WorldWideScience

Sample records for purchasing epp update

  1. Epp Petrone raius blogid raamatusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Petrone, Epp. Minu Ameerika : reportaaže ja pihtimusi 2003-2006. 1. osa. Tartu : Petrone Print, 2007 ; Petrone, Epp ; Reintam, Dagmar. Õun ära süüa? : [SL Õhtulehe populaarne suvejutt koos epiloogidega ja lisadega. Tallinn] : Pegasus, 2007 ; Reintam, Dagmar. daki.elab.siin. Tartu : Petrone Print, 2007

  2. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  3. Qualitative Measurement of Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Among Federal Employees in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) program is mandated by Executive Order 13101 to green the federal government. This was a study to determine federal attitudes.

  4. Corporate social accountability: Examining the impacts of ethical purchasing policies on Canadian public institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, James Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Insufficient responsibility by corporations, where the social and environmental consequences of their practices permits abuse in the workplace, is widespread. To prevent this, Canadian universities and municipalities are developing Ethical Purchasing Policies (EPPs), but considerable uncertainty exists about how to initiate effective EPPs with corporate compliance. This project utilized an Action Research methodology to learn what questions could best be answered by experts engaged in E PP im...

  5. Epp: A C++ EGSnrc user code for x-ray imaging and scattering simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Elbakri, Idris A.; Cui Congwu; Ingleby, Harry R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Easy particle propagation (Epp) is a user code for the EGSnrc code package based on the C++ class library egspp. A main feature of egspp (and Epp) is the ability to use analytical objects to construct simulation geometries. The authors developed Epp to facilitate the simulation of x-ray imaging geometries, especially in the case of scatter studies. While direct use of egspp requires knowledge of C++, Epp requires no programming experience. Methods: Epp's features include calculation of dose deposited in a voxelized phantom and photon propagation to a user-defined imaging plane. Projection images of primary, single Rayleigh scattered, single Compton scattered, and multiple scattered photons may be generated. Epp input files can be nested, allowing for the construction of complex simulation geometries from more basic components. To demonstrate the imaging features of Epp, the authors simulate 38 keV x rays from a point source propagating through a water cylinder 12 cm in diameter, using both analytical and voxelized representations of the cylinder. The simulation generates projection images of primary and scattered photons at a user-defined imaging plane. The authors also simulate dose scoring in the voxelized version of the phantom in both Epp and DOSXYZnrc and examine the accuracy of Epp using the Kawrakow-Fippel test. Results: The results of the imaging simulations with Epp using voxelized and analytical descriptions of the water cylinder agree within 1%. The results of the Kawrakow-Fippel test suggest good agreement between Epp and DOSXYZnrc. Conclusions: Epp provides the user with useful features, including the ability to build complex geometries from simpler ones and the ability to generate images of scattered and primary photons. There is no inherent computational time saving arising from Epp, except for those arising from egspp's ability to use analytical representations of simulation geometries. Epp agrees with DOSXYZnrc in dose calculation, since

  6. EPP Energy Efficiency Calculation and Influencing Factor Analysis: Cases in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency power plant (EPP promotes the use of energy efficiency power plant technology and energy efficient equipment, coupled with its low-input, zero pollution, zero emissions, and other advantages, having an important role in the control of energy consumption and energy saving. In order to carry out scientific EPP investment decisions, the level of energy efficiency is an important basis for investment decisions. This paper introduces total factor energy efficiency (TFEE in energy efficiency calculation of EPP, constructs energy efficiency calculation model considering environmental benefits, and takes the micro and macro cases in China for analysis; the results show that the TFEE of both single energy efficiency project and EPP are at a relatively high level (above 0.7, and there is a huge gap between calculation results considering and without considering the environmental benefit. In order to discuss energy efficiency influencing factors, the paper analyzes generalized technological advances variation feature of China typical provinces implementing EPP based on generalized technological advances decomposition model by Malmquist index, finding that the steady growth of M index in these provinces is derived from the management level of implementation of EPP and the large-scale production capacity of formation and management. We hope the models and conclusions could provide some references on EPP energy efficiency calculation and decision.

  7. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  8. FY17 Status Report on the Initial EPP Finite Element Analysis of Grade 91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes a modification to the elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) strain limits design method to account for cyclic softening in Gr. 91 steel. The report demonstrates that the unmodified EPP strain limits method described in current ASME code case is not conservative for materials with substantial cyclic softening behavior like Gr. 91 steel. However, the EPP strain limits method can be modified to be conservative for softening materials by using softened isochronous stress-strain curves in place of the standard curves developed from unsoftened creep experiments. The report provides softened curves derived from inelastic material simulations and factors describing the transformation of unsoftened curves to a softened state. Furthermore, the report outlines a method for deriving these factors directly from creep/fatigue tests. If the material softening saturates the proposed EPP strain limits method can be further simplified, providing a methodology based on temperature-dependent softening factors that could be implemented in an ASME code case allowing the use of the EPP strain limits method with Gr. 91. Finally, the report demonstrates the conservatism of the modified method when applied to inelastic simulation results and two bar experiments.

  9. Epp's energy strategy keys on conversation, efficiency research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    While energy industry players on both sides of the border were busy last week digesting the long-awaited United States National Energy Strategy, Canadian Energy Minister Jake Epp was unveiling his own plans to curb this country's appetite for hydrocarbons

  10. Purchasing portfolio models: a critique and update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models have spawned considerable discussion in the literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing considerable divergence in opinion on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question of whether or not the use of purchasing

  11. Stability of plasmas obtained in E.P.P.E; Stabilite des plasmas obtenus dans E. P. P. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J; Rebut, P H; Torossian, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The stability results obtained on Mest have been extended on a machine ten times more powerful: EppE. A plasma stable during its whole confinement time has been observed. This confinement time seems to be limited by the resistive diffusion of the magnetic fields through the plasma. The main characteristics of this plasma are: Time of confinement: 200 {mu}s; T{sub e} {approx} T{sub i}: 40 eV; {beta} = 8*{pi}*k*T*n{sub e}/B{sup 2}: 8%; n{sub e}: 2.5*10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3}. (authors) [French] Les resultats sur la stabilite obtenus dans Mest ont ete developpes dans une machine dix fois plus puissante: EppE. Un plasma stable pendant toute la duree de son confinement a ete observe et la limitation de ce temps est bien expliquee par la diffusion resistive des champs magnetiques a travers le plasma. Les principales caracteristiques du plasma d'EppE sont: Temps de confinement: 200 {mu}s; T{sub e} {approx} T{sub i}: 40 eV; {beta} 8*{pi}*k*T*n{sub e}/B{sup 2}: 8%; n{sub e}: 2.5*10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3}.

  12. Uranium purchases report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B,'' Uranium Marketing Activities,'' are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year's report. The report contains a glossary of terms

  13. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED FIPS DDR V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) calibrated observations, also known as DDRs. The system...

  14. Report on FY17 testing in support of integrated EPP-SMT design methods development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli . [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, Robert I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The goal of the proposed integrated Elastic Perfectly-Plastic (EPP) and Simplified Model Test (SMT) methodology is to incorporate a SMT data-based approach for creep-fatigue damage evaluation into the EPP methodology to avoid the separate evaluation of creep and fatigue damage and eliminate the requirement for stress classification in current methods; thus greatly simplifying evaluation of elevated temperature cyclic service. The purpose of this methodology is to minimize over-conservatism while properly accounting for localized defects and stress risers. To support the implementation of the proposed methodology and to verify the applicability of the code rules, thermomechanical tests continued in FY17. This report presents the recent test results for Type 1 SMT specimens on Alloy 617 with long hold times, pressurization SMT on Alloy 617, and two-bar thermal ratcheting test results on SS316H at the temperature range of 405 °C to 705 °C. Preliminary EPP strain range analysis on the two-bar tests are critically evaluated and compared with the experimental results.

  15. EPP Monitor, Volume 8, Issues 1&2, Spring/Summer 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrier, Martine

    2004-01-01

    This issue of EPP Monitor contains the following articles: "Countdown for Justice," Five Quick and Inexpensive Ways to End Overcrowding," "Third Grade Retention -- Deja Vu All Over Again," High-Need African-American and Latino Students Doing Better in Suburban Districts," "An Emerging Consensus on Facts, not…

  16. Comparative analysis for energy production processes (EPPs): Sustainable energy futures for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talinli, Ilhan; Topuz, Emel; Uygar Akbay, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of three different energy production process (EPP) scenarios for Turkey. Main goal is to incorporate the prioritization criteria for the assessment of various energy policies for power alternatives, and evaluating these policies against these criteria. The three types of EPPs reviewed in this study are: electricity production from wind farms in the future, existing coal-based thermal power plants and planned nuclear power plants. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is utilized to assess the main and sub-factors of EPPs. Main factors such as economic, technical, social and environmental are assigned in first level of the AHP. The importance weights of factors are produced and priority values with realistic numbers are obtained using Fuzzy-AHP Chang's Model. Priority value for wind energy was determined as two times higher than the others when making the ultimate decision. On aggregate, importance weights of environmental (0.68) and social (0.69) factors make wind power leader. Sub-factors such as public acceptance, waste-emission and environmental impacts cause both nuclear and thermal power to have the lowest priority numbers. Additionally, the CO 2 emissions trade was determined to be a very important criterion associated with both economic and environmental factors according to Kyoto Protocol. This study concludes that Turkey's existing thermal power stations should gradually be substituted by renewable energy options according to a schedule of Turkish energy policies in future.

  17. Product Purchases by DLC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains a list of items in case units by category and supplier that have been purchased by the Department of Liquor Control in the past month. Update...

  18. Modeling the ferrochelatase c.315-48C modifier mutation for erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Barman-Aksözen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP is caused by deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH, which incorporates iron into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX to form heme. Excitation of accumulated PPIX by light generates oxygen radicals that evoke excessive pain and, after longer light exposure, cause ulcerations in exposed skin areas of individuals with EPP. Moreover, ∼5% of the patients develop a liver dysfunction as a result of PPIX accumulation. Most patients (∼97% have a severe FECH mutation (Mut in trans to an intronic polymorphism (c.315-48C, which reduces ferrochelatase synthesis by stimulating the use of an aberrant 3′ splice site 63 nt upstream of the normal site for exon 4. In contrast, with the predominant c.315-48T allele, the correct splice site is mostly used, and individuals with a T/Mut genotype do not develop EPP symptoms. Thus, the C allele is a potential target for therapeutic approaches that modify this splicing decision. To provide a model for pre-clinical studies of such approaches, we engineered a mouse containing a partly humanized Fech gene with the c.315-48C polymorphism. F1 hybrids obtained by crossing these mice with another inbred line carrying a severe Fech mutation (named m1Pas show a very strong EPP phenotype that includes elevated PPIX in the blood, enlargement of liver and spleen, anemia, as well as strong pain reactions and skin lesions after a short period of light exposure. In addition to the expected use of the aberrant splice site, the mice also show a strong skipping of the partly humanized exon 3. This will limit the use of this model for certain applications and illustrates that engineering of a hybrid gene may have unforeseeable consequences on its splicing.

  19. Comprehensive Report For Proposed Elevated Temperature Elastic Perfectly Plastic (EPP) Code Cases Representative Example Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, Greg L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Background: The current rules in the nuclear section of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code , Section III, Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200F (650C)1. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (E-PP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. The proposed rules for strain limits and creep-fatigue evaluation were initially documented in the technical literature 2, 3, and have been recently revised to incorporate comments and simplify their application. The revised code cases have been developed. Task Objectives: The goal of the Sample Problem task is to exercise these code cases through example problems to demonstrate their feasibility and, also, to identify potential corrections and improvements should problems be encountered. This will provide input to the development of technical background documents for consideration by the applicable B&PV committees considering these code cases for approval. This task has been performed by Hollinger and Pease of Becht Engineering Co., Inc., Nuclear Services Division and a report detailing the results of the E-PP analyses conducted on example problems per the procedures of the E-PP strain limits and creep-fatigue draft code cases is enclosed as Enclosure 1. Conclusions: The feasibility of the application of the E-PP code cases has been demonstrated through example problems that consist of realistic geometry (a nozzle attached to a semi-hemispheric shell with a circumferential weld) and load (pressure; pipe reaction load applied at the end of the nozzle, including axial and shear forces, bending and torsional moments; through-wall transient temperature gradient) and design and operating conditions (Levels A, B and C).

  20. An Experimental Study on Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction by Using Fly Ash (FA in Combination with Silica Fume and Expanded Perlite Powder (EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isneini Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ASR suppression by FA, SF, EPP, FA in combination with SF and EPP were evaluated by both mortar bar and concrete prism test. Mortar bars were made based on JIS A 1146, meanwhile concrete prism bars were casted in accordance with Rilem AAR-3. Both specimens were stored in 40°C 100% R.H. controlled room. Mortar and concrete mixtures used reactive aggregate in pessimum proportion. The results indicated that FA in combination with SF and EPP showed smaller expansion compared to FA. The best of concrete mixtures in reducing expansion is combination of FA with SF (FA15SF10.

  1. Tegijad meenutavad "52 üllatust ja ideed" / Annika Maior, Ats Parve, Epp Kubu ...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Kultuuripealinna ootussarjas osalenud räägivad, kuidas idee teostamine kulges. Projektidest "Fantaasiaaed" (Annika Maior), "Camera obscura" (Ats Parve), "Tallinna bussijaam heliseb" (Epp, Kubu, Tõnis Hiiesalu), "Tänavamiimid" (Mihkel Ernits, Kaarel Väli), "Kunstijärjekord" (Flo Kasearu, Aet Ader, Grete Soosalu, Andra Aaloe)

  2. Report on an Assessment of the Application of EPP Results from the Strain Limit Evaluation Procedure to the Prediction of Cyclic Life Based on the SMT Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetter, R. I. [R. I. Jetter Consulting, Pebble Beach, CA (United States); Messner, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The goal of the proposed integrated Elastic Perfectly-Plastic (EPP) and Simplified Model Test (SMT) methodology is to incorporate an SMT data based approach for creep-fatigue damage evaluation into the EPP methodology to avoid the separate evaluation of creep and fatigue damage and eliminate the requirement for stress classification in current methods; thus greatly simplifying evaluation of elevated temperature cyclic service. This methodology should minimize over-conservatism while properly accounting for localized defects and stress risers. To support the implementation of the proposed methodology and to verify the applicability of the code rules, analytical studies and evaluation of thermomechanical test results continued in FY17. This report presents the results of those studies. An EPP strain limits methodology assessment was based on recent two-bar thermal ratcheting test results on 316H stainless steel in the temperature range of 405 to 7050C. Strain range predictions from the EPP evaluation of the two-bar tests were also evaluated and compared with the experimental results. The role of sustained primary loading on cyclic life was assessed using the results of pressurized SMT data from tests on Alloy 617 at 9500C. A viscoplastic material model was used in an analytic simulation of two-bar tests to compare with EPP strain limits assessments using isochronous stress strain curves that are consistent with the viscoplastic material model. A finite element model of a prior 304H stainless steel Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) nozzle-to-sphere test was developed and used for an EPP strain limits and creep-fatigue code case damage evaluations. A theoretical treatment of a recurring issue with convergence criteria for plastic shakedown illustrated the role of computer machine precision in EPP calculations.

  3. Traditsiooniliselt ja pluralistlikult / Epp Annus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annus, Epp, 1969-

    1996-01-01

    Nüpli kevadkool (seminari 'Traditsioon ja pluralism' järg põhirõhuga kirjandusloole), korraldajateks Underi ja Tuglase Kirjanduskeskus, Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum ja Tartu Ülikooli eesti kirjandusloo uurimisgrupp. Ettekanded: Loone Ots. Kuninganna jalad ehk Non sciunt, se scient. Eesti kirjandust välistudengitele; Kristi Metste. Tubli pioneer Kampmaa; Peep Ehasalu. 'Kiired' ja soomlased; Sirje Olesk. Kodu- ja väliseesti kahekõne 1950.-1960. aastatel; Marin Laak. Kriitikateos kirjandusloos : näide 1924. aastast (Valmar Adamsi arvustus Jaan Kärneri romaani 'Bianka ja Ruth' puhul); Ene-Reet Soovik. Koed, põimed ja takerdused : Ants Orase tõlkekriitikast ja -praktikast; Epp Annus. Anakroonilised võitlused romaanis 'Tõde ja õigus'; Luule Epner. Kahe 'Libahundi' vahel : draama ja teater 1960.-70ndate vahetusel, põikega proosasse; Toomas Liivamägi. Mõned vulgariseeringud (20. sajandi modernism energia jäävuse seadusest lähtudes); Toomas Muru. Paabeli torn ja Gooti katedraal; Aare Pilv. Kirjandusloolisus kui hoiak; Indrek Särg - Sven Kivisildnik. Eesti gayluule järjekordne algus; Rutt Hinrikus. Reed Morn, andekas parasiit; Kajar Pruul. Ühe kunstiteose analüüs (Sven Kivisildniku luuletus 'Eesti Nõukogude Kirjanike Liit'); Ele Süvalep. Modernist Jaan Oks

  4. The buffering-out effect and phase separation in aqueous solutions of EPPS buffer with 1-propanol, 2-propanol, or 2-methyl-2-propanol at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Mohamed; Teng, Han-Lan; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Buffering-out is a new liquid–liquid phase separation containing biological buffer. ► EPPS buffer-induced phase separation of aqueous solutions of aliphatic alcohols. ► Phase diagrams of EPPS + water + 1-propanol/2-propanol/2-methyl-2-propanol are studied. ► EPPS breaks the 1-propanol + water and 2-methyl-2-propanol + water azeotropes. ► The (liquid + liquid) equilibria can be well correlated by the NRTL model. - Abstract: Buffering-out is a new liquid–liquid phase separation phenomenon observed in mixtures containing a buffer as a mass separating agent. The (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibrium (SLLE) data were measured for the ternary systems {3-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]propanesulfonic acid (EPPS) buffer + 1-propanol, 2-propanol, or 2-methyl-2-propanol + water} at T = 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. The phase boundary data were fitted to an empirical equation relating to the concentrations of organic solvent and buffer. The effective excluded volume (EEV) values of EPPS were obtained from the phase boundary data. The phase-separation abilities of the investigated aliphatic alcohols were discussed. The reliability of the experimental tie-lines was satisfactorily confirmed by the Othmer–Tobias correlation. The experimental tie-lines data for the ternary systems have been correlated using the NRTL activity coefficient model. The separation of these aliphatic alcohols from their azeotropic aqueous mixtures is of particular interest to industrial process. The addition of the EPPS as an auxiliary agent breaks the (1-propanol + water) and (2-methyl-2-propanol + water) azeotropes. The possibility of using the new phase separation systems in the extraction process is demonstrated by using different dyestuffs.

  5. Trends in childhood vaccine purchase costs in the US public sector: 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Messonnier, Mark; Zhou, Fangjun

    2016-09-07

    While vaccination remains as one of the most cost-effective preventive strategies, the cost of fully immunizing a child has grown considerably over the last few decades. This study examines trends in non-influenza childhood vaccine purchase costs in the public sector from 1996 to 2014. Non-influenza vaccine purchase cost per child for children aged 0 through 18years was calculated based on public-sector purchase prices. Purchase cost changes were then decomposed into changes attributable to recommendation updates and changes attributable to price variation. The study analyzed the growth rate of combination vaccine prices separately and compared these prices with the sum of prices of component vaccines. It is found that the average annual growth rate of non-influenza vaccine purchase cost per child during 1996-2014 was 12.6%. The growth rate attributable to price changes was 1.0% on average. Combination vaccine prices showed greater variation. The study concludes that vaccine price variation was one but a minor reason for purchase cost changes. Recommendation updates, particularly the introduction of new vaccines, played a much larger role in raising the purchase costs. If the 12.6% annual growth rate found during 1996-2014 in the study continues to apply, the purchase costs of childhood vaccines may more than double by 2020. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Customer choice: Purchasing energy in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumann, A.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the detailed guidance on how to effectively purchase deregulated energy, based on first-hand reports from many of the nation's most knowledgeable experts. It is designed to provide the kind of practical advice needed by professionals who are responsible for making energy purchasing decisions. The book gives a ten-step program to guide building owners in purchasing decision making, a state-by-state retail competition update, and guidelines for buying electricity and natural gas over the worldwide web. Other topics include contract renegotiation strategies, an assessment of power pools, the role of aggregators in the energy market, real time pricing issues, where cogeneration fits within today's marketplace, and lessons learned from deregulation experiences in Scandinavia and England

  7. Epp names new interim execs to head Atomic Energy Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Federal Energy Minister Jake Epp has named Mrs. Marnie Paiken as acting chairman and Bruce Howe as acting president of AECL (formerly Atomic Energy Canada Ltd.), the federal Crown corporation charged with the development and utilization of nuclear energy. Both appointments were made necessary by the resignations of Robert Ferchat as chairman and Stanley Hatcher as president, each citing deep differences in their respective approaches to the management of the corporation. Mrs. Paiken has been a member of AECL's board since 1985, and previously served as acting chairman from March 1989 to July 1990. Howe has been deputy minister of the federal energy department since 1988, a position he will retain while carrying out his duties as president of AECL. A search has begun to find permanent replacements

  8. Passive Nuclear Plants Program (UPDATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimeno, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    The light water passive plants program (PCNP), today Advanced Nuclear Power Plants Program (PCNA), was constituted in order to reach the goals of the Spanish Electrical Sector in the field of advanced nuclear power plants, optimize the efforts of all Spanish initiatives, and increase joint presence in international projects. The last update of this program, featured in revision 5th of the Program Report, reflects the consolidation of the Spanish sector's presence in International programs of the advanced power plants on the basis of the practically concluded American ALWR program. Since the beginning of the program , the PCNP relies on financing from the Electrical sector, Ocide, SEPI-Endesa, Westinghouse, General Electric, as well as from the industrial cooperators, Initec, UTE (Initec- Empresarios Agrupados), Ciemat, Enusa, Ensa and Tecnatom. The program is made up of the following projects, already concluded: - EPRI's Advanced Light Water Plants Certification Project - Westinghouse's AP600 Project - General Electric's SBWR Project (presently paralyzed) and ABWR project Currently, the following project are under development, at different degrees of advance: - EPP project (European Passive Plant) - EBWR project (European Advanced Boiling Water Reactor)

  9. Kaadrid otsustavad endiselt kõik / Kersti Kivirüüt, Epp Adler, Andi Einaste, Maris Liiders ; intervjueerinud Meeli Parijõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Saku gümnaasiumis arutleti õpilaste korraldatud foorumil Eesti hariduse oleviku ja tuleviku üle. Intervjuu külalisesinejatega, kelleks tänavu olid haridus- ja teadusministeeriumi üldharidusosakonna peaekspert Kersti Kivirüüt, Epp Adler MTÜ-st HeadEst, Saku abivallavanem haridus-, kultuuri- ja sotsiaalhoolekande alal Andi Einaste ning Harju maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Maris Liiders

  10. FY17 Status Report on Testing Supporting the Inclusion of Grade 91 Steel as an Acceptable Material for Application of the EPP Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, Mark C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sham, Sam [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Yanli [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report summarizes the experiments performed in FY17 on Gr. 91 steels. The testing of Gr. 91 has technical significance because, currently, it is the only approved material for Class A construction that is strongly cyclic softening. Specific FY17 testing includes the following activities for Gr. 91 steel. First, two types of key feature testing have been initiated, including two-bar thermal ratcheting and Simplified Model Testing (SMT). The goal is to qualify the Elastic – Perfectly Plastic (EPP) design methodologies and to support incorporation of these rules for Gr. 91 into the ASME Division 5 Code. The preliminary SMT test results show that Gr. 91 is most damaging when tested with compression hold mode under the SMT creep fatigue testing condition. Two-bar thermal ratcheting test results at a temperature range between 350 to 650o C were compared with the EPP strain limits code case evaluation, and the results show that the EPP strain limits code case is conservative. The material information obtained from these key feature tests can also be used to verify its material model. Second, to provide experimental data in support of the viscoplastic material model development at Argonne National Laboratory, selective tests were performed to evaluate the effect of cyclic softening on strain rate sensitivity and creep rates. The results show the prior cyclic loading history decreases the strain rate sensitivity and increases creep rates. In addition, isothermal cyclic stress-strain curves were generated at six different temperatures, and a nonisothermal thermomechanical testing was also performed to provide data to calibrate the viscoplastic material model.

  11. EPPS16: nuclear parton distributions with LHC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskola, Kari J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki (Finland); Paakkinen, Petja [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Paukkunen, Hannu [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki (Finland); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Galicia (Spain); Salgado, Carlos A. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Galicia (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    We introduce a global analysis of collinearly factorized nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs) including, for the first time, data constraints from LHC proton-lead collisions. In comparison to our previous analysis, EPS09, where data only from charged-lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS), Drell-Yan (DY) dilepton production in proton-nucleus collisions and inclusive pion production in deuteron-nucleus collisions were the input, we now increase the variety of data constraints to cover also neutrino-nucleus DIS and low-mass DY production in pion-nucleus collisions. The new LHC data significantly extend the kinematic reach of the data constraints. We now allow much more freedom for the flavor dependence of nuclear effects than in other currently available analyses. As a result, especially the uncertainty estimates are more objective flavor by flavor. The neutrino DIS plays a pivotal role in obtaining a mutually consistent behavior for both up and down valence quarks, and the LHC dijet data clearly constrain gluons at large momentum fraction. Mainly for insufficient statistics, the pion-nucleus DY and heavy-gauge-boson production in proton-lead collisions impose less visible constraints. The outcome - a new set of next-to-leading order nuclear PDFs called EPPS16 - is made available for applications in high-energy nuclear collisions. (orig.)

  12. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2017 Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update; Home Health Value-Based Purchasing Model; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-03

    This final rule updates the Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) payment rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor; effective for home health episodes of care ending on or after January 1, 2017. This rule also: Implements the last year of the 4-year phase-in of the rebasing adjustments to the HH PPS payment rates; updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking; implements the 2nd-year of a 3-year phase-in of a reduction to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (that is, nominal case-mix growth) between CY 2012 and CY 2014; finalizes changes to the methodology used to calculate payments made under the HH PPS for high-cost "outlier" episodes of care; implements changes in payment for furnishing Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) using a disposable device for patients under a home health plan of care; discusses our efforts to monitor the potential impacts of the rebasing adjustments; includes an update on subsequent research and analysis as a result of the findings from the home health study; and finalizes changes to the Home Health Value-Based Purchasing (HHVBP) Model, which was implemented on January 1, 2016; and updates to the Home Health Quality Reporting Program (HH QRP).

  13. Professionalising purchasing organisations : towards a purchasing development model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van A.J.; Rozemeijer, F.A.; Rietveld, G.; Lamming, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    How does purchasing develops as a discipline over time in large international organisations? What are the drivers and enablers behind the development of purchasing? Is there an ideal growthpath for purchasing in organisations? These subjects are discussed in this paper by, firstly, providing an

  14. Purchasing portfolio usage and purchasing sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models have caused considerable controversy in literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing a strong disagreement on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question whether or not the use of purchasing portfolio models should

  15. Purchasing and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Astrid; Mols, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a number of hypotheses relating four purchasing capabilities to two measures of purchasings contribution to innovation. The hypotheses are tested with data collected through a websurvey completed by 321 purchasing professionals in Danish production companies. Our results...... show that integrative, relational, innovative,and intelligence capabilities are positively related to innovation. However, relational capabilities are not found to have significant effect on purchasings contribution to supply and practice innovation, i.e. new markets, new suppliers, and new purchasing...... practices. The relationship between intelligence capabilities and purchasings contribution to product and production innovations depends on the level of innovation capabilities....

  16. The european passive plant (EPP) design: compliance with the european utilities requirements (EUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, L.; Oyarzabal, M.

    1996-01-01

    Back 1986, most of the European firms have participated to the American program called the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) including the development of the Utilities Requirements as well as four projects as for instance AP600. Later, in the year 1990, seven European firms have begun to develop the European Utilities Requirements. This development is justified by the fact that the lessons learned by the nuclear power plants designs programs of the years 1980 can be incorporated and the European specific conditions can be taken into consideration. Thus, in 1994, eight European firms - Westinghouse and their industrial partners - have decided to launch a multiphase program in order to check the AP600 compliance with the European Utilities Requirements (EUR) and to develop the required alterations. Today, the phase I of the EPP (European Passive Plant) program has been completed. In this phase, the main important objectives have been reached. (O.M.)

  17. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali tegevuspreemia 2014 = The Endowment for architecture's prize for activity in the field of architecture 2014 / Epp Lankots, Andres Kurg ; kommenteerinud Ignar Fjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lankots, Epp, 1976-

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali tegevuspreemia 2014: Epp Lankotsa doktoriväitekiri "Moodsa arhitektuuri kriitiline historiograafia. Modernsuse käsitlused Leo Gensi ja Leonhard Lapini arhitektuuriajaloolistes tekstides 1960.-1980. aastail"; Andres Kure doktoriväitekiri ""Boundary disruptions: late-soviet transformations in art, space and subjectivity in Tallinn 1968-1979" ("Segilöödud piirid, hilisnõukogude muutused kunstis, ruumis ja subjektsuses Tallinnas aastatel 1968-1979")

  18. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase elements (trust, usefulness, interactivity and altruism motivation are effective on purchase intention. The results of the study will be able to create effective sale strategies for the online stores of nonprofit organizations.

  19. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY; Behçet Yalın ÖZKARA

    2017-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase eleme...

  20. Achieving Consumer Purchase Payoffs: A Used Car Purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott; Maynes, Blanche R.

    1997-01-01

    This case study of a used car purchase illuminates the concepts and principles that should guide purchase decisions. It suggests that consumers should be aware there is little correlation between price and quality; competent shopping yields better quality; and consumers must decide their preferred trade-off between price and quality. (SK)

  1. Purchasing Power and Purchasing Strategies - Insights From the Humanitarian Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pazirandeh, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss how buyers practice purchasing strategies in an asymmetric power situation favoring suppliers, and how their purchasing strategies practiced impact their purchasing power and buyer-supplier relationships. Organizations enter exchange relationships to access required resources not produced internally, and are exposed to uncertainty from not being able to fully control or predict flow of resources. Consequently they become dependent on their partners. Their leve...

  2. Optimizing Eco-Efficiency Across the Procurement Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Rylie E O; Li, Mo; Smith, Timothy M; Lyon, Thomas P

    2016-06-07

    Manufacturing organizations' environmental impacts are often attributable to processes in the firm's upstream supply chain. Environmentally preferable procurement (EPP) and the establishment of environmental purchasing criteria can potentially reduce these indirect impacts. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) can help identify the purchasing criteria that are most effective in reducing environmental impacts. However, the high costs of LCA and the problems associated with the comparability of results have limited efforts to integrate procurement performance with quantitative organizational environmental performance targets. Moreover, environmental purchasing criteria, when implemented, are often established on a product-by-product basis without consideration of other products in the procurement portfolio. We develop an approach that utilizes streamlined LCA methods, together with linear programming, to determine optimal portfolios of product impact-reduction opportunities under budget constraints. The approach is illustrated through a simulated breakfast cereal manufacturing firm procuring grain, containerboard boxes, plastic packaging, electricity, and industrial cleaning solutions. Results suggest that extending EPP decisions and resources to the portfolio level, recently made feasible through the methods illustrated herein, can provide substantially greater CO2e and water-depletion reductions per dollar spend than a product-by-product approach, creating opportunities for procurement organizations to participate in firm-wide environmental impact reduction targets.

  3. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2016 Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update; Home Health Value-Based Purchasing Model; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    This final rule will update Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor under the Medicare prospective payment system for home health agencies (HHAs), effective for episodes ending on or after January 1, 2016. As required by the Affordable Care Act, this rule implements the 3rd year of the 4-year phase-in of the rebasing adjustments to the HH PPS payment rates. This rule updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking and provides a clarification regarding the use of the "initial encounter'' seventh character applicable to certain ICD-10-CM code categories. This final rule will also finalize reductions to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rate in CY 2016, CY 2017, and CY 2018 of 0.97 percent in each year to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (nominal case-mix growth) between CY 2012 and CY 2014. In addition, this rule implements a HH value-based purchasing (HHVBP) model, beginning January 1, 2016, in which all Medicare-certified HHAs in selected states will be required to participate. Finally, this rule finalizes minor changes to the home health quality reporting program and minor technical regulations text changes.

  4. Purchasing green to become greener: Factors influence consumers’ green purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vazifehdoust

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an integrated model that combines the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA and two categories of variables, personal and marketing, to investigate the attitudinal and behavioral decision factors to purchase green products. The model derived and tested via structural equation modeling on a sample of 374 consumers from the Guilan province in Iran. The results show that attitude is explained by consumers’ environmental concern, quality of green products, green advertising and green labeling. The results of the structural equation analysis indicate that attitude positively influences intention to purchase green products. Green purchasing intention also influences on green purchasing behavior. This paper also discusses the implications of the results for marketers and researchers.

  5. Revolution through electronic purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Lamming, R.C.; Grickus, I.

    1998-01-01

    Automation is finding its way in the world of purchasing. This development could evoke dramatic effects in the long term, not only on purchasing but even on the market place itself. Nowadays, EDI and CD-ROM are examples of automation applications that purchasing departments use frequently. Internet

  6. Interactive Purchasing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper introduces a new class of interactive cooperative purchasing situations and provides an explicit alternative characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games, which offers an alternative to Kohlberg (1971). In our cooperative purchasing situation, the unit price of a

  7. POINT-OF-PURCHASE SIGNS, IMPULSE PURCHASES, AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE "DESIRE TO TOUCH"

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Joann; Childers, Terry

    2000-01-01

    What is the role of touch in consumer behavior? Consumers are especially motivated to touch some products before buying them, and for some people, those high in "desire to touch", touching before buying is especially important. In addition, some situations encourage consumers to touch goods before purchasing them. How do these relate to impulse purchases? People high in their "desire to touch" are more likely to make impulse purchases. Point-of-purchase signs that encourage touching a product...

  8. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  9. Purchasing practices in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Bagchi, Prabir K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a knowledge and understanding of purchasing practices of SMEs in Denmark. The paper is based on the results from a survey among 94 Danish SMEs, mainly within machinery, electronics and electrical, transportation equipment, and medical equipment industries....... The results are compared with a similar study encompassing 224 SMEs in Indiana, USA. First, the level of purchasing complexity is discussed. There are similarities between the two surveys in terms of purchasing's influence on product quality and productivity, and percentage of total costs. However, the degree...... on the results from the two surveys, we discuss the managerial and research implications for purchasing practices in SMEs....

  10. Horizontal cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2007-01-01

    Purchasing in groups is a concept that is becoming increasingly popular in both the private and public sector. Often, the advantages such as lower purchase pricese, learning from each other, and reduced transaction costs outweigh set-up and management costs and drawbacks such as disclosure of

  11. 78 FR 37946 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... purchasing credit union may have years of experience dealing with only one or a few originators. These credit...; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and Assumption of Liabilities AGENCY... reorganize the loan participation rule and focus on the purchase side of loan participation transactions. The...

  12. PERAN PRODUCT CUES AND RISK AVERSION PADA PURCHASE INTENTION DAN POST PURCHASE FEELINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rejeki Ekasasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research aimed to investigate the influence of extrinsic cues and intrinsic cues and risk aversion towards purchase intention and post-purchase feeling of counterfeited computer software and music CD. This research study collected data from two populations which are students and employee. Approximately 128 respondents involved to give respond for the survey. The analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM show that product cues and risk aversion give different significant impact towards purchase intention and post-purchase feeling of counterfeited computer software and music CD. The research concluded that risk aversion and extrinsic cues has a significant influence to purchase intention of counterfeited computer software while it does not appear similar result to music CD. Moreover, the study revealed that for both counterfeited computer software and music CD, the purchase intention is proven to have negative significant influence towards post-purchase feelings.Keywords: risk aversion, extrinsic cues, intrinsic cues, purchase intention, post-purchase feelingsAbstrakTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh atribut ekstrinsik dan intrinsic produk serta aspek menolak resiko terhadap niat beli dan perasaan paska beli software computer dan CD music bajakan. Penelitian ini diharapkan akan memperoleh sebuah model dengan pendekatan cultural dan strategi bisnis untuk memblokir atau mengurangi produk bajakan yang dapat diakses konsumen di pasar. Data primer akan dikumpulkan dari dua populasi, kelompok mahasiswa dan kelompok pekerja, dari empat kota besar di Indonesia yaitu Jakarta, Semarang, Surabaya, dan Yogyakarta. Lebih kurang 128 responden terlibat dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aspek atribut produk yang bersifat ekstrinsik dan aspek menolak resiko terbukti memiliki hubungan signifikan mempengaruhi niat beli software computer, akan tetapi lain tidak demikian pada niat beli CD music bajakan

  13. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2018 Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update and CY 2019 Case-Mix Adjustment Methodology Refinements; Home Health Value-Based Purchasing Model; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-07

    This final rule updates the home health prospective payment system (HH PPS) payment rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor, effective for home health episodes of care ending on or after January 1, 2018. This rule also: Updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking; implements the third year of a 3-year phase-in of a reduction to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (that is, nominal case-mix growth) between calendar year (CY) 2012 and CY 2014; and discusses our efforts to monitor the potential impacts of the rebasing adjustments that were implemented in CY 2014 through CY 2017. In addition, this rule finalizes changes to the Home Health Value-Based Purchasing (HHVBP) Model and to the Home Health Quality Reporting Program (HH QRP). We are not finalizing the implementation of the Home Health Groupings Model (HHGM) in this final rule.

