analysis use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results indicate that there was a negative effect on financial risk, the perceived physical risk to buy an interest in functional perception, the psychological risk has no effect on purchase intention on private label product. The implications for the manager is to increase consumer buying intentions by taking into account factors such as perceptions of financial risk and perceptions of physical risk.

  18. Photovoltaic power: the inadequate purchase price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2009-01-01

    The current policy of guaranteed purchase prices applied to photovoltaic power lacks rationality: prices are not graduated, commitment times are too long, there is no capping to capacity developed, subsidies (tax credit, direct subsidy, etc) are complex and give too favourable a return time. The lack of differentiation between products may also delay the emergence of new PV technologies. As a result, it is legitimate to envisage a cost/benefit analysis of future subsidies and to wonder about Frances ability, as a second rank player, to catch up with the leaders (Germany, Japan, United States). The report does not criticize policy based on purchase prices in itself: this is suitable or technology close to commercial operation in that it guarantees stable terms close to wholesale electricity market prices. It does, however, criticize adequacy in terms of less advanced PV technology, which results in purchase prices five times that of wind power. The report proposes re-targeting the system to take account of the significant stakes in PV power. Costly incentives for installing land PV cells and units should be quickly reduced, while industrial demonstration budgets deserve increases to further the development of new technologies (improved crystal silicon and thin layers). The demonstration phase and industrial development should be the primary focus, where a large part of potentially promising reductions in costs are likely to be achieved. (author)

  19. Research on organic food purchase in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research findings based on the research conducted on a representative sample of respondents using a highly structured questionnaire. The first part of the paper focuses on the theoretical background and overview of the research results related to the research problem in the world and in Croatia. The results of the research which has been conducted indicate that respondents are not familiar with the definition of organic food. Furthermore, the paper elaborates on the Croatian consumers’ perception of organic food and conventional food. The research on organic food purchase places a special emphasis on regular buyers of organic food who were asked to evaluate the importance of individual characteristics in choosing a place of sale for organic food. Based on the hierarchical regression analysis, the frequency of organic food purchases by regular buyers was found to correlate with the perception of organic food and the importance of characteristics of a place of sale for organic food. The research also identified the main reasons for not buying organic food, and it sets out the guidelines which may be useful to organic producers, marketers and retailers in encouraging further purchases of organic food.

  20. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION ON CONSUMER PURCHASING DECISIONS IN HOTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Ng'Ang'A, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The hospitality Industry is comprised of individual hotels in which each one of them differs in the way that they position their products and services with the intention of catering for the advancing present day consumer needs. It is hence important for hospitality businesses to possess a unique selling proposition. The objective of this study is to determine the importance of the 4 P’s of marketing mix in consumer purchasing decision. The 4 P’s concept is a tool used in modern marketing ...

  1. Retail service quality as a base in purchasing decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov-Mladenović Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retail is a service activity, and services are something that makes the retail companies differ from production companies. Retailers are trying to differentiate the 'package' offer, build customer loyalty and make their position through the provision of high service quality. In addition, the services provided can be varied, such as exterior and interior design of retail stores, preparation of goods for sale, appearance and behavior of sales personnel, culture of communication with customers, and services provided after the sales process. Consumers require the service quality when making purchasing decision. For retail companies and retail stores it is important to continuously monitor the level of service quality. In order to measure the service quality, the method that found its application in the theory and practice is SERVQUAL. This model was created as a combination of theoretical and practical research and it looks at the quality of service as the content of the following dimensions: tangibles, reliability, sensitivity, security and empathy. As such, it is a function of the difference between perceptions and expectations (Q = P-E and is widely accepted to measure the service quality in traditional retail stores, public sector, higher education, real estate, hospitals, courts and so on. In addition, this model is widely used to measure service quality in e-retailing, e-banking, e-selling of travel packages and other services provided by electronic means. The main assumption is that services are a key factor in making purchasing decision. The aim of this paper is to, through theoretical and practical research with special emphasis on SERVQUAL method, test the initial hypothesis and recognize the level of service quality in retail chains in Southeast Serbia.

  2. Waiting for Merlot: anticipatory consumption of experiential and material purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Gilovich, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Experiential purchases (money spent on doing) tend to provide more enduring happiness than material purchases (money spent on having). Although most research comparing these two types of purchases has focused on their downstream hedonic consequences, the present research investigated hedonic differences that occur before consumption. We argue that waiting for experiences tends to be more positive than waiting for possessions. Four studies demonstrate that people derive more happiness from the anticipation of experiential purchases and that waiting for an experience tends to be more pleasurable and exciting than waiting to receive a material good. We found these effects in studies using questionnaires involving a variety of actual planned purchases, in a large-scale experience-sampling study, and in an archival analysis of news stories about people waiting in line to make a purchase. Consumers derive value from anticipation, and that value tends to be greater for experiential than for material purchases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. PENGARUH BRAND FAMILIARITY TERHADAP PURCHASE INTENTION MELALUI BRAND FIT PADA HOTEL MULIA JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiawaty .

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose this paper is to examine the effects of Brand familiarity and Brand Fit on Purchase Intention towards the offerings of co branded hotels. The findings showed that the fit between cobrands mediate the relationship between Brand familiarity and Purchase Intention. In particular, a well-known co-branded hotel a high level of Brand Fit could directly or indirectly affect consumer decision-making processes regarding Purchase Intention towards the co-brand. conversely, a less familiar co-branded hotel had positive effect on Purchase Intention only if respondents perceived a good fit between allied brands. Brand Fit could be a more important factor than Brand familiarity in influencing the success of hotel co-branding strategis. future research to examinate the co-branding concept in different social and cultural contexts and also from different perspectives, such as owners or manager is recommended. Most hospitality studies focus on co-branding between hotels and restaurant. This study empirically investigated the effects co-branding on consumer behavior in the hotel sector.

  4. MANU. Purchase of Bentonite. Process Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the entire bentonite purchasing process accurately. This will enable efficient and focused use of information related to the purchasing phase and to each individual bentonite batch. This work continues from the work started in the report by Ahonen et al. (2008), Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material, Posiva Working Report 2008-33. The current work includes a short enquiry for all relevant and at the time known producers or re-sellers of bentonite. Questions about relevant products suitable for civil engineering use, more specifically nuclear waste disposal site use, were asked together with test methods, typical test results and test standards. The following aspects and opinions have been processed from the results that were obtained during the project. Each seller/producer has a quality management system, QMS (typically ISO 9001), and ability to perform the basic tests, but there is not an established common set of properties to be tested. Some producers are willing to test according to customers' specifications. Posiva could arrange a network of capable laboratories to carry out tests according to its selected standards. This activity should then be accredited with a reasonable testing volume. Before starting the purchase of bentonite at a large scale, Posiva should go through negotiations and audits with each seller in order to make sure that both parties are testing with the same methods and both understand the range where the values of key parameters may lie. A database is needed for gathering statistically relevant information from the bentonite material parameters over the long run. This is needed for determining the limits within which the material parameters should remain in order to be acceptable. Posiva is encouraged to create a process to optimize the test types and the amount of tests should be identified for immediate and long term use. This process ensures the required quality and costs involved. (orig.)

  5. Hospitals; hospitals13

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Hospital Facilities information was compiled from several various sources. Main source was the RI Department of Health Facilities Regulation database, License 2000....

  6. International Journal of Hospitality Management

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Gon Kima, 1,; Hyunjung, Limb,; Robert, A. Brymerc, 2,

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how managing online reviews affects hotel performance. An international hotel chain provided the hotel performance data and the online review data. A leading social media firm for the hospitality industry collected the online review data, which the hotel company purchased. The results indicate that overall ratings are the most salient predictor of hotel performance, followed by response to negative comments. The better the overall ratings and the higher the response ra...

  7. [Me-too pharmaceuticals -- marketing-strategies of drug producers and drug purchasers. Example: non-ionic contrast media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, C; Puig, S

    2004-11-01

    In the context of increasing economic pressure upon on hospital budgets, it is inevitable that central and standardized purchasing of pharmaceuticals must be considered. It was the aim of this assessment to analyse the many different non-ionic contrast media/CM products on the actual "clinical relevance of the differences" in order to give advice for a more concerted purchasing of CM. The assessment was commissioned by a large scale Austrian hospital cooperation; it can be regarded as the beginning of a broad strategy against the many new, only rarely innovative, but nevertheless patent-protected pharmaceuticals. Eight different non-ionic contrast media - used in routine care - were compared for their physico-chemical characteristics: osmolality, nephrotoxicity, viscosity, hydrophilicity and electric charge. In a systematic review 193 publications were analysed. The examined CM show similar pharmacokinetic and -dynamic attributes, and no differences of clinical relevance. An optimisation of purchasing pharmaceuticals by standardisation of the range of products takes place in the context of common strategies of producers and buying agents in marketing-economies. The strategies of the pharmaceutical industry (patent protection of me-too drugs, high-price-policy, extensive marketing of up to 40 % of revenue) and the counter-strategies of the central hospital purchasers (market concentration, drug commissions, institutional measures to disentangle interests) are presented - exemplified by contrast media - in this article.

  8. Management of purchase process in realization of building investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radoń

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In building companies process of product and service purchase is one of the main processes of quality management system [1]. Because ofshort time-limits of contract realization, high specialization of works, necessity of fulfillment of high quality requirements and assurance of profitable financial effects the management of purchase process becomes very important element of work of the building company. The serious problem in creating and keeping the efficient system of purchase management is special type of purchase in building companies. Particular investments are realized in different country regions, objects are built based on the individual design documentations and each building becomes independent organization unit that organize purchase necessary for investment realization.An example of the management system of purchase process in building company is described in the paper. Just In Time system is widelyused during the realization of building investment. This system is especially useful in buildings because some investments, especially inbig cities, are characterized by restriction in building site. This makes impossible storing the products. In such cases close synchronization between times of delivery and requirements of purchase schedule and schedule of building realization is very important. Criteria of supplier selection as well as the methods of choosing the supplier are also presented in the paper. Special attention is paid to necessity of valuation of the purchase efficiency and the purchase risk. Basic coefficients of purchase efficiency are also described in the paper.

  9. BHI Purchase Card System user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehden, P. von der.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of the purchase card system (P-Card System) is to apply enhanced acquisition tools for increased return on ERC internal resources, and to reduce the cost of off-the-shelf commercial items through the use of credit cards by authorized personnel. The P-Card may be used to make transactions either over the counter, by mail, or via telephone. For Project employees, the P-Card provides and easier, direct method of acquisition that requires less process time than requisitioning. The P-C eliminates the involvement of the procurement organization in low value-added acquisitions and low-risk transactions. Controller reduces the expenditure of resources in the support of low dollar value products and services acquisition. The P- Card System has been initiated in agreement with American Express Travel Related Services, Inc.; the credit card is and American Express Corporate Purchasing Card. The integrated network application for cardholder reconciliation and reallocation of costs was originally government furnished software developed by the U.S. DOE. Currently, the software application (version 3.0 and beyond) is copyrighted by a Bechtel Hanford, Inc. subcontractor

  10. Purchasing control, compliance and the box: purchasing management based on hard data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Purchasing management is often approached as a qualitative art. Experience, insight and managerial qualities may indeed make useful contributions. However, in addition to this, the possibilities of an approach based on hard data and figures should not be underestimated. This does not only apply to

  11. The interrelationship between purchasing maturity, internal customer satisfaction and purchasing performance : an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Poucke, E.; Weele, van A.J.; Matthyssens, P.

    2014-01-01

    So far, academic literature has paid extensive attention to the importance of purchasing development within the context of the current business environment, emphasizing value creation and delivery and integrated supply chain management. In addition, the contribution of purchasing’s (internal

  12. 76 FR 79548 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ..., a FICU purchasing a loan participation pool might perform statistical sampling in evaluating the..., since 2007, FISCUs- overall experienced a higher delinquency rate in their loan participation portfolios. At year-end 2010, the delinquency rate for the FISCU-participated portfolio was 4.11 percent...

  13. Defining Project Purchasing Activities - Exemplified by the Purchasing Practices in Offshore Wind Farm Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    and limited learning outcomes from one project to another. Furthermore, the study reveals the importance of a more holistic approach to project purchasing practices by focusing on the entire life cycle of a project. Managerially it helps selling companies to understand the peculiar buying phases...

  14. A hybrid approach for integrated healthcare cooperative purchasing and supply chain configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Nazaré; Claro, João; Pinho de Sousa, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative and flexible approach for recommending the number, size and composition of purchasing groups, for a set of hospitals willing to cooperate, while minimising their shared supply chain costs. This approach makes the financial impact of the various cooperation alternatives transparent to the group and the individual participants, opening way to a negotiation process concerning the allocation of the cooperation costs and gains. The approach was developed around a hybrid Variable Neighbourhood Search (VNS)/Tabu Search metaheuristic, resulting in a flexible tool that can be applied to purchasing groups with different characteristics, namely different operative and market circumstances, and to supply chains with different topologies and atypical cost characteristics. Preliminary computational results show the potential of the approach in solving a broad range of problems.

  15. [The use of benchmarking to manage the healthcare supply chain: effects on purchasing cost and quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Ruiz-Muñoz, David

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare supply expenses consume a large part of the financial resources allocated to public health. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of a benchmarking process in the management of hospital purchases, as well as its effect on product cost reduction and quality improvement. Data were collected through a survey conducted in 29 primary healthcare districts from 2010 to 2011, and through a healthcare database on the prices, quality, delivery time and supplier characteristics of 5373 products. The use of benchmarking processes reduced or eliminated products with a low quality and high price. These processes increased the quality of products by 10.57% and reduced their purchase price by 28.97%. The use of benchmarking by healthcare centers can reduce expenditure and allow more efficient management of the healthcare supply chain. It also facilitated the acquisition of products at lower prices and higher quality. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. International overview of hospital procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maud; Lariviere, David; Laurent, Claire; Roque, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article was written by four French hospital director students at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique (EHESP-School of Public Health) from a study conducted jointly with students at the Grenoble School of Management to present an international overview of hospital procurement methods in ten countries. An analysis of these methods showed that there was a general trend towards group purchasing, with some common aims in terms of costs and performance and some differences in legislation (competition), size of the public sector and centralization or decentralization.

  17. THE NEW PURCHASING SERVICE PAGE NOW ON THE WEB!

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2000-01-01

    Users of CERN's Purchasing Service are encouraged to visit the new Purchasing Service web page, accessible from the CERN homepage or directly at: http://spl-purchasing.web.cern.ch/spl-purchasing/ There, you will find answers to questions such as: Who are the buyers? What do I need to know before creating a DAI? How many offers do I need? Where shall I send the offer I received? I know the amount of my future requirement, how do I proceed? How are contracts adjudicated at CERN? Which exhibitions and visits of Member State companies are foreseen in the future? A company I know is interested in making a presentation at CERN, who should they contact? Additionally, you will find information concerning: The Purchasing procedures Market Surveys and Invitations to Tender The Industrial Liaison Officers appointed in each Member State The Purchasing Broker at CERN

  18. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Zendehdel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vital subject in research because they directly influence users’ attitude toward online purchasing. The structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the data gathered on students using e-commerce, and, thus, to validate the model. According to the results, consumers’ attitude toward online purchasing affects the intention toward online purchasing. The other influential factors are compatibility, relative advantage, and subjective norm.

  19. Purchasing power parity and interest parity in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Eric O'N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes purchasing power parity and uncovered interest parity in the laboratory. It finds strong evidence that purchasing power parity, covered interest parity, and uncovered interest parity hold. Subjects are endowed with an intrinsically useless (green) currency that can be used to purchase another useless (red) currency. Green goods can be bought only with green currency, and red goods can be bought only with red currency. The foreign exchange markets are organized as call mark...

  20. THE ROLE OF MINDFULNESS IN UNETHICAL PURCHASING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Hui; Lin, Chieh-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Negotiation occurs all the time in purchasing practices ofbusinesses, and is inevitable for purchasing professionals when encounteringpurchasing conflict. Ethical negotiation is considered the vital requirement inmaintaining long-term and close buyer-supplier relationships. This study aimsto explore the relationship between mindfulness and unethical negotiation. Methodology- This study will take purchasing professionals inTaiwan as research subjects to investigate the relationship be...

  1. Conceptualization of the Relationship between Brand Equity and Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunnaike, Olaleke Olusye; Kehinde, Oladele Joseph; Omoyayi, Oluwadamilola Oluwatosin; Popoola, Oluwamakinde Oluwamayowa; Amoruwa, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the customer perspective of brand equity will provide deep understanding of how brands influence purchase behaviour of customers. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework that will provide an understanding of the relationship existing between the elements of brand equity and that of purchase behaviour. The adoption of Aaker’s brand equity model will serve as a guide for conceiving associations between brand equity and purchase behaviour for this study. Litera...

  2. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Zendehdel; Laily Hj Paim; Syuhaily Bint Osman

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vi...

  3. Using the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan to Evaluate Health Initiative in Hospital Cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Jennifer Willahan; Bellini, Sarah Gunnell; Spelman, Julie

    2015-11-01

    Health-promoting environments advance health and prevent chronic disease. Hospitals have been charged to promote health and wellness to patients, communities, and 5.3 million adults employed in United States health care environments. In this cross-sectional observational study, the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan (HNES) was used to measure the nutrition environment of hospital cafeterias and evaluate the influence of the LiVe Well Plate health initiative. Twenty-one hospitals in the Intermountain West region were surveyed between October 2013 and May 2014. Six hospitals participated in the LiVe Well Plate health initiative and were compared with 15 hospitals not participating. The LiVe Well Plate health initiative identified and promoted a healthy meal defined as health initiative branding were also posted at point of purchase. Hospital cafeterias were scored on four subcategories: facilitators and barriers, grab-and-go items, menu offerings, and selection options at point of purchase. Overall, hospitals scored 35.3±13.7 (range=7 to 63) points of 86 total possible points. Cafeterias in health initiative hospitals had significantly higher mean nutrition composite scores compared with non-health initiative hospitals (49.2 vs 29.7; Penvironment of hospital cafeterias. Additional research is needed to quantify and strategize ways to improve nutrition environments within hospital cafeterias and assess the influence on healthy lifestyle behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Strategic Purchasing in Practice: Comparing Ten European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasa, Katarzyna; Greer, Scott L; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2018-02-05

    Strategic purchasing of health care services is widely recommended as a policy instrument. We conducted a review of literature of material drawn from the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Health Systems in Transition series, other European Observatory databases, and selected country-specific literature to augment the comparative analysis by providing the most recent healthcare trends in ten selected countries. There is little evidence of purchasing being strategic according to any of the established definitions. There is little or no literature suggesting that existing purchasing mechanisms in Europe deliver improved population health, citizen empowerment, stronger governance and stewardship, or develop purchaser organization and capacity. Strategic purchasing has not generally been implemented. Policymakers considering adopting strategic purchasing policies should be aware of this systemic implementation problem. Policymakers in systems with strategic purchasing built into policy should not assume that a purchasing system is strategic or that it is delivering any expected objectives. However, there are individual components of strategic purchasing that are worth pursuing and can provide benefits to health systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Purchase Unwillingness and Willingness of Indonesian Consumers towards Israeli Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usep Suhud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to measure factors influencing purchase willingness and purchase unwillingness on Israeli products. Four predictor variables including consumer animosity, product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation were used. Data were collected by an online survey, and it attracted 337 participants. Three stages of data analysis were applied, those were exploratory analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and Structural Equation Model (SEM. In total, there were seven hypotheses tested. This research finds a significant impact of animosity on product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation. Furthermore, product judgment and boycott participation significantly affect purchase willingness. Meanwhile, boycott participation and boycott motivation significantly affect purchase unwillingness.