  14. Uranium purchases report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs

  15. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure that all purchased or otherwise received product and...

  16. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  17. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  18. Post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers. The aim is to determine the prevalence of selective exposure, and the impact of motor vehicle features and dissonance respectively. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers The results indicate that the majority of consumers do not engage in post-purchase selective advertisement readership behaviour. Furthermore, whilst motor vehicle features (make, model, dealership, month of purchases/ time lapse after purchases do not influence consumers' repeat purchase intentions, reported dissonance and the magnitude of cognitive dissonance experienced have a significant impact. Opsomming Hierdie studie evalueer die reaksie van verbruikers op advertensies nadat hulle n voertuig aangekoop het. Die doel was om vas te stel in watter n mate verbruikers selektiefis met advertensies en watter effek voertuig-eienskappe en dissonansie op die moontlikheid het om weer dieselfde voertuig te koop. Die empiriese anahse is mtgevoer op n steekproefvan 200 eicnaars van nuwe voertuie. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat die meerderheid van verbruikers me advertensies selektief lees nan aankoop me.Verder blyk dit dat die eienskappe vann motorvoertmg fabnkaat, model handelaar, maand van aankoop/tydsverloop na aankoop nie n verbruiker beinvloed om dieselfde voertuig weer te koop nie. Gerapporteerde dissonansie en die omvang van kognitiewe dissonansie na n aankoop, blyk tog 'n betekenisvolle impak te he.

  19. Group purchasing: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetrich, J G

    1987-07-01

    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.

  20. Revisiting purchasing competence - In a project context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    2015-01-01

    purchasing and competences required undertaking these activities. Four overall purchasing competence areas were identified. Hence, four propositions related to the purchasing competence were developed by iteratively combining elements from the purchasing literature with an empirical inquiry in an offshore...

  1. Responsible Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  2. International Green Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  3. 7 CFR 1753.68 - Purchasing special equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchasing special equipment. 1753.68 Section 1753.68... AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Purchase and Installation of Special Equipment § 1753.68 Purchasing special equipment. (a) General. (1) Equipment purchases are...

  4. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  5. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 813.202 Section 813.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING... Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among all...

  6. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.

  7. Exploring risk profiles and emergency frequency of purchasers and non-purchasers of personal emergency alarms: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De San Miguel, Kristen; Lewin, Gill; Burton, Elissa; Toye, Christine; Boldy, Duncan; Howat, Peter

    2015-10-27

    Personal alarms support independent living and have the potential to reduce serious consequences after a fall or during a medical emergency. While some Australian states have government funded personal alarm programs, others do not; but user-pays services are available. Although several studies have examined the profiles of alarm users, little is known about the risk profile of non-users. Specifically, whether there are "at risk" individuals who are unable, or choose not to purchase a service, who experience a home-based emergency in which an alarm could have mitigated an adverse outcome. This study aimed to describe the 'risk profile' of purchasers and non-purchasers of alarms; explore the reasons behind the decision to purchase or not to purchase and identify how often emergency assistance was needed and why. Purchasers and non-purchasers were followed for one year in this prospective cohort study. Demographic, decision-making and risk factor data were collected at an initial face-to-face interview, while information about emergencies was collected by monthly calls. One hundred and fifty-seven purchasers and sixty-five non-purchasers completed the study. The risk profiles between the groups were similar in terms of gender, living arrangements, fall history and medical conditions. Purchasers (Mean = 82.6 years) were significantly older than non-purchasers (Mean = 79.3 years), (t(220) = -3.38, p = 0.000) and more functionally dependent on the IADL (z = -2.57, p = 0.010) and ADL (z = -2.45 p = 0.014) function scores. Non-purchasers (Mean = 8.04, SD = 3.57) were more socially isolated with significantly fewer family networks than purchasers (Mean = 9.46, SD = 3.25) (t(220) = -2.86, p = 0.005). Both groups experienced similarly high numbers of emergencies, 38.2 % of purchasers and 41.5 % of non-purchasers had at least one emergency where an alarm could have assisted. Main reasons for non-purchase were: cost (77 %), limited alarm range (51 %), no need (39 %) and lack

  8. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchasing policy. 601.100 Section 601.100 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The Postal...

  9. DEMAND AND QUALITY UNCERTAINTY IN PECAN PURCHASING DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Timothy A.; Florkowski, Wojciech J.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized Heckman model of purchase decisions incorporating perceived consumer quality attributes, ease of purchase, and familiarity with marketing outlets as factors influencing pecan purchases is estimated. Marketing efforts that encourage consumers to expand expenditures on nut products increase both the probability of pecan purchases and the amount purchased. Consumers who use all types of nuts in a wider variety of foods tend to purchase pecans more frequently. A diverse set of marke...

  10. Library Purchasing Consortia in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ball

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of library purchasing consortia across the United Kingdom is uneven and sector-dependent. Only higher education libraries show a well developed regional infrastructure of purchasing consortia covering virtually all eligible libraries. While there are clear sectoral disparities amongst the library purchasing consortia surveyed, the size of consortium expenditure seems to determine whether procurement professionals are involved. Thus in those whose spend consistently exceeds European Commission guidelines’ thresholds, the involvement of purchasing professionals is much more likely, and also crucial to the successful navigation of such procedures.

  11. A Dynamic Panel Model of the Associations of Sweetened Beverage Purchases With Dietary Quality and Food-Purchasing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. PMID:25834139

  12. 48 CFR 970.4402 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Management and Operating Contractor Purchasing 970.4402 Contractor purchasing system. ...

  13. Decision support for contemporary purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenborg, van R.H.A.; Boer, de L.; Cox, A.; Lamming, R.

    1996-01-01

    The new business environment has confronted purchasing with an increasingly dynamic and un-predictable environment. While purchasing fonnerly could afford to be reactive to changes in demand specifications, supply markets and supply performance results, the new business environment requires

  14. Purchase rates and energy content of nutritionally promoted and traditional fast foods purchased at lunchtime in Australia - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Louise F; Palmer, Michelle A

    2012-03-01

    Nutritionally promoted foods are now available at fast-food establishments. Little is known about their popularity, who is purchasing them, or their impact on dietary intake. Our study aimed to determine: how often nutritionally promoted fast foods were purchased; the demographic characteristics of people purchasing these foods; and if purchasing these foods resulted in reduced energy, and increased vegetable, content of lunches compared with those who purchased traditional fast foods. A survey collecting lunchtime fast-food purchases and demographic details was administered over two months. Nutritionally promoted products included the McDonalds' 'Heart Foundation Tick Approved' range and Subway's 'Six grams of fat or less' range. Energy and vegetable contents were estimated using information from fast-food companies' websites. Differences in demographics, energy and vegetable contents between individuals purchasing nutritionally promoted and traditional lunches were assessed using χ2 and t tests. Queensland, Australia. Lunchtime diners aged over 16 years at Subway and McDonalds. Surveys were collected from 927 respondents (58 % male, median age 25 (range 16-84) years; 73 % response rate). Only 3 % (n 24/910) of respondents who ordered a main option had purchased a nutritionally promoted item. Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods were ∼13 years older, predominantly female (79 %), and more often reported involvement in a health-related profession (29 % v. 11 %) than purchasers of traditional foods (P < 0·05). Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods ordered 1·5 fewer megajoules and 0·6 more vegetable servings than purchasers of traditional foods (P < 0·05). Nutritionally promoted fast foods may reduce lunchtime energy content, however these foods were infrequently chosen.

  15. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  16. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  17. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Strategic Purchasing in Practice: Comparing Ten European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasa, Katarzyna; Greer, Scott L; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2018-02-05

    Strategic purchasing of health care services is widely recommended as a policy instrument. We conducted a review of literature of material drawn from the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Health Systems in Transition series, other European Observatory databases, and selected country-specific literature to augment the comparative analysis by providing the most recent healthcare trends in ten selected countries. There is little evidence of purchasing being strategic according to any of the established definitions. There is little or no literature suggesting that existing purchasing mechanisms in Europe deliver improved population health, citizen empowerment, stronger governance and stewardship, or develop purchaser organization and capacity. Strategic purchasing has not generally been implemented. Policymakers considering adopting strategic purchasing policies should be aware of this systemic implementation problem. Policymakers in systems with strategic purchasing built into policy should not assume that a purchasing system is strategic or that it is delivering any expected objectives. However, there are individual components of strategic purchasing that are worth pursuing and can provide benefits to health systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A computer-based purchase management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Subramani, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The details of a computer-based purchase management system developed to meet the specific requirements of Madras Regional Purchase Unit (MRPU) is given. Howe ver it can be easily modified to meet the requirements of any other purchase department. It covers various operations of MRPU starting from indent processing to preparation of purchase orders and reminders. In order to enable timely management action and control facilities are provided to generate the necessary management information reports. The scope for further work is also discussed. The system is completely menu driven and user friendly. Appendix A and B contains the menu implemented and the sample outputs respectively. (author)

  20. Purchasing management experience of Haiyang nuclear power project construction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing is one of the important aspects to ensure the safety and quality of the nuclear power plant. This paper, combining the purchasing peculiarity and purchasing process of Haiyang nuclear power project, summarizes experiences of Haiyang nuclear power project in promoting its purchasing management level in aspects of purchasing method choosing, purchasing plan management, purchasing process optimization, purchasing contract implementation and purchasing surveillance, etc. (author)

  1. A dynamic panel model of the associations of sweetened beverage purchases with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-05-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Uranium purchases report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B ''Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data

  3. 36 CFR 223.101 - Determination of purchaser responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser has a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics; (5) The purchaser has or is able to... and governmental business commitments; (3) The purchaser has a satisfactory performance record on... applicable laws and regulations. (c) If the prospective purchaser is a small business concern and the...

  4. Using Research Case Studies in eCommerce Marketing Courses: Customer Satisfaction at Point-of-Purchase and Post-Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, Noorshella Che; Fong, Michelle; Tatnall, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research case study of Internet apparel marketing by small businesses in Malaysia which can beneficially be included in postgraduate business courses for understanding the importance of measuring customer satisfaction at point-of-purchase and post-purchase in online purchases. The sample size in this research is 154…

  5. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  6. 13 CFR 120.641 - Disclosure to purchasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure to purchasers. 120.641 Section 120.641 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Miscellaneous Provisions § 120.641 Disclosure to purchasers. (a) Information to purchaser. Prior...

  7. Purchasing practice in dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Telgen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The purchasing function is of great importance for the business community as well as for governmental organizations. In industrial companies purchasing already accounts for 60 to 90 percent of total turnover. This share is expected to grow as companies tend to increasingly outsource their non-core

  8. From point-of-purchase to path-to-purchase : How pre-shopping factors drive unplanned buying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, D.R.; Corsten, D.; Knox, G.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Many retailers believe that a majority of purchases are unplanned, so they spend heavily on in-store marketing to stimulate these types of purchases. At the same time, the effects of “preshopping” factors—the shoppers' overall trip goals, store-specific shopping objectives, and prior marketing

  9. Perbedaan Post Purchase Regret Berdasarkan Perilaku Pada Konsumen Wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Fardhani, Diah

    2014-01-01

    Post purchase regret is a negative emotion of consumer after evaluating the purchase decision has been made, the evaluation is conducted based on the outcome and process of consumer decision making. This study was a comparative quantitative study aimed to determine differences on post purchase regret based on unplanned and substitute purchasing behavior. The research hypothesis was the differences in post purchase regret based on unplanned behavior and substitute purchasing. The study involve...

  10. Guide to Effective Purchasing. Operational Management Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frediani, Pam

    This manual is intended to help create and sustain good relations between purchasers and suppliers of foods and related products. It is designed to guide anyone involved in the purchasing function: purchasing officers and managers in medium and large establishments, food and beverage managers, catering managers, chefs, caterers, restaurateurs,…

  11. THE USE OF PARTNERSHIP IN PURCHASING

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA SIMA; GEORGE BĂLAN

    2014-01-01

    The partnership is now increasingly used in all areas thanks to the synergy it implies and of the benefits demonstrated. And in today's economy benefits of the partnership are widely recognized. Partnership in purchase makes no exception. This paper presents the benefits of a partnership-based purchases compared to those of traditional purchasing. Less well known is that a partnership built and/or implemented incorrectly and may result in additional costs and thus lead to disadvantages for...

  12. Should general practitioners purchase health care for their patients? The total purchasing experiment in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyke, Sally; Mays, Nicholas; Street, Andrew; Bevan, Gwyn; McLeod, Hugh; Goodwin, Nick

    2003-09-01

    Until relatively recently, general practitioners (GPs) have been allowed to work independently, with no requirement to consider the resource implications of their referral and prescribing decisions. In order to align the interests of GPs with the overall objectives of health systems a number of countries have introduced primary care based capitation, funds pooling and budget holding either as experiments or as an overall policy. Are these experiments and policies likely to work? This paper presents evidence from the UK total purchasing experiment, which was the first major quasi-market development in the NHS to be independently evaluated from the outset. Total purchasing gave volunteer groups of practices freedom to purchase all hospital and community health services for their patients. The evidence suggests that whilst GPs have great potential as purchasers, they also have considerable limitations. The expectation that they will be able to improve the quality of patient experience of care, or to alter the use of resources, may not be generally realised. GP-based purchasing may be more appropriate where the task is to alter the balance or location of care between hospital and extramural settings. However, budgetary incentives are not 'magic potions' which have similar effects on behaviour wherever they are introduced. Holding budgets and having independent contracts, while important pre-requisites for being taken seriously in a quasi-market, were not sufficient for effective total purchasing. The paper concludes that health systems should not only value innovation and experimentation and encourage learning from evaluative research; they should also recognise the importance of supportive circumstances for any innovation to effect real and sustained change.

  13. New models intensify the purchase of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesimaeki, P.; Lampinen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Models, designed for planning and optimisation of the purchase of energy, combined with high-quality expertise have an impact on the costs of energy companies. Optimisation has a significant role in power plant investments and in planning the power distribution of wholesale electric power. After the liberation of the electricity markets, the planning of the electricity purchase and the optimisation have obtained totally new roles in estimating the cost effects of present and new customers. Electrowatt-Ekono has developed a windows-based COPSIM software for planning of electric power purchase. The software is in active use in Electrowatt-Ekono. The energy purchase is optimised on yearly basis or on a shorter period by one hour steps based on hourly variation of energy purchase, power plant characteristics, power consumption rates and the prices of the fuels, power and heat. COPSIM takes the effect of external temperature on the power generation of backpressure and gas turbine plants into account. The software optimises also the power distribution of wholesale power. By the software it is possible to model different types of power plants, purchase of power, power sales, different power plant shares, thermal power stations, purchase and sales of heat, heat storage and heat transfer between different heating networks

  14. Predicting Online Purchasing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    W.R BUCKINX; D. VAN DEN POEL

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the contribution of different types of predictors to the purchasing behaviour at an online store. We use logit modelling to predict whether or not a purchase is made during the next visit to the website using both forward and backward variable-selection techniques, as well as Furnival and Wilson’s global score search algorithm to find the best subset of predictors. We contribute to the literature by using variables from four different categories in predicting...

  15. Mastering one's electricity purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, D.

    2005-01-01

    Manager of about 50000 public lighting areas, the inter-cities energy syndicate of Loire (SIEL) has started in 2003 a procedure in order to chose his electric power supplier conformably with the new rules of public electricity purchase and with the new organization of the electricity market. This article presents this approach and its experience feedback, concretized by the European call for bids launched by SIEL for the annual purchase of about 186 GWh of electric power. (J.S.)

  16. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  17. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  18. Purchasing. School Business Management Handbook Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Purchasing, one of the most highly specialized activities in school administration, involves securing material or service in the right quantity and quality, at the right time, and for the right price. This handbook, intended as a guide for purchasing agents, details principles essential for operating a school purchasing office in New York State.…

  19. Logistic strategies in purchasing process of metallurgical companies

    OpenAIRE

    Grzybowska, K.; Gajdzik, B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents some selected logistic strategies concerning purchasing process in production companies. Costs referring to realizing and organizing purchasing process are a substantial part of total costs of a company. In order to make a company’s purchasing and supply processes efficient, it is necessary to take some steps to prepare purchasing strategy. This operation was the reason for presenting the subject in this study.

  20. A STUDY OF ONLINE PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR- INVESTIGATING SOCIAL MEANING OF ONLINE PURCHASE IN TAIWAN

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Che-wen

    2008-01-01

    To justify the applicability of previous researches of online purchase in the Eastern culture, 237 samples in Taiwan are examined with questionnaire adapted from previous researches. Based on the assumption of rational behaviour that online purchase intention leads to behaviour, factors influencing them are examined and discussed. The result indicates that demographic attributes, perceived consequence, conspicuous meaning, information sources and reference group are confirmed to impact online...

  1. Financial incentives and purchase restrictions in a food benefit program affect the types of foods and beverages purchased: results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Rydell, Sarah A; Mitchell, Nathan R; Michael Oakes, J; Elbel, Brian; Harnack, Lisa

    2017-09-16

    This research evaluated the effects of financial incentives and purchase restrictions on food purchasing in a food benefit program for low income people. Participants (n=279) were randomized to groups: 1) Incentive- 30% financial incentive for fruits and vegetables purchased with food benefits; 2) Restriction- no purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet baked goods, or candies with food benefits; 3) Incentive plus Restriction; or 4) Control- no incentive or restrictions. Participants received a study-specific debit card where funds were added monthly for 12-weeks. Food purchase receipts were collected over 16 weeks. Total dollars spent on grocery purchases and by targeted food categories were computed from receipts. Group differences were examined using general linear models. Weekly purchases of fruit significantly increased in the Incentive plus Restriction ($4.8) compared to the Restriction ($1.7) and Control ($2.1) groups (p beverage purchases significantly decreased in the Incentive plus Restriction (-$0.8 per week) and Restriction ($-1.4 per week) groups compared to the Control group (+$1.5; pfoods and beverages purchased with food program funds may support more healthful food purchases compared to no incentives or restrictions. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02643576 .

  2. Logistic strategies in purchasing process of metallurgical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grzybowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some selected logistic strategies concerning purchasing process in production companies. Costs referring to realizing and organizing purchasing process are a substantial part of total costs of a company. In order to make a company’s purchasing and supply processes efficient, it is necessary to take some steps to prepare purchasing strategy. This operation was the reason for presenting the subject in this study.

  3. REAL ESTATE PURCHASE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujorel FLOREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presented herein represents a field with good present and future perspectives, especially because real estate property is not under the incidence of a single normative act regarding the sale-purchase agreement of such goods, and given the fact that there are specific legal provisions with respect to various real estate categories and the localization of such property. The article deals with the sale-purchase agreement of various real estate categories, such as fields, buildings, the correspondent lots, urban area, farm, and forests fields, focusing on some particularities. A special care is attributed to examining the applicable laws with regard to the purchase agreements of field lands, the special conditions to be taken into account, the persons that may act as buyers, including foreigners, those without citizenship, and legal persons of a nationality other than Romanian. Finally, a special concern is given to the formalities required for legally exerting the pre-emptive right and the applicable sanctions in that respect.

  4. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  5. Children's influence on family purchase decision in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Tanvi

    2008-01-01

    The importance of children in purchase decision making has grown over the years. They not only make purchase decisions for personal consumption but they also influence family purchase decision-making (Kaur and Singh, 2006). This research looks at available literature, which is discussed with respect to children influence on product categories, decision-making stages, socialising agents like parents, peers and media and role of family communication in purchase decision making. Demographic vari...

  6. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Heijboer, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision problems. New quantitative models are developed for these decision problems using a range of mathematical techniques, thereby contributing to the further development of purchasing theory and its appliati...

  7. 48 CFR 52.207-5 - Option To Purchase Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option To Purchase....207-5 Option To Purchase Equipment. As prescribed in 7.404, insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Option To Purchase Equipment (FEB 1995) (a) The Government may purchase the equipment...

  8. Purchasing non-utility power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackeen, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses Houston Lighting and Power Company's procedure for purchasing power from cogenerators. By way of introduction, HL and P is the eighth largest electric utility in the United States in terms of kilowatt-hour sales and the second largest purchaser of natural gas in the nation. HL and P is also the principal utility providing electric service to the massive petrochemical industry in Southeast Texas. Of the 4,800 MW of cogeneration available, HL and P buys 945 MW under firm contracts, wheel 1,600 MW to other utilities, buy 400 MW under non-firm contracts and the balance is self-generation used to displace power which would otherwise be purchased from HL and P. With all this cogeneration capacity available, the problem until recently has been managing the surplus. HL and P now is finding itself in the unaccustomed position of needing to buy additional power or build plants to meet the modest growth it forecasts for Houston. The need for additional capacity coincides with the expiration of cogeneration contracts in 1993 and 1994. To meet this capacity need, they are determined to avoid buying cogeneration at a very high price and on delivery terms which do not reflect realistic benefits to their electric customers. The paper gives information on the background on PUC regulations and legislation, then briefly reviews the procedure for purchase of cogenerated power in Texas

  9. Exploring purchasing involvement in product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.; Weele, van A.J.

    2003-01-01

    With increasing outsourcing and the growing importance of product innovation as a means for creating competitive advantage, the integration of purchasing and product development processes has become a key issue for many firms. Although, consequently, the integration of purchasing and suppliers in

  10. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 13.202 Section 13.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Threshold 13.202 Purchase guidelines. (a) Solicitation, evaluation of quotations, and award. (1) To the...

  11. Determinant factors of industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of internet for business purchasing related activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shook Mei Chan; Siohong Tih

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to examine a path model and the mediating effect of perceived communication convenience towards explaining industrial purchasing personnel’s Internet adoption for business purchasing related activities. It involves sequencing paths examining the predictive effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on perceived communication convenience. Consequently, perceived communication convenience would influence Internet adoption as commun...

  12. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision

  13. 48 CFR 970.5244-1 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5244-1 Contractor purchasing system. As prescribed in 970.4403 insert the following clause: Contractor Purchasing System (AUG 2009) (a) General. The Contractor...

  14. Purchasing decision behaviour by Chinese supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study on the relative importance of supplier selection criteria as rated by seafood purchasers for Chinese supermarkets. A sample of 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu participated in the study. The purchasers rated product quality as the most...

  15. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments § 1280.217 Lamb purchases. (a...

  16. Purchase decision-making is modulated by vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Nora; Mast, Fred W; Hasler, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Purchases are driven by consumers' product preferences and price considerations. Using caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS), we investigated the role of vestibular-affective circuits in purchase decision-making. CVS is an effective noninvasive brain stimulation method, which activates vestibular and overlapping emotional circuits (e.g., the insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). Subjects were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation while they performed two purchase decision-making tasks. In Experiment 1 subjects had to decide whether to purchase or not. CVS significantly reduced probability of buying a product. In Experiment 2 subjects had to rate desirability of the products and willingness to pay (WTP) while they were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation. CVS modulated desirability of the products but not WTP. The results suggest that CVS interfered with emotional circuits and thus attenuated the pleasant and rewarding effect of acquisition, which in turn reduced purchase probability. The present findings contribute to the rapidly growing literature on the neural basis of purchase decision-making.

  17. The influence of marketing communications on the consumer path to purchase for both online and in-store purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Pallant, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the way online browsing and online or in-store purchasing behaviours evolve across the purchases customers make from a brand, and how this is influenced by the marketing communications that customers receive from that brand and its competitors. A sample of customers of three different retail brands are tracked over a two year period, and changes to browsing and purchase behaviour are observed. A model is developed which predicts the way customers are most likely to evolve...

  18. Effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance on purchase price of Thoroughbreds at 2-year-old in-training sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie A; Brown, Murray P; Chmielewski, Terese L; Trumble, Troy N; Zimmel, Dana N; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2012-12-01

    To determine the effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance (speed) on purchase price of 2-year-old in-training Thoroughbreds and to compare the distance exercised within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales between horses with high yearling sale purchase prices versus those with low yearling sale purchase prices and between horses with lameness during training and those without lameness during training. Prospective study. 51 Thoroughbreds. Thoroughbreds purchased at a yearling sale were trained prior to resale at 2-year-old in-training sales. Amount of exercise and lameness status during training and speed of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales were determined. Data were analyzed via the Wilcoxon rank sum test and ANOVA. Median purchase price of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales was $37,000. The 2-year-old in-training sale purchase price was associated with yearling sale purchase price and distance galloped within 60 days prior to and speed recorded at 2-year-old in-training sales. Horses with high yearling sale purchase prices typically had high 2-year-old in-training sale purchase prices, had low distances galloped within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales, and were classified as fast at 2-year-old in-training sales. Lameness alone was not associated with 2-year-old in-training sales purchase price. However, lameness was associated with a low distance galloped before 2-year-old in-training sales, particularly for horses with a high yearling sale purchase price; this finding suggested that yearling sale purchase price can affect training management decisions for horses with lameness.

  19. Management of purchase process in realization of building investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radoń

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In building companies process of product and service purchase is one of the main processes of quality management system [1]. Because ofshort time-limits of contract realization, high specialization of works, necessity of fulfillment of high quality requirements and assurance of profitable financial effects the management of purchase process becomes very important element of work of the building company. The serious problem in creating and keeping the efficient system of purchase management is special type of purchase in building companies. Particular investments are realized in different country regions, objects are built based on the individual design documentations and each building becomes independent organization unit that organize purchase necessary for investment realization.An example of the management system of purchase process in building company is described in the paper. Just In Time system is widelyused during the realization of building investment. This system is especially useful in buildings because some investments, especially inbig cities, are characterized by restriction in building site. This makes impossible storing the products. In such cases close synchronization between times of delivery and requirements of purchase schedule and schedule of building realization is very important. Criteria of supplier selection as well as the methods of choosing the supplier are also presented in the paper. Special attention is paid to necessity of valuation of the purchase efficiency and the purchase risk. Basic coefficients of purchase efficiency are also described in the paper.

  20. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country or...

  1. Customers' willingness to purchase new store brands

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Stephan; Dobbelstein, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing customers’ willingness to purchase new store brands. Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops a 3 £ 3 design to investigate the impact of price and quality positioning on the willingness to purchase new store brands in five product groups. A total of 990 respondents completed a questionnaire about store brand perception, aspects of purchasing behavior and willingness to buy. Data are analyzed with analysis...

  2. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  3. Adolescent Purchasing Behavior at McDonald's and Subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Kayekjian, Karen C; Velasquez, Paz; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as "healthy" (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald's). We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald's and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald's and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald's, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute sleep deprivation increases food purchasing in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Emil K; Nilsson, Victor C; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2013-12-01

    To investigate if acute sleep deprivation affects food purchasing choices in a mock supermarket. On the morning after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or after one night of sleep, 14 normal-weight men were given a fixed budget (300 SEK-approximately 50 USD). They were instructed to purchase as much as they could out of a possible 40 items, including 20 high-caloric foods (>2 kcal/g) and 20 low-caloric foods (foods were then varied (75%, 100% (reference price), and 125%) to determine if TSD affects the flexibility of food purchasing. Before the task, participants received a standardized breakfast, thereby minimizing the potential confound produced by hunger. In addition, morning plasma concentrations of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin were measured under fasting conditions. Independent of both type of food offered and price condition, sleep-deprived men purchased significantly more calories (+9%) and grams (+18%) of food than they did after one night of sleep (both P food purchasing. This experiment demonstrates that acute sleep loss alters food purchasing behavior in men. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. Analysis of Static and Dynamic E-Reference Content at a Multi-Campus University Shows, that Updated Content is Associated with Greater Annual Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To discover whether there is a difference in use over time between dynamically updated and changing subscription e-reference titles and collections, and static purchased e-reference titles and collections. Design – Case study. Setting – A multi-campus Canadian university with 9,200 students enrolled in both graduate and undergraduate programs. Subjects – E-reference book packages and individual e-reference titles. Methods – The author compared data from individual e-reference books and packages. First, individual subscription e-reference books that periodically added updated content were compared to individually purchased e-reference books that remained static after purchase. The author then compared two e-reference book packages that provided new and updated content to two static e-reference book packages. The author compared data from patron usage to new content added over time using regression analysis. Main Results – As the library acquired e-reference titles, dynamic title subscriptions added to the collection were associated with 2,246 to 4,635 views per subscription while static title additions were associated with 8 to 123 views per purchase. The author also found that there was a strong linear relationship between views and dynamic titles added to the collection (R2=0.79 and a very weak linear relationship (R2=0.18 with views when static titles are added to the collection. Regression analysis of dynamic e-reference collections revealed that the number of titles added to each collection was strongly associated with views of the material (R2=0.99, while static e-reference collections were less strongly linked (R2=0.43. Conclusion – Dynamic e-reference titles and collections experienced increases in usage each year while static titles and collections experienced decreases in usage. This indicates that collections and titles that offer new content to users each year will continue to see growth in usage while static

  6. U.S. Residential Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices, Q4 2013 Benchmarks: Cash Purchase, Fair Market Value, and Prepaid Lease Transaction Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; James, T. L.; Margolis, R.; Fu, R.; Feldman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. This report provides a Q4 2013 update for residential PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variation in business models, labor rates, and module choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.29/W for modeled standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon residential PV systems installed in the United States. This is a 46% decline from the 2013-dollar-adjusted price reported in the Q4 2010 benchmark report. In addition, this report frames the cash purchase price in the context of key price metrics relevant to the continually evolving landscape of third-party-owned PV systems by benchmarking the minimum sustainable lease price and the fair market value of residential PV systems.

  7. Trends in added sugars from packaged beverages available and purchased by US households, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Ostrowski, Jessica D; Li, Kuo-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Background: The US Food and Drug Administration's updated nutrition labeling requirements will include added sugars starting in July 2018, but no measure currently exists to identify the added sugar content of products and what it represents among purchases. Beverages are one of the first targets for reducing added sugar consumption, and hence are the focus here. Objective: Our goal was to estimate trends in added sugars in nonalcoholic packaged beverage products available in the United States and to estimate amounts of added sugars obtained from these beverages given the purchases of US households overall and by subpopulations. Design: On the basis of nutrition label data from multiple sources, we used a stepwise approach to derive the added sugar content of 160,713 beverage products recorded as purchased by US households in 2007-2012 (345,193 observations from 110,539 unique households). We estimated the amounts of added sugars obtained from packaged beverages US households reported buying in 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012, overall and by subpopulations based on household composition, race/ethnicity, and income. The key outcomes are added sugars in terms of per capita grams per day and the percentage of calories from packaged beverages. Results: Packaged beverages alone account for per capita consumption of 12 g/d of added sugars purchased by US households in 2007-2012, representing 32-48% of calories from packaged beverages. Whereas the absolute amount of added sugars from beverages has not changed meaningfully over time, the relative contribution of added sugars to calories from beverages has increased. Non-Hispanic black households and low-income households obtain both higher absolute and relative amounts of added sugars from beverages than non-Hispanic white households and high-income households (all P beverages at both the product level and the population level in the United States and can be used for comparisons after the revised nutrition labels are

  8. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased

    OpenAIRE

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Findings Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation...

  9. THE ROLE OF MINDFULNESS IN UNETHICAL PURCHASING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Hui; Lin, Chieh-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Negotiation occurs all the time in purchasing practices ofbusinesses, and is inevitable for purchasing professionals when encounteringpurchasing conflict. Ethical negotiation is considered the vital requirement inmaintaining long-term and close buyer-supplier relationships. This study aimsto explore the relationship between mindfulness and unethical negotiation. Methodology- This study will take purchasing professionals inTaiwan as research subjects to investigate the relationship be...

  10. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...

  11. INFLUENCE OF THE BRAND ON PURCHASE DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISS MARTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the brand on purchase decision has been and is still extensively studied by marketers, researchers, economists, manufacturers (especially the multinational companies. In the present study we aimed to find out if the brand influences the purchase decision of consumers in general (brand products/services. A survey has been conducted in September 2016 on a number of 225 people, residents of Tîrgu Mureş city, from Romania, aged between 15 and 65+. The collected data were analyzed to comply with the obiectives and also to draw conclusions. From the study it is reveal that the purchase decision of a potencial buyer is influenced by a number of factors, in particularly by the quality and price. We chose to study the influence of brand on purchase decision, a very topical subject that can never be fully exhausted.

  12. Household Portfolio Choice Before and After House Purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Ran Sun; Zhou, Jie

    2017-01-01

    around 61% of them to down payments when buying a house. Liquid wealth stay low after a house purchase and start to increase 3 years later; (ii) the risky asset participation rate drops 2 percentage points – a 6.2% decline – at the year of house purchase. The drop is larger for households with wealth...... above the median level; and (iii) conditional on participation, the risky asset share decreases and reaches the lowest point 1 year before a house purchase, but it jumps immediately after. This suggests that of the three channels identified in the literature that could affect the conditional risky share......We study the temporal patterns of household portfolio choice of liquid wealth over a 7-year period around house purchase, using unique administrative panel data from Denmark. We find that (i) households accumulate significantly more liquid wealth in a few years before a house purchase and convert...

  13. Exploring Customer Purchasing Intention over Online Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Samadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the correlation among perceived benefits, perceived risks and perceived website quality towards online purchasing intention with one of the online store in Singapore. This study used online questionnaire survey to collect 180 completed responses of male and female Singaporean aged 20 and above. The findings showed that there was a significant correlation between perceived benefits, perceived website quality and online purchasing intention while there was no significant correlation between perceived risks and online purchasing intention. Implication and limitation of this study also discussed.

  14. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased ...

  15. Designing ordering and inventory management methodologies for purchased parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Looman, Arnold; Ruffini, F.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a method for redesigning the ordering and inventory management methodologies for purchased parts in a manufacturing firm. The method takes the perspective of the purchasing and logistics manager, defines clusters of purchased items, and subsequently assigns each cluster to a

  16. Implications of a classification of forms of cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan; Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Dittrich, K.; Jaspers, F.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Our main objective is to classify different forms of cooperative purchasing, i.e. purchasing groups. Based on a literature review, empirical findings, and new institutional economics we employ a classification: the highway matrix. In this matrix we distinguish five forms of cooperative purchasing

  17. THE NEW PURCHASING SERVICE PAGE NOW ON THE WEB!

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2000-01-01

    Users of CERN's Purchasing Service are encouraged to visit the new Purchasing Service web page, accessible from the CERN homepage or directly at: http://spl-purchasing.web.cern.ch/spl-purchasing/ There, you will find answers to questions such as: Who are the buyers? What do I need to know before creating a DAI? How many offers do I need? Where shall I send the offer I received? I know the amount of my future requirement, how do I proceed? How are contracts adjudicated at CERN? Which exhibitions and visits of Member State companies are foreseen in the future? A company I know is interested in making a presentation at CERN, who should they contact? Additionally, you will find information concerning: The Purchasing procedures Market Surveys and Invitations to Tender The Industrial Liaison Officers appointed in each Member State The Purchasing Broker at CERN

  18. Predictability in Pathological Gambling? Applying the Duplication of Purchase Law to the Understanding of Cross-Purchases Between Regular and Pathological Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Desmond; Mizerski, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the gambling participations and game purchase duplication of light regular, heavy regular and pathological gamblers by applying the Duplication of Purchase Law. Current study uses data collected by the Australian Productivity Commission for eight different types of games. Key behavioral statistics on light regular, heavy regular, and pathological gamblers were computed and compared. The key finding is that pathological gambling, just like regular gambling, follows the Duplication of Purchase Law, which states that the dominant factor of purchase duplication between two brands is their market shares. This means that gambling between any two games at pathological level, like any regular consumer purchases, exhibits "law-like" regularity based on the pathological gamblers' participation rate of each game. Additionally, pathological gamblers tend to gamble more frequently across all games except lotteries and instant as well as make greater cross-purchases compared to heavy regular gamblers. A better understanding of the behavioral traits between regular (particularly heavy regular) and pathological gamblers can be useful to public policy makers and social marketers in order to more accurately identify such gamblers and better manage the negative impacts of gambling.

  19. THE USE OF PARTNERSHIP IN PURCHASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA SIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The partnership is now increasingly used in all areas thanks to the synergy it implies and of the benefits demonstrated. And in today's economy benefits of the partnership are widely recognized. Partnership in purchase makes no exception. This paper presents the benefits of a partnership-based purchases compared to those of traditional purchasing. Less well known is that a partnership built and/or implemented incorrectly and may result in additional costs and thus lead to disadvantages for both companies. For this reason, the paper aims to present what a partnership is, to show which steps should be taken to build a successful partnership and to exemplify through companies which have implemented correctly this type of collaboration, obtaining exceptional results.