  6. E-commerce. Point, click, purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menduno, M

    1999-10-01

    Many in health care may still be technology-shy, but there are big savings to be found in business-to-business e-commerce. Some experts estimate that electronic purchasing can trim 18 to 45 percent of costs out of the health care supply chain. That could revolutionize the $140 billion supply industry--but only if buyers and sellers can get on the same page. A whole host of companies are springing up to make that link. It won't be easy. "Anyone can do online ordering," says Joseph Miccio of NCI Consulting. "The real challenge for these vendors is to simultaneously connect all the players in the supply chain through a common database."

  7. Purchase intention behavior of Syariah financial product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Agus Setyawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores purchase intention of Syariah financial product. The purpose of the study is to identify factors of consumer’s intention to use Syariah financial product. Framework of the study is TRA model proposed by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980. The design of this study is qualitative approach. This study employs focus group discussion and in depth interview in data collection. Focus group discussion in this study involves 6 Syariah financial products. In depth interview has been accomplished with 3 different managers from Syariah financial institutions. Findings in this study are consumers evaluate Syariah financial product by comparing benefits of the product with conventional financial products. The concept of non economic benefit and religious aspect is also discussed in this study.

  8. Electronic commerce can cut purchasing costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    1995-06-01

    Electronic commerce could be the most important strategy exercised by utilities involved in transmission and distribution in the next five to ten years. One key element of electronic commerce is electronic data interchange (EDI). EDI is the direct, standardized computer-to-computer exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, payments and inventory analysis between trading partners. EDI enables business documents delivery in seconds instead of days. Inventory has been a big expense for utilities, especially in the transmission and distribution area. In order to provide and restore electrical service to customers, utilities have been required to stock high levels of many different items. At times, warehouse personnel have had difficulty determining the minimum quantity needed for a particular part so items are stocked just-in-case.Electronic commerce will allow utilities to more accurately determine minimum stocking requirements and reduce inventory without sacrificing customer service.

  9. The influence of marketing communications on the consumer path to purchase for both online and in-store purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Pallant, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the way online browsing and online or in-store purchasing behaviours evolve across the purchases customers make from a brand, and how this is influenced by the marketing communications that customers receive from that brand and its competitors. A sample of customers of three different retail brands are tracked over a two year period, and changes to browsing and purchase behaviour are observed. A model is developed which predicts the way customers are most likely to evolve...

  10. Purchase rates and energy content of nutritionally promoted and traditional fast foods purchased at lunchtime in Australia - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Louise F; Palmer, Michelle A

    2012-03-01

    Nutritionally promoted foods are now available at fast-food establishments. Little is known about their popularity, who is purchasing them, or their impact on dietary intake. Our study aimed to determine: how often nutritionally promoted fast foods were purchased; the demographic characteristics of people purchasing these foods; and if purchasing these foods resulted in reduced energy, and increased vegetable, content of lunches compared with those who purchased traditional fast foods. A survey collecting lunchtime fast-food purchases and demographic details was administered over two months. Nutritionally promoted products included the McDonalds' 'Heart Foundation Tick Approved' range and Subway's 'Six grams of fat or less' range. Energy and vegetable contents were estimated using information from fast-food companies' websites. Differences in demographics, energy and vegetable contents between individuals purchasing nutritionally promoted and traditional lunches were assessed using χ2 and t tests. Queensland, Australia. Lunchtime diners aged over 16 years at Subway and McDonalds. Surveys were collected from 927 respondents (58 % male, median age 25 (range 16-84) years; 73 % response rate). Only 3 % (n 24/910) of respondents who ordered a main option had purchased a nutritionally promoted item. Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods were ∼13 years older, predominantly female (79 %), and more often reported involvement in a health-related profession (29 % v. 11 %) than purchasers of traditional foods (P < 0·05). Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods ordered 1·5 fewer megajoules and 0·6 more vegetable servings than purchasers of traditional foods (P < 0·05). Nutritionally promoted fast foods may reduce lunchtime energy content, however these foods were infrequently chosen.

  11. Hospital Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Compare has information about the quality of care at over 4,000 Medicare-certified hospitals across the country. You can use Hospital Compare to find...

  12. HCAHPS - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...

  13. A traffic light food labeling intervention increases consumer awareness of health and healthy choices at the point-of-purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Gelsomin, Emily; Levy, Douglas E; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Thorndike, Anne N

    2013-10-01

    We surveyed customers in a hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts before and after implementation of traffic light food labeling to determine the effect of labels on customers' awareness and purchase of healthy foods. Cafeteria items were identified as red (unhealthy), yellow (less healthy), or green (healthy). Customers were interviewed before (N=166) and after (N=223) labeling was implemented. Each respondent was linked to cash register data to determine the proportion of red, yellow, and green items purchased. Data were collected from February-April 2010. We compared responses to survey questions and mean proportion of red, yellow, and green items per transaction between customers interviewed during baseline and customers interviewed during the intervention. Survey response rate was 60%. Comparing responses during labeling intervention to baseline, more respondents identified health/nutrition as an important factor in their purchase (61% vs. 46%, p=0.004) and reported looking at nutrition information (33% vs. 15%, ppurchases were more likely to purchase healthier items than respondents who did not notice labels (ppoint-of-purchase. © 2013.

  14. Attitude towards the purchase of counterfeits: Antecedents and effect on intention to purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Viot , Catherine; Le Roux , André; Kremer , Florence

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Counterfeiting is a major issue for companies, public institutions and consumers. Despite extensive literature on the subject in marketing, an instrument for measuring the wide variety of the determinants of attitude towards and intention to purchase counterfeit products is lacking. A second-order model comprising thirteen determinants, grouped into three latent constructs, is validated. This model includes a dimension related to the societal consequences of counterfei...

  15. Analysis of the purchase and consumer behaviour towards direct purchase of food

    OpenAIRE

    Zenner, Silvia; Wirthgen, Bernd; Altmann, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presented the methodic as well as selected results of own empiric research (face-to-face questionings in seven different questioning regions, n = 1488) to the analysis of the shopping behaviour and the attitudes towards direct purchase. To the analysis of the buying patterns a Kaufverhaltensindex (KVI) was introduced. In the regional comparison will be clear that the questioning regions of Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia show KVI by far highest, while the eastern questi...

  16. Concerns regarding Direct-to-Consumer Hearing Aid Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Suzanne H.

    2010-01-01

    An individual over age 18 can purchase a hearing aid online or through mail order if they sign a waiver declining a medical evaluation, while those under 18 are required to be seen by a physician to obtain medical consent. However, in many states there is nothing to prevent a parent or caregiver from purchasing hearing aids for their child from a…

  17. Developing a typology of organisational forms of cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a typology for purchasing groups. In the typology, five main forms of cooperative purchasing are distinguished based on seven main dimensions. The forms are positioned in a matrix according to two distinguishing dimensions. These two dimensions are the ‘influence by all members

  18. Multi-agent simulation of purchasing activities in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; de Boer, L.; Sitar-Pop, C.E.; Yucesan, E.; Chen, C.H.; Snowdon, J.L.; Charnes, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-agent simulation model to investigate purchasing activities in an organizational environment. The starting point is the observation that the majority of purchasing activities in organizations are usually performed without any involvement of the organization's

  19. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if... timber is appraised and sold on such basis, purchaser credit for road construction, not to exceed the estimated construction cost of such roads or other developments specified in the timber sale contract, shall...

  20. Interactive operational decision making : Purchasing situations & mutual liability problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Three chapters of this dissertation deal with three different types of interactive purchasing situations, in which multiple buying organizations interact with similar (or possibly the same) suppliers for the procurement of the same commodity. Decisions to be made in interactive purchasing concern if

  1. 75 FR 1541 - Purchasing of Property and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... persons; and to develop further the basis for the Postal Service's purchasing decisions and the... decision process. The SDR Official will promptly provide a copy of a disagreement to the contracting... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 601 Purchasing of Property and Services AGENCY: Postal Service TM...

  2. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: numerous factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Chua, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The purchase of a confocal microscope is a difficult decision. Many factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, company, support, service, and price. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. 5 CFR 2634.303 - Purchases, sales, and exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchases, sales, and exchanges. 2634.303 Section 2634.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH....303 Purchases, sales, and exchanges. (a) In general. Except as indicated in § 2634.308(b) of this...

  4. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers buying merchandise for resale, selecting vendors, bargaining for prices, and purchasing supplies for commercial food and beverage service establishments. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Merchandise Buying and (2) Food and Beverage Purchasing.…

  5. Social modeling of food purchases at supermarkets in teenage girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Ample experimental research has demonstrated the impact of peer influence on food intake in adolescents and adults. However, none of these studies focused social modeling effects on food purchases in supermarkets. This study investigated whether the food purchase behavior of a confederate peer would

  6. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 50.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.13 Offer, purchase, and renewal. An insurer is deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of providing disclosure “at the time of offer, purchase...

  7. Predicting women purchase intention for green food products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiyanti, Sudiyanti

    2009-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2009 This study investigated the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting women consumers on their intention towards purchasing green food products among 406 participants. Using linear regression, five independent variables had been examined: attitude towards green food products, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived difficulty in predicting purchase intention. The ...

  8. Buying business services : towards a structured service purchasing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Rozemeijer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to uncover the specific difficulties associated with buying services and proposes a structured purchasing process which can help organisational buyers to overcome the problems associated with services purchasing. Design/methodology/approach – The authors

  9. Purchasing. School Business Management Handbook Number 5. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Robert A.

    Purchasing is a practical science and one of the most highly specialized activities of the school administration. Simply stated, it is the process of having the right material or service from the right source, in the right quantity, at the right place, at the right time, and at the right price. The purchasing agent is faced with a formidable task…

  10. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008 ...

  11. Understanding online purchase intentions: contributions from technology and trust perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.G.M.; Verhagen, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores factors that influence consumer's intentions to purchase online at an electronic commerce website. Specifically, we investigate online purchase intention using two different perspectives: a technology-oriented perspective and a trust-oriented perspective. We summarise and review

  12. Assessment of perception and intention in pesticide purchase in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jong Chao; Liao, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-05-01

    Environmental chemical agents such as pesticides can be purchased easily at a relatively low price, and this has resulted in high concern of environmental toxicity to human health, due to their persistence in various environmental bodies. Hence, this study aims to propose important factors influencing pesticide purchase intentions, including consumers' perceptions of the brand image and the ecological health risk. Since consumers are primary users, the seller knows the product's features but not the psychology of those who purchase it. Therefore, we attempted to clarify purchase intentions and perceptions using structural equation modeling techniques to empirically analyze survey data from 324 pesticide consumers in Taiwan. Our results demonstrate that perceived brand image positively affects perceived quality of a product, whereas perceived risk negatively affects perceived quality and purchase intentions. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that perceived quality positively affects purchase intentions. These relationships suggest that perceived quality mediates both the positive association between brand image and purchase intentions and the negative association between perceived risk and purchase intentions. Based on such outcomes, we propose that consumers need to be informed of pesticides related to costs and environmental benefits.

  13. 7 CFR 760.104 - Risk management purchase requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk management purchase requirements. 760.104 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.104 Risk management purchase requirements. (a) To be eligible... available from the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA)) obtained catastrophic coverage or better under a...

  14. Household Portfolio Choice Before and After House Purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Ran Sun; Zhou, Jie

    2017-01-01

    around 61% of them to down payments when buying a house. Liquid wealth stay low after a house purchase and start to increase 3 years later; (ii) the risky asset participation rate drops 2 percentage points – a 6.2% decline – at the year of house purchase. The drop is larger for households with wealth...... above the median level; and (iii) conditional on participation, the risky asset share decreases and reaches the lowest point 1 year before a house purchase, but it jumps immediately after. This suggests that of the three channels identified in the literature that could affect the conditional risky share......We study the temporal patterns of household portfolio choice of liquid wealth over a 7-year period around house purchase, using unique administrative panel data from Denmark. We find that (i) households accumulate significantly more liquid wealth in a few years before a house purchase and convert...

  15. An industrial customer's view of changes in electricity purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muiznieks, R.

    1995-01-01

    The purchasing agent for Canadian Occidental Chemicals described his experiences in the purchase of electricity under the new circumstances of competition. Electrical power costs for Canadian Occidental's manufacturing operation were described as a key consideration in expanding their chlorate production. The ideal purchasing scheme was described from the purchaser's standpoint. A list of what purchasers wish to gain from increased supplier choices was provided. The behaviour of the electricity suppliers that provide power to CanadianOccidental was described since changes in British Columbia's electric power regulations were enacted. Electric utility marketing practices in Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta were noted in comparison. It was prophesized that deeregulation will ultimately benefit consumers and provincial economies, by transforming the power industry into a customer driven industry

  16. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  17. Customer Satisfaction with Goods and Services Purchased on Deal Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    influence whether customers are more prone to purchase problematic goods and services on deal sites, i.e. to experience problems with purchased coupons. Methodology/Approach: The research was conducted in the Czech Republic using an on-line questionnaire. Respondents were university students. Data were...... and mistrust. All these statements were measured on a Likert scale. Additional independent variables are age, and gender. In the first model, the dependent variable is if and if so, what problem the respondent experienced with purchased goods or services, such as the company did not exist, it was not possible...... cases. In the second model, the dependent variable is the percentage (predefined intervals) of problematic purchases. Ordinal logistic regression was used to test the model. In the third model, the dependent variable is if the purchased goods or services were of lower quality. Binomial logistic...

  18. The effects of material and experiential discretionary purchases on consumer happiness: moderators and mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca; Millar, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Experiential purchases are differentiated from material purchases in terms of objective; experiential purchases serve the purpose of acquiring a life experience, while material purchases serve the purpose of acquiring an object. Research has demonstrated that experiential purchases are associated with more happiness than material purchases. The current study investigated two explanations for this relationship that focused on the how the purchase influenced the self and how the purchase influenced interpersonal relationships. In addition, the study explored whether social economic status would influence the strength of the relationship between the type of purchase and happiness. Participants were required to recall either a recent experiential or material purchase and rate their happiness with the purchase. Then participants completed scales designed to measure the purchase's impact on the self and interpersonal relationships. Last, participants completed a scale to measure social economic status. It was found that Impacts on the Self mediated the relationship between purchase type and happiness and Socioeconomic Status moderated the relationship.

  19. Collaborative Purchasing of Complex Technologies in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    implications: – The study can offer hospitals, vendors, governmental and regional institutions a better understanding about the alignment mechanisms for successful implementation of CP and how to avoid pitfalls. Originality/value: – Literature on CP is scarce as there are virtually no contributions that debate...

  20. From point-of-purchase to path-to-purchase : How pre-shopping factors drive unplanned buying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, D.R.; Corsten, D.; Knox, G.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Many retailers believe that a majority of purchases are unplanned, so they spend heavily on in-store marketing to stimulate these types of purchases. At the same time, the effects of “preshopping” factors—the shoppers' overall trip goals, store-specific shopping objectives, and prior marketing

  1. 43 CFR 30.164 - What must I do to purchase at probate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEARINGS PROCEDURES Purchase at Probate § 30.164 What must I do to purchase at probate? Any eligible purchaser must submit a written request to OHA to purchase at probate before the decision or order is issued. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I do to purchase at probate? 30...

  2. ERP Correlates of Simulated Purchase Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Drizinsky, Jessica; Zülch, Joachim; Falkenstein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. However, in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for a higher than the average price or not to buy it despite an attractive price. These responses took more time and the variability of the response latency was enhanced relative to conformity responses. ERPs showed enhanced conflict related fronto-central N2 during both types of counter-conformity compared to conformity decisions. A reverse pattern was found for the P3a and P3b. The response-locked P3 (r-P3) was larger and the subsequent CNV smaller for counter-conformity than conformity decisions. We assume that counter-conformity decisions elevate the response threshold (larger N2), intensify response evaluation (r-P3) and attenuate the preparation for the next trial (CNV). These effects were discussed in the framework of the functional role of the fronto-parietal cortex in economic decision making.

  3. ERP correlates of simulated purchase decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Darius Gajewski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. But in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for more money than the average price or not to buy a product despite an attractive price. These responses took more time and the variability of the response latency was enhanced relative to conformity responses. ERPs showed enhanced conflict related fronto-central N2 during both types of counter-conformity compared to conformity decisions. A reverse pattern was found for the P3a and P3b. The response-locked P3 (r-P3 was larger and the subsequent CNV smaller for counter-conformity than conformity decisions. We assume that counter-conformity decisions elevate the response threshold (larger N2, intensify response evaluation (r-P3 and attenuate the preparation for the next trial (CNV. These effects were discussed in the framework of the functional role of the fronto-parietal cortex in economic decision making.

  4. Weather and headache onset: a large-scale study of headache medicine purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Kayoko; Noda, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Mieko; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognized that weather changes can trigger headache onset. Most people who develop headaches choose to self-medicate rather than visit a hospital or clinic. We investigated the association between weather and headache onset using large-sample sales of the headache medicine, loxoprofen. We collected daily sales figures of loxoprofen and over-the-counter drugs over a 1-year period from a drugstore chain in western Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. To adjust for changes in daily sales of loxoprofen due to social environmental factors, we calculated a proportion of loxoprofen daily sales to over-the-counter drug daily sales. At the same time, we obtained weather data for the study region from the website of the Japan Meteorological Agency. We performed linear regression analysis to ascertain the association between weather conditions and the loxoprofen daily sales proportion. We also conducted a separate questionnaire survey at the same drugstores to determine the reason why people purchased loxoprofen. Over the study period, we surveyed the sale of hundreds of thousands of loxoprofen tablets. Most people purchased loxoprofen because they had a headache. We found that the sales proportion of loxoprofen increased when average barometric pressure decreased, and that precipitation, average humidity, and minimum humidity increased on loxoprofen purchase days compared to the previous day of purchases. This study, performed using a large dataset that was easy-to-collect and representative of the general population, revealed that sales of loxoprofen, which can represent the onset and aggravation of headache, significantly increased with worsening weather conditions.

  5. out-patient prescribing practices at mbagathi district hospital-nairobi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... Objective: To assess medicine use practices by using WHO prescribing and patient care indicators in .... from the hospital administration and ethics approval ..... additional funds to purchase medicines and medical supplies.

  6. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hospitals may be bound by terms added in supplier's acceptance of an offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R

    1992-03-01

    A hospital materials manager reports that a supplier is attempting to hold the hospital to new terms that the supplier added in the acceptance of an offer to buy. The offer to buy was made in the hospital's purchase order. In this dialogue, Dr. Decker develops the law relating to such a transaction.

  8. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  9. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  10. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  11. 77 FR 51783 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. Public comments are particularly... Information Collection 9000- 0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews, by any of the following methods...

  12. Investigating the role of commercialization on purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to determine the role of commercialization on purchase intention in auto industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who lived in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors including competitive condition, product development strategy, competitive advantage and economic growth on customers’ intention to purchase. Using structural equation modeling the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between each four components and purchase intention. In our study, the highest impact belongs to competitive condition followed by product development strategy.

  13. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  14. Beyond cost: 'responsible purchasing' of managed care by employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, A T; Perloff, L; Schield, J; Murphy, J J; Mortimer, J D; Budetti, P P

    1999-01-01

    We explore the extent of "responsible purchasing" by employers--the degree to which employers collect and use nonfinancial information in selecting and managing employee health plans. Most firms believe that they have some responsibility for assessing the quality of the health plans they offer. Some pay attention to plan characteristics such as the ability to provide adequate access to providers and services and scores on enrollee satisfaction surveys. A more limited but still notable number of firms take specific actions based on responsible purchasing information. Because of countervailing pressures, however, it is not clear whether or not the firms most involved in responsible purchasing are signaling a developing trend.

  15. Creating a market: an economic analysis of the purchaser-provider model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackley, P; Healey, A

    1993-09-01

    The focus of this paper is the extent to which the purchaser-provider split and the creation of a market in the provision of health care can be expected to bring about greater efficiency within the new NHS. The starting point is a theoretical discussion of markets and competition. In particular, emphasis is placed upon the economic model of perfect competition. It is argued that because of the existence of externalities, uncertainty and a lack of perfect information, an unregulated market in health care will almost certainly fail. In view of this, the imperfect provider markets of monopoly and contestable markets, which are of particular relevance to health care, are discussed. A description of the new health care market and the principal actors within it is followed by an evaluation of the new health care market. It is argued that in view of the restrictions to competition that exist between providers, some form of price regulation will be necessary to prevent monopolistic behaviour in the hospital sector. Regulation of purchasers is also suggested as a means of improving efficiency. It is concluded that competition may be a necessary condition for increased efficiency in health care provision, but is not sufficient in itself. Other incentives in the hospital sector are necessary to assist the market process and to enhance its impact on efficiency.

  16. A Dynamic Panel Model of the Associations of Sweetened Beverage Purchases With Dietary Quality and Food-Purchasing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. PMID:25834139

  17. A dynamic panel model of the associations of sweetened beverage purchases with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-05-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Medicare Payment Penalties and Safety Net Hospital Profitability: Minimal Impact on These Vulnerable Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, Gloria J; Thompson, Michael P; Waters, Teresa M

    2018-02-08

    To examine relationships between penalties assessed by Medicare's Hospital Readmission Reduction Program and Value-Based Purchasing Program and hospital financial condition. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, American Hospital Association, and Area Health Resource File data for 4,824 hospital-year observations. Bivariate and multivariate analysis of pooled cross-sectional data. Safety net hospitals have significantly higher HRRP/VBP penalties, but, unlike nonsafety net hospitals, increases in their penalty rate did not significantly affect their total margins. Safety net hospitals appear to rely on nonpatient care revenues to offset higher penalties for the years studied. While reassuring, these funding streams are volatile and may not be able to compensate for cumulative losses over time. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Hospital services and casemix in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Delia; Boldy, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    The Health Department of WA currently operates as a single integrated funder and purchaser of health services for the State. Health Service Agreements defining the level of health provision are negotiated with the various health services in WA. During the latter part of the 1990s, the funding of public hospitals for acute inpatient care moved away from a historical basis to output-based funding using a casemix approach based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs). Other hospital services are still mainly purchased using historical funding levels, negotiated block funding or bedday payments, with output-based funding mechanisms under investigation. WA has developed its own approach to classifying admitted patients that recognises differences in complexity of care among episodes grouped to the same DRG. WA also has a unique cost estimation model for calculating DRG cost weights, which is based on a linear estimate of the relationship between nights of stay in hospital and the cost of hospital care for each DRG. Another emerging trend in the provision of public hospital services in WA has been the greater involvement of the private sector through the contracting of private providers to operate public hospitals. While no close examination has been undertaken of the outcomes of these changes in terms of their effect on efficiency or other relevant indicators of hospital performance, current purchasing arrangements are being reviewed following recommendations made in a report by the Health Administrative Review Committee. No decision has yet been made as to future changes to the funding policy of WA public hospitals.

  20. Determinants of health insurance and hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Yamada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper empirically examines how the decision to purchase private insurance and hospitalization are made based on household income, socio-demographic factors, and private health insurance factors in both Japan and the USA. Using these two data-sets, we found some similarities and dissimilarities between Japan and the United States. As income of households rises, households have a positive effect on purchasing health insurance as a normal good. Another similarity between the two countries is seen in the income effect on risk of hospitalization, which is negative for both Japanese and US cases. For dissimilarity, the insurance premium effect on risk of hospitalization is positive for the Japanese case, while negative for the US case. Since the Japanese insurance data had variables such as payments per day of hospitalization if household gets hospitalized, insurance payments upon death of an insured person, and annuity payments at maturity, we tested to see if these characteristics affect the risk of hospitalization for households; we do not eliminate a possibility of adverse selection. For the US pure health issuance characteristics, an increase in premium of health insurance policies cause individuals to substitute more health capital investment which causes lower risk of hospitalization.

  1. National Association of State Procurement Officials - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  2. United Nations Environment Program - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  3. Purchasing Supplies, Equipment and Services Under EPA Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this guidance to help ensure you meet EPA requirements when making such necessary purchases. With very few exceptions, you must follow a competitive process when you use EPA grant funds to acquire equipment and professional services.

  4. Who is the purchaser of nutrition-labeled products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Koch-Hansen, Pia

    2017-01-01

    and in the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach We estimate probit models using a representative panel of households registering all their daily purchases during a year, three years after the introduction of a nutrition symbol in Denmark and the Netherlands (the Keyhole and the Choices). The purchase data is matched...... with information about labelling status. Other product and purchase characteristics, such as store-type and organic, are controlled for. Findings Households with children tend to have a lower probability of purchasing labelled products compared to other household types, while urbanity increases the probability...... that other aspects as the underlying attitudes and general health awareness may be of greater importance in identifying these consumers. Originality/value There is a lack of studies analyzing the effect of Front-of-Pack symbols on households’ product choices based on observed data as most previous studies...

  5. Study on common phenotypic traits for purchasing sheep and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected sheep purchased for various purposes were studied. The study methods ... household economy in many countries. Ethiopia has ... Among these are mentioned skull morphology and size, body length, wither height, ear and tail length ...

  6. DoD Purchase Card Program Audit Coverage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... We prepared this summary report at the request of the Director, Defense Procurement to provide a central repository of purchase card audit report findings and to identify misuse trends and problems...

  7. U.S. Green Building Council - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  8. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  9. ANTESEDEN CUSTOMER SATISFACTION DAN DAMPAKNYA PADA PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Banjarnahor

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the effects of service quality and customer experience to customer satisfaction and its impact on purchase intention of costumer internet services in West Jakarta. This research used hypothesis testing as a research design. The primary data were obtained through questionnaire distributed to 180 respondents who should be users of internet services from Telkomsel, Telkomsel Grapari West Jakarta. Data was anlyzed by Structural Equation Method (SEM. The results showed there were positives service qualities and customer experience effects to customer satisfaction. There were positive customer satisfaction effects to purchase intention. There were positive effects of service quality and customer experience to purchase intention. Implications for managers are to increase purchase intention through fulfilled customer satisfaction led from good service quality and customer experience. For reasearch, it can be done in other service providers and by adding extra variables, such as coporate image and brand trust.

  10. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Meilia Fitriyani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to show their agreements about 40 items of 5 constructs. A partial least square - structural equation modeling by Smart-PLS software used to test the model. The results of this research also comes to conclusion that motivation and stimulus factor had significant affects on consumer involvement, consumer involvement had significant influence to product knowledge as well as ONS purchasing behavior, however product knowledge did not have significant affects on purchasing behavior. The results also showed that the product involvement has an important influence on consumers behavior.

  11. 14 CFR 399.39 - Equipment purchase deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.39... for this purpose. It is the policy of the Board not to recognize equipment purchase deposits in an air...

  12. Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...

  13. Determinants of Insurance Purchase Decision Making in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbinaite, Aurelija; Kucinskiene, Marija; Le Moullec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the examination of insurance consumer behaviour in Lithuania. The purpose of the work is to determine the factors that explain the insurance service purchase decision of the Lithuanian citizens. To this end, a structured 5-point Likert scale questionnaire-based survey...... is employed to collect data. A research model composed of two main stages (purchase inclination and decision) is proposed. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis are used to determine how the factors are formed and what their relative weights are. Five factors are identified: the acceptability...... to decide to actually purchase them; the higher degree or education acquired by the individuals, the fewer factors impact their insurance purchase decision: masters and doctors of science evaluate only the insurance service provider’s competence, while bachelors, besides the insurer’s competence, are also...

  14. Electronic word of mouth influence on consumer purchase intention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This type of e-marketing affects consumer on its purchase intention of product or service. ... influence and how these factors influence the buying decisions of consumers. ... This paper is expedient for marketers in creating effective promotional ...

  15. 76 FR 34229 - Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... costs incurred at the Site, the settlement would require the Purchasers to, among other things, conduct... available only in hard copy form. Additionally, the PPA Amendment and additional background information are...

  16. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    that could inform such strategic purchasing decisions. 14 We used the unique contract identification number to check for cross -organization...beds, mattresses, dressers , footlockers) Other (stools, rugs, seats, cabinets, tables, folding chairs, paintings) Generators Various power generators

  17. Purchasing efficiency in a mining food service organisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 27: No 2, 1999. 85. Purchasing ... Although the pro- curement process for all types of food service units, ... Clients are more satisfied and management control improves ...

  18. Purchasing preferences for sports shoes: An investigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several factors from literature such as comfort, advertising, brand, price, style and quality have ... A sample (N=120) of University of Botswana sport marketing students ... purchasing preferences in order to develop better marketing strategies.

  19. Tax credits and purchasing pools: will this marriage work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, S; Ginsburg, P B

    2001-04-01

    Bipartisan interest is growing in Congress for using federal tax credits to help low-income families buy health insurance. Regardless of the approach taken, tax credit policies must address risk selection issues to ensure coverage for the chronically ill. Proposals that link tax credits to purchasing pools would avoid risk selection by grouping risks similar to the way large employers do. Voluntary purchasing pools have had only limited success, however. This Issue Brief discusses linking tax credits to purchasing pools. It uses information from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) site visits to 12 communities as well as other research to assess the role of purchasing pools nationwide and the key issues and implications of linking tax credits and pools.

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.501-3 - Consolidated purchase program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT..., purchased in the aggregate by group to the extent practical. These procurements are designed to obtain the...

  1. 40 CFR 35.936-19 - Small purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... price quotations, and the like may be used to minimize paperwork. Retention in the purchase files of these documents and of written quotations received, or references to catalogs or printed price lists...

  2. Exploring risk profiles and emergency frequency of purchasers and non-purchasers of personal emergency alarms: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De San Miguel, Kristen; Lewin, Gill; Burton, Elissa; Toye, Christine; Boldy, Duncan; Howat, Peter

    2015-10-27

    Personal alarms support independent living and have the potential to reduce serious consequences after a fall or during a medical emergency. While some Australian states have government funded personal alarm programs, others do not; but user-pays services are available. Although several studies have examined the profiles of alarm users, little is known about the risk profile of non-users. Specifically, whether there are "at risk" individuals who are unable, or choose not to purchase a service, who experience a home-based emergency in which an alarm could have mitigated an adverse outcome. This study aimed to describe the 'risk profile' of purchasers and non-purchasers of alarms; explore the reasons behind the decision to purchase or not to purchase and identify how often emergency assistance was needed and why. Purchasers and non-purchasers were followed for one year in this prospective cohort study. Demographic, decision-making and risk factor data were collected at an initial face-to-face interview, while information about emergencies was collected by monthly calls. One hundred and fifty-seven purchasers and sixty-five non-purchasers completed the study. The risk profiles between the groups were similar in terms of gender, living arrangements, fall history and medical conditions. Purchasers (Mean = 82.6 years) were significantly older than non-purchasers (Mean = 79.3 years), (t(220) = -3.38, p = 0.000) and more functionally dependent on the IADL (z = -2.57, p = 0.010) and ADL (z = -2.45 p = 0.014) function scores. Non-purchasers (Mean = 8.04, SD = 3.57) were more socially isolated with significantly fewer family networks than purchasers (Mean = 9.46, SD = 3.25) (t(220) = -2.86, p = 0.005). Both groups experienced similarly high numbers of emergencies, 38.2 % of purchasers and 41.5 % of non-purchasers had at least one emergency where an alarm could have assisted. Main reasons for non-purchase were: cost (77 %), limited alarm range (51 %), no need (39 %) and lack

  3. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  4. Effect of Store Atmosphere on Consumer Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Riaz; Ali, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed at identifying the effects of atmosphere on the consumer purchase intention in international retail chain outlets of Karachi, Pakistan. This was the first study, which investigated the collective impact of atmospheric variables at one point in time on purchase intention. This research was causal in nature. A sample of 300 consumers was taken who usually visited these outlets. Data was collected through a well-structured questionnaire and analyzed through regression a...

  5. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-12-03

    In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and -10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00-1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing.

  6. The importance of personal norms for purchasing organic milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Klöckner, Christian; Ohms, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply a structured approach to understand the importance of personal ecological norms in purchasing organic food. The norm‐activation‐model by Schwartz is used to predict self‐reported and observed purchase behaviour of organic milk. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports the results of a field study with 63 customers of a German supermarket. A combination of covert observation and in‐store interviews was applied to obtain reli...

  7. The Influence of Television Advertising on Purchase Decision of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakara, Frisca Oktoviani

    2013-01-01

    Television advertising has become a new force capable of influencing the audience to do what the advertisers want, and teenagers are very promising target for producers. This study investigated the influence of television advertising on teenagers purchase decision in Manado. This research aims to analyze (1) what is the impact of television advertising (Brand Preference, Peer Group, and Pester Power) on teenagers purchase decision; (2) which impact of television advertising (Brand Preference,...

  8. Formal and Informal Normative Beliefs Regarding Purchasing and Using Condoms

    OpenAIRE

    樋口, 匡貴; 中村, 菜々子

    2009-01-01

    Properly using condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. To clarify the contents of normative beliefs regarding purchasing and using condoms, 390 undergraduate student volunteers were surveyed. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that both males and females held two types of normative beliefs, namely formal normative beliefs and informal normative beliefs, regarding purchasing and using condoms. Formal normative beliefs were concerned with the...

  9. Investigating shopper behaviour in a routine food purchasing situation.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Decision-making is more complex and even more important for consumers today than in the past. Today’s consumers has a wealth of information sources to their disposal, through advertising, news articles, direct mailings and word of mouth , in addition, there is a variety of stores and shopping malls that has broaden the sphere for consumer choice, and in the process complicated decision - making. Consumers purchase intentions and decision that lead to the purchase are closely related to their ...

  10. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriyani, Dwi Meilia; Yuliati, Lilik Noor; Simanjuntak, Megawati

    2017-01-01

    The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements) for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor) influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to ...

  11. Competitive Effects of Purchase-Based Targeted Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Jianqiang Zhang; Weijun Zhong; Shue Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a two-period sales model to investigate the competitive effects of purchase-based targeted advertising. In the model, two competing firms gain consumer information during the first period sales, which allows them to target advertising based on consumer purchase history. Advertising is assumed to be persuasive in terms of consumer valuation enhancing and product differentiation increasing. The authors find that the firm’s ability to target can damage industry profits, con...

  12. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING PURCHASE INTENTION IN MUSIC INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    AĞAOĞLU, Mustafa; YURTKORU, Emine Serra; ŞAHİN, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors, ethical behavior, product involvement, attitude, perceived sacrifice, and perceived benefit, impact on purchase intention in music industry. A model is constructed and tested empirically. A sample of 255 individuals are collected and a multi-item questionnaire is used. It is found that purchase intention is relatively low for both CD/DVD and digital music whereas illegal downloading is perceived as an acceptable behavior in the society. The...

  13. Consumer Purchasing Behaviour : Case study of Etisalat Nig.

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, Olaitan

    2014-01-01

    The research is aimed at elicit attention to present marketing environment in Nigeria and as regard the importance of consumer purchasing behavior and this is also to ascertain if product brand, taste, personal income, and price and the what relationship it also have on consumer behavior toward Etisalat product. However, every company must develop new products that suite consumer pur-chase decision. This informed behavior affects how certain consumers react to new products and thereby af...

  14. Building brand awareness for products with low purchase frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Kenneth; Bjørnstad, Tord Røise

    2014-01-01

    The importance of marketing and information flow is growing every year, and in increasingly competitive markets, it is more important than ever for brands to be present in the customers mind in the purchase decision. Therefore, to build and maintain brand awareness is important as this is the first step in creating brand equity. Most studies have focused on building brand awareness for products with high purchase frequency. In this thesis, it is identified drivers of brand awareness for pr...

  15. VIRTUAL PURCHASE INTENTION: INFLUENCE OF SECURITY AND TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    Asma javed*, Dr Wasif Ali Waseer, Dr Babak Mehmood

    2018-01-01

    The fast growth of online transaction and e-commerce inspired many companies to setup their business on web pages. It is fact that online purchasing is still poor as compared to other online activities. Research study will explore factors that affect consumer’s virtual purchase intention. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Theory Acceptance Model (TAM) are the groundwork theories that are used in research to investigate those factors that affect the virtual...

  16. Evaluating mergers and acquisitions with a purchase investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E A; Giniat, E J

    1988-04-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are risk transactions. Therefore, a well-planned and executed purchase investigation that considers financial, personnel, legal and risk management, third-party payer, and medical staff issues is imperative. Organizations that can successfully complete a purchase investigation will be able to make better informed, lower risk, financial decisions, and will have a competitive advantage in achieving strategic goals. This article is the third in a series on mergers and acquisitions. Other articles will include legal issues and capital planning.

  17. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Fátima; Amaral, Marta; Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. This was done through a simple and easy-to-apply methodology to estimate salaries' capitalization rate, by means of the accumulated inflation rate, after taking wage revisions into account. All the career categories in the Ministry of Health and affiliated public sector institutions were considered. Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. These results seem to contradict a commonly held assumption that health sector pay has deteriorated over the years, and with substantial damage for the poorest. Further studies appear to be needed to design a more accurate methodology to better understand the evolution and impact of public sector health workers' remunerations across the years.

  18. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  19. Purchase decision-making is modulated by vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Nora; Mast, Fred W; Hasler, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Purchases are driven by consumers' product preferences and price considerations. Using caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS), we investigated the role of vestibular-affective circuits in purchase decision-making. CVS is an effective noninvasive brain stimulation method, which activates vestibular and overlapping emotional circuits (e.g., the insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). Subjects were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation while they performed two purchase decision-making tasks. In Experiment 1 subjects had to decide whether to purchase or not. CVS significantly reduced probability of buying a product. In Experiment 2 subjects had to rate desirability of the products and willingness to pay (WTP) while they were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation. CVS modulated desirability of the products but not WTP. The results suggest that CVS interfered with emotional circuits and thus attenuated the pleasant and rewarding effect of acquisition, which in turn reduced purchase probability. The present findings contribute to the rapidly growing literature on the neural basis of purchase decision-making.

  20. Acute sleep deprivation increases food purchasing in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Emil K; Nilsson, Victor C; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2013-12-01

    To investigate if acute sleep deprivation affects food purchasing choices in a mock supermarket. On the morning after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or after one night of sleep, 14 normal-weight men were given a fixed budget (300 SEK-approximately 50 USD). They were instructed to purchase as much as they could out of a possible 40 items, including 20 high-caloric foods (>2 kcal/g) and 20 low-caloric foods (foods were then varied (75%, 100% (reference price), and 125%) to determine if TSD affects the flexibility of food purchasing. Before the task, participants received a standardized breakfast, thereby minimizing the potential confound produced by hunger. In addition, morning plasma concentrations of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin were measured under fasting conditions. Independent of both type of food offered and price condition, sleep-deprived men purchased significantly more calories (+9%) and grams (+18%) of food than they did after one night of sleep (both P food purchasing. This experiment demonstrates that acute sleep loss alters food purchasing behavior in men. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  1. ADOLESCENT INFLUENCE ON FAMILY PURCHASING DECISIONS: RESEARCH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Tor Kadioglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social, and cultural changes in the modern world have made adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 important influences on family purchasing decisions. No longer solely users of products and services, adolescents now influence purchasing decisions and have attracted the attention of marketers and researchers. The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in the influence of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 on family purchasing decisions depending on socio-economic and demographic factors. This study aims to determine whether changes occur regarding different product groups by establishing at which stage of the decision process adolescent influence predominates. To achieve this goal, a survey method was used as a data collection tool. Using the convenience sampling method, adolescents within the age range of 12 and 18 were interviewed in Mersin, Turkey. The research results indicate that the influence of adolescents on family purchasing decisions occurs at different stages and depends on the type of product to be purchased. The analysis further shows that adolescents’ age, gender, and number of siblings, and the family's total income, the father's level of education, and the mother's employment status also affect adolescent influence on family purchasing decisions.