  20. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  1. Critical success factors for managing purchasing groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan; de Boer, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we identify critical success factors for managing small and intensive purchasing groups by comparing successful and unsuccessful purchasing groups in a large-scale survey. The analysis of our data set suggests the following success factors: no enforced participation, sufficient

  2. 5 CFR 4001.105 - Purchase of System institution assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System institution assets... SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION § 4001.105 Purchase of System institution assets. (a) Prohibition on purchasing assets owned by a System...

  3. 5 CFR 4101.105 - Purchase of System institution assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION § 4101.105 Purchase of System institution assets. (a) Prohibition on purchasing assets owned by a System institution. No covered employee, or... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System institution assets...

  4. At first sight - How is SME purchasing organised? : Discussing research process, the role of customer strategies & personality of owners and purchasing improvement, based on students’ purchasing case studies within four Dutch manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Anne; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Paper for the WION - Werkgemeenschap Inkoop Onderzoek Nederland - 2015, 3rd version. Purchasing within Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is important for the overall SME firm performance. However, purchasing within SMEs is not the same as purchasing within larger organisations and there is

  5. Move of Purchasing Offices TS – AB* – AT*

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The TS – AB* - AT* Purchasing Offices and the Purchasing Pool have moved to Building 5 – 2nd and *3rd floors. The phone and fax numbers are unchanged. We apologize for any inconvenience caused by the move. Thank you for your understanding. Finance Department – Purchasing Service.

  6. 20 CFR 404.1519f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the specific... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 404.1519f...

  7. An industrial customer's view of changes in electricity purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muiznieks, R.

    1995-01-01

    The purchasing agent for Canadian Occidental Chemicals described his experiences in the purchase of electricity under the new circumstances of competition. Electrical power costs for Canadian Occidental's manufacturing operation were described as a key consideration in expanding their chlorate production. The ideal purchasing scheme was described from the purchaser's standpoint. A list of what purchasers wish to gain from increased supplier choices was provided. The behaviour of the electricity suppliers that provide power to CanadianOccidental was described since changes in British Columbia's electric power regulations were enacted. Electric utility marketing practices in Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta were noted in comparison. It was prophesized that deeregulation will ultimately benefit consumers and provincial economies, by transforming the power industry into a customer driven industry

  8. Developing logistic regression models using purchase attributes and demographics to predict the probability of purchases of regular and specialty eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaei, M; Wiseman, K; Cheng, K M

    2015-01-01

    Consumers' interest in specialty eggs appears to be growing in Europe and North America. The objective of this research was to develop logistic regression models that utilise purchaser attributes and demographics to predict the probability of a consumer purchasing a specific type of table egg including regular (white and brown), non-caged (free-run, free-range and organic) or nutrient-enhanced eggs. These purchase prediction models, together with the purchasers' attributes, can be used to assess market opportunities of different egg types specifically in British Columbia (BC). An online survey was used to gather data for the models. A total of 702 completed questionnaires were submitted by BC residents. Selected independent variables included in the logistic regression to develop models for different egg types to predict the probability of a consumer purchasing a specific type of table egg. The variables used in the model accounted for 54% and 49% of variances in the purchase of regular and non-caged eggs, respectively. Research results indicate that consumers of different egg types exhibit a set of unique and statistically significant characteristics and/or demographics. For example, consumers of regular eggs were less educated, older, price sensitive, major chain store buyers, and store flyer users, and had lower awareness about different types of eggs and less concern regarding animal welfare issues. However, most of the non-caged egg consumers were less concerned about price, had higher awareness about different types of table eggs, purchased their eggs from local/organic grocery stores, farm gates or farmers markets, and they were more concerned about care and feeding of hens compared to consumers of other eggs types.

  9. Finding purchase activity patterns in small & medium enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Geert J.

    2015-01-01

    Finding purchase activity patterns in Small & Medium Enterprises in a research program to enable SMEs to improve their purchase and company performance. Posterpresentatie KCO conferentie, 16 november 2015.

  10. 20 CFR 416.919f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the specific... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 416.919f...

  11. Organising purchasing and (strategic) sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina; Boer, Harry; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2015-01-01

    mature role in corporate strategy. These changes have serious implications for the purchasing process, its characteristics and organisation. Previous research indicates that none of the prevailing solutions, functional departments and cross-functional teams, embedded in a centralised, decentralised...... or hybrid overall structure, deliver the expected results. Contingency theory predicts that the success of a firm depends on the fit among characteristics of, amongst others, the firm’s processes and organisational structure. The objective of this paper is to propose and illustrate a processbased...... typological theory of purchasing and (strategic) sourcing organisation....

  12. Waiting for Merlot: anticipatory consumption of experiential and material purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Gilovich, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Experiential purchases (money spent on doing) tend to provide more enduring happiness than material purchases (money spent on having). Although most research comparing these two types of purchases has focused on their downstream hedonic consequences, the present research investigated hedonic differences that occur before consumption. We argue that waiting for experiences tends to be more positive than waiting for possessions. Four studies demonstrate that people derive more happiness from the anticipation of experiential purchases and that waiting for an experience tends to be more pleasurable and exciting than waiting to receive a material good. We found these effects in studies using questionnaires involving a variety of actual planned purchases, in a large-scale experience-sampling study, and in an archival analysis of news stories about people waiting in line to make a purchase. Consumers derive value from anticipation, and that value tends to be greater for experiential than for material purchases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Assessment of perception and intention in pesticide purchase in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jong Chao; Liao, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-05-01

    Environmental chemical agents such as pesticides can be purchased easily at a relatively low price, and this has resulted in high concern of environmental toxicity to human health, due to their persistence in various environmental bodies. Hence, this study aims to propose important factors influencing pesticide purchase intentions, including consumers' perceptions of the brand image and the ecological health risk. Since consumers are primary users, the seller knows the product's features but not the psychology of those who purchase it. Therefore, we attempted to clarify purchase intentions and perceptions using structural equation modeling techniques to empirically analyze survey data from 324 pesticide consumers in Taiwan. Our results demonstrate that perceived brand image positively affects perceived quality of a product, whereas perceived risk negatively affects perceived quality and purchase intentions. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that perceived quality positively affects purchase intentions. These relationships suggest that perceived quality mediates both the positive association between brand image and purchase intentions and the negative association between perceived risk and purchase intentions. Based on such outcomes, we propose that consumers need to be informed of pesticides related to costs and environmental benefits.

  14. Obesity prevention at the point of purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Lesser, L I

    2016-05-01

    The point of purchase is when people may make poor and impulsive decisions about what and how much to buy and consume. Because point of purchase strategies frequently work through non-cognitive processes, people are often unable to recognize and resist them. Because people lack insight into how marketing practices interfere with their ability to routinely eat healthy, balanced diets, public health entities should protect consumers from potentially harmful point of purchase strategies. We describe four point of purchase policy options including standardized portion sizes; standards for meals that are sold as a bundle, e.g. 'combo meals'; placement and marketing restrictions on highly processed low-nutrient foods; and explicit warning labels. Adoption of such policies could contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We also discuss how the policies could be implemented, along with who might favour or oppose them. Many of the policies can be implemented locally, while preserving consumer choice. © 2016 World Obesity.

  15. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Matea; Puh, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Ma...

  16. Family Structure and Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Coe, Norma B.; Konetzka, R. Tamara

    2015-01-01

    While it has long been assumed that family structure and potential sources of informal care play a large role in the purchase decisions for long-term care insurance (LTCI), current empirical evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the relationship between family structure and LTCI purchase and addresses several major limitations of the prior literature by using a long panel of data and considering modern family relationships, such as presence of stepchildren. We find that family structure characteristics from one’s own generation, particularly about one’s spouse, are associated with purchase, but that few family structure attributes from the younger generation have an influence. Family factors that may indicate future caregiver supply are negatively associated with purchase: having a coresidential child, signaling close proximity, and having a currently working spouse, signaling a healthy and able spouse, that LTC planning has not occurred yet, or that there is less need for asset protection afforded by LTCI. Dynamic factors, such as increasing wealth or turning 65, are associated with higher likelihood of LTCI purchase. PMID:25760583

  17. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Leasing Versus Purchasing Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arceneaux, Alan

    1997-01-01

    .... In constructing this model, several factors were considered, including: The purchase cost of computer equipment, annual lease payments, depreciation costs, the opportunity cost of purchasing, tax revenue implications and various leasing terms...

  18. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  19. 26 CFR 1.405-1 - Qualified bond purchase plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchase plan must conform to the definition of a pension plan in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of § 1.401-1, or the.... Accordingly, even though a qualified bond purchase plan is designed as a pension plan, it need not provide... apply in a nondiscriminatory manner. (ii) A qualified bond purchase plan which is designed as a pension...

  20. Consumer-purchasing Motives in Nigerian Cellular Phone Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumer-purchasing Motives in Nigerian Cellular Phone Market: An Empirical Investigation. ... Nigerian consumers to identify their motives for purchasing new mobile phones on one hand, and factors affecting operator choice on the other.

  1. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Zendehdel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vital subject in research because they directly influence users’ attitude toward online purchasing. The structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the data gathered on students using e-commerce, and, thus, to validate the model. According to the results, consumers’ attitude toward online purchasing affects the intention toward online purchasing. The other influential factors are compatibility, relative advantage, and subjective norm.

  2. Stakeholder challenges in purchasing medical devices for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Saba; Dickerson, Terry; Clarkson, John

    2013-03-01

    This study identifies the stakeholders who have a role in medical device purchasing within the wider system of health-care delivery and reports on their particular challenges to promote patient safety during purchasing decisions. Data was collected through observational work, participatory workshops, and semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were analyzed and coded. The study takes a systems-based and engineering design approach to the study. Five hospitals took part in this study, and the participants included maintenance, training, clinical end-users, finance, and risk departments. The main stakeholders for purchasing were identified to be staff from clinical engineering (Maintenance), device users (Clinical), device trainers (Training), and clinical governance for analyzing incidents involving devices (Risk). These stakeholders display varied characteristics in terms of interpretation of their own roles, competencies for selecting devices, awareness and use of resources for purchasing devices, and attitudes toward the purchasing process. The role of "clinical engineering" is seen by these stakeholders to be critical in mediating between training, technical, and financial stakeholders but not always recognized in practice. The findings show that many device purchasing decisions are tackled in isolation, which is not optimal for decisions requiring knowledge that is currently distributed among different people within different departments. The challenges expressed relate to the wider system of care and equipment management, calling for a more systemic view of purchasing for medical devices.

  3. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  4. Webinar: Simplifying Sustainable Purchasing Through Guidelines and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar will cover EPA’s effort to simplify green purchasing through recommendations of specifications, standards, and ecolabels. EPA’s work in this area is intended to help federal purchasers identify and procure environmentally sustainable products.

  5. The foreign exchange market: return distributions, multifractality, anomalous multifractality and the Epps effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł; Rak, Rafał

    2010-10-01

    We present a systematic study of various statistical characteristics of high-frequency returns from the foreign exchange market. This study is based on six exchange rates forming two triangles: EUR-GBP-USD and GBP-CHF-JPY. It is shown that the exchange rate return fluctuations for all of the pairs considered are well described by the non-extensive statistics in terms of q-Gaussians. There exist some small quantitative variations in the non-extensivity q-parameter values for different exchange rates (which depend also on the time scales studied), and this can be related to the importance of a given exchange rate in the world's currency trade. Temporal correlations organize the series of returns such that they develop the multifractal characteristics for all of the exchange rates, with a varying degree of symmetry of the singularity spectrum f(α), however. The most symmetric spectrum is identified for the GBP/USD. We also form time series of triangular residual returns and find that the distributions of their fluctuations develop disproportionately heavier tails as compared to small fluctuations, which excludes description in terms of q-Gaussians. The multifractal characteristics of these residual returns reveal such anomalous properties as negative singularity exponents and even negative singularity spectra. Such anomalous multifractal measures have so far been considered in the literature in connection with diffusion-limited aggregation and with turbulence. Studying the cross-correlations among different exchange rates, we found that market inefficiency on short time scales leads to the occurrence of the Epps effect on much longer time scales, but comparable to the ones for the stock market. Although the currency market is much more liquid than the stock markets and has a much greater transaction frequency, the building up of correlations takes up to several hours—a duration that does not differ much from what is observed in the stock markets. This may suggest

  6. Determinants of intention to purchase leisure travel over the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Moital, Miguel; Vaughan, Roger; Edwards, Jonathan; Peres, Rita

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 years on since the launch of the Internet, there are clear differential levels of adoption of the Internet for purchasing leisure travel across countries. In some countries, such as Portugal, only a minority of travel purchasing is conducted over the Internet. This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of adoption of purchasing over the Internet by evaluating the determinants of intention to adopt the Internet for purchasing leisure travel. A number of variables are...

  7. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  8. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Using Grocery Store Tour Podcasts About Omega-3s Increases Long-Term Purchases of Omega-3-Rich Food Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangia, Deepika; Shaffner, Donald W; Palmer-Keenan, Debra M

    2017-06-01

    To assess the impacts associated with a grocery store tour point-of-purchase intervention using podcasts about omega-3 fatty acid (n-3)-rich food items. A repeated-measures secondary data analysis of food purchase records obtained from a convenience sample of shoppers' loyalty cards. Shoppers (n = 251) who had listened to podcasts regarding n-3-rich foods while shopping. The number of omega-3-rich food purchases made according to food or food category by participants determined via spreadsheets obtained from grocery store chain. Descriptive statistics were performed on demographic characteristics. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to assess whether food purchases increased from 6 months before to 6 months after intervention. Correlations assessed the relationship between intentions to purchase n-3-rich foods expressed on the intervention day with actual long-term n-3-rich food purchases. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVAs and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyze differences between changes made and demographic variables (ie, participants' gender, race, and education levels). Most shoppers (59%) increased n-3-rich food purchases, with significant mean purchase changes (t[172] = -6.9; P < .001; pre = 0.2 ± 0.7; post = 3.6 ± 5.1). Podcasts are promising nutrition education tools. Longer studies could assess whether lasting change results from podcast use. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) is part of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) long-standing effort to link Medicares payment system to a...

  10. INVENTORY DECISIONS WITH DECREASING PURCHASING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    XIANGPEI HU; HUIMIN WANG; YUNZENG WANG

    2012-01-01

    Costs of many items drop systematically throughout their life-cycles, due to advances in technology and competition. Motivated by the management of service parts for some high-tech products, this paper studies inventory decisions for such items. In a periodic review setting with stochastic demand, we model the purchasing costs of successive periods as a stochastic and decreasing sequence. Unit selling price of the item is determined as some mark-up of the purchasing cost and, hence, will chan...

  11. 43 CFR 30.164 - What must I do to purchase at probate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEARINGS PROCEDURES Purchase at Probate § 30.164 What must I do to purchase at probate? Any eligible purchaser must submit a written request to OHA to purchase at probate before the decision or order is issued. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I do to purchase at probate? 30...

  12. Comparison of Cooperative and Noncooperative Purchasing in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Beth W.; Strohbehn, Catherine; Shelly, Mark C.; Arendt, Susan; Gregoire, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare food cost and public school foodservice directors' satisfaction between districts participating in school foodservice cooperatives or group purchasing arrangements and districts purchasing independently. It also assessed the prevalence of purchasing cooperatives in school foodservice and…

  13. Who is the purchaser of nutrition-labeled products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Koch-Hansen, Pia

    2017-01-01

    and in the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach We estimate probit models using a representative panel of households registering all their daily purchases during a year, three years after the introduction of a nutrition symbol in Denmark and the Netherlands (the Keyhole and the Choices). The purchase data is matched...... with information about labelling status. Other product and purchase characteristics, such as store-type and organic, are controlled for. Findings Households with children tend to have a lower probability of purchasing labelled products compared to other household types, while urbanity increases the probability...... that other aspects as the underlying attitudes and general health awareness may be of greater importance in identifying these consumers. Originality/value There is a lack of studies analyzing the effect of Front-of-Pack symbols on households’ product choices based on observed data as most previous studies...

  14. Determinants of Insurance Purchase Decision Making in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbinaite, Aurelija; Kucinskiene, Marija; Le Moullec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the examination of insurance consumer behaviour in Lithuania. The purpose of the work is to determine the factors that explain the insurance service purchase decision of the Lithuanian citizens. To this end, a structured 5-point Likert scale questionnaire-based survey...... is employed to collect data. A research model composed of two main stages (purchase inclination and decision) is proposed. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis are used to determine how the factors are formed and what their relative weights are. Five factors are identified: the acceptability...... to decide to actually purchase them; the higher degree or education acquired by the individuals, the fewer factors impact their insurance purchase decision: masters and doctors of science evaluate only the insurance service provider’s competence, while bachelors, besides the insurer’s competence, are also...

  15. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epp Petrone lemmikreisiraamatud / Epp Petrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petrone, Epp, 1974-

    2013-01-01

    Tutvustus: Bryson, Bill. Ei siin ega seal : reisid Euroopas. [Tallinn] : Tänapäev, c2011 ; Grzimek, Bernhard. Serengeti ei tohi surra. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1978 ; Kaun, Eeva. Minu India : mister Singhi surm ja tuhat tassi chai'd. [Tartu] : Petrone Print, c2012

  17. Parental Characteristics and Reasons Associated With Purchasing Kids' Meals for Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Park, Sohyun; Maynard, Leah M; Blanck, Heidi M; McGuire, Lisa C; Collins, Janet L

    2018-02-01

    Characteristics of parents who purchased kids' meals, reasons for the purchase, and desire for healthy options were examined. Quantitative, cross-sectional study. National. The SummerStyles survey data of 1147 parents (≥18 years). Self-reported outcome variables were purchase of kids' meals (yes/no), reasons for the purchase (13 choices), and desire for healthy options (yes/no). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for purchasing kids' meals based on parental sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Over half (51%) of parents reported purchasing kids' meals in the past month. The adjusted OR of purchasing kids' meals were significantly higher among younger parents (OR = 3.44 vs ≥50 years) and among parents who consumed sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily (OR = 2.70 vs none). No differences were found for race/ethnicity, income, and education. Parents who purchased kids' meals reported that the top 3 reasons for purchase were (1) because their children asked for kids' meals, (2) habit, and (3) offering of healthier sides such as fruits or fruit cups. Thirty-seven percent of parents who did not purchase kids' meals expressed willingness to purchase kids' meals if healthy options were available; this willingness was highest among younger parents (47%; P Kids' meal purchases were somewhat common. Our findings on characteristics of parents who frequently bought kids' meals (ie, younger parents and SSB consumers), common reasons for purchasing kids' meals, and willingness to buy healthier kids' meal can be used to inform intervention efforts to improve quality of kids' meals.

  18. 48 CFR 32.1108 - Payment by Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Governmentwide commercial purchase card. A Governmentwide commercial purchase card charge authorizes the third... payment requests by a charge to a Government account with the third party at the time the payment clause(s... commercial purchase card. 32.1108 Section 32.1108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  19. Multi-agent simulation of purchasing activities in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; de Boer, L.; Sitar-Pop, C.E.; Yucesan, E.; Chen, C.H.; Snowdon, J.L.; Charnes, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-agent simulation model to investigate purchasing activities in an organizational environment. The starting point is the observation that the majority of purchasing activities in organizations are usually performed without any involvement of the organization's

  20. Advertising, marketing and purchase behavior for energy-related products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, K.; Nelson, D.

    1998-07-01

    Energy conservation programs have relied heavily on incentives and regulatory standards to reduce residential energy consumption. However, in the changing market environment characterized by competitive pressures, alternative mechanisms such as marketing and promotions may increase substantially in importance compared to the demand-side management programs which have been the focus of most research. This paper describes the role of marketing and promotions in encouraging energy efficiency at the household level in British Columbia. The paper examines three related issues: first, the purchase process for energy-related products; second, the criteria used by customers in making purchase decisions; and third, the impact and effectiveness of alternative marketing tools. A key finding is the energy-related purchases do not fall into the impulse purchase category. There are two reasons for this: first, most of these products require installation and this requires a high level of commitment on the part of the purchaser; second, many energy-related products require a significant outlay of funds and this reduces impulse buying.

  1. Consumer attitudes toward food consumption and purchase in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Asli; Ozdoğan, Yahya; Ozçelik, Ayşe Özfer

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Ankara Province of Turkey to determine the attitudes of adult consumers toward food consumption and purchasing activities. The data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews with 700 adults working in ministries (government office) to fill in a questionnaire prepared especially for this purpose. The responses to the questionnaire were evaluated by assigning points for the "food-consumption-and-purchasing attitudes" of each respondent based on their replies. These food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points have been then analyzed in terms of the gender, age, and educational level of the adults involved. The results showed that women, the 30-39 age group, and university graduates have a higher score of food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points than do men, the age group comprising respondents < 30 and ≥ 40 years of age, and those with lower education levels, respectively. A statistically significantly relation was observed between food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points and age.

  2. Tackling alcohol misuse: purchasing patterns affected by minimum pricing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, Anne; Petrie, Dennis; McKenzie, Lynda; Farrar, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a range of health and social harms that increase with the level of consumption. Policy makers are interested in effective and cost-effective interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and associated harms. Economic theory and research evidence demonstrate that increasing price is effective at the population level. Price interventions that target heavier consumers of alcohol may be more effective at reducing alcohol-related harms with less impact on moderate consumers. Minimum pricing per unit of alcohol has been proposed on this basis but concerns have been expressed that 'moderate drinkers of modest means' will be unfairly penalized. If those on low incomes are disproportionately affected by a policy that removes very cheap alcohol from the market, the policy could be regressive. The effect on households' budgets will depend on who currently purchases cheaper products and the extent to which the resulting changes in prices will impact on their demand for alcohol. This paper focuses on the first of these points. This paper aims to identify patterns of purchasing of cheap off-trade alcohol products, focusing on income and the level of all alcohol purchased. Three years (2006-08) of UK household survey data were used. The Expenditure and Food Survey provides comprehensive 2-week data on household expenditure. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the purchase of cheap off-trade alcohol, household income levels and whether the household level of alcohol purchasing is categorized as moderate, hazardous or harmful, while controlling for other household and non-household characteristics. Predicted probabilities and quantities for cheap alcohol purchasing patterns were generated for all households. The descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that low-income households are not the predominant purchasers of any alcohol or even of cheap alcohol. Of those who do purchase off-trade alcohol

  3. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-W; Sung, H-Y; Yang, C-L; Shih, S-F

    2003-03-01

    Since market liberalization in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT dollars 4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT dollars 10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes--a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT 1000/month dollars on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT 1000 dollars (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is the most

  4. Purchasing social responsibility : a conceptual study

    OpenAIRE

    Mørk, Eirik; Solheim, Kristian Hauge

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on Purchasing Social Responsibility (PSR). Suppliers play an important role in the overall corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts of the purchasing firm. The purpose of this paper is to explore potential firm performance effects from PSR, which contributes to an area of research that is limited at this point. The aim is to develop a survey instrument based on a set of formulated hypotheses and a conceptual framework. These are grounded in a literature review of core ...

  5. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....

  6. ANTESEDEN CUSTOMER SATISFACTION DAN DAMPAKNYA PADA PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Banjarnahor

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the effects of service quality and customer experience to customer satisfaction and its impact on purchase intention of costumer internet services in West Jakarta. This research used hypothesis testing as a research design. The primary data were obtained through questionnaire distributed to 180 respondents who should be users of internet services from Telkomsel, Telkomsel Grapari West Jakarta. Data was anlyzed by Structural Equation Method (SEM. The results showed there were positives service qualities and customer experience effects to customer satisfaction. There were positive customer satisfaction effects to purchase intention. There were positive effects of service quality and customer experience to purchase intention. Implications for managers are to increase purchase intention through fulfilled customer satisfaction led from good service quality and customer experience. For reasearch, it can be done in other service providers and by adding extra variables, such as coporate image and brand trust.

  7. ADOLESCENT INFLUENCE ON FAMILY PURCHASING DECISIONS: RESEARCH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Tor Kadioglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social, and cultural changes in the modern world have made adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 important influences on family purchasing decisions. No longer solely users of products and services, adolescents now influence purchasing decisions and have attracted the attention of marketers and researchers. The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in the influence of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 on family purchasing decisions depending on socio-economic and demographic factors. This study aims to determine whether changes occur regarding different product groups by establishing at which stage of the decision process adolescent influence predominates. To achieve this goal, a survey method was used as a data collection tool. Using the convenience sampling method, adolescents within the age range of 12 and 18 were interviewed in Mersin, Turkey. The research results indicate that the influence of adolescents on family purchasing decisions occurs at different stages and depends on the type of product to be purchased. The analysis further shows that adolescents’ age, gender, and number of siblings, and the family's total income, the father's level of education, and the mother's employment status also affect adolescent influence on family purchasing decisions.

  8. 5 CFR 3101.103 - Prohibition on purchase of certain assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY § 3101.103 Prohibition on purchase of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on purchase of certain assets... of the Department of the Treasury shall purchase, directly or indirectly, property: (1) Owned by the...

  9. Efeito da Proposta Cinesioterapêutica Educação Perineal Progressiva – E.P.P. na Função Dos Músculos do Assoalho Pélvico / Effect of a Kynesiotherapy Proposal: Progressive Perineal Education– P.P.E. in the Pelvic Floor Muscles Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Cavalli de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar o efeito das duas primeiras fases do protocolo de cinesioterapia E.P.P na função dos MAP, na sintomatologia da IU e na qualidade de vida de mulheres incontinentes usuárias, da rede pública de saúde. Materiais e Métodos: estudo piloto quasi-experimental. Sete participantes foram avaliadas por meio de questionário onde responderam questões relativas a situação de perda urinária, uso de absorventes e número de trocas desses por dia, bem como ao questionário de qualidade de vida King’s Health Questionnaire. A avaliação funcional dos MAP foi realizada de acordo com o esquema PERFECT. A aplicação do protocolo E.P.P. consistiu em 10 sessões de 1 hora e 30 minutos cada, semanalmente. Resultados: Após as duas primeiras etapas do protocolo E.P.P., houve melhora significativa na força de contração (p=0,034, na manutenção da contração (p=0,039 e no número de contrações rápidas (p=0,043 dos MAP. Adicionalmente, as mulheres relataram não perder mais urina nas situações de subir escadas, ginástica, dança e durante a relação sexual. Conclusão: as duas primeiras fases da proposta E.P.P. demonstraram efeitos positivos na função muscular dos MAP, e uma tendência na melhora dos sintomas das mulheres incontinentes. Objective: to verify the effect of the first two phases of the P.P.E kinesiotherapy in the PFM function, in the symptoms of UI and in the quality-of-life in incontinent women who are users of the Public Health Network. Materials and Methods: a quasi-experimental pilot study. Seven participants were evaluated through a questionnaire containing questions concerning the situation of urine leakage, absorbent usage and number of exchanges of these per day, as well as King's Health Questionnaire to assess the quality of life. The functional evaluation of PFM was carried out according to the PERFECT scheme. The P.P.E. protocol was applied in 10 sessions, once a week, with duration of 1 hour and 30

  10. ANTESEDEN PERCEIVED RISK PADA PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sri Rejeki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of perceived risk to purchase intention  private label products in Indonesia modern market. This study used primary data sources obtained directly by distributing questionnaires using purposive sampling techniques, gathered 200 respondents with minimum criteria of period at least 18 years while maximum of period is > 61 years and have bought private label products. The dependent variable in this study is purchase intention, while independent variables are considered functional risk, perceived financial risk, physical risk, and perception of psychological risk. Data analysis use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results indicate that there was a negative effect on financial risk, the perceived physical risk to buy an interest in functional perception, the psychological risk has no effect on purchase intention on private label product. The implications for the manager is to increase consumer buying intentions by taking into account factors such as perceptions of financial risk and perceptions of physical risk.

  11. Purchasing control, compliance and the box: purchasing management based on hard data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Purchasing management is often approached as a qualitative art. Experience, insight and managerial qualities may indeed make useful contributions. However, in addition to this, the possibilities of an approach based on hard data and figures should not be underestimated. This does not only apply to

  12. Accounting for Taste Heterogeneity in Purchase Channel Intention Modeling: An Example from Northern California for Book Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei; Mokhtarian, Patricia L

    2009-01-01

    This study uses latent class modeling (LCM) to explore the effects of channel-specific perceptions, along with other variables, on purchase channel intention. Using data on book purchases collected from an Internet-based survey of two university towns in Northern California, we develop a latent class model with two segments (final N=373). Age turns out to be the only observed determinant of class membership, and in the intention model, the mostly-younger segment is more cost-sensitive and the...

  13. Investigating the role of commercialization on purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to determine the role of commercialization on purchase intention in auto industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who lived in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors including competitive condition, product development strategy, competitive advantage and economic growth on customers’ intention to purchase. Using structural equation modeling the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between each four components and purchase intention. In our study, the highest impact belongs to competitive condition followed by product development strategy.

  14. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-07-12

    Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation) and June 2010 (post-implementation). A difference-in-difference design was used to examine the difference between estimated and actual calories purchased, and the odds of underestimating calories.Participants in both cities, both pre- and post-calorie labeling, tended to underestimate calories purchased, by an average 216-409 calories. Adjusted difference-in-differences in estimated-actual calories were significant for individuals who ordered small meals and those with some college education (accuracy in Philadelphia improved by 78 and 231 calories, respectively, relative to Baltimore, p = 0.03-0.04). However, categorical accuracy was similar; the adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for underestimation by >100 calories was 0.90 (p = 0.48) in difference-in-difference models. Accuracy was most improved for subjects with a BA or higher education (AOR = 0.25, p calories varied by subgroup, suggesting that at some level, consumers may incorporate labeling information.

  15. The effects of material and experiential discretionary purchases on consumer happiness: moderators and mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca; Millar, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Experiential purchases are differentiated from material purchases in terms of objective; experiential purchases serve the purpose of acquiring a life experience, while material purchases serve the purpose of acquiring an object. Research has demonstrated that experiential purchases are associated with more happiness than material purchases. The current study investigated two explanations for this relationship that focused on the how the purchase influenced the self and how the purchase influenced interpersonal relationships. In addition, the study explored whether social economic status would influence the strength of the relationship between the type of purchase and happiness. Participants were required to recall either a recent experiential or material purchase and rate their happiness with the purchase. Then participants completed scales designed to measure the purchase's impact on the self and interpersonal relationships. Last, participants completed a scale to measure social economic status. It was found that Impacts on the Self mediated the relationship between purchase type and happiness and Socioeconomic Status moderated the relationship.

  16. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  17. 75 FR 1541 - Purchasing of Property and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... persons; and to develop further the basis for the Postal Service's purchasing decisions and the... decision process. The SDR Official will promptly provide a copy of a disagreement to the contracting... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 601 Purchasing of Property and Services AGENCY: Postal Service TM...

  18. 7 CFR 760.104 - Risk management purchase requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk management purchase requirements. 760.104 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.104 Risk management purchase requirements. (a) To be eligible... available from the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA)) obtained catastrophic coverage or better under a...

  19. Tax credits and purchasing pools: will this marriage work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, S; Ginsburg, P B

    2001-04-01

    Bipartisan interest is growing in Congress for using federal tax credits to help low-income families buy health insurance. Regardless of the approach taken, tax credit policies must address risk selection issues to ensure coverage for the chronically ill. Proposals that link tax credits to purchasing pools would avoid risk selection by grouping risks similar to the way large employers do. Voluntary purchasing pools have had only limited success, however. This Issue Brief discusses linking tax credits to purchasing pools. It uses information from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) site visits to 12 communities as well as other research to assess the role of purchasing pools nationwide and the key issues and implications of linking tax credits and pools.

  20. Comparing Risks and Benefits for Value Enhancement of Online Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sinha

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available In a developing economy, the acceptability of e–retailing is not very new, but the potential of online marketing in market research and analysis is still largely unexplored. This article is an attempt to understand the psyche of Indian online consumers. As consumers have their own preconceived notions toward this growing purchasing environment, it becomes important for e-retailers to understand the consumers’ perceptions and attitudes toward online purchases. This paper integrates the dimensions of the risks and benefits with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB to understand how consumers adopt their online purchase processes. Four hundred and sixty-eight valid responses were analyzed using structural equation modeling on AMOS 21 to identify the relationship between the different factors and the intention to purchase online. The paper concludes that consumers’ purchase intentions are jointly determined by their attitude towards online purchases and the subjective norm. Furthermore, their attitude is determined by the sub-dimensions of perceived benefits (hedonic benefit, convenience benefit, economic benefit and variety and the sub-dimensions of perceived risk (product risk and financial risk.

  1. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Meilia Fitriyani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to show their agreements about 40 items of 5 constructs. A partial least square - structural equation modeling by Smart-PLS software used to test the model. The results of this research also comes to conclusion that motivation and stimulus factor had significant affects on consumer involvement, consumer involvement had significant influence to product knowledge as well as ONS purchasing behavior, however product knowledge did not have significant affects on purchasing behavior. The results also showed that the product involvement has an important influence on consumers behavior.

  2. Purchasing power parity and interest parity in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Eric O'N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes purchasing power parity and uncovered interest parity in the laboratory. It finds strong evidence that purchasing power parity, covered interest parity, and uncovered interest parity hold. Subjects are endowed with an intrinsically useless (green) currency that can be used to purchase another useless (red) currency. Green goods can be bought only with green currency, and red goods can be bought only with red currency. The foreign exchange markets are organized as call mark...

  3. Surgical lights. Making a purchase decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M M

    1987-11-01

    Based on the preceding factors, a profile can be made for each light. The profile should include the following information: product literature with detailed information about the light, the average score from each of the six categories on the questionnaire, a summary of positive and negative comments from the questionnaire (recurring comments can identify significant factors), recommendations from other hospitals using the light, warranty and service information and any pertinent information about the vendor and manufacturer, information or comments from the clinical engineer, the purchasing agent, and the architect/engineer, and information about possible purchase agreements. Once the profiles of the lights are finished, present them to the OR committee or group charged with making the final decision. The information will enable the group to compare the lights and will serve as a basis for either the final purchase or a detailed bid specification. If cost is a major factor in the decision, the evaluation results can be used to justify purchasing lights that are more expensive but that the users believe are clearly superior. This constitutes the "professional justification" that some government institutions require to circumvent regulations that require buying the low-bid product. Although the result of this selection process is clearly a subjective decision, it is an informed subjective decision. Once the lights are installed, the staff members' satisfaction with the lights will not be based on objective criteria but on the same subjective opinions that were used to justify the selection.

  4. Occupational health purchasing behaviour by SMEs--a new theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J; Woods, A; Dickson, K

    2013-10-01

    Factors influencing corporate decisions to purchase occupational health (OH) are unknown. To assist the marketing of OH services to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by characterizing purchasing behaviour. We developed a 2×2 model, based on published studies, to describe OH purchasing behaviour by SMEs. We tested the model by analysis of responses to a cross-sectional market research survey carried out in November 2007. The companies surveyed were SMEs employing 30-250 employees, within the localities of five UK National Health Service OH services: West London, Buckinghamshire, Cambridge, Portsmouth and York. We chose a sample representative of all SMEs for each location. The survey explored knowledge of OH and the perceived importance of a variety of services. We obtained responses from 387 companies (19%); 81% indicated that they knew about OH and 24% had purchased OH services. OH was rated 'very important' by 35%, and 65% rated it as 'quite' or 'very important'. Sickness absence and its business impact were monitored by 89%. Enterprises claiming OH understanding were significantly more likely to purchase OH services (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-8.0). Companies employing fewer than 90 employees were significantly less likely to purchase such services than larger ones (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09-0.3). OH knowledge and company size are key determinants of SME purchasing behaviour. Our findings support our proposed theoretical model. However, more research could explore claimed knowledge of OH with respect to the proposed purchaser types and business benefits.

  5. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-12-03

    In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and -10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00-1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing.

  6. Importance of Country-of-Origin on Different Product Categories Purchase Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupka Zoran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Country of origin is an important factor in product evaluation process as well as for purchase decision. Its importance depends on the amount of information consumers have about the product and product category. This paper investigates the importance of coutry of origin in purchase decision-making process for three different product categories: high risk and high level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (car, medium risk and midium level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (TV, and low risk and low level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (confectionery products. Also, this paper investigates importance of country of manufacturing for purchase decision-making process in relation to country of origin’s importance. Research was conducted on 215 respondents from Belgium and Republic of Croatia. Results have shown that country of origin is important only for car purchase, but not for TV and confectionery products. For all product categories, country of origin has been shown to be more important in the decision-making process than country of manufacturing.

  7. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers buying merchandise for resale, selecting vendors, bargaining for prices, and purchasing supplies for commercial food and beverage service establishments. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Merchandise Buying and (2) Food and Beverage Purchasing.…

  8. 5 CFR 2634.303 - Purchases, sales, and exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchases, sales, and exchanges. 2634.303 Section 2634.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH....303 Purchases, sales, and exchanges. (a) In general. Except as indicated in § 2634.308(b) of this...