  2. Adolescent Purchasing Behavior at McDonald's and Subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Kayekjian, Karen C; Velasquez, Paz; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as "healthy" (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald's). We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald's and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald's and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald's, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Purchases of food in youth. Influence of price and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Handley, Elizabeth A; Dearing, Kelly K; Cho, David D; Roemmich, James N; Paluch, Rocco A; Raja, Samina; Pak, Youngju; Spring, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    One way to increase choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is to increase the cost of less healthy alternatives or reduce the cost of healthier alternatives. The influence of price on purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods was evaluated in two laboratory experiments. In Experiment 1, thirty-two 10- to 12-year-old youth were given $5.00 and allowed to purchase multiple portions of a healthy food (fruit or vegetable) and a less healthy food (higher-fat snack). The price of one type of food varied from $0.50 to $2.50, while the price of the other type was held at $1.00. Increasing the price of a type of food reduced purchases of that type of food, but did not lead to substitution with the alternative type of food. In Experiment 2, twenty 10- to 14-year-old youth were given $1.00, $3.00, and $5.00 to purchase healthy and unhealthy foods. The price of each food was raised and lowered by 25% and 50%. Raising the price of healthy or unhealthy foods resulted in decreased purchases of those foods, and income available interacted with price to predict the pattern of substitution of alternative foods. These results show the potential for controlled laboratory studies of price and food purchases, and show that the substitution of healthier for unhealthy food is related to available money.

  4. Comparing Risks and Benefits for Value Enhancement of Online Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sinha

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available In a developing economy, the acceptability of e–retailing is not very new, but the potential of online marketing in market research and analysis is still largely unexplored. This article is an attempt to understand the psyche of Indian online consumers. As consumers have their own preconceived notions toward this growing purchasing environment, it becomes important for e-retailers to understand the consumers’ perceptions and attitudes toward online purchases. This paper integrates the dimensions of the risks and benefits with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB to understand how consumers adopt their online purchase processes. Four hundred and sixty-eight valid responses were analyzed using structural equation modeling on AMOS 21 to identify the relationship between the different factors and the intention to purchase online. The paper concludes that consumers’ purchase intentions are jointly determined by their attitude towards online purchases and the subjective norm. Furthermore, their attitude is determined by the sub-dimensions of perceived benefits (hedonic benefit, convenience benefit, economic benefit and variety and the sub-dimensions of perceived risk (product risk and financial risk.

  5. Marketing fast food: impact of fast food restaurants in children's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahud, Hannah B; Binns, Helen J; Meadow, William L; Tanz, Robert R

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine fast food restaurant prevalence in hospitals with pediatric residencies and (2) to evaluate how hospital environment affects purchase and perception of fast food. We first surveyed pediatric residency programs regarding fast food restaurants in their hospitals to determine the prevalence of fast food restaurants in these hospitals. We then surveyed adults with children after pediatric outpatient visits at 3 hospitals: hospital M with an on-site McDonald's restaurant, hospital R without McDonald's on site but with McDonald's branding, and hospital X with neither on-site McDonald's nor branding. We sought to determine attitudes toward, consumption of, and influences on purchase of fast food and McDonald's food. Fifty-nine of 200 hospitals with pediatric residencies had fast food restaurants. A total of 386 outpatient surveys were analyzed. Fast food consumption on the survey day was most common among hospital M respondents (56%; hospital R: 29%; hospital X: 33%), as was the purchase of McDonald's food (hospital M: 53%; hospital R: 14%; hospital X: 22%). McDonald's accounted for 95% of fast food consumed by hospital M respondents, and 83% of them bought their food at the on-site McDonald's. Using logistic regression analysis, hospital M respondents were 4 times more likely than respondents at the other hospitals to have purchased McDonald's food on the survey day. Visitors to hospitals M and R were more likely than those at hospital X to believe that McDonald's supported the hospital financially. Respondents at hospital M rated McDonald's food healthier than did respondents at the other hospitals. Fast food restaurants are fairly common in hospitals that sponsor pediatric residency programs. A McDonald's restaurant in a children's hospital was associated with significantly increased purchase of McDonald's food by outpatients, belief that the McDonald's Corporation supported the hospital financially, and higher rating

  6. Hospital staffing and hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, R R

    1976-08-07

    A comparative study of costs per bed per day in teaching hospitals affiliated with Monash University compared with large non-teaching metropolitan hospitals (1964 to 1974) shows they are much higher in teaching hospitals. There is no evidence that this is due to the additional costs arising from the clinical schools. Research in the teaching hospitals and the accompanying high professional standards and demands on services are major factors accounting for the difference. Over the decade studied, the resident staff have increased by 77% and other salaried staff by 24%. The index of expenditure for the three teaching hospitals in the decade has increased by 386%.

  7. The Market for Hospital Medicine in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure growth has outpaced GDP and healthcare expenditure growth rates in Denmark as in most OECD countries for the last decade. A major part of this increase was due to high growth rates in specialist areas that are typically located in hospital settings. Yet the market...... for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised....... 98% of all medicines administered at Danish public hospitals are purchased through a public procurement agency by means of public tenders. Using data on actual contract prices we decompose pharmaceutical expenditure growth into the contributions from newly introduced medicines, price and volume...

  8. Supermarket Choice, Shopping Behavior, Socioeconomic Status, and Food Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. At first sight - How is SME purchasing organised? : Discussing research process, the role of customer strategies & personality of owners and purchasing improvement, based on students’ purchasing case studies within four Dutch manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Anne; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Paper for the WION - Werkgemeenschap Inkoop Onderzoek Nederland - 2015, 3rd version. Purchasing within Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is important for the overall SME firm performance. However, purchasing within SMEs is not the same as purchasing within larger organisations and there is

  10. 16 CFR 1401.5 - Providing performance and technical data to purchasers by labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POINT OF PURCHASE OF PERFORMANCE AND TECHNICAL DATA § 1401.5 Providing performance and technical data to... the time of original purchase and to the first purchaser for purposes other than resale. The data... to be read and understood by ordinary individuals under normal conditions of purchase. This...

  11. Consumer and purchasing agent response to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Valerie Barber

    2007-01-01

    This study surveys 204 consumers and purchasing agents and reports their reaction to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska. Although 67 percent of the respondents would purchase products from old-growth trees, purchasing agents were more likely to refuse to purchase such products (negative response from 12 percent of consumers vs. 29 percent for...

  12. Consumer attitudes toward food consumption and purchase in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Asli; Ozdoğan, Yahya; Ozçelik, Ayşe Özfer

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Ankara Province of Turkey to determine the attitudes of adult consumers toward food consumption and purchasing activities. The data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews with 700 adults working in ministries (government office) to fill in a questionnaire prepared especially for this purpose. The responses to the questionnaire were evaluated by assigning points for the "food-consumption-and-purchasing attitudes" of each respondent based on their replies. These food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points have been then analyzed in terms of the gender, age, and educational level of the adults involved. The results showed that women, the 30-39 age group, and university graduates have a higher score of food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points than do men, the age group comprising respondents < 30 and ≥ 40 years of age, and those with lower education levels, respectively. A statistically significantly relation was observed between food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points and age.

  13. Advertising, marketing and purchase behavior for energy-related products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, K.; Nelson, D.

    1998-07-01

    Energy conservation programs have relied heavily on incentives and regulatory standards to reduce residential energy consumption. However, in the changing market environment characterized by competitive pressures, alternative mechanisms such as marketing and promotions may increase substantially in importance compared to the demand-side management programs which have been the focus of most research. This paper describes the role of marketing and promotions in encouraging energy efficiency at the household level in British Columbia. The paper examines three related issues: first, the purchase process for energy-related products; second, the criteria used by customers in making purchase decisions; and third, the impact and effectiveness of alternative marketing tools. A key finding is the energy-related purchases do not fall into the impulse purchase category. There are two reasons for this: first, most of these products require installation and this requires a high level of commitment on the part of the purchaser; second, many energy-related products require a significant outlay of funds and this reduces impulse buying.

  14. Investigating Young Consumers’ Purchasing Intention of Green Housing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of energy crisis, environmental degradation, and climate change present a severe challenge to the sustainable development in China. The development of green building (GB is considered one of the most popular strategies toward a sustainable construction industry. Apart from advanced green technologies, consumers’ purchasing intention toward green housing (GH plays a crucial role in the large-scale promotion of GB. However, which determinants significantly affect consumers’ purchasing intention remain unclear, especially for the young generation in developing countries. This study attempts to investigate young consumers’ purchasing intention of GH in China. On the basis of extended theory of planned behavior (TPB, seven constructs are identified, and nine hypotheses are proposed. A total of 241 responses were collected from the questionnaire survey, and structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Governmental incentives are affirmed to be the most important determinant, followed by consumers’ attitude toward behavior and subjective norm. Perceived behavioral control is an insignificant determinant for young consumers to purchase GH. In addition, subjective knowledge has an indirect effect through attitude toward behavior. Environmental concern also confirms an indirect effect through attitude toward behavior and subjective norm toward purchasing intention, respectively. Thus, the government is implied to play a crucial role in GH promotion at this stage.

  15. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-07-12

    Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation) and June 2010 (post-implementation). A difference-in-difference design was used to examine the difference between estimated and actual calories purchased, and the odds of underestimating calories.Participants in both cities, both pre- and post-calorie labeling, tended to underestimate calories purchased, by an average 216-409 calories. Adjusted difference-in-differences in estimated-actual calories were significant for individuals who ordered small meals and those with some college education (accuracy in Philadelphia improved by 78 and 231 calories, respectively, relative to Baltimore, p = 0.03-0.04). However, categorical accuracy was similar; the adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for underestimation by >100 calories was 0.90 (p = 0.48) in difference-in-difference models. Accuracy was most improved for subjects with a BA or higher education (AOR = 0.25, p calories varied by subgroup, suggesting that at some level, consumers may incorporate labeling information.

  16. Family Structure and Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Coe, Norma B.; Konetzka, R. Tamara

    2015-01-01

    While it has long been assumed that family structure and potential sources of informal care play a large role in the purchase decisions for long-term care insurance (LTCI), current empirical evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the relationship between family structure and LTCI purchase and addresses several major limitations of the prior literature by using a long panel of data and considering modern family relationships, such as presence of stepchildren. We find that family structure characteristics from one’s own generation, particularly about one’s spouse, are associated with purchase, but that few family structure attributes from the younger generation have an influence. Family factors that may indicate future caregiver supply are negatively associated with purchase: having a coresidential child, signaling close proximity, and having a currently working spouse, signaling a healthy and able spouse, that LTC planning has not occurred yet, or that there is less need for asset protection afforded by LTCI. Dynamic factors, such as increasing wealth or turning 65, are associated with higher likelihood of LTCI purchase. PMID:25760583

  17. Online Sellers’ Website Quality Influencing Online Buyers’ Purchase Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea Lee, Tan; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase adoption of Internet among young users in Malaysia provides high prospect for online seller. Young users aged between 18 and 25 years old are important to online sellers because they are actively involved in online purchasing and this group of online buyers is expected to dominate future online market. Therefore, examining online sellers’ website quality and online buyers’ purchase intention is crucial. Based on the Theory of planned behavior (TPB), a conceptual model of online sellers’ website quality and purchase intention of online buyers was developed. E-tailQ instrument was adapted in this study which composed of website design, reliability/fulfillment, security, privacy & trust, and customer service. Using online questionnaire and convenience sampling procedure, primary data were obtained from 240 online buyers aged between 18 to 25 years old. It was discovered that website design, website reliability/fulfillment, website security, privacy & trust, and website customer service positively and significantly influence intention of online buyers to continuously purchase via online channels. This study concludes that online sellers’ website quality is important in predicting online buyers’ purchase intention. Recommendation and implication of this study were discussed focusing on how online sellers should improve their website quality to stay competitive in online business.

  18. Developing logistic regression models using purchase attributes and demographics to predict the probability of purchases of regular and specialty eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaei, M; Wiseman, K; Cheng, K M

    2015-01-01

    Consumers' interest in specialty eggs appears to be growing in Europe and North America. The objective of this research was to develop logistic regression models that utilise purchaser attributes and demographics to predict the probability of a consumer purchasing a specific type of table egg including regular (white and brown), non-caged (free-run, free-range and organic) or nutrient-enhanced eggs. These purchase prediction models, together with the purchasers' attributes, can be used to assess market opportunities of different egg types specifically in British Columbia (BC). An online survey was used to gather data for the models. A total of 702 completed questionnaires were submitted by BC residents. Selected independent variables included in the logistic regression to develop models for different egg types to predict the probability of a consumer purchasing a specific type of table egg. The variables used in the model accounted for 54% and 49% of variances in the purchase of regular and non-caged eggs, respectively. Research results indicate that consumers of different egg types exhibit a set of unique and statistically significant characteristics and/or demographics. For example, consumers of regular eggs were less educated, older, price sensitive, major chain store buyers, and store flyer users, and had lower awareness about different types of eggs and less concern regarding animal welfare issues. However, most of the non-caged egg consumers were less concerned about price, had higher awareness about different types of table eggs, purchased their eggs from local/organic grocery stores, farm gates or farmers markets, and they were more concerned about care and feeding of hens compared to consumers of other eggs types.

  19. CUSTOMER PERCEPTION ON ONLINE PURCHASE INTENTION: THE IMPACT OF ONLINE SHOPPING ORIENTATIONS ON ONLINE BUYING INTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouri, Arsalan Mujahid; Ul Haq, Mirza Amin; Khan, Naveed R

    2017-01-01

    This paper endeavorsto recognize the customer perception on online purchase intention among theyouth of Pakistan. Customer perception on online purchase intention, thus ourresearch variables are impulse purchase orientation, brand orientation,and quality orientation were considered along with online trust andprior online purchase experience. The results are focused 292 responses gotfrom the online study. The exploration made that impulse purchase orientation;prior o...

  20. Introduction to Special issue of Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing: Contemporary Purchasing Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Hingley, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This conceptual article details the evolution of purchasing research, and describes the increasing integration of purchasing with other strategic functions, in order to identify key trends in purchasing practices, together with their implications for purchasing research. Design/methodology/approach This study takes a conceptual approach and reviews prior literature to describe the field and predict future developments. Findings Purchasing is increasingly integrated wi...

  1. The antecedents of herbal product actual purchase in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Ismail

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant to examine the relationships of several antecedents of actual purchase of herbal product in Malaysia. Actual purchase is considered to have a vital link to a business success. The study identified eight antecedents of consumer actual purchase such as intention, attitude, social influence, product safety and culture belief. A total of 473 respondents (about 82% completed and returned the questionnaire. A seven point Likert scale was used to measure responses. The data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares (PLS path modeling. The path coefficient results supported the direct influence of intention, attitude, social influence and product safety on actual buying. Moreover, the findings reveal that attitude, social influence, product safety, and culture belief also influenced buying intention.

  2. Understanding Consumer Purchase of Free-of Cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Risborg, Marie Søndergaard; Steen, Christina Donslund

    2012-01-01

    consumers' personal values and their attitude and behaviour associated with purchasing free-of cosmetics. A quantitative online survey of 250 Danish female consumers was conducted using self-administering questionnaires. The findings indicate that consumers' willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics (R......This study concerns the free-of trend on the cosmetics market as expressed by a tendency among consumers to prefer cosmetics that are free of certain ingredients. Combining the Theory of Reasoned Action with a value-driven approach, this study empirically investigates the association between......² = .48) is both influenced by attitude (β = .65) and perceived subjective norm (β = .21) with attitude having the largest predictive power. Moreover, consumers' attitude towards willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics seems to be value driven. Our results indicate that two values, self-transcendence (β...

  3. Customer choice: Purchasing energy in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumann, A.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the detailed guidance on how to effectively purchase deregulated energy, based on first-hand reports from many of the nation's most knowledgeable experts. It is designed to provide the kind of practical advice needed by professionals who are responsible for making energy purchasing decisions. The book gives a ten-step program to guide building owners in purchasing decision making, a state-by-state retail competition update, and guidelines for buying electricity and natural gas over the worldwide web. Other topics include contract renegotiation strategies, an assessment of power pools, the role of aggregators in the energy market, real time pricing issues, where cogeneration fits within today's marketplace, and lessons learned from deregulation experiences in Scandinavia and England

  4. Purchasing and inventory management techniques for optimizing inventory investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, I.; Gehshan, T.

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to reduce operations and maintenance costs among nuclear plants, many utilities are taking a closer look at their inventory investment. Various approaches for inventory reduction have been used and discussed, but these approaches are often limited to an inventory management perspective. Interaction with purchasing and planning personnel to reduce inventory investment is a necessity in utility efforts to become more cost competitive. This paper addresses the activities that purchasing and inventory management personnel should conduct in an effort to optimize inventory investment while maintaining service-level goals. Other functions within a materials management organization, such as the warehousing and investment recovery functions, can contribute to optimizing inventory investment. However, these are not addressed in this paper because their contributions often come after inventory management and purchasing decisions have been made

  5. Satisfaction strength and intention to purchase a new product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Dopico, Domingo C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of satisfaction strength on the correspondence between reported satisfaction and intention to purchase a new product. The market testing underlying this study analyzes the market opportunities for a novel prototype. The research was conducted at a central location wit...... satisfaction level alone. The study argues on the nomological validity of the satisfaction construct and reveals that assessment of satisfaction strength should support the management goal of identifying truly satisfied customers.......This study examines the role of satisfaction strength on the correspondence between reported satisfaction and intention to purchase a new product. The market testing underlying this study analyzes the market opportunities for a novel prototype. The research was conducted at a central location...... with 239 randomly selected consumers. Results indicate that (un)certainty, ambivalence, and importance cognitions and feelings significantly moderate the relationship between reported satisfaction and individuals’ intention to purchase. For example, the association between consumers’ reported satisfaction...

  6. THE INFLUENCES IN THE FIRM'S PURCHASING DECISIONS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Augusto Luna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of anxiety has been strongly discussed in the areas of psychology and marketing, especially when analyzing consumer behavior, however, the subject is still little explored in the processes of purchasing in the area of Operations Management (OM. In this sense, this study explores the topic in an exploratory way. Thus, a 2x2 factorial experiment was performed to understand the emotion phenomenon in purchasing processes in high and low emotional involvement scenarios versus immediate time and distant time for the event. The results obtained by 111 respondents show that the emotion phenomenon does not interfere in the purchasing process in the presented scenarios. However, a reassessment of the scenarios and new studies should be done to confirm the hypotheses presented in the study.

  7. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  8. Hospital Supply Expenses: An Important Ingredient in Health Services Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalam, Yousef; Schneller, Eugene

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to shed light on hospital supply expenses, which form the second largest expense category after payroll and hold more promise for improving cost-efficiency compared to payroll. However, limited research has rigorously scrutinized this cost category, and it is rarely given specific consideration across cost-focused studies in health services publications. After reviewing previously cited estimates, we examine and independently validate supply expense data (collected by the American Hospital Association) for over 3,500 U.S. hospitals. We find supply expenses to make up 15% of total hospital expenses, on average, but as high as 30% or 40% in hospitals with a high case-mix index, such as surgery-intensive hospitals. Future research can use supply expense data to better understand hospital strategies that aim to manage costs, such as systemization, physician-hospital arrangements, and value-based purchasing.