  9. The households purchase behavior and visitors shopping – amusing centre Olympia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Foret

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the households purchase behavior in the Czech Republic. The main part is based on own empirical results from own marketing research conducted in 2005–2006. The results concerns on influences of food-stuffs purchases, clothes and shoes purchases, household equipments purchases and differences among them. In the second part is presented increasing number of shopping – amusing centres in the Czech Republic. These trends are changing purchase behavior our consumers. In Spring 2006 was conducted own marketing research of visitors shopping – amusing centre Olympia in Brno Modřice. Some more detail results give their basic sociodemographic characteristics as well as shopping orientations. The purchase in the shopping – amusing centres is a part of the contemporary life style, leisure and amusement.

  10. Ethical issues in purchasing: a field study of Midwest hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, K; Motwani, J

    1995-01-01

    A large sum of money is spent annually by salespeople on gifts and favors for purchasing executives. The provision of gifts and favors to buyers remains a common practice despite the fact that it often leads to ethical conflicts for purchasing executives, sales managers, and salespeople. This paper investigates the perceptions of 51 purchasing executives of midwest hospitals regarding their behavior towards certain buying practices, the favors offered by vendors, favors actually accepted, as well as purchasers' discomfort and repayment levels regarding indebtedness. Based on the data analysis, this paper provides conclusions and directions for future research.

  11. The value of group purchasing organizations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the valuable role of group purchasing organizations (GPOs) in hospital purchasing in the United States. For over 100 years old GPOs have helped hospitals and other health care providers realize savings and create contracting efficiencies by aggregating purchasing volume to negotiate discounts with manufacturers, distributors and other vendors. The US has recently enacted a series of healthcare reforms to correct some of the historical concerns regarding cost, quality and access. GPOs are expected to continue to play a critical role in the business of hospital purchasing and may potential export that other countries may wish to examine.

  12. Importance of Country-of-Origin on Different Product Categories Purchase Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Krupka Zoran; Arežina Darija

    2017-01-01

    Country of origin is an important factor in product evaluation process as well as for purchase decision. Its importance depends on the amount of information consumers have about the product and product category. This paper investigates the importance of coutry of origin in purchase decision-making process for three different product categories: high risk and high level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (car), medium risk and midium level of consumer involvement in purchasing proce...

  13. Customer Satisfaction with Goods and Services Purchased on Deal Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    influence whether customers are more prone to purchase problematic goods and services on deal sites, i.e. to experience problems with purchased coupons. Methodology/Approach: The research was conducted in the Czech Republic using an on-line questionnaire. Respondents were university students. Data were...... and mistrust. All these statements were measured on a Likert scale. Additional independent variables are age, and gender. In the first model, the dependent variable is if and if so, what problem the respondent experienced with purchased goods or services, such as the company did not exist, it was not possible...... cases. In the second model, the dependent variable is the percentage (predefined intervals) of problematic purchases. Ordinal logistic regression was used to test the model. In the third model, the dependent variable is if the purchased goods or services were of lower quality. Binomial logistic...

  14. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  15. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  16. Supermarket Choice, Shopping Behavior, Socioeconomic Status, and Food Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a tool for purchasing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitar-Pop, C.E.; de Boer, L.

    2000-01-01

    Today we observe an continuing challenge to develop performance measures that evaluate purchasing effectiveness relative to the organization's objectives and to extend conventional measurement systems to an entreprise-wide purchasing control function that detects the 'weak sports' in the purchasing

  18. Impact of Advertising Appeals on Purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Jovanović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional and rational advertising appeals on the purchase intention. The results of the empirical research, conducted using the focus groups method, are shown in this paper and the focus group participants were members of the student population.The research results indicate that different advertising appeals may have a different impact on the consumer’s purchase intention; in case of women, the emotional appeal has a stronger impact while for men it is the rational appeal, while “fear appeal” proved to be effective to a certain point, after which it causes selective perception and rejection. This implies that depending on the product, its purpose and target group, advertisers can choose the type of appeal, combination of the appeals and their creative presentation, based on the empirical confirmation of the efficiency the approach.

  19. Marketing occupational health: exploring the purchaser perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes-Evans, O; Woods, A

    2013-01-01

    There may be scope for providers of occupational health (OH) services to improve their communication and marketing to those who purchase their services, but the research literature contains little information about purchasers' perceptions of OH. There is no documented overview that fully captures the purchasers' perspective. To explore current and potential purchasers' thinking about OH. Iterative purposive sampling was carried out to identify participants for semi-structured interviews. Respondents were obtained through progressively wider networking, starting with personal and organizational contacts and networking events. This was continued until no major new information was appearing. Health issues were not always recognized as related to OH. Some respondents had little understanding of OH or perceived it with very negative connotations. Some also sought information at first from the internet and personal contacts. The giving of expert advice on a situation was generally seen as a central feature of OH services. Most believed OH included sickness absence management. Respondents spoke of problems such as insufficient, inappropriate or partisan recommendations and also process or turnaround time problems. Clarity and building good working relationships were identified as positive factors. OH providers should review their various activities to address these points, as well as reviewing the knowledge and skills that their staff can contribute.

  20. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J E; Li, Q; Abrams, S M; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K M

    2005-04-01

    To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts.

  1. Key state legislative provisions on purchasing alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to function effectively in post-reform healthcare markets, behavioral healthcare professionals must understand and interact with health purchasing alliances. Healthcare reform initiatives based upon the principles of managed competition envision an important role for cooperative health purchasing organizations, or "health alliances," that collect premiums and contract with health plans for the provision of comprehensive health services delivered within the framework of a standardized benefit package. Health purchasing alliances have already been implemented in eight states, and this trend is expected to grow. The following article illustrates the structure and authority of the health alliances that are already in operation, and is presented here to give Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow journal readers an up-to-date overview of reforming healthcare markets. This matrix arrays recent state laws which we identify as clearly including components of managed competition or purchasing alliances. Other states undoubtedly have elements of reform that include some aspects of these concepts. For example, under legislation, a Vermont health care authority was established and, among other things, charged with developing two comprehensive reform proposals, one of which will involve multipayors and the other a single-payor system. Options will likely embody many of the activities of alliances. Vermont is not included in this matrix because these provisions are still in the developmental stage.

  2. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 50.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.13 Offer, purchase, and renewal. An insurer is deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of providing disclosure “at the time of offer, purchase...

  3. Consumer behavior toward online purchasing behavior : “What factors trigger the online purchasing decision of young Swedish consumer?”

    OpenAIRE

    Thienmongkol, Kaorat; Thaisuntad, Pongsatorn

    2009-01-01

    Program: MIMA student – International Marketing Course name: Master Thesis (EFO705) Title: Consumer behavior toward online purchasing behavior Authors: Kaorat ThienmongkolPongsatorn Thaisuntad Supervisor: Daniel Tolstoy Problem: “What factors trigger the online purchasing decision of young SwedishConsumer?” Purpose: The purpose of this report is to study the insights about the factors that triggerpurchasing behavior of young Swedish consumer to shopping on the internet.The result will enable ...

  4. Understanding Consumer Purchase of Free-of Cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Risborg, Marie Søndergaard; Steen, Christina Donslund

    2012-01-01

    consumers' personal values and their attitude and behaviour associated with purchasing free-of cosmetics. A quantitative online survey of 250 Danish female consumers was conducted using self-administering questionnaires. The findings indicate that consumers' willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics (R......This study concerns the free-of trend on the cosmetics market as expressed by a tendency among consumers to prefer cosmetics that are free of certain ingredients. Combining the Theory of Reasoned Action with a value-driven approach, this study empirically investigates the association between......² = .48) is both influenced by attitude (β = .65) and perceived subjective norm (β = .21) with attitude having the largest predictive power. Moreover, consumers' attitude towards willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics seems to be value driven. Our results indicate that two values, self-transcendence (β...

  5. Factors influencing purchase intention towards consumer-to-consumer e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dachyar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores factors that influence consumer’s purchase intention at three consumer-to-consumer (C2C e-commerce companies in Indonesia. Design/methodology/approach: 5 Expert opinions are used to determine the indicators of each factor and the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM method is used to analyze the empirical data of  400 respondents for each company. Findings: It is found different significant factors that influence customer’s purchase intention in each company. Trust and risk are found to be significantly effect purchase intention in Company A. Meanwhile, the other two companies, perceived usefulness proved to be significant in Company B and benefit significantly effect consumer purchase intention in Company C. Originality/value: This study represents purchase intention in the consumer-to-consumer e-commerce by investigating three case study using technology acceptance model as a guiding theory.

  6. Purchase Unwillingness and Willingness of Indonesian Consumers towards Israeli Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usep Suhud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to measure factors influencing purchase willingness and purchase unwillingness on Israeli products. Four predictor variables including consumer animosity, product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation were used. Data were collected by an online survey, and it attracted 337 participants. Three stages of data analysis were applied, those were exploratory analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and Structural Equation Model (SEM. In total, there were seven hypotheses tested. This research finds a significant impact of animosity on product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation. Furthermore, product judgment and boycott participation significantly affect purchase willingness. Meanwhile, boycott participation and boycott motivation significantly affect purchase unwillingness.

  7. INTENTION TO PURCHASE VIA THE INTERNET: A COMPARISON OF TWO THEORETICAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasman J. Ma'ruf

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares two models for predicting intention to purchase via the Internet. The behavioral intention to purchase via the Internet was examined as a function of attitude towards purchase, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, or attitude towards purchase, subjective norm, and perceived risk (Theory of Planned Behavior [TPB]. Results indicate that both models significantly influenced behavioral intention to purchase. We compared both models, and found that TPB (adjusted R2 = 0.55 is better than TAM (0.44 in explaining behavioral intention to purchase (BI. After we integrated TAM and TPB, we found that perceived risk (β = –0.332 is the primary determinant of BI, with subjective norm (SN (β = 0.210 as the significant secondary determinant, followed by attitude (A towards purchase (β = 0.175, perceived usefulness (β = 0.159, and perceived ease of use (β = 0.069.

  8. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  10. Information Needs for a Purchase of Fairtrade Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Schleenbecker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates what information German Fairtrade coffee consumers search for during pre-purchase information seeking and to what extent information is retrieved. Furthermore, the sequence of the information search as well as the degree of cognitive involvement is highlighted. The role of labeling, the importance of additional ethical information and its quality in terms of concreteness as well as the importance of product price and organic origin are addressed. A set of information relevant to Fairtrade consumers was tested by means of the Information Display Matrix (IDM method with 389 Fairtrade consumers. Results show that prior to purchase, information on product packages plays an important role and is retrieved rather extensively, but search strategies that reduce the information processing effort are applied as well. Furthermore, general information is preferred over specific information. Results of two regression analyses indicate that purchase decisions are related to search behavior variables rather than to socio-demographic variables and purchase motives. In order to match product information with consumers’ needs, marketers should offer information that is reduced to the central aspects of Fairtrade.

  11. Negotiating and structuring the power purchase agreement (PPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both generators and consumers, there are several factors which affect electricity sales that should be considered when negotiating a power purchase agreement. Most importantly, it should be known whether a project is being developed by the end user for its own use, or whether it is being developed by an independent power producer (IPP) for sale to the Power Pool, or directly to others. This paper described a joint venture as being an IPP which can sell power to the Power Pool, an eligible industrial user, or its host (usually to the most economically attractive buyer). Natural gas deregulation provided a big incentive for IPPs to develop new power projects. The things to consider in traditional power purchase arrangements are requests for proposals, the seller's response and a memorandum of understanding. The principle terms of a traditional bilateral power purchase agreement involve the nature of the services to be provided, pricing, termination terms, facilities issues, force majeure and changes in law. This paper also discussed market alternatives to the traditional power purchase agreement. 1 appendix

  12. DIMENSIONS AFFECTING THE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR OF NEPALI WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Singh Thagunna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the various dimensions of buying behavior of Nepalese women while making purchasing decisions. A total of 100 women of different background were surveyed through a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions related to the buying behavior. Various factors such as Value Identification, Customer Service and Lifestyle are most influential for Nepalese women’s purchasing decisions. So, by providing, at affordable price, high value product that match the personality of the targeted women and by providing superior customer care, Nepalese women can be attracted easily. Besides these, price, brand awareness and accurate information also influence their buying behavior to a certain extent. Age also plays a role in the purchasing decisions she makes, since women of different age group behave differently while purchasing items for their homes, for their offices or for personal use. Difference in the demographic factors such as personal status, religious belief, occupation and income level however do not bring difference in the buying behavior of Nepalese women, in general.

  13. Impact of the layout of the ITER Radial Neutron Camera in-port system on the measurement of the neutron emissivity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marocco, D.; Moro, F.; Esposito, B.; Brolatti, G.; Villari, R.; Salasca, S.; Cantone, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MCNP ITER model ‘Alite-4′ has been updated with the new Port Plug structure (three vertical drawers). ► Two different layouts for the Radial Neutron Camera (RNC) in-vessel system have been considered. ► The impact of both layouts on the RNC diagnostic performance has been assessed. ► The analysis provides useful information for a proper integration of the RNC in the EPP1. -- Abstract: The Radial Neutron Camera (RNC), located in the ITER Equatorial Port Plug 1 (EPP1), is designed to provide the neutron emissivity profile through the measurement of the neutron flux along several collimated channels. The present design of the RNC is based on collimating structures: an ex-port system viewing the plasma core and an in-port system composed by two detector cassettes viewing the upper and lower plasma edges. A design of the EPP1 in which the diagnostics are installed in three completely independent vertical drawers is under study. In this frame, space optimization and integration issues suggest two possible solutions for the layout of the in-port RNC cassettes: the first one in which both cassettes are located in a side drawer; the second one in which the two cassettes lie in the central drawer, on opposite sides of the ex-port RNC cut-out. This paper describes the work performed to assess the impact of the two different in-port system layouts on the capability of the RNC to measure the neutron emissivity profile by means of MCNP and diagnostic performance calculations. The results of the analysis provide guidelines for the integration of the RNC into the EPP1 showing that the proximity of the in-port cassettes to the ex-port cut-out strongly increases the amount of uncollimated and scattered neutrons at the detector positions, thus reducing the diagnostic measurement capability

  14. 2009 review of the Deep Panuke Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Oceans, Habitat and Species at Risk branch of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada requested an update to the Environmental Management Plan for the construction of the Deep Panuke Project. Specifically, it requested expert advice on the 2009-2010 Drilling Environmental Protection Plan/Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan (EPP/EEMP), which outlines the measures that EnCana proposes take to avoid or minimize the effects of drilling in the marine environment. Although the proposed approach was deemed to be sufficient, the EPP/EEMP did not make reference to the potential effects of noise on marine species. The jack-up rig mobile offshore production unit that is proposed for well drilling and well re-entries was considered to produce lower noise levels than drillships and semi submersibles. It was concluded that jack up drilling at Deep Panuke would not likely require special noise mitigation measures, but more extensive measurement and documentation of acoustic noise levels around active rigs is recommended. The risk of well blowout or collapse was deemed low. Should such an event occur, the impact of the released hydrocarbon condensate would depend on the rate and duration of the release. Under typical conditions, the proponent's models reasonably show the blowout discharge drifting away from Sable Island. However, there is a very low risk that certain weather conditions would result in an oil spill reaching Sable Island. The EPP/EEMP does not address species at risk in any way, and mitigation measures are required and should be detailed in the monitoring plan. It was concluded that the proposed EPP/EEMP is sufficient in many areas, but since most mitigation measures are based on theoretical considerations alone, a plan for field monitoring at the drilling site is needed. 3 refs.

  15. Introduction to Special issue of Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing: Contemporary Purchasing Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Hingley, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This conceptual article details the evolution of purchasing research, and describes the increasing integration of purchasing with other strategic functions, in order to identify key trends in purchasing practices, together with their implications for purchasing research. Design/methodology/approach This study takes a conceptual approach and reviews prior literature to describe the field and predict future developments. Findings Purchasing is increasingly integrated wi...

  16. Analysis of Individual Aspects Influencing Non-purchasing in an Online Environment and Consumer Willingness to Purchase Custom-Made Apparel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuraj Milica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the study was to assess the opinion of online consumers about the possibility of making custom apparel using 3D body scanning technology in an online environment and to investigate the shopping experience of consumers who purchase in the online apparel market. In order to be able to propose solutions to improve the online shopping experience, we also investigated aspects influencing non-purchasing in an online environment.

  17. The effect of food shape abnormality on purchase intentions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    abnormality (normal, moderately abnormal, and extremely abnormal). The results demonstrate that food shape influences purchase intentions; consumers are more likely to purchase normally shaped fruits and vegetables than moderately or extremely abnormally shaped food. However, environmental concern and social......The assumption that consumers prefer cosmetically perfect fruits and vegetables contributes to global food waste, because food retailers refuse to offer abnormally shaped food. This study empirically examines how food shape abnormality affects purchase intentions and how two individual difference...... variables, environmental concern and social trust, might moderate the food shape abnormality–purchase intention relationship for consumers in China. A representative sample of 212 Chinese consumers indicated their purchase intentions for two fruits and two vegetables with varying levels of food shape...

  18. A framework for understanding grocery purchasing in a low-income urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Drew A; Palmer, Anne M; Beckham, Sarah W; Surkan, Pamela J

    2013-05-01

    Research demonstrates that food desert environments limit low-income shoppers' ability to purchase healthy foods, thereby increasing their likelihood of diet-related illnesses. We sought to understand how individuals in an urban American food desert make grocery-purchasing decisions, and specifically why unhealthy purchases arise. Analysis is based on ethnographic data from participant observation, 37 in-depth interviews, and three focus groups with low-income, primarily African American shoppers with children. We found participants had detailed knowledge of and preference for healthy foods, but the obligation to consistently provide food for their families required them to apply specific decision criteria which, combined with structural qualities of the supermarket environment, increased unhealthy purchases and decreased healthy purchases. Applying situated cognition theory, we constructed an emic model explaining this widely shared grocery-purchasing decision process and its implications. This context-specific understanding of behavior suggests that multifaceted, system-level approaches to intervention are needed to increase healthy purchasing in food deserts.

  19. Buying business services : towards a structured service purchasing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Rozemeijer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to uncover the specific difficulties associated with buying services and proposes a structured purchasing process which can help organisational buyers to overcome the problems associated with services purchasing. Design/methodology/approach – The authors

  20. The Role of Patient Safety in the Device Purchasing Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Todd R; Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Keselman, Alla; Tang, Xiaozhou; Brixey, Juliana J; Paige, Danielle; Turley, James P

    2005-01-01

    To examine how patient safety considerations are incorporated into medical device purchase decisions, individuals involved in recent infusion pump purchasing decisions at three different health care...

  1. Impact of Advertising Appeals on Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Jovanović; Tamara Vlastelica; Slavica Cicvarić Kostić

    2016-01-01

    Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional an...

  2. Competitive Effects of Purchase-Based Targeted Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Jianqiang Zhang; Weijun Zhong; Shue Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a two-period sales model to investigate the competitive effects of purchase-based targeted advertising. In the model, two competing firms gain consumer information during the first period sales, which allows them to target advertising based on consumer purchase history. Advertising is assumed to be persuasive in terms of consumer valuation enhancing and product differentiation increasing. The authors find that the firm’s ability to target can damage industry profits, con...

  3. Strategic Capacity Rationing to Induce Early Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Liu; Garrett J. van Ryzin

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic pricing offers the potential to increase revenues. At the same time, it creates an incentive for customers to strategize over the timing of their purchases. A firm should ideally account for this behavior when making its pricing and stocking decisions. In particular, we investigate whether it is optimal for a firm to create rationing risk by deliberately understocking products. Then, the resulting threat of shortages creates an incentive for customers to purchase early at higher price...

  4. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  5. Validating hospital antibiotic purchasing data as a metric of inpatient antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlie; Ritchie, Michael; Alldred, Jason; Daneman, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic purchasing data are a widely used, but unsubstantiated, measure of antibiotic consumption. To validate this source, we compared purchasing data from hospitals and external medical databases with patient-level dispensing data. Antibiotic purchasing and dispensing data from internal hospital records and purchasing data from IMS Health were obtained for two hospitals between May 2013 and April 2015. Internal purchasing data were validated against dispensing data, and IMS data were compared with both internal metrics. Scatterplots of individual antimicrobial data points were generated; Pearson's correlation and linear regression coefficients were computed. A secondary analysis re-examined these correlations over shorter calendar periods. Internal purchasing data were strongly correlated with dispensing data, with correlation coefficients of 0.90 (95% CI = 0.83-0.95) and 0.98 (95% CI = 0.95-0.99) at hospitals A and B, respectively. Although dispensing data were consistently lower than purchasing data, this was attributed to a single antibiotic at both hospitals. IMS data were favourably correlated with, but underestimated, internal purchasing and dispensing data. This difference was accounted for by eight antibiotics for which direct sales from some manufacturers were not included in the IMS database. The correlation between purchasing and dispensing data was consistent across periods as short as 3 months, but not at monthly intervals. Both internal and external antibiotic purchasing data are strongly correlated with dispensing data. If outliers are accounted for appropriately, internal purchasing data could be used for cost-effective evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, and external data sets could be used for surveillance and research across geographical regions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  6. Interactive operational decision making : Purchasing situations & mutual liability problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Three chapters of this dissertation deal with three different types of interactive purchasing situations, in which multiple buying organizations interact with similar (or possibly the same) suppliers for the procurement of the same commodity. Decisions to be made in interactive purchasing concern if

  7. The influence of local food environments on adolescents' food purchasing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students' home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students' food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students' food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth's home and school.

  8. 5 CFR 6701.103 - Prohibited purchases of property sold by GSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to the purchase of foreign gifts deposited with the agency... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited purchases of property sold by... purchases of property sold by GSA. (a) General prohibition. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  9. Purchase Behavior of Consumers for Seafood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omezzine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is a key component in production and marketing decisions. Fish consumers play a key role because fishermen and distributors recognize their purchase choices as a determinant to their operation. Consumers make buying decisions according to market conditions and to various attributes of the product, namely the specie, the form, the place of purchase, the size and the quality. This study is aimed at providing information on Oman consumers’ attitudes and preferences for fish purchase form and market outlets using an information-processing model. It identifies factors for predicting changes in market demand for fish products and services as a result of changes in consumers attributes. Results indicate that on-shore fish markets are the most preferred outlets for the coastal population while retailers and Oman National Fisheries Company are the commonly used outlets. Results also show that whole fish is the most preferred form of purchase for both rural and urban medium to low-income consumers while a large proportion of high-income consumers in urban regions prefer mainly sliced fish. Market development efforts should focus on the organization of on-shore fish markets in coastal regions, and retailers and Oman Fisheries Company’s outlets in the inland areas. Forms other than whole fish may be promoted for sale in supermarkets and specialized shops for the urban high-income consumers group..

  10. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Zendehdel; Laily Hj Paim; Syuhaily Bint Osman

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vi...

  11. CNMI Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...

  12. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Fátima; Amaral, Marta; Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. This was done through a simple and easy-to-apply methodology to estimate salaries' capitalization rate, by means of the accumulated inflation rate, after taking wage revisions into account. All the career categories in the Ministry of Health and affiliated public sector institutions were considered. Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. These results seem to contradict a commonly held assumption that health sector pay has deteriorated over the years, and with substantial damage for the poorest. Further studies appear to be needed to design a more accurate methodology to better understand the evolution and impact of public sector health workers' remunerations across the years.

  13. Concerns regarding Direct-to-Consumer Hearing Aid Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Suzanne H.

    2010-01-01

    An individual over age 18 can purchase a hearing aid online or through mail order if they sign a waiver declining a medical evaluation, while those under 18 are required to be seen by a physician to obtain medical consent. However, in many states there is nothing to prevent a parent or caregiver from purchasing hearing aids for their child from a…

  14. Purchasing. School Business Management Handbook Number 5. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Robert A.

    Purchasing is a practical science and one of the most highly specialized activities of the school administration. Simply stated, it is the process of having the right material or service from the right source, in the right quantity, at the right place, at the right time, and at the right price. The purchasing agent is faced with a formidable task…

  15. The interrelationship between purchasing maturity, internal customer satisfaction and purchasing performance : an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Poucke, E.; Weele, van A.J.; Matthyssens, P.

    2014-01-01

    So far, academic literature has paid extensive attention to the importance of purchasing development within the context of the current business environment, emphasizing value creation and delivery and integrated supply chain management. In addition, the contribution of purchasing’s (internal

  16. 16 CFR 1401.5 - Providing performance and technical data to purchasers by labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POINT OF PURCHASE OF PERFORMANCE AND TECHNICAL DATA § 1401.5 Providing performance and technical data to... the time of original purchase and to the first purchaser for purposes other than resale. The data... to be read and understood by ordinary individuals under normal conditions of purchase. This...

  17. Absolute purchasing power parity in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhibai; Bian, Zhicun

    2015-01-01

    Different from popular studies that focus on relative purchasing power parity, we study absolute purchasing power parity (APPP) in 21 main industrial countries. Three databases are used. Both the whole period and the sub-period are analyzed. The empirical proof shows that the phenomenon that APPP holds is common, and the phenomenon that APPP does not hold is also common. In addition, some country pairs and the pooled country data indicate that the nearer the GDPPs of two countries are, the mo...

  18. 77 FR 51783 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. Public comments are particularly... Information Collection 9000- 0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews, by any of the following methods...

  19. Comparisons of Website Visit Behavior between Purchase Outcomes and Product Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatpong Tangmanee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The online retail business has grown substantially. Given distinctive product categories (e.g. search or experience goods, owners must put an effort in the design of websites so every visit may end with a purchase. Clickstream panel data allowing examination into website visiting behavior (i.e. the number of pages viewed (or pageview or the visit duration are increasingly accessible. However, it is unclear whether the differences of the two visiting behavior between purchase outcome or product categories are significant. The present study hopes to fill the void. An analysis of 27,528 visit sessions extracted from ComScore verifies that (1 the difference of page views between purchase outcomes and that between product categories were significant and (2 only the difference of visit duration between the product categories was significant but that between purchase outcomes was insignificant. In addition to theoretical insight into online behavior across purchasing horizons and product categories using clickstream data, online retail practitioners could apply the findings to enhance the possibility of the purchases at their online stores.

  20. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  1. Online Sellers’ Website Quality Influencing Online Buyers’ Purchase Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea Lee, Tan; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase adoption of Internet among young users in Malaysia provides high prospect for online seller. Young users aged between 18 and 25 years old are important to online sellers because they are actively involved in online purchasing and this group of online buyers is expected to dominate future online market. Therefore, examining online sellers’ website quality and online buyers’ purchase intention is crucial. Based on the Theory of planned behavior (TPB), a conceptual model of online sellers’ website quality and purchase intention of online buyers was developed. E-tailQ instrument was adapted in this study which composed of website design, reliability/fulfillment, security, privacy & trust, and customer service. Using online questionnaire and convenience sampling procedure, primary data were obtained from 240 online buyers aged between 18 to 25 years old. It was discovered that website design, website reliability/fulfillment, website security, privacy & trust, and website customer service positively and significantly influence intention of online buyers to continuously purchase via online channels. This study concludes that online sellers’ website quality is important in predicting online buyers’ purchase intention. Recommendation and implication of this study were discussed focusing on how online sellers should improve their website quality to stay competitive in online business.

  2. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Laura H; Ausink, John A; Campbell, Nancy F; Drew, John G; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    .... First, the contracting community did not have a comprehensive, detailed database of contingency purchases that would allow analyses of the types and amounts of goods and services purchased to support...

  4. Calorie labeling, fast food purchasing and restaurant visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Dixon, L Beth; Abrams, Courtney; Weitzman, Beth; Kersh, Rogan; Auchincloss, Amy H; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fast food restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fast food restaurant visits. Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 2009) and after (June 2010) labeling in Philadelphia (which implemented mandatory labeling) and Baltimore (matched comparison city). Measures included: self-reported use of calorie information, calories purchased determined via fast food receipts, and self-reported weekly fast-food visits. The consumer sample was predominantly Black (71%), and high school educated (62%). Postlabeling, 38% of Philadelphia consumers noticed the calorie labels for a 33% point (P < 0.001) increase relative to Baltimore. Calories purchased and number of fast food visits did not change in either city over time. While some consumers report noticing and using calorie information, no population level changes were noted in calories purchased or fast food visits. Other controlled studies are needed to examine the longer term impact of labeling as it becomes national law. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. Going hybrid: An analysis of consumer purchase motivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Ritsuko; Sevastyanova, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    What makes consumers adopt energy-sustainable innovations? The uptake of such products and technologies is of importance, particularly at a time when climate change, diminishing energy resources and energy security are urgent issues. This paper reports on a case study of consumer adoption of hybrid vehicles, a green innovation that has been in the market since the late 1990s. The study is based on a questionnaire survey, conducted in 2009 in collaboration with Toyota GB, to investigate the dimensions that constitute motivations to purchase the Prius and to examine how policy can encourage hybrid adoption. The survey yielded 1484 responses, 1263 of which were used for the analysis; the results of the exploratory factor analyses provide information on consumer purchase motivations. The financial benefits related to transport policy are an important factor in consumer hybrid purchase motivations, and social norms and consumers' willingness to comply with the norms of their groups influence the purchase decision. We also find that various meanings are attached to hybrid vehicle ownership, and practical, experiential and affective values need to be communicated to consumers in terms of value added.

  6. Joint Ordering and Pricing Decisions for New Repeat-Purchase Products

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies ordering and pricing problems for new repeat-purchase products. We incorporate the repeat-purchase rate and price effects into the Bass model to characterize the demand pattern. We consider two decision models: (1) two-stage decision model, in which the sales division chooses a price to maximize the gross profit and the purchasing division determines an optimal ordering decision to minimize the total cost under a given demand subsequently, and (2) joint decision model, in w...

  7. Conceptualization of the Relationship between Brand Equity and Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunnaike, Olaleke Olusye; Kehinde, Oladele Joseph; Omoyayi, Oluwadamilola Oluwatosin; Popoola, Oluwamakinde Oluwamayowa; Amoruwa, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the customer perspective of brand equity will provide deep understanding of how brands influence purchase behaviour of customers. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework that will provide an understanding of the relationship existing between the elements of brand equity and that of purchase behaviour. The adoption of Aaker’s brand equity model will serve as a guide for conceiving associations between brand equity and purchase behaviour for this study. Litera...

  8. SPLC Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  9. The Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... reject the unit root hypothesis in real exchange rates may simply be due to the shortness ..... Violations of Purchasing Power Parity and Their Implications for Efficient ... Official Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market:.

  10. Strategic purchasing and health system efficiency: A comparison of two financing schemes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Sommanuttaweechai, Angkana; Hanson, Kara; Wanwong, Yaowaluk; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2018-01-01

    Strategic purchasing is an essential health financing function. This paper compares the strategic purchasing practices of Thailand's two tax-financed health insurance schemes, the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) and the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS), and identifies factors contributing to successful universal health coverage outcomes by analysing the relationships between the purchaser and government, providers and members. The study uses a cross-sectional mixed-methods design, including document review and interviews with 56 key informants. The Comptroller General Department (CGD) of Ministry of Finance manages CSMBS as one among civil servant welfare programmes. Their purchasing is passive. Fee for service payment for outpatient care has resulted in rapid cost escalation and overspending of their annual budget. In contrast, National Health Security Office (NHSO) manages purchasing for UCS, which undertakes a range of strategic purchasing actions, including applying closed ended provider payment, promoting primary healthcare's gate keeping functions, exercising collective purchasing power and engaging views of members in decision making process. This difference in purchasing arrangements resulted in expenditure per CSMBS member being 4 times higher than UCS in 2014. The governance of the purchaser organization, the design of the purchasing arrangements including incentives and use of information, and the institutional capacities to implement purchasing functions are essential for effective strategic purchasing which can improve health system efficiency as a whole.

  11. Developing a typology of organisational forms of cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a typology for purchasing groups. In the typology, five main forms of cooperative purchasing are distinguished based on seven main dimensions. The forms are positioned in a matrix according to two distinguishing dimensions. These two dimensions are the ‘influence by all members

  12. Regular or low-fat? An investigation of the long-run impact of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchase volumes and calories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Geyskens, Kelly; Verhoef, Peter C.; Pennings, Joost M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Health organizations stimulate the development of low-fat variants to fight the obesity epidemic. We examine the effectiveness of this policy by studying the short- and long-term consequences of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchased volume and calories. Using a structural break

  13. Bicycle Purchaser Training Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, William

    A course was developed to provide data to buyers of new bicycles so they could make an informed decision about their purchases. The instructional systems design process (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) was used to analyze the need for a training course on buying and fitting a bicycle. Information was collected…

  14. Scaling-up strategic purchasing: analysis of health system governance imperatives for strategic purchasing in a free maternal and child healthcare programme in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuabor, Daniel Chukwuemeka; Onwujekwe, Obinna Emmanuel

    2018-04-05

    Significant knowledge gaps exist in the functioning of institutional designs and organisational practices in purchasing within free healthcare schemes in low resource countries. The study provides evidence of the governance requirements to scale up strategic purchasing in free healthcare policies in Nigeria and other low-resource settings facing similar approaches. The study was conducted at the Ministry of Health and in two health districts in Enugu State, Nigeria, using a qualitative case study design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 44 key health system actors (16 policymakers, 16 providers and 12 health facility committee leaders) purposively selected from the Ministry of Health and the two health districts. Data collection and analysis were guided by Siddiqi and colleagues' health system governance framework. Data were analysed using a framework approach. The key findings show that supportive governance practices in purchasing included systems to verify questionable provider claims, pay providers directly for services, compel providers to procure drugs centrally and track transfer of funds to providers. However, strategic vision was undermined by institutional conflicts, absence of purchaser-provider split and lack of selective contracting of providers. Benefit design was not based on stakeholder involvement. Rule of law was limited by delays in provider payment. Benefits and obligations to users were not transparent. The criteria and procedure for resource allocation were unclear. Some target beneficiaries seemed excluded from the scheme. Effectiveness and efficiency was constrained by poor adherence to purchasing rules. Accountability of purchasers and providers to users was weak. Intelligence and information is constrained by paper-based system. Rationing of free services by providers and users' non-adherence to primary gate-keeping role hindered ethics. Weak governance of purchasing function limits potential of FMCHP to contribute towards

  15. Purchases of food in youth. Influence of price and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Handley, Elizabeth A; Dearing, Kelly K; Cho, David D; Roemmich, James N; Paluch, Rocco A; Raja, Samina; Pak, Youngju; Spring, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    One way to increase choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is to increase the cost of less healthy alternatives or reduce the cost of healthier alternatives. The influence of price on purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods was evaluated in two laboratory experiments. In Experiment 1, thirty-two 10- to 12-year-old youth were given $5.00 and allowed to purchase multiple portions of a healthy food (fruit or vegetable) and a less healthy food (higher-fat snack). The price of one type of food varied from $0.50 to $2.50, while the price of the other type was held at $1.00. Increasing the price of a type of food reduced purchases of that type of food, but did not lead to substitution with the alternative type of food. In Experiment 2, twenty 10- to 14-year-old youth were given $1.00, $3.00, and $5.00 to purchase healthy and unhealthy foods. The price of each food was raised and lowered by 25% and 50%. Raising the price of healthy or unhealthy foods resulted in decreased purchases of those foods, and income available interacted with price to predict the pattern of substitution of alternative foods. These results show the potential for controlled laboratory studies of price and food purchases, and show that the substitution of healthier for unhealthy food is related to available money.

  16. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  17. Guam Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DAWR collects Trip Ticket or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish directly from the fishermen. Similar to the trip ticket system in Saipan, this is a...

  18. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school. PMID:22690205

  19. Peer influence on youth's snack purchases: a laboratory analog of convenience store shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Nitecki, Lauren A; O'Connor, Briannon C

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the results of two experiments using a laboratory analog to examine the influence of taxes and subsidies on youth's snack food purchases when alone (Experiment 1) and when in the presence of a same-gender peer (Experiment 2). Adolescents (12-14-years-old) completed a purchasing task, during which prices of snack foods were manipulated, either alone in Experiment 1 (N=37) or in the presence of an unfamiliar peer in Experiment 2 (N=52). In both experiments, purchases of unhealthy snacks decreased and purchases of healthy snacks increased when the price of unhealthy snacks were taxed (increased). In Experiment 1 (alone), participants did not purchase more healthy snacks when the price of these snacks were subsidized (decreased). However, in Experiment 2 (when participants were in the presence of a peer), participants purchased more healthy snacks when these snacks were subsidized. Taxes and subsidies affect adolescents' snack purchasing, as does the presence of peers. The results of this study highlight factors that influence healthy and unhealthy snack purchasing behavior in young adolescents. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if... timber is appraised and sold on such basis, purchaser credit for road construction, not to exceed the estimated construction cost of such roads or other developments specified in the timber sale contract, shall...