  9. Using Research Case Studies in eCommerce Marketing Courses: Customer Satisfaction at Point-of-Purchase and Post-Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, Noorshella Che; Fong, Michelle; Tatnall, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research case study of Internet apparel marketing by small businesses in Malaysia which can beneficially be included in postgraduate business courses for understanding the importance of measuring customer satisfaction at point-of-purchase and post-purchase in online purchases. The sample size in this research is 154…

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  11. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determining the Use and Perceived Effectiveness of a Point-of-Purchase Cafeteria Nutrition Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzansky, ANITA S.; Whiting, Susan; Dobson, JOANNE DESMARAIS

    1998-01-01

    The Eat Smart Heart Beat Cafeteria Program (ESCP) is a point-of-purchase nutrition education program (PPNEP), which was developed by the Ottawa-Carleton Health Department (OCHD). The intent of this program was to increase the awareness and availability of lower-fat, higher-fibre foods in cafeterias. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ESCP using a Feedback Questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed primarily to determine the use of the ESCP manual and to evaluate the users' perceived effectiveness of this program. Purchasers of the ESCP were asked to complete the questionnaire one year after they received the program resources. Forty of the 88 program recipients (45%) returned the questionnaire. Most responses were from nutritionists or dietitians, health service managers and occupational health workers. Most respondents represented large workplaces (more than 250 employees) such as hospitals, government, health units and educational institutions. Of the 40 respondents, 10 implemented the program and indicated that they were moderately to very satisfied with all of the resources and that they would continue using the program. The 30 respondents who reported not using the program indicated that this was mainly due to time constraints. The ESCP has the potential to increase the awareness and availability of lower-fat, higher-fibre foods. Therefore, it is recommended that the program be continued in a ready-to-use format to increase its usability. Further research is needed to clarify the effects of the ESCP on behaviour change.

  13. Car Purchasing Behavior in Beijing : - An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Xuan; Dongyan, Liu

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to give an overview on young Chinese consumers’ car purchase behavior. The results show that car purchasing decision is an important decision for most of Chinese. Consumers get information from different channels. The results of this study also tells us that Chinese consumers take “safety” as the most important characteristic and take “value for money” as the second most important and “riding comfort” as the third important characteristic. Chinese consumers take “after-sale ma...

  14. Evaluating a dental practice for purchase or associateship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diecidue, Robert J

    2008-07-01

    Private dental practice can be achieved through either outright ownership or an associateship in conjunction with senior dentists; the decision depends on personal and professional objectives and goals. Once a decision is made, the time and effort required to identify an appropriate practice, negotiate the terms of purchase or associateship, and transition to the new practice can be daunting. This article reviews the process and provides an overview of the general steps involved in the evaluation of a dental practice for purchase or associateship. With appropriate knowledge and preparation, due diligence, and ethical and sensitive behavior, transitioning to private practice can be successful and lead to professional and personal fulfillment.

  15. Achieving Efficiency and Effectiveness in Purchasing and Supply Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    2017-01-01

    of the most prevalent business practices in various areas, many businesses fail to realize the benefits anticipated from their outsourcing initiatives. Research reports that one major reason for these outsourcing challenges lies in the design of the focal organization. In this paper, we take an organization......As a function with a strategic role, Purchasing and Supply Management (PSM) needs to continuously find ways to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. One potential way to specifically addressing efficiency targets is to outsource parts of the purchasing process. While outsourcing remains one...

  16. Determinants of Halal Purchase Intention: Case in Perlis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Afzainiza Afendi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is to determine the factors that influence purchase intention of Halal products among consumers at selected supermarkets around Perlis. 100 were randomly selected to be respondents in this study through the questionnaire. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 19.0. Descriptive analysis and correlation were applied to this study. The results indicated that attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control had positive impact on intention to purchase Halal products. It is suggested that future research can be done in fast growing cities and the result that we get will be more comparable and provide workable direction in Halal products.

  17. The ABCs of HIPCs (health insurance purchasing cooperatives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1993-01-01

    HIPCs, or health care purchasing cooperatives, are attracting widespread interest as a key element of the managed competition approach to health reform. HIPCs perform several useful roles for individuals and small employers unable to obtain health insurance coverage in the current system by spreading risk more evenly and purchasing coverage in a given region or market area. While HIPCs are generally associated with managed competition, they are also compatible with reform strategies that require employers to pay for coverage or those that provide incentives for expanded coverage.

  18. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-W; Sung, H-Y; Yang, C-L; Shih, S-F

    2003-03-01

    Since market liberalization in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT dollars 4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT dollars 10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes--a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT 1000/month dollars on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT 1000 dollars (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is the most

  19. A Strategic Framework for Improving the Patient Experience in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelien, Natalie L

    Hospitals are taking new approaches to satisfy consumers and deliver on customer expectations by enhancing their patients' comprehensive experience. The HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) survey and value-based purchasing initiatives have tied reimbursement to patient satisfaction scores, bringing patient perspectives on care to the forefront of hospitals' strategic priorities. This essay reviews the patient experience literature and argues that hospitals should adopt an expanded approach beyond HCAHPS measures to enhance the patient experience. Such an approach allows providers to deliver quality outcomes that satisfy patients' wants and needs.

  20. What can the past of pay-for-performance tell us about the future of Value-Based Purchasing in Medicare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Andrew M; Damberg, Cheryl L

    2013-06-01

    The Medicare program has implemented pay-for-performance (P4P), or Value-Based Purchasing, for inpatient care and for Medicare Advantage plans, and plans to implement a program for physicians in 2015. In this paper, we review evidence on the effectiveness of P4P and identify design criteria deemed to be best practice in P4P. We then assess the extent to which Medicare's existing and planned Value-Based Purchasing programs align with these best practices. Of the seven identified best practices in P4P program design, the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing program is strongly aligned with two of the best practices, moderately aligned with three, weakly aligned with one, and has unclear alignment with one best practice. The Physician Value-Based Purchasing Modifier is strongly aligned with two of the best practices, moderately aligned with one, weakly aligned with three, and has unclear alignment with one of the best practices. The Medicare Advantage Quality Bonus Program is strongly aligned with four of the best practices, moderately aligned with two, and weakly aligned with one of the best practices. We identify enduring gaps in P4P literature as it relates to Medicare's plans for Value-Based Purchasing and discuss important issues in the future of these implementations in Medicare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Accounting for Taste Heterogeneity in Purchase Channel Intention Modeling: An Example from Northern California for Book Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei; Mokhtarian, Patricia L

    2009-01-01

    This study uses latent class modeling (LCM) to explore the effects of channel-specific perceptions, along with other variables, on purchase channel intention. Using data on book purchases collected from an Internet-based survey of two university towns in Northern California, we develop a latent class model with two segments (final N=373). Age turns out to be the only observed determinant of class membership, and in the intention model, the mostly-younger segment is more cost-sensitive and the...

  2. 76 FR 26489 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... also be aligned with best practices among other payers and the needs of the end users of the measures... have been subsequently shown to not represent the best clinical practice. We interpreted this provision... of measures, including clinical process of care measures, risk adjusted outcome measures, the HCAHPS...

  3. 76 FR 2453 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... program based on conditions for coverage. This new program will necessarily be a fluid model, subject to... rewarding better value, outcomes, and innovations instead of merely volume. Use of Measures: Public....hospitalcompare.hhs.gov , after a 30-day preview period. An interactive Web tool, this Web site assists...

  4. Managerial innovation in the hospital: an analysis of the diffusion of hospital cost-accounting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counte, M A; Glandon, G L

    1988-01-01

    Currently much interest is focused on the uses of cost-accounting systems within the hospital industry. Proponents frequently contend that such systems will help hospitals successfully adapt to new methods of financial reimbursement because they are essential to a number of major management functions, including competitive bidding, cost management, pricing, and profitability assessment. This article reports the results of a study conducted to examine the extent to which hospitals in a major market are actually beginning to use standard cost-accounting systems and identify factors that either aid or hinder the diffusion of these methods. Chief financial officers from 94 hospitals (83 percent response rate) participated in the study during the summer of 1986 where less than half of the hospitals (43 percent) had recently purchased a cost-accounting system. Detailed information about the interface of cost-accounting systems with other application systems and their specific management uses is reported.

  5. Purchasing an Encyclopedia: 12 Points To Consider. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

    This book discusses issues to consider when purchasing an encyclopedia and provides reviews of eight print encyclopedias, six CD-ROM encyclopedias, and one online encyclopedia. Each review provides an address and discusses the history, scope and treatment, and quality and currency of the encyclopedia; for CD-ROM encyclopedias, the database…

  6. Online purchase intentions: A multi-channel store image perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; van Dolen, W.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of the bricks-and-clicks retail format in the battle for the online customer has been widely discussed but empirical research on it has been limited. We applied a multi-channel store image perspective to assess its influence on online purchase intentions. Drawing on a sample of 630

  7. E-Book Purchasing Best Practices for Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    This article alerts academic libraries to some of the methods for purchasing electronic books (e-books) and notes that, while they are similar to the models used for journal-evaluation purposes, there are a number of factors important to consider that are different for e-books. Simon notes that, while theoretically there should be some advantages…

  8. Calorie labeling, fast food purchasing and restaurant visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Dixon, L Beth; Abrams, Courtney; Weitzman, Beth; Kersh, Rogan; Auchincloss, Amy H; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fast food restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fast food restaurant visits. Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 2009) and after (June 2010) labeling in Philadelphia (which implemented mandatory labeling) and Baltimore (matched comparison city). Measures included: self-reported use of calorie information, calories purchased determined via fast food receipts, and self-reported weekly fast-food visits. The consumer sample was predominantly Black (71%), and high school educated (62%). Postlabeling, 38% of Philadelphia consumers noticed the calorie labels for a 33% point (P < 0.001) increase relative to Baltimore. Calories purchased and number of fast food visits did not change in either city over time. While some consumers report noticing and using calorie information, no population level changes were noted in calories purchased or fast food visits. Other controlled studies are needed to examine the longer term impact of labeling as it becomes national law. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. 24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financing purchase of the home. 291.545 Section 291.545 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF HUD-ACQUIRED SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Good...

  10. Ilinois Walls: How barring indirect purchaser suits facilitates collusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Tuinstra, J.; Ruggeberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    In its landmark ruling in Illinois Brick Co. v. Illinois in 1977, the U.S. Supreme Court restricted standing to sue for recovery of antitrust damages to direct purchasers. However, antitrust damages are typically (in part) passed on to intermediaries lower in the chain of production and ultimately

  11. Purchasing alignment under multiple contingencies: a configuration theory approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikalef, P.; Pateli, A.; Batenburg, R.S.; Wetering, R. van de

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Strategic alignment is a theory-based state that is considered as crucial for organizations in order to realize performance gains from information technology (IT) investments and deployments. Within the domain of purchasing and supply chain management there has been a growing interest on

  12. Perceived risk and trust associated with purchasing at Electronic Marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meents, Selmar; Tan, Yao-Hua; Verhagen, Tibert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is of vital importance to consumer oriented e-business models today. In this paper we study the relationships between consumer perceptions of risk and trust and the attitude towards purchasing at a consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace. Typical for electronic

  13. Perceived risk and trust associated with purchasing at electronic marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; Meents, S.; Tan, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is of vital importance to consumer-oriented e-business models today. In this paper, we study the relationships between consumer perceptions of risk and trust and the attitude towards purchasing at a consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace (EM). Typical for EM

  14. Purchase of Catastrophe Insurance by Dutch Dairy and Arable Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogurtsov, V.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzed the impact of risk perception, risk attitude, and other farmer personal and farm characteristics on the actual purchase of catastrophe insurance by Dutch dairy and arable farmers. The specific catastrophe insurance types considered were hail–fire–storm insurance for buildings,

  15. CEA distribution transformer purchasing specifications (DTWG-01,02,03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purchasing specifications for three types of distribution transformers are presented. The specifications were compiled by the Canadian Electricity Association at the suggestion made in 1989 by the Canadian Utilities Material Management Group. The specifications cover pole mounted single phase distribution transformers (DTWG-01), low-profile, single phase, dead-front pad-mounted distribution transformers (DTWG-02), and three phase, dead-front pad-mounted distribution transformers (DTWG-03). The specifications were compiled by a task force of CEA member utilities, using CSA standards as the governing standards in all three cases. The first edition of the purchasing specifications was issued in 1993. The second edition, consisting mainly of revisions based on experiences learned from using the first edition, and the addition of the appropriate clauses of CSA standards, was published in 1998. Based on a three-year average of the number of transformers purchased annually (about 58,000) at an estimated total cost of $ 120 million, use of the Purchasing Specifications is said to have resulted in savings of about 7 per cent or $ 8.4 million

  16. Information Needs for a Purchase of Fairtrade Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Schleenbecker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates what information German Fairtrade coffee consumers search for during pre-purchase information seeking and to what extent information is retrieved. Furthermore, the sequence of the information search as well as the degree of cognitive involvement is highlighted. The role of labeling, the importance of additional ethical information and its quality in terms of concreteness as well as the importance of product price and organic origin are addressed. A set of information relevant to Fairtrade consumers was tested by means of the Information Display Matrix (IDM method with 389 Fairtrade consumers. Results show that prior to purchase, information on product packages plays an important role and is retrieved rather extensively, but search strategies that reduce the information processing effort are applied as well. Furthermore, general information is preferred over specific information. Results of two regression analyses indicate that purchase decisions are related to search behavior variables rather than to socio-demographic variables and purchase motives. In order to match product information with consumers’ needs, marketers should offer information that is reduced to the central aspects of Fairtrade.

  17. A Dialogue Game Protocol for Agent Purchase Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBurney, P.; Eijk, R.M. van; Parsons, S.; Amgoud, L.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a dialogue game protocol for purchase negotiation dialogues which identifies appropriate speech acts, defines constraints on their utterances, and specifies the different sub-tasks agents need to perform in order to engage in dialogues according to this protocol. Our formalism combines

  18. Purchase decision involvement: Event management segments and related event behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the relationships between different levels of event purchase decision involvement (PDI) segments and their respective event behaviors (e.g., expenditures, travel behavior, event consumption and satisfaction). The specific purpose was to answer two major research questions: 1) Can PDI identify different levels or segments of...

  19. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: Numerous factors to consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purchase of a confocal microscope can be a complex and difficult decision for an individual scientist, group or evaluation committee. This is true even for scientists that have used confocal technology for many years. The task of reaching the optimal decision becomes almost i...

  20. 31 CFR 341.4 - Proof of purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of purchase. 341.4 Section 341.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... of birth, social security account number and his classification (i.e., self-employed individual or...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1024 - Medical and other purchased services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical and other purchased services. 416.1024 Section 416.1024 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1624 - Medical and other purchased services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical and other purchased services. 404.1624 Section 404.1624 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and Requirements...

  3. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  4. Purchasing Power Parity : Evidence from a New Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Most economists intuitively consider purchasing power parity (PPP) to be true. Nevertheless, quite surprisingly, the empirical literature is not very supportive for PPP. In this paper, however, we find evidence in favor of PPP using a new test. The test is embedded in a Markov regime-switching model

  5. 12 CFR 7.1020 - Purchase of open accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of open accounts. 7.1020 Section 7.1020 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND... part of the business of banking and within the power of a national bank. (b) Export transactions. A...

  6. Influence of Halal certification on customers' purchase intention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The purpose of this study isto investigate the relationship between HALAL awareness, marketing and religiosity that are postulated to influence customers' intention to purchase HALAL certified consumer products. Customers' who visited SABASUN Hypermarket Sdn. Bhd. in Kuala Terengganu were selected as ...

  7. Pengaruh Perceived Quality dan Perceived Value terhadap Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Stella Meiliana; Kurniawati

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perceived quality dan perceived valueterhadap purchase intention. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dataprimer.Data dikumpulkan langsung melalui penyebaran kuisioner kepada 160responden.Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakanpurposive sampling.Uji instrumen data menggunakan validitas dan reliabilitas.Uji hipotesismenggunakan Structure Equation Model (SEM).Hasil pengujian hipotesa menunjukkanterda...

  8. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  9. 40 CFR 86.411-78 - Maintenance instructions, vehicle purchaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance instructions, vehicle...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES... instructions, vehicle purchaser. (a) The manufacturer shall furnish or cause to be furnished to the ultimate...

  10. Taxing Sugary Beverages Reduces Their Purchase, Especially Among Poor Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Astha; Joshi, Shilpi

    2017-06-01

    Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study. Colchera MA, Popkin BM, Rivera JA, Ng SW. Br Med J 2016;352:h6704. Bloomberg Philanthropies, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública and Carolina Population Center. Observational study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DIMENSIONS AFFECTING THE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR OF NEPALI WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Singh Thagunna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the various dimensions of buying behavior of Nepalese women while making purchasing decisions. A total of 100 women of different background were surveyed through a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions related to the buying behavior. Various factors such as Value Identification, Customer Service and Lifestyle are most influential for Nepalese women’s purchasing decisions. So, by providing, at affordable price, high value product that match the personality of the targeted women and by providing superior customer care, Nepalese women can be attracted easily. Besides these, price, brand awareness and accurate information also influence their buying behavior to a certain extent. Age also plays a role in the purchasing decisions she makes, since women of different age group behave differently while purchasing items for their homes, for their offices or for personal use. Difference in the demographic factors such as personal status, religious belief, occupation and income level however do not bring difference in the buying behavior of Nepalese women, in general.

  12. Disentangling purchasing motives from socio-demographic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and presence of children in the household have no significant effects. Combining the purchase data with a questionnaire about attitudes towards organic production issued to the same panel shows that 51 per cent believes that organic production has a positive effect on the environment and 41 per cent believes...

  13. Consumer purchasing behavior towards fish and seafood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlucci, D.; Nocella, G.; Devitiis, De B.; Bimbo, F.; Nardone, G.

    2015-01-01

    The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies

  14. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.

  15. Household income differences in food sources and food items purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Wall, Melanie; Mitchell, Nathan R

    2010-10-26

    The present study examined income-related household food purchases among a sample of 90 households from the community. Annotated food purchase receipts were collected for a four-week period by the primary household shopper. Receipt food source and foods items were classified into specific categories, and food quantities in ounces were recorded by research staff. For home sources, a limited number of food/beverage categories were recorded. For eating out sources, all food/beverage items were recorded. Median monthly per person dollars spent and per person ounces purchased were computed. Food sources and food categories were examined by household income tertile. A community-based sample of 90 households. Higher income households spent significantly more dollars per person per month from both home and eating out sources compared with lower income households ($163 versus $100, p income households, higher income households spent significantly more home source dollars on both fruits/vegetables (21.5 versus 10.2, p income households (45% versus 26%, p sources, lower income households spent a significantly greater percent of dollars per person at carry out places (54% versus 37%, p income differences were observed for dollars spent at discount grocery stores, small grocery stores or convenience stores. Higher income households spent more money on both healthy and less healthy foods from a wide range of sources. Lower income households spent a larger proportion of their eating out dollars at carry out places, and a larger proportion of their home beverage purchases were sugar sweetened beverages.

  16. The consequences of unemployment on diet composition and purchase behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Tetens, Inge; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2018-01-01

    as a trend accounting for the duration. SETTING: A household panel which registers daily food purchases combined with detailed nutritional information and registration of the duration of unemployment at individual level. The structure of the data set facilitates the detection of effects or associations...