  1. Regular or low-fat? An investigation of the long-run impact of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchase volumes and calories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Geyskens, Kelly; Verhoef, Peter C.; Pennings, Joost M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Health organizations stimulate the development of low-fat variants to fight the obesity epidemic. We examine the effectiveness of this policy by studying the short- and long-term consequences of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchased volume and calories. Using a structural break

  2. To what extent do food purchases reflect shoppers' diet quality and nutrient intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Tangney, Christy C; Powell, Lisa M; Wang, Yamin

    2017-04-11

    Food purchasing is considered a key mediator between the food environment and eating behavior, and food purchasing patterns are increasingly measured in epidemiologic and intervention studies. However, the extent to which food purchases actually reflect individuals' dietary intake has not been rigorously tested. This study examined cross-sectional agreement between estimates of diet quality and nutrient densities derived from objectively documented household food purchases and those derived from interviewer-administered 24-h diet recalls. A secondary aim was to identify moderator variables associated with attenuated agreement between purchases and dietary intake. Primary household food shoppers (N = 196) collected and annotated receipts for all household food and beverage purchases (16,356 total) over 14 days. Research staff visited participants' homes four times to photograph the packaging and nutrition labels of each purchased item. Three or four multiple-pass 24-h diet recalls were performed within the same 14-d period. Nutrient densities and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores were calculated from both food purchase and diet recall data. HEI-2010 scores derived from food purchases (median = 60.9, interquartile range 49.1-71.7) showed moderate agreement (ρc = .57, p social desirability, household income, household size, and body mass. Concordance for individual nutrient densities from food purchases and 24-h diet recalls varied widely from ρc = .10 to .61, with the strongest associations observed for fiber (ρc = .61), whole fruit (ρc = .48), and vegetables (ρc = .39). Objectively documented household food purchases yield an unbiased and reasonably accurate estimate of overall diet quality as measured through 24-h diet recalls, but are generally less useful for characterizing dietary intake of specific nutrients. Thus, some degree of caution is warranted when interpreting food purchase data as a reflection of diet in

  3. Value creation and purchasing strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, as European manufacturers face fierce competition from new Asian sources, suppliers are looked to as sources of competitive advantage. This article discusses the strategic role that differentiated purchasing and supply management represents in support of companies overall

  4. Individual decision making in the non-purchase of long-term care insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie A; Robison, Julie; Shugrue, Noreen; Keenan, Patricia; Kapp, Marshall B

    2009-08-01

    Although prior research suggests that economic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors influence decisions not to purchase long-term care insurance, few studies have examined the interplay among these factors in depth and from the consumer's point of view. This study was intended to further illuminate these considerations, generate hypotheses about non-purchasing decisions, and inform the design of policies that are responsive to concerns and preferences of potential purchasers. Qualitative study using 32 in-depth interviews and 6 focus groups, following a grounded theory approach. Five themes characterize decisions not to purchase long-term care insurance: (a) the determination that a policy is "too costly" reflects highly individualized and complex trade-offs not solely economic in nature, (b) non-purchasers are skeptical about the viability and integrity of private insurance companies and seek an unbiased source of information, (c) family dynamics play an important role in insurance decisions, (d) contemplating personal risk for long-term care triggers psychological responses that have implications for decision making, and (e) non-purchasers feel inadequately informed and overwhelmed by the process of deciding whether to purchase long-term care insurance. States are seeking to offset escalating Medicaid long-term care expenditures through a variety of policy mechanisms, including stimulating individual purchase of long-term care insurance. Findings suggest that economic incentives such as lowering premiums will be necessary but not sufficient to attract appropriate candidates. Attention to behavioral and psychosocial factors is essential to designing incentives that are responsive to concerns and preferences of potential purchasers.

  5. Defining Project Purchasing Activities - Exemplified by the Purchasing Practices in Offshore Wind Farm Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    and limited learning outcomes from one project to another. Furthermore, the study reveals the importance of a more holistic approach to project purchasing practices by focusing on the entire life cycle of a project. Managerially it helps selling companies to understand the peculiar buying phases...

  6. Beyond cost: 'responsible purchasing' of managed care by employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, A T; Perloff, L; Schield, J; Murphy, J J; Mortimer, J D; Budetti, P P

    1999-01-01

    We explore the extent of "responsible purchasing" by employers--the degree to which employers collect and use nonfinancial information in selecting and managing employee health plans. Most firms believe that they have some responsibility for assessing the quality of the health plans they offer. Some pay attention to plan characteristics such as the ability to provide adequate access to providers and services and scores on enrollee satisfaction surveys. A more limited but still notable number of firms take specific actions based on responsible purchasing information. Because of countervailing pressures, however, it is not clear whether or not the firms most involved in responsible purchasing are signaling a developing trend.

  7. Where do U.S. households purchase healthy foods? An analysis of food-at-home purchases across different types of retailers in a nationally representative dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W; Kallan, Michael J; Whiteman, Eliza D; Hillier, Amy

    2018-07-01

    Food shopping decisions are pathways between food environment, diet and health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The choices of where to shop and what to buy are interrelated, though a better understanding of this dynamic is needed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's nationally representative Food Acquisitions and Purchase Survey food-at-home dataset was joined with other databases of retailer characteristics and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) of purchases. We used linear regression models with general estimating equations to assess relationships between trip, store, and shopper characteristics with trip HEI scores. We examined HEI component scores for conventional supermarkets and discount/limited assortment retailers with descriptive statistics. Overall, 4962 shoppers made 11,472 shopping trips over one-week periods, 2012-2013. Trips to conventional supermarkets were the most common (53.6%), followed by supercenters (18.6%). Compared to conventional supermarkets, purchases at natural/gourmet stores had significantly higher HEI scores (β = 6.48, 95% CI = [4.45, 8.51], while those from "other" retailers (including corner and convenience stores) were significantly lower (-3.89, [-5.87, -1.92]). Older participants (versus younger) and women (versus men) made significantly healthier purchases (1.19, [0.29, 2.10]). Shoppers with less than some college education made significantly less-healthy purchases, versus shoppers with more education, as did households participating in SNAP, versus those with incomes above 185% of the Federal Poverty Level. Individual, trip, and store characteristics influenced the healthfulness of foods purchased. Interventions to encourage healthy purchasing should reflect these dynamics in terms of how, where, and for whom they are implemented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of children's food packaging characteristics on parent's purchasing decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is one of the most important parts of marketing planning and it plays a key role on marketing products and services. A good packaging absorbs more customers and increases people's intention on purchasing products. In this paper, we study the relationship between packaging food products produced for children and parents' intentions to purchase these kinds of products. The paper uses a questionnaire based on Likert scale, distributes 392 questionnaires among the target population of this survey who are one of the well-known food chain suppliers named Shahrvand, and collects 381 filled questionnaires. There are three hypotheses for the proposed study of this paper. The first hypothesis assumes there is a meaningful relationship between packaging children's food characteristics and parents' intention on purchasing product. The second hypothesis studies the relationship between children food packaging and the parent's priority purchasing decision and the third hypotheses examines the relationship between children food selection and the parent's purchasing decision. The results confirm all three hypotheses and provide evidence that a suitable packaging for children's food product have important impact on parents' intention for purchasing products.

  9. Purchasing power parity theory in a model without international trade of goods

    OpenAIRE

    Läufer, Nikolaus K. A.

    1980-01-01

    In recent discussions it frequently occurs that the Purchasing Power Parity Theory is identified with Jevons law of one price. By pointing to real world obstacles working against perfect goods arbitrage it is then erroneously concluded that the Purchasing Power Parity Theory cannot be valid while a dinstiction between an absolute version and a relative version of the Purchasing Power Parity Theory is neglected. In the present paper it is shown that the Purchasing Power Parity Theory in the re...

  10. Study on domestic material purchasing in MSR manufacture of conventional island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhengmao

    2010-01-01

    Combining the real case of Dongfang Electric (Guangzhou) Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. trying to purchase the domestic sealing gasket as needed in the MSR of the conventional island, this paper describes the trends and relevant experience about nuclear power equipment manufacturers purchasing materials in the domestic market, and provides a reference to broadening the procurement channels of the purchasing departments of nuclear equipment manufacturers. (author)

  11. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features

  12. Price and maternal obesity influence purchasing of low- and high-energy-dense foods2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Dearing, Kelly K; Paluch, Rocco A; Roemmich, James N; Cho, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Price can influence food purchases, which can influence consumption. Limited laboratory research has assessed the effect of price changes on food purchases, and no research on individual differences that may interact with price to influence purchases exists. Objective We aimed to assess the influence of price changes of low-energy-density (LED) and high-energy-density (HED) foods on mother’s food purchases in a laboratory food-purchasing analogue. Design Mothers were randomly assigned to price conditions in which the price of either LED or HED foods was manipulated from 75% to 125% of the reference purchase price, whereas the price of the alternative foods was kept at the reference value. Mothers completed purchases for 2 income levels ($15 or $30 per family member). Results Purchases were reduced when prices of LED (P elasticity of HED foods and substitution of LED for HED foods. PMID:17921365

  13. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810 at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p < 0.05. High fast-food outlet density in both home and school neighborhoods was associated with increased fast-food purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05. In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school.

  14. 76 FR 39006 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... and 480 [CMS-3239-CN] RIN 0938-AQ55 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing... Value-Based Purchasing Program.'' DATES: Effective Date: These corrections are effective on July 1, 2011... for the hospital value-based purchasing program. Therefore, in section III. 6. and 7. of this notice...

  15. DYNAMIC INVESTIGATION OF THE PURCHASE PRICE AND QUANTITY OF MAIZE AND PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit POÓR

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our examination was to show the cyclic character in the case of agricultural prices. Beside the investigation of prices the analysis of the purchased quantity is of importance too. We examined the way the prices and quantity exercise mutual influence and the connection between the maize purchase price and the pig purchase price. We compared the Hungarian purchase prices with some international ones, and analyzed the tendencies, the influence of open economies and the approach of the prices.

  16. STRATEGIC PURCHASING IN A PROJECT- BASED COMPANY – TO CENTRALIZE OR DECENTRALIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Donociková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations all lie on a spectrum, at one end of which are firms with complete centralization of purchasing, and at the other end are firms with complete decentralization. Most firms lie somewhere between the two extremes, and we have already mentioned the most common model that has certain decisions centralized (perhaps strategy design, selection of suppliers, purchasing of major capital equipment, training, co-ordination, communications, etc. and bulk of purchasing devolved to local buyers. There are many variations on the type of activities that are either centralized or decentralized. In the last 12 years purchasing has noticed two radical changes in the majority of facilities. First change was the reverse of supplier – customer relationships where the role of purchasers changed from persuading and begging the suppliers to ever deliver, preferably with minimum delay (for fixed prices, to standard purchase activities where the purchaser can choose from many suppliers and negotiate prices with vendors to achieve the best conditions for his buyer. The second change was the establishing of a modern IT system that made purchasing activities more effective, more automatic and transparent to a considerable extent. It is good to realize whether all changes have led to improvement or whether these changes have caused a stop or a slowdown of the project purchasing – whether it is possible or even necessary to take into account global as well as local suppliers or to combine them. This Case Study demonstrates how a project - managed organization could look like, where it is necessary to take into account customer´s wishes and benefit.

  17. To what extent do food purchases reflect shoppers? diet quality and nutrient intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; French, Simone A.; Tangney, Christy C.; Powell, Lisa M.; Wang, Yamin

    2017-01-01

    Background Food purchasing is considered a key mediator between the food environment and eating behavior, and food purchasing patterns are increasingly measured in epidemiologic and intervention studies. However, the extent to which food purchases actually reflect individuals? dietary intake has not been rigorously tested. This study examined cross-sectional agreement between estimates of diet quality and nutrient densities derived from objectively documented household food purchases and thos...

  18. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-08-01

    How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2-5 y of age. We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Understanding online purchase intentions: contributions from technology and trust perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.G.M.; Verhagen, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores factors that influence consumer's intentions to purchase online at an electronic commerce website. Specifically, we investigate online purchase intention using two different perspectives: a technology-oriented perspective and a trust-oriented perspective. We summarise and review

  20. Acceptance and purchase intent of US consumers for nonwheat rice butter cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Eaw, A; Chompreeda, P; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Haruthaithanasan, V; Suwonsichon, T; Saidu, J E; Xu, Z

    2007-03-01

    This study evaluated consumer acceptance and purchase intent of nonwheat butter cake formulations prepared with Thai jasmine rice flour. Three nonwheat rice butter cakes were prepared with varying amounts of powdered emulsifier (propylene glycol ester:diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglyceride, 8:2) at 0% (product A), 7.5% (product B), and 15% (product C) of the margarine content (15%) in the cake formulation. A commercial wheat-based butter cake served as the control. Consumers (n= 400) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptance and purchase intent were determined with a binomial (yes/no) scale. At least 81% of consumers accepted products B and C, of which 42.1% and 47%, respectively, would purchase the products if commercially available. Product A was neither liked nor disliked with an overall liking score of 5.39. The butter cake products were differentiated by textural acceptability (overall texture, softness, and moistness) with a canonical correlation of 0.71 to 0.79. Overall liking and taste influenced overall acceptance and purchase intent. Odor influenced purchase intent (P= 0.0014), but not overall acceptance. The odds ratio of overall liking was 3.462 for purchase intent, indicating the probability of the product being purchased is 3.462 times higher (than not being purchased, P flour with Thai jasmine rice flour for production of butter cake products acceptable to American consumers.

  1. CEA distribution transformer purchasing specifications (DTWG-01,02,03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purchasing specifications for three types of distribution transformers are presented. The specifications were compiled by the Canadian Electricity Association at the suggestion made in 1989 by the Canadian Utilities Material Management Group. The specifications cover pole mounted single phase distribution transformers (DTWG-01), low-profile, single phase, dead-front pad-mounted distribution transformers (DTWG-02), and three phase, dead-front pad-mounted distribution transformers (DTWG-03). The specifications were compiled by a task force of CEA member utilities, using CSA standards as the governing standards in all three cases. The first edition of the purchasing specifications was issued in 1993. The second edition, consisting mainly of revisions based on experiences learned from using the first edition, and the addition of the appropriate clauses of CSA standards, was published in 1998. Based on a three-year average of the number of transformers purchased annually (about 58,000) at an estimated total cost of $ 120 million, use of the Purchasing Specifications is said to have resulted in savings of about 7 per cent or $ 8.4 million

  2. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  3. Effect of Store Atmosphere on Consumer Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Riaz; Ali, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed at identifying the effects of atmosphere on the consumer purchase intention in international retail chain outlets of Karachi, Pakistan. This was the first study, which investigated the collective impact of atmospheric variables at one point in time on purchase intention. This research was causal in nature. A sample of 300 consumers was taken who usually visited these outlets. Data was collected through a well-structured questionnaire and analyzed through regression a...

  4. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriyani, Dwi Meilia; Yuliati, Lilik Noor; Simanjuntak, Megawati

    2017-01-01

    The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements) for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor) influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to ...

  5. An agency theory perspective on the purchase of marketing services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, W.L.; Ellram, L.M.; Bals, L.; Hartmann, E.; Valk, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    The purchase of business services has become an important part of organizations' acquisition of external resources, and is therefore receiving growing scholarly attention. The supply management function is increasingly supporting more complex service purchases, including a wide range of marketing

  6. Food consumed outside the home in Brazil according to places of purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Nogueira Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to describe the places of purchase of food consumed outside the home, characterize consumers according to the places of consumption, and identify the food purchased by place of consumption in Brazil. METHODS We have used data from the Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar (Household Budget Survey of 2008-2009 with a sample of 152,895 subjects over 10 years of age. The purchase of food outside the home was collected from the records of all expenditures made in seven days. The places of purchase were grouped according to their characteristics: supermarket, bakery, street food, restaurant, snack bar, fruit shop, and other places. The types of food were grouped into nine categories, considering the nutritional aspects and the marketing characteristics of the item. We have estimated the frequency of purchase in the seven groups of places in Brazil and according to gender and type of food purchased per place. We have calculated the average age, income and years of education, as well as the per capita expenditure according to places of purchase of food consumed outside the home. RESULTS The purchase of food outside the home was reported by 41.2% of the subjects, being it greater among men than women (44% versus 38.5%. Adults had a higher frequency (46% than teenagers (37.7% and older adults (24.2%. The highest frequency of places of purchase were snack bar (16.9% and restaurant (16.4%, while the fruit shop (1.2% presented the lowest frequency. Sweets, snack chips and soft drinks were the most purchased items in most places. Average expenditure was higher for restaurant (R$33.20 and lower for fruit shop (R$4.10 and street food (R$5.00. CONCLUSIONS The highest percentage of food consumed outside the home comes from snack bars and restaurants, pointing to important places for the development of public policies focused on promoting healthy eating.

  7. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: numerous factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Chua, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The purchase of a confocal microscope is a difficult decision. Many factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, company, support, service, and price. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  9. Leveraging fuel purchasing and management activities within a competitive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallard, S.; Anderson, A.; Schick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, one can see that competition, deregulation, or at a minimum, a closer focus on the overall economies of power generation is stimulating change within the power sector. Power generation markets are becoming liberalized providing for independent power producers and, in some cases, providing third-party access to the grid. In the US, fuel costs are being transformed from a pass-through expense to the consumer to one of a strategic asset or liability. In every case, fuel quality, fuel-related costs, and managing the fuel purchasing process are key factors in the overall efficiency and financial performance on the power generator. This paper illustrates how effective fuel management requires that the utility or GenCo improve upon historical fuel management/purchasing practices to lower overall generation costs and address the opportunities present in the power and fuel markets. Key framework/principles to be discussed include: Tighter coupling of fuel purchasing, short-term planning, and dispatch functions. Effective planning to link purchased fuel to system demand forecasts, consider contract/transportation constraints/economics, evaluate alternative sources, and consider fuel mix strategies (e.g., between sport, contract, and various regions/qualities). Tools and processes needed to support the new business environment such as fuel impact analysis, application of integrated fuel evaluation/management systems, market forecasting, purchasing, and the role of fuel management in energy trading. Flexibility to support optimal purchasing strategies including shorter purchase cycles, special buys, buys for third parties, and coal tolling. This framework would be discussed using examples from the US, UK, European, and Pacific Rim markets

  10. Characteristics associated with purchasing antidepressant or antianxiety medications through primary care in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Gross, Revital; Yaari, Aviv; Feldhamer, Elan; Balicer, Ran; Goldfracht, Margalit

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the role of patient and physician characteristics associated with the purchase of antidepressant or antianxiety medications in Israel, a country that has a universal health care system. A national sample of 30,000 primary care patients over the age of 22 was randomly drawn from the registry of the largest health care fund in Israel. Data concerning medication purchase between January and December 2006 were extracted. Physician and patient characteristics were merged with Israel's unique identification number. Multilevel analysis was conducted to identify patient- and physician-level predictors of medication purchase. Overall, 19% (N = 4,762) of the sample purchased antidepressant or antianxiety medications. Individuals with greater general medical and psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to purchase antidepressant or antianxiety medications. Older adults, women, those of higher socioeconomic status, and immigrants (with the exception of Jews born in Asia or Africa) were also more likely to purchase medications. Arabs and Jews born in Asia and Africa were less likely to purchase medications even after all other variables were accounted for. Physician characteristics were minimally associated with the purchase of medications. The findings demonstrate that despite universal health care access, there were variations by population groups. Educational efforts should target patients as well as physicians.

  11. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  12. Sustainable Decisions Signal Sustainable Relationships: How Purchasing Decisions Affect Perceptions and Romantic Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-01-01

    In the pursuit of love, individuals strategically use luxury products to signal status and other attractive attributes. Might eco-friendly products also signal mate-relevant information? The current research examined inferences from eco-friendly purchases and how they predict perceived suitability for short- and long-term romantic relationships. Participants read descriptions of a stranger's eco-friendly or luxury purchase decisions, reported their perceptions of the purchaser, and indicated their potential romantic interest in the purchaser. The influence of the relative price of the chosen product was also investigated. Compared to luxury purchasers, eco-friendly purchasers were ascribed greater warmth, competence, and good partner traits, but less physical appeal, and they were preferred for long-term but not short-term relationships. The social costs and benefits of "going green" are discussed in light of their implications for environmental sustainability efforts.

  13. Consumer Purchasing Behaviour : Case study of Etisalat Nig.

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, Olaitan

    2014-01-01

    The research is aimed at elicit attention to present marketing environment in Nigeria and as regard the importance of consumer purchasing behavior and this is also to ascertain if product brand, taste, personal income, and price and the what relationship it also have on consumer behavior toward Etisalat product. However, every company must develop new products that suite consumer pur-chase decision. This informed behavior affects how certain consumers react to new products and thereby af...

  14. VIRTUAL PURCHASE INTENTION: INFLUENCE OF SECURITY AND TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    Asma javed*, Dr Wasif Ali Waseer, Dr Babak Mehmood

    2018-01-01

    The fast growth of online transaction and e-commerce inspired many companies to setup their business on web pages. It is fact that online purchasing is still poor as compared to other online activities. Research study will explore factors that affect consumer’s virtual purchase intention. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Theory Acceptance Model (TAM) are the groundwork theories that are used in research to investigate those factors that affect the virtual...

  15. Investigation of the roles of fascioliasis and food allergy in intrahepatic eosinophilic proliferative pylephlebitis in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Kazuki; Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kozo; Hori, Makito; Konnai, Masaki; Abiko, Chieko; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yamanome, Yukito; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Michishita, Masaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2013-05-01

    Intrahepatic eosinophilic proliferative pylephlebitis (EPP) in Japanese Black (JB) cattle generally has been considered to be an atypical form of fascioliasis. However, there are many cases of EPP in which no Fasciola spp. have been detected in the livers of affected cattle. The aims of this study were to ascertain the relationship between EPP and hepatic fascioliasis and to investigate the role of food allergy in the disease. Histologically, EPP lesions were characterised by severe endothelial proliferation of the interlobular veins, accompanied by varying degrees of fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration in portal areas, which could be differentiated from chronic cholangiohepatitis, the typical lesion of hepatic fascioliasis. In addition to hepatic lesions, all cases of EPP had varying degrees of eosinophilic infiltration in the perilymphoid red pulp of the spleen, whereas both affected and unaffected animals had eosinophilic infiltrates in the mucosa of the small intestine. Antibodies against Fasciola spp. were detected in 1/14 EPP cases by ELISA; the seropositive case had EPP in combination with chronic cholangitis. There was no significant difference in total concentration of IgE between cases of EPP and unaffected cattle. Serum IgE levels specific to curly dock (Rumex crispus) and oats (Avena sativa) were higher in EPP cases than in unaffected cattle by allergen profiling screening testing and ELISA. The results of this study suggest that hepatic fascioliasis is unlikely to be the cause of EPP in JB cattle and that food allergens should be investigated as possible aetiological agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Explaining Online Purchase Intentions: A Multi-Channel Store Image Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolen, van Willemijn; Verhagen, Tibert

    2007-01-01

    This study is one of the few empirical works addressing the impact of offline and online store impressions on consumer online purchase intentions. Building upon the literature on store image and consumer online purchasing, we propose positive effects of online store image and suggest mixed

  17. Social modeling of food purchases at supermarkets in teenage girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Ample experimental research has demonstrated the impact of peer influence on food intake in adolescents and adults. However, none of these studies focused social modeling effects on food purchases in supermarkets. This study investigated whether the food purchase behavior of a confederate peer would

  18. 25 CFR 226.12 - Government reserves right to purchase oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government reserves right to purchase oil. 226.12 Section... reserves right to purchase oil. Any of the executive departments of the U.S. Government shall have the... price as defined in § 226.11. ...

  19. Investigating Young Consumers’ Purchasing Intention of Green Housing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of energy crisis, environmental degradation, and climate change present a severe challenge to the sustainable development in China. The development of green building (GB is considered one of the most popular strategies toward a sustainable construction industry. Apart from advanced green technologies, consumers’ purchasing intention toward green housing (GH plays a crucial role in the large-scale promotion of GB. However, which determinants significantly affect consumers’ purchasing intention remain unclear, especially for the young generation in developing countries. This study attempts to investigate young consumers’ purchasing intention of GH in China. On the basis of extended theory of planned behavior (TPB, seven constructs are identified, and nine hypotheses are proposed. A total of 241 responses were collected from the questionnaire survey, and structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Governmental incentives are affirmed to be the most important determinant, followed by consumers’ attitude toward behavior and subjective norm. Perceived behavioral control is an insignificant determinant for young consumers to purchase GH. In addition, subjective knowledge has an indirect effect through attitude toward behavior. Environmental concern also confirms an indirect effect through attitude toward behavior and subjective norm toward purchasing intention, respectively. Thus, the government is implied to play a crucial role in GH promotion at this stage.

  20. The antecedents of herbal product actual purchase in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Ismail

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant to examine the relationships of several antecedents of actual purchase of herbal product in Malaysia. Actual purchase is considered to have a vital link to a business success. The study identified eight antecedents of consumer actual purchase such as intention, attitude, social influence, product safety and culture belief. A total of 473 respondents (about 82% completed and returned the questionnaire. A seven point Likert scale was used to measure responses. The data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares (PLS path modeling. The path coefficient results supported the direct influence of intention, attitude, social influence and product safety on actual buying. Moreover, the findings reveal that attitude, social influence, product safety, and culture belief also influenced buying intention.

  1. The Role of Internal Reference Points in the Category Purchase Decision.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David R; Bucklin, Randolph E

    1999-01-01

    The authors study the role that reference effects play in the category purchase decision for consumer nondurable products. Category purchase behavior is represented by a nested logit model that is estimated on purchase records of shoppers in two Universal Product Code (UPC) scanner panels. A series of hypotheses are developed, modeled, and tested regarding the effects that internal reference points for product category attractiveness are likely to have on the decision to buy in a product cate...

  2. Order of the 27. of January 2011 setting electricity purchase conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This order sets the purchase conditions for electricity produced by installations using mainly the energy released by combustion of vegetal or animal non fossil materials. The articles concern the description of the producer installation, the contracting process, the purchase contract, conditions to be met by the installation, and the definition of tariff indexing. In appendix, the text specifies some calculations rules for energy efficiency and for the purchase tariff. It also indicates some administrative aspects, and atmospheric dismissal conditions

  3. Demographic and psychographic associations of consumer intentions to purchase healthier food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Melissa; Wang, Wei Chun; Worsley, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the associations of nutrition concerns, demographics, universalism (community oriented) values, perceived control over personal health and food buying, and perceived influence over the food system with intentions to purchase low fat, sugar and salt (LFSS) food products. A national online survey of 2204 Australian consumers administered in November 2011. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations of LFSS purchasing intentions with demographic, values, perceived control, and influence factors. Nutrition concern, perceived influence over the food system, and universalism values were key predictors of LFSS purchasing intentions. Almost two thirds (64.6%) of the variance associated with LFSS purchasing was explained by the structural equation model. Communication programs which focus on universalism values, nutrition concern and perceived influence over the food system are likely to increase LFSS purchasing and perhaps reduce the demand for energy dense, nutrient poor foods.

  4. [The price-based certainty of purchase influences consumer behavior for discount].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, Katsuhiko; Ariga, Atsunori; Furuya, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Tversky & Kahneman (1981) reported that most participants decided to drive when they could save money on a low-price good as compared to when they could save on a high-price good, even though the discount prices were same. Although this irrational decision making has been interpreted as a rate-dependent estimation of value (prospect theory), this study newly proposes that it can be explained by the certainty of purchase based on the price of goods. Experiment 1 replicated the previously reported difference in decision making, and additionally demonstrated that participants' certainty of purchase was lower for a high- than a low-price good. When it was emphasized that participants' intention to purchase high- and low-price goods were equally sure, decision making did not significantly differ (Experiment 2). Furthermore, decision making differed based only on the certainty of purchase even,when prices of goods were-same (Experiment 3). Consumers' decision making may be rather rational, depending straightforwardly on the certainty of purchase that is susceptible to price.

  5. Relationship between Alcohol Purchasing Time and Alcohol Use Disorder in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amista, Narcie Faith; Chun, Sungsoo; Yun, Mieun

    2017-12-01

    Currently, time of alcohol purchase is not part of the policies to regulate alcohol consumption in South Korea. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between alcohol purchasing time and alcohol use disorder. The survey for this study was conducted in geographically diverse regions of South Korea in 2012. Respondents' purchasing behaviors for both on-licensed (i.e., allows for consumption within the premises) and off-licensed (i.e., where alcohol is consumed off the premises) outlets and time of alcohol consumption were collected. Alcohol consumption patterns were examined using the Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen 4 (RAPS4). Data were also analyzed by age, gender and purchasing time. Results showed that among the off-licensed premises, supermarkets appear to be the most popular venue while for on-licensed premises; alcohol was generally consumed inside hotels/pubs regardless of age and gender of the purchaser. Purchasing of alcohol was highest during the day and early evening period (9:00 a.m. to 9:59 p.m.). Females are most likely to abuse alcohol than males during the early morning period and is that period after 12:00 midnight. Analysis suggests that the survey instrument used in the International Alcohol Control Study is being used to collect data on alcohol purchasing time consumption; therefore, the potential is there to provide accurate results to contribute appropriate policy responses to reduce alcohol related-harm.

  6. Photovoltaic power: the inadequate purchase price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2009-01-01

    The current policy of guaranteed purchase prices applied to photovoltaic power lacks rationality: prices are not graduated, commitment times are too long, there is no capping to capacity developed, subsidies (tax credit, direct subsidy, etc) are complex and give too favourable a return time. The lack of differentiation between products may also delay the emergence of new PV technologies. As a result, it is legitimate to envisage a cost/benefit analysis of future subsidies and to wonder about Frances ability, as a second rank player, to catch up with the leaders (Germany, Japan, United States). The report does not criticize policy based on purchase prices in itself: this is suitable or technology close to commercial operation in that it guarantees stable terms close to wholesale electricity market prices. It does, however, criticize adequacy in terms of less advanced PV technology, which results in purchase prices five times that of wind power. The report proposes re-targeting the system to take account of the significant stakes in PV power. Costly incentives for installing land PV cells and units should be quickly reduced, while industrial demonstration budgets deserve increases to further the development of new technologies (improved crystal silicon and thin layers). The demonstration phase and industrial development should be the primary focus, where a large part of potentially promising reductions in costs are likely to be achieved. (author)

  7. The challenges of strategic purchasing of healthcare services in Iran Health Insurance Organization: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Hasan Abolghasem; Mousavi, Sayyed Masoud Shajari Pour; Shojaei, Ali; Keshavarzi, Anahita; Zare, Hossein

    2018-02-01

    Strategic purchasing in healthcare services is a key component in improving health system performance, and it has been one of the most important issues in health system reform around the world, especially Europe in the last decade. Iran health system and insurance, although sometimes considered the issue of strategic purchasing goals, has not been made possible to achieve or even to implement, due to the associated problems. To determine the associated problems of strategic purchasing in the Iran Health Insurance Organization (IHIO). This study is a qualitative study, and framework analysis which was conducted in Iran in 2014-15. The participants in this study were 34 individuals from decision-makers and executives in the IHIO purchasing process, and university experts who have been chosen purposefully. This study conducted frame analysis, by using MAXQDA 10. The findings included associated problems of IHIO strategic purchasing in 12 themes and 65 subthemes. The themes included: Laws and regulations for purchasing, Organization of purchasing, Qualified and authorized providers, Right type of services, Right type of contracts, Target groups for purchasing, Resources allocation, financing and pricing system, Purchasing as improving performance and quality, Purchasing as shaping the market and competition, Purchasing as health progress state of people and society, Guided purchasing and stewardship of government, Structure of decision-making process in the health and welfare ministries. The findings of this study showed associated problems in IHIO strategic purchasing. To achieve strategic purchasing goals in Iran, identification of all issues and factors of the total insurers and health system sets which affect strategic purchasing is essential.

  8. Car Purchasing Behavior in Beijing : - An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Xuan; Dongyan, Liu

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to give an overview on young Chinese consumers’ car purchase behavior. The results show that car purchasing decision is an important decision for most of Chinese. Consumers get information from different channels. The results of this study also tells us that Chinese consumers take “safety” as the most important characteristic and take “value for money” as the second most important and “riding comfort” as the third important characteristic. Chinese consumers take “after-sale ma...

  9. Evaluating mergers and acquisitions with a purchase investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E A; Giniat, E J

    1988-04-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are risk transactions. Therefore, a well-planned and executed purchase investigation that considers financial, personnel, legal and risk management, third-party payer, and medical staff issues is imperative. Organizations that can successfully complete a purchase investigation will be able to make better informed, lower risk, financial decisions, and will have a competitive advantage in achieving strategic goals. This article is the third in a series on mergers and acquisitions. Other articles will include legal issues and capital planning.

  10. Food and beverage purchases in corner stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Lenk, Kathleen; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Barnes, Timothy L; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about customer purchases of foods and beverages from small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores and pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) describe customer characteristics, shopping frequency and reasons for shopping at small and non-traditional food retailers; and (ii) describe food/beverage purchases and their nutritional quality, including differences across store type. Data were collected through customer intercept interviews. Nutritional quality of food/beverage purchases was analysed; a Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for purchases was created by aggregating participant purchases at each store. Small and non-traditional food stores that were not WIC-authorized in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA. Customers (n 661) from 105 food retailers. Among participants, 29 % shopped at the store at least once daily; an additional 44 % shopped there at least once weekly. Most participants (74 %) cited convenient location as the primary draw to the store. Customers purchased a median of 2262 kJ (540 kcal), which varied by store type (P=0·04). The amount of added sugar far surpassed national dietary recommendations. At dollar stores, participants purchased a median of 5302 kJ (1266 kcal) for a median value of $US 2·89. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the most common purchase. The mean HEI-2010 score across all stores was 36·4. Small and non-traditional food stores contribute to the urban food environment. Given the poor nutritional quality of purchases, findings support the need for interventions that address customer decision making in these stores.

  11. The attentional drift-diffusion model extends to simple purchasing decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eKrajbich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How do we make simple purchasing decisions (e.g., whether or not to buy a product ata given price? Previous work has shown that the Attentional-Drift-Diffusion-Model (aDDMcan provide accurate descriptions of the psychometric data for binary and trinary value-based choices, and of how the choice process is guided by visual attention. However, the computational processes used to make purchasing decisions are unknown. Here we extend the aDDM to the case of purchasing decisions, and test it using an eye-tracking experiment. We find that the model provides a quantitatively accurate description of the relationship between choice, reaction time, and visual fixations using parameters that are very similar to those that best fit the previous data. The only critical difference is that the choice biases induced by the fixations are about half as big in purchasing decisions as in binary choices.This suggests that the brain uses similar computational processes in these varied decision situations.

  12. The attentional drift-diffusion model extends to simple purchasing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajbich, Ian; Lu, Dingchao; Camerer, Colin; Rangel, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    How do we make simple purchasing decisions (e.g., whether or not to buy a product at a given price)? Previous work has shown that the attentional drift-diffusion model (aDDM) can provide accurate quantitative descriptions of the psychometric data for binary and trinary value-based choices, and of how the choice process is guided by visual attention. Here we extend the aDDM to the case of purchasing decisions, and test it using an eye-tracking experiment. We find that the model also provides a reasonably accurate quantitative description of the relationship between choice, reaction time, and visual fixations using parameters that are very similar to those that best fit the previous data. The only critical difference is that the choice biases induced by the fixations are about half as big in purchasing decisions as in binary choices. This suggests that a similar computational process is used to make binary choices, trinary choices, and simple purchasing decisions.

  13. 29 CFR 779.248 - Purchase or receive “goods for resale.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section 3(s)(1) of the prior Act if they are purchased or received with the intention of being resold... purchased or received by the enterprise with the intention of reselling them in the same form or after... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase or receive âgoods for resale.â 779.248 Section 779...

  14. Consumers in New Millennium: Attitudes towards Adoption of New Technologies in Purchasing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopaničová Janka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of new technologies has brought many changes into consumer behaviour, especially into purchasing process. The aim of the article is to uncover the attitudes of different generations towards usage of new technologies in purchasing process and determine if the diffusion of innovative purchasing process is significantly different among different generations. The article presents the results of authors´ research of usage of new technologies in purchasing process, as well as attitudes towards it, among different age groups - Generation X, Y, Z and seniors. Results of hybrid research carried out by semi-structured interviews with 551 respondents show, that there are significant generational differences in all three components of attitude towards online purchase, which can be - due to its characteristics- considered the most complex use of new technologies in purchasing process. Results prove that the diffusion of innovation in the purchasing process is significantly influenced by the age group. With age the number of Innovators significantly drops and the percentage of Laggards rises. The ratio of those adopting “early” and “late” significantly changes according to age group as well. Majority of younger respondents are accepting the new technologies into purchasing process early (Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority. Middle-aged consumers accept the innovations proportionally - copying the Roger´s curve. Among seniors, the majority is “late” (Late Majority and Laggards.

  15. Identifying drivers for consumer acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Corredor, J A; Saidu, J E P; Khachatryan, A; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Carballo-Carballo, A; Zepeda-Bautista, R

    2007-11-01

    The traditional production of corn tortilla has been modified by new processing technologies to make possible a commercial-scale production; this practice has resulted in products having sensory properties different from those produced by the traditional method. There is no published information on sensory attributes driving acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas. Identifying sensory drivers for acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas will help commercially produce products that satisfy consumers' expectations. A consumer study was conducted to evaluate acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas and determine drivers of acceptance and purchase intent of the products. Ten samples of corn tortillas were selected to represent a variety of corn tortillas available in the Mexican market. Three hundred Mexican consumers evaluated acceptability of appearance, color, thickness, rollability, resistance to tearing, aroma, chewiness, taste and aftertaste, and overall liking using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptance and purchase intent were determined with a yes/no scale. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance revealed that consumers were able to differentiate differences in sensory acceptability among 10 samples. For example, 2 homemade and 1 small commercial-scale samples, with an overall liking score of 6.6 to 6.7, were more acceptable than others. Rollability, resistance to tearing, and chewiness were attributes underlying overall differences among 10 samples. Attributes determining overall acceptance of corn tortillas were chewiness and overall liking. Purchase intent was influenced by overall appearance, rollability, chewiness, taste, and overall liking. This study revealed critical sensory attributes and their weights given by Mexican consumers when making decisions for acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortilla.

  16. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE DECISION OF XIAOMI SMART PHONES

    OpenAIRE

    Gireesan E M

    2017-01-01

    Consumer Behaviour is a branch which deals with the various stages a consumer goes through before purchasing products or services for his end use. Consumer behavior can be broadly classified as the decisions and actions that influence the purchasing behavior of a consumer. What drives consumers to choose a particular product with respect to others is a question which is often analyzed and studied by marketers. Most of the selection process involved in purchasing is based on emotions and reaso...

  17. Place over traits? Purchasing edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepple, Nancy Jo; Freisthler, Bridget

    2017-10-01

    To examine discrete purchasing behaviors of marijuana-infused edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries with the aim to identify potential venue- and individual-level targets for prevention. Two-stage, venue-based sampling approach was used to randomly select patrons exiting 16 medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, California during Spring 2013. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to examine the likelihood of purchasing edibles among 524 patrons reporting a discrete purchase regressed on characteristics of the sampled dispensaries and their patrons. At a venue level, patrons were more likely to purchase edibles from dispensaries located within Census tracts with higher median incomes or in close proximity to a higher number of dispensaries. At an individual level, patrons who identified as Black or Hispanic were associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing edibles when compared to patrons who identified as other non-White, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. Place-based policies focused on regulating edible sales through dispensaries may be fruitful in influencing access to edibles. Additionally, social marketing campaigns may benefit from targeting both locations where edible purchases are more likely and populations who are more likely to purchase edibles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An investigation in purchasing practices of small F&B operators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food and beverage (F&B) purchasing function is operating in a rapidly changing environment, whereby professionalisation and efficiency become key. This paper aims to identify generic skills that are most important for small F&B operators when it comes down to purchasing and supply management. Factors facilitating ...

  19. Food Allergen Labeling and Purchasing Habits in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisotto, Mary Jane; Harada, Laurie; Kamdar, Opal; Smith, Bridget M; Waserman, Susan; Sicherer, Scott; Allen, Katie; Muraro, Antonella; Taylor, Steve; Gupta, Ruchi S

    Mandatory labeling of products with top allergens has improved food safety for consumers. Precautionary allergen labeling (PAL), such as "may contain" or "manufactured on shared equipment," are voluntarily placed by the food industry. To establish knowledge of PAL and its impact on purchasing habits by food-allergic consumers in North America. Food Allergy Research & Education and Food Allergy Canada surveyed consumers in the United States and Canada on purchasing habits of food products featuring different types of PAL. Associations between respondents' purchasing behaviors and individual characteristics were estimated using multiple logistic regression. Of 6684 participants, 84.3% (n = 5634) were caregivers of a food-allergic child and 22.4% had food allergy themselves. Seventy-one percent reported a history of experiencing a severe allergic reaction. Buying practices varied on the basis of PAL wording; 11% of respondents purchased food with "may contain" labeling, whereas 40% purchased food that used "manufactured in a facility that also processes." Twenty-nine percent of respondents were unaware that the law requires labeling of priority food allergens. Forty-six percent were either unsure or incorrectly believed that PAL is required by law. Thirty-seven percent of respondents thought PAL was based on the amount of allergen present. History of a severe allergic reaction decreased the odds of purchasing foods with PAL. Almost half of consumers falsely believed that PAL was required by law. Up to 40% surveyed consumers purchased products with PAL. Understanding of PAL is poor, and improved awareness and guidelines are needed to help food-allergic consumers purchase food safely. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Green brand awareness and customer purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Braimah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Green environmental issues have been of topical interest to both researchers and industrialists for some time now. Research on green brands is relatively limited, especially in developing countries, such as Ghana. This study is therefore designed to determine the relationship between customer awareness of green brand issues and their everyday purchase intentions. Using quantitative techniques, the study interviewed 316 people, conveniently selected from various shopping points in Accra. The study found that, the overwhelming majority of respondents though familiar with green issues did not concern themselves with green issues in their everyday purchase decisions. Again, majority of respondents (54% familiar with environmental issues confirmed they would not switch from their preferred brands to less fancied brands even if the less fancied brands were more environmentally friendly. It was also confirmed in the study that price, brand name and convenience, performed better than customer concerns for green issues, in influencing respondents’ purchase decisions. It would therefore be strategically significance if advocates, policy makers and business leaders reduce the cost of green products to the final consumer, intensive public education campaigns, coupled with strategic brand building efforts to enhance the level of green brand consumption.

  1. Research on organic food purchase in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research findings based on the research conducted on a representative sample of respondents using a highly structured questionnaire. The first part of the paper focuses on the theoretical background and overview of the research results related to the research problem in the world and in Croatia. The results of the research which has been conducted indicate that respondents are not familiar with the definition of organic food. Furthermore, the paper elaborates on the Croatian consumers’ perception of organic food and conventional food. The research on organic food purchase places a special emphasis on regular buyers of organic food who were asked to evaluate the importance of individual characteristics in choosing a place of sale for organic food. Based on the hierarchical regression analysis, the frequency of organic food purchases by regular buyers was found to correlate with the perception of organic food and the importance of characteristics of a place of sale for organic food. The research also identified the main reasons for not buying organic food, and it sets out the guidelines which may be useful to organic producers, marketers and retailers in encouraging further purchases of organic food.

  2. How and when service quality and satisfaction simultaneously influence purchase intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ying; Li, Shyh-Jane; Yang, Miles M

    2011-08-01

    Th e purpose of this study is to examine how and when service quality and satisfaction simultaneously influence purchase intentions. The study tries to explore and clarify the relationship between service quality and satisfaction, and to examine whether satisfaction simultaneously moderates and mediates the relationship between perceived service quality and purchase intentions. A field survey was conducted for the outpatients of 12 regional hospitals in Taiwan. The findings show that the effects of different dimensions of service quality on purchase intentions are not equal across satisfied and unsatisfied patients. This study provides empirical evidence that show how the dual roles of the moderator and mediator manipulated together by satisfaction, work to affect purchase intentions in hospital settings. In addition, the relationships between service quality and satisfaction are also clarified.

  3. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Implicit shopping: attitudinal determinants of the purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrew; Hurling, Robert; Baker, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Implicit attitudes, evaluations that can occur without effort, quickly and without conscious intent, have been shown to predict self-reported diets and objectively measured food choices within the laboratory. We present two studies which extend the literature by demonstrating that implicit attitudes predict objective purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods. Both Study 1 (N=40) and Study 2 (N=36) utilised an online shopping paradigm and concerned purchasing of fruit and chocolate. In both studies, implicit attitudes predicted purchases. Explicit attitudes towards buying or eating fruit versus chocolate did not predict purchase behaviour. These studies represent an original test of whether implicit attitudes predict healthy consumer behaviour, which involves participants paying for products. This research provides the strongest evidence yet that implicit attitudes play a role in predicting health food purchases. A comprehensive model of health behaviour should take into account the role of implicit attitudes. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  5. Demographic and psychographic associations of consumer intentions to purchase healthier food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Melissa; Wang, Wei Chun; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations of nutrition concerns, demographics, universalism (community oriented) values, perceived control over personal health and food buying, and perceived influence over the food system with intentions to purchase low fat, sugar and salt (LFSS) food products. Methods A national online survey of 2204 Australian consumers administered in November 2011. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations of LFSS purchasing intentions with demographic, values, perceived control, and influence factors. Results Nutrition concern, perceived influence over the food system, and universalism values were key predictors of LFSS purchasing intentions. Almost two thirds (64.6%) of the variance associated with LFSS purchasing was explained by the structural equation model. Conclusion Communication programs which focus on universalism values, nutrition concern and perceived influence over the food system are likely to increase LFSS purchasing and perhaps reduce the demand for energy dense, nutrient poor foods. PMID:26844047

  6. The Corporate Sector Purchase Programme (CSPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Large-scale asset purchase programmes are a form of monetary policy in which market interest rates are reduced by different amounts at different maturities – and lower them at the long rates that affect investment and consumption decisions. They are designed to stimulate spending by increasing...... liquidity, raising asset prices, creating wealth effects, lowering borrowing costs and increasing investment. Corporate bond purchases (CSPP) are complementary to, not an alternative to standard QE policies. They increase the impact of QE policies; widen the pool of (potentially) high quality assets...... that can be used (itself a risk reducing measure that reduces the pressure on reserves); and make it easier to steer economic performance by reducing risk premia, that is sectoral or regional interest spreads. That not only reduces average borrowing costs; it delivers better economic performance where...

  7. The challenges of strategic purchasing of healthcare services in Iran Health Insurance Organization: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Hasan Abolghasem; Shojaei, Ali; Keshavarzi, Anahita; Zare, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Background Strategic purchasing in healthcare services is a key component in improving health system performance, and it has been one of the most important issues in health system reform around the world, especially Europe in the last decade. Iran health system and insurance, although sometimes considered the issue of strategic purchasing goals, has not been made possible to achieve or even to implement, due to the associated problems. Objective To determine the associated problems of strategic purchasing in the Iran Health Insurance Organization (IHIO). Methods This study is a qualitative study, and framework analysis which was conducted in Iran in 2014–15. The participants in this study were 34 individuals from decision-makers and executives in the IHIO purchasing process, and university experts who have been chosen purposefully. This study conducted frame analysis, by using MAXQDA 10. Results The findings included associated problems of IHIO strategic purchasing in 12 themes and 65 subthemes. The themes included: Laws and regulations for purchasing, Organization of purchasing, Qualified and authorized providers, Right type of services, Right type of contracts, Target groups for purchasing, Resources allocation, financing and pricing system, Purchasing as improving performance and quality, Purchasing as shaping the market and competition, Purchasing as health progress state of people and society, Guided purchasing and stewardship of government, Structure of decision-making process in the health and welfare ministries. Conclusion The findings of this study showed associated problems in IHIO strategic purchasing. To achieve strategic purchasing goals in Iran, identification of all issues and factors of the total insurers and health system sets which affect strategic purchasing is essential. PMID:29629051

  8. Purchasing and inventory management techniques for optimizing inventory investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, I.; Gehshan, T.

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to reduce operations and maintenance costs among nuclear plants, many utilities are taking a closer look at their inventory investment. Various approaches for inventory reduction have been used and discussed, but these approaches are often limited to an inventory management perspective. Interaction with purchasing and planning personnel to reduce inventory investment is a necessity in utility efforts to become more cost competitive. This paper addresses the activities that purchasing and inventory management personnel should conduct in an effort to optimize inventory investment while maintaining service-level goals. Other functions within a materials management organization, such as the warehousing and investment recovery functions, can contribute to optimizing inventory investment. However, these are not addressed in this paper because their contributions often come after inventory management and purchasing decisions have been made

  9. The ABCs of HIPCs (health insurance purchasing cooperatives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1993-01-01

    HIPCs, or health care purchasing cooperatives, are attracting widespread interest as a key element of the managed competition approach to health reform. HIPCs perform several useful roles for individuals and small employers unable to obtain health insurance coverage in the current system by spreading risk more evenly and purchasing coverage in a given region or market area. While HIPCs are generally associated with managed competition, they are also compatible with reform strategies that require employers to pay for coverage or those that provide incentives for expanded coverage.

  10. Extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase of chocolate milk for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng E; Lopetcharat, Kannapon; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    The consumption of milk is essential for children's heath; and flavored milk, especially chocolate milk, is often purchased to increase children's milk consumption. However, the sugar content of chocolate milk has raised health concerns. As such, it is important to understand chocolate milk extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase decisions when they are purchasing chocolate milk for their children. The objective of this study was to determine the key extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children. An online survey with a conjoint analysis design, emotions questions, and Kano questionnaire that focused on chocolate milk was conducted targeting parents. Three hundred and twelve parents participated in the survey. Parents reported positive emotions including good, good natured, happy, loving, and satisfied when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Three segments of parents were identified with subtle but distinct differences in their key preferences for chocolate milk attributes for their children. Type of sweetener was the primary driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk for children followed by fat content. Among sweetener types, natural noncaloric/nonnutritive sweeteners or sucrose were preferred over artificial sweeteners, and reduced fat was preferred over full fat or skim milk. Kano results revealed that reduced fat and sugar with an all natural label and added vitamins, minerals, and protein were attractive to the majority of parents when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Understanding the driving extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children will assist manufacturers to target extrinsic attributes that are attractive to parents for chocolate milk. This study established that sweetener type and fat content are the primary extrinsic attributes affecting parents purchase decisions when choosing chocolate milk for their children. Different segments of

  11. Buy Energy-Efficient Products: A Guide for Federal Purchasers and Specifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    In a single year, energy-efficient product purchases could save the federal government almost a half billion dollars worth of energy. By purchasing products that exceed the minimum required efficiency levels, buyers can save the government even more energy and money. Federal employees and contractors must take an active role in ensuring that the government receives products that meet efficiency requirements. This document provides an overview of product purchasing requirements and shows you how to write compliant contracts, find funding, and confirm product compliance.

  12. A conceptual schema for government purchasing arrangements for Australian alcohol and other drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Hull, Philip; Berends, Lynda; Chalmers, Jenny; Lancaster, Kari

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a conceptual schema for government purchasing of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia which could encompass the diversity and variety in purchasing arrangements, and facilitate better decision-maker by purchasers. There is a limited evidence base on purchasing arrangements in alcohol and drug treatment despite the clear impact of purchasing arrangements on both treatment processes and treatment outcomes. The relevant health and social welfare literature on purchasing arrangements was reviewed; data were collected from Australian purchasers and providers of treatment giving detailed descriptions of the array of purchasing arrangements. Combined analysis of the literature and the Australian purchasing data resulted in a draft schema which was then reviewed by an expert committee and subsequently finalised. The conceptual schema presented here was purpose-built for alcohol and other drug treatment, with its overlap between health and social welfare services. It has three dimensions: 1. The ways in which providers are chosen; 2. The ways in which services are paid for; and 3. How price is managed. Distinguishing between the methods for choosing providers (such as competitive or individually negotiated processes) from the way in which organisations are paid for their provision of treatment (such as via a block grant or payment for activity) provides conceptual clarity and enables closer analysis of each mechanism. Governments can improve health and wellbeing by making informed decisions about the way they purchase and fund alcohol and other drug treatment. Research comparing different purchasing arrangements can provide a vital evidence-base to inform funders; however a first step is to accurately and consistently categorise current approaches against a typology or conceptual schema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069

  14. Do socio-economic factors influence supermarket content and shoppers' purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V S; Gomez, Maria; Colagiuri, Ruth

    2009-12-01

    Obesity is at crisis proportions. Individuals of low socio-economic status (SES) are more likely to consume higher energy dense diets than their high socio-economic status counterparts. The contribution of supermarket purchases of energy dense, nutrient poor foods has not been well-researched and has largely depended on unverified self-report. We estimated the proportion of supermarket shelf space dedicated to non-core foods in nine supermarkets (in five high and four low SES areas) in metropolitan Sydney. We analysed 204 shoppers' dockets (102 from high and 102 from low SES areas) for purchases of confectionery; sugar sweetened, carbonated beverages and cordials, sweet biscuits and cakes, and crisps and popcorn. After adjusting for the number of people shopped for, low SES shoppers purchased significantly more non-core foods than high SES shoppers (p=0.039), especially chips and sugar sweetened, carbonated beverages and cordials. There was no difference in the shelf space dedicated to non-core foods, or between non-core foods purchased and the proportion of shelf space occupied by them in either low or high SES areas. Increased purchase of non-core foods by low SES shoppers who are already at higher risk of obesity than high SES shoppers is cause for concern. Further research is required to explore underlying reasons for this association.

  15. European Union Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  16. 5 CFR 3801.104 - Purchase or use of certain forfeited and other property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 3801.104 Purchase or use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase or use of certain forfeited and... employee shall purchase, directly or indirectly, from the Department of Justice or its agents property...

  17. Analysis of the purchase and consumer behaviour towards direct purchase of food

    OpenAIRE

    Zenner, Silvia; Wirthgen, Bernd; Altmann, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presented the methodic as well as selected results of own empiric research (face-to-face questionings in seven different questioning regions, n = 1488) to the analysis of the shopping behaviour and the attitudes towards direct purchase. To the analysis of the buying patterns a Kaufverhaltensindex (KVI) was introduced. In the regional comparison will be clear that the questioning regions of Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia show KVI by far highest, while the eastern questi...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008 ...

  19. Socioeconomic status, energy cost, and nutrient content of supermarket food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Johnson, Tricia J; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Whited, Matthew C; Ventrelle, Jennifer C

    2012-04-01

    The relative affordability of energy-dense versus nutrient-rich foods may promote socioeconomic disparities in dietary quality and obesity. Although supermarkets are the largest food source in the American diet, the associations between SES and the cost and nutrient content of freely chosen food purchases have not been described. To investigate relationships of SES with the energy cost ($/1000 kcal) and nutrient content of freely chosen supermarket purchases. Supermarket shoppers (n=69) were recruited at a Phoenix AZ supermarket in 2009. The energy cost and nutrient content of participants' purchases were calculated from photographs of food packaging and nutrition labels using dietary analysis software. Data were analyzed in 2010-2011. Two SES indicators, education and household income as a percentage of the federal poverty guideline (FPG), were associated with the energy cost of purchased foods. Adjusting for covariates, the amount spent on 1000 kcal of food was $0.26 greater for every multiple of the FPG, and those with a baccalaureate or postbaccalaureate degree spent an additional $1.05 for every 1000 kcal of food compared to those with no college education. Lower energy cost was associated with higher total fat and less protein, dietary fiber, and vegetables per 1000 kcal purchased. Low-SES supermarket shoppers purchase calories in inexpensive forms that are higher in fat and less nutrient-rich. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Consumer's psychological processes of hoarding and avoidant purchasing after the Tohoku earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Shoji; Hirose, Yukio

    2014-02-01

    This study examined psychological processes of consumers that had determined hoarding and avoidant purchasing behaviors after the Tohoku earthquake within a dual-process model. The model hypothesized that both intentional motivation based on reflective decision and reactive motivation based on non-reflective decision predicted the behaviors. This study assumed that attitude, subjective norm and descriptive norm in relation to hoarding and avoidant purchasing were determinants of motivations. Residents in the Tokyo metropolitan area (n = 667) completed internet longitudinal surveys at three times (April, June, and November, 2011). The results indicated that intentional and reactive motivation determined avoidant purchasing behaviors in June; only intentional motivation determined the behaviors in November. Attitude was a main determinant of the motivations each time. Moreover, previous behaviors predicted future behaviors. In conclusion, purchasing behaviors were intentional rather than reactive behaviors. Furthermore, attitude and previous behaviors were important determinants in the dual-process model. Attitude and behaviors formed in April continued to strengthen the subsequent decisions of purchasing behavior.

  1. Surveying Data on Consumer Green Purchasing Intention: A Case in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chin Paya Hsu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many people have expressed their environmental concerns, and agreed that immediate actions should be taken for the environment. However, only few of them would always make their purchasing decision based on their environmental concerns. Grounded in the theory of Planned Behavior, the aim of this research was to examine the discrepancy between New Zealand consumers’ environmental concerns and intentions to purchase energy-saving light bulbs. The study employed a cross-sectional consumer survey (between late 2011 to early 2012 for data collection (N=313, and the structural equation modelling for model testing. Further, the study also took precautions during the questionnaire design stage to minimize potential common method bias, and examined the common method variance in the data before testing the model. All indicators in this research were reflective to their representing constructs. Results of the analysis confirmed that consumers’ attitudinal affections and beliefs towards the purchasing behavior, self-identity, and past purchasing behavior had positive influence on their purchasing intentions.

  2. What Otaku consumers care about: The factors influential to online purchase intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Chinese customers and those in the rest of world share the same two principal concerns about e-commerce: inadequate information from website and inadequate legal protection for Internet purchases. This study shows that trust, information adequacy and Otakus' characteristics have a significant effect on online purchase intention. Moreover, Otakus' characteristics demonstrate an interference effect on purchasing intention online for the influential factors: information provision and trust in the website.

  3. Contact lenses purchased over the internet place individuals potentially at risk for harmful eye care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Zidile, Chaya

    2008-01-01

    Individuals are increasingly purchasing contact lenses over the Internet. No studies exist regarding Internet purchase of contact lenses and eye care health practices. One hundred fifty-one college students were surveyed regarding contact lenses purchase category (doctor's office, store, Internet). Pearson chi-square analyses compared purchase category with responses regarding U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for purchasing contact lenses online. Analysis of variance compared contact lenses purchase category with the Time Pressure Scale (TPS). Also, correlation analyses compared the TPS with Internet eye-health statements. Contact lens purchase categories included doctor's office (43.0%), store (55.0%), and Internet (22.5%), with individuals purchasing at multiple venues. With regard to the FDA recommendations, those who purchased contact lenses at a doctor's office more often adhered to the recommendations, whereas those who purchased contact lenses at a store or the Internet did so less often. Those who purchased contact lenses over the Internet had significantly higher TPS scores. In addition, higher TPS scores were significantly correlated with various statements regarding the Internet. Those who purchase contact lenses via the Internet or store do not follow a number of FDA contact lenses recommendations. Also, those with higher TPS scores trust possible non-evidence-based contact lenses Internet information. Implications with regard to the Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act are discussed.

  4. Consumers' expected quality and intention to purchase high quality pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagiotou, P; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I; Melfou, K

    2013-03-01

    Expected quality is believed to be one of the most important factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase food. The present study seeks to explore the concept of pork meat expected quality and compare it with self-stated consumer intention to purchase pork meat. The aim is attempted by means of a field research conducted in Greece, following a conjoint analytic procedure. Results show that quality expectations comply with intention to buy pork, in many aspects. However, several differences have been identified. More specifically, country of origin and marbling appear to be more important for respondents' purchase decisions than they are for their quality evaluations, while the opposite appears to be true for price. Finally, socio-demographic factors such as gender, level of education, place of purchase and consumption habits seem to influence perceptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategic Change in a Construction Contractor's Purchasing Organisation and Supplier Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Tambo, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The paper adopts a combined supply chain management and purchasing theory approach to changes in a contractor's purchasing organization and suppliers relations. This is seen to be a complex prolonged change process emerging over long time. The method is qualitative and longitudinal combining ex...... ante studies with ex post elements. As the time frame is ten years a necessary combination of studies with different aims has been done. The case of a major contractor's efforts within supply chain and purchasing exhibits a number of change elements in interaction; new business concepts, processes...

  6. 17 CFR 240.14e-5 - Prohibiting purchases outside of a tender offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(s); (iv) The intention of the offeror to make purchases pursuant to the foreign tender offer(s) is... consideration paid outside of the tender offer that is greater than the tender offer price; and (G) Purchases or... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibiting purchases outside...

  7. Effect of corporate social responsibility motives on purchase intention model: An extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunee Wongpitch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of empirical studies on the effect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR motives on the consumer purchase intention is still very small. Furthermore, the models tested in these studies were also relatively simple (including only CSR motives, attitude toward the firm, and/or purchase intention. The present research extends the knowledge in this area of study by proposing and empirically testing an extended model of the effect of CSR motives on purchase intention, with 192 samples participated in the survey. It was found that an altruistic motive positively affects the attitude toward the firm, which in turn affects the purchase intention via the perceived quality and attitude toward the brand.

  8. Variation in provider vaccine purchase prices and payer reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Cowan, Anne E; Gregory, Sashi; Clark, Sarah J

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to collect data regarding vaccine prices and reimbursements in private practices. Amid reports of physicians losing money on vaccines, there are limited supporting data to show how much private practices are paying for vaccines and how much they are being reimbursed by third-party payers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of private practices in 5 states (California, Georgia, Michigan, New York, and Texas) that purchase vaccines for administration to privately insured children/adolescents. Main outcome measures included prices paid to purchase vaccines recommended for children and adolescents and reimbursement from the 3 most common, non-Medicaid payers for vaccine purchase and administration. Detailed price and reimbursement data were provided by 76 practices. There was a considerable difference between the maximum and minimum prices paid by practices, ranging from $4 to more than $30 for specific vaccines. There was also significant variation in insurance reimbursement for vaccine purchase, with maximum and minimum reimbursements for a single vaccine differing from $8 to more than $80. Mean net yield per dose (reimbursement for vaccine purchase minus price paid per dose) varied across vaccines from a low of approximately $3 to more than $24. Reimbursement for the first dose of vaccine administered ranged from $0 to more than $26, with a mean of $16.62. There is a wide range of prices paid by practices for the same vaccine product and in the reimbursement for vaccines and administration fees by payers. This variation highlights the need for individual practices to understand their own costs and reimbursements and to seek opportunities to reduce costs and increase reimbursements.

  9. Attitude towards the purchase of counterfeits: Antecedents and effect on intention to purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Viot , Catherine; Le Roux , André; Kremer , Florence

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Counterfeiting is a major issue for companies, public institutions and consumers. Despite extensive literature on the subject in marketing, an instrument for measuring the wide variety of the determinants of attitude towards and intention to purchase counterfeit products is lacking. A second-order model comprising thirteen determinants, grouped into three latent constructs, is validated. This model includes a dimension related to the societal consequences of counterfei...

  10. Redesigning the marketing mix for eco-friendly product consumption among non-purchasers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockalingam Senthil Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was created in order to customise the marketing mix for non-purchasers of eco-friendly products by studying their perspectives on the introduction of eco-friendly variants of the regular products that they are using in particular product categories (personal care and home care. Overall previous literature reviews in this area imply that there is a gap in the scientific literature on the marketing mix formulation for converting non-purchasers into purchasers of eco-friendly products to augment eco-friendly product sales and adopt green marketing. As literature reviews had clearly indicated that green purchasers have a very low percentage when compared to non-purchasers, the purpose is to create new opportunities for successful green marketing as the study tries to convert non-purchasers into purchasers. We used descriptive research design to study a sample of 885 respondents, who were surveyed in 2 cities in the Tamil Nadu state in India, to acquire an in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour that would enable the consumption of eco-friendly products among non-purchasers. The results reveal the marketing mix requirement and the eco-friendly aspects needed by the non-purchasers in order to buy the eco-friendly variants. The research sheds light on the product, price and promotion components that will attract non-purchases of eco-friendly products to buy eco-friendly products, thus facilitating green marketing mix adaptation. The study will provide valuable input for further research in formulating the marketing mix necessary to enable consumption of eco-friendly products in different geographical locations and various product categories.

  11. Correlates of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Purchased for Children at Fast-Food Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jonathan; Breck, Andrew; Elbel, Brian

    2016-11-01

    To determine consumer and fast-food purchase characteristics associated with the purchase of a sugar-sweetened beverage, as well as calories and grams of sugar, for children at a fast-food restaurant. We completed cross-sectional analyses of fast-food restaurant receipts and point-of-purchase surveys (n = 483) collected during 2013 and 2014 in New York City and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey. Caregivers purchased beverages for half of all children in our sample. Approximately 60% of these beverages were sugar-sweetened beverages. Fast-food meals with sugar-sweetened beverages had, on average, 179 more calories than meals with non-sugar-sweetened beverages. Being an adolescent or male, having a caregiver with a high school degree or less, having a caregiver who saw the posted calorie information, ordering a combination meal, and eating the meal in the restaurant were associated with ordering a sugar-sweetened beverage. Purchases that included a combination meal or were consumed in the restaurant included more beverage grams of sugar and calories. Characteristics of fast-food purchases appear to have the largest and most important association to beverage calories for children at fast-food restaurants. Targeting fast-food restaurants, particularly combination meals, may improve childhood obesity rates.

  12. 76 FR 79548 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ..., a FICU purchasing a loan participation pool might perform statistical sampling in evaluating the..., since 2007, FISCUs- overall experienced a higher delinquency rate in their loan participation portfolios. At year-end 2010, the delinquency rate for the FISCU-participated portfolio was 4.11 percent...

  13. The purchase decision process and involvement of the elderly regarding nonprescription products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenwitz, T H; Wimbish, G J

    1997-01-01

    The elderly or senior citizen is a large and growing market segment that purchases a disproportionate amount of health care products, particularly nonprescription products. This study attempts to examine the elderly's level of involvement (high versus low) and their purchase decision process regarding nonprescription or over-the-counter (OTC) products. Frequencies and percentages are calculated to indicate level of involvement as well as purchase decision behavior. Previous research is critiqued and managerial implications are discussed.

  14. Willingness to purchase Genetically Modified food: an analysis applying artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Ordóñez, M.; Rodríguez-Entrena, M.; Becerra-Alonso, D.

    2014-01-01

    Findings about consumer decision-making process regarding GM food purchase remain mixed and are inconclusive. This paper offers a model which classifies willingness to purchase GM food, using data from 399 surveys in Southern Spain. Willingness to purchase has been measured using three dichotomous questions and classification, based on attitudinal, cognitive and socio-demographic factors, has been made by an artificial neural network model. The results show 74% accuracy to forecast the willin...

  15. Workforce and graduate school outcomes of NOAA's Educational Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, T.; Kaplan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Underrepresented groups, including Black, Hispanic, Native American, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Island professionals remain underrepresented in STEM fields generally, and in the ocean and atmospheric sciences specifically. NOAA has tried to address this disparity through a number of initiatives under the Educational Partnership Program with Minority Serving Institutions (EPP MSI) which currently has two components: four Cooperative Science Centers (CSCs) aligned with NOAA's mission areas; and an Undergraduate Scholarship Program (USP), both established in 2001. In order to determine the outcomes for the program participants and the impacts of these programs on degree completions and on the workforce, the EPP MSI undertook a multi-pronged effort to identify career and education achievements for 80% of the approximately 1750 EPP MSI alumni, 75% of whom are from underrepresented groups. This was accomplished through 1) searching online resources (e.g. professional web pages, LinkedIn, etc.), 2) personal communication with program-associated faculty, 3) National Student Clearinghouse, 4) a survey of former scholars conducted by Insight Policy Research, and 5) self-reporting though NOAA's Voluntary Alumni Update System. Results show that 60% of CSC alumni currently hold an advanced degree in a STEM field with another 8% currently working toward one. 66% of EPP Undergraduate Scholars go to graduate school. 72% of CSC and USP alumni are currently employed in or pursuing a graduate degree in a NOAA-related* field. More than 70 CSC graduates currently work for NOAA as contractors or federal employees while more than 240 work for other government agencies. More than 400 are employed in the private sector. Of more than 225 PhD graduates, 66 have completed or currently hold post-doctoral positions in NOAA mission fields; 71 have held faculty positions at major universities. However, one challenge is retaining diverse STEM talent within the Geosciences in light

  16. How Can Adult Children Influence Parents’ Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Corrine I.; Coe, Norma B.; Konetzka, R. Tamara; Boles, Jillian; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose of the Study: Long-term care (LTC) poses a significant strain on public health insurance financing. In response, there is policy interest in bolstering the private long-term care insurance (LTCI) market. Although families are central to LTC provision, their role in LTCI demand remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to obtain in-depth information concerning: (a) How do older parents evaluate the need for LTCI, (b) what role do adult children play? and (c) How do families communicate about parents’ LTC preferences and plans, including LTCI purchase? Design and Methods: We conducted focus groups with older parents and adult children in diverse markets. Two groups were conducted with older parents who had purchased LTCI and two with parents who had not purchased LTCI. Four groups were conducted with adult children, mixed as to whether their parents had purchased LTCI. Probes were informed by published reasons for purchasing or not purchasing LTCI. We analyzed transcriptions using directed content analysis and constant comparative method. Results: Older parents valued autonomy for themselves and their children. Older parent purchasers regarded LTCI as supporting this value while nonpurchasers perceived limitations. Adult children described unstated expectations that they would care for their parents. Though discussions between parents and children about LTCI were rare, successful influence occurred when children appealed to shared values, specifically avoiding burden and remaining home. Implications: Messages that emphasize autonomy over LTC decisions and interventions that start the LTC conversation among families, with attention to shared values, could increase private LTCI uptake. PMID:25209446

  17. Alcohol purchasing by ill heavy drinkers; cheap alcohol is no single commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J; Chick, J; Black, H; Rees, C; O'May, F; Rush, R; McPake, B A

    2015-12-01

    Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. 639 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol (recruited within NHS hospital clinics (in- and out-patient settings) 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh) responded to a questionnaire documenting demographic data and last week's or a 'typical' weekly consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase). Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile was derived as proxy of sociodemographic status. Median consumption was 184.8 (IQR = 162.2) UK units/week paying a mean of 39.7 pence per alcohol unit (£0.397). Off-sales accounted for 95% of purchases with 85% of those purchase the majority of their drinks from off-sale settings seeking the cheapest drinks, often favouring local suppliers. While beer was popular, recent legislation impacting on the sale of multibuys may prevent the heaviest drinkers benefiting from the lower beer prices available in supermarkets. Non-etheless, drinkers were able to offset higher unit prices with cheaper drink types and maintain high levels of consumption. Whilst price is key, heavy drinkers are influenced by other factors and adapt their purchasing as necessary. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of Internet Shoppers' Trust on their purchasing intention in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the rapid development of the Internet and information technology in China, the growth of consumers’ purchasing activities in Internet shopping malls has been truly phenomenal in recent years. Taobao.com, Ebay.com.cn, and Paipai.com have 67,360,000 customer to customer (C2C users and 99% of the market share in China’s C2C market (www.163.com. Dangdang.com and Joyo.com have occupied 87% of the business to customer (B2C market with 58,360,000 users (www.sohu.com. Because of these significant numbers of users, it is important to understand what affects Chinese consumers’ decisions to purchase in Internet shopping malls. Based on past studies, trust is considered a key factor affecting a Chinese consumer’s purchasing intention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Chinese shoppers’ trust on their purchasing intention in Internet shopping malls. In order to accomplish the purpose of this study, we developed a research model. This model suggests that there exists a significant relationship between trust and purchasing intention. According to this model, on purchasing intention, trust also mediates effects of other independent variables such as e-commerce knowledge, perceived reputation, perceived risk, and perceived ease of use. The results of this study show that the relationships between these variables are all significant except that between trust and perceived reputation. This research confirms the significant effects of Chinese shoppers’ trust on purchasing intention. Implications of these findings are discussed for researchers and practitioners.

  19. Long-term follow-up after liver transplantation for erythropoietic protoporphyria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, L.; Haagsma, E. B.; Gouw, A. S.; Slooff, M. J.; Jansen, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited disorder of haem synthesis, causing excess of protoporphyrin in blood, skin, liver and other organs. Protoporphyrin causes rapidly progressive liver failure in a minority of EPP patients. Long-term follow-up after liver transplantation for EPP is

  20. 17 CFR 1.28 - Appraisal of instruments purchased with customer funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchased with customer funds. 1.28 Section 1.28 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.28 Appraisal of instruments purchased with customer funds. Futures commission merchants who...

  1. 75 FR 56487 - Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ...-AC62 Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION... authority to purchase from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation loans to farmers, ranchers, producers... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation loans to farmers, ranchers, producers or harvesters of aquatic...

  2. a Bottom-Up Geosptial Data Update Mechanism for Spatial Data Infrastructure Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W.; Zhu, X.; Liu, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Currently, the top-down spatial data update mechanism has made a big progress and it is wildly applied in many SDI (spatial data infrastructure). However, this mechanism still has some issues. For example, the update schedule is limited by the professional department's project, usually which is too long for the end-user; the data form collection to public cost too much time and energy for professional department; the details of geospatial information does not provide sufficient attribute, etc. Thus, how to deal with the problems has become the effective shortcut. Emerging Internet technology, 3S technique and geographic information knowledge which is popular in the public promote the booming development of geoscience in volunteered geospatial information. Volunteered geospatial information is the current "hotspot", which attracts many researchers to study its data quality and credibility, accuracy, sustainability, social benefit, application and so on. In addition to this, a few scholars also pay attention to the value of VGI to support the SDI updating. And on that basis, this paper presents a bottom-up update mechanism form VGI to SDI, which includes the processes of match homonymous elements between VGI and SDI vector data , change data detection, SDI spatial database update and new data product publication to end-users. Then, the proposed updating cycle is deeply discussed about the feasibility of which can detect the changed elements in time and shorten the update period, provide more accurate geometry and attribute data for spatial data infrastructure and support update propagation.

  3. Consumer and purchasing agent response to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Valerie Barber

    2007-01-01

    This study surveys 204 consumers and purchasing agents and reports their reaction to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska. Although 67 percent of the respondents would purchase products from old-growth trees, purchasing agents were more likely to refuse to purchase such products (negative response from 12 percent of consumers vs. 29 percent for...