  17. 7 CFR 1962.13 - Notification to potential purchasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1962.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... requested, to these potential purchasers to protect the Government's security interest. (1) The name and address of the debtor. (2) The name and address of any secured party. (3) The Social Security number or...

  18. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOE may increase the rate of purchases if prices fall below recent price trends or futures markets... accordance with the FAR and the DEAR. (b) Acquisition strategy. (1) DOE solicitations: (i) May be either... availability of ships, pipelines and terminals to move and receive the oil. (3) Based on the market analysis...

  19. Negotiating and structuring the power purchase agreement (PPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both generators and consumers, there are several factors which affect electricity sales that should be considered when negotiating a power purchase agreement. Most importantly, it should be known whether a project is being developed by the end user for its own use, or whether it is being developed by an independent power producer (IPP) for sale to the Power Pool, or directly to others. This paper described a joint venture as being an IPP which can sell power to the Power Pool, an eligible industrial user, or its host (usually to the most economically attractive buyer). Natural gas deregulation provided a big incentive for IPPs to develop new power projects. The things to consider in traditional power purchase arrangements are requests for proposals, the seller's response and a memorandum of understanding. The principle terms of a traditional bilateral power purchase agreement involve the nature of the services to be provided, pricing, termination terms, facilities issues, force majeure and changes in law. This paper also discussed market alternatives to the traditional power purchase agreement. 1 appendix

  20. Unfair allocation of gains under equal price in cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Calvi, R.; Merminod, N.

    2005-01-01

    Cooperative purchasing is becoming more and more common practice. However, many cooperative initiatives end prematurely or do not flourish. Important reasons indi-cated for these problems are directly or indirectly related to the unfair allocation of gains. The purpose of this paper is to analyse

  1. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in writing local buying authority throughout the Postal Service. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal purchasing authority. 601.104 Section 601.104 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE...

  2. Double hedge aids commercial terms of upstream asset purchase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years many major oil companies have elected to rationalize their producing assets. Mature production--particularly onshore in developed countries, associated with high costs and small profit margins--has been the major target. The current weakness in oil prices has resulted in many such properties being on the market. However, much production marginal to a major can be highly profitable to a cost-effective independent, particularly if the production fits strategically with the independent's asset portfolio. Although many independents recognize that some of the producing assets on the market could be of potential value to them, in a period of volatile prices two important valuations have to be technically justified and negotiated to enable or persuade them to conclude a purchase agreement for a specific asset. These are: A purchase value for an asset that is acceptable to both seller and buyer; and A loan value for the asset to establish the level of debt that the asset can support for the buyer. In defining these two important values (both of which are usually established as ranges rather than single values) the independent has to protect itself against a downturn in commodity prices and exposing itself to an unserviceable level of debt. The paper discusses reducing risks, purchase price hedge, an example of a hedged purchase price, price elements, loan value analysis, agreement structure, loan value hedge, and an example of a hedged loan value

  3. Going hybrid: An analysis of consumer purchase motivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Ritsuko; Sevastyanova, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    What makes consumers adopt energy-sustainable innovations? The uptake of such products and technologies is of importance, particularly at a time when climate change, diminishing energy resources and energy security are urgent issues. This paper reports on a case study of consumer adoption of hybrid vehicles, a green innovation that has been in the market since the late 1990s. The study is based on a questionnaire survey, conducted in 2009 in collaboration with Toyota GB, to investigate the dimensions that constitute motivations to purchase the Prius and to examine how policy can encourage hybrid adoption. The survey yielded 1484 responses, 1263 of which were used for the analysis; the results of the exploratory factor analyses provide information on consumer purchase motivations. The financial benefits related to transport policy are an important factor in consumer hybrid purchase motivations, and social norms and consumers' willingness to comply with the norms of their groups influence the purchase decision. We also find that various meanings are attached to hybrid vehicle ownership, and practical, experiential and affective values need to be communicated to consumers in terms of value added.

  4. The role of tasting in the purchasing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oomen Roos

    2015-01-01

    Value – This study is of value to the Dutch government and the wine lobby, because it demonstrates the difference between wine tasting and drinking. It also has value for restaurant owners, the wine industry, and the academic world, because it highlights an important aspect of consumer behaviour with regard to wine purchases.

  5. 48 CFR 8.405-3 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... effectiveness of the BPA(s). In determining how many BPAs to establish, consider— (i) The scope and complexity...; (iii) The administrative costs of BPAs; and (iv) The technical qualifications of the schedule..., before placing an order exceeding the micro-purchase threshold, the ordering activity shall— (i) Forward...

  6. Consumer peach preferences and purchasing behavior: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Kathleen M; Primrose, Rachel; Crassweller, Robert; Hayes, John E; Marini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Stokes) are grown in several regions throughout the USA, are eaten fresh, and used as ingredients in value-added processed products. An Internet survey was conducted to investigate Mid-Atlantic consumers' fresh and processed peach purchasing behaviors, and whether packaging certain numbers of peaches together, providing information about nutritional content, and other factors would increase purchases. Additionally, laboratory-based sensory testing was used to better understand peel color, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor preferences for cultivars commonly grown in the Mid-Atlantic region. Irrespective of fresh peach consumption frequency, certain value-added products were of interest. For some products, interest in purchasing was higher than reported purchasing behavior. Preference for certain fresh peach characteristics, such as peel color, differed between less frequent fresh peach consumers and those who consumed fresh peaches more often. Of the four peach cultivars included in the sensory test, most were liked; however, there were some cultivar differences pertaining to color, texture, sweetness, tartness, and flavor liking. Potential marketing strategies can be developed based on frequency of fresh peach consumption and household demographics. Data can be used to select peaches that best appeal to consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. On Motivating Operations at the Point of Online Purchase Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Arntzen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior analysis can be applied over a wide range of economic topics in which the main focus is the contingencies that influence the behavior of the economic agent. This paper provides an overview on the work that has been done on the impact from motivating operations at the point of online purchase situation. Motivating operations, a…

  8. Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

  9. Notification: CIGIE Purchase Card Cross-Cutting Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY17-0088, December 20, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to participate in a Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency (CIGIE) purchase card cross-cutting project led by the U.S. Department of Agriculture OIG.

  10. Enhancing the IT Infrastructure at Saint Philip's Hospital: Point-of-Care Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, Iva; White, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare has become a rapidly changing field. With the introduction of value-based purchasing to determine reimbursement of Medicare providers based on the quality of care in addition to outcomes in treatment, the environment is becoming ever more competitive. Saint Philip's Hospital is among the largest non-profit hospitals in the nation…

  11. Hospital Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Welcome to hospitalinspections.org, a website run by the Association of Health Care Journalists (AHCJ) that aims to make federal hospital inspection reports easier...

  12. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  13. Variation in provider vaccine purchase prices and payer reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Cowan, Anne E; Gregory, Sashi; Clark, Sarah J

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to collect data regarding vaccine prices and reimbursements in private practices. Amid reports of physicians losing money on vaccines, there are limited supporting data to show how much private practices are paying for vaccines and how much they are being reimbursed by third-party payers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of private practices in 5 states (California, Georgia, Michigan, New York, and Texas) that purchase vaccines for administration to privately insured children/adolescents. Main outcome measures included prices paid to purchase vaccines recommended for children and adolescents and reimbursement from the 3 most common, non-Medicaid payers for vaccine purchase and administration. Detailed price and reimbursement data were provided by 76 practices. There was a considerable difference between the maximum and minimum prices paid by practices, ranging from $4 to more than $30 for specific vaccines. There was also significant variation in insurance reimbursement for vaccine purchase, with maximum and minimum reimbursements for a single vaccine differing from $8 to more than $80. Mean net yield per dose (reimbursement for vaccine purchase minus price paid per dose) varied across vaccines from a low of approximately $3 to more than $24. Reimbursement for the first dose of vaccine administered ranged from $0 to more than $26, with a mean of $16.62. There is a wide range of prices paid by practices for the same vaccine product and in the reimbursement for vaccines and administration fees by payers. This variation highlights the need for individual practices to understand their own costs and reimbursements and to seek opportunities to reduce costs and increase reimbursements.

  14. The market for hospital medicine in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Hostenkamp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical expenditure growth has outpaced GDP and healthcare expenditure growth rates in Denmark as in most OECD countries for the last decade. A major part of this increase was due to high growth rates in specialist areas that are typically located in hospital settings. Yet the market for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised. 98% of all medicines administered at Danish public hospitals are purchased through a public procurement agency by means of public tenders. Using data on actual contract prices we decompose pharmaceutical expenditure growth into the contributions from newly introduced medicines, price and volume increases and use summary statistics to compare market performance in both sectors. The market for hospital medicine is more concentrated than the pharmaceutical retail sector and the share of generics and parallel imported products is significantly lower. Between 2005 and 2009 expenditures for hospital medicines more than doubled -accounting for almost 40% of the total Danish pharmaceutical market in 2009. Price increases however - although positive and higher than in the pharmaceutical retail sector - were only moderate. The majority of the expenditure growth was due to an increase in utilisation and the introduction of new medicines in the hospital sector. Centralised tendering may therefore have important implications for competition and industry structure in the long run.

  15. Category Captain Management: a new approach for healthcare suppliers to partner with their hospital customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Hospitals represent a substantial market for pharmaceutical and medical device companies. The typical approach by healthcare manufacturers and suppliers to hospitals is to send representatives or detailers to hospitals and meet with representatives of hospital formularies and purchasing officials. Classic channels systems, and specifically, Category Captain Management ("CCM") may provide more of a sustainable competitive advantage than traditional hospital detailing. The purpose of this article is to discuss how CCM might apply as an approach for healthcare suppliers to truly partner with their hospital customers.

  16. Financial incentives and purchase restrictions in a food benefit program affect the types of foods and beverages purchased: results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Rydell, Sarah A; Mitchell, Nathan R; Michael Oakes, J; Elbel, Brian; Harnack, Lisa

    2017-09-16

    This research evaluated the effects of financial incentives and purchase restrictions on food purchasing in a food benefit program for low income people. Participants (n=279) were randomized to groups: 1) Incentive- 30% financial incentive for fruits and vegetables purchased with food benefits; 2) Restriction- no purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet baked goods, or candies with food benefits; 3) Incentive plus Restriction; or 4) Control- no incentive or restrictions. Participants received a study-specific debit card where funds were added monthly for 12-weeks. Food purchase receipts were collected over 16 weeks. Total dollars spent on grocery purchases and by targeted food categories were computed from receipts. Group differences were examined using general linear models. Weekly purchases of fruit significantly increased in the Incentive plus Restriction ($4.8) compared to the Restriction ($1.7) and Control ($2.1) groups (p beverage purchases significantly decreased in the Incentive plus Restriction (-$0.8 per week) and Restriction ($-1.4 per week) groups compared to the Control group (+$1.5; pfoods and beverages purchased with food program funds may support more healthful food purchases compared to no incentives or restrictions. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02643576 .

  17. Effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance on purchase price of Thoroughbreds at 2-year-old in-training sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie A; Brown, Murray P; Chmielewski, Terese L; Trumble, Troy N; Zimmel, Dana N; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2012-12-01

    To determine the effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance (speed) on purchase price of 2-year-old in-training Thoroughbreds and to compare the distance exercised within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales between horses with high yearling sale purchase prices versus those with low yearling sale purchase prices and between horses with lameness during training and those without lameness during training. Prospective study. 51 Thoroughbreds. Thoroughbreds purchased at a yearling sale were trained prior to resale at 2-year-old in-training sales. Amount of exercise and lameness status during training and speed of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales were determined. Data were analyzed via the Wilcoxon rank sum test and ANOVA. Median purchase price of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales was $37,000. The 2-year-old in-training sale purchase price was associated with yearling sale purchase price and distance galloped within 60 days prior to and speed recorded at 2-year-old in-training sales. Horses with high yearling sale purchase prices typically had high 2-year-old in-training sale purchase prices, had low distances galloped within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales, and were classified as fast at 2-year-old in-training sales. Lameness alone was not associated with 2-year-old in-training sales purchase price. However, lameness was associated with a low distance galloped before 2-year-old in-training sales, particularly for horses with a high yearling sale purchase price; this finding suggested that yearling sale purchase price can affect training management decisions for horses with lameness.

  18. 12 CFR 223.22 - What valuation and timing principles apply to asset purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the covered transaction after the purchase may be reduced to reflect amortization or depreciation of the asset, to the extent that such reductions are consistent with GAAP. (2) Exceptions. (i) Purchase...

  19. The due-diligence process of purchasing or buying into a dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Vincent L

    2003-01-01

    A due-diligence or evaluation process is necessary when assessing a practice purchase opportunity. The standards for assessing the investment remain the same whether the buyer is purchasing a practice outright or buying a co-ownership interest.

  20. 41 CFR 102-73.130 - When may Federal agencies consider acquiring leases with purchase options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consider leasing with a purchase option at or below fair market value, consistent with the lease-purchase... and other advantages to the Government and is consistent with the Government's goals. (b) The...

  1. Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories annual report, fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.R.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1993. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included.

  2. Price and maternal obesity influence purchasing of low- and high-energy-dense foods2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Dearing, Kelly K; Paluch, Rocco A; Roemmich, James N; Cho, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Price can influence food purchases, which can influence consumption. Limited laboratory research has assessed the effect of price changes on food purchases, and no research on individual differences that may interact with price to influence purchases exists. Objective We aimed to assess the influence of price changes of low-energy-density (LED) and high-energy-density (HED) foods on mother’s food purchases in a laboratory food-purchasing analogue. Design Mothers were randomly assigned to price conditions in which the price of either LED or HED foods was manipulated from 75% to 125% of the reference purchase price, whereas the price of the alternative foods was kept at the reference value. Mothers completed purchases for 2 income levels ($15 or $30 per family member). Results Purchases were reduced when prices of LED (P elasticity of HED foods and substitution of LED for HED foods. PMID:17921365

  3. 45 CFR 304.22 - Federal financial participation in purchased support enforcement services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.22 Federal financial participation in purchased support enforcement services. Federal financial participation is.... Support enforcement services which may be purchased with Federal financial participation are those for...

  4. To what extent do food purchases reflect shoppers? diet quality and nutrient intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; French, Simone A.; Tangney, Christy C.; Powell, Lisa M.; Wang, Yamin

    2017-01-01

    Background Food purchasing is considered a key mediator between the food environment and eating behavior, and food purchasing patterns are increasingly measured in epidemiologic and intervention studies. However, the extent to which food purchases actually reflect individuals? dietary intake has not been rigorously tested. This study examined cross-sectional agreement between estimates of diet quality and nutrient densities derived from objectively documented household food purchases and thos...

  5. Importance of Country-of-Origin on Different Product Categories Purchase Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Krupka Zoran; Arežina Darija

    2017-01-01

    Country of origin is an important factor in product evaluation process as well as for purchase decision. Its importance depends on the amount of information consumers have about the product and product category. This paper investigates the importance of coutry of origin in purchase decision-making process for three different product categories: high risk and high level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (car), medium risk and midium level of consumer involvement in purchasing proce...

  6. Purchasing power parity theory in a model without international trade of goods

    OpenAIRE

    Läufer, Nikolaus K. A.

    1980-01-01

    In recent discussions it frequently occurs that the Purchasing Power Parity Theory is identified with Jevons law of one price. By pointing to real world obstacles working against perfect goods arbitrage it is then erroneously concluded that the Purchasing Power Parity Theory cannot be valid while a dinstiction between an absolute version and a relative version of the Purchasing Power Parity Theory is neglected. In the present paper it is shown that the Purchasing Power Parity Theory in the re...

  7. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  8. The Dynamics of Online Purchase Visits: Inertia or Switching?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zelin Zhang; Xia Wang; Peter T.L.Popkowski Leszczyc; Xiao Zuo

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of online purchase patterns,focusing on the impact of the channel used on conversion probability,as well as the transition of channel use over time.A novel data set from a major Chinese online travel agency is used for analysis,consisting of four months of data with 24,337 store visits through three types of channels:direct visit,search advertising and referral.Results of a Bayesian multinomial logit model show that the search channel significantly affects consumers' conversion probability,and show a high degree of inertia in channel use.This finding contrasts sharply with suggestions of previous research that most future purchases will converge to the direct-visit channel.

  9. Conditioning factors of innovation in the internet purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Colmenero Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The several discussions about the electronic commerce and their implications encourage as much the companies as the consumers. However, more important than the quantification of the phenomenon, it the understanding of itself, as the Internet can be assumed as a business tool with positive repercussions in the businesses, as well as the potential market was transactions can be realized.In this study, we tried to identify the most relevant factors in the configuration and presentation of the offer whose impacts allow to unchain a certain purchase decision, as well as, to verify the relationship among the degree of entertainment, pleasure/easy to use and implication/involvement with the information of each Website and the adoption of purchase innovators' behaviors.

  10. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  11. Consumer Disidentification and Its Effects on Domestic Product Purchases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Consumers' local bias is an important determinant of domestic product purchase behavior. Because of its importance, authors across various disciplines have investigated this phenomenon using the consumer ethnocentrism model. However, the research reported herein demonstrates that such an approach...... provides an incomplete picture at best. This research provides an initial test of the consumer disidentification (CDI) construct. In contrast with consumer ethnocentrism, the CDI model predicts that consumers' repulsion toward their domestic country negatively affects the purchase of products made...... in their domestic country or by domestic firms. The model is tested using survey data from 1534 second-generation immigrants who were born in and live in the Netherlands. Structural equation modeling supports the model and shows that CDI has a significant impact on buying decisions beyond the effect of consumer...

  12. Determinants of Fresh Fish Purchasing Behavior Among Malaysian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi Farah Ahmed; Zainalabidin Mohamed and Mohd Mansor Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates demographic and attitudinal characteristics that can affect the purchase decisions of marine fish among Malaysian consumers. A survey was conducted on Kuala Lumpur households using structured questionnaires. Seven hundred respondents were randomly interviewed with regard to their buying behaviour pattern, attitude and perception on fresh marine fish consumption. The data were analyzed using a logit binary model. It was found that the size and income of the households, g...

  13. E-Book Purchasing Best Practices for Academic Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides a guideline for purchasing of electronic books (e-books) in relevance to academic libraries. Topics include advantages and disadvantages of different acquisition routes such as aggregators, access models and ownership of e-books, and access management systems such as catalogs and electronic resource management systems (ERMs). File formats of e-books, and licensing and copyright issues are discussed along with information on open-access digital resources.

  14. Financial due diligence in purchasing a dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederman, Arthur S

    2008-06-01

    Purchasing a dental practice can be a minefield. The office you are looking at could be the most beautiful office with all of the newest technology. But if it is not profitable, it will be a nightmare. This article will help navigate what the dentist and his or her CPA should be looking at when reviewing the books and records, based on the author's experience of reviewing more than 400 dental practices on behalf of buyers.

  15. Investigating Young Consumers’ Purchasing Intention of Green Housing in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Zhang; Liwen Chen; Zezhou Wu; Sizhen Zhang; Huanbin Song

    2018-01-01

    The issues of energy crisis, environmental degradation, and climate change present a severe challenge to the sustainable development in China. The development of green building (GB) is considered one of the most popular strategies toward a sustainable construction industry. Apart from advanced green technologies, consumers’ purchasing intention toward green housing (GH) plays a crucial role in the large-scale promotion of GB. However, which determinants significantly affect consumers’ purchas...