  4. CUSTOMER PERCEPTION ON ONLINE PURCHASE INTENTION: THE IMPACT OF ONLINE SHOPPING ORIENTATIONS ON ONLINE BUYING INTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouri, Arsalan Mujahid; Ul Haq, Mirza Amin; Khan, Naveed R

    2017-01-01

    This paper endeavorsto recognize the customer perception on online purchase intention among theyouth of Pakistan. Customer perception on online purchase intention, thus ourresearch variables are impulse purchase orientation, brand orientation,and quality orientation were considered along with online trust andprior online purchase experience. The results are focused 292 responses gotfrom the online study. The exploration made that impulse purchase orientation;prior o...

  5. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  6. 75 FR 6669 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ...' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA), and... collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. A request for public comments was..., Washington, DC 20405. Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Review, in all...

  7. Supply chain planning and management method:the fruit purchasing company case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Kyosen Nakatani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On the world stage, Brazil is the third largest world fruit producer. However, purchasing fruit companies are suffering from the effects of fluctuations in production and demand, inefficiency in production and information trade, lack of understanding of the dynamics of supply and reduction in profitability for all members of the fruit production chain. The supply chain management has been touted as one of the ways to reduce this volatility and improve outcomes for all involved with the supply chain. However, results of recent researches do not relate it directly to the fruit industry. To solve this problem, the present research aimed to analyze the planning and management of the supply chain of a fruit purchasing company and identify contributions and improvements to the theories and methods related to supply chain management to propose a method for planning and management the supply chain of fruit purchasing companies. It was conducted a case study from a mango fruit purchasing company using interviews with industry experts to assess the applicability, functionality and usefulness from the managerial point of view of the proposed method. Data analysis was done through the cross analysis of the methods of the supply chain management and the description of the case. The results of the study allowed the development of a method for planning and management the supply chain of fruit purchasing company. With the proposition of this method is expected to contribute with a sequence of steps to assist in planning and management of supply chain managers and specialists from a fruit purchasing company.

  8. Empirical Study of Consumers' Purchase Intentions in C2C Electronic Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dehua; LU Yaobin; ZHOU Deyi

    2008-01-01

    Electronic commerce is becoming increasingly important in business, but lack of intention to purchase has become a main barrier in the development of electronic commerce. Thus, effective measures are needed to promote consumers' intentions to purchase in online consumer to consumer (C2C) stores. This paper postulates that five factors, the perceived ease of use of the website, perceived usefulness of the website, vendor competence, introduction and recommendations of third parties, and vendors' attitude toward customers, influence consumers' intentions to purchase in online C2C stores and this intention directly leads to their action to purchase from online C2C stores. The structural equation modeling (SEM) method was used to analyze empirical data, supporting these hypotheses except for the effect of vendor competence.

  9. FRMAC Updates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.

    1995-01-01

    This talks describes updates in the following updates in FRMAC publications concerning radiation emergencies: Monitoring and Analysis Manual; Evaluation and Assessment Manual; Handshake Series (Biannual) including exercises participated in; environmental Data and Instrument Transmission System (EDITS); Plume in a Box with all radiological data stored onto a hand-held computer; and courses given

  10. Finding the Right Purchasing Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    School administrators are faced with a wide variety of choices and a huge market when it comes to products and technology. According to a report issued in March by market research firm Compass Intelligence, school districts spend over $18 billion annually on IT-related purchases, and the market is projected to grow to nearly $21 billion by 2015.…

  11. The impact of perceived brand value on consumer attitude and purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Lindartaitė, Grėtė

    2017-01-01

    The authors affirm, that a consumer‘s apprehensible brand value has a great influence on consumer‘s purchase intention. It was established, that consumer‘s point of view starts to develop gradually and outward factors decide an purchase intention. Consumer‘s purchase intention is desribed as a very important factor which appears from a consumer and a specific brand value, their interrelations, believes, attitude to it and consumer‘s cherished values and emotions. The results of analysed empir...

  12. 17 CFR 1.26 - Deposit of instruments purchased with customer funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchased with customer funds. 1.26 Section 1.26 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.26 Deposit of instruments purchased with customer funds. (a) Each futures commission merchant...

  13. Sodium Reduction in US Households' Packaged Food and Beverage Purchases, 2000 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-07-01

    Initiatives to reduce sodium in packaged foods have been launched in the United States, yet corresponding changes in the amount of sodium that US households obtain from packaged foods have not been evaluated, to our knowledge. To assess 15-year changes in the amount of sodium that US households acquire from packaged food purchases, the sodium content of purchases, and the proportion of households that have purchases with optimal sodium density. Longitudinal study of US households in the 2000 to 2014 Nielsen Homescan Consumer Panel, a population-based sample of households that used barcode scanners to record all packaged foods purchased throughout the year. Time-varying brand- and product-specific nutrition information was used for 1 490 141 products. Sociodemographic-adjusted changes in mean sodium per capita (mg/d) and sodium content (mg/100 g), overall and for top food group sources of sodium, and the proportion of households that have total purchases with sodium density of 1.1 mg/kcal or less. In a nationwide sample of 172 042 US households (754 608 year-level observations), the amount of sodium that households acquired from packaged food and beverage purchases decreased significantly between 2000 and 2014 by 396 mg/d (95% CI, -407 to -385 mg/d) per capita. The sodium content of households' packaged food purchases decreased significantly during this 15-year period by 49 mg/100 g (95% CI, -50 to -48 mg/100 g), a 12.0% decline; decreases began in 2005 and continued through 2014. Moreover, the sodium content of households' purchases decreased significantly for all top food sources of sodium between 2000 and 2014, including declines of more than 100 mg/100 g for condiments, sauces, and dips (-114 mg/100 g; 95% CI, -117 to -111 mg/100 g) and salty snacks (-142 mg/100 g; 95% CI, -144 to -141 mg/100 g). However, in all years, less than 2% of US households had packaged food and beverage purchases with sodium density of 1.1 mg/kcal or less. In this nationwide

  14. Electricity supply. The effects of competitive power purchases are not yet certain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, Judy; Wood, David G.; Bausell, Charles W. Jr.; Farah, Philip G.; Alexander, Alice M.; Griffes, Peter H.; Jorritsma, James S.; Skud, Bruce; Dunbrack, Linda W.

    1990-08-01

    Most electricity in the United States is produced by utilities that own and operate facilities for the generation, transmission, and distribution of power. Utilities traditionally have operated as regulated monopolists, each within an established geographic area. In return, utilities have an obligation to provide reliable electricity to all consumers in their territory at a reasonable price. Many utility companies also participate in power pools, under which they may purchase electricity from one another to meet requirements. Utilities are allowed to earn a return on plants they own and operate, while the costs of purchased electricity are passed directly to consumers. To encourage the development of alternative energy resources, the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, as amended, (PURPA) required utilities to purchase power offered by qualifying facilities at a price not exceeding the utilities' avoided cost of generating it or purchasing it from another source. In part to help state regulators and utilities determine utilities' avoided costs and to help sort through a flood of bids, competitive bidding, which allows market forces to help determine prices, has emerged as a means of purchasing power from nonutility generators. Because several years are often required to construct generating sources, utilities have little operating experience with competitively purchased electricity. Thus, the effects of competitive power purchases on the long-term reliability of electric service - which is affected by the reliability of all sources and transmission and distribution facilities are not yet certain and difficult to assess. Among the three utilities reviewed, only at Central Maine Power have sources of competitively purchased power entered service, and they have operated reliably. However, each utility reviewed has accepted bids that were subsequently withdrawn, for financial or other reasons, prior to scheduled service dates. When selecting nonutility

  15. The influence of electronic cigarette age purchasing restrictions on adolescent tobacco and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Hughes, Jenna M; Faisal, Fatima S

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, many states have established minimum legal purchase ages for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to ban adolescent purchases, but these policies may also affect other related substance use. We explore whether ENDS are substitutes or complements for cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and marijuana among adolescents by using variation in state-level implementation of ENDS age purchasing restrictions. We linked data on ENDS age purchasing restrictions to state- and year-specific rates of adolescent tobacco and marijuana use in 2007-2013 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. This data provides a nationally representative sample of adolescents who attend public and private schools. We performed a fixed effect regression analysis exploring the influence of ENDS age purchasing restrictions on outcomes of tobacco use and marijuana use, controlling for state and year fixed characteristics, age-race cohorts, cigarette excise taxes, and cigarette indoor use restrictions. For cigarette use, we separate our results into cigarette use frequency. We found causal evidence that ENDS age purchasing restrictions increased adolescent regular cigarette use by 0.8 percentage points. ENDS age purchasing restrictions were not associated with cigar use, smokeless tobacco use, or marijuana use. We document a concerning trend of cigarette smoking among adolescents increasing when ENDS become more difficult to purchase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. E-WOM Review Adoption: Consumers’ Demographic Profile Influence on Green Purchase Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Roslin Abdul; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Chin, Thoo Ai; Arif, Mohd Shoki Mohd; Hamid, Mohd Hakim Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, green products are getting popular in their acceptance by the Malaysian consumers. Due to the advancement of the Internet technologies and the wide spread of electronic word of mouth (E-WOM), consumers seem to be more influenced in purchasing the green products. In this study, consumers’ demographic profiles, such as age, gender, income, education background, and occupation are being explored to investigate their influences on consumers’ green product purchase intention. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the results of the differences between several demographic profile groups on green product purchase intention using descriptive analysis, ANOVA and independent sample T-Test. T-test results showed that there is a statistically significant difference between gender on consumers’ green product purchase intention. Meanwhile, the results generated by ANOVA indicated that there are no significant differences between age, income, education background and occupation on consumers’ green product purchase intention. These results shed light on the potential market segment that should be targeted by marketers and producers of green products in Malaysia.

  17. Associations between a voluntary restaurant menu designation initiative and patron purchasing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Erica T; Biediger-Friedman, Lesli; Banda, Martha

    2014-03-01

    Restaurant initiatives provide an efficient opportunity to impact large numbers of patrons. The purpose of this study is to measure patron purchasing behaviors during the ¡Por Vida! menu designation initiative. This study used a cross-sectional design and survey data to assess 23 restaurants throughout Bexar County and 152 restaurant patrons. The Patron Awareness Questionnaire assessed if patrons noticed the logo; believed nutrition, cost, and taste were important in making purchasing decisions; and purchased a ¡Por Vida! item. Descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Most (93.4%) patrons considered taste very important when deciding what to eat. Cost was very important to 63.8% and nutrition was very important to 55.9% of the sample. The strongest predictors of purchasing a ¡Por Vida! item were the patrons' ages being between 18 and 35 years (odds ratio = 1.474; confidence interval = 0.017, 0.812; p designation initiatives can potentially influence patron purchasing behaviors among a segment of the population when the logo is visible.

  18. The Effect of Vendor Trustworthiness toward Online Purchase Intention through Costumer Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adiwijaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The using of internet technology in business field facilitates the online product sales. There are many challenges and obstacles faced by customers when they would like to buy product via online, for instance the process of technology adoption, online crime activities, etc. This situation creates customer doubtfullness and worries for engaging in purchasing product via online. Trust plays significant role in affecting customer intention to purchase products via online. The previous research findings showed the antecedents of customer trust but those findings only explained the phenomenon based on one single perspective for example from the customer perspective, the technology perspective, and the vendor perspective. The focus of this research is analyzing the influence of vendor trustworthiness (ability, benevolence, and integrity towards individual features (customer trust and customer purchase intention. The research has been done in Surabaya through questionairre survey design by using the customers who had purchase product via online as the respondent. Structural equation modelling is used to analyze the research data. The findings revealed the antecendent of customer trust and its influence on customer online purchase intention comprehensively.

  19. Investigating shopper behaviour in a routine food purchasing situation.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Decision-making is more complex and even more important for consumers today than in the past. Today’s consumers has a wealth of information sources to their disposal, through advertising, news articles, direct mailings and word of mouth , in addition, there is a variety of stores and shopping malls that has broaden the sphere for consumer choice, and in the process complicated decision - making. Consumers purchase intentions and decision that lead to the purchase are closely related to their ...

  20. The importance of personal norms for purchasing organic milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Klöckner, Christian; Ohms, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply a structured approach to understand the importance of personal ecological norms in purchasing organic food. The norm‐activation‐model by Schwartz is used to predict self‐reported and observed purchase behaviour of organic milk. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports the results of a field study with 63 customers of a German supermarket. A combination of covert observation and in‐store interviews was applied to obtain reli...

  1. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING PURCHASE INTENTION IN MUSIC INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    AĞAOĞLU, Mustafa; YURTKORU, Emine Serra; ŞAHİN, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors, ethical behavior, product involvement, attitude, perceived sacrifice, and perceived benefit, impact on purchase intention in music industry. A model is constructed and tested empirically. A sample of 255 individuals are collected and a multi-item questionnaire is used. It is found that purchase intention is relatively low for both CD/DVD and digital music whereas illegal downloading is perceived as an acceptable behavior in the society. The...

  2. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  3. Predicting women purchase intention for green food products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiyanti, Sudiyanti

    2009-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2009 This study investigated the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting women consumers on their intention towards purchasing green food products among 406 participants. Using linear regression, five independent variables had been examined: attitude towards green food products, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived difficulty in predicting purchase intention. The ...

  4. Food category purchases vary by household education and race/ethnicity: results from grocery receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen; Baranowski, Tom; Watson, Kathy; Nicklas, Theresa; Fisher, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Sharon; Baranowski, Janice; Islam, Noemi; Missaghian, Mariam

    2007-10-01

    To characterize food group purchases from grocery receipts. Food shoppers (aged>or=19 years with at least one child agedfood purchaser) were recruited in front of grocery stores to participate in two interviews, separated by 6 weeks, and to save and mail grocery store receipts from the interim to researchers. Receipt items were coded by food categories; the percentage of total grocery dollars spent in each of the food categories each week was computed. Analyses of variance were performed on the total grocery dollar spent and the percentage spent in each food category by participant characteristics. The greatest percentage of purchases were for protein foods (24%), followed by drinks (12%), grains (9.2%), vegetables (8.8%), dairy (8.3%), mixed dishes (7.5%), and fruit (7%). Hispanics purchased a greater percentage of fruit and vegetables than African Americans. Whites purchased more alcohol products than African Americans. Whites purchased more mixed dishes than Hispanics, and African Americans purchased more protein foods than whites (all P<0.001). The use of this measurement procedure, unaffected by errors of self-report, should be more thoroughly explored to explain differences in disease prevalence.

  5. Influence of brand differential on motivation to conform and manufacturer versus store brand purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran, E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationships and characteristics that influence consumers’ purchase decision between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings have emerged as an interesting and practical area of research. From a management perspective, understanding the process by which consumers make purchase choices between these brand offerings would lead to both theoretical and practical applications. Therefore, this study attempts to enhance understanding about the factors that influence consumers’ manufacturer versus store brand purchase decisions. A conceptual model is developed to integrate the manner by which a consumer’s motivation to conform to the perceived social norm of purchasing manufacturer brand products influences this purchase decision. The model is tested using survey data. Findings indicate the importance of the intensity of perceived differences between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings in affecting consumers’ purchase intention of these products. The relationship is also mediated by consumers’ motivation to conform to manufacturer brand products in their purchase decision.

  6. Perceived Risk and Trust as Major Determinants of Actual Purchase, Transcending The Influence of Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Indiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed online purchasing behavior in the hotel industry through an integrative framework, utilizing sets of variables rarely used in previous studies. The analysis was focused on the influence of online purchase intention, perceived risk, and trust upon actual purchase, with the idea of further determining which construct has the strongest impact. It also analyzed two new measurement items for website quality. The sample consisted of travelers who have recently made hotel reservations online. The model was tested with Structural Equation Modeling. Perceived risk was found to have the strongest impact on actual purchase, followed by trust and online purchase intention. The weak influence of online purchase intention is quite interesting since it stands in contrast to previous research findings. Perceived risk also perfectly mediates the relationship between website quality and eWOM towards online purchase intention. Being descriptive in nature, this study did not manipulate the antecedents in the manner of an experimental study.

  7. How Can Adult Children Influence Parents' Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Nina R; Voils, Corrine I; Coe, Norma B; Konetzka, R Tamara; Boles, Jillian; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2017-04-01

    Long-term care (LTC) poses a significant strain on public health insurance financing. In response, there is policy interest in bolstering the private long-term care insurance (LTCI) market. Although families are central to LTC provision, their role in LTCI demand remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to obtain in-depth information concerning: (a) How do older parents evaluate the need for LTCI, (b) what role do adult children play? and (c) How do families communicate about parents' LTC preferences and plans, including LTCI purchase? We conducted focus groups with older parents and adult children in diverse markets. Two groups were conducted with older parents who had purchased LTCI and two with parents who had not purchased LTCI. Four groups were conducted with adult children, mixed as to whether their parents had purchased LTCI. Probes were informed by published reasons for purchasing or not purchasing LTCI. We analyzed transcriptions using directed content analysis and constant comparative method. Older parents valued autonomy for themselves and their children. Older parent purchasers regarded LTCI as supporting this value while nonpurchasers perceived limitations. Adult children described unstated expectations that they would care for their parents. Though discussions between parents and children about LTCI were rare, successful influence occurred when children appealed to shared values, specifically avoiding burden and remaining home. Messages that emphasize autonomy over LTC decisions and interventions that start the LTC conversation among families, with attention to shared values, could increase private LTCI uptake. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF INNOVATIONS SUSTAINABLE IN DECISION PURCHASE OF INDUSTRIES THIRD GENERATION PETROCHEMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Madureira Domingues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to understand how sustainable innovation influences the decision of industrial purchases. Much has been said about the organizational buying behavior, but little is said about how the industrial buyers consider sustainable innovation in their purchasing procedures. This work aims to contribute to the constructs involving this type of purchase behavior. Therefore, a qualitative survey was conducted with non-probabilistic sample , composed of six companies of different sizes , which make up the chain of the petrochemical industry , more specifically , the third generation of this chain . Data were collected via semi-structured interview guide, and studied by means of categorization by content analysis. The analysis revealed that sustainable innovations not influence the purchasing decisions of the petrochemical industry , since the companies surveyed are strongly linked to criteria such as price , time and quality and do not realize sustainable innovation as an important factor in purchasing decisions .

  9. The effects of purchasing alcohol and marijuana among adolescents at-risk for future substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Ramchand, Rajeev; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2014-09-18

    Among high-risk youth, those who may be at increased risk for adverse alcohol and other drug (AOD) use outcomes may benefit from targeted prevention efforts; how youth acquire AOD may provide an objective means of identifying youth at elevated risk. We assessed how youth acquired alcohol and marijuana (purchasing vs. other means), demographics, AOD behaviors/consequences, and environment among adolescents referred to a diversion program called Teen Court (N = 180) at two time points (prior to the program and 180 days from baseline). Participants were predominantly White and Hispanic/Latino(a). In cross-sectional analyses among alcohol and marijuana users, purchasing marijuana was associated with more frequent marijuana use and consequences, time spent around teens who use marijuana, higher likelihood of substance use disorders, and lower resistance self-efficacy compared to non-purchasers. Teens who purchased both alcohol and marijuana experienced similar outcomes to those who purchased only marijuana, and also reported more frequent and higher quantity of drinking, greater alcohol-related consequences, time spent around teens who use other drugs, and prescription drug misuse. Longitudinally, purchasing alcohol and marijuana at baseline was associated with more frequent and higher quantity of drinking compared to non-purchasers at follow-up. Marijuana only purchasers had a greater likelihood of substance use disorders at follow-up compared to non-purchasers. In an era where drinking is commonplace and attitudes towards marijuana use are becoming more tolerant, it is essential to evaluate how accessibility to AOD and subsequent purchasing behaviors affect youth consumption and intervene accordingly to prevent future consequences.

  10. Snack purchasing is healthier when the cognitive demands of choice are reduced: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julia L; Johnston, Marie; Campbell, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with inefficient executive (higher level cognitive) function have a reduced ability to resist dietary temptation. The present study aimed to design and test a theory-based point-of-purchase intervention for coffee shops that reduced the calorie content of customers' purchases by reducing the need for executive function (EF) at the moment of choice. Key facets of EF were identified by a multidisciplinary group and used to develop a point-of-purchase intervention (signage). This intervention was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in a public coffee shop on consumer purchases of >20,000 snacks and drinks over 12 weeks. A sample of customers (n = 128) was recruited to complete an embedded cross-sectional study measuring EF strength, dietary intentions, typical purchases, and purchases made after exposure to the intervention. The proportion of snack purchases that were high in calorie reduced significantly (t(10) = 2.34, p = .04) in intervention weeks relative to control. High calorie drink purchases were also lower in intervention than control weeks, however, this difference was not significant (t(10) = 1.56, p = .15). On average, customers purchased items containing 66 calories customer behavior increased as EF strength decreased (β = .24, p = .03). The calorie content of cafe purchases can be lowered by reducing the cognitive demands of healthy food choice at the moment of purchase, especially in those with poor EF. Environmental changes like these have the potential to help achieve population weight control. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Managed competition versus industrial purchasing of health care among the Fortune 500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James; Temin, Peter

    2002-02-01

    The theory of managed competition has found favor with many health policy analysts and academic economists alike. Three characteristics--consumer choice, defined contribution, and dissemination of information--signal managed competition strategy. By requiring private employers to provide their employees with a choice of health carriers, a fixed-dollar strategy (defined contribution), and quality information to make appropriate choices among carriers, managed competition offers to remedy imperfections in both the consumer and provider sides of the market for health insurance. In an extensive survey of health care purchasing practices among Fortune 500 companies we found that major companies are not using the managed competition approach to health care purchasing. Instead, most of the companies surveyed are purchasing health care in the same way as they do other inputs to production--a pattern we call industrial purchasing.

  12. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  13. 10 CFR 603.680 - Purchase of real property and equipment by for-profit firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Property § 603.680 Purchase of real property and equipment by for-profit firms. (a) With the two exceptions... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of real property and equipment by for-profit...

  14. Intention to Purchase Products under Volume Discount Scheme: A Conceptual Model and Research Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Iranmanesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many standard brands sell products under the volume discount scheme (VDS as more and more consumers are fond of purchasing products under this scheme. Despite volume discount being commonly practiced, there is a dearth of research, both conceptual and empirical, focusing on purchase characteristics factors and consumer internal evaluation concerning the purchase of products under VDS. To attempt to fill this void, this article develops a conceptual model on VDS with the intention of delineating the influence of the purchase characteristics factors on the consumer intention to purchase products under VDS and provides an explanation of their effects through consumer internal evaluation. Finally, the authors discuss the managerial implications of their research and offer guidelines for future empirical research.

  15. Influence of Product and Supplier Attributes on Hardwood Lumber Purchase Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Forbes; Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    This study determined the influence of product and supplier attributes on hardwood lumber purchases by wood furniture manufacturers and investigated differences across manufacturer type, geographic region, firm size, and kiln ownership. Professional lumber buyers rated the importance and difference across suppliers of various attributes. Purchase influence scores were...

  16. 48 CFR 811.104-70 - Brand name or equal purchase descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal... Requirements Documents 811.104-70 Brand name or equal purchase descriptions. (a) The specification writer may use purchase descriptions that contain references to one or more brand name products only in...

  17. Sustainable food purchases in the Netherlands: the influence of consumer characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, M.H.C.; van Dam, Y.K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper socio-demographic characteristics of sustainable food consumers are studied by using actual purchasing data of 4,412 households in a wide range of food products over a twenty week period in the months November 2008 till March 2009. Our results indicate that purchasing sustainable food

  18. DoD Purchase Card Program Audit Coverage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... We prepared this summary report at the request of the Director, Defense Procurement to provide a central repository of purchase card audit report findings and to identify misuse trends and problems...

  19. Building brand awareness for products with low purchase frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Kenneth; Bjørnstad, Tord Røise

    2014-01-01

    The importance of marketing and information flow is growing every year, and in increasingly competitive markets, it is more important than ever for brands to be present in the customers mind in the purchase decision. Therefore, to build and maintain brand awareness is important as this is the first step in creating brand equity. Most studies have focused on building brand awareness for products with high purchase frequency. In this thesis, it is identified drivers of brand awareness for pr...

  20. Monitoring And Modeling Environmental Water Quality To Support Environmental Water Purchase Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, S. E.; Elmore, L.; Mouzon, N. R.; Wood, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 million cubic meters (20,000 acre feet) of water has been purchased from willing agricultural sellers for environmental flows in Nevada's Walker River to improve riverine habitat and connectivity with downstream Walker Lake. Reduced instream flows limit native fish populations, like Lahontan cutthroat trout, through warm daily stream temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Environmental water purchases maintain instream flows, although effects on water quality are more varied. We use multi-year water quality monitoring and physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality modeling to estimate streamflow, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations with alternative environmental water purchases. We simulate water temperature and dissolved oxygen changes from increased streamflow to prioritize the time periods and locations that environmental water purchases most enhance trout habitat as a function of water quality. Monitoring results indicate stream temperature and dissolved oxygen limitations generally exist in the 115 kilometers upstream of Walker Lake (about 37% of the study area) from approximately May through September, and this reach acts as a water quality barrier for fish passage. Model results indicate that low streamflows generally coincide with critically warm stream temperatures, water quality refugia exist on a tributary of the Walker River, and environmental water purchases may improve stream temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions for some reaches and seasons, especially in dry years and prolonged droughts. This research supports environmental water purchase decision-making and allows water purchase decisions to be prioritized with other river restoration alternatives.

  1. Effects of Mobile Text Advertising on Consumer Purchase Intention: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Lin; Zhankui, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Mobile shopping is increasing in prevalence and has become a necessary part of many people's daily lives. However, one main channel for mobile shopping, mobile shopping applications (apps), has not been thoroughly investigated. This study focused on mobile text advertising delivered from mobile shopping apps using the intention to purchase as the dependent variable for testing its marketing effect. In the context of a promotion focus vs. a prevention focus, we used Higgins' regulatory focus theory combined with Ajzen's TPB and Herzog's U&G to analyze the mechanism by which consumers formulate an intention to purchase in a mobile advertising context. This empirical study surveyed 320 consumers who had made a purchase using a mobile shopping app in the previous month. The results showed that infotainment, irritation, and subjective norms were significantly associated with attitudes; in turn, attitudes mediated the impact of these three factors on the intention to purchase. Moreover, a high promotion focus not only strengthened the positive effect of infotainment on attitudes but also intensified the mediation effect of attitudes between infotainment and the intention to purchase. A high prevention focus also consolidated the negative effect of irritation on attitudes as well as reinforced the mediation effect of attitudes between irritation and the intention to purchase. Furthermore, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control collectively impacted the intention to purchase. These findings shed light on ways to customize goods information in mobile advertising and have strong theoretical and practical implications.

  2. Effects of Mobile Text Advertising on Consumer Purchase Intention: A Moderated Mediation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hongyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile shopping is increasing in prevalence and has become a necessary part of many people's daily lives. However, one main channel for mobile shopping, mobile shopping applications (apps, has not been thoroughly investigated. This study focused on mobile text advertising delivered from mobile shopping apps using the intention to purchase as the dependent variable for testing its marketing effect. In the context of a promotion focus vs. a prevention focus, we used Higgins' regulatory focus theory combined with Ajzen's TPB and Herzog's U&G to analyze the mechanism by which consumers formulate an intention to purchase in a mobile advertising context. This empirical study surveyed 320 consumers who had made a purchase using a mobile shopping app in the previous month. The results showed that infotainment, irritation, and subjective norms were significantly associated with attitudes; in turn, attitudes mediated the impact of these three factors on the intention to purchase. Moreover, a high promotion focus not only strengthened the positive effect of infotainment on attitudes but also intensified the mediation effect of attitudes between infotainment and the intention to purchase. A high prevention focus also consolidated the negative effect of irritation on attitudes as well as reinforced the mediation effect of attitudes between irritation and the intention to purchase. Furthermore, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control collectively impacted the intention to purchase. These findings shed light on ways to customize goods information in mobile advertising and have strong theoretical and practical implications.

  3. Effects of Mobile Text Advertising on Consumer Purchase Intention: A Moderated Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Lin; Zhankui, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Mobile shopping is increasing in prevalence and has become a necessary part of many people's daily lives. However, one main channel for mobile shopping, mobile shopping applications (apps), has not been thoroughly investigated. This study focused on mobile text advertising delivered from mobile shopping apps using the intention to purchase as the dependent variable for testing its marketing effect. In the context of a promotion focus vs. a prevention focus, we used Higgins' regulatory focus theory combined with Ajzen's TPB and Herzog's U&G to analyze the mechanism by which consumers formulate an intention to purchase in a mobile advertising context. This empirical study surveyed 320 consumers who had made a purchase using a mobile shopping app in the previous month. The results showed that infotainment, irritation, and subjective norms were significantly associated with attitudes; in turn, attitudes mediated the impact of these three factors on the intention to purchase. Moreover, a high promotion focus not only strengthened the positive effect of infotainment on attitudes but also intensified the mediation effect of attitudes between infotainment and the intention to purchase. A high prevention focus also consolidated the negative effect of irritation on attitudes as well as reinforced the mediation effect of attitudes between irritation and the intention to purchase. Furthermore, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control collectively impacted the intention to purchase. These findings shed light on ways to customize goods information in mobile advertising and have strong theoretical and practical implications. PMID:28690564

  4. 13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...

  5. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers' purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J J; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products - even when presented product information contradicts the label's image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels' potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers' motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers' ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants' pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  6. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J. J.; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1–3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information. PMID:26441767

  7. The power of putting a label on it: Green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf J. J. Hahnel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels, this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e. product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3. Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2. We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3. Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  8. The survey of American college students computer technology preferences & purchasing plans

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data from a survey of more than 400 American college students.  The report presents data on student computer ownership of both PCs and laptops, purchasing plans for PCs and laptops, as well as purchasing plans for cell phones and digital cameras.  The report also provides details on how student finance their computer purchases, how much money comes from parents or guardians, and how much from the student themselves, or from their parties.  In addition to data on PCs the report provides detailed info on use of popular word processing packages such as Word, WordPerfect and Open Office.

  9. 40 CFR 35.936-19 - Small purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... price quotations, and the like may be used to minimize paperwork. Retention in the purchase files of these documents and of written quotations received, or references to catalogs or printed price lists...

  10. Satisfaction strength and intention to purchase a new product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Dopico, Domingo C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of satisfaction strength on the correspondence between reported satisfaction and intention to purchase a new product. The market testing underlying this study analyzes the market opportunities for a novel prototype. The research was conducted at a central location wit...... satisfaction level alone. The study argues on the nomological validity of the satisfaction construct and reveals that assessment of satisfaction strength should support the management goal of identifying truly satisfied customers.......This study examines the role of satisfaction strength on the correspondence between reported satisfaction and intention to purchase a new product. The market testing underlying this study analyzes the market opportunities for a novel prototype. The research was conducted at a central location...... with 239 randomly selected consumers. Results indicate that (un)certainty, ambivalence, and importance cognitions and feelings significantly moderate the relationship between reported satisfaction and individuals’ intention to purchase. For example, the association between consumers’ reported satisfaction...

  11. Cognitive antecedents of consumers' willingness to purchase fish rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, G; Leek, S; Maddock, S

    1998-12-01

    A sample of UK consumers (N = 311) was interviewed in order to identify the attitudinal, cognitive and involvement characteristics of probable early adopters of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) fed fish. Attitude to fish significantly influenced PUFA fish, premium price PUFA fish, PUFA salmon, PUFA eel and PUFA sturgeon purchase. Involvement in healthy eating influenced PUFA fish, premium price PUFA fish and PUFA salmon purchase. Cognitive style did not influence PUFA fish and premium price PUFA fish purchase; nor, contrary to earlier research, did cognitive style and involvement interact to influence intended PUFA fish purchases.

  12. The role of attitudes and self-efficacy in predicting condom use and purchase intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Joanna; Kropp, Fredric; Silvera, David H; Lavack, Anne M

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the condom purchasing and use habits of 256 college students in Norway and English-speaking Canada, and develops a structural equation model to explain condom purchase and use. In the model, intention to purchase condoms is influenced by self-efficacy in condom purchasing, as well as by intention to use condoms. Intention to use condoms is influenced by having a positive attitude toward condom usage and by self-efficacy in persuading a partner to use condoms. The implications for health promotion and social marketing campaigns are discussed.

  13. The due-diligence process of purchasing or buying into a dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Vincent L

    2003-01-01

    A due-diligence or evaluation process is necessary when assessing a practice purchase opportunity. The standards for assessing the investment remain the same whether the buyer is purchasing a practice outright or buying a co-ownership interest.

  14. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  15. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  16. Operating years 1993 through 1995 power purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is obligated to supply electric power to its contractual customers. Based on a forecast of growing customer loads and assuming Critical Period water conditions in the Columbia River Basin, BPA is planning to meet a firm energy deficit during the four operating years (OY) 1992 through 1995, i.e., August 1991 through July 1995. BPA has executed several power purchase agreements to cover the projected OY 1992 deficit. The proposed action is to extend two existing one-year power purchase agreements for an additional three years to cover the four-year Critical Period energy deficit. The extension of these two one-year power purchase agreements would: (1) increase BPA's firm energy load-carrying capability; (2) allow BPA to meet its firm energy contractual commitments over the remaining three years of the four-year Critical Period from August 1, 1992, to July 31, 1995; (3) provide flexibility for BPA's use of hydroelectric resources over the Critical Period; and (4) increase system reliability. Under Critical Period water conditions, absent the proposed action, projected loads would exceed the capability of the Federal power system to serve those loads. The purpose of BPA's proposed action is to assure consistency with its statutory responsibilities, including those found in the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act)

  17. Social workers and unemployment: Factors associated with using employment-promoting practices in Israeli Municipal Departments of Social Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lia; Sefati, Noga

    2018-04-23

    Unemployment is a harsh social phenomenon with far reaching negative implications. Unemployed individuals often seek assistance from social workers working in Municipal Departments of Social Services around the world. However, little to no research exists on the factors involved in social workers' choice to engage in employment-promoting practices (EPP). The current study aimed to tackle this gap of knowledge, providing initial conclusions about the relationship between social workers' attitudes towards unemployment, their knowledge regarding EPP, the extent to which they perceive their organisations as endorsing EPP and their actual implementation. The main research question dealt with the extent to which each of the examined factors, in itself or in combination with others, would be the best predictor of social workers' utilisation of EPP. The study sample consisted of 163 social workers in Israel with varied experience in working with the unemployed, all working in public sector social services. Structural equation modelling performed on the attained data revealed that knowledge, skills and perceived organisational endorsement of EPP were positively associated with implementation of EPP. Contrary to the hypothesised, attitudes towards unemployment were not associated with the implementation of such practices. At the same time, professional training and seniority were associated with EPP only through the mediation of perceived organisational endorsement. Ultimately, perceived organisational endorsement of EPP emerged as the most influential factor involved in social workers' decision to carry out EPP with their service-users. Consequences of these findings for social work education, supervision, research and policy making are discussed, referring to the local Israeli context as well as its possible international inferences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. THE INFLUENCES IN THE FIRM'S PURCHASING DECISIONS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Augusto Luna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of anxiety has been strongly discussed in the areas of psychology and marketing, especially when analyzing consumer behavior, however, the subject is still little explored in the processes of purchasing in the area of Operations Management (OM. In this sense, this study explores the topic in an exploratory way. Thus, a 2x2 factorial experiment was performed to understand the emotion phenomenon in purchasing processes in high and low emotional involvement scenarios versus immediate time and distant time for the event. The results obtained by 111 respondents show that the emotion phenomenon does not interfere in the purchasing process in the presented scenarios. However, a reassessment of the scenarios and new studies should be done to confirm the hypotheses presented in the study.

  19. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tribe may purchase all or part of the available interests specified in the probate decision. A tribe may... option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Tribal Purchase of Interests Under Special Statutes § 30.261 How does...

  20. 43 CFR 30.262 - When may a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... purchase: (1) Within 60 days after mailing of the probate decision unless a petition for rehearing has been... option to purchase? 30.262 Section 30.262 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Tribal Purchase of Interests Under Special Statutes § 30.262 When may...

  1. Observing Purchase-Related Parent-Child Communication in Retail Environments: A Developmental and Socialization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N = 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child communication (i.e., children's purchase influence…

  2. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  3. Probability numeracy and health insurance purchase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.

  4. Secondary analysis of a marketing research database reveals patterns in dairy product purchases over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wave, Timothy W; Decker, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Development of a method using marketing research data to assess food purchase behavior and consequent nutrient availability for purposes of nutrition surveillance, evaluation of intervention effects, and epidemiologic studies of diet-health relationships. Data collected on household food purchases accrued over a 13-week period were selected by using Universal Product Code numbers and household characteristics from a marketing research database. Universal Product Code numbers for 39,408 dairy product purchases were linked to a standard reference for food composition to estimate the nutrient content of foods purchased over time. Two thousand one hundred sixty-one households located in Victoria, Texas, and surrounding communities who were active members of a frequent shopper program. Demographic characteristics of sample households and the nutrient content of their dairy product purchases were analyzed using frequency distribution, cross tabulation, analysis of variance, and t test procedures. A method for using marketing research data was successfully used to estimate household purchases of specific foods and their nutrient content from a marketing database containing hundreds of thousands of records. Distribution of dairy product purchases and their concomitant nutrients between Hispanic and non-Hispanic households were significant (P<.01, P<.001, respectively) and sustained over time. Purchase records from large, nationally representative panels of shoppers, such as those maintained by major market research companies, might be used to accomplish detailed longitudinal epidemiologic studies or surveillance of national food- and nutrient-purchasing patterns within and between countries and segments of their respective populations.

  5. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Purchase of Organic Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Martić Kuran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to define factors which influence the purchase intention involving organic food among Croatian consumers. In order to create a theoretical base, this research adopted the theory of planned behavior. The model examines the impact of several independent variables on the intention to purchase organic foods. The study was conducted on a sample of 331 respondents in the territory of Republic of Croatia. Research results indicate that consumer attitudes towards organic food, subjective norms, perceived financial situation, health awareness and knowledge about organic food have a significant impact on the intention involving the purchase of organic food, with subjective norms, attitudes and health awareness being the best predictors of the purchase intention. On the other hand, the relationship between the perceived availability of organic food and the intention to buy organic food was statistically significant. Considering the demographic characteristics of respondents and their correlation with the purchase intention, marital status, age and household income were found to significantly affect the intention to buy organic food, while other demographic variables had no significant impact on the purchase intention. Therefore, the respondents who are married, between 46 and 55 years old and with household incomes of more than 16,000 kuna show a greater intention to buy organic food in comparison with other respondents. The research results have important implications for marketing practice, primarily for advertising.

  6. Memory updating and mental arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ching eHan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults.

  7. Searching for Logistics and Regulatory Determinants Affecting Overseas Direct Purchase: An Empirical Cross-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuksoo Cho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border e-commerce has been very successful in the last decade. Merchants and consumers have been encouraged to participate in e-commerce, including B2C or B2B. B2C is not limited to a domestic market anymore. Consumers across countries are interested in overseas direct purchases. They are willing to purchase products from major online shopping sites such as Amazon and eBay. We aim at gaining a better understanding of overseas direct purchases. Determinants of overseas direct purchases based on cross-national data are identified. Accordingly, we investigate logistics and regulatory determinants. Furthermore, external environments such as regulatory institutions and globalization are discussed in terms of overseas direct purchases. This study incorporates theoretical foundations into empirical findings. Specifically, the institutional theory and the resource-based view are applied to explain the internal and external determinants to increase overseas direct purchases. We conduct an empirical test using panel data for each country to identify the various determinants associated with overseas direct purchases.

  8. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Kurajdova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing his decision-making for the purpose of developing an attractive offer of products, supporting services, communication means and other marketing tools that would fit like a glue to customer’s needs. Study of consumer behaviour belongs to a group of very wide and strong subjects of marketing attention and its examination requires ongoing approach. Milk, as one category of dairy products, belongs to the group of basic daily-consumed products characterized by relatively high purchase frequency. On the other hand, its production and consumption is experiencing certain negative trend in Slovakia what inevitably calls for a scientific attention and examination in order to reverse this unfavourable development having a negative impact on the milk companies in Slovakia. Therefore, we focus our attention on studying various factors influencing consumers when purchasing this specific product. Our research in this stage resulted in the compilation of literature review on factors influencing consumers when purchasing milk and determination of boundaries and guidelines for our future research activity

  9. Environmental implications of electricity purchase from independent power producers: a case study from Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin Shrestha; Ram M Shrestha

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect on the environment of electricity purchase from independent power producers (IPPs) in the case of Thailand. The environmental implication is evaluated in terms of the net change in emission of air pollutants with electricity purchase from IPPs by a utility. The main finding of the study is that electricity purchase from a non-dispatchable IPP plant based on coal-fired generation would increase the net emissions compared with that without the purchase from IPPs. The study also shows that the lower plant factor of the IPP plant would also increase the emission of air pollutants. Furthermore, with non-dispatchable IPP plants, the total emission of air pollutants would increase, whereas with dispatchable IPP plants the total emission would decrease with the level of electricity purchases. (author)

  10. Analysis of usability factors affecting purchase intention in online e-commerce sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, R. A.; Suzianti, A.

    2017-03-01

    The growing number of internet users plays a significant role in the emergence of a variety of online e-commerce sites to meet the needs of Indonesians. However, there are still some problems faced by the users in using e-commerce sites. Therefore, a research related to user experience on their purchase intention to foster e-commerce sites is required. This study is conducted to find out the relationship between usability factors on e-commerce users’ purchase intention using a case study by using SEM to analyse the usability of the website. The result of this study shows that credibility, readability and telepresence are usability factors that directly affect purchase intention, while simplicity, consistency and interactivity are usability factors that indirectly affect purchase intention. Therefore, we can conclude that Indonesian consumers are on the Early Majority phase in adopting Company A.

  11. New options for purchasing electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig

  12. 30 CFR 220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and... CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASES § 220.015 Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions. (a... shall be priced under the provisions for tubular goods pricing in paragraph (a)(2)(i)(A) of this section...

  13. Adoption of Online Purchasing Methods in Communities and its Socio-Economic Implications in Regional Central Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the general trends of online purchasing in Central Queensland (CQ communities during 1999-2002 and identifies the socio-economic factors affecting online purchasing activities. The Online Purchasing Indicator, defined as a combination of percentages of online purchasers and of regular purchasers (>one item/month within a group, is applied to compare these activities between these two groups. The study identifies that four factors, namely ‘personal attributes’, ‘knowledge’, ‘trust’ and ‘need’ may play important roles in online purchasing decisions. The research found that regional economic bleeding associated with low local adoption failing to provide justification for local business to adopt electronic purchasing support has not yet reached significant levels.

  14. Evaluating a dental practice for purchase or associateship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diecidue, Robert J

    2008-07-01

    Private dental practice can be achieved through either outright ownership or an associateship in conjunction with senior dentists; the decision depends on personal and professional objectives and goals. Once a decision is made, the time and effort required to identify an appropriate practice, negotiate the terms of purchase or associateship, and transition to the new practice can be daunting. This article reviews the process and provides an overview of the general steps involved in the evaluation of a dental practice for purchase or associateship. With appropriate knowledge and preparation, due diligence, and ethical and sensitive behavior, transitioning to private practice can be successful and lead to professional and personal fulfillment.

  15. Determinants of Halal Purchase Intention: Case in Perlis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Afzainiza Afendi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is to determine the factors that influence purchase intention of Halal products among consumers at selected supermarkets around Perlis. 100 were randomly selected to be respondents in this study through the questionnaire. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 19.0. Descriptive analysis and correlation were applied to this study. The results indicated that attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control had positive impact on intention to purchase Halal products. It is suggested that future research can be done in fast growing cities and the result that we get will be more comparable and provide workable direction in Halal products.

  16. 45 CFR 304.22 - Federal financial participation in purchased support enforcement services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.22 Federal financial participation in purchased support enforcement services. Federal financial participation is.... Support enforcement services which may be purchased with Federal financial participation are those for...

  17. Sales effects of product health information at points of purchase: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Riet, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Information about healthy and unhealthy nutrients is increasingly conveyed at the point of purchase. Many studies have investigated the effects of product health information on attitudes and intentions, but the empirical evidence becomes sketchier when the focus of research is actual purchase behaviour. The present paper provides an overview of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of product health information for food products at the point of purchase. A systematic literature review was conducted. Only studies were included that assessed the effect of product health information at the point of purchase on actual purchase behaviour, using data provided by stores' sales records or obtained by investigating customer receipts as the primary outcome measure. The included studies' target group comprised supermarket clientele. Several studies found no significant effects of product health information on actual purchase behaviour. Interventions were more likely to be effective when they lasted for a longer time, when they included additional intervention components, and when they targeted the absence of unhealthy nutrients instead of or in addition to the presence of healthy nutrients. No strong evidence for the effectiveness of product health information was found. The effect of intervention duration, additional promotional activities and targeting of healthy v. unhealthy nutrients should be closely examined in future studies.

  18. The association of alcohol outlet density with illegal underage adolescent purchasing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Livingston, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that greater community densities of alcohol sales outlets are associated with greater alcohol use and problems, the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined whether density was associated with increased purchasing of alcohol by adolescents younger than the legal purchase age of 18 in Australia. The number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 population was identified within geographic regions in Victoria, Australia. A state-representative student survey (N = 10,143) identified adolescent reports of purchasing alcohol, and multilevel modeling was then used to predict the effects for different densities of outlet types (packaged, club, on-premise, general, and overall). Each extra sales outlet per 10,000 population was associated with a significant increase in the risk of underage adolescent purchasing. The strongest effect was for club density (odds ratio = 1.22) and packaged (takeaway) outlet density (odds ratio = 1.12). Males, older children, smokers, and those with substance-using friends were more likely to purchase alcohol. One mechanism by which alcohol sales outlet density may influence population rates of alcohol use and related problems is through increasing the illegal underage purchasing of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Formal and Informal Normative Beliefs Regarding Purchasing and Using Condoms

    OpenAIRE

    樋口, 匡貴; 中村, 菜々子

    2009-01-01

    Properly using condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. To clarify the contents of normative beliefs regarding purchasing and using condoms, 390 undergraduate student volunteers were surveyed. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that both males and females held two types of normative beliefs, namely formal normative beliefs and informal normative beliefs, regarding purchasing and using condoms. Formal normative beliefs were concerned with the...

  20. A Method for Customer-driven Purchasing : Aligning Supplier interaction and Customer-driven manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckstrand, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The role of a purchaser has traditionally focused on acquiring standard items at the lowest possible cost. The ability to reduce unit cost has been the key performance indicator for purchasers. Most traditional purchasing strategies thus focus on optimizing this situation, focusing on the supplier interface only and not on customer value. However, for many manufacturing companies, the demand from their customers has changed lately. Not only low‐cost standard products but also customized produ...

  1. Sustainable Outreach: Lessons Learned from Space Update and Discovery Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    A sustainable program lives on past its initial funding cycle, and develops a network of users that ensures continued life, either by fees, advertising revenue, or by making the program more successful in later sponsored grants. Teachers like free things, so having a sponsor for products such as lithographs or CD-Roms is key to wide distribution. In 1994 we developed “Space Update®”, under the NASA “Public Use of the Internet” program. It has new editions annually, with over 40,000 distributed so far (many purchased but most free at teacher and student workshops). In 1996 we created a special edition “Space Weather®”, which includes the space weather module from Space Update plus other resources. Initially developed with funding from the IMAGE mission, it is now sponsored by Cluster and MMS. A new edition is published annually and distributed in the “Sun-Earth Day” packet; total distribution now exceeds 180,000. “Earth Update” was created in 1999 under cooperative agreement “Museums Teaching Planet Earth”. It now has a total distribution of over 20,000. Both Earth Update and Space Update were developed to be museum kiosk software, and more than 15 museums have them on display. Over 4,000 users are active in our e-Teacher network and 577 in our museum educator network. Although these can certainly be considered successful because of their longevity and user base, we have had a far more dramatic sustainable program arise in the last six years… the “Discovery Dome®”. Invented at HMNS and developed under NASA Cooperative Agreement “Immersive Earth”, this dome was the first digital portable planetarium that also showed fulldome movies with an interactive interface (first shown to the public at the Dec 2003 AGU meeting). The Discovery Dome network (tinyurl.com/DiscDome) has spun those initial 6 NASA-funded domes into over 90 installations in 22 states and 23 countries. Creating high quality content is quite expensive and so needs

  2. 25 CFR 213.17 - Government reserves right to purchase minerals produced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government reserves right to purchase minerals produced... Leases § 213.17 Government reserves right to purchase minerals produced. In time of war or other public... prevailing market price on the date of sale all or any part of the minerals produced under any lease. Rents...

  3. Risk relievers and customer brand preference in the purchase of cars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen risk-relievers were found to be suitable in purchase of cars. The study purported to find out the more influencing risk reducers among the chosen seventeen risk relievers in purchase of cars. Secondly the study tries to find out the impact of risk relievers based on brand choice. Seven brands namely Maruti, Tata, ...

  4. Double hedge aids commercial terms of upstream asset purchase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years many major oil companies have elected to rationalize their producing assets. Mature production--particularly onshore in developed countries, associated with high costs and small profit margins--has been the major target. The current weakness in oil prices has resulted in many such properties being on the market. However, much production marginal to a major can be highly profitable to a cost-effective independent, particularly if the production fits strategically with the independent's asset portfolio. Although many independents recognize that some of the producing assets on the market could be of potential value to them, in a period of volatile prices two important valuations have to be technically justified and negotiated to enable or persuade them to conclude a purchase agreement for a specific asset. These are: A purchase value for an asset that is acceptable to both seller and buyer; and A loan value for the asset to establish the level of debt that the asset can support for the buyer. In defining these two important values (both of which are usually established as ranges rather than single values) the independent has to protect itself against a downturn in commodity prices and exposing itself to an unserviceable level of debt. The paper discusses reducing risks, purchase price hedge, an example of a hedged purchase price, price elements, loan value analysis, agreement structure, loan value hedge, and an example of a hedged loan value

  5. 14 CFR 399.39 - Equipment purchase deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.39... for this purpose. It is the policy of the Board not to recognize equipment purchase deposits in an air...

  6. GPP Webinar: The Power of Aggregated Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar examining the use of an aggregated model for renewable energy purchases which can lead to significant energy, environmental and financial benefits by addressing administrative cost barriers and leveraging the shared purchasi

  7. Segmenting Consumers According to Their Purchase of Products with Organic, Fair-Trade, and Health Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; van Doorn, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Using actual purchase data of food products with different labels, we examine Dutch consumers' purchases of organic, fair-trade, and health labels. Empirically, consumers' purchase behavior of labeled products can be categorized into two dimensions: a health-related and a sustainable dimension

  8. Factors affecting flood insurance purchase in residential properties in Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliagha, U. G.; Jin, T. E.; Choong, W. W.; Nadzri Jaafar, M.; Ali, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    High-impact floods have become a virtually annual experience in Malaysia, yet flood insurance has remained a grossly neglected part of comprehensive integrated flood risk management. Using discriminant analysis, this study seeks to identify the demand-side variables that best predict flood insurance purchase and risk aversion between two groups of residential homeowners in three districts of Johor State, Malaysia: those who purchased flood insurance and those who did not. Our results revealed an overall 34% purchase rate, with Kota Tinggi district having the highest (44%) and thus the highest degree of flood risk aversion. The Wilks' lambda F test for equality of group means, standardised discriminant function coefficients, structure correlation, and canonical correlation has clearly shown that there are strong significant attribute differences between the two groups of homeowners, based on the measures of objective flood risk exposure, subjective risk perception, and socio-economic cum demographic variables. However, the measures of subjective risk perception were found to be more predictive of flood insurance purchase and flood risk aversion.

  9. System simulation application for determining the size of daily raw material purchases at PT XY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitupulu, H. L.

    2018-02-01

    Every manufacturing company needs to implement green production, including PT XY as a marine catchment processing industry in Sumatera Utara Province. The company is engaged in the processing of squid for export purposes. The company’s problem relates to the absence of a decision on the daily purchase amount of the squid. The purchase of daily raw materials in varying quantities has caused companies to face the problem of excess raw materials or otherwise the lack of raw materials. The low purchase of raw materials will result in reduced productivity, while large purchases will lead to increased cooling costs for storage of excess raw materials, as well as possible loss of damage raw material. Therefore it is necessary to determine the optimal amount of raw material purchases every day. This can be determined by applying simulation. Application of system simulations can provide the expected optimal amount of raw material purchases.

  10. Highly Processed and Ready-to-Eat Packaged Food and Beverage Purchases Differ by Race/Ethnicity among US Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-09-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in dietary quality persist among Americans, but it is unclear whether highly processed foods or convenience foods contribute to these inequalities. We examined the independent associations of race/ethnicity with highly processed and ready-to-eat (RTE) food purchases among US households. We determined whether controlling for between-group differences in purchases of these products attenuated associations between race/ethnicity and the nutritional quality of purchases. The 2000-2012 Homescan Panel followed US households (n = 157,142) that scanned their consumer packaged goods (CPG) food and beverage purchases. By using repeated-measures regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, we examined time-varying associations of race/ethnicity with processed and convenience food purchases, expressed as a percentage of calories purchased. We estimated associations between race/ethnicity and saturated fat, sugar, or energy density of total purchases with and without adjustment for processed and convenience food purchases. Compared with white households, black households had significantly lower purchases of highly processed foods (-4.1% kcal) and RTE convenience foods (-4.9% kcal) and had higher purchases of basic processed foods, particularly cooking oils and sugar (+5.4% kcal), foods requiring cooking/preparation (+4.5% kcal), and highly processed beverages (+7.1% kcal). Hispanics also had lower purchases of highly processed and RTE foods than whites. Blacks had CPG purchases with significantly higher median sugar (+2.2% kcal) and energy density (+72 kcal/1000 g), whereas Hispanics had purchases with lower saturated fat (-0.6% kcal) and energy density (-25 kcal/1000 g) than whites. Racial/ethnic differences remained significant after adjustment for processed and convenience food purchases. In our study, compared with white households, both black and Hispanic households had lower purchases of highly processed and RTE foods, yet had

  11. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  12. Joint Ordering and Pricing Decisions for New Repeat-Purchase Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies ordering and pricing problems for new repeat-purchase products. We incorporate the repeat-purchase rate and price effects into the Bass model to characterize the demand pattern. We consider two decision models: (1 two-stage decision model, in which the sales division chooses a price to maximize the gross profit and the purchasing division determines an optimal ordering decision to minimize the total cost under a given demand subsequently, and (2 joint decision model, in which the firm makes ordering and pricing decisions simultaneously to maximize the profit. We combine the generalized Bass model with dynamic lot sizing model to formulate the joint decision model. We apply both models to a specific imported food provided by an online fresh produce retailer in Central China, solve them by Gaussian Random-Walk and Wagner-Whitin based algorithms, and observe three results. First, joint pricing and ordering decisions bring more significant profits than making pricing and ordering decisions sequentially. Second, a great initiative in adoption significantly increases price premium and profit. Finally, the optimal price shows a U-shape (i.e., decreases first and increases later relationship and the profit increases gradually with the repeat-purchase rate when it is still not very high.

  13. Consumer peach preferences and purchasing behavior: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Kathleen M; Primrose, Rachel; Crassweller, Robert; Hayes, John E; Marini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Stokes) are grown in several regions throughout the USA, are eaten fresh, and used as ingredients in value-added processed products. An Internet survey was conducted to investigate Mid-Atlantic consumers' fresh and processed peach purchasing behaviors, and whether packaging certain numbers of peaches together, providing information about nutritional content, and other factors would increase purchases. Additionally, laboratory-based sensory testing was used to better understand peel color, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor preferences for cultivars commonly grown in the Mid-Atlantic region. Irrespective of fresh peach consumption frequency, certain value-added products were of interest. For some products, interest in purchasing was higher than reported purchasing behavior. Preference for certain fresh peach characteristics, such as peel color, differed between less frequent fresh peach consumers and those who consumed fresh peaches more often. Of the four peach cultivars included in the sensory test, most were liked; however, there were some cultivar differences pertaining to color, texture, sweetness, tartness, and flavor liking. Potential marketing strategies can be developed based on frequency of fresh peach consumption and household demographics. Data can be used to select peaches that best appeal to consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A semi-empirical model for mesospheric and stratospheric NOy produced by energetic particle precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The MIPAS Fourier transform spectrometer on board Envisat has measured global distributions of the six principal reactive nitrogen (NOy compounds (HNO3, NO2, NO, N2O5, ClONO2, and HNO4 during 2002–2012. These observations were used previously to detect regular polar winter descent of reactive nitrogen produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP down to the lower stratosphere, often called the EPP indirect effect. It has further been shown that the observed fraction of NOy produced by EPP (EPP-NOy has a nearly linear relationship with the geomagnetic Ap index when taking into account the time lag introduced by transport. Here we exploit these results in a semi-empirical model for computation of EPP-modulated NOy densities and wintertime downward fluxes through stratospheric and mesospheric pressure levels. Since the Ap dependence of EPP-NOy is distorted during episodes of strong descent in Arctic winters associated with elevated stratopause events, a specific parameterization has been developed for these episodes. This model accurately reproduces the observations from MIPAS and is also consistent with estimates from other satellite instruments. Since stratospheric EPP-NOy depositions lead to changes in stratospheric ozone with possible implications for climate, the model presented here can be utilized in climate simulations without the need to incorporate many thermospheric and upper mesospheric processes. By employing historical geomagnetic indices, the model also allows for reconstruction of the EPP indirect effect since 1850. We found secular variations of solar cycle-averaged stratospheric EPP-NOy depositions on the order of 1 GM. In particular, we model a reduction of the EPP-NOy deposition rate during the last 3 decades, related to the coincident decline of geomagnetic activity that corresponds to 1.8 % of the NOy production rate by N2O oxidation. As the decline of the geomagnetic activity level is expected to continue in the

  15. Achieving Efficiency and Effectiveness in Purchasing and Supply Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    2017-01-01

    of the most prevalent business practices in various areas, many businesses fail to realize the benefits anticipated from their outsourcing initiatives. Research reports that one major reason for these outsourcing challenges lies in the design of the focal organization. In this paper, we take an organization......As a function with a strategic role, Purchasing and Supply Management (PSM) needs to continuously find ways to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. One potential way to specifically addressing efficiency targets is to outsource parts of the purchasing process. While outsourcing remains one...

  16. Tool for identifying critical control points in embedded purchasing activities in SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Staal, Anne; Holman, Richard; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses risk and uncertainty aspects and proposes an assessment tool leading to identification of critical control points (CCPs) within purchasing-oriented activities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Identifying such CCPs is the basis for developing SME purchasing instruments to

  17. Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories annual report, fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.R.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1993. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included.

  18. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  19. Studying The Effect Of Brands And Internet WOM Advertisement On Customer Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sedighimanesh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives e-commerce can be represented as any online trade and commerce via the Internet. MethodsAnalysis It should be noted that online purchase is not based on the actual experience of purchasing goods but is based on aspects such as image the qualitative information and publicizing of the product. Customers should be searched on the Internet randomly to evaluate the product and also reduce the risk of buying. So customers obtain product information before making a purchase and then perform the evaluation and diagnosis of products Findings The survey was conducted according to studying the model using a questionnaire which collected data analysis has been made in SPSS software. Improvements The results of this study show that the brand image and internet word of mouth advertisement and moderating variables price reductions customer trust mode and has a tremendous impact on customer purchase intention.

  20. Orthopedic Implant Value Drivers: A Qualitative Survey Study of Hospital Purchasing Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan Silvia; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Sprague, Sheila; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, degenerative disease that is highly prevalent in the population, yet the factors that affect purchasing decisions related to this condition are poorly understood. A questionnaire was developed and administered to hospital executives across North America to determine the factors that affect purchasing decisions related to OA. Thirty-four individuals participated in the survey. Clinical evidence and cost effectiveness were deemed to be the most important factors in the process of making purchasing decisions. The most important considerations for adopting new technology were whether there was sufficient evidence in the literature, followed by thoughts of key opinion leaders, and cost of intervention/device. Ongoing research is still needed, but the current study allowed us to identify some trends in the data, providing new insight on how hospital purchasing decisions are made, which could have an immediate impact on those currently involved with making these decisions.

  1. Calories from beverages purchased at 2 major coffee chains in New York City, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christina; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Silver, Lynn D; Nonas, Cathy; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-10-01

    Calorie intake from beverages has increased in the past decades, which most likely contributes to higher obesity rates. Although coffee chains have grown in popularity in recent years, few data examine the calorie contribution of these drinks. We examined afternoon beverage purchases in New York City at 2 major coffee chains and estimated the mean calorie content of these beverages. We collected purchase receipts and brief surveys from adult customers at 42 Starbucks and 73 Dunkin' Donuts stores during the spring of 2007. For each purchase, we obtained the calorie content from the company's Web site; these values were adjusted to account for self-reported customization of the drink. We included 1,127 beverage purchases at Starbucks and 1,830 at Dunkin' Donuts in our analyses. Brewed coffee or tea averaged 63 kcal, and blended coffee beverages averaged 239 kcal. Approximately two-thirds of purchases at Starbucks and one-fourth of purchases at Dunkin' Donuts were blended coffee beverages. Calories in blended coffee beverages are high; on average, customers bought 12% of a 2,000-kcal diet. Policy changes to provide for calorie posting at the point of purchase could increase customer awareness of the calories in these beverages; modifying standard formulations of blended coffee beverages, such as using low-fat milk or smaller serving sizes, would also reduce calorie content.

  2. Parents' Agreement to Purchase Healthy Snack Foods Requested by Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…

  3. Experimental analysis of the effect of taxes and subsides on calories purchased in an on-line supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Finkelstein, Eric; Raynor, Hollie; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Fletcher, Kelly D; Jankowiak, Noelle; Paluch, Rocco A

    2015-12-01

    Taxes and subsidies are a public health approach to improving nutrient quality of food purchases. While taxes or subsidies influence purchasing, it is unclear whether they influence total energy or overall diet quality of foods purchased. Using a within subjects design, selected low nutrient dense foods (e.g. sweetened beverages, candy, salty snacks) were taxed, and fruits and vegetables and bottled water were subsidized by 12.5% or 25% in comparison to a usual price condition for 199 female shoppers in an experimental store. Results showed taxes reduced calories purchased of taxed foods (coefficient = -6.61, CI = -11.94 to -1.28) and subsidies increased calories purchased of subsidized foods (coefficient = 13.74, CI = 8.51 to 18.97). However, no overall effect was observed on total calories purchased. Both taxes and subsidies were associated with a reduction in calories purchased for grains (taxes: coefficient = -6.58, CI = -11.91 to -1.24, subsidies: coefficient = -12.86, CI = -18.08 to -7.63) and subsidies were associated with a reduction in calories purchased for miscellaneous foods (coefficient = -7.40, CI = -12.62 to -2.17) (mostly fats, oils and sugars). Subsidies improved the nutrient quality of foods purchased (coefficient = 0.14, CI = 0.07 to 0.21). These results suggest that taxes and subsidies can influence energy purchased for products taxed or subsidized, but not total energy purchased. However, the improvement in nutrient quality with subsidies indicates that pricing can shift nutritional quality of foods purchased. Research is needed to evaluate if differential pricing strategies based on nutrient quality are associated with reduction in calories and improvement in nutrient quality of foods purchased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating the effect of Electronic Word Of Mouth on customer’s purchase intention of digital products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Khosravani Zangeneh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to examine the effect of electronic word of mouth (eWOM on purchasing intention. The study also considers the effects of quality of eWOM, quantity of eWOM as well as reviewers’ expertise on purchasing intention. The study has accomplished among 384 people who have some experiences on buying digital devices from an Iranian well-known providers of electronic devices in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study confirms the effects of eWOM on purchase intention. In addition, the study confirms the effects of quality of eWOM as well as reviewer’s expertise on purchase intention. Moreover, the study examines the effects of two moderator variables, brand image and product complexity, on purchase intention and while the effect of brand image on purchase intention is confirmed but the impact of complexity on purchase intention is not confirmed.

  5. PENGARUH BRAND FAMILIARITY TERHADAP PURCHASE INTENTION MELALUI BRAND FIT PADA HOTEL MULIA JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Widiawaty .

    2016-01-01

    The purpose this paper is to examine the effects of Brand familiarity and Brand Fit on Purchase Intention towards the offerings of co branded hotels. The findings showed that the fit between cobrands mediate the relationship between Brand familiarity and Purchase Intention. In particular, a well-known co-branded hotel a high level of Brand Fit could directly or indirectly affect consumer decision-making processes regarding Purchase Intention towards the co-brand. conversely, a less familiar c...

  6. An Empirical Analysis of Socio-Demographic Stratification in Sweetened Carbonated Soft-Drink Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Caloric soft drinks are the number one source of added sugars in U.S. diets, and are associated with many health problems. Three recent years of household purchase, household demographic, and industry advertising data allow Heckit estimation to identify how specific demographic groups vary in their purchase response to marketing of sweetened carbonated soft drinks (sCSDs) at the product category level. Empirical results reveal unique non-linear patterns of household purchase response to sCSD-...

  7. The Influence of Television Advertising on Purchase Decision of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakara, Frisca Oktoviani

    2013-01-01

    Television advertising has become a new force capable of influencing the audience to do what the advertisers want, and teenagers are very promising target for producers. This study investigated the influence of television advertising on teenagers purchase decision in Manado. This research aims to analyze (1) what is the impact of television advertising (Brand Preference, Peer Group, and Pester Power) on teenagers purchase decision; (2) which impact of television advertising (Brand Preference,...

  8. Factors influencing purchase intention towards consumer-to-consumer e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Dachyar; Liska Banjarnahor

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores factors that influence consumer’s purchase intention at three consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce companies in Indonesia. Design/methodology: 5 Expert opinions are used to determine the indicators of each factor and the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method is used to analyze the empirical data of 400 respondents for each company. Findings: It is found different significant factors that influence customer’s purchase intention in each compa...

  9. Post-purchase cognitive dissonance:Evidence from the mobile phone market

    OpenAIRE

    Graff, Jens; Sophonthummapharn, Kittipong; Parida, Vinit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether cognitive dissonance exists in the post-purchase phase in the mobile phone industry. It asks if mobile phone users are fully satisfied since they are usually overloaded with information during the purchasing period. Three dimensions of dissonance were measured in 283 university students. The results provide interesting insights. The major differences between the high and low dissonance groups are being influenced by other people’s opinions, difficulty in find...

  10. 12 CFR 223.22 - What valuation and timing principles apply to asset purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the covered transaction after the purchase may be reduced to reflect amortization or depreciation of the asset, to the extent that such reductions are consistent with GAAP. (2) Exceptions. (i) Purchase...

  11. An examination of the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decision in the Malaysian retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of corporate social responsibility, social media marketing, sales promotion, store environment and perceived value on a purchase decision in the retail sector. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative research methodology was used and the data were collected from 278 customers of retail stores in Malaysia. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 19 and structural equation modelling on AMOS. Findings – The findings showed that corporate social responsibility has significant positive effects on a purchase decision, whereas sales promotion has a negative effect on purchase decision. The outcomes of this study also indicated that store environment has a significant positive effect on consumers’ purchase decisions. Contrary to expectations, the findings revealed that the effect of social media marketing on purchase decision is insignificant. Finally, the results showed that perceived value has a significant positive effect on a purchase decision. Originality/value – The findings of this study contribute to an understanding of the importance of the selected factors in affecting a consumer’s purchase decision in the retail industry.

  12. Loose Cigarette Purchasing and Nondaily Smoking Among Young Adult Bar Patrons in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Johns, Michael; Farley, Shannon M; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-08-01

    We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18-26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City.

  13. THE IMPACTS OF PHILANTHROPY RESPONSIBILITY AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITY TOWARD CUSTOMER PURCHASE BEHAVIOR AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawati Chrisjatmiko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of philanthropy responsibility and ethical responsibility towards customer purchase behavior and customer loyalty on fast food restaurants. The research was conducted by using quantitative research design and hypothetical testing to explore philanthropic responsibility, ethical responsibility, customer purchase behavior, and customer loyalty variables. Samples were taken from 186 respondents of employee population in Jakarta. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. Research result showed the positive and significant impact of philanthropic responsibility towards customer purchase behavior. On contrary, there was no positive ethical responsibility impact found towards customer purchase behavior. These findings are supported by the fact that the majority of consumers purchased fast food base on impulsive buying and not driven by the fast food restaurants ethically responsible behavior. However, the research does show a positive and significant impact of customer purchase behavior on customer loyalty. Further research recommendation should be taken from more respondents in a broader population area. Companies are suggested to approach a strategic and relevant caused-related marketing and caused promotions in relation to philanthropy responsibility to increase customer purchase behavior.

  14. Promise and problems with supply chain management approaches to health care purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2007-01-01

    Double-digit health care inflation, coupled with widespread reports of poor care quality and deadly medical errors, has caused private sector employers to reevaluate their health benefits purchasing strategies, with a focus on supply chain management approaches. In other industries, this strategy has proven to be an effective method for simultaneously reducing costs and increasing quality. This article describes four current applications of supply chain management network methodologies to health care systems and identifies potential ways to improve purchasers' return on investment. In particular, information exchanges, purchase decision, and payment agreement components of integrated supply chains are described. First, visual depictions of the health care supply chain are developed from a purchaser's perspective. Next, five nationwide programs designed to realign incentives and rewards across the health care supply chain are described. Although several nationwide efforts are gaining traction in the marketplace, at this time, no cost reduction and quality improvement program initiative appears to systematically align the entire health care supply chain from providers to purchasers, raising doubt about the ability of supply chain management network techniques to significantly impact the health care marketplace in the short run. Current individual efforts to coordinate the health care supply chain do not act on all of the actors necessary to improve outcomes, promote safety, and control costs. Nevertheless, there are indications that several of the individual efforts are coming together. If national efforts touching on all critical elements can coordinate with purchasers, then the health care supply chain's performance may improve significantly.

  15. How update schemes influence crowd simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Michael J; Köster, Gerta

    2014-01-01

    Time discretization is a key modeling aspect of dynamic computer simulations. In current pedestrian motion models based on discrete events, e.g. cellular automata and the Optimal Steps Model, fixed-order sequential updates and shuffle updates are prevalent. We propose to use event-driven updates that process events in the order they occur, and thus better match natural movement. In addition, we present a parallel update with collision detection and resolution for situations where computational speed is crucial. Two simulation studies serve to demonstrate the practical impact of the choice of update scheme. Not only do density-speed relations differ, but there is a statistically significant effect on evacuation times. Fixed-order sequential and random shuffle updates with a short update period come close to event-driven updates. The parallel update scheme overestimates evacuation times. All schemes can be employed for arbitrary simulation models with discrete events, such as car traffic or animal behavior. (paper)

  16. To buy or not buy? A review of affective priming in purchase decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mograbi GJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel JC Mograbi,1 Daniel C Mograbi21Department of Philosophy, UFMT – Federal University of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UKAbstract: The current paradigm of neuroeconomics goes beyond merely axiomatic models and contemplates the influence of psychological factors on economic decisions. Under this framework, the main aim of the current review is to address the influence of affective priming in purchase decision. For this purpose, we first summarize the affective priming literature, followed by a section concentrating on purchase-decision studies that show that this phenomenon is value-driven, going beyond the emotionless calculation of traditional utility models in microeconomics. Finally, both themes are connected by reviewing the available experiments investigating affective priming effects on economic and purchase decision. We discuss these findings within a framework that considers that humans, as biological entities, attribute salience to hedonic information, highlighting the value-driven nature of decision-making, especially purchase decisions.Keywords: affective priming, decision-making, purchase decision, prospective theory

  17. A modernized purchasing approach for the '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarter, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, purchasing professionals have felt safety in numbers - large numbers of quotes or proposals and large supplier bases to furnish all goods and services. Relationships with suppliers have been adversarial. Information has not been shared by either party. Emphasis has been on price. In fact, contract awards have typically been made on the basis of low bid. This has been particularly true with most utilities and government agencies. There are, however, new strategic challenges for the '90s that will cause the purchasing profession to evolve like many other aspects of a business organization. Organizations like TVA must face the fact that their business is shifting from a regulated monopoly to a competitive environment. This presentation addresses how purchasing will play a major role in this new strategy. The number of sources will be reduced to a minimum. Larger, longer term contracts will become commonplace. Suppliers or contractors who receive contract awards will become partners, part of the family. Proposals will be evaluated on the basis of 'total cost of ownership,' rather than low bid. Companies, like TVA, will be shifting more of their major construction and modification work to the 'experts' who do the job better. Purchasers will be asking their suppliers to express a willingness to develop innovative and cost-effective methods of providing a product or service and share the risk of reward for failure or success, including the willingness to accept incentive fees where appropriate. Many companies will be evaluating, certifying, and actually giving evaluation credits based on a supplier's commitment to a continuous quality improvement effort. Communications will be dramatically improved through use of electronic data interchange (EDI) and the author predicts that a totally paperless business environment will be emerging by the year 2000

  18. 48 CFR 811.104 - Use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions. 811.104 Section 811.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements Documents 811.104 Use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions. ...

  19. 20 CFR 220.57 - Types of purchased examinations and selection of sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.57 Types of purchased examinations and selection of sources. (a) Additional evidence needed for disability determination. The types... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of purchased examinations and selection...

  20. Structure of the National Coal Board. V. The Purchasing and Stores Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeman, C L

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of the Board's Purchasing and Stores Department is to provide a service so that the requirements of the users are met while at the same time the Board's purchasing, contracting, and control of stores are properly managed with the maximum economy for the industry as a whole. The department has been a pioneer in the fields of large-scale centralized purchasing and the application of computer techniques to the problems of procurement and storekeeping. The work will develop as the department continues to meet the industry's requirements in the changing technical and economic climate of the future.