  16. Vending Machines: A Narrative Review of Factors Influencing Items Purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sophia V; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-10-01

    Vending machines are a ubiquitous part of our food environments. Unfortunately, items found in vending machines tend to be processed foods and beverages high in salt, sugar, and/or fat. The purpose of this review is to describe intervention and case studies designed to promote healthier vending purchases by consumers and identify which manipulations are most effective. All studies analyzed were intervention or case studies that manipulated vending machines and analyzed sales or revenue data. This literature review is limited to studies conducted in the United States within the past 2 decades (ie, 1994 to 2015), regardless of study population or setting. Ten articles met these criteria based on a search conducted using PubMed. Study manipulations included price changes, increase in healthier items, changes to the advertisements wrapped around vending machines, and promotional signs such as a stoplight system to indicate healthfulness of items and to remind consumers to make healthy choices. Overall, seven studies had manipulations that resulted in statistically significant positive changes in purchasing behavior. Two studies used manipulations that did not influence consumer behavior, and one study was equivocal. Although there was no intervention pattern that ensured changes in purchasing, price reductions were most effective overall. Revenue from vending sales did not change substantially regardless of intervention, which will be important to foster initiation and sustainability of healthier vending. Future research should identify price changes that would balance healthier choices and revenue as well as better marketing to promote purchase of healthier items. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Affecting Consumers’ Green Purchasing Behavior: An Integrated Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ruediger Kaufmann; Mohammad Fateh Ali Khan Panni; Yianna Orphanidou

    2012-01-01

    In this modern era of societal marketing business ethics and social responsibility are becoming the guiding themes for marketing strategies and practices. Within the field of ethics and social responsibility environmental and green marketing topics are the central topics, which are closely related to biodiversity and sustainability. This paper suggests a different approach to assessing the variables of consumers’ green purchasing behavior. Based on thoroughly researched secondary data, this c...

  18. Fostering ethical behavior and preventing corruption: - A purchasing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Løvdahl, Sebastian Rosten

    2014-01-01

    In the view of the latest corporate scandals in Norway and increased focus on ethics and anti-corruption, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the roles of Purchasing and Supply Management and Organizational Culture when fostering ethical behavior and preventing corruption. More specifically, this research attempts to investigate and theorize how organizations can foster ethical behavior and prevent corruption in their respective activities. The research methodology is qualitative...

  19. Determining the impact of brand equity on consumer purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Özçifçi, Vesile

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was attempted to determine whichbrand equity element is more effective regarding the mobile phone purchase ofuniversity students. Brand equity is defined in three dimensions which arebrand awareness, perceived quality and brand loyalty. Data was collected by1190 subjects studying at the faculties of Aksaray University. The data wastested by Structural Equation Modeling. As a result of the research, it wasfound that brand awareness affects perceived quality, but it does not a...

  20. Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project: Verification and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Jeff; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rosea; Holecamp, Kara; Owen, Carolyn; Nicholson, Lamar; Dartez, Deanna

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project's verification,and validation process. The topics include: 1) What is Verification and Validation? 2) Why Verification and Validation? 3) Background; 4) ESE Data Purchas Validation Process; 5) Data Validation System and Ingest Queue; 6) Shipment Verification; 7) Tracking and Metrics; 8) Validation of Contract Specifications; 9) Earth Watch Data Validation; 10) Validation of Vertical Accuracy; and 11) Results of Vertical Accuracy Assessment.

  1. Celebrity Endorsements: Influence and Effectiveness on consumers’ purchase intentions.

    OpenAIRE

    Devidasani, Neha

    2010-01-01

    In today’s world, celebrity endorsements have become one of the most popular marketing techniques that advertisers opt for. Consumers today are fascinated and mesmerized by celebrities. Advertisers take advantage of this fascination and rope in celebrities such as movie stars, singers, athletes etc in endorsing their brand or product in order to influence the purchase decisions of consumers. Although celebrity endorsements have become a highly used advertising technique these days, adver...

  2. Purchasing power parity: An Application for Turkey (1980-1987)

    OpenAIRE

    Bilge, Cem

    1989-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Management and the Institute of Management Sciences of Bilkent University, 1989. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1989. Includes bibliographical references leaves 39-42 Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is claimed to be the oldest and simplest theory in determining the exchange rates of currencies. With its three versions, absolute PPP, relative PPP, and efficient markets PPP, this theory argues that price index levels of the countries are cons...

  3. Reexamination of the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) under Cournot Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Meixing

    1995-01-01

    This paper reexamines the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in an open economy macroeconomic model with Cournot competition in the international trade of a unique good. Foreign and domestic firms have a Cournot perception of foreign and domestic markets and make separate quantity decisions for each market taking the quantity decisions of the other firm as given. In introducing the money, the balance of payments relation and the nominal exchange rate, the PPP implied by the law of one price can be...

  4. A Strategic Household Purchase: Consumer House Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mateja Kos Koklic; Irena Vida

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine consumer house-buying behavior from the consumers’ perspective. In view of the existing literature exploring consumer decision making, the purpose of this research was threefold: (a) to propose a conceptual model of consumer decision making within the frame of consumer behavior; (b) to gain knowledge of factors impacting this process from the empirical standpoint with the focus on prefabricated house purchases; and (c) to offer implications for beneficial p...

  5. Purchasing Power Parity between the UK and the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Canarella; Stephen M. Miller; Stephen K. Pollard

    2012-01-01

    We use the Johansen cointegration approach to assess the empirical validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) between the UK and the Euro Area, which we represent by Germany, the largest of its members. We conduct the empirical analysis in the context of the global financial crisis that began in 2007 and find that it directly affects the cointegration space. We fail to validate the Johansen and Juselius (1992) original hypothesis that nonstationarity of the PPP associates with the nonstati...

  6. Ethical purchase behaviour and social responsibility in business

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, N. Craig

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is about the decisions made in markets: whether decisions and what decisions are made by consumers. It isa study in consumer sovereignty and particularly In the way this may be used In ensuring social responsibility In business. Pressure group influence on purchase behaviour, particularly in the use or threat of consumer boycotts, suggests an extension of consumer sovereignty beyond its mere technical meaning within economics to a more literal meaning. Consume...

  7. Sustainable purchase. Impact on the Dutch real estate market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, N.

    2009-08-01

    The effect of the sustainable procurement policy of the Dutch government is starting to become visible in the market. There is a distinct movement towards making the existing stock more sustainable. Investors are responding to the changing demand. This is the outcome of a study commissioned by SenterNovem with respect to the impact of sustainable procurement on the office building market. The Dutch government envisages 100% sustainable procurement in 2010. This also includes renting and purchasing office buildings. [nl

  8. A modernized purchasing approach for the '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarter, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, purchasing professionals have felt safety in numbers - large numbers of quotes or proposals and large supplier bases to furnish all goods and services. Relationships with suppliers have been adversarial. Information has not been shared by either party. Emphasis has been on price. In fact, contract awards have typically been made on the basis of low bid. This has been particularly true with most utilities and government agencies. There are, however, new strategic challenges for the '90s that will cause the purchasing profession to evolve like many other aspects of a business organization. Organizations like TVA must face the fact that their business is shifting from a regulated monopoly to a competitive environment. This presentation addresses how purchasing will play a major role in this new strategy. The number of sources will be reduced to a minimum. Larger, longer term contracts will become commonplace. Suppliers or contractors who receive contract awards will become partners, part of the family. Proposals will be evaluated on the basis of 'total cost of ownership,' rather than low bid. Companies, like TVA, will be shifting more of their major construction and modification work to the 'experts' who do the job better. Purchasers will be asking their suppliers to express a willingness to develop innovative and cost-effective methods of providing a product or service and share the risk of reward for failure or success, including the willingness to accept incentive fees where appropriate. Many companies will be evaluating, certifying, and actually giving evaluation credits based on a supplier's commitment to a continuous quality improvement effort. Communications will be dramatically improved through use of electronic data interchange (EDI) and the author predicts that a totally paperless business environment will be emerging by the year 2000

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND GREEN PURCHASING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim Tatic; Merima Cinjarevic

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish the relationship between environmental concern and consumers’ green purchasing behavior. A survey instrument was developed that used scales to measure general environmental beliefs (HEP-NEP general environmental beliefs questions) and consumer’s intention to buy environmental friendly products. Data were collected from a convenient (non-probability sampling method) sample of 150 consumers in the Sarajevo region. The results indicated that significant pos...

  10. Purchasing-Power Parity: Definition, Measurement, and Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; Lawrence Schembri

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the concept of purchasing-power parity (PPP) and its implications for the equilibrium value of the Canadian exchange rate. PPP has two main applications, as a theory of exchange rate determination and as a means to compare living standards across countries. Concerning exchange rate determination, PPP is mainly useful as a reminder that monetary policy has no long-run impact on the real exchange rate, since the exchange rate can deviate persistently from its PPP value in ...

  11. Point-of-Purchase Food Marketing and Policy Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food marketing has been implicated as a driver of obesity. However, few studies have examined point-of-purchase marketing in supermarkets and restaurants, or marketing in lower-income countries. Furthermore, policy solutions to counteract marketing and provide consumers with objective nutritional information require evidence of efficacy. Paper 1. We documented child-oriented marketing practices, product claims, and health-evoking images on 106 cereals sold in Guatemala City, Gu...

  12. Factors influencing consumers’ online purchase behaviour of skin care

    OpenAIRE

    Di Palma, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    2015 dissertation for MA in International Marketing Management. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. \\ud \\ud Purpose – The purpose of this paper is investigating which factors influence consumers’ purchase behaviour of skin care online, and what impact online trust has on mitigating the effects of risk normally associated with shopping online. The study explores industry specific variables and their effects on online consumer behaviour. The study also ...

  13. The Impact of E-Media on Customer Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmood Rehmani; Muhammad Ishfaq Khan

    2011-01-01

    In this research paper, authors investigated the social media (e-discussion, websites, online chat, email etc) parameters that have effect over the customers buying decisions. The research focused on the development of research model to test the impact of social media on the customer purchase intention. The literature review done to explore the work done on social media. The authors identify the problem and defined the objectives of the studies. In order to achieve them, a research model is p...

  14. The Impact of Online Additional Reviews on Consumer's Purchase Process

    OpenAIRE

    Tiantian Shen; Qi Dai; Ran Wang; Qinglong Gou

    2015-01-01

    As the supplement of buyers' original reviews on products, online additional reviews were supported by some B2C websites recently. That is to say, consumers could post their recommendations or comments again in several months. This paper attempts to measure the impacts of additional reviews on consumers, as well as to investigate whether they are different from those of original ones. Our results not only indicate that purchasing intention, attitude certainty and after-sales service have sign...

  15. Oil trading service purchase of oil from Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A statement is presented of the United Kingdom accounts of trading and profit and loss for the periods from 1st February 1974 to 31st March 1975 and from 1st April 1975 to 26th September 1975 and a balance sheet as of 31st March 1975 with respect to income and expenditure by the Department of Energy in connection with the purchase of oil from Iran. The reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General on these accounts are included.

  16. Association between consistent purchase of anticonvulsants or lithium and suicide risk: a longitudinal cohort study from Denmark, 1995-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Eric G; Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, Ana Garcia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest anticonvulsants purchasers may be at greater risk of suicide than lithium purchasers. METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study of all individuals in Denmark purchasing anticonvulsants (valproic acid, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine or lamotrigine) (n=9952...

  17. 48 CFR 32.1108 - Payment by Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Governmentwide commercial purchase card. A Governmentwide commercial purchase card charge authorizes the third... payment requests by a charge to a Government account with the third party at the time the payment clause(s... commercial purchase card. 32.1108 Section 32.1108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  18. 75 FR 6669 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ...' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA), and... collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. A request for public comments was..., Washington, DC 20405. Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Review, in all...

  19. 41 CFR 101-25.202 - Factors to be used to determine assignment of purchase responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... experience of agency purchasing and contracting officials and their operating units with due regard to... determine assignment of purchase responsibility. 101-25.202 Section 101-25.202 Public Contracts and Property... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.2-Interagency Purchase Assignments § 101-25.202 Factors to be used to determine...

  20. 43 CFR 30.268 - May I demand a hearing regarding the tribal purchase option decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tribal purchase option decision? 30.268 Section 30.268 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Tribal Purchase of Interests Under Special Statutes § 30.268 May I demand a hearing regarding the tribal purchase option decision? Yes. You may file with...

  1. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tribe may purchase all or part of the available interests specified in the probate decision. A tribe may... option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Tribal Purchase of Interests Under Special Statutes § 30.261 How does...

  2. 43 CFR 30.262 - When may a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... purchase: (1) Within 60 days after mailing of the probate decision unless a petition for rehearing has been... option to purchase? 30.262 Section 30.262 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Tribal Purchase of Interests Under Special Statutes § 30.262 When may...

  3. 5 CFR 3101.103 - Prohibition on purchase of certain assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY § 3101.103 Prohibition on purchase of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on purchase of certain assets... of the Department of the Treasury shall purchase, directly or indirectly, property: (1) Owned by the...

  4. 5 CFR 3801.104 - Purchase or use of certain forfeited and other property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 3801.104 Purchase or use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase or use of certain forfeited and... employee shall purchase, directly or indirectly, from the Department of Justice or its agents property...

  5. 10 CFR 603.680 - Purchase of real property and equipment by for-profit firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Property § 603.680 Purchase of real property and equipment by for-profit firms. (a) With the two exceptions... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of real property and equipment by for-profit...

  6. Contact lenses purchased over the internet place individuals potentially at risk for harmful eye care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Zidile, Chaya

    2008-01-01

    Individuals are increasingly purchasing contact lenses over the Internet. No studies exist regarding Internet purchase of contact lenses and eye care health practices. One hundred fifty-one college students were surveyed regarding contact lenses purchase category (doctor's office, store, Internet). Pearson chi-square analyses compared purchase category with responses regarding U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for purchasing contact lenses online. Analysis of variance compared contact lenses purchase category with the Time Pressure Scale (TPS). Also, correlation analyses compared the TPS with Internet eye-health statements. Contact lens purchase categories included doctor's office (43.0%), store (55.0%), and Internet (22.5%), with individuals purchasing at multiple venues. With regard to the FDA recommendations, those who purchased contact lenses at a doctor's office more often adhered to the recommendations, whereas those who purchased contact lenses at a store or the Internet did so less often. Those who purchased contact lenses over the Internet had significantly higher TPS scores. In addition, higher TPS scores were significantly correlated with various statements regarding the Internet. Those who purchase contact lenses via the Internet or store do not follow a number of FDA contact lenses recommendations. Also, those with higher TPS scores trust possible non-evidence-based contact lenses Internet information. Implications with regard to the Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act are discussed.

  7. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a tool for purchasing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitar-Pop, C.E.; de Boer, L.

    2000-01-01

    Today we observe an continuing challenge to develop performance measures that evaluate purchasing effectiveness relative to the organization's objectives and to extend conventional measurement systems to an entreprise-wide purchasing control function that detects the 'weak sports' in the purchasing

  8. 17 CFR 240.14e-5 - Prohibiting purchases outside of a tender offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(s); (iv) The intention of the offeror to make purchases pursuant to the foreign tender offer(s) is... consideration paid outside of the tender offer that is greater than the tender offer price; and (G) Purchases or... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibiting purchases outside...

  9. 5 CFR 6701.103 - Prohibited purchases of property sold by GSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to the purchase of foreign gifts deposited with the agency... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited purchases of property sold by... purchases of property sold by GSA. (a) General prohibition. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  10. 13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...

  11. Observing Purchase-Related Parent-Child Communication in Retail Environments: A Developmental and Socialization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N = 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child communication (i.e., children's purchase influence…

  12. Utility of No-Sweat Labels for Apparel Consumers: Profiling Label Users and Predicting Their Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Marsha A.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 547 of 2,000 consumers indicated consumer support for socially responsible purchasing. For 16%, "No-Sweat" labels indicating the working conditions of apparel makers were a strong purchasing influence. Women, especially unmarried females with lower educational attainment, were most likely to purchase clothing with No-Sweat…

  13. Segmenting Consumers According to Their Purchase of Products with Organic, Fair-Trade, and Health Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; van Doorn, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Using actual purchase data of food products with different labels, we examine Dutch consumers' purchases of organic, fair-trade, and health labels. Empirically, consumers' purchase behavior of labeled products can be categorized into two dimensions: a health-related and a sustainable dimension

  14. Strategic purchasing and health system efficiency: A comparison of two financing schemes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Sommanuttaweechai, Angkana; Hanson, Kara; Wanwong, Yaowaluk; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2018-01-01

    Strategic purchasing is an essential health financing function. This paper compares the strategic purchasing practices of Thailand's two tax-financed health insurance schemes, the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) and the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS), and identifies factors contributing to successful universal health coverage outcomes by analysing the relationships between the purchaser and government, providers and members. The study uses a cross-sectional mixed-methods design, including document review and interviews with 56 key informants. The Comptroller General Department (CGD) of Ministry of Finance manages CSMBS as one among civil servant welfare programmes. Their purchasing is passive. Fee for service payment for outpatient care has resulted in rapid cost escalation and overspending of their annual budget. In contrast, National Health Security Office (NHSO) manages purchasing for UCS, which undertakes a range of strategic purchasing actions, including applying closed ended provider payment, promoting primary healthcare's gate keeping functions, exercising collective purchasing power and engaging views of members in decision making process. This difference in purchasing arrangements resulted in expenditure per CSMBS member being 4 times higher than UCS in 2014. The governance of the purchaser organization, the design of the purchasing arrangements including incentives and use of information, and the institutional capacities to implement purchasing functions are essential for effective strategic purchasing which can improve health system efficiency as a whole.

  15. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Alim Setiawan; Nakayasu, Akira; Bai, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c) intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers’ motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability. PMID:28231181

  16. What Is the Value of Value-Based Purchasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2016-10-01

    Value-based purchasing (VBP) is a widely favored strategy for improving the US health care system. The meaning of value that predominates in VBP schemes is (1) conformance to selected process and/or outcome metrics, and sometimes (2) such conformance at the lowest possible cost. In other words, VBP schemes choose some number of "quality indicators" and financially incent providers to meet them (and not others). Process measures are usually based on clinical science that cannot determine the effects of a process on individual patients or patients with comorbidities, and do not necessarily measure effects that patients value; additionally, there is no provision for different patients valuing different things. Proximate outcome measures may or may not predict distal ones, and the more distal the outcome, the less reliably it can be attributed to health care. Outcome measures may be quite rudimentary, such as mortality rates, or highly contestable: survival or function after prostate surgery? When cost is an element of value-based purchasing, it is the cost to the value-based payer and not to other payers or patients' families. The greatest value of value-based purchasing may not be to patients or even payers, but to policy makers seeking a morally justifiable alternative to politically contested regulatory policies. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  17. Acquisition (Purchasing of ERP Systems from Organizational Buying Behavior Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Bhatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems are becoming a mature infrastructure in many organizations. Organizations purchase these systems to integrate, improve internal business processes, serve their customers better and fulfill their needs. The buying process of these systems is more complicated and it requires a lot more consideration as it can have long term effects and consequences for the organization as well as for its stakeholders. Acquisition (purchasing of ERP systems is a complex behavior for organizations and has a lot to consider, from motives all the way to goals being pursued. Buying organizations consider several components that make up its business entity: like vendors, consumers, competitors, and regulations (Harris, 2013. Importance and relevance should be given to each one of these components as they all play key essential roles in sales organizations and their success. Typical organizations treat the purchasing process as a problem solving situation and rely on consultants or sometimes miss out on systematic buying process and the success factors to be considered vary from technicality, price, risk aversion, reputation, all the way to ethical decisions and legal regulations (Bellizzi, 2009. This research paper describe the current acquisition processes, critical success factors literature and propose integrated ERP systems acquisition model for organizations interested in buying similar systems in future.

  18. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Setiawan Slamet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers’ motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability.

  19. Store brands’ purchase intention: Examining the role of perceived quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Calvo-Porral

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increase of the store brand's market share globally, the present study addresses the following question: “Does the consumer product perceived quality influence store brands’ proneness?”; or in other words “Does product perceived quality influence store brands’ purchase intention?”, since perceived quality is a customer-based undertaken variable. The present study proposes and empirically tests a conceptual model of the influence of perceived product quality of store brands relative to perceived value and purchase intention. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was developed on a sample of 439 consumers, distinguishing between consumers with high perceived quality (HPQ and low perceived quality (LPQ. Our findings highlight that store brands’ purchase intention is strongly influenced by confidence for both HPQ and LPQ customers, followed by product price. Additionally, our results suggest the moderating role of perceived quality on some of the proposed relationships. Store brand managers and retailers could develop market segmentation and perform marketing strategies based on customers’ perceived quality.

  20. Effect of different children's menu labeling designs on family purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ashley S; Serrano, Elena L; Machin, Jane E; Duetsch, Thomas; Davis, George C

    2013-03-01

    The majority of labeling studies at restaurants have focused on adults, not children, and utilized cross-sectional data with one menu labeling design, typically calorie information. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the effect of three different menu labeling designs for children's meals on total calories and fat selected by families. Each menu was implemented for 2months. Patrons' purchases were tracked from a control menu (with no nutrition information) through all three theoretically-based designs: calorie and fat information; followed by symbols denoting healthier choices; then nutrition bargain price. All menus were created specifically for the study. They featured six combination meals (pre-determined entrees and side items) and a la carte items (entrees and side items that could be ordered separately). Only combination meals contained labeling. Fixed effects models were estimated to detect changes in sales for each menu labeling design compared to the control. Overall, menu labeling did not result in a positive net effect on total calories or fat purchased by families, but resulted in significant shifts in purchases of combination and a la carte meals and healthy and unhealthy options. The most significant impact was seen for nutrition bargain price labeling, the last design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Central purchasing bodies and spending review in health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the new model of centralization of purchases in Italy after the approval of the 2016 Stability Law, with particular reference to the health sector. In fact, the spending review process in Italy in the health sector has had a strong evolution with the 2016 Stability Law, which has introduced the obligation for the institutions of the National Health Service to obtain supplies, exclusively, from aggregators subjects, for certain product categories of the health sector. The legislature, over the years, was mainly characterized by measures to reduce the spending limits for purchases of goods and services or by resetting the fees, including the provision of an obligation for the renegotiation of health goods and services contracts, in order to ensure the effective implementation of the expenditure rationalization by aggregation of goods and services. From 2016, the legislature has provided an innovative model of centralization of purchases based on a new network governance model on several levels, national and regional, which should ensure an efficiency of procurement processes. The proper functioning of the governance model adopted can be an important driver of economic policy in order to understand that it is important not only to spend less, but to spend better. This can be realized in the public administration with a strong innovation process in this administration and also with a strong investment in skills, in order to ensure the same service quality throughout the national territory to the health sector.

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Kurajdova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing his decision-making for the purpose of developing an attractive offer of products, supporting services, communication means and other marketing tools that would fit like a glue to customer’s needs. Study of consumer behaviour belongs to a group of very wide and strong subjects of marketing attention and its examination requires ongoing approach. Milk, as one category of dairy products, belongs to the group of basic daily-consumed products characterized by relatively high purchase frequency. On the other hand, its production and consumption is experiencing certain negative trend in Slovakia what inevitably calls for a scientific attention and examination in order to reverse this unfavourable development having a negative impact on the milk companies in Slovakia. Therefore, we focus our attention on studying various factors influencing consumers when purchasing this specific product. Our research in this stage resulted in the compilation of literature review on factors influencing consumers when purchasing milk and determination of boundaries and guidelines for our future research activity

  3. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Alim Setiawan; Nakayasu, Akira; Bai, Hu

    2016-12-07

    Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c) intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers' motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability.

  4. Consumer Empowerment in the Digital Economy: Availing Sustainable Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the digital economy and, implicitly, of competition in the online marketplace has triggered new challenges in terms of consumer protection approaches. Online, consumer skills are expected to be improved and the level of consumer awareness and engagement increased. These are the baseline prerequisites of the sustainable purchasing decision and, thus, should be considered as pillars of responsible online consumption. Consistent with the novel consumption challenges, the current paper is intended to advance and test a research model integrating five main constructs, namely, competition in the online marketplace, online consumer skills, online consumer awareness, online consumer engagement and sustainable purchasing decision. A total of 318 college students—a representative population of the new Millennials generation—accepted the invitation to participate in a questionnaire-based survey. In order to pertinently analyze the collected data, a structural equation modeling technique based on partial least squares was employed for the assessment of the measurement and the structural model. The findings indicated that the model explained 24.4 percent of the variance of sustainable purchasing decisions, while the highest influence was exerted by the improvement of online consumer skills. This implies that online providers should revisit their products sustainability standards on purpose to preserve a competitive advantage.

  5. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  6. Strategic aspects of the purchasing process in the Finnish hearing instruments business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjävaara, A

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Finnish hearing instrument market which, in the past decade, has been characterized by both closed and shared markets. Indicates there has been some formal competition, but real price competition has not influenced the resharing of market shares. Finds that the current recession has forced hospitals to re-evaluate their purchasing criteria. Investigates the process with the help of industrial marketing theories to determine the strategic means which can be used to create competitive advantages. The new automatic data-processing (ADP)-based high technology in the hearing-instrument business provides opportunities for identifying these advantages. Surveys the abilities of hearing-centre personnel in university hospitals to take advantage of ADP-based tools. Shows that hearing-centre personnel have a low level of ADP knowledge and, thus, a great need for ADP training. Discusses the ADP-based strategy chosen to be AP Medical Hearing Ltd's main strategy and emphasizes the importance of ADP-based training in high technology.

  7. Hospitality and hostility in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Aanestad, Margunn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the adoption of healthcare information systems (HIS) from a user perspective. Our case study concerns how a group of orthopaedic surgeons experienced and reacted to the adoption and mandatory use of an Electronic Patient Record system in a Danish hospital. We...... propose to use the concepts of hospitality and hostility to turn our attention to the interaction between the host (the surgeons) and the guest (the information system) and consider how the boundaries between them evolved in the everyday work practices. As an alternative to previous studies on technology...

  8. Quality Dimensions of Purchase Behavior Decision on Fishery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurliza Nurliza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of fishery product has been developed and acknowledged in terms of food security both as income sources and food supplies for developing countries. On the other hand, quality control has become a challenge in overcoming consumers’ decision to purchase the products. The objective of research is to understand and evaluate consumer behavior in purchasing the products in regards to quality dimension on fishery products by using non-probability sampling technique to 142 consumers in three different locations in Pontianak (shops, mini/supermarkets, and local markets. Data were gathered by in-depth interviews divided into four categories consisting of consumer profiles; product knowledge; perception and preference; and quality dimension variable with conjoint analysis. The result shows that price, flavor, moistness, texture, nutrition, packaging color, and packaging size do not affect consumers’ decision to purchase the products. On the contrary, package durability attribute is the primary factor in their decision to purchase, and it is then followed by packaging material, availability, flavor, guarantee, guarantee source, brand, packaging form, and product form. This is beneficial for producers to improve the quality factors and develop market opportunities in the future. Besides, consumers can obtain information on product characteristics to fulfill their expectation and satisfaction.Keywords: conjoint analysis, fishery products, non-probability sampling, purchase behavior, quality dimensionsABSTRAKPeran produk olahan perikanan telah berkembang dan diakui dalam keamanan pangan–baik sebagai sumber pendapatan maupun sumber makanan bagi negara-negara berkembang. Namun, pengendalian terhadap karakteristik mutu menjadi sebuah tantangan dalam menghadapi keputusan pembelian konsumen. Tujuan penelitian adalah memahami dan mengevaluasi perilaku keputusan pembelian konsumen terkait dimensi mutu pada produk olahan perikanan menggunakan teknik non

  9. The management of hospital waste products in hospitals of Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kamran Mirzaie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital waste contains a large quantity of dangerous pathogenic agents, which are hazardous to the health of man, animal, plant and the environment. In Iran, like many other developing countries, not enough attention is paid to this matter and available information regarding the generation and disposal of medical wastes are low. The existing information about production and disposal of wastes in our hospitals is little and incomplete. In this study, a survey on hospital waste management system in Bushehr province hospitals was conducted. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 8 hospitals in Bushehr province were investigated during a period of 6 months using a questionnaire, interviews and direct observations. The questionnaire had 93 questions (open and closed about general information on the hospitals and about various systems of managing hospital waste according to the World Health Organization suggested survey questionnaire for hospital waste management in developing countries. Results: In hospitals of bushehr province, waste generation rate was 2615 kg/day, including domestic waste (51.7%, infectious waste (20.8%, sharps (15.2% and chemical and drugs wastes (12.3%. In almost all hospitals, segregation of infectious waste from domestic waste at the place of origin and putting them in special containers had been done but this segregation wasn’t complete and sometimes some hazardous waste were disposed of in domestic waste containers. All hospitals used a color coding system for waste containers, 75 % of hospitals had incinerators. In others, waste was carried out by municipal service daily. In all hospitals, all workers were trained about hospital waste management. In none of the surveyed hospitals, there was an obvious policy and plan for purchasing equipment and necessary facilities in order to dispose hospital waste correctly and also no clear budget was allocated for hospital waste management. In none of these hospitals

  10. Pengaruh Shopping Orientation, Online Trust Dan Prior Online Purchase Experience Terhadap Online Purchase Intention (Studi Pada Online Shop Hijabi House)

    OpenAIRE

    Azifah, Nurul; Dewi, Citra Kusuma

    2016-01-01

    Salah satu fashion yang semakin berkembang di kalangan masyarakat Indonesia khususnya wanita muslimah adalah jilbab. Hijabi House merupakan salah satu online shop yang menawarkan jilbab hasil produksinya melalui media sosial Instagram. Hasil wawancara awal, Hijabi House dinilai baik namun masih ada keluhan dari para followers berkaitan shopping orientation, online trust, dan prior online purchase experience. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ketiga variabel tersebut terhadap...

  11. The challenges of strategic purchasing of healthcare services in Iran Health Insurance Organization: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Hasan Abolghasem; Shojaei, Ali; Keshavarzi, Anahita; Zare, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Background Strategic purchasing in healthcare services is a key component in improving health system performance, and it has been one of the most important issues in health system reform around the world, especially Europe in the last decade. Iran health system and insurance, although sometimes considered the issue of strategic purchasing goals, has not been made possible to achieve or even to implement, due to the associated problems. Objective To determine the associated problems of strategic purchasing in the Iran Health Insurance Organization (IHIO). Methods This study is a qualitative study, and framework analysis which was conducted in Iran in 2014–15. The participants in this study were 34 individuals from decision-makers and executives in the IHIO purchasing process, and university experts who have been chosen purposefully. This study conducted frame analysis, by using MAXQDA 10. Results The findings included associated problems of IHIO strategic purchasing in 12 themes and 65 subthemes. The themes included: Laws and regulations for purchasing, Organization of purchasing, Qualified and authorized providers, Right type of services, Right type of contracts, Target groups for purchasing, Resources allocation, financing and pricing system, Purchasing as improving performance and quality, Purchasing as shaping the market and competition, Purchasing as health progress state of people and society, Guided purchasing and stewardship of government, Structure of decision-making process in the health and welfare ministries. Conclusion The findings of this study showed associated problems in IHIO strategic purchasing. To achieve strategic purchasing goals in Iran, identification of all issues and factors of the total insurers and health system sets which affect strategic purchasing is essential. PMID:29629051

  12. The challenges of strategic purchasing of healthcare services in Iran Health Insurance Organization: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Hasan Abolghasem; Mousavi, Sayyed Masoud Shajari Pour; Shojaei, Ali; Keshavarzi, Anahita; Zare, Hossein

    2018-02-01

    Strategic purchasing in healthcare services is a key component in improving health system performance, and it has been one of the most important issues in health system reform around the world, especially Europe in the last decade. Iran health system and insurance, although sometimes considered the issue of strategic purchasing goals, has not been made possible to achieve or even to implement, due to the associated problems. To determine the associated problems of strategic purchasing in the Iran Health Insurance Organization (IHIO). This study is a qualitative study, and framework analysis which was conducted in Iran in 2014-15. The participants in this study were 34 individuals from decision-makers and executives in the IHIO purchasing process, and university experts who have been chosen purposefully. This study conducted frame analysis, by using MAXQDA 10. The findings included associated problems of IHIO strategic purchasing in 12 themes and 65 subthemes. The themes included: Laws and regulations for purchasing, Organization of purchasing, Qualified and authorized providers, Right type of services, Right type of contracts, Target groups for purchasing, Resources allocation, financing and pricing system, Purchasing as improving performance and quality, Purchasing as shaping the market and competition, Purchasing as health progress state of people and society, Guided purchasing and stewardship of government, Structure of decision-making process in the health and welfare ministries. The findings of this study showed associated problems in IHIO strategic purchasing. To achieve strategic purchasing goals in Iran, identification of all issues and factors of the total insurers and health system sets which affect strategic purchasing is essential.

  13. Hospital Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition seen in hospitals usually occurs as some form of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). Primary PEM results from an acute or chronic deficiency of both protein and calories. Secondary PEM, or cachexia, results from a disease or medical condition such as cancer or gastrointestinal disease that alters requirements or impairs utilization of nutrients. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.

  14. Snack purchasing is healthier when the cognitive demands of choice are reduced: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julia L; Johnston, Marie; Campbell, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with inefficient executive (higher level cognitive) function have a reduced ability to resist dietary temptation. The present study aimed to design and test a theory-based point-of-purchase intervention for coffee shops that reduced the calorie content of customers' purchases by reducing the need for executive function (EF) at the moment of choice. Key facets of EF were identified by a multidisciplinary group and used to develop a point-of-purchase intervention (signage). This intervention was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in a public coffee shop on consumer purchases of >20,000 snacks and drinks over 12 weeks. A sample of customers (n = 128) was recruited to complete an embedded cross-sectional study measuring EF strength, dietary intentions, typical purchases, and purchases made after exposure to the intervention. The proportion of snack purchases that were high in calorie reduced significantly (t(10) = 2.34, p = .04) in intervention weeks relative to control. High calorie drink purchases were also lower in intervention than control weeks, however, this difference was not significant (t(10) = 1.56, p = .15). On average, customers purchased items containing 66 calories customer behavior increased as EF strength decreased (β = .24, p = .03). The calorie content of cafe purchases can be lowered by reducing the cognitive demands of healthy food choice at the moment of purchase, especially in those with poor EF. Environmental changes like these have the potential to help achieve population weight control. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Purchased Behavioral Health Care Received by Military Health System Beneficiaries in Civilian Medical Facilities, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Nikki R; Brittingham, Jordan A; Pitner, Ronald O; Tavakoli, Abbas S; Jeffery, Diana D; Haddock, K Sue

    2018-02-06

    Behavioral health conditions are a significant concern for the U.S. military and the Military Health System (MHS) because of decreased military readiness and increased health care utilization. Although MHS beneficiaries receive direct care in military treatment facilities, a disproportionate majority of behavioral health treatment is purchased care received in civilian facilities. Yet, limited evidence exists about purchased behavioral health care received by MHS beneficiaries. This longitudinal study (1) estimated the prevalence of purchased behavioral health care and (2) identified patient and visit characteristics predicting receipt of purchased behavioral health care in acute care facilities from 2000 to 2014. Medical claims with Major Diagnostic Code 19 (mental disorders/diseases) or 20 (alcohol/drug disorders) as primary diagnoses and TRICARE as the primary/secondary payer were analyzed for MHS beneficiaries (n = 17,943) receiving behavioral health care in civilian acute care facilities from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2014. The primary dependent variable, receipt of purchased behavioral health care, was modeled for select mental health and substance use disorders from 2000 to 2014 using generalized estimating equations. Patient characteristics included time, age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Visit types included inpatient hospitalization and emergency department (ED). Time was measured in days and visits were assumed to be correlated over time. Behavioral health care was described by both frequency of patients and visit type. The University of South Carolina Institutional Review Board approved this study. From 2000 to 2014, purchased care visits increased significantly for post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment, anxiety, mood, bipolar, tobacco use, opioid/combination opioid dependence, nondependent cocaine abuse, psychosocial problems, and suicidal ideation among MHS beneficiaries. The majority of care was received for mental health disorders (78

  16. Influence of brand differential on motivation to conform and manufacturer versus store brand purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran, E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationships and characteristics that influence consumers’ purchase decision between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings have emerged as an interesting and practical area of research. From a management perspective, understanding the process by which consumers make purchase choices between these brand offerings would lead to both theoretical and practical applications. Therefore, this study attempts to enhance understanding about the factors that influence consumers’ manufacturer versus store brand purchase decisions. A conceptual model is developed to integrate the manner by which a consumer’s motivation to conform to the perceived social norm of purchasing manufacturer brand products influences this purchase decision. The model is tested using survey data. Findings indicate the importance of the intensity of perceived differences between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings in affecting consumers’ purchase intention of these products. The relationship is also mediated by consumers’ motivation to conform to manufacturer brand products in their purchase decision.

  17. Perceived Risk and Trust as Major Determinants of Actual Purchase, Transcending The Influence of Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Indiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed online purchasing behavior in the hotel industry through an integrative framework, utilizing sets of variables rarely used in previous studies. The analysis was focused on the influence of online purchase intention, perceived risk, and trust upon actual purchase, with the idea of further determining which construct has the strongest impact. It also analyzed two new measurement items for website quality. The sample consisted of travelers who have recently made hotel reservations online. The model was tested with Structural Equation Modeling. Perceived risk was found to have the strongest impact on actual purchase, followed by trust and online purchase intention. The weak influence of online purchase intention is quite interesting since it stands in contrast to previous research findings. Perceived risk also perfectly mediates the relationship between website quality and eWOM towards online purchase intention. Being descriptive in nature, this study did not manipulate the antecedents in the manner of an experimental study.

  18. INTENTION TO PURCHASE VIA THE INTERNET: A COMPARISON OF TWO THEORETICAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasman J. Ma'ruf

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares two models for predicting intention to purchase via the Internet. The behavioral intention to purchase via the Internet was examined as a function of attitude towards purchase, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, or attitude towards purchase, subjective norm, and perceived risk (Theory of Planned Behavior [TPB]. Results indicate that both models significantly influenced behavioral intention to purchase. We compared both models, and found that TPB (adjusted R2 = 0.55 is better than TAM (0.44 in explaining behavioral intention to purchase (BI. After we integrated TAM and TPB, we found that perceived risk (β = –0.332 is the primary determinant of BI, with subjective norm (SN (β = 0.210 as the significant secondary determinant, followed by attitude (A towards purchase (β = 0.175, perceived usefulness (β = 0.159, and perceived ease of use (β = 0.069.

  19. Regular or low-fat? An investigation of the long-run impact of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchase volumes and calories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Geyskens, Kelly; Verhoef, Peter C.; Pennings, Joost M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Health organizations stimulate the development of low-fat variants to fight the obesity epidemic. We examine the effectiveness of this policy by studying the short- and long-term consequences of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchased volume and calories. Using a structural break

  20. Regular or low-fat? An investigation of the long-run impact of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchase volumes and calories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Geyskens, Kelly; Verhoef, Peter C.; Pennings, Joost M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Health organizations stimulate the development of low-fat variants to fight the obesity epidemic. We examine the effectiveness of this policy by studying the short- and long-term consequences of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchased volume and calories. Using a structural